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Sample records for itg growth rates

  1. Effects of radial electric fields on linear ITG instabilities in W7-X and LHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemann, J.; Kleiber, R.; Borchardt, M.

    2016-07-01

    The impact of radial electric fields on the properties of linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) modes in stellarators is studied. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the global particle-in-cell (PIC) code EUTERPE, modelling the behaviour of ITG modes in Wendelstein 7-X and an LHD-like configuration. In general, radial electric fields seem to lead to a reduction of ITG instability growth, which can be related to the action of an induced E× B -drift. Focus is set on the modification of mode properties (frequencies, power spectrum, spatial structure and localization) to understand the observed growth rates as the result of competing stabilizing mechanisms.

  2. Drift mode growth rates and associated transport

    SciTech Connect

    Redd, A.J.; Kritz, A.H.; Bateman, G.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1999-04-01

    Drift mode linear growth rates and quasilinear transport are investigated using the FULL kinetic stability code [Rewoldt {ital et al.}, Phys. Plasmas {bold 5}, 1815 (1998)] and a version of the Weiland transport model [Strand {ital et al.}, Nucl. Fusion {bold 38}, 545 (1998)]. It is shown that the drift mode growth rates (as well as the marginal stability temperature gradient) obtained using the FULL code are dependent on the accuracy of the equilibrium employed. In particular, when an approximate equilibrium model is utilized by the FULL code, the results can differ significantly from those obtained using a more accurate numerical equilibrium. Also investigated are the effects of including full electron physics. It is shown, using both the FULL code and the Weiland model, that the nonadiabatic (e.g., trapped) electron response produces a significant increase in the linear growth rate of the ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven branch of the drift instability. Other consequences of the nonadiabatic electron response include a reduction in the marginal temperature gradient for the onset of the ITG mode and an additional contribution to transport due to the excitation of the Trapped Electron Mode (TEM). Physical explanations are given for the sensitivity of the mode growth rates to the equilibrium and the nonadiabatic electron response. Finally, linear growth rates for the ITG mode computed using the FULL code are compared with growth rates obtained using the Weiland model. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Neutral recycling effects on ITG turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotler, D. P.; Lang, J.; Chang, C. S.; Churchill, R. M.; Ku, S.

    2017-08-01

    The effects of recycled neutral atoms on tokamak ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence have been investigated in a steep edge pedestal, magnetic separatrix configuration, with the full-f edge gryokinetic code XGC1. An adiabatic electron model has been used; hence, the impacts of neutral particles and turbulence on the density gradient are not considered, nor are electromagnetic turbulence effects. The neutral atoms enhance the ITG turbulence, first, by increasing the ion temperature gradient in the pedestal via the cooling effects of charge exchange and, second, by a relative reduction in the E× B shearing rate.

  4. Neutral recycling effects on ITG turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Stotler, D. P.; Lang, J.; Chang, C. S.; ...

    2017-07-04

    Here, the effects of recycled neutral atoms on tokamak ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence have been investigated in a steep edge pedestal, magnetic separatrix configuration, with the full-f edge gryokinetic code XGC1. An adiabatic electron model has been used; hence, the impacts of neutral particles and turbulence on the density gradient are not considered, nor are electromagnetic turbulence effects. The neutral atoms enhance the ITG turbulence, first, by increasing the ion temperature gradient in the pedestal via the cooling effects of charge exchange and, second, by a relative reduction in themore » $$E\\times B$$ shearing rate.« less

  5. ITG sideband coupling models for zonal flows

    SciTech Connect

    Stransky, M.

    2011-05-15

    Four-wave interaction model between ITG mode and zonal flow was derived using fluid equations. In this model, the zonal flow is excited non-linearly by ITG turbulence via Reynolds stress. Numerical simulations show that the system allows for a small range above the ITG threshold where the zonal flow can stabilize an unstable ITG mode, effectively increasing {eta}{sub i} threshold, an effect which has been called the Dimits shift. However, the shift is smaller than in known cases such that in the Cyclone base.

  6. The effects of 3-D shaping on ITG stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rorvig, Mordechai; Hegna, Chris

    2012-03-01

    In this work we seek to understand how 3-D shaping can be used to improve ion temperature gradient stability. Part of the difficulty in deducing the role of 3-D shaping is the generation of 3-D MHD equilibria necessary for the calculations. In this work, MHD equilibrium surfaces are generated using local 3-D magnetostatic equilibrium theory [1]. We distinguish three different types of toroidal magnetic surface shaping: axisymmetric shaping, toroidal rotation of the cross section, and toroidal translation of the magnetic axis. We study these types of shaping independently and in combination to look for improvements. Linear growth rates for ITG modes are calculated using the gyrokinetics code GENE [2]. The geometric interface package GIST [3] accepts the equilibrium input data from the local equilibrium calculation. Growth rates for both axisymmetric and 3-D equilibrium calculations are presented. [4pt] [1] C. C. Hegna, Physics of Plasmas 7, 3921 (2000).[0pt] [2] F. Jenko, W. Dorland, M. Kotschenreuther, and B. N. Rogers, Physical Review Letters 7, 1904 (2000).[0pt] [3] P. Xanthopoulos, W. A. Cooper, F. Jenko, Yu. Turkin, A. Runov, and J. Geiger, Physics of Plasmas 16, 082303 (2009).

  7. Coherent nonlinear structures in ITG-Zonal flow system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rameswar; Singh, Raghvendra; Kaw, Predhiman; Diamond, Patrick H.

    2013-10-01

    Nonlinear stationary structure formation in the coupled ion temperature gradient (ITG) - Zonal flow system is investigated. The ITG turbulence is described by a wave-kinetic equation for the action density of ITG mode and the longer scale zonal mode is described by a dynamical equation for the m = n = 0 component of the potential. In a moving frame, two populations of trappped and untrapped drift wave trajectories are shown to exist. This novel effect leads to formation of nonlinear stationary structures. It is shown that the ITG turbulence can self-consistently sustain coherent, radialy propagating modulation envelope structures such as solitons, shocks, nonlinear wave trains, etc.

  8. ITG: A New Global GNSS Tropospheric Correction Model.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yibin; Xu, Chaoqian; Shi, Junbo; Cao, Na; Zhang, Bao; Yang, Junjian

    2015-07-21

    Tropospheric correction models are receiving increasing attentions, as they play a crucial role in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Most commonly used models to date include the GPT2 series and the TropGrid2. In this study, we analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of existing models and developed a new model called the Improved Tropospheric Grid (ITG). ITG considers annual, semi-annual and diurnal variations, and includes multiple tropospheric parameters. The amplitude and initial phase of diurnal variation are estimated as a periodic function. ITG provides temperature, pressure, the weighted mean temperature (Tm) and Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD). We conducted a performance comparison among the proposed ITG model and previous ones, in terms of meteorological measurements from 698 observation stations, Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) products from 280 International GNSS Service (IGS) station and Tm from Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) products. Results indicate that ITG offers the best performance on the whole.

  9. ITG: A New Global GNSS Tropospheric Correction Model

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yibin; Xu, Chaoqian; Shi, Junbo; Cao, Na; Zhang, Bao; Yang, Junjian

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric correction models are receiving increasing attentions, as they play a crucial role in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Most commonly used models to date include the GPT2 series and the TropGrid2. In this study, we analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of existing models and developed a new model called the Improved Tropospheric Grid (ITG). ITG considers annual, semi-annual and diurnal variations, and includes multiple tropospheric parameters. The amplitude and initial phase of diurnal variation are estimated as a periodic function. ITG provides temperature, pressure, the weighted mean temperature (Tm) and Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD). We conducted a performance comparison among the proposed ITG model and previous ones, in terms of meteorological measurements from 698 observation stations, Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) products from 280 International GNSS Service (IGS) station and Tm from Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) products. Results indicate that ITG offers the best performance on the whole. PMID:26196963

  10. Benchmarking finite- β ITG gyrokinetic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevins, W. M.; Dimits, A. M.; Candy, J.; Holland, C.; Howard, N.

    2016-10-01

    We report the results of an electromagnetic gyrokinetic-simulation benchmarking study based on a well-diagnosed ion-temperature-gradient (ITG)-turbulence dominated experimental plasma. We compare the 4x3 matrix of transport/transfer quantities for each plasma species; namely the (a) particle flux, Γa, (b) momentum flux, Πa, (c) energy flux, Qa, and (d) anomalous heat exchange, Sa, with each transport coefficient broken down into: (1) electrostatic (δφ) (2) transverse electromagnetic (δA∥) , and (3) compressional electromagnetic, (δB∥) contributions. We compare realization-independent quantities (correlation functions, spectral densities, etc.), which characterize the fluctuating fields from various gyrokinetic simulation codes. Prepared for US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by GA under Contract DE-FG03-95ER54309. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences.

  11. Role of stable modes in zonal flow regulated ITG turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makwana, Kirit; Terry, Paul; Hatch, David; Pueschel, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    Stable modes are studied in zonal flow regulated ITG turbulence using the gyrokinetic code GENE. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes are employed to investigate the eigenmode space of the distribution function. Both the unstable and stable POD modes show strong nonlinear energy transfer via three wave interactions that include zonal modes. The zonal mode itself absorbs a small fraction of the energy injected by the unstable mode. The remaining energy is deposited in the stable modes of non-zonal wavenumbers that are involved in the three wave coupling. These stable modes lie mostly within the wavenumber range of the instability. This indicates that zonal flows mediate energy transfer from unstable to stable modes, leading to saturation. The amplitude attenuation rate (AAR) of POD modes shows an equipartition across a large range of stable modes. This rate is balanced by three wave correlations of the POD modes and their time dependent amplitudes. These correlations are large if they involve zonal modes and they also show an equipartition for higher mode numbers. A similar analysis using linear eigenmodes also shows rough equipartition among the linear modes. Thus, AAR provides a handle to collectively describe the multitude of stable modes in a gyrokinetic simulation.

  12. Physics of Intrinsic Rotation in Flux-Driven ITG Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, S; Dimond, P H; Dif-Pradalier, G; Kwon, J M; Sarazin, Y; Hahm, T S; Garbet, X; Chang, C S; Latu, G; Yoon, E S; Ghendrih, Ph; Yi, S; Strugarek, A; Solomon, W

    2012-02-23

    Global, heat flux-driven ITG gyrokinetic simulations which manifest the formation of macroscopic, mean toroidal flow profiles with peak thermal Mach number 0.05, are reported. Both a particle-in-cell (XGC1p) and a semi-Lagrangian (GYSELA) approach are utilized without a priori assumptions of scale-separation between turbulence and mean fields. Flux-driven ITG simulations with different edge flow boundary conditions show in both approaches the development of net unidirectional intrinsic rotation in the co-current direction. Intrinsic torque is shown to scale approximately linearly with the inverse scale length of the ion temperature gradient. External momentum input is shown to effectively cancel the intrinsic rotation profile, thus confirming the existence of a local residual stress and intrinsic torque. Fluctuation intensity, intrinsic torque and mean flow are demonstrated to develop inwards from the boundary. The measured correlations between residual stress and two fluctuation spectrum symmetry breakers, namely E x B shear and intensity gradient, are similar. Avalanches of (positive) heat flux, which propagate either outwards or inwards, are correlated with avalanches of (negative) parallel momentum flux, so that outward transport of heat and inward transport of parallel momentum are correlated and mediated by avalanches. The probability distribution functions of the outward heat flux and the inward momentum flux show strong structural similarity

  13. Physics of intrinsic rotation in flux-driven ITG turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, S.; Abiteboul, J.; Diamond, P. H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Kwon, J. M.; Sarazin, Y.; Hahm, T. S.; Garbet, X.; Chang, C. S.; Latu, G.; Yoon, E. S.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Yi, S.; Strugarek, A.; Solomon, W.; Grandgirard, V.

    2012-06-01

    Global, heat flux-driven ITG gyrokinetic simulations which manifest the formation of macroscopic, mean toroidal flow profiles with peak thermal Mach number 0.05, are reported. Both a particle-in-cell (XGC1p) and a semi-Lagrangian (GYSELA) approach are utilized without a priori assumptions of scale separation between turbulence and mean fields. Flux-driven ITG simulations with different edge flow boundary conditions show in both approaches the development of net unidirectional intrinsic rotation in the co-current direction. Intrinsic torque is shown to scale approximately linearly with the inverse scale length of the ion temperature gradient. External momentum input is shown to effectively cancel the intrinsic rotation profile, thus confirming the existence of a local residual stress and intrinsic torque. Fluctuation intensity, intrinsic torque and mean flow are demonstrated to develop inwards from the boundary. The measured correlations between residual stress and two fluctuation spectrum symmetry breakers, namely E × B shear and intensity gradient, are similar. Avalanches of (positive) heat flux, which propagate either outwards or inwards, are correlated with avalanches of (negative) parallel momentum flux, so that outward transport of heat and inward transport of parallel momentum are correlated and mediated by avalanches. The probability distribution functions of the outward heat flux and the inward momentum flux show strong structural similarity.

  14. Growth rate for blackhole instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Kartik; Wald, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Hollands and Wald showed that dynamic stability of stationary axisymmetric black holes is equivalent to positivity of canonical energy on a space of linearised axisymmetric perturbations satisfying certain boundary and gauge conditions. Using a reflection isometry of the background, we split the energy into kinetic and potential parts. We show that the kinetic energy is positive. In the case that potential energy is negative, we show existence of exponentially growing perturbations and further obtain a variational formula for the growth rate.

  15. Gyrokinetic investigation of ITG modes in helical RFPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predebon, I.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Terranova, D.

    2013-10-01

    Micro-instabilities in the RFP have been investigated in the last years from several viewpoints and with various numerical tools. The strongest underlying assumption for all of these approaches is that the magnetic equilibrium does not deviate significantly from axisymmetry. Contrary to this, in RFX-mod, the physical conditions more favorable for the onset of electrostatic/electromagnetic turbulence emerge when magnetic surfaces are helical, i.e., during the single helicity states of the RFP. In general, we wish to systematically revisit the existing gyrokinetic studies of microturbulence focusing on the novel 3D feature. The RFP equilibria are now derived using the VMEC code and subsequently applied to the nonlinear gyrokinetic code GENE with the aid of the GIST interface code. The physical problem we address here is the occurrence of ITG instability in single helicity plasmas, and its distinct properties compared to the axisymmetric geometry.

  16. Stability of growth rate of sodium chlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, M. M.; Žekić, A. A.; Baroš, Z. Z.

    2009-01-01

    The constancy of stabilized sodium chlorate crystal growth rate is investigated. After the growth rate stabilization, solution supersaturation was altered and then the initial one was restored, which resulted in fast restoring of the growth rate existing prior to the supersaturation change. It is thereby shown that stabilized growth rate is indeed very stable. The majority of crystals decrease the growth rates during the 3-4 growth hours, even if the process develops at the constant experimental conditions all the time. The new crystals introduced into the cell, continue to grow as the already growing crystals, with higher initial growth rates.

  17. Imposing Constraints from the Source Tree on ITG Constraints for SMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Okuma, Hideo; Sumita, Eiichiro

    In the current statistical machine translation (SMT), erroneous word reordering is one of the most serious problems. To resolve this problem, many word-reordering constraint techniques have been proposed. Inversion transduction grammar (ITG) is one of these constraints. In ITG constraints, target-side word order is obtained by rotating nodes of the source-side binary tree. In these node rotations, the source binary tree instance is not considered. Therefore, stronger constraints for word reordering can be obtained by imposing further constraints derived from the source tree on the ITG constraints. For example, for the source word sequence { a b c d }, ITG constraints allow a total of twenty-two target word orderings. However, when the source binary tree instance ((a b) (c d)) is given, our proposed “imposing source tree on ITG” (IST-ITG) constraints allow only eight word orderings. The reduction in the number of word-order permutations by our proposed stronger constraints efficiently suppresses erroneous word orderings. In our experiments with IST-ITG using the NIST MT08 English-to-Chinese translation track's data, the proposed method resulted in a 1.8-points improvement in character BLEU-4 (35.2 to 37.0) and a 6.2% lower CER (74.1 to 67.9%) compared with our baseline condition.

  18. Growth rate study of canavalin single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demattei, R. C.; Feigelson, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence on supersaturation of the growth rate of single crystals of the protein canavalin is studied. In the supersaturation ranges studied, the rate-limiting step for growth is best described by a screw dislocation mechanism associated with interface attachment kinetics. Using a ln-ln plot, the growth-rate data is found to fit a predictive relationship of the form G = 0.012 x the supersaturation to the 6.66, which, together with the solubility curves, allows the growth rate to be estimated under a variety of conditions.

  19. Measurements of Protein Crystal Face Growth Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystal growth rates will be determined for several hyperthermophile proteins.; The growth rates will be assessed using available theoretical models, including kinetic roughening.; If/when kinetic roughening supersaturations are established, determinations of protein crystal quality over a range of supersaturations will also be assessed.; The results of our ground based effort may well address the existence of a correlation between fundamental growth mechanisms and protein crystal quality.

  20. Growth Rates of Microbes in the Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchman, David L.

    2016-01-01

    A microbe's growth rate helps to set its ecological success and its contribution to food web dynamics and biogeochemical processes. Growth rates at the community level are constrained by biomass and trophic interactions among bacteria, phytoplankton, and their grazers. Phytoplankton growth rates are approximately 1 d-1, whereas most heterotrophic bacteria grow slowly, close to 0.1 d-1; only a few taxa can grow ten times as fast. Data from 16S rRNA and other approaches are used to speculate about the growth rate and the life history strategy of SAR11, the most abundant clade of heterotrophic bacteria in the oceans. These strategies are also explored using genomic data. Although the methods and data are imperfect, the available data can be used to set limits on growth rates and thus on the timescale for changes in the composition and structure of microbial communities.

  1. Growth Rates of Microbes in the Oceans.

    PubMed

    Kirchman, David L

    2016-01-01

    A microbe's growth rate helps to set its ecological success and its contribution to food web dynamics and biogeochemical processes. Growth rates at the community level are constrained by biomass and trophic interactions among bacteria, phytoplankton, and their grazers. Phytoplankton growth rates are approximately 1 d(-1), whereas most heterotrophic bacteria grow slowly, close to 0.1 d(-1); only a few taxa can grow ten times as fast. Data from 16S rRNA and other approaches are used to speculate about the growth rate and the life history strategy of SAR11, the most abundant clade of heterotrophic bacteria in the oceans. These strategies are also explored using genomic data. Although the methods and data are imperfect, the available data can be used to set limits on growth rates and thus on the timescale for changes in the composition and structure of microbial communities.

  2. Temperature influence on phytoplankton community growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Elliot; Moore, J. Keith; Primeau, Francois; Tanouye, David

    2016-04-01

    A large database of field estimates of phytoplankton community growth rates in natural populations was compiled and analyzed to determine the apparent temperature effect on phytoplankton community growth rate. We conducted an ordinary least squares regression to optimize the parameters in two commonly used growth-temperature relations (Arrhenius and Q10 models). Both equations fit the observational data equally with the optimized parameter values. The optimum apparent Q10 value was 1.47 ± 0.08 (95% confidence interval, CI). Microzooplankton grazing rates closely matched the temperature trends for phytoplankton growth. This likely reflects a dynamic adjustment of biomass and grazing rates by the microzooplankton to match their available food source, illustrating tight coupling of phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates. The field-measured temperature effect and growth rates were compared with estimates from the satellite Carbon-based Productivity Model (CbPM) and three Earth System Models (ESMs), with model output extracted at the same month and sampling locations as the observations. The optimized, apparent Q10 value calculated for the CbPM was 1.51, with overestimation of growth rates. The apparent Q10 value in the Community Earth System Model (V1.0) was 1.65, with modest underestimation of growth rates. The GFDL-ESM2M and GFDL-ESM2G models produced apparent Q10 values of 1.52 and 1.39, respectively. Models with an apparent Q10 that is significantly greater than ~1.5 will overestimate the phytoplankton community growth response to the ongoing climate warming and will have spatial biases in estimated growth rates for the current era.

  3. Volumetric Growth Rate of Recurrent Pleomorphic Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Naunheim, Molly; Wu, Xin; Ryan, William R; Wang, Steven J; Heaton, Chase M

    2017-07-01

    Surgery for recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA) can be challenging and may increase the risk of operative complications, particularly facial nerve weakness. As observation may be a viable alternative to surgery for slow-growing tumors, our objective was to assess the growth rate of recurrent PAs. This study is a case series of patients at our tertiary academic medical center with recurrent PA. Two magnetic resonance images (MRI) were compared; total volume (TV) of recurrent tumor on both studies was calculated to obtain our main outcomes of percent change in TV and tumor growth rate. Fourteen patients with recurrent PA had a median interval time between MRI of 12.8 months. Though growth rates were variable, the median continuous compound growth per year was 10.2%. Notably, 3 patients (21%) had no growth, and 2 patients (14%) had a reduction in TV. The median growth rate for enlarging tumors is estimated at 10.2% per year. Due to variability, tumor growth rate should be estimated on an individual patient basis. For slow-growing tumors, physicians may weigh the risk of this slow growth with the morbidity of reoperation.

  4. Measuring growth rate in high-throughput growth phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Anders

    2011-02-01

    Growth rate is an important variable and parameter in biology with a central role in evolutionary, functional genomics, and systems biology studies. In this review the pros and cons of the different technologies presently available for high-throughput measurements of growth rate are discussed. Growth rate can be measured in liquid microcultivation of individual strains, in competition between strains, as growing colonies on agar, as division of individual cells, and estimated from molecular reporters. Irrespective of methodology, statistical issues such as spatial biases and batch effects are crucial to investigate and correct for to ensure low false discovery rates. The rather low correlations between studies indicate that cross-laboratory comparison and standardization are pressing issue to assure high-quality and comparable growth-rate data. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dinosaurian growth patterns and rapid avian growth rates.

    PubMed

    Erickson, G M; Rogers, K C; Yerby, S A

    2001-07-26

    Did dinosaurs grow in a manner similar to extant reptiles, mammals or birds, or were they unique? Are rapid avian growth rates an innovation unique to birds, or were they inherited from dinosaurian precursors? We quantified growth rates for a group of dinosaurs spanning the phylogenetic and size diversity for the clade and used regression analysis to characterize the results. Here we show that dinosaurs exhibited sigmoidal growth curves similar to those of other vertebrates, but had unique growth rates with respect to body mass. All dinosaurs grew at accelerated rates relative to the primitive condition seen in extant reptiles. Small dinosaurs grew at moderately rapid rates, similar to those of marsupials, but large species attained rates comparable to those of eutherian mammals and precocial birds. Growth in giant sauropods was similar to that of whales of comparable size. Non-avian dinosaurs did not attain rates like those of altricial birds. Avian growth rates were attained in a stepwise fashion after birds diverged from theropod ancestors in the Jurassic period.

  6. Population growth rates: issues and an application.

    PubMed Central

    Godfray, H Charles J; Rees, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Current issues in population dynamics are discussed in the context of The Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Population growth rate: determining factors and role in population regulation'. In particular, different views on the centrality of population growth rates to the study of population dynamics and the role of experiments and theory are explored. Major themes emerging include the role of modern statistical techniques in bringing together experimental and theoretical studies, the importance of long-term experimentation and the need for ecology to have model systems, and the value of population growth rate as a means of understanding and predicting population change. The last point is illustrated by the application of a recently introduced technique, integral projection modelling, to study the population growth rate of a monocarpic perennial plant, its elasticities to different life-history components and the evolution of an evolutionarily stable strategy size at flowering. PMID:12396521

  7. Growth rate, population entropy, and perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, L

    1989-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the connection between two classes of population variables: measures of population growth rate--the Malthusian parameter, the net reproduction rate, the gross reproduction rate, and the mean life expectancy; and measures of demographic heterogeneity--population entropy. It is shown that the entropy functions predict the response of the growth rate parameters to perturbations in the age-specific fecundity and mortality schedule. These results are invoked to introduce the notion of environmental intensity. The intensity function, expressed in terms of the entropy parameters, is applied to give a comparative study of the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of Swedish and French populations.

  8. On growth rate hysteresis and catastrophic crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Cecília; Rocha, Fernando A.; Damas, Ana M.; Martins, Pedro M.

    2013-04-01

    Different crystal growth rates as supersaturation is increasing or decreasing in impure media is a phenomenon called growth rate hysteresis (GRH) that has been observed in varied systems and applications, such as protein crystallization or during biomineralization. We have recently shown that the transient adsorption of impurities onto newly formed active sites for growth (or kinks) is sensitive to the direction and rate of supersaturation variation, thus providing a possible explanation for GRH [6]. In the present contribution, we expand on this concept by deriving the analytical expressions for transient crystal growth based on the energetics of growth hillock formation and kink occupation by impurities. Two types of GRH results are described according to the variation of kink density with supersaturation: for nearly constant density, decreasing or increasing supersaturation induce, respectively, growth promoting or inhibiting effects relative to equilibrium conditions. This is the type of GRH measured by us during the crystallization of egg-white lysozyme. For variable kink density, slight changes in the supersaturation level may induce abrupt variations in the crystal growth rate. Different literature examples of this so-called 'catastrophic' crystal growth are discussed in terms of their fundamental consequences.

  9. Ultraslow growth rates of giant gypsum crystals

    PubMed Central

    Van Driessche, A. E. S.; García-Ruíz, J. M.; Tsukamoto, K.; Patiño-Lopez, L. D.; Satoh, H.

    2011-01-01

    Mineralogical processes taking place close to equilibrium, or with very slow kinetics, are difficult to quantify precisely. The determination of ultraslow dissolution/precipitation rates would reveal characteristic timing associated with these processes that are important at geological scale. We have designed an advanced high-resolution white-beam phase-shift interferometry microscope to measure growth rates of crystals at very low supersaturation values. To test this technique, we have selected the giant gypsum crystals of Naica ore mines in Chihuahua, Mexico, a challenging subject in mineral formation. They are thought to form by a self-feeding mechanism driven by solution-mediated anhydrite-gypsum phase transition, and therefore they must be the result of an extremely slow crystallization process close to equilibrium. To calculate the formation time of these crystals we have measured the growth rates of the {010} face of gypsum growing from current Naica waters at different temperatures. The slowest measurable growth rate was found at 55 °C, 1.4 ± 0.2 × 10-5 nm/s, the slowest directly measured normal growth rate for any crystal growth process. At higher temperatures, growth rates increase exponentially because of decreasing gypsum solubility and higher kinetic coefficient. At 50 °C neither growth nor dissolution was observed indicating that growth of giant crystals of gypsum occurred at Naica between 58 °C (gypsum/anhydrite transition temperature) and the current temperature of Naica waters, confirming formation temperatures determined from fluid inclusion studies. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of applying advanced optical techniques in laboratory experiments to gain a better understanding of crystal growth processes occurring at a geological timescale. PMID:21911400

  10. Ultraslow growth rates of giant gypsum crystals.

    PubMed

    Van Driessche, A E S; García-Ruíz, J M; Tsukamoto, K; Patiño-Lopez, L D; Satoh, H

    2011-09-20

    Mineralogical processes taking place close to equilibrium, or with very slow kinetics, are difficult to quantify precisely. The determination of ultraslow dissolution/precipitation rates would reveal characteristic timing associated with these processes that are important at geological scale. We have designed an advanced high-resolution white-beam phase-shift interferometry microscope to measure growth rates of crystals at very low supersaturation values. To test this technique, we have selected the giant gypsum crystals of Naica ore mines in Chihuahua, Mexico, a challenging subject in mineral formation. They are thought to form by a self-feeding mechanism driven by solution-mediated anhydrite-gypsum phase transition, and therefore they must be the result of an extremely slow crystallization process close to equilibrium. To calculate the formation time of these crystals we have measured the growth rates of the {010} face of gypsum growing from current Naica waters at different temperatures. The slowest measurable growth rate was found at 55 °C, 1.4 ± 0.2 × 10(-5) nm/s, the slowest directly measured normal growth rate for any crystal growth process. At higher temperatures, growth rates increase exponentially because of decreasing gypsum solubility and higher kinetic coefficient. At 50 °C neither growth nor dissolution was observed indicating that growth of giant crystals of gypsum occurred at Naica between 58 °C (gypsum/anhydrite transition temperature) and the current temperature of Naica waters, confirming formation temperatures determined from fluid inclusion studies. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of applying advanced optical techniques in laboratory experiments to gain a better understanding of crystal growth processes occurring at a geological timescale.

  11. Timber value growth rates in New England

    Treesearch

    David A, Gansner; Stanford L. Arner; Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1990-01-01

    Rates of growth in the value of standing timber can vary greatly from stand to stand and from tree to tree. In Maine, the compound annual rate of change in stand value between the two most recent forest inventories ranged from -12 to +43 percent. Faced with this kind of variation, forest managers can use help in determining financial rates of return for their woodland...

  12. Learning improves growth rate in grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Dukas, R; Bernays, E A

    2000-03-14

    To quantify the adaptive significance of insect learning, we documented the behavior and growth rate of grasshoppers (Schistocerca americana) in an environment containing two artificial food types, one providing a balanced diet of protein and carbohydrate, which maximizes growth, and the other being carbohydrate-deficient, which is unsuitable for growth. Grasshoppers in the Learning treatment experienced a predictable environment, where the spatial location, taste, and color of each food source remained constant throughout the experiment. In contrast, grasshoppers of the Random treatment developed in a temporally varying environment, where the spatial location, taste, and color of the balanced and deficient food types randomly alternated twice each day. Our results show that the grasshoppers that could employ associative learning for diet choice experienced higher growth rates than individuals of the Random treatment, demonstrating the adaptive significance of learning in a small short-lived insect.

  13. Learning improves growth rate in grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Dukas, Reuven; Bernays, Elizabeth A.

    2000-01-01

    To quantify the adaptive significance of insect learning, we documented the behavior and growth rate of grasshoppers (Schistocerca americana) in an environment containing two artificial food types, one providing a balanced diet of protein and carbohydrate, which maximizes growth, and the other being carbohydrate-deficient, which is unsuitable for growth. Grasshoppers in the Learning treatment experienced a predictable environment, where the spatial location, taste, and color of each food source remained constant throughout the experiment. In contrast, grasshoppers of the Random treatment developed in a temporally varying environment, where the spatial location, taste, and color of the balanced and deficient food types randomly alternated twice each day. Our results show that the grasshoppers that could employ associative learning for diet choice experienced higher growth rates than individuals of the Random treatment, demonstrating the adaptive significance of learning in a small short-lived insect. PMID:10706621

  14. Revisiting the Estimation of Dinosaur Growth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Myhrvold, Nathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Previous growth-rate studies covering 14 dinosaur taxa, as represented by 31 data sets, are critically examined and reanalyzed by using improved statistical techniques. The examination reveals that some previously reported results cannot be replicated by using the methods originally reported; results from new methods are in many cases different, in both the quantitative rates and the qualitative nature of the growth, from results in the prior literature. Asymptotic growth curves, which have been hypothesized to be ubiquitous, are shown to provide best fits for only four of the 14 taxa. Possible reasons for non-asymptotic growth patterns are discussed; they include systematic errors in the age-estimation process and, more likely, a bias toward younger ages among the specimens analyzed. Analysis of the data sets finds that only three taxa include specimens that could be considered skeletally mature (i.e., having attained 90% of maximum body size predicted by asymptotic curve fits), and eleven taxa are quite immature, with the largest specimen having attained less than 62% of predicted asymptotic size. The three taxa that include skeletally mature specimens are included in the four taxa that are best fit by asymptotic curves. The totality of results presented here suggests that previous estimates of both maximum dinosaur growth rates and maximum dinosaur sizes have little statistical support. Suggestions for future research are presented. PMID:24358133

  15. Enteric bacterial growth rates in river water.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, C W

    1972-08-01

    Enteric bacteria, including stocked strains of pathogenic species and organisms naturally present in the stream, were capable of growth in a chemostat with autoclaved river water taken 750 m below a sewage outfall. Maximal specific growth rates for all organisms occurred at 30 C, whereas culture generation times ranged between 33.3 and 116 hr. Of the six laboratory strains of enteric species used, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes grew at generation times of 34.5 and 33.3 hr, respectively, while the remaining Proteus, Arizona, Salmonella, and Shigella spp. reproduced at a rate two to three times slower than the coliforms. Little or no growth occurred in the water at incubation temperatures of 20 and 5 C, and death was observed for Salmonella senftenberg at 20 and 5 C and for E. aerogenes and Proteus rettgeri at 5 C. When enteric bacteria naturally present in the river water were employed in similar experiments, coliform bacteria demonstrated a generation time of approximately 116 hr, whereas fecal coliforms failed to grow. Growth of the bacteria from the river demonstrated a periodicity of approximately 100 hr, which suggests that much of the growth of these organisms in the chemostat may be on the glass surfaces. This phenomenon, however, was not observed with any of the stocked enteric species. Neither the stock cultures nor the aquatic strains were capable of growth in autoclaved river water taken above the sewage outfall at the three temperatures tested.

  16. Emittance growth rates for displaced beams

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, O.A. |

    1993-05-01

    Emittance growth rates have been previously analyzed for nonuniform beams in linear channels and for initially uniform mismatched beams in nonlinear channels. These studies were for centered beams. Additional emittance growth can arise in cases where the beam is initially displaced. The purpose of this study is to obtain growth rates for displaced beams. This work differs from studies involving random displacement of electrodes. Our analysis assumes instead that the focusing system is perfectly aligned but that the beam is initially displaced with respect to the equilibrium axis. If the focusing force is slightly nonlinear, we find a gradual transfer of the potential energy of beam displacement into kinetic energy associated with emittance growth. We present explicit results for the emittance growth distance as a function of the nonlinearity of the channel. These results will have practical importance for designers of accelerators and transport systems when setting realistic tolerances for initial beam alignment. These tolerances will depend on the nonlinearity and the length of the system.

  17. GYSELA, a full-f global gyrokinetic Semi-Lagrangian code for ITG turbulence simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Besse, N.; Bertrand, P.

    2006-11-30

    This work addresses non-linear global gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence with the GYSELA code. The particularity of GYSELA code is to use a fixed grid with a Semi-Lagrangian (SL) scheme and this for the entire distribution function. The 4D non-linear drift-kinetic version of the code already showns the interest of such a SL method which exhibits good properties of energy conservation in non-linear regime as well as an accurate description of fine spatial scales. The code has been upgrated to run 5D simulations of toroidal ITG turbulence. Linear benchmarks and non-linear first results prove that semi-lagrangian codes can be a credible alternative for gyrokinetic simulations.

  18. ITG modes in the presence of inhomogeneous field-aligned flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, S.; McCarthy, D. R.; Lontano, M.; Lazzaro, E.; Honary, F.

    2010-02-01

    In a recent paper, Varischetti et al. (Plasma Phys. Contr. F. 2008, 50, 105008-1-15) have found that in a slab geometry the effect of the flow shear in the field-aligned parallel flow on the linear mode stability of the ion temperature gradient (ITG)-driven modes is not very prominent. They found that the flow shear also has a negligible effect on the mode characteristics. The work in this paper shows that the inclusion of flow curvature in the field-aligned flow can have a considerable effect on the mode stability; it can also change the mode structure so as to effect the mixing length transport in the core region of a fusion device. Flow shear, on the other hand, has indeed an insignificant role in the mode stability and mode structure. Inhomogeneous field-aligned flow should therefore still be considered for a viable candidate in controlling the ITG mode stability and mode structure.

  19. GYSELA, a full-f global gyrokinetic Semi-Lagrangian code for ITG turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Crouseilles, N.; Latu, G.; Sonnendrücker, E.; Besse, N.; Bertrand, P.

    2006-11-01

    This work addresses non-linear global gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence with the GYSELA code. The particularity of GYSELA code is to use a fixed grid with a Semi-Lagrangian (SL) scheme and this for the entire distribution function. The 4D non-linear drift-kinetic version of the code already showns the interest of such a SL method which exhibits good properties of energy conservation in non-linear regime as well as an accurate description of fine spatial scales. The code has been upgrated to run 5D simulations of toroidal ITG turbulence. Linear benchmarks and non-linear first results prove that semi-lagrangian codes can be a credible alternative for gyrokinetic simulations.

  20. Observation of Up-gradient Particle Flux in Collisional Drift-ITG Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Lang

    2015-11-01

    We report the observation of a net inward, up-gradient turbulent particle flux from two independent diagnostics in collisional drift-ITG plasma turbulence. At low magnetic fields (B <= 1.0 kG), particle transport is outward at all radii and the predominantly collisional electron drift wave turbulence drives a sheared ExB zonal flow. As the magnetic field is further increased (B >= 1.2 kG) the drift-waves persist, an up-gradient inward particle flux develops, fluctuations propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift direction develop and a pronounced steepening of the ion temperature and mean density gradients occurs. The two different types of fluctuation features modulate and compete with each other and dominate in different radial location and magnetic field region. Linear stability analyses show that a robust ITG instability is excited for these conditions. The onset of net inward flux also coincides with the development of a strong intrinsic parallel flow shear that can drive an inward pinch when it is coupled with grad-Ti. However, we find that the ITG-driven inward pinch is more dominant in our experiments. This basic experiment provides for a detailed examination of turbulent-driven particle pinches and up-gradient fluxes in the presence of multiple free-energy sources. Moreover, the coexistence and competition of DWs and ITG have been observed to influence tokamak transport and remains a topic of interest for both magnetically confined fusion plasmas and space plasma systems. A detailed experimental study complemented by theory and linear and nonlinear simulations of these experiments is used to elucidate the physics of up-gradient particle transport. Supported by DOE (DE- SC0001961).

  1. Comparison between measured and predicted turbulence frequency spectra in ITG and TEM regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citrin, J.; Arnichand, H.; Bernardo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.; Jenko, F.; Hacquin, S.; Pueschel, M. J.; Sabot, R.

    2017-06-01

    The observation of distinct peaks in tokamak core reflectometry measurements—named quasi-coherent-modes (QCMs)—are identified as a signature of trapped-electron-mode (TEM) turbulence (Arnichand et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 014037). This phenomenon is investigated with detailed linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using the Gene code. A Tore-Supra density scan is studied, which traverses through a linear (LOC) to saturated (SOC) ohmic confinement transition. The LOC and SOC phases are both simulated separately. In the LOC phase, where QCMs are observed, TEMs are robustly predicted unstable in linear studies. In the later SOC phase, where QCMs are no longer observed, ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) modes are identified. In nonlinear simulations, in the ITG (SOC) phase, a broadband spectrum is seen. In the TEM (LOC) phase, a clear emergence of a peak at the TEM frequencies is seen. This is due to reduced nonlinear frequency broadening of the underlying linear modes in the TEM regime compared with the ITG regime. A synthetic diagnostic of the nonlinearly simulated frequency spectra reproduces the features observed in the reflectometry measurements. These results support the identification of core QCMs as an experimental marker for TEM turbulence.

  2. Intrinsic Axial Flows in CSDX and Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in ITG Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiacong; Diamond, P. H.; Hong, R.; Thakur, S. C.; Xu, X. Q.; Tynan, G. R.

    2016-10-01

    Toroidal plasma rotation can enhance confinement when combined with weak magnetic shear. Also, external rotation drive in future fusion devices (e.g. ITER) will be weak. Together, these two considerations drive us to study intrinsic rotations with weak magnetic shear. In particular, a global transition is triggered in CSDX when magnetic field B exceeds a critical strength threshold. At the transition an ion feature emerges in the core turbulence. Recent studies show that a dynamical symmetry breaking mechanism in drift wave turbulence can drive intrinsic axial flows in CSDX, as well as enhance intrinsic rotations in tokamaks. Here, we focus on what happens when ion features emerge in CSDX, and how ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence drives intrinsic rotations with weak magnetic shear. The effect of dynamical symmetry breaking in ITG turbulence depends on the stability regime. In a marginally stable regime, dynamical symmetry breaking results in an augmented turbulence viscosity (chi-phi). However, when ITG is far from the stability boundary, a negative increment in turbulent viscosity is induced. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under Award No. DE-FG02-04ER54738.

  3. Effect of entropy on soliton profile in ITG driven magneto-plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaqub Khan, M.; Iqbal, Javed

    2017-08-01

    Interconnection of entropy with the density and temperature of plasmas leads us to investigate the effect of entropy on different plasma related phenomena. By using Braginskii's transport equations and a transformation, the linear dispersion relation and the KdV equation for the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode having entropy drift are derived. It is found that this mode supports only compressive solitons. Due to entropy drift, a parameter ηi=Ln/LT is observed in the KdV equation. We found that the soliton profile is sensitive to entropy, i.e., due to the changes in the entropy amplitude and the width of solitons. It is also observed that the increasing ion temperature and increasing magnetic field affect the shape of the soliton. The results are briefly compared with the well-known results of the soliton profile, and a change in the structure of the soliton profile is found by introducing entropy in the ITG mode. This work may be helpful in the study of entropy based models and in understanding the formation of nonlinear solitary waves driven by the ITG mode in magnetically confined plasmas in the presence of entropy. For illustration, the model has been applied to tokamak plasmas.

  4. Growth rates of Chinese and American alligators.

    PubMed

    Herbert, J D; Coulson, T D; Coulson, R A

    2002-04-01

    Growth rates in two closely related species, Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator) and Alligator sinensis (Chinese alligator), were compared under identical conditions for at least 1 year after hatching. When hatched, Chinese alligators were approximately 2/3 the length and approximately 1/2 the weight of American alligator hatchlings. At the end of 1 year of growth in captivity in heated chambers, the Chinese alligators were approximately 1/2 as long and weighed approximately 1/10 as much as American alligator yearlings. When the animals were maintained at 31 degrees C, Chinese alligator food consumption and length gain rates dropped to near zero during autumn and winter and body weights decreased slightly, apparently in response to the change in day length. At constant temperature (31 degrees C), food consumption by American alligators remained high throughout the year. Length gain rates in American alligators decreased slowly as size increased, but were not affected by photoperiod. Daily weight gains in American alligators increased steadily throughout the year. In autumn, provision of artificial light for 18 h a day initially stimulated both length and weight gain in Chinese alligators, but did not affect growth in American alligators. Continuation of the artificial light regimen seemed to cause deleterious effects in the Chinese alligators after several months, however, so that animals exposed to the normal light cycle caught up to and then surpassed the extra-light group in size. Even after removal of the artificial light, it was several months before these extra-light animals reverted to a normal growth pattern. These findings may be of interest to those institutions engaged in captive growth programs intended to provide animals for reintroduction to the wild or to protected habitat.

  5. Polymorphic growth rates in myrmecophilous insects.

    PubMed

    Schönrogge, K; Wardlaw, J C; Thomas, J A; Elmes, G W

    2000-04-22

    A polymorphism in growth rates was recently described affecting the larval development of the myrmecophilous butterfly Maculinea rebeli, spanning different years in a single insect population. The close integration of M. rebeli into the host ant colonies, facilitated by adaptations in behaviour and chemical mimicry, make extended larval development a successful strategy. Here we present additional data for M. rebeli and new data for Maculinea alcon (another cuckoo-feeding lycaenid) and the two myrmecophilous predators Maculinea arion and Microdon mutabilis (Diptera: Syrphidae). As predicted, M. alcon shows the same growth pattern as M. rebeli with a proportion of caterpillars developing in one year and the remainder over two years. This pattern holds in both northern and southern European populations, where M. alcon exploits different species of host. Against expectation, the same bimodal distribution of pre-pupation body weights, indicating one and two year developers, was found for the larvae of M. arion and M. mutabilis. As predators, both species are less closely integrated in their host ant colonies, suggesting that the polymorphism in growth rates is a more general adaptation to a myrmecophilous life style, arrived at by convergent evolution between the Maculinea and Microdon species. For predatory species we suggest that biennialism is an adaptation to the migratory behaviour of the host made possible by the predators' ability to fast over extended periods. We also hypothesize that M. arion represents an ancestral strategy in Maculinea butterflies and that the growth polymorphism might have become genetically fixed in the cuckoo-feeding species.

  6. Maximization of Growth Rates During Czochralski Pulling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargo, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    It was suggested from theory(1-4) that silicon can be grown from the melt at rates far exceeding the current state of the art. Previous theoretical and experimental investigations which predict maximum rates of pulling during Czochralski growth are reviewed. Several experimental methods are proposed to modify the temperature distribution in a growing crystal to achieve higher rates of pulling. A physical model of a Czochralski crystal of germanium in contact with its melt was used to quantitatively determine, by direct measurement of the axial temperature distribution in the solid, the increase in axial temperature gradients effected by an inverted conical heat reflector located above the melt and coaxially about the physical model. Preliminary results indicate that this is an effective method of increasing the thermal resistance between the hot melt and crucible wall and a growing crystal. Under these conditions the enhancement of the interfacial temperature gradients permit a commensurate increase in the rate of crystal pulling.

  7. Maximization of growth rates during Czochralski pulling

    SciTech Connect

    Wargo, M.J.

    1984-04-01

    It was suggested from theory that silicon can be grown from the melt at rates far exceeding the current state of the art. Previous theoretical and experimental investigations which predict maximum rates of pulling during Czochralski growth are reviewed. Several experimental methods are proposed to modify the temperature distribution in a growing crystal to achieve higher rates of pulling. A physical model of a Czochralski crystal of germanium in contact with its melt was used to quantitatively determine, by direct measurement of the axial temperature distribution in the solid, the increase in axial temperature gradients effected by an inverted conical heat reflector located above the melt and coaxially about the physical model. Preliminary results indicate that this is an effective method of increasing the thermal resistance between the hot melt and crucible wall and a growing crystal. Under these conditions the enhancement of the interfacial temperature gradients permit a commensurate increase in the rate of crystal pulling.

  8. Controlling Growth Rates of Protein Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Frederick T.; Herren, Blair J.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus enables control of humidity in chamber to control rates of growth of crystalline samples of protein. Size of drop of solution from which protein is grown made larger or smaller by condensation or evaporation of water. Situated between desiccant and water source, drop of protein solution shrinks or swells, according to which valve operator opens. Growing protein crystal viewed through polarizing film. Readily adapted to automation.

  9. Controlling Growth Rates of Protein Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Frederick T.; Herren, Blair J.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus enables control of humidity in chamber to control rates of growth of crystalline samples of protein. Size of drop of solution from which protein is grown made larger or smaller by condensation or evaporation of water. Situated between desiccant and water source, drop of protein solution shrinks or swells, according to which valve operator opens. Growing protein crystal viewed through polarizing film. Readily adapted to automation.

  10. Speeding up Growth: Selection for Mass-Independent Maximal Metabolic Rate Alters Growth Rates.

    PubMed

    Downs, Cynthia J; Brown, Jessi L; Wone, Bernard W M; Donovan, Edward R; Hayes, Jack P

    2016-03-01

    Investigations into relationships between life-history traits, such as growth rate and energy metabolism, typically focus on basal metabolic rate (BMR). In contrast, investigators rarely examine maximal metabolic rate (MMR) as a relevant metric of energy metabolism, even though it indicates the maximal capacity to metabolize energy aerobically, and hence it might also be important in trade-offs. We studied the relationship between energy metabolism and growth in mice (Mus musculus domesticus Linnaeus) selected for high mass-independent metabolic rates. Selection for high mass-independent MMR increased maximal growth rate, increased body mass at 20 weeks of age, and generally altered growth patterns in both male and female mice. In contrast, there was little evidence that the correlated response in mass-adjusted BMR altered growth patterns. The relationship between mass-adjusted MMR and growth rate indicates that MMR is an important mediator of life histories. Studies investigating associations between energy metabolism and life histories should consider MMR because it is potentially as important in understanding life history as BMR.

  11. Nd isotopes and crustal growth rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albarede, F.

    1988-01-01

    Sm/Nd isotopic constraints on crustal growth is discussed. In order to constrain Sm/Nd fractionation between continental crust and depleted mantle, an extensive data base of isotopic measurements (assumed to be adequately representative of continental crust) was compiled. The results imply that the evolution of depleted mantles was roughly linear, with no major discontinuities over the course of geologic time. This is different from other determinations of depleting mantle evolution, which show nonlinear behavior. The Sm/Nd evolution lines for continental crust and depleted mantle intersect between 3.8 to 4.0 Ga, which may indicate that the onset of continental growth was later than 4.5 Ga. A mathematical model is described, the results of which imply that time integrated crustal additions from the mantle are about 1.8 to 2.5 cu km/a, whereas crustal subtractions by sediment recycling are about 0.6 to 1.5 cu km/a. This results in a net time integrated crustal growth rate of about 1 cu km/a, which is similar to present day rates determined, for example, by Reymer and Schubert.

  12. In situ investigation of growth rates and growth rate dispersion of α-lactose monohydrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2009-02-01

    The growth rates and growth rate dispersion (GRD) of four different faces of α-lactose monohydrate crystal were measured at 30, 40 and 50 °C in the relative supersaturation range 0.55-2.33 in aqueous solutions. The overall growth rate of the crystal is around 50-60% of the (0 1 0) face of the crystal. The power law was applied to the growth rates of the four faces and the activation energies were calculated to be between 9.5 and 13.7 kcal/mol. This indicates a diffusion-controlled growth, but the exponents calculated are between 2.5 and 3.1 which are higher than unity. Introduction of critical supersaturation decreased the exponents to between 1.8 and 2.4. The variance of GRD for the (0 1 0) face is twice the variance of the GRD of the (1 1 0) and (1 0 0) faces and 10 times higher than the (1 1¯ 1¯) face at the same supersaturations and temperatures. The GRD of the four faces were similar when expressed as a function of growth rate. However, the (0 1 1) face displayed lower GRD than the other faces at the same temperatures and supersaturations.

  13. Magnetospheric chorus - Amplitude and growth rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burtis, W. J.; Helliwell, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A new study of the amplitude of magnetospheric chorus with 1966-1967 data from the Stanford University/Stanford Research Institute VLF receivers on Ogo 1 and Ogo 3 has confirmed the band-limited character of magnetospheric chorus in general and the double-banding of near-equatorial chorus. Chorus amplitude tended to be inversely correlated with frequency, implying lower intensities at lower L values. Individual chorus emissions often showed a characteristic amplitude variation, with rise times of 10 to 300 ms, a short duration at peak amplitude, and decay times of 100 to 3000 msec. Growth was often approximately exponential, with rates from 200 to nearly 2000 dB/sec. Rate of change of frequency was found in many cases to be independent of emission amplitude, in agreement with the cyclotron feedback theory of chorus (Helliwell, 1967, 1970).

  14. Growth rate measurement in free jet experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Jean-Baptiste; Renoult, Marie-Charlotte; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2017-07-01

    An experimental method was developed to measure the growth rate of the capillary instability for free liquid jets. The method uses a standard shadow-graph imaging technique to visualize a jet, produced by extruding a liquid through a circular orifice, and a statistical analysis of the entire jet. The analysis relies on the computation of the standard deviation of a set of jet profiles, obtained in the same experimental conditions. The principle and robustness of the method are illustrated with a set of emulated jet profiles. The method is also applied to free falling jet experiments conducted for various Weber numbers and two low-viscosity solutions: a Newtonian and a viscoelastic one. Growth rate measurements are found in good agreement with linear stability theory in the Rayleigh's regime, as expected from previous studies. In addition, the standard deviation curve is used to obtain an indirect measurement of the initial perturbation amplitude and to identify beads on a string structure on the jet. This last result serves to demonstrate the capability of the present technique to explore in the future the dynamics of viscoelastic liquid jets.

  15. Growth rate modeling for selective tungsten LPCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, H.; Streiter, R.; Schulz, S. E.; Gessner, T.

    1995-10-01

    Selective chemical vapor deposition of tungsten plugs on sputtered tungsten was performed in a single-wafer cold-wall reactor using silane (SiH 4) and tungsten hexafluoride (WF 6). Extensive SEM measurements of film thickness were carried out to study the dependence of growth rates on various process conditions, wafer loading, and via dimensions. The results have been interpreted by numerical calculations based on a simulation model which is also presented. Both continuum fluid dynamics and the ballistic line-of-sight approach are used for transport modeling. The reaction rate is described by an empirical rate expression using coefficients fitted from experimental data. In the range 0.2 < p( SiH 4) /p( WF 6) < 0.75 , the reaction order was determined as 1.55 and -0.55 with respect to SiH 4 and WF 6, respectively. For higher partial pressure ratios the second-order rate dependence on p(SiH 4) and the minus first-order dependence on p(WF 6) were confirmed.

  16. Effects of a sheared ion velocity on the linear stability of ITG modes

    SciTech Connect

    Lontano, M.; Lazzaro, E.; Varischetti, M. C.

    2006-11-30

    The linear dispersion of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes, in the presence of a non uniform background ion velocity U(parallel sign) U(parallel sign)(x) ez, in the direction of the sheared equilibrium magnetic field B0 = B0(x) ez, has been studied in the frame of the two-fluid guiding center approximation, in slab geometry. Generally speaking, the presence of an ion flow destabilizes the oscillations. The role of the excited K-H instability is discussed.

  17. Aeronomic studies with the San Marco D/Itg: ODA and ASSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roemer, M.

    1990-12-01

    Contributions to the study of the aeronomy of the terrestrial thermosphere using the research satellite San Marco D/Itg were made. The aim was to explore the time-space behavior of thermosphere and ionosphere during interaction with solar radiation and solar wind. The software experiment ODA determines the gas density in the perigee of the satellite orbit from the orbit change. The solar spectrometer ASSI measures solar radiation from the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to the visible range, as well as airglow in the EUV to determine the space-time behavior of oxygen and nitrogen.

  18. Computing ITG turbulence with a full- f semi-Lagrangian code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Crouseilles, N.; Latu, G.; Sonnendrücker, E.; Besse, N.; Bertrand, P.

    2008-02-01

    This paper addresses non-linear global gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence with the G YSELA code. The particularity of G YSELA code is to use a semi-Lagrangian (SL) scheme for the full distribution function. The 4D non-linear drift-kinetic version of the code already shows the interest in such a SL method which exhibits good properties of energy conservation. The code has been upgrated to run 5D toroidal simulations. Linear benchmarks and non-linear results are presented.

  19. Instability growth rates of crossing sea states.

    PubMed

    Laine-Pearson, F E

    2010-03-01

    Crossing sea states can occur during adverse weather conditions. The instability of such wave trains has been suggested as a possible mechanism for the formation of rogue (freak or extreme) waves. One model for crossing sea states is weakly nonlinear and finite-amplitude short-crested waves (SCWs) on deep water. SCWs are the resonant interaction of two wave systems each with a different direction of propagation. Recently, it has been shown that the stability of these wave interactions is closely associated with the stability of the oblique nonresonant interaction between two waves. The long-wave instability of such waves is considered here; SCWs are used as a benchmark. By using a mismatch of amplitudes, it is demonstrated that instability growth rates of two crossing waves can be larger than those given by SCWs. This indicates that only considering true resonant interactions can underestimate the contribution from unstable crossing sea states to the possible formation of rogue waves.

  20. Zonal Flows and the Transition to ITG Turbulence: A Dynamical Systems Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krommes, J. A.; Kolesnikov, R. A.

    2004-11-01

    Both large-scale gyrokinetic(A. M. Dimits et al., Phys. Plasmas 7), 969 (2000). and reactive(S. Dastgeer et al., Phys. Plasmas 9), 4911 (2002); J. Weiland et al., J. Plasma Fusion Research, 2004 (in press). simulations have shown that zonal flows (ZFs) can suppress the onset of drift-wave turbulence (the ``Dimits shift''). Here the ``simplest'' reactive ITG model (coupled vorticity and pressure fields with 10 degrees of freedom) is considered and its primary and secondary bifurcations are studied both analytically (via construction of center manifolds) and numerically.(For further details, see R. A. Kolesnikov and J. A. Krommes, ``Bifurcation Model of the Transition to ITG turbulence,'' this meeting.) The primary bifurcation describes a burst of turbulence that settles into an equilibrium in which the drift waves are totally suppressed by the zonal flows. That equilibrium is destabilized at the point of secondary bifurcation, which defines the Dimits shift for the model. The relation of this work to tertiary instability(B. N. Rogers et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85), 5336 (2000). and modulational-instability analysis^2,3 is discussed.

  1. Growth rate dispersion of small ammonium alum crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodossiev, N.

    1987-01-01

    The growth rates of small (below 60 μm) and large (about 1 mm) crystals of ammonium alum was measured during batch crystallization from aqueous solutions. The growth rate distribution of small crystals is close to normal. With increasing supersaturation the growth rate of the large crystals increases more rapidly than that of small crystals.

  2. Growth Habits and Growth Rates of Snow Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, B. J.

    1993-04-01

    Equations are derived for the growth rates of snow crystals as they fall through the atmosphere in terms of the air temperature, supersaturation and their terminal velocities. The predicted maximum attainable diameters of regular hexagonal plates (0.84 mm), sector plates (ca. 2 mm) and stellar dendrites (3.5 mm) are in good agreement with observations based on Nakaya's large collection of snow crystal photographs. Mason et al. (Phil. Mag. 8, 505 (1963)) determined experimentally the average migration distance xB for water molecules diffusing across the basal surface of ice crystals as a function of temperature. These measurements of xB have now been supplemented by calculations of the corresponding quantity xp for the prism faces from measurements of the limiting c/a ratios of small growing crystals whose shape is largely determined by the values of both xp and xB.A theoretical treatment for the onset of dendritic growth leads to the result that a stationary thin regular hexagonal plate starts to sprout at the corners when its diameter dc exceeds 1.6 × 105 xp2/Dv, where Dv is the diffusion coefficient of water vapour in air. Plates grow in the temperature range -8 degrees C to -23 degrees C, for which dc ranges from 50 μ m at -15 degrees C to 670 μ m at -8 degrees C. For falling ventilated plates the corresponding values of dc are rather larger at 50 μ m and 940 μ m respectively, because the vapour concentration gradients around the crystal are enhanced. These latter values agree respectively with the observed minimum sizes of thin plates found at the centres of stellar dendritic crystals, and with the observed maximum size of regular plates. The observed maximum diameter (1.2 mm) of sector plates at the centre of dendritic crystals agrees well with calculations based on the assumption that these originate at about the -20 degrees C level and develop into dendrites only after falling below the -16 degrees C level. A mechanism, based on the interplay between

  3. A novel method for measurement of crystal growth rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Yeon; Yang, Dae Ryook

    2013-06-01

    A new method for measurement of crystal growth rate is proposed, in an attempt to make the measuring of growth rate more convenient than the existing methods. In this newly proposed method, the point of nucleation under a constant cooling rate condition was measured as changing the amount of seeds. The growth kinetics parameters were then estimated using the experimental data to match the points of nucleation. Experiments were performed with potash alum in the water system and growth kinetic parameters were estimated. Compared with existing results, the proposed method showed tolerable discrepancy in the growth kinetic parameters. The proposed method can be an alternative technique for measurement of growth rate.

  4. Fingernail Growth and Time-Distance Rates in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Stephen M.

    1983-01-01

    Fingernail growth rates are easily measured over a period of a few weeks and provide opportunities for students to improve graphing skills. Fingernail growth rates are approximately the same as sea-floor spreading rates and can be used for comparing the rates of other geological processes such as tectonic uplift. (Author/JN)

  5. Estimation of alga growth stage and lipid content growth rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Embaye, Tsegereda N. (Inventor); Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Method and system for estimating a growth stage of an alga in an ambient fluid. Measured light beam absorption or reflection values through or from the alga and through an ambient fluid, in each of two or more wavelength sub-ranges, are compared with reference light beam absorption values for corresponding wavelength sub-ranges for in each alga growth stage to determine (1) which alga growth stage, if any, is more likely and (2) whether estimated lipid content of the alga is increasing or has peaked. Alga growth is preferably terminated when lipid content has approximately reached a maximum value.

  6. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by polycarboxylic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Hoch, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Calcite crystal growth rates measured in the presence of several polycarboxyclic acids show that tetrahydrofurantetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA) and cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid (CPTCA) are effective growth rate inhibitors at low solution concentrations (0.01 to 1 mg/L). In contrast, linear polycarbocylic acids (citric acid and tricarballylic acid) had no inhibiting effect on calcite growth rates at concentrations up to 10 mg/L. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by cyclic polycarboxyclic acids appears to involve blockage of crystal growth sites on the mineral surface by several carboxylate groups. Growth morphology varied for growth in the absence and in the presence of both THFTCA and CPTCA. More effective growth rate reduction by CPTCA relative to THFTCA suggests that inhibitor carboxylate stereochemical orientation controls calcite surface interaction with carboxylate inhibitors. ?? 20O1 Academic Press.

  7. Growth rate enhancement of potash alum crystals by microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Masakuni; Kamada, Toyohiro; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    During the steady growth of a single crystal of potash alum fixed in a clear supersaturated solution, secondary nucleation was intentionally induced by adding ground potash alum crystals and the resulting changes in the growth rate and the solution concentration were measured. The growth rates after the nucleation were found to abruptly increase by a factor of up to 3, and to gradually return to the steady growth rates or to some constant values. At the same time, the solution concentration started to decrease at the moment of the nucleation. As a measure of the growth rate increase the enhancement coefficient, ɛ 0, was introduced which was defined as the ratio of the growth rates in the presence to the absence of microcrystals at the same supersaturation. The values of ɛ 0 were found to be almost independent of the growth rate in the absence of microcrystals, i.e. the solution supersaturation.

  8. ITG-TEM turbulence simulation with bounce-averaged kinetic electrons in tokamak geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jae-Min; Qi, Lei; Yi, S.; Hahm, T. S.

    2017-06-01

    We develop a novel numerical scheme to simulate electrostatic turbulence with kinetic electron responses in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas. Focusing on ion gyro-radius scale turbulences with slower frequencies than the time scales for electron parallel motions, we employ and adapt the bounce-averaged kinetic equation to model trapped electrons for nonlinear turbulence simulation with Coulomb collisions. Ions are modeled by employing the gyrokinetic equation. The newly developed scheme is implemented on a global δf particle in cell code gKPSP. By performing linear and nonlinear simulations, it is demonstrated that the new scheme can reproduce key physical properties of Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) and Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) instabilities, and resulting turbulent transport. The overall computational cost of kinetic electrons using this novel scheme is limited to 200%-300% of the cost for simulations with adiabatic electrons. Therefore the new scheme allows us to perform kinetic simulations with trapped electrons very efficiently in magnetized plasmas.

  9. Edge-core interaction of ITG turbulence in Tokamaks: Is the Tail Wagging the Dog?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Diamond, P. H.

    2010-11-01

    A full-f XGC1 gyrokinetic simulation of ITG turbulence, together with the neoclassical dynamics without scale separation, has been performed for the whole-volume plasma in realistic diverted DIII-D geometry. The simulation revealed that the global structure of the turbulence and transport in tokamak plasmas results from a synergy between edge-driven inward propagation of turbulence intensity and the core-driven outward heat transport. The global ion confinement and the ion temperature gradient then self-organize quickly at turbulence propagation time scale. This synergy results in inward-outward pulse scattering leading to spontaneous production of strong internal shear layers in which the turbulent transport is almost suppressed over several radial correlation lengths. Co-existence of the edge turbulence source and the strong internal shear layer leads to radially increasing turbulence intensity and ion thermal transport profiles.

  10. The Role of ITG/TEM/ETG Cross-Scale Coupling in Explaining Experimental Electron Heat Flux and Profile Stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, N. T.

    2015-11-01

    Anomalous electron thermal transport in tokamak plasmas is the ``great unsolved problem of tokamak transport physics'' [Batchelor Plasma Sci. Tec. 2007]. For years it has been speculated that short wavelength ETG turbulence plays a key role, but simulation capturing both ion and electron-scale turbulence simultaneously had never been tested quantitatively against experiment due to extreme computational requirements. Only recently have gyrokinetic codes and supercomputing resources together been able to capture the physics of cross-scale coupling between long wavelength ITG/TEM and short wavelength ETG turbulence. In C-Mod, long wavelength simulations often under-predict electron heat flux. As a result, dedicated experiments have been performed in L-mode plasmas to validate multi-scale nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. In this talk, the first set of full-physics, multi-scale simulations of a tokamak plasma performed with the GYRO code are compared to experiment. The simulations include coupled ITG/TEM/ETG turbulence (kθρs < 48 . 0) at realistic mass ratio (mi/me = 3600), with experimental inputs for impurities, geometry, ExB shear, and collisions. 100M CPU hours were required for six simulations to scan the ITG and ETG drive terms (a/LTi and a/LTe) within experimental error bars. The multi-scale simulations show for the first time that ETG streamers coexist and nonlinearly couple with ITG and zonal flows. This nonlinear cross-scale coupling enhances both ion and electron heat fluxes by up to a factor of 10 above standard, long wavelength simulation, resulting in simulations that simultaneously match experimental ion and electron heat fluxes and electron profile stiffness. The new physics of ITG/ETG/zonal flow coupling has important implications for predictions of ITER performance and may be linked to phenomena such as confinement transitions and rotation reversals. This work was supported by DOE contract - DE-FC02-99ER54512-CMOD.

  11. Economic growth rate management by soft computing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimović, Goran; Jović, Srđan; Jovanović, Radomir

    2017-01-01

    Economic growth rate management is very important process in order to improve the economic stability of any country. The main goal of the study was to manage the impact of agriculture, manufacturing, industry and services on the economic growth rate prediction. Soft computing methodology was used in order to select the inputs influence on the economic growth rate prediction. It is known that the economic growth may be developed on the basis of combination of different factors. Gross domestic product (GDP) was used as economic growth indicator. It was found services have the highest impact on the GDP growth rate. On the contrary, the manufacturing has the smallest impact on the GDP growth rate.

  12. Measurement of seedling growth rate by machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, M. Scott; Stanwood, Phillip C.

    1993-05-01

    Seed vigor and germination tests have traditionally been used to determine deterioration of seed samples. Vigor tests describe the seed potential to emerge and produce a mature crop under certain field conditions and one measure is seedling growth rate. A machine vision system was developed to measure root growth rate over the entire germination period. The machine vision measurement technique was compared to the manual growth rate technique. The vision system provided similar growth rate measurements as compared to the manual growth rate technique. The average error between the system and a manual measurement was -0.13 for the lettuce test and -0.07 for the sorghum test. This technique also provided an accurate representation of the growth rate as well as percent germination.

  13. Resistive Wall Growth Rate Measurements in the Fermilab Recycler

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, R.; Adamson, P.; Burov, A.; Kourbanis, I.

    2016-10-05

    Impedance could represent a limitation of running high intensity beams in the Fermilab recycler. With high intensity upgrades foreseen, it is important to quantify the impedance. To do this,studies have been performed measuring the growth rate of presumably the resistive wall instability. The growth rates at varying intensities and chromaticities are shown. The measured growth rates are compared to ones calculated with the resistive wall impedance.

  14. Growth rate determinations from radiocarbon in bamboo corals (genus Keratoisis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Jesse R.; Robinson, Laura F.; Hönisch, Bärbel

    2015-11-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements are an important tool for determining growth rates of bamboo corals, a cosmopolitan group of calcitic deep-sea corals. Published growth rate estimates for bamboo corals are highly variable, with potential environmental or ecological drivers of this variability poorly constrained. Here we systematically investigate the application of 14C for growth rate determinations in bamboo corals using 55 14C dates on the calcite and organic fractions of six bamboo corals (identified as Keratoisis sp.) from the western North Atlantic Ocean. Calcite 14C measurements on the distal surface of these corals and five previously published bamboo corals exhibit a strong one-to-one relationship with the 14C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DI14C) in ambient seawater (r2=0.98), confirming the use of Keratoisis sp. calcite 14C as a proxy for seawater 14C activity. Radial growth rates determined from 14C age-depth regressions, 14C plateau tuning and bomb 14C reference chronologies range from 12 to 78 μm y-1, in general agreement with previously published radiometric growth rates. We document potential biases to 14C growth rate determinations resulting from water mass variability, bomb radiocarbon, secondary infilling (ontogeny), and growth rate nonlinearity. Radial growth rates for Keratoisis sp. specimens do not correlate with ambient temperature, suggesting that additional biological and/or environmental factors may influence bamboo coral growth rates.

  15. Dinosaur Metabolism and the Allometry of Maximum Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Myhrvold, Nathan P.

    2016-01-01

    The allometry of maximum somatic growth rate has been used in prior studies to classify the metabolic state of both extant vertebrates and dinosaurs. The most recent such studies are reviewed, and their data is reanalyzed. The results of allometric regressions on growth rate are shown to depend on the choice of independent variable; the typical choice used in prior studies introduces a geometric shear transformation that exaggerates the statistical power of the regressions. The maximum growth rates of extant groups are found to have a great deal of overlap, including between groups with endothermic and ectothermic metabolism. Dinosaur growth rates show similar overlap, matching the rates found for mammals, reptiles and fish. The allometric scaling of growth rate with mass is found to have curvature (on a log-log scale) for many groups, contradicting the prevailing view that growth rate allometry follows a simple power law. Reanalysis shows that no correlation between growth rate and basal metabolic rate (BMR) has been demonstrated. These findings drive a conclusion that growth rate allometry studies to date cannot be used to determine dinosaur metabolism as has been previously argued. PMID:27828977

  16. Dinosaur Metabolism and the Allometry of Maximum Growth Rate.

    PubMed

    Myhrvold, Nathan P

    2016-01-01

    The allometry of maximum somatic growth rate has been used in prior studies to classify the metabolic state of both extant vertebrates and dinosaurs. The most recent such studies are reviewed, and their data is reanalyzed. The results of allometric regressions on growth rate are shown to depend on the choice of independent variable; the typical choice used in prior studies introduces a geometric shear transformation that exaggerates the statistical power of the regressions. The maximum growth rates of extant groups are found to have a great deal of overlap, including between groups with endothermic and ectothermic metabolism. Dinosaur growth rates show similar overlap, matching the rates found for mammals, reptiles and fish. The allometric scaling of growth rate with mass is found to have curvature (on a log-log scale) for many groups, contradicting the prevailing view that growth rate allometry follows a simple power law. Reanalysis shows that no correlation between growth rate and basal metabolic rate (BMR) has been demonstrated. These findings drive a conclusion that growth rate allometry studies to date cannot be used to determine dinosaur metabolism as has been previously argued.

  17. Effect of impurities on crystal growth rate of ammonium pentaborate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Ö.; Özdemir, M.; Genli, N.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride, borax and boric acid of different concentrations on the growth rate of ammonium pentaborate octahydrate crystals (APBO) was measured and was found to depend on supersaturation in a fluidized bed crystallizer. The presence of impurities in APBO solution increases the growth rate compared with growth from pure solution. It was found that the presence of sodium chloride, borax and boric acid decreases the reaction rate constant kr, while it increases the mass-transfer coefficient, K, of APBO crystals. In pure aqueous solution, the crystal growth rate of APBO is mainly controlled by diffusion. However, both diffusion and integration steps affect the growth rate of APBO crystals in the presence of sodium chloride, borax and boric acid. The mass-transfer coefficient, K, reaction rate constant, kr and reaction order, r were calculated from general mass-transfer equation by using genetic algorithm method making no assumption.

  18. Growth rate changes of sodium chlorate crystals independent of growth conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, M. M.; Žekić, A. A.; Baroš, Z. Z.

    2008-10-01

    Results of investigations of the growth rate changes inherent to the crystal are presented. It is shown that, in initial growth stage, there exist crystal growth rate changes independent of experimental conditions, with tendency to level during the time. Time evolution of sodium chlorate crystals growth rate dispersion is also presented. The results obtained show that these changes must be included in the interpretations of the growth rate changes affected by various parameters (supersaturation, temperature, fields, stress, impurities, etc.), which have not previously been taken into account. These results may improve the current crystal growth theories.

  19. Do fish growth rates correlate with PCB body burdens?

    Treesearch

    Andrew L. Rypel; David R.. Bayne

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether growth rates of six fish species correlated with PCB concentrations in a moderately-to-heavily polluted freshwater ecosystem. Using a large dataset (n ¼ 984 individuals), and after accounting for growth effects related to fish age, habitat, sex, and lipids, growth correlated significantly, but positively with lipid-corrected PCB concentrations for...

  20. Comparative analysis of animal growth: a primate continuum revealed by a new dimensionless growth rate coefficient.

    PubMed

    Vinicius, Lucio; Mumby, Hannah S

    2013-05-01

    The comparative analysis of animal growth still awaits full integration into life-history studies, partially due to the difficulty of defining a comparable measure of growth rate across species. Using growth data from 50 primate species, we introduce a modified "general growth model" and a dimensionless growth rate coefficient β that controls for size scaling and phylogenetic effects in the distribution of growth rates. Our results contradict the prevailing idea that slow growth characterizes primates as a group: the observed range of β values shows that not all primates grow slowly, with galago species exhibiting growth rates similar or above the mammalian average, while other strepsirrhines and most New World monkeys show limited reduction in growth rates. Low growth rate characterizes apes and some papionines. Phylogenetic regressions reveal associations between β and life-history variables, providing tests for theories of primate growth evolution. We also show that primate slow growth is an exclusively postnatal phenomenon. Our study exemplifies how the dimensionless approach promotes the integration of growth rate data into comparative life-history analysis, and demonstrates its potential applicability to other cases of adaptive diversification of animal growth patterns.

  1. Population growth rate and its determinants: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Sibly, Richard M; Hone, Jim

    2002-01-01

    We argue that population growth rate is the key unifying variable linking the various facets of population ecology. The importance of population growth rate lies partly in its central role in forecasting future population trends; indeed if the form of density dependence were constant and known, then the future population dynamics could to some degree be predicted. We argue that population growth rate is also central to our understanding of environmental stress: environmental stressors should be defined as factors which when first applied to a population reduce population growth rate. The joint action of such stressors determines an organism's ecological niche, which should be defined as the set of environmental conditions where population growth rate is greater than zero (where population growth rate = r = log(e)(N(t+1)/N(t))). While environmental stressors have negative effects on population growth rate, the same is true of population density, the case of negative linear effects corresponding to the well-known logistic equation. Following Sinclair, we recognize population regulation as occurring when population growth rate is negatively density dependent. Surprisingly, given its fundamental importance in population ecology, only 25 studies were discovered in the literature in which population growth rate has been plotted against population density. In 12 of these the effects of density were linear; in all but two of the remainder the relationship was concave viewed from above. Alternative approaches to establishing the determinants of population growth rate are reviewed, paying special attention to the demographic and mechanistic approaches. The effects of population density on population growth rate may act through their effects on food availability and associated effects on somatic growth, fecundity and survival, according to a 'numerical response', the evidence for which is briefly reviewed. Alternatively, there may be effects on population growth rate of

  2. Allometries of maximum growth rate versus body mass at maximum growth indicate that non-avian dinosaurs had growth rates typical of fast growing ectothermic sauropsids.

    PubMed

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2014-01-01

    We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, fishes and dinosaurs. Regression models of precocial birds (and fishes) strongly differed from Case's study (1978), which is often used to compare dinosaurian growth rates to those of extant vertebrates. For all taxonomic groups, the slope of 0.75 expected from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology was statistically supported. To compare growth rates between taxonomic groups we therefore used regressions with this fixed slope and group-specific intercepts. On average, maximum growth rates of ectotherms were about 10 (reptiles) to 20 (fishes) times (in comparison to mammals) or even 45 (reptiles) to 100 (fishes) times (in comparison to birds) lower than in endotherms. While on average all taxa were clearly separated from each other, individual growth rates overlapped between several taxa and even between endotherms and ectotherms. Dinosaurs had growth rates intermediate between similar sized/scaled-up reptiles and mammals, but a much lower rate than scaled-up birds. All dinosaurian growth rates were within the range of extant reptiles and mammals, and were lower than those of birds. Under the assumption that growth rate and metabolic rate are indeed linked, our results suggest two alternative interpretations. Compared to other sauropsids, the growth rates of studied dinosaurs clearly indicate that they had an ectothermic rather than an endothermic metabolic rate. Compared to other vertebrate growth rates, the overall high variability in growth rates of extant groups and the high overlap between individual growth rates of endothermic and ectothermic extant species make it impossible to rule out either of

  3. Allometries of Maximum Growth Rate versus Body Mass at Maximum Growth Indicate That Non-Avian Dinosaurs Had Growth Rates Typical of Fast Growing Ectothermic Sauropsids

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2014-01-01

    We tested if growth rates of recent taxa are unequivocally separated between endotherms and ectotherms, and compared these to dinosaurian growth rates. We therefore performed linear regression analyses on the log-transformed maximum growth rate against log-transformed body mass at maximum growth for extant altricial birds, precocial birds, eutherians, marsupials, reptiles, fishes and dinosaurs. Regression models of precocial birds (and fishes) strongly differed from Case’s study (1978), which is often used to compare dinosaurian growth rates to those of extant vertebrates. For all taxonomic groups, the slope of 0.75 expected from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology was statistically supported. To compare growth rates between taxonomic groups we therefore used regressions with this fixed slope and group-specific intercepts. On average, maximum growth rates of ectotherms were about 10 (reptiles) to 20 (fishes) times (in comparison to mammals) or even 45 (reptiles) to 100 (fishes) times (in comparison to birds) lower than in endotherms. While on average all taxa were clearly separated from each other, individual growth rates overlapped between several taxa and even between endotherms and ectotherms. Dinosaurs had growth rates intermediate between similar sized/scaled-up reptiles and mammals, but a much lower rate than scaled-up birds. All dinosaurian growth rates were within the range of extant reptiles and mammals, and were lower than those of birds. Under the assumption that growth rate and metabolic rate are indeed linked, our results suggest two alternative interpretations. Compared to other sauropsids, the growth rates of studied dinosaurs clearly indicate that they had an ectothermic rather than an endothermic metabolic rate. Compared to other vertebrate growth rates, the overall high variability in growth rates of extant groups and the high overlap between individual growth rates of endothermic and ectothermic extant species make it impossible to rule out either

  4. Full-f XGC1 gyrokinetic study of improved ion energy confinement from impurity stabilization of ITG turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyuho; Kwon, Jae-Min; Chang, C. S.; Seo, Janghoon; Ku, S.; Choe, W.

    2017-06-01

    Flux-driven full-f gyrokinetic simulations are performed to study carbon impurity effects on the ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence and ion thermal transport in a toroidal geometry. Employing the full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1, both main ions and impurities are evolved self-consistently including turbulence and neoclassical physics. It is found that the carbon impurity profile self-organizes to form an inwardly peaked density profile, which weakens the ITG instabilities and reduces the overall fluctuations and ion thermal transport. A stronger reduction appears in the low frequency components of the fluctuations. The global structure of E × B flow also changes, resulting in the reduction of global avalanche like transport events in the impure plasma. Detailed properties of impurity transport are also studied, and it is revealed that both the inward neoclassical pinch and the outward turbulent transport are equally important in the formation of the steady state impurity profile.

  5. Can we estimate bacterial growth rates from ribosomal RNA content?

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between the quantity of RNA in bacterial cells and their growth rate under laboratory conditions. It may be possible to use this relationship to provide information on the activity of natural bacterial communities, and in particular on growth rate. However, if this approach is to provide reliably interpretable information, the relationship between RNA content and growth rate must be well-understood. In particular, a requisite of such applications is that the relationship must be universal among bacteria, or alternately that the relationship can be determined and measured for specific bacterial taxa. The RNA-growth rate relationship has not been used to evaluate bacterial growth in field studies, although RNA content has been measured in single cells and in bulk extracts of field samples taken from coastal environments. These measurements have been treated as probable indicators of bacterial activity, but have not yet been interpreted as estimators of growth rate. The primary obstacle to such interpretations is a lack of information on biological and environmental factors that affect the RNA-growth rate relationship. In this paper, the available data on the RNA-growth rate relationship in bacteria will be reviewed, including hypotheses regarding the regulation of RNA synthesis and degradation as a function of growth rate and environmental factors; i.e. the basic mechanisms for maintaining RNA content in proportion to growth rate. An assessment of the published laboratory and field data, the current status of this research area, and some of the remaining questions will be presented.

  6. Growth Kinetics and Morphology of Barite Crystals Derived from Face-Specific Growth Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Godinho, Jose R. A.; Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-03-30

    Here we investigate the growth kinetics and morphology of barite (BaSO4) crystals by measuring the growth rates of the (001), (210), (010), and (100) surfaces using vertical scanning interferometry. Solutions with saturation indices 1.1, 2.1, and 3.0 without additional electrolyte, in 0.7 M NaCl, or in 1.3 mM SrCl2 are investigated. Face-specific growth rates are inhibited in the SrCl2 solution relative to a solution without electrolyte, except for (100). Contrarily, growth of all faces is promoted in the NaCl solution. The variation of face-specific rates is solution-specific, which leads to a. change of the crystal morphology and overall growth rate of crystals. The measured face-specific growth rates are used to model the growth of single crystals. Modeled crystals have a morphology and size similar to those grown from solution. Based on the model the time dependence of surface area and growth rates is analyzed. Growth rates change with time due to surface area normalization for small crystals and large growth intervals. By extrapolating rates to crystals with large surfaces areas, time-independent growth rates are 0.783, 2.96, and 0.513 mmol∙m-2∙h-1, for saturation index 2.1 solutions without additional electrolyte, NaCl, and SrCl2, respectively.

  7. ULTRASOUND INCREASES THE RATE OF BACTERIAL CELL GROWTH

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, William G.; Ross, S. Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasound was employed to increase the growth rate of bacterial cells attached to surfaces. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli cells adhered to and grew on a polyethylene surface in the presence of ultrasound. It was found that low frequency ultrasound (70 kHz) of low acoustic intensity (<2 W/cm2) increased the growth rate of the cells compared to growth without ultrasound. However, at high intensity levels, cells were partially removed from the surface. Ultrasound also enhanced planktonic growth of S. epidermidis and other planktonic bacteria. It is hypothesized that ultrasound increases the rate of transport of oxygen and nutrients to the cells and increases the rate of transport of waste products away from the cells, thus enhancing their growth. PMID:12790676

  8. Modeling the Growth Rates of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Faces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Meirong; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    The measured macroscopic growth rates of the (110) and (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme show an unexpectedly complex dependence on the supersaturation. The growth rates decay asymptotically to zero when the supersaturation is lowered to zero and increase rapidly when the supersaturation is increased. When supersaturations are increased still further the growth rates attain a maximum before starting to decrease. However, growth of these crystals is known to proceed by the classical dislocation and 2D nucleation growth mechanisms. This anomaly can be explained if growth is assumed to occur not by monomer units but by lysozyme aggregates. Analysis of the molecular packing of these crystals revealed that they were constructed of strongly bonded 4(sub 3) helices, while weaker bonds were responsible for binding the helices to each other. It follows that during crystal growth the stronger bonds are formed before the weaker ones. Thus, the growth of these crystals could be viewed as a two step process: aggregate growth units corresponding to the 4(sub 3) helix are first formed in the bulk solution by stronger intermolecular bonds and then attached to the crystal face by weaker bonds on dislocation hillocks or 2D islands. This will lead to a distribution of aggregates in the solution with monomers and lower order aggregates being predominant at low supersaturations and higher order aggregates being predominant at high supersaturations. If the crystal grows mostly by higher order aggregates, such as tetramers and octamers, it would explain the anomalous dependence of the growth rates on the supersaturation. Besides the analysis of molecular packing, a comprehensive analysis of the measured (110) and (101) growth rates was also undertaken in this study. The distribution of aggregates in lysozyme nutrient solutions at various solution conditions were determined from reversible aggregation reactions at equilibrium. The supersaturation was defined for each aggregate species

  9. Overlapping genes: A significant genomic correlate of prokaryotic growth rates.

    PubMed

    Saha, Deeya; Podder, Soumita; Panda, Arup; Ghosh, Tapash Chandra

    2016-05-15

    Elucidating the genomic features influencing prokaryotic growth rates has always been a study of interest. Previously, it was observed that overlapping genes (OGs) play a crucial role in the prokaryotic genome size reduction. This study is focused to explore whether OGs act as a potential correlate of prokaryotic growth rates. For this purpose, we compiled a dataset of 25 archaeal and 117 eubacterial genomes and analyzed the inter-correlation between the proportion of overlapping regions in these genomes with their growth rates. Here, we observed that the proportion of overlapping region holds a significant negative correlation with generation time in archaeal domain, whereas no correlation was observed in the eubacterial domain. However, after masking the effect of tRNA, rRNA multiplicity and environmental diversity, OGs show an independent effect over growth rates in the eubacterial domain as well as in the archaeal domain. Moreover, the influence of OGs on prokaryotic growth rates provides different delineations in archaeal and eubacterial domains. In archaea, both long overlap frequency (LOF) and short overlap frequency (SOF) influence the growth rates by increasing the degree of operonization. On the contrary, in the case of bacteria, neither SOF nor LOF plays any significant role in achieving faster growth rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A case report of unusually long lag time between immunotactoid glomerulopathy (itg) diagnosis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) development.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Aditi; Trinkaus, Martina A; Ghaffar, Hassan; Jothy, Serge; Goldstein, Marc B

    2016-09-29

    Immunotactoid glomerulopathy (ITG) is a rare cause of proteinuria characterized by organized microtubular deposits in the glomerulus. ITG has been associated with underlying lymphoproliferative disorders and any renal impairment may be reversible with treatment of the concomitant hematologic malignancy. This case is the first reported in literature where diffuse large B cell lymphoma developed two years following the initial ITG diagnosis. A 55-year-old woman with a history of well-controlled diabetes mellitus and thalassemia trait presented with proteinuria (830 mg/day) in 2010. Initially, she was managed with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system blockade. In 2012, the proteinuria worsened (4.3 g/day) and a renal biopsy showed immunotactoid glomerulopathy (Fig. 1). Despite extensive work up, no lymphoproliferative disorder was initially found. In January 2014, the patient presented with a soft-palate mass found on biopsy to be diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. She received 6 cycles of R-CHOP, 4 cycles of high dose methotrexate chemotherapy for CNS prophylaxis and 30 Gy of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy. Follow-up revealed complete remission of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and resolution of proteinuria from the ITG. As we recognize that patients with ITG may develop hematopoietic neoplasms, close long-term monitoring is important. Moreover, treatment of the lymphoproliferative disorder can allow for complete remission of ITG.

  11. Global, Gyrokinetic Eigenvalue Calculations of ITG-Related Microinstabilities in Tokamak Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, S.; Fivaz, M.; Tran, T. M.; Vaclavik, J.

    1998-11-01

    Methods previously developed for a cylindrical system(S.Brunner and J.Vaclavik, Phys.Plasmas 5), 365 (1998) have been generalized to a tokamak plasma for solving the full 2-dimensional eigenvalue problem of electrostatic microinstabilities using a gyrokinetik model(S.Brunner, Ph.D thesis, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland, thesis 1701 (1978)). By solving the spectral problem in a special Fourier space adapted to the curved geometry, orbit width as well as Larmor radius can be kept to all orders. For a first numerical implementation, a large aspect ratio plasma with circular concentric magnetic surfaces has been considered. A higher order Nyquist method(B.Davies, Jour.Comp.Phys. 66), 36 (1986), applied for identifying the eigenfrequencies in the complex plane, has been improved and enables straightforward implementation on a parallel computer. Illustrative results of ITG (ion temperature gradient) -related instabilities are presented. These include scaling studies of the radial width, toroidicity and magnetic shear scans, as well as the effects of non-adiabatic trapped electron dynamics.

  12. Validation of the gyrokinetic model in ITG and TEM dominated L-mode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, N. T.; White, A. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Greenwald, M.; Holland, C.; Candy, J.; Walk, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    A rigorous validation of the gyrokinetic model was performed in both ion temperature gradient (ITG) and trapped electron mode (TEM) dominated Alcator C-Mod plasmas at (normalized midplane minor radius) r/a = 0.5 and 0.8. Analysis focuses on two L-mode discharges operated with 1.2 and 3.5 MW of ion cyclotron resonance heating. In depth investigation into the experimental uncertainties and simulation sensitivities in these discharges allows for a stringent test of the gyrokinetic model implemented by the GYRO code (Candy and Waltz 2003 J. Comput. Phys. 186 545) in both the centre of the stiff gradient region (r/a = 0.5) and the middle of the region often associated with the transport ‘shortfall’(r/a = 0.8). To identify the nature of the plasma turbulence and to ensure a robust evaluation of the model's ability to reproduce experiment, the sensitivity of the simulation results to experimental uncertainty in turbulence drive and suppression terms were determined at both radial locations. When significant TEM activity is present, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are found to reproduce both electron and ion experimental heat fluxes within their diagnosed uncertainties. In contrast, in the absence of TEM, electron heat fluxes are robustly under predicted by low-k, gyrokinetic simulation.

  13. The relationships between relative growth rate, meristematic potential and compensatory growth of semiarid-land shrubs.

    PubMed

    Wandera, J L; Richards, J H; Mueller, R J

    1992-06-01

    Inherent relative growth rate has been suggested as a major determinant of plant species' capacity to regrow and compensate for tissues lost to herbivores. We investigated: 1) the relationship between compensatory growth capacity and relative growth rate (RGR) in six semiarid-land shrubs following removal in winter or spring of 90% of the previous year's growth, 2) the influence of loss of buds on production of new growth and 3) the relationship between meristematic potential and the capacity to produce new growth in four of the six semiarid-land shrub species. Four-year-old plants growing under field conditions were used in the study. The species with the highest inherent growth rate, sagebrush [Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle], died following the severe clipping treatments. The other five species exactly compensated for lost tissues. Inherent growth rates and compensatory growth capacity of the shrubs were not correlated. Loss of 90% of the buds on the previous year's growth did not limit production of new growth. Instead, shrubs that lost buds produced more new growth biomass than the controls. The shrub species had significantly different meristematic potential. Curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt.) and serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) had the greatest and least number of buds and long shoots per plant, respectively. The number of long shoots produced following bud removal was positively correlated with new growth biomass, while the percentage of long shoots produced at the basal position on twigs was negatively correlated with new growth biomass. Our results suggest that inherent growth rate is not likely to influence production of new growth following browsing when resources for growth are not limiting. In contrast, the ability of a shrub to initiate long shoot growth is likely to influence production of new growth even when resources for growth are abundant.

  14. Growth rate dispersion of single potassium alum crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacmann, Rolf; Tanneberger, Ulrike

    1995-01-01

    The dispersion of growth rates is a lively discussed matter. However, still no acceptable explanation exists for the reason of the phenomenon describing that crystals of the same size growing under the same constant environmental conditions (as supersaturation, temperature and hydrodynamics) might grow with different rates. The individual face-specific growth rates of potassium aluminium alum crystals (diameter 1-3 mm) have been directly determined at different supersaturations ( σ = 0.5-5%). It was found that the order of growth rates of the appearing faces of unhurt and hurt crystals is {111} < {100{ < {110{. Further experiments have shown that face-specific growth rates of unhurt crystals (out of evaporation crystallization) are lower than those of hurt crystals (out of batch crystallization experiments).

  15. Growth Kinetics and Morphology of Barite Crystals Derived from Face-Specific Growth Rates

    DOE PAGES

    Godinho, Jose R. A.; Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-03-30

    Here we investigate the growth kinetics and morphology of barite (BaSO4) crystals by measuring the growth rates of the (001), (210), (010), and (100) surfaces using vertical scanning interferometry. Solutions with saturation indices 1.1, 2.1, and 3.0 without additional electrolyte, in 0.7 M NaCl, or in 1.3 mM SrCl2 are investigated. Face-specific growth rates are inhibited in the SrCl2 solution relative to a solution without electrolyte, except for (100). Contrarily, growth of all faces is promoted in the NaCl solution. The variation of face-specific rates is solution-specific, which leads to a. change of the crystal morphology and overall growth ratemore » of crystals. The measured face-specific growth rates are used to model the growth of single crystals. Modeled crystals have a morphology and size similar to those grown from solution. Based on the model the time dependence of surface area and growth rates is analyzed. Growth rates change with time due to surface area normalization for small crystals and large growth intervals. By extrapolating rates to crystals with large surfaces areas, time-independent growth rates are 0.783, 2.96, and 0.513 mmol∙m-2∙h-1, for saturation index 2.1 solutions without additional electrolyte, NaCl, and SrCl2, respectively.« less

  16. Growth and development rates have different thermal responses.

    PubMed

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Growth and development rates are fundamental to all living organisms. In a warming world, it is important to determine how these rates will respond to increasing temperatures. It is often assumed that the thermal responses of physiological rates are coupled to metabolic rate and thus have the same temperature dependence. However, the existence of the temperature-size rule suggests that intraspecific growth and development are decoupled. Decoupling of these rates would have important consequences for individual species and ecosystems, yet this has not been tested systematically across a range of species. We conducted an analysis on growth and development rate data compiled from the literature for a well-studied group, marine pelagic copepods, and use an information-theoretic approach to test which equations best describe these rates. Growth and development rates were best characterized by models with significantly different parameters: development has stronger temperature dependence than does growth across all life stages. As such, it is incorrect to assume that these rates have the same temperature dependence. We used the best-fit models for these rates to predict changes in organism mass in response to temperature. These predictions follow a concave relationship, which complicates attempts to model the impacts of increasing global temperatures on species body size.

  17. Microtubules Growth Rate Alteration in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alieva, Irina B.; Zemskov, Evgeny A.; Kireev, Igor I.; Gorshkov, Boris A.; Wiseman, Dean A.; Black, Stephen M.; Verin, Alexander D.

    2010-01-01

    To understand how microtubules contribute to the dynamic reorganization of the endothelial cell (EC) cytoskeleton, we established an EC model expressing EB3-GFP, a protein that marks microtubule plus-ends. Using this model, we were able to measure microtubule growth rate at the centrosome region and near the cell periphery of a single human EC and in the EC monolayer. We demonstrate that the majority of microtubules in EC are dynamic, the growth rate of their plus-ends is highest in the internal cytoplasm, in the region of the centrosome. Growth rate of microtubule plus-ends decreases from the cell center toward the periphery. Our data suggest the existing mechanism(s) of local regulation of microtubule plus-ends growth in EC. Microtubule growth rate in the internal cytoplasm of EC in the monolayer is lower than that of single EC suggesting the regulatory effect of cell-cell contacts. Centrosomal microtubule growth rate distribution in single EC indicated the presence of two subpopulations of microtubules with “normal” (similar to those in monolayer EC) and “fast” (three times as much) growth rates. Our results indicate functional interactions between cell-cell contacts and microtubules. PMID:20445745

  18. Microtubules growth rate alteration in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Alieva, Irina B; Zemskov, Evgeny A; Kireev, Igor I; Gorshkov, Boris A; Wiseman, Dean A; Black, Stephen M; Verin, Alexander D

    2010-01-01

    To understand how microtubules contribute to the dynamic reorganization of the endothelial cell (EC) cytoskeleton, we established an EC model expressing EB3-GFP, a protein that marks microtubule plus-ends. Using this model, we were able to measure microtubule growth rate at the centrosome region and near the cell periphery of a single human EC and in the EC monolayer. We demonstrate that the majority of microtubules in EC are dynamic, the growth rate of their plus-ends is highest in the internal cytoplasm, in the region of the centrosome. Growth rate of microtubule plus-ends decreases from the cell center toward the periphery. Our data suggest the existing mechanism(s) of local regulation of microtubule plus-ends growth in EC. Microtubule growth rate in the internal cytoplasm of EC in the monolayer is lower than that of single EC suggesting the regulatory effect of cell-cell contacts. Centrosomal microtubule growth rate distribution in single EC indicated the presence of two subpopulations of microtubules with "normal" (similar to those in monolayer EC) and "fast" (three times as much) growth rates. Our results indicate functional interactions between cell-cell contacts and microtubules.

  19. Analysis of Monomer Aggregation and Crystal Growth Rates of Lysozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadarajah, Arunan

    1996-01-01

    This project was originally conceived to analyze the extensive data of tetragonal lysozyme crystal growth rates collected at NASA/MSFC by Dr. Marc L. Pusey's research group. At that time the lack of analysis of the growth rates was hindering progress in understanding the growth mechanism of tetragonal lysozyme and other protein crystals. After the project was initiated our initial analysis revealed unexpected complexities in the growth rate behavior. This resulted in an expansion in the scope of the project to include a comprehensive investigation of the growth mechanisms of tetragonal lysozyme crystals. A discussion of this research is included as well a list of presentations and publications resulting from the research. This project contributed significantly toward the education of several students and fostered extensive collaborations between investigators.

  20. Global evidence on the distribution of GDP growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Michael A.; Baek, Grace; Li, Yiyang; Park, Leslie Y.; Zhao, Wei

    2017-02-01

    We study the size distribution of changes in the gross domestic product (GDP) of 167 countries for the period 1950-2011. A consensus has developed in the literature that the distribution of GDP growth rates can be approximated by the Laplace distribution in the central part and power-law distributions in the tails. Using a richer database than prior studies and testing for more theoretical distributions, we find that the distribution of GDP growth rates can be fitted using the heavy-tailed Cauchy distribution for almost all countries. Significantly, this same finding recently has been demonstrated for (1) the distribution of firm growth rates and (2) the distribution of firm economic profit rates. Together, these three findings suggest the possibility that there exist universal mechanisms that give rise to general laws governing the growth dynamics of firms and economies.

  1. Debris growth sensitivity to launch and cascade rates

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-10-24

    Two-component models provide a good description of debris growth from the outset of launch to the present, predictions of future trends, and assessments of their sensitivity. Launch rate reductions produce less than proportional reductions in debris, for reasons that are discussed. The shift of debris to higher altitudes is assessed quantitatively, although the details of the growth are discussed elsewhere.

  2. A Simple Device to Measure Root Growth Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauser, Wilfried E.; Horton, Roger F.

    1975-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple auxanometer which students can use to accurately measure root growth rates of intact seedlings. Typical time course data are presented for the effect of ethylene and indole acetic acid on pea root growth. (Author/BR)

  3. A Simple Device to Measure Root Growth Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauser, Wilfried E.; Horton, Roger F.

    1975-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple auxanometer which students can use to accurately measure root growth rates of intact seedlings. Typical time course data are presented for the effect of ethylene and indole acetic acid on pea root growth. (Author/BR)

  4. Growth rates in pediatric dialysis patients and renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Turenne, M N; Port, F K; Strawderman, R L; Ettenger, R B; Alexander, S R; Lewy, J E; Jones, C A; Agodoa, L Y; Held, P J

    1997-08-01

    We compared growth rates by modality over a 6- to 14-month period in 1,302 US pediatric end-stage renal disese (ESRD) patients treated during 1990. Modality comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and ESRD duration using linear regression models by age group (0.5 to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years, and 15 to 18 years). Growth rates were higher in young children receiving a transplant compared with those receiving dialysis (ages 0.5 to 4 years, delta = 3.1 cm/yr v continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis [CCPD], P < 0.01; ages 5 to 9 years, delta = 2.0 to 2.6 cm/yr v CCPD, chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), and hemodialysis, P < 0.01). In contrast, growth rates in older children were not statistically different when comparing transplantation with each dialysis modality. For most age groups of transplant recipients, we observed faster growth with alternate-day versus daily steroids that was not fully explained by differences in allograft function. Younger patients (<15 years) grew at comparable rates with each dialysis modality, while older CAPD patients grew faster compared with hemodialysis or CCPD patients (P < 0.02). There was no substantial pubertal growth spurt in transplant or dialysis patients. This national US study of pediatric growth rates with dialysis and transplantation shows differences in growth by modality that vary by age group.

  5. Improving estimates of tree mortality probability using potential growth rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth rate is frequently used to estimate mortality probability. Yet, growth metrics can vary in form, and the justification for using one over another is rarely clear. We tested whether a growth index (GI) that scales the realized diameter growth rate against the potential diameter growth rate (PDGR) would give better estimates of mortality probability than other measures. We also tested whether PDGR, being a function of tree size, might better correlate with the baseline mortality probability than direct measurements of size such as diameter or basal area. Using a long-term dataset from the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., as well as existing species-specific estimates of PDGR, we developed growth–mortality models for four common species. For three of the four species, models that included GI, PDGR, or a combination of GI and PDGR were substantially better than models without them. For the fourth species, the models including GI and PDGR performed roughly as well as a model that included only the diameter growth rate. Our results suggest that using PDGR can improve our ability to estimate tree survival probability. However, in the absence of PDGR estimates, the diameter growth rate was the best empirical predictor of mortality, in contrast to assumptions often made in the literature.

  6. Growth rate of Enterobacteriaceae at elevated temperatures: limitation by methionine.

    PubMed

    Ron, E Z

    1975-10-01

    The effect of elevated temperatures on growth rate was studied in five strains of Enterobacteriaceae. In all the strains tested a shift to the elevated temperature resulted in an immediate decrease in growth rate which was due to limitation in the availability of endogenous methionine. The first biosynthetic enzyme of the methionine pathway-homoserine transsuccinylase-was studied in extracts of Aerobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli and was shown to be temperature sensitive in all of them.

  7. Global evidence on the distribution of firm growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Michael A.; Pinto, Brijesh P.; Park, David

    2015-08-01

    The consensus finding in the literature is that the distribution of firm growth rates is best approximated by the Laplace distribution, a particular case of the Subbotin, or exponential power, family of probability distributions. Using a richer database than prior studies and testing for more theoretical distributions, we find that the distribution of firm growth rates is best approximated by the heavier-tailed Cauchy distribution.

  8. The influence of impurities on the growth rate of calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, H. J.

    1984-05-01

    The effects of 34 different additives on the growth rate of calcite were investigated. An initial growth rate of about one crystal monolayer (3 × 10 -8 cm) per minute was adjusted at a constant supersaturation which was maintained by a control circuit. Then the impurity was added step by step and the reduction of the growth rate was measured. The impurity concentration necessary to reduce the initial growth rate by a certain percentage increased in the order Fe 2+, ATP, P 3O 5-10, P 2O 4-7, (PO 3) 6-6, Zn 2+, ADP, Ce 3+, Pb 2+, carbamyl phosphate, Fe 3+, PO 3-4, Co 2+, Mn 2+, Be 2+, β-glycerophosphate, Ni 2+, Cd 2+, "Tris", phenylphosphate, chondroitine sulphate, Ba 2+, citrate, AMP, Sr 2+, tricarballylate, taurine, SO 2-4, Mg 2+ by 4 orders of magnitude. The most effective additives halved the initial growth rate in concentrations of 2 × 10 -8 mol/1. For Fe 2+ the halving concentration was nearly proportional to the initial rate. The mechanism of inhibition by adsorption of the impurities at growth sites (kinks) is discussed.

  9. Deformation of Platonic foam cells: Effect on growth rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Myfanwy E.; Zirkelbach, Johannes; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E.; Kraynik, Andrew M.; Mecke, Klaus

    2012-06-01

    The diffusive growth rate of a polyhedral cell in dry three-dimensional foams depends on details of shape beyond cell topology, in contrast to the situation in two dimensions, where, by von Neumann's law, the growth rate depends only on the number of cell edges. We analyze the dependence of the instantaneous growth rate on the shape of single foam cells surrounded by uniform pressure; this is accomplished by supporting the cell with films connected to a wire frame and inducing cell distortions by deforming the wire frame. We consider three foam cells with a very simple topology; these are the Platonic foam cells, which satisfy Plateau's laws and are based on the trivalent Platonic solids (tetrahedron, cube, and dodecahedron). The Surface Evolver is used to model cell deformations induced through extension, compression, shear, and torsion of the wire frames. The growth rate depends on the deformation mode and frame size and can increase or decrease with increasing cell distortion. The cells have negative growth rates, in general, but dodecahedral cells subjected to torsion in small wire frames can have positive growth rates. The deformation of cubic cells is demonstrated experimentally.

  10. Deformation of Platonic foam cells: effect on growth rate.

    PubMed

    Evans, Myfanwy E; Zirkelbach, Johannes; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E; Kraynik, Andrew M; Mecke, Klaus

    2012-06-01

    The diffusive growth rate of a polyhedral cell in dry three-dimensional foams depends on details of shape beyond cell topology, in contrast to the situation in two dimensions, where, by von Neumann's law, the growth rate depends only on the number of cell edges. We analyze the dependence of the instantaneous growth rate on the shape of single foam cells surrounded by uniform pressure; this is accomplished by supporting the cell with films connected to a wire frame and inducing cell distortions by deforming the wire frame. We consider three foam cells with a very simple topology; these are the Platonic foam cells, which satisfy Plateau's laws and are based on the trivalent Platonic solids (tetrahedron, cube, and dodecahedron). The Surface Evolver is used to model cell deformations induced through extension, compression, shear, and torsion of the wire frames. The growth rate depends on the deformation mode and frame size and can increase or decrease with increasing cell distortion. The cells have negative growth rates, in general, but dodecahedral cells subjected to torsion in small wire frames can have positive growth rates. The deformation of cubic cells is demonstrated experimentally.

  11. Protein Thermodynamics Can Be Predicted Directly from Biological Growth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Corkrey, Ross; McMeekin, Tom A.; Bowman, John P.; Ratkowsky, David A.; Olley, June; Ross, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Life on Earth is capable of growing from temperatures well below freezing to above the boiling point of water, with some organisms preferring cooler and others hotter conditions. The growth rate of each organism ultimately depends on its intracellular chemical reactions. Here we show that a thermodynamic model based on a single, rate-limiting, enzyme-catalysed reaction accurately describes population growth rates in 230 diverse strains of unicellular and multicellular organisms. Collectively these represent all three domains of life, ranging from psychrophilic to hyperthermophilic, and including the highest temperature so far observed for growth (122°C). The results provide credible estimates of thermodynamic properties of proteins and obtain, purely from organism intrinsic growth rate data, relationships between parameters previously identified experimentally, thus bridging a gap between biochemistry and whole organism biology. We find that growth rates of both unicellular and multicellular life forms can be described by the same temperature dependence model. The model results provide strong support for a single highly-conserved reaction present in the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). This is remarkable in that it means that the growth rate dependence on temperature of unicellular and multicellular life forms that evolved over geological time spans can be explained by the same model. PMID:24787650

  12. Protein thermodynamics can be predicted directly from biological growth rates.

    PubMed

    Corkrey, Ross; McMeekin, Tom A; Bowman, John P; Ratkowsky, David A; Olley, June; Ross, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Life on Earth is capable of growing from temperatures well below freezing to above the boiling point of water, with some organisms preferring cooler and others hotter conditions. The growth rate of each organism ultimately depends on its intracellular chemical reactions. Here we show that a thermodynamic model based on a single, rate-limiting, enzyme-catalysed reaction accurately describes population growth rates in 230 diverse strains of unicellular and multicellular organisms. Collectively these represent all three domains of life, ranging from psychrophilic to hyperthermophilic, and including the highest temperature so far observed for growth (122 °C). The results provide credible estimates of thermodynamic properties of proteins and obtain, purely from organism intrinsic growth rate data, relationships between parameters previously identified experimentally, thus bridging a gap between biochemistry and whole organism biology. We find that growth rates of both unicellular and multicellular life forms can be described by the same temperature dependence model. The model results provide strong support for a single highly-conserved reaction present in the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). This is remarkable in that it means that the growth rate dependence on temperature of unicellular and multicellular life forms that evolved over geological time spans can be explained by the same model.

  13. Influence of phosphine flow rate on Si growth rate in gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Huang, D. D.; Li, J. P.; Lin, Y. X.; Kong, M. Y.; Sun, D. Z.; Li, J. M.; Lin, L. Y.

    2000-12-01

    As reported by other authors, we have also observed that the Si growth rate decreases with increasing phosphine (PH 3) flow rate in gas source Si molecular beam epitaxy using phosphorous (P) as a n-type dopant. Why small quantity PH 3 can affect Si growth rate? Up to now, the quantitative characterization of PH 3 flow influence on Si growth rate is little known. In this letter, the PH 3 influence will be analyzed in detail and a model considering strong P surface segregation and its absorption of hydrogen will be proposed to characterize the effect.

  14. Seasonal variations in ectotherm growth rates: Quantifying growth as an intermittent non steady state compensatory process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guarini, J.-M.; Chauvaud, Laurent; Cloern, J.E.; Clavier, J.; Coston-Guarini, J.; Patry, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Generally, growth rates of living organisms are considered to be at steady state, varying only under environmental forcing factors. For example, these rates may be described as a function of light for plants or organic food resources for animals and these could be regulated (or not) by temperature or other conditions. But, what are the consequences for an individual's growth (and also for the population growth) if growth rate variations are themselves dynamic and not steady state? For organisms presenting phases of dormancy or long periods of stress, this is a crucial question. A dynamic perspective for quantifying short-term growth was explored using the daily growth record of the scallop Pecten maximus (L.). This species is a good biological model for ectotherm growth because the shell records growth striae daily. Independently, a generic mathematical function representing the dynamics of mean daily growth rate (MDGR) was implemented to simulate a diverse set of growth patterns. Once the function was calibrated with the striae patterns, the growth rate dynamics appeared as a forced damped oscillation during the growth period having a basic periodicity during two transitory phases (mean duration 43. days) and appearing at both growth start and growth end. This phase is most likely due to the internal dynamics of energy transfer within the organism rather than to external forcing factors. After growth restart, the transitory regime represents successive phases of over-growth and regulation. This pattern corresponds to a typical representation of compensatory growth, which from an evolutionary perspective can be interpreted as an adaptive strategy to coping with a fluctuating environment. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-05-27

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless "stored" growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan.

  16. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A.; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-01-01

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless “stored” growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan. PMID:24821776

  17. Global equatorial plasma bubble growth rates using ionosphere data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, P. K.; Lin, Charles C. H.; Chen, C. H.; Chen, W. H.; Lin, J. T.; Chou, M. Y.; Chang, M. T.; You, C. F.

    2017-03-01

    Flux tube integrated Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rates computed by using the results of ionosphere data assimilation are used for the first time to investigate global plasma bubble occurrence. The study is carried out by assimilating total electron content measurements using ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers into thermosphere ionosphere electrodynamic general circulation model, and the growth rates are calculated by using standalone model run without assimilation (control run) as well as using prior (or forecast) state output of the assimilation run. The growth rates are compared with the rate of change of total electron content index (ROTI), estimated from global network of GPS receivers, as well as all-sky airglow observations carried out over Taiwan on the nights of 16 and 17 March 2015. In contrast to the growth rates using the control run, results using data assimilation show remarkable agreement with the ROTI. Further, the all-sky images reveal intense plasma bubbles over Taiwan on the night of 16 March, when the corresponding assimilated growth rate is also pronounced. Similarly, the absence of plasma bubbles in the all-sky images on the night of 17 March (St. Patrick's Day storm) is supported by smaller growth rates predicted by the assimilation model. Significant improvements in the calculated growth rates could be achieved because of the accurate updating of zonal electric field in the data assimilation forecast. The results suggest that realistic estimate or prediction of plasma bubble occurrence could be feasible by taking advantage of the data assimilation approach adopted in this work.

  18. On the growth rate of gallstones in the human gallbladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nudelman, I.

    1993-05-01

    The growth rate of a single symmetrically oval shaped gallbladder stone weighing 10.8 g was recorded over a period of six years before surgery and removal. The length of the stone was measured by ultrasonography and the growth rate was found to be linear with time, with a value of 0.4 mm/year. A smaller stone growing in the wall of the gallbladder was detected only three years before removal and grew at a rate of ˜ 1.33 mm/year. The morphology and metallic ion chemical composition of the large stone and of a randomly selected small stone weighing about 1.1 g, extracted from another patient, were analyzed and compared. It was found that the large stone contained besides calcium also lead, whereas the small stone contained mainly calcium. It is possible that the lead causes a difference in mechanism between the growth of a single large and growth of multiple small gallstones.

  19. Growth-rate influences on coral climate proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Hayashi, E.; Nakamura, T.; Iwase, A.; Ishimura, T.; Iguchi, A.; Sakai, K.; Okai, T.; Inoue, M.; Araoka, D.; Kawahata, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coral-based climate reconstruction has been increasingly reported from many tropical sites. Potential ambiguity of coral thermometers intrinsic in biomineralization process attracts much attention, including so-called 'vital effects', 'growth-rate-related kinetic effect', '[CO32-] effect' and so on. Here we study growth-rate influences on skeletal oxygen and carbon isotope ratios (δ18O and δ13C), as well as Sr/Ca ratio, based on a long-term culture experiment using Porites australiensis clone colonies. Variation in δ18O showed negligible influence against a large intercolony variation in growth rate based on the comparison of the seasonal minimum δ18O values during summer, while that was relatively sensitive to temporal growth-rate change due to health condition of each colony. Contrary, Sr/Ca ratio was robust against both the inter- and intra- colony variation in growth rate. Positive sift in δ13C for slower-growing corals was found, and it can be attributed to a kinetic behavior of calcification reaction. Seasonal fluctuation pattern in δ13C did not correspond to light intensity nor that in δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater. These lines warrant the signal recording ability of coral skeletal Sr/Ca ratio and δ18O from a long-lived colony of clonal growth as paleo-climate archives, and propose practical guideline for the proper interplication of coral records.

  20. Growth-rate-dependent dynamics of a bacterial genetic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osella, Matteo; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino

    2013-01-01

    Gene networks exhibiting oscillatory dynamics are widespread in biology. The minimal regulatory designs giving rise to oscillations have been implemented synthetically and studied by mathematical modeling. However, most of the available analyses generally neglect the coupling of regulatory circuits with the cellular “chassis” in which the circuits are embedded. For example, the intracellular macromolecular composition of fast-growing bacteria changes with growth rate. As a consequence, important parameters of gene expression, such as ribosome concentration or cell volume, are growth-rate dependent, ultimately coupling the dynamics of genetic circuits with cell physiology. This work addresses the effects of growth rate on the dynamics of a paradigmatic example of genetic oscillator, the repressilator. Making use of empirical growth-rate dependencies of parameters in bacteria, we show that the repressilator dynamics can switch between oscillations and convergence to a fixed point depending on the cellular state of growth, and thus on the nutrients it is fed. The physical support of the circuit (type of plasmid or gene positions on the chromosome) also plays an important role in determining the oscillation stability and the growth-rate dependence of period and amplitude. This analysis has potential application in the field of synthetic biology, and suggests that the coupling between endogenous genetic oscillators and cell physiology can have substantial consequences for their functionality.

  1. Investigation of growth rate dispersion in lactose crystallisation by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2014-09-01

    α-Lactose monohydrate crystals have been reported to exhibit growth rate dispersion (GRD). Variation in surface dislocations has been suggested as the cause of GRD, but this has not been further investigated to date. In this study, growth rate dispersion and the change in morphology were investigated in situ and via bottle roller experiments. The surfaces of the (0 1 0) faces of crystals were examined with Atomic Force Microscopy. Smaller, slow growing crystals tend to have smaller (0 1 0) faces with narrow bases and displayed a single double spiral in the centre of the crystal with 2 nm high steps. Additional double spirals in other crystals resulted in faster growth rates. Large, fast growing crystals were observed to have larger (0 1 0) faces with fast growth in both the a and b directions (giving a broader crystal base) with macro steps parallel to the (c direction). The number and location of spirals or existence of macro steps appears to influence the crystal morphology, growth rates and growth rate dispersion in lactose crystals.

  2. Growth of (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals: measured growth-rate trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, E. L.; Nadarajah, A.; Pusey, M. L.

    1999-01-01

    Previous extensive measurements of the growth rates of the (110) face of tetragonal lysozyme crystals have shown unexpected dependencies on the supersaturation. In this study, similar growth-rate measurements were performed for the (101) faces of the crystals. The data show a similar dependence on the supersaturation, becoming appreciable only at high supersaturations, reaching a maximum value and then decreasing. The (101) growth rates are larger at low supersaturations than the (110) growth rates under the same conditions and are smaller at high supersaturations. These trends suggest that the growth mechanism of the (101) face is similar to that of the (110) face: both processes involve the addition of multimeric growth units formed in solution, but the average size of the units for the (101) face is likely to be smaller than for the (110) face.

  3. Growth of (101) Faces of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystals: Measured Growth Rate Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    Earlier extensive measurements of the growth rates of the (110) face of tetragonal lysozyme crystals had shown unexpected dependencies on the supersaturation. In this study similar growth rate measurements were done for the (101) faces of the crystals. The data show a similar dependence on the supersaturation, becoming appreciable only at high supersaturations, reaching a maximum value and then decreasing. As reported in earlier studies, the (101) growth rates are larger at low supersaturations than the (110) growth rates at the same conditions, and smaller at high supersaturations. These trends suggest that the growth mechanism of the (101) is similar to that of the (110) face, involving the addition of lysozyme aggregates formed in solution, but with a growth unit smaller than that of the (110) face.

  4. Growth of (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals: measured growth-rate trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, E. L.; Nadarajah, A.; Pusey, M. L.

    1999-01-01

    Previous extensive measurements of the growth rates of the (110) face of tetragonal lysozyme crystals have shown unexpected dependencies on the supersaturation. In this study, similar growth-rate measurements were performed for the (101) faces of the crystals. The data show a similar dependence on the supersaturation, becoming appreciable only at high supersaturations, reaching a maximum value and then decreasing. The (101) growth rates are larger at low supersaturations than the (110) growth rates under the same conditions and are smaller at high supersaturations. These trends suggest that the growth mechanism of the (101) face is similar to that of the (110) face: both processes involve the addition of multimeric growth units formed in solution, but the average size of the units for the (101) face is likely to be smaller than for the (110) face.

  5. Application of a statistical bootstrapping technique to calculate growth rate variance for modelling psychrotrophic pathogen growth.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, D W

    1994-12-01

    The inherent variability or 'variance' of growth rate measurements is critical to the development of accurate predictive models in food microbiology. A large number of measurements are typically needed to estimate variance. To make these measurements requires a significant investment of time and effort. If a single growth rate determination is based on a series of independent measurements, then a statistical bootstrapping technique can be used to simulate multiple growth rate measurements from a single set of experiments. Growth rate variances were calculated for three large datasets (Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, and Yersinia enterocolitica) from our laboratory using this technique. This analysis revealed that the population of growth rate measurements at any given condition are not normally distributed, but instead follow a distribution that is between normal and Poisson. The relationship between growth rate and temperature was modeled by response surface models using generalized linear regression. It was found that the assumed distribution (i.e. normal, Poisson, gamma or inverse normal) of the growth rates influenced the prediction of each of the models used. This research demonstrates the importance of variance and assumptions about the statistical distribution of growth rates on the results of predictive microbiological models.

  6. Modeling Neisseria meningitidis B metabolism at different specific growth rates.

    PubMed

    Baart, Gino J E; Willemsen, Marieke; Khatami, Elnaz; de Haan, Alex; Zomer, Bert; Beuvery, E Coen; Tramper, Johannes; Martens, Dirk E

    2008-12-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a human pathogen that can infect diverse sites within the human host. The major diseases caused by N. meningitidis are responsible for death and disability, especially in young infants. At the Netherlands Vaccine Institute (NVI) a vaccine against serogroup B organisms is currently being developed. This study describes the influence of the growth rate of N. meningitidis on its macro-molecular composition and its metabolic activity and was determined in chemostat cultures. In the applied range of growth rates, no significant changes in RNA content and protein content with growth rate were observed in N. meningitidis. The DNA content in N. meningitidis was somewhat higher at the highest applied growth rate. The phospholipid and lipopolysaccharide content in N. meningitidis changed with growth rate but no specific trends were observed. The cellular fatty acid composition and the amino acid composition did not change significantly with growth rate. Additionally, it was found that the PorA content in outer membrane vesicles was significantly lower at the highest growth rate. The metabolic fluxes at various growth rates were calculated using flux balance analysis. Errors in fluxes were calculated using Monte Carlo Simulation and the reliability of the calculated flux distribution could be indicated, which has not been reported for this type of analysis. The yield of biomass on substrate (Y(x/s)) and the maintenance coefficient (m(s)) were determined as 0.44 (+/-0.04) g g(-1) and 0.04 (+/-0.02) g g(-1) h(-1), respectively. The growth associated energy requirement (Y(x/ATP)) and the non-growth associated ATP requirement for maintenance (m(ATP)) were estimated as 0.13 (+/-0.04) mol mol(-1) and 0.43 (+/-0.14) mol mol(-1) h(-1), respectively. It was found that the split ratio between the Entner-Doudoroff and the pentose phosphate pathway, the sole glucose utilizing pathways in N. meningitidis, had a minor effect on ATP formation rate but a major

  7. Medium-dependent control of the bacterial growth rate.

    PubMed

    Ehrenberg, Måns; Bremer, Hans; Dennis, Patrick P

    2013-04-01

    By combining results from previous studies of nutritional up-shifts we here re-investigate how bacteria adapt to different nutritional environments by adjusting their macromolecular composition for optimal growth. We demonstrate that, in contrast to a commonly held view the macromolecular composition of bacteria does not depend on the growth rate as an independent variable, but on three factors: (i) the genetic background (i.e. the strain used), (ii) the physiological history of the bacteria used for inoculation of a given growth medium, and (iii) the kind of nutrients in the growth medium. These factors determine the ribosome concentration and the average rate of protein synthesis per ribosome, and thus the growth rate. Immediately after a nutritional up-shift, the average number of ribosomes in the bacterial population increases exponentially with time at a rate which eventually is attained as the final post-shift growth rate of all cell components. After a nutritional up-shift from one minimal medium to another minimal medium of higher nutritional quality, ribosome and RNA polymerase syntheses are co-regulated and immediately increase by the same factor equal to the increase in the final growth rate. However, after an up-shift from a minimal medium to a medium containing all 20 amino acids, RNA polymerase and ribosome syntheses are no longer coregulated; a smaller rate of synthesis of RNA polymerase is compensated by a gradual increase in the fraction of free RNA polymerase, possibly due to a gradual saturation of mRNA promoters. We have also analyzed data from a recent publication, in which it was concluded that the macromolecular composition in terms of RNA/protein and RNA/DNA ratios is solely determined by the effector molecule ppGpp. Our analysis indicates that this is true only in special cases and that, in general, medium adaptation also depends on factors other than ppGpp.

  8. A synthesis of growth rates in marine epipelagic invertebrate zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Hirst, A G; Roff, J C; Lampitt, R S

    2003-01-01

    We present the most extensive study to date of globally compiled and analysed weight-specific growth rates in marine epi-pelagic invertebrate metazoan zooplankton. Using specified selection criteria, we analyse growth rates from a variety of zooplanktonic taxa, including both holo- and mero-planktonic forms, from over 110 published studies. Nine principal taxonomic groups are considered, the copepods (number of individual data points (n) = 2,528); crustaceans other than copepods (n = 253); cnidarians (n = 77); ctenophores (n = 27); chaetognaths (n = 87); pteropods (n = 8); polychaetes (n = 12); thaliaceans (n = 88); and larvaceans (n = 91). The copepods are further examined by subdividing them into broadcasters or sac-spawning species, and as nauplii (N1-N6), copepodites (C1-C5) and adults (C6). For each taxonomic group relationships between growth, temperature and body weight are examined using a variety of methods. Weight-specific growth tends to increase with increasing temperature and with decreasing body weight in the crustacean group. Growth does not relate to body weight in the case of chaetognaths and larvaceans, but does increase with temperature. In the cnidarian and ctenophore groups growth does not relate to temperature, but is negatively related to body size. For the thaliceans growth increases with both increasing body weight and temperature. In the entire broadcasting copepod data set, weight-specific growth increases with increasing temperature and decreasing body weight. In sac-spawners, growth increases with increasing temperature, and increases with decreasing body weight at temperatures below 20 degrees C, but decreases with body weight at temperatures above this. Comparison between the different taxa shows important differences and similarities. Our extensive synthesis of data generally confirms that larvaceans, pteropods, cnidarians and ctenophores have rates of weight-specific growth that are typically greater than the copepods, chaetognaths

  9. The effect of size and competition on tree growth rate in old-growth coniferous forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Tree growth and competition play central roles in forest dynamics. Yet models of competition often neglect important variation in species-specific responses. Furthermore, functions used to model changes in growth rate with size do not always allow for potential complexity. Using a large data set from old-growth forests in California, models were parameterized relating growth rate to tree size and competition for four common species. Several functions relating growth rate to size were tested. Competition models included parameters for tree size, competitor size, and competitor distance. Competitive strength was allowed to vary by species. The best ranked models (using Akaike’s information criterion) explained between 18% and 40% of the variance in growth rate, with each species showing a strong response to competition. Models indicated that relationships between competition and growth varied substantially among species. The results also suggested that the relationship between growth rate and tree size can be complex and that how we model it can affect not only our ability to detect that complexity but also whether we obtain misleading results. In this case, for three of four species, the best model captured an apparent and unexpected decline in potential growth rate for the smallest trees in the data set.

  10. Noise in gene expression is coupled to growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Leeat; van Dijk, David; Weingarten-Gabbay, Shira; Davidi, Dan; Jona, Ghil; Weinberger, Adina; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Genetically identical cells exposed to the same environment display variability in gene expression (noise), with important consequences for the fidelity of cellular regulation and biological function. Although population average gene expression is tightly coupled to growth rate, the effects of changes in environmental conditions on expression variability are not known. Here, we measure the single-cell expression distributions of approximately 900 Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoters across four environmental conditions using flow cytometry, and find that gene expression noise is tightly coupled to the environment and is generally higher at lower growth rates. Nutrient-poor conditions, which support lower growth rates, display elevated levels of noise for most promoters, regardless of their specific expression values. We present a simple model of noise in expression that results from having an asynchronous population, with cells at different cell-cycle stages, and with different partitioning of the cells between the stages at different growth rates. This model predicts non-monotonic global changes in noise at different growth rates as well as overall higher variability in expression for cell-cycle–regulated genes in all conditions. The consistency between this model and our data, as well as with noise measurements of cells growing in a chemostat at well-defined growth rates, suggests that cell-cycle heterogeneity is a major contributor to gene expression noise. Finally, we identify gene and promoter features that play a role in gene expression noise across conditions. Our results show the existence of growth-related global changes in gene expression noise and suggest their potential phenotypic implications. PMID:26355006

  11. Correlation of thrombosis growth rate to pathological wall shear rate during platelet accumulation.

    PubMed

    Bark, David L; Para, Andrea N; Ku, David N

    2012-10-01

    Local hemodynamics may strongly influence atherothrombosis, which can lead to acute myocardial infarction and stroke. The relationship between hemodynamics and thrombosis during platelet accumulation was studied through an in vitro flow system consisting of a stenosis. Specifically, wall shear rates (WSR) ranging from 0 to 100,000 s(-1) were ascertained through computations and compared with thrombus growth rates found by image analysis for over 5,000 individual observation points per experiment. A positive correlation (P < 0.0001) was found between thrombus accumulation rates and WSR up to 6,000 s(-1), with a decrease in growth rates at WSR >6,000 s(-1) (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, growth rates at pathological shear rates were found to be two to four times greater than for physiological arterial shear rates below 400 s(-1). Platelets did not accumulate for the first minute of perfusion. The initial lag time, before discernible thrombus growth could be found, diminished with shear (P < 0.0001). These studies show the quantitative increase in thrombus growth rates with very high shear rates in stenoses onto a collagen substrate. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Understanding the demographic drivers of realized population growth rates.

    PubMed

    Koons, David N; Arnold, Todd W; Schaub, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Identifying the demographic parameters (e.g., reproduction, survival, dispersal) that most influence population dynamics can increase conservation effectiveness and enhance ecological understanding. Life table response experiments (LTRE) aim to decompose the effects of change in parameters on past demographic outcomes (e.g., population growth rates). But the vast majority of LTREs and other retrospective population analyses have focused on decomposing asymptotic population growth rates, which do not account for the dynamic interplay between population structure and vital rates that shape realized population growth rates (λt=Nt+1/Nt) in time-varying environments. We provide an empirical means to overcome these shortcomings by merging recently developed "transient life-table response experiments" with integrated population models (IPMs). IPMs allow for the estimation of latent population structure and other demographic parameters that are required for transient LTRE analysis, and Bayesian versions additionally allow for complete error propagation from the estimation of demographic parameters to derivations of realized population growth rates and perturbation analyses of growth rates. By integrating available monitoring data for Lesser Scaup over 60 yr, and conducting transient LTREs on IPM estimates, we found that the contribution of juvenile female survival to long-term variation in realized population growth rates was 1.6 and 3.7 times larger than that of adult female survival and fecundity, respectively. But a persistent long-term decline in fecundity explained 92% of the decline in abundance between 1983 and 2006. In contrast, an improvement in adult female survival drove the modest recovery in Lesser Scaup abundance since 2006, indicating that the most important demographic drivers of Lesser Scaup population dynamics are temporally dynamic. In addition to resolving uncertainty about Lesser Scaup population dynamics, the merger of IPMs with transient LTREs will

  13. Microbial Growth at Ultraslow Rates: Regulation and Genetic Stability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    this taxonomic range of eubacteria , and the understanding we have gained of underlying biochemical and genetic machineries, it is clear that any...to eubacteria and whose effects on mu and Y, in fact, made the Monod-type equations invalid as soon as they were eluci- dated to the level reached by...growth parameters. Thus, we sought specifically: 1) to find if there was a pattern of growth behavior at slow rates common among eubacteria ; 2) to

  14. Growth rate in the dynamical dark energy models.

    PubMed

    Avsajanishvili, Olga; Arkhipova, Natalia A; Samushia, Lado; Kahniashvili, Tina

    Dark energy models with a slowly rolling cosmological scalar field provide a popular alternative to the standard, time-independent cosmological constant model. We study the simultaneous evolution of background expansion and growth in the scalar field model with the Ratra-Peebles self-interaction potential. We use recent measurements of the linear growth rate and the baryon acoustic oscillation peak positions to constrain the model parameter [Formula: see text] that describes the steepness of the scalar field potential.

  15. Economy, efficiency, and the evolution of pollen tube growth rates.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph H; Edwards, Jacob A; Ramsey, Adam J

    2016-03-01

    Pollen tube growth rate (PTGR) is an important aspect of male gametophyte performance because of its central role in the fertilization process. Theory suggests that under intense competition, PTGRs should evolve to be faster, especially if PTGR accurately reflects gametophyte quality. Oddly, we know remarkably little about how effectively the work of tube construction is translated to elongation (growth and growth rate). Here we test the prediction that pollen tubes grow equally efficiently by comparing the scaling of wall production rate (WPR) to PTGR in three water lilies that flower concurrently: Nymphaea odorata, Nuphar advena and Brasenia schreberi. Single-donor pollinations on flower or carpel pairs were fixed just after pollen germination (time A) and 45 min later (time B). Mean PTGR was calculated as the average increase in tube length over that growth period. Tube circumferences (C) and wall thicknesses (W) were measured at time B. For each donor, WPR = mean (C × W) × mean PTGR. Within species, pollen tubes maintained a constant WPR to PTGR ratio, but species had significantly different ratios. N. odorata and N. advena had similar PTGRs, but for any given PTGR, they had the lowest and highest WPRs, respectively. We showed that growth rate efficiencies evolved by changes in the volume of wall material used for growth and in how that material was partitioned between lateral and length dimensions. The economics of pollen tube growth are determined by tube design, which is consequent on trade-offs between efficient growth and other pollen tube functions. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Energetics and growth rate of northern Shrike (Lanius excubitor) nestlings

    SciTech Connect

    Degen, A.A.; Kam, M. ); Pinshow, B.; Yosef, R. ); Nagy, K.A. )

    1992-12-01

    Northern Shrikes (Lanius excubitor) breed in a variety of habitats, including deserts. Deserts are characterized by unpredictable food supplies, which can lead to a slow growth rate of nestlings. However, given that Northern Shrike males use prey from their caches to augment freshly caught prey in providing food for their mates and nestlings, we hypothesized that their nestlings do not have a slow growth rate, but one that is equivalent to that in other passerine nestlings from temperate areas. To test this hypothesis, we measured growth rates and energy use in Northern Shrike nestlings and fledglings. We also measured energy expenditure in two adult males that were attending nests. Growth rate of Northern Shrike nestlings was similar to that predicted for passerines in temperate areas and therefore our hypothesis was supported. However, metabolizable energy available in the cache amounted to only [approx] 7.2% of the total energy requirements of the nestlings or 4.2% of the total energy requirements of parents and nestlings during the nestling period. This suggested that other factors in addition to the cache were important in determining growth rate. These included (1) an extremely low maintenance energy requirement of the nestling; 30% of that predicted for a bird of its body mass when it weighed 10 g, which gradually increased to 70% at 50 g. This allowed for more of the energy intake to be used for growth and also reduced foraging costs of males; (2) the relatively low amount of body energy retained as a fraction of metabolizable energy intake, 0.15 to 0.16, indicating that more water per unit growth was incorporated than in other passerines. 47 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Influence of corruption on economic growth rate and foreign investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, Boris; Shao, Jia; Njavro, Djuro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Stanley, H. E.

    2008-06-01

    We analyze the dependence of the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP) per capita growth rates on changes in the Corruption Perceptions Index ( CPI). For the period 1999 2004 for all countries in the world, we find on average that an increase of CPI by one unit leads to an increase of the annual GDP per capita growth rate by 1.7%. By regressing only the European countries with transition economies, we find that an increase of CPI by one unit generates an increase of the annual GDP per capita growth rate by 2.4%. We also analyze the relation between foreign direct investments received by different countries and CPI, and we find a statistically significant power-law functional dependence between foreign direct investment per capita and the country corruption level measured by the CPI. We introduce a new measure to quantify the relative corruption between countries based on their respective wealth as measured by GDP per capita.

  18. Effective transition rates for epitaxial growth using fast modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallivan, Martha A.; Goodwin, David G.; Murray, Richard M.

    2004-07-01

    Thin-film deposition is an industrially important process that is highly dependent on the processing conditions. Most films are grown under constant conditions, but a few studies show that modified properties may be obtained with periodic inputs. However, assessing the effects of modulation experimentally becomes impractical with increasing material complexity. Here we consider periodic conditions in which the period is short relative to the time scales of growth. We analyze a stochastic model of thin-film growth, computing effective transition rates associated with rapid periodic process parameters. Combinations of effective rates may exist that are not attainable under steady conditions, potentially enabling new film properties. An algorithm is presented to construct the periodic input for a desired set of effective transition rates. These ideas are demonstrated in three simple examples using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of epitaxial growth.

  19. Growth rates in a captive population of Tonkean macaques.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Andrea; De Marco, Arianna; Thierry, Bernard; Cozzolino, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Measuring variations in body mass is necessary to gain a deeper understanding of the evolution of life-history patterns, and it provides information on the timing of sexual maturity and the development of sexual dimorphism. In this study, we collected longitudinal data on body mass from infancy to adulthood in a captive population of Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana). Tests to evaluate whether social group, maternal age, and dominance rank influenced growth rates showed that they had no significant effect. We investigated the timing and magnitude of breaking points in the growth paths of males and females, and checked whether these breaking points could correspond to specific reproductive and morphological developmental events. We found that male and female Tonkean macaques have roughly equivalent body masses until around the age of four, when males go through an adolescent growth spurt and females continue to grow at a constant rate. Males not only grow faster than females, but they also continue to grow for nearly one and a half years after females have attained their full body mass. Growth rate differences account for approximately two-thirds of the body mass sexual dimorphism; only the remaining third results from continued male growth beyond the age where full body mass is reached in females. We also discovered remarkable correspondences between the timing of testicular enlargement and the adolescent growth spurt in males, and between dental development and slowdown breaking points in both sexes.

  20. Radiocarbon Based Ages and Growth Rates: Hawaiian Deep Sea Corals

    SciTech Connect

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Dunbar, R B; Ingram, B L

    2006-01-13

    The radial growth rates and ages of three different groups of Hawaiian deep-sea 'corals' were determined using radiocarbon measurements. Specimens of Corallium secundum, Gerardia sp., and Leiopathes glaberrima, were collected from 450 {+-} 40 m at the Makapuu deep-sea coral bed using a submersible (PISCES V). Specimens of Antipathes dichotoma were collected at 50 m off Lahaina, Maui. The primary source of carbon to the calcitic C. secundum skeleton is in situ dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Using bomb {sup 14}C time markers we calculate radial growth rates of {approx} 170 {micro}m y{sup -1} and ages of 68-75 years on specimens as tall as 28 cm of C. secundum. Gerardia sp., A. dichotoma, and L. glaberrima have proteinaceous skeletons and labile particulate organic carbon (POC) is their primary source of architectural carbon. Using {sup 14}C we calculate a radial growth rate of 15 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of 807 {+-} 30 years for a live collected Gerardia sp., showing that these organisms are extremely long lived. Inner and outer {sup 14}C measurements on four sub-fossil Gerardia spp. samples produce similar growth rate estimates (range 14-45 {micro}m y{sup -1}) and ages (range 450-2742 years) as observed for the live collected sample. Similarly, with a growth rate of < 10 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of {approx}2377 years, L. glaberrima at the Makapuu coral bed, is also extremely long lived. In contrast, the shallow-collected A. dichotoma samples yield growth rates ranging from 130 to 1,140 {micro}m y{sup -1}. These results show that Hawaiian deep-sea corals grow more slowly and are older than previously thought.

  1. Crystallographic anisotropy of growth and etch rates of CVD diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, M; Biener, J; El-dasher, B S; Biener, M M; Hamza, A V; Kriele, A; Wild, C

    2008-08-05

    The investigation of orientation dependent crystal growth and etch processes can provide deep insights into the underlying mechanisms and thus helps to validate theoretical models. Here, we report on homoepitaxial diamond growth and oxygen etch experiments on polished, polycrystalline CVD diamond wafers by use of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and white-light interferometry (WLI). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to provide additional atomic scale surface morphology information. The main advantage of using polycrystalline diamond substrates with almost random grain orientation is that it allows determining the orientation dependent growth (etch) rate for different orientations within one experiment. Specifically, we studied the effect of methane concentration on the diamond growth rate, using a microwave plasma CVD process. At 1 % methane concentration a maximum of the growth rate near <100> and a minimum near <111> is detected. Increasing the methane concentration up to 5 % shifts the maximum towards <110> while the minimum stays at <111>. Etch rate measurements in a microwave powered oxygen plasma reveal a pronounced maximum at <111>. We also made a first attempt to interpret our experimental data in terms of local micro-faceting of high-indexed planes.

  2. Brain Growth Rate Abnormalities Visualized in Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M.; Leow, Alex D.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R.; O’Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Levitt, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide-ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, ASD is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared to those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry (TBM), we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and 7 typically developing boys (mean age/inter-scan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole-brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (p = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (p = 0.008), temporal (p = 0.03) and occipital lobes (p =0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in some gray matter structures, such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. TBM revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects. PMID:22021093

  3. Brain growth rate abnormalities visualized in adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex D; Madsen, Sarah K; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R; O'Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L; Toga, Arthur W; Levitt, Jennifer G

    2013-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, autism spectrum disorder is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared with those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry, we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and seven typically developing boys (mean age/interscan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (P = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (P = 0.008), temporal (P = 0.03), and occipital lobes (P = 0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in gray matter structures such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. Tensor-based morphometry revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects.

  4. Analysing the lag-growth rate relationship of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Pin, Carmen; García, de Fernando Gonzalo D; Ordóñez, Juan A; Baranyi, József

    2002-03-01

    A generalised z-value concept has been applied to analyse the relationship between the lag and the growth rate of Yersinia enterocolitica at a range of temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen percentages. The product of the specific growth rate and the lag (the "work to be done" during the lag phase) is found to be independent of temperature. However, it does depend on the CO2 and O2 concentrations, though the effect of oxygen was less noticeable than the effect of carbon dioxide.

  5. The growth rate of gas hydrate from refrigerant R12

    SciTech Connect

    Kendoush, Abdullah Abbas; Jassim, Najim Abid; Joudi, Khalid A.

    2006-07-15

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were presented dealing with three phase direct-contact heat transfer by evaporation of refrigerant drops in an immiscible liquid. Refrigerant R12 was used as the dispersed phase, while water and brine were the immiscible continuous phase. A numerical solution is presented to predict the formation rate of gas hydrates in test column. The solution provided an acceptable agreement when compared with experimental results. The gas hydrate growth rate increased with time. It increased with increasing dispersed phase flow rate. The presence of surface-active sodium chloride in water had a strong inhibiting effect on the gas hydrate formation rate. (author)

  6. Universality of Thermodynamic Constants Governing Biological Growth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Corkrey, Ross; Olley, June; Ratkowsky, David; McMeekin, Tom; Ross, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Background Mathematical models exist that quantify the effect of temperature on poikilotherm growth rate. One family of such models assumes a single rate-limiting ‘master reaction’ using terms describing the temperature-dependent denaturation of the reaction's enzyme. We consider whether such a model can describe growth in each domain of life. Methodology/Principal Findings A new model based on this assumption and using a hierarchical Bayesian approach fits simultaneously 95 data sets for temperature-related growth rates of diverse microorganisms from all three domains of life, Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. Remarkably, the model produces credible estimates of fundamental thermodynamic parameters describing protein thermal stability predicted over 20 years ago. Conclusions/Significance The analysis lends support to the concept of universal thermodynamic limits to microbial growth rate dictated by protein thermal stability that in turn govern biological rates. This suggests that the thermal stability of proteins is a unifying property in the evolution and adaptation of life on earth. The fundamental nature of this conclusion has importance for many fields of study including microbiology, protein chemistry, thermal biology, and ecological theory including, for example, the influence of the vast microbial biomass and activity in the biosphere that is poorly described in current climate models. PMID:22348140

  7. 3D fold growth rates in transpressional tectonic settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    Geological folds are inherently three-dimensional (3D) structures; hence, they also grow in 3D. In this study, fold growth in all three dimensions is quantified numerically using a finite-element algorithm for simulating deformation of Newtonian media in 3D. The presented study is an extension and generalization of the work presented in Frehner (2014), which only considered unidirectional layer-parallel compression. In contrast, the full range from strike slip settings (i.e., simple shear) to unidirectional layer-parallel compression is considered here by varying the convergence angle of the boundary conditions; hence the results are applicable to general transpressional tectonic settings. Only upright symmetrical single-layer fold structures are considered. The horizontal higher-viscous layer exhibits an initial point-like perturbation. Due to the mixed pure- and simple shear boundary conditions a mechanical buckling instability grows from this perturbation in all three dimensions, described by: Fold amplification (vertical growth): Fold amplification describes the growth from a fold shape with low limb-dip angle to a shape with higher limb-dip angle. Fold elongation (growth parallel to fold axis): Fold elongation describes the growth from a dome-shaped (3D) structure to a more cylindrical fold (2D). Sequential fold growth (growth perpendicular to fold axial plane): Sequential fold growth describes the growth of secondary (and further) folds adjacent to the initial isolated fold. The term 'lateral fold growth' is used as an umbrella term for both fold elongation and sequential fold growth. In addition, the orientation of the fold axis is tracked as a function of the convergence angle. Even though the absolute values of all three growth rates are markedly reduced with increasing simple-shear component at the boundaries, the general pattern of the quantified fold growth under the studied general-shear boundary conditions is surprisingly similar to the end

  8. Sea ice growth rates from tide-driven visible banding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Kate E.; Smith, Inga J.; Tison, Jean-Louis; Verbeke, Véronique; McGuinness, Mark; Ingham, Malcolm; Vennell, Ross; Trodahl, Joe

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, periodic tide-current-driven banding in a sea-ice core is demonstrated as a measure of the growth rate of first-year sea ice at congelation-ice depths. The study was performed on a core from the eastern McMurdo Sound, exploiting the well-characterized tidal pattern at the site. It points the way to a technique for determining early-season ice growth rates from late-season cores, in areas where under ice currents are known to be tidally dominated and the ice is landfast, thus providing data for a time of year when thin ice prevents direct thickness (and therefore growth rate) measurements. The measured results were compared to the growth-versus-depth predicted by a thermodynamic model.Plain Language SummaryIt is currently very difficult to measure sea-ice <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, due to the danger of traveling on thin ice early in the growing season. This paper introduces the use of tidal patterns to determine sea-ice <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> at the end of the growing season, when ice cores can be taken. The technique utilizes the visible light and dark bands that are often present in sea ice near land, and are driven by changes in the tidal current beneath the ice. As well as being important for climate research, this method could contribute to the understanding biological ecosystems within the ice, by providing a method to date depths in an ice core where particular organisms are observed or samples taken.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5099159','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5099159"><span>In situ <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement of selective LPCVD of tungsten</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Holleman, J.; Hasper, A.; Middelhoek, J. )</p> <p>1991-04-01</p> <p>This paper reports on the reflectance measurement during the selective deposition of W on Si covered with an insulator <span class="hlt">rating</span> proven to be a convenient method to monitor the W deposition. The reflectance change during deposition allows the in situ measurement of the deposition <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The influence of surface roughening due to either the W <span class="hlt">growth</span> or an etching pretreatment of the wafer is modeled, as well as the effect of selectivity loss and lateral overgrowth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25662920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25662920"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and cell size: a re-examination of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> law.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vadia, Stephen; Levin, Petra Anne</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Research into the mechanisms regulating bacterial cell size has its origins in a single paper published over 50 years ago. In it Schaechter and colleagues made the observation that the chemical composition and size of a bacterial cell is a function of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, independent of the medium used to achieve that <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, a finding that is colloquially referred to as 'the <span class="hlt">growth</span> law'. Recent findings hint at unforeseen complexity in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> law, and suggest that nutrients rather than <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> are the primary arbiter of size. The emerging picture suggests that size is a complex, multifactorial phenomenon mediated through the varied impacts of central carbon metabolism on cell cycle progression and biosynthetic capacity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25382561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25382561"><span>Fetal <span class="hlt">growth</span> and maternal glomerular filtration <span class="hlt">rate</span>: a systematic review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vesterinen, Hanna M; Johnson, Paula I; Atchley, Dylan S; Sutton, Patrice; Lam, Juleen; Zlatnik, Marya G; Sen, Saunak; Woodruff, Tracey J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Glomerular filtration <span class="hlt">rate</span> (GFR) may influence concentrations of biomarkers of exposure and their etiologic significance in observational studies of associations between environmental contaminants and fetal <span class="hlt">growth</span>. It is unknown whether the size of a developing fetus affects maternal GFR such that a small fetus leads to reduced plasma volume expansion (PVE), reduced GFR and subsequent higher concentrations of biomarkers in maternal serum. Our objective was to answer the question: "Is there an association between fetal <span class="hlt">growth</span> and maternal GFR in humans?" We adapted and applied the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology to assess the evidence of an association between fetal <span class="hlt">growth</span> and GFR, either directly or indirectly via reduction in PVE. We identified 35 relevant studies. We <span class="hlt">rated</span> 31 human and two non-human observational studies as "low" quality and two experimental non-human studies as "very low" quality. We <span class="hlt">rated</span> all three evidence streams as "inadequate". The association between fetal <span class="hlt">growth</span> and GFR was "not classifiable" according to pre-specified definitions. There is currently insufficient evidence to support the plausibility of a reverse causality hypothesis for associations between exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy and fetal <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Further research would be needed to confirm or disprove this hypothesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10786791','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10786791"><span>Determination of relative <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of natural quartz crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ihinger; Zink</p> <p>2000-04-20</p> <p>Although the theory describing crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> in the geological environment is well established, there are few quantitative studies that delimit the absolute time involved in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of natural crystals. The actual mechanisms responsible for the variation in size and shape of individual crystal faces are, in fact, not well understood. Here we describe a micro-infrared spectroscopic study of a single, gem-quality quartz crystal that allows us to measure the size, shape and relative <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of each of the crystal faces that are active throughout its <span class="hlt">growth</span> history. We demonstrate that the abundances of hydrogen-bearing impurities can serve as 'speedometers' to monitor the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of advancing crystal faces. Our technique can be applied to crystals from a variety of geological environments to determine their <span class="hlt">growth</span> histories. Within the electronics industry, the technique might facilitate the production of defect-free synthetic crystals required for high-quality resonators and, ultimately, might allow determination of the absolute time involved in geological processes such as the crystallization of magmas, fluid flow in metamorphism and the sealing of open cracks in earthquake rupture zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16293428','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16293428"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and associated factors in small abdominal aortic aneurysms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vega de Céniga, M; Gómez, R; Estallo, L; Rodríguez, L; Baquer, M; Barba, A</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>To study the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and factors influencing progression of small infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Observational, longitudinal, prospective study. We followed patients with AAA <5 cm in diameter in two groups. Group I (AAA 3-3.9 cm, n = 246) underwent annual ultrasound scans. Group II (AAA 4-4.9 cm, n = 106) underwent 6-monthly CT scans. We included 352 patients (333 men and 19 women) followed for a mean of 55.2+/-37.4 months (6.3-199.8). The mean <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was significantly greater in group II (4.72+/-5.93 vs. 2.07+/-3.23 mm/year; p<0.0001). Group II had a greater percentage of patients with rapid aneurysm expansion (>4 mm/year) (36.8 vs. 13.8%; p<0.0001). The classical cardiovascular risk factors did not influence the AAA <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in group I. Chronic limb ischemia was associated with slower expansion (< or = 4 mm/year) (OR 0.47; CI 95% 0.22-0.99; p = 0.045). Diabetic patients in group II had a significantly smaller mean AAA <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> than non-diabetics (1.69+/-3.51 vs. 5.22+/-6.11 mm/year; p = 0.032). The expansion <span class="hlt">rate</span> of small AAA increases with the AAA size. AAA with a diameter of 3-3.9 cm expand slowly, and they are very unlikely to require surgical repair in 5 years. Many 4-4.9 cm AAA can be expected to reach a surgical size in the first 2 years of follow-up. Chronic limb ischemia and diabetes are associated with reduced aneurysm <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1087499','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1087499"><span>Upscaling Calcite <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> from the Mesoscale to the Macroscale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bracco, Jacquelyn N.; Stack, Andrew G.; Steefel, Carl I.</p> <p>2013-07-02</p> <p>Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic <span class="hlt">rates</span> under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate <span class="hlt">rates</span> at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in <span class="hlt">rates</span> at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop <span class="hlt">growth</span> hillocks, or other factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17803766','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17803766"><span>Rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in the ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koblízek, Michal; Masín, Michal; Ras, Josephine; Poulton, Alex J; Prásil, Ondrej</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>We analysed bacteriochlorophyll diel changes to assess <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in the euphotic zone across the Atlantic Ocean. The survey performed during Atlantic Meridional Transect cruise 16 has shown that bacteriochlorophyll in the North Atlantic Gyre cycles at <span class="hlt">rates</span> of 0.91-1.08 day(-1) and in the South Atlantic at <span class="hlt">rates</span> of 0.72-0.89 day(-1). In contrast, in the more productive equatorial region and North Atlantic it cycled at <span class="hlt">rates</span> of up to 2.13 day(-1). These results suggest that bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria in the euphotic zone of the oligotrophic gyres grow at <span class="hlt">rates</span> of about one division per day and in the more productive regions up to three divisions per day. This is in striking contrast with the relatively slow <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the total bacterial community. Thus, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs appear to be a very dynamic part of the marine microbial community and due to their rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span>, they are likely to be larger sinks for dissolved organic matter than their abundance alone would predict.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100036814','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100036814"><span>Linear Stability of Binary Alloy Solidification for Unsteady <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>An extension of the Mullins and Sekerka (MS) linear stability analysis to the unsteady <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> case is considered for dilute binary alloys. In particular, the stability of the planar interface during the initial solidification transient is studied in detail numerically. The rapid solidification case, when the system is traversing through the unstable region defined by the MS criterion, has also been treated. It has been observed that the onset of instability is quite accurately defined by the "quasi-stationary MS criterion", when the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and other process parameters are taken as constants at a particular time of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> process. A singular behavior of the governing equations for the perturbed quantities at the constitutional supercooling demarcation line has been observed. However, when the solidification process, during its transient, crosses this demarcation line, a planar interface is stable according to the linear analysis performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.2120D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.2120D"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement of ULF waves in the ion foreshock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dorfman, S.; Hietala, H.; Astfalk, P.; Angelopoulos, V.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We report the first satellite measurement of the ultralow frequency (ULF) wave <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the upstream region of the Earth's bow shock. We employ the two identical ARTEMIS spacecraft orbiting the Moon to characterize crescent-shaped reflected ion beams and relatively monochromatic ULF waves. The event presented here features spacecraft separation of ˜2.5 Earth radii (0.9 ± 0.1 wavelengths) in the solar wind flow direction along a nearly radial interplanetary magnetic field. The ULF wave <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is estimated and found to fall within dispersion solver predictions during the initial <span class="hlt">growth</span> time. Observed frequencies and wave numbers are also within the predicted range. Other ULF wave properties such as the phase speed, obliquity, and polarization are consistent with expectations from resonant beam instability theory and prior satellite measurements. These results will inform future missions near bow and interplanetary shocks as well as future nonlinear studies related to turbulence and dissipation in the heliosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26953884','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26953884"><span>Net Assimilation <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Determines the <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> of 14 Species of Subtropical Forest Trees.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Xuefei; Schmid, Bernhard; Wang, Fei; Paine, C E Timothy</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are of fundamental importance for plants, as individual size affects myriad ecological processes. We determined the factors that generate variation in RGR among 14 species of trees and shrubs that are abundant in subtropical Chinese forests. We grew seedlings for two years at four light levels in a shade-house experiment. We monitored the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of every juvenile plant every two weeks. After one and two years, we destructively harvested individuals and measured their functional traits and gas-exchange <span class="hlt">rates</span>. After calculating individual biomass trajectories, we estimated relative <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> using nonlinear <span class="hlt">growth</span> functions. We decomposed the variance in log(RGR) to evaluate the relationships of RGR with its components: specific leaf area (SLA), net assimilation <span class="hlt">rate</span> (NAR) and leaf mass ratio (LMR). We found that variation in NAR was the primary determinant of variation in RGR at all light levels, whereas SLA and LMR made smaller contributions. Furthermore, NAR was strongly and positively associated with area-based photosynthetic <span class="hlt">rate</span> and leaf nitrogen content. Photosynthetic <span class="hlt">rate</span> and leaf nitrogen concentration can, therefore, be good predictors of <span class="hlt">growth</span> in woody species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19082828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19082828"><span>Age at first reproduction and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> are independent of basal metabolic <span class="hlt">rate</span> in mammals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lovegrove, Barry G</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>This study tested an emergent prediction from the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) that the age at first reproduction (alpha) of a mammal is proportional to the inverse of its mass-corrected basal metabolic <span class="hlt">rate</span>: alpha proportional (B / M)-1 The hypothesis was tested with multiple regression models of conventional species data and phylogenetically independent contrasts of 121 mammal species. Since age at first reproduction is directly influenced by an individual's <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is proportional to BMR was also tested. Although the overall multiple regression model was significant, age at first reproduction was not partially correlated with either body mass, <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> or BMR. Similarly, <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was not correlated with BMR. Thus at least for mammals in general, there is no evidence to support the fundamental premise of the MTE that individual metabolism governs the <span class="hlt">rate</span> at which energy is converted to <span class="hlt">growth</span> and reproduction at the species level. The exponents of the BMR allometry calculated using phylogenetic generalized least squares regression models were significantly lower than the three-quarter value predicted by the MTE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IAUS..308..571H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IAUS..308..571H"><span>Measuring the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of structure around cosmic voids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hawken, A. J.; Michelett, D.; Granett, B.; Iovino, A.; Guzzo, L.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Using an algorithm based on searching for empty spheres we identified 245 voids in the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). We show how by modelling the anisotropic void-galaxy cross correlation function we can probe the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of structure.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42433','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42433"><span>Avoid Early Selection for <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> in Cottonwood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>D. T. Cooper; Robert B. Ferguson</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>A sample of 37 cottonwood clones from a selection program was compared with a sample of 40 random clones in a 14-year test at two sites near Stoneville, Mississippi. Throughout the test period, the select sample was slightly better in mean <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, but this difference decreased with age. Performance of ''blue tag" clones selected at age 5 and planted...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16339903','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16339903"><span>Slow <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of Amazonian trees: consequences for carbon cycling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vieira, Simone; Trumbore, Susan; Camargo, Plinio B; Selhorst, Diogo; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Higuchi, Niro; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio</p> <p>2005-12-20</p> <p>Quantifying age structure and tree <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Amazonian forests is essential for understanding their role in the carbon cycle. Here, we use radiocarbon dating and direct measurement of diameter increment to document unexpectedly slow <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for trees from three locations spanning the Brazilian Amazon basin. Central Amazon trees, averaging only approximately 1 mm/year diameter increment, grow half as fast as those from areas with more seasonal rainfall to the east and west. Slow <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> mean that trees can attain great ages; across our sites we estimate 17-50% of trees with diameter >10 cm have ages exceeding 300 years. Whereas a few emergent trees that make up a large portion of the biomass grow faster, small trees that are more abundant grow slowly and attain ages of hundreds of years. The mean age of carbon in living trees (60-110 years) is within the range of or slightly longer than the mean residence time calculated from C inventory divided by annual C allocation to wood <span class="hlt">growth</span> (40-100 years). Faster C turnover is observed in stands with overall higher <span class="hlt">rates</span> of diameter increment and a larger fraction of the biomass in large, fast-growing trees. As a consequence, forests can recover biomass relatively quickly after disturbance, whereas recovering species composition may take many centuries. Carbon cycle models that apply a single turnover time for carbon in forest biomass do not account for variations in life strategy and therefore may overestimate the carbon sequestration potential of Amazon forests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39302','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39302"><span>Does raking basal duff affect tree <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> or mortality?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Erin Noonan-Wright; Sharon M. Hood; Danny R. Cluck</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Mortality and reduced <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> due to raking accumulated basal duff were evaluated for old, large-diameter ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees on the Lassen National Forest, California. No fire treatments were included to isolate the effect of raking from fire. Trees were monitored annually for 5 years after the raking treatment for mortality and then cored to measure...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5364383','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5364383"><span>Winter temperatures limit population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of a migratory songbird</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Woodworth, Bradley K.; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T.; Newman, Amy E.; Schaub, Michael; Norris, D. Ryan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the factors that limit and regulate wildlife populations requires insight into demographic and environmental processes acting throughout the annual cycle. Here, we combine multi-year tracking data of individual birds with a 26-year demographic study of a migratory songbird to evaluate the relative effects of density and weather at the breeding and wintering grounds on population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Our results reveal clear support for opposing forces of winter temperature and breeding density driving population dynamics. Above-average temperatures at the wintering grounds lead to higher population <span class="hlt">growth</span>, primarily through their strong positive effects on survival. However, population <span class="hlt">growth</span> is regulated over the long term by strong negative effects of breeding density on both fecundity and adult male survival. Such knowledge of how year-round factors influence population <span class="hlt">growth</span>, and the demographic mechanisms through which they act, will vastly improve our ability to predict species responses to environmental change and develop effective conservation strategies for migratory animals. PMID:28317843</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DPPUP1068L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DPPUP1068L"><span>On the effect of a non-uniform longitudinal ion flow on the linear <span class="hlt">ITG</span> mode stability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lontano, Maurizio; Lazzaro, Enzo; Varischetti, Maria Cecilia</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>A one-dimensional model for slab ion temperature gradient (<span class="hlt">ITG</span>) modes, in the presence of an inhomogeneous equilibrium plasma velocity along the main magnetic field direction, has been formulated in the frame of a two-fluid guiding-center approximation. The physical effects of a magnetic field gradient and of the line curvature are included by means of a gravitational drift velocity. The magnetic shear across the plasma slab is also taken into account. The linear stability of slow plasma dynamics, under the assumptions of quasi-neutrality and adiabatic electrons, is described by means of a third-degree dispersion relation. Generally speaking, the presence of a sheared longitudinal ion velocity leads to the linear destabilization of the <span class="hlt">ITG</span> modes, especially for flat equilibrium density profiles. Transverse quasi-linear fluxes of ion thermal energy and longitudinal momentum are calculated for different equilibrium profiles of the density, temperature, momentum, and magnetic shear. Plasma configurations leading to zero transverse (or even negative) momentum fluxes are exploited and discussed in the light of their experimental implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16033553','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16033553"><span>Proximate causes of adaptive <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>: <span class="hlt">growth</span> efficiency variation among latitudinal populations of Rana temporaria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lindgren, B; Laurila, A</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>In ectothermic organisms, declining season length and lower temperature towards higher latitudes often select for latitudinal variation in <span class="hlt">growth</span> and development. However, the energetic mechanisms underlying this adaptive variation are largely unknown. We investigated <span class="hlt">growth</span>, food intake and <span class="hlt">growth</span> efficiency of Rana temporaria tadpoles from eight populations along a 1500 km latitudinal gradient across Sweden. To gain an insight into the mechanisms of adaptation at organ level, we also examined variation in tadpole gut length. The tadpoles were raised at two temperatures (16 and 20 degrees C) in a laboratory common garden experiment. We found increased <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> towards higher latitudes, regardless of temperature treatment. This increase in <span class="hlt">growth</span> was not because of a higher food intake <span class="hlt">rate</span>, but populations from higher latitudes had higher <span class="hlt">growth</span> efficiency, i.e. they were more efficient at converting ingested food into body mass. Low temperature reduced <span class="hlt">growth</span> efficiency most strongly in southern populations. Relative gut length increased with latitude, and tadpoles at low temperature tended to have longer guts. However, variation in gut length was not the sole adaptive explanation for increased <span class="hlt">growth</span> efficiency as latitude and body length still explained significant amounts of variation in <span class="hlt">growth</span> efficiency. Hence, additional energetic adaptations are probably involved in <span class="hlt">growth</span> efficiency variation along the latitudinal gradient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5159892','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5159892"><span>Inferring time derivatives including cell <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> using Gaussian processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Swain, Peter S.; Stevenson, Keiran; Leary, Allen; Montano-Gutierrez, Luis F.; Clark, Ivan B.N.; Vogel, Jackie; Pilizota, Teuta</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Often the time derivative of a measured variable is of as much interest as the variable itself. For a growing population of biological cells, for example, the population's <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is typically more important than its size. Here we introduce a non-parametric method to infer first and second time derivatives as a function of time from time-series data. Our approach is based on Gaussian processes and applies to a wide range of data. In tests, the method is at least as accurate as others, but has several advantages: it estimates errors both in the inference and in any summary statistics, such as lag times, and allows interpolation with the corresponding error estimation. As illustrations, we infer <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of microbial cells, the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of assembly of an amyloid fibril and both the speed and acceleration of two separating spindle pole bodies. Our algorithm should thus be broadly applicable. PMID:27941811</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713766S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713766S"><span>Inferring time derivatives including cell <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> using Gaussian processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Swain, Peter S.; Stevenson, Keiran; Leary, Allen; Montano-Gutierrez, Luis F.; Clark, Ivan B. N.; Vogel, Jackie; Pilizota, Teuta</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Often the time derivative of a measured variable is of as much interest as the variable itself. For a growing population of biological cells, for example, the population's <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is typically more important than its size. Here we introduce a non-parametric method to infer first and second time derivatives as a function of time from time-series data. Our approach is based on Gaussian processes and applies to a wide range of data. In tests, the method is at least as accurate as others, but has several advantages: it estimates errors both in the inference and in any summary statistics, such as lag times, and allows interpolation with the corresponding error estimation. As illustrations, we infer <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of microbial cells, the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of assembly of an amyloid fibril and both the speed and acceleration of two separating spindle pole bodies. Our algorithm should thus be broadly applicable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyA..392.2672A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyA..392.2672A"><span>Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alves, Luiz G. A.; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Mendes, Renio S.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The increasing number of crimes in areas with large concentrations of people have made cities one of the main sources of violence. Understanding characteristics of how crime <span class="hlt">rate</span> expands and its relations with the cities size goes beyond an academic question, being a central issue for contemporary society. Here, we characterize and analyze quantitative aspects of murders in the period from 1980 to 2009 in Brazilian cities. We find that the distribution of the annual, biannual and triannual logarithmic homicide <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> exhibit the same functional form for distinct scales, that is, a scale invariant behavior. We also identify asymptotic power-law decay relations between the standard deviations of these three <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and the initial size. Further, we discuss similarities with complex organizations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1015852','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1015852"><span>Density, ages, and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in old-<span class="hlt">growth</span> and young-<span class="hlt">growth</span> forests in coastal Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tappeiner, J. C.; Huffman, D.; Spies, T.; Bailey, John D.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>We studied the ages and diameter <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of trees in former Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)Franco) old-<span class="hlt">growth</span> stands on 10 sites and compared them with young-<span class="hlt">growth</span> stands (50-70 years old, regenerated after timber harvest) in the Coast Range of western Oregon. The diameters and diameter <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for the first 100 years of trees in the old-<span class="hlt">growth</span> stands were significantly greater than those in the young-<span class="hlt">growth</span> stands. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the old stands were comparable with those from long-term studies of young stands in which density is about 100-120 trees/ha; often young-<span class="hlt">growth</span> stand density is well over 500 trees/ha. Ages of large trees in the old stands ranged from 100 to 420 years; ages in young stands varied by only about 5 to 10 years. Apparently, regeneration of old-<span class="hlt">growth</span> stands on these sites occurred over a prolonged period, and trees grew at low density with little self-thinning; in contrast, after timber harvest, young stands may develop with high density of trees with similar ages and considerable self-thinning. The results suggest that thinning may be needed in dense young stands where the management objective is to speed development of old-<span class="hlt">growth</span> characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28138016','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28138016"><span>Protein Degradation <span class="hlt">Rate</span> in Arabidopsis thaliana Leaf <span class="hlt">Growth</span> and Development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Lei; Nelson, Clark J; Trösch, Josua; Castleden, Ian; Huang, Shaobai; Millar, A Harvey</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We applied (15)N labeling approaches to leaves of the Arabidopsis thaliana rosette to characterize their protein degradation <span class="hlt">rate</span> and understand its determinants. The progressive labeling of new peptides with (15)N and measuring the decrease in the abundance of >60,000 existing peptides over time allowed us to define the degradation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 1228 proteins in vivo. We show that Arabidopsis protein half-lives vary from several hours to several months based on the exponential constant of the decay <span class="hlt">rate</span> for each protein. This <span class="hlt">rate</span> was calculated from the relative isotope abundance of each peptide and the fold change in protein abundance during <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Protein complex membership and specific protein domains were found to be strong predictors of degradation <span class="hlt">rate</span>, while N-end amino acid, hydrophobicity, or aggregation propensity of proteins were not. We discovered rapidly degrading subunits in a variety of protein complexes in plastids and identified the set of plant proteins whose degradation <span class="hlt">rate</span> changed in different leaves of the rosette and correlated with leaf <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. From this information, we have calculated the protein turnover energy costs in different leaves and their key determinants within the proteome. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1130240','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1130240"><span>Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle <span class="hlt">Growth</span>: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Woehl, Taylor J.; Park, Chiwoo; Evans, James E.; Arslan, Ilke; Ristenpart, William D.; Browning, Nigel D.</p> <p>2014-01-08</p> <p>Direct observations of solution-phase nanoparticle <span class="hlt">growth</span> using in situ liquid transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have demonstrated the importance of “non-classical” <span class="hlt">growth</span> mechanisms, such as aggregation and coalescence, on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> and final morphology of nanocrystals at the atomic and single nanoparticle scales. To date, groups have quantitatively interpreted the mean <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of nanoparticles in terms of the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) model for Ostwald ripening, but less attention has been paid to modeling the corresponding particle size distribution. Here we use in situ fluid stage scanning TEM to demonstrate that silver nanoparticles grow by a length-scale dependent mechanism, where individual nanoparticles grow by monomer attachment but ensemble-scale <span class="hlt">growth</span> is dominated by aggregation. Although our observed mean nanoparticle <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is consistent with the LSW model, we show that the corresponding particle size distribution is broader and more symmetric than predicted by LSW. Following direct observations of aggregation, we interpret the ensemble-scale <span class="hlt">growth</span> using Smoluchowski kinetics and demonstrate that the Smoluchowski model quantitatively captures the mean <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and particle size distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/228515','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/228515"><span>In situ <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurements by normal-incidence reflectance during MOVPE <span class="hlt">growth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hou, H.Q.; Breiland, W.G.; Hammons, B.E.; Chui, H.C.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>We present an in situ technique for monitoring metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy <span class="hlt">growth</span> by normal-incidence reflectance. This technique is used to calibrate the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> periodically and to monitor the <span class="hlt">growth</span> process routinely. It is not only a precise tool to measure the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, but also very useful in identifying unusal problems during a <span class="hlt">growth</span> run, such as depletion of source material, deterioration of surface morphology, and problems associated with an improper growht procedure. We will also present an excellent reproducibility ({+-}0.3% over a course of more than 100 runs) of the cavity wavelength of vertical-cavity surface emitting laser structures with periodic calibration by this in situ technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810051142&hterms=Czochralski+method&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DCzochralski%2Bmethod','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810051142&hterms=Czochralski+method&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DCzochralski%2Bmethod"><span>The effect of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, diameter and impurity concentration on structure in Czochralski silicon crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Digges, T. G., Jr.; Shima, R.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>It is demonstrated that maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of up to 80% of the theoretical limit can be attained in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals while maintaining single crystal structure. Attaining the other 20% increase is dependent on design changes in the grower, to reduce the temperature gradient in the liquid while increasing the gradient in the solid. The conclusions of Hopkins et al. (1977) on the effect of diameter on the breakdown of structure at fast <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are substantiated. Copper was utilized as the test impurity. At large diameters (greater than 7.5 cm), concentrations of greater than 1 ppm copper were attained in the solid (45,000 ppm in the liquid) without breakdown at maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> speeds. For smaller diameter crystals, the sensitivity of impurities is much more apparent. For solar cell applications, impurities will limit cell performance before they cause crystal breakdown for fast <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of large diameter crystals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810051142&hterms=crystal+structure&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcrystal%2Bstructure','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810051142&hterms=crystal+structure&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcrystal%2Bstructure"><span>The effect of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, diameter and impurity concentration on structure in Czochralski silicon crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Digges, T. G., Jr.; Shima, R.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>It is demonstrated that maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of up to 80% of the theoretical limit can be attained in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals while maintaining single crystal structure. Attaining the other 20% increase is dependent on design changes in the grower, to reduce the temperature gradient in the liquid while increasing the gradient in the solid. The conclusions of Hopkins et al. (1977) on the effect of diameter on the breakdown of structure at fast <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are substantiated. Copper was utilized as the test impurity. At large diameters (greater than 7.5 cm), concentrations of greater than 1 ppm copper were attained in the solid (45,000 ppm in the liquid) without breakdown at maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> speeds. For smaller diameter crystals, the sensitivity of impurities is much more apparent. For solar cell applications, impurities will limit cell performance before they cause crystal breakdown for fast <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of large diameter crystals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.418a2140T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.418a2140T"><span>Improvements in plant <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> using underwater discharge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takaki, K.; Takahata, J.; Watanabe, S.; Satta, N.; Yamada, O.; Fujio, T.; Sasaki, Y.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The drainage water from plant pots was irradiated by plasma and then recycled to irrigate plants for improving the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> by supplying nutrients to plants and inactivating the bacteria in the bed-soil. Brassica rapa var. perviridis (Chinese cabbage; Brassica campestris) plants were cultivated in pots filled with artificial soil, which included the use of chicken droppings as a fertiliser. The water was recycled once per day from a drainage water pool and added to the bed-soil in the pots. A magnetic compression type pulsed power generator was used to produce underwater discharge with repetition <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 250 pps. The plasma irradiation times were set as 10 and 20 minutes per day over 28 days of cultivation. The experimental results showed that the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> increased significantly with plasma irradiation into the drainage water. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> increased with the plasma irradiation time. The nitrogen concentration of the leaves increased as a result of plasma irradiation based on chlorophyll content analysis. The bacteria in the drainage water were inactivated by the plasma irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1593..294D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1593..294D"><span>Spherulitic nucleation and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in a sheared polypropylene melt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Santis, F.; Scermino, R.; Pantani, R.; Titomanlio, G.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In common polymer processing operations such as injection molding, film blowing, and fiber spinning, the molten polymer is subjected to intense shear and/or elongational flow fields and crystallizes during or after the application of flow. The semicrystalline morphology that develops in the final product is typically very different from what is observed during quiescent crystallization of the same polymer, and the properties change accordingly. The possibility of controlling the final morphology and the resulting mechanical and functional properties of semicrystalline polymers based on the study of polymer melt crystallization stimulated by flow is highly intriguing. This work starts from the experimental evidence that there exists qualitatively three regimes of crystallization under shear: (a) very low shear <span class="hlt">rates</span>, in which there is no effect on kinetics; (b) higher shear <span class="hlt">rates</span>, in which orientational effects enhance just the nucleation and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and spherulitic crystallization is observed; and (c) high shear <span class="hlt">rates</span>, in which molecular stretching occurs giving rise to a fibrillar morphology development under very fast kinetics. The first two regimes are explored and analyzed by means of experimental protocols developed on purpose. In particular: - spherulitic nucleation and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> under continuous shear <span class="hlt">rates</span> were carefully measured and related to molecular strain - the condition below which crystallization turns out to be essentially quiescent was evidenced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/1244','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/1244"><span>Comparing Basal Area <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Repeated Inventories: Simpson's Paradox in Forestry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Charles E. Thomas; Bernard R. Parresol</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Recent analyses of radial <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in southern commercial forests have shown that current <span class="hlt">rates</span> are lower than past <span class="hlt">rates</span> when compared diameter class by diameter class. These results have been interpreted as an indication that the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the forest is declining. In this paper, <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of forest populations in Alabama are studied. Basal area <span class="hlt">growth</span> (a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25423767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25423767"><span>A rare large right atrial myxoma with rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelly, Shawn C; Steffen, Kelly; Stys, Adam T</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Atrial myxomas are the most common benign intracavitary cardiac neoplasms. They most frequently occur in the left atrium. Right atrial tumors are rare, comprising 20 percent of myxomas achieving an incidence of 0.02 percent. Due to their rarity, right atrial tumor development and associated clinical symptoms has not been well described. The classical clinical triad for the presentation of left atrial myxomas--heart failure, embolic events, and constitutional symptoms--may not be applicable to right sided tumors. Also, natural development of myxoma is not well described, as surgical resection is the common practice. Previously ascribed <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of myxomas refer mostly to left atrial ones, as right atrial tumors are rare. We present a case of right atrial myxoma with <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> exceeding those previously described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1310511','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1310511"><span>Slow <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of Amazonian trees: Consequences for carbon cycling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vieira, Simone; Trumbore, Susan; Camargo, Plinio B.; Selhorst, Diogo; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Higuchi, Niro; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Quantifying age structure and tree <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Amazonian forests is essential for understanding their role in the carbon cycle. Here, we use radiocarbon dating and direct measurement of diameter increment to document unexpectedly slow <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for trees from three locations spanning the Brazilian Amazon basin. Central Amazon trees, averaging only ≈1mm/year diameter increment, grow half as fast as those from areas with more seasonal rainfall to the east and west. Slow <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> mean that trees can attain great ages; across our sites we estimate 17-50% of trees with diameter >10 cm have ages exceeding 300 years. Whereas a few emergent trees that make up a large portion of the biomass grow faster, small trees that are more abundant grow slowly and attain ages of hundreds of years. The mean age of carbon in living trees (60-110 years) is within the range of or slightly longer than the mean residence time calculated from C inventory divided by annual C allocation to wood <span class="hlt">growth</span> (40-100 years). Faster C turnover is observed in stands with overall higher <span class="hlt">rates</span> of diameter increment and a larger fraction of the biomass in large, fast-growing trees. As a consequence, forests can recover biomass relatively quickly after disturbance, whereas recovering species composition may take many centuries. Carbon cycle models that apply a single turnover time for carbon in forest biomass do not account for variations in life strategy and therefore may overestimate the carbon sequestration potential of Amazon forests. PMID:16339903</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JDE...148..334S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JDE...148..334S"><span>On <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> of Subadditive Functions for Semiflows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schreiber, Sebastian J.</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>Letφ: X×T+→Xbe a semiflow on a compact metric spaceX. A functionF: X×T+→Xis subadditive with respect toφifF(x, t+s)⩽F(x, t)+F(φ(x, t),nbsp;s). We define the maximal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> ofFto be supx∈X lim supt→∞(1/t) F(x, t). This <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is shown to equal the maximal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the subadditive function restricted to the minimal center of attraction of the semiflow. Applications to Birkhoff sums, characteristic exponents of linear skew-product semiflows on Banach bundles, and average Lyapunov functions are developed. In particular, a relationship between the dynamical spectrum and the measurable spectrum of a linear skew-product flow established by R. A. Johnson, K. J. Palmer, and G. R. Sell (SIAM J. Math. Anal.18, 1987, 1-33) is extended to semiflows in an infinite dimensional setting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12288353','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12288353"><span>World <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> slows, but numbers build up.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haub, C</p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p>In 1992, the UN estimated annual world population <span class="hlt">growth</span> at 1.68% for 1990-95. Official UN world population estimates and projections were, however, revised in 1994 to reflect the beginning of an apparent fertility transition in a number of sub-Saharan African, Asian, and Middle Eastern countries. This new series of UN estimates and projections reflects the resumption of a trend of declining world population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> which began in the mid-1960s, but stalled soon thereafter. UN demographers now calculate that over the period 1990-94, world population grew at 1.57% per year, lower than the 1.68% used in 1992, and significantly below the 1.73% per year <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> over the period 1975-90 and the peak of 2.0% in the late 1960s. The current <span class="hlt">rate</span> of population <span class="hlt">growth</span> is the lowest recorded since World War II. The number of people added to world population will, however, increase annually until at least the year 2000. In mid-1994, there were 5.63 billion people in the world, 4.47 billion in developing countries and 1.16 billion in more developed countries. World population is projected to be 9.8 billion in the year 2050 in the medium series projection, 7.9 billion in the low series, and 11.9 billion in the high series. China, India, the United States, Indonesia, Brazil, Russia, Pakistan, Japan, Bangladesh, and Nigeria are currently the only countries each with more than 100 million people. UN medium projections, however, indicate that by the year 2050 Ethiopia, Zaire, Iran, Mexico, Vietnam, the Philippines, Egypt, and Turkey should enter the 100-million-plus league.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27070018','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27070018"><span>Salamander <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> increase along an experimental stream phosphorus gradient.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bumpers, Phillip M; Maerz, John C; Rosemond, Amy D; Benstead, Jonathan P</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Nutrient-driven perturbations to the resource base of food webs are predicted to attenuate with trophic distance, so it is unclear whether higher-level consumers will generally respond to anthropogenic nutrient loading. Few studies have tested whether nutrient (specifically, nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P]) enrichment of aquatic ecosystems propagates through multiple trophic levels to affect predators, or whether N vs. P is relatively more important in driving effects on food webs. We conducted two-year whole-stream N and P additions to five streams to generate gradients in N and P concentration and N:P ratio (target N:P = 2, 8, 16, 32, 128). Larval salamanders are vertebrate predators of primary and secondary macroinvertebrate consumers in many heterotrophic headwater streams in which the basal resources are detritus and associated microorganisms. We determined the effects of N and P on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of caged and free-roaming larval Desmognathus quadramaculatus and the average body size of larval Eurycea wilderae. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and average body size increased by up to 40% and 60%, respectively, with P concentration and were negatively related to N:P ratio. These findings were consistent across both species of salamanders using different methodologies (cage vs. free-roaming) and at different temporal scales (3 months vs. 2 yr). Nitrogen concentration was not significantly related to increased <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> or body size of the salamander species tested. Our findings suggest that salamander <span class="hlt">growth</span> responds to the relaxation of ecosystem-level P limitation and that moderate P enrichment can have relatively large effects on vertebrate predators in detritus-based food webs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25896544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25896544"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> axis maturation is linked to nutrition, <span class="hlt">growth</span> and developmental <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hetz, Jennifer A; Menzies, Brandon R; Shaw, Geoffrey; Rao, Alexandra; Clarke, Iain J; Renfree, Marilyn B</p> <p>2015-08-15</p> <p>Maturation of the mammalian <span class="hlt">growth</span> axis is thought to be linked to the transition from fetal to post-natal life at birth. However, in an altricial marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), this process occurs many months after birth but at a time when the young is at a similar developmental stage to that of neonatal eutherian mammals. Here we manipulate <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and demonstrate in slow, normal and fast growing tammar young that nutrition and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> affect the time of maturation of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> axis. Maturation of GH/IGF-I axis components occurred earlier in fast growing young, which had significantly increased hepatic GHR, IGF1 and IGFALS expression, plasma IGF-I concentrations, and significantly decreased plasma GH concentrations compared to age-matched normal young. These data support the hypothesis that the time of maturation of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> axis depends on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and maturity of the young, which can be accelerated by changing their nutritional status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040120901','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040120901"><span>Imaging System For Measuring Macromolecule Crystal <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Microgravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Corder, Eric L.; Briscoe, Jeri</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In order to determine how macromolecule crystal quality improvement in microgravity is related to crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> characteristics, a team of scientists and engineers at NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed flight hardware capable of measuring the crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of a population of crystals growing under the same conditions. As crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is defined as the change or delta in a defined dimension or length (L) of crystal over time, the hardware was named Delta-L. Delta-L consists of three sub assemblies: a fluid unit including a temperature-controlled <span class="hlt">growth</span> cell, an imaging unit, and a control unit (consisting of a Data Acquisition and Control Unit (DACU), and a thermal control unit). Delta-L will be used in connection with the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), onboard the International Space Station. This paper will describe the Delta-L imaging system. The Delta-L imaging system was designed to locate, resolve, and capture images of up to 10 individual crystals ranging in size from 10 to 500 microns with a point-to-point accuracy of +/- 2.0 microns within a quartz <span class="hlt">growth</span> cell observation area of 20 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm. The optical imaging system is comprised of a video microscope camera mounted on computer controlled translation stages. The 3-axis translation stages and control units provide crewmembers the ability to search throughout the <span class="hlt">growth</span> cell observation area for crystals forming in size of approximately 10 microns. Once the crewmember has selected ten crystals of interest, the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of these crystals is tracked until the size reaches approximately 500 microns. In order to resolve these crystals an optical system with a magnification of 10X was designed. A black and white NTSC camera was utilized with a 20X microscope objective and a 0.5X custom designed relay lens with an inline light to meet the magnification requirement. The design allows a 500 pm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26779303','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26779303"><span>Permanent draft genome sequence of the probiotic strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 129 (<span class="hlt">ITG</span> P20).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Falentin, Hélène; Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Loux, Valentin; Hammani, Amal; Buratti, Julien; Parayre, Sandrine; Chuat, Victoria; Barbe, Valérie; Aury, Jean-Marc; Jan, Gwenaël; Le Loir, Yves</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Propionibacterium freudenreichii belongs to the class Actinobacteria (Gram positive with a high GC content). This "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) species is traditionally used as (i) a starter for Swiss-type cheeses where it is responsible for holes and aroma production, (ii) a vitamin B12 and propionic acid producer in white biotechnologies, and (iii) a probiotic for use in humans and animals because of its bifidogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Until now, only strain CIRM-BIA1T had been sequenced, annotated and become publicly available. Strain CIRM-BIA129 (commercially available as <span class="hlt">ITG</span> P20) has considerable anti-inflammatory potential. Its gene content was compared to that of CIRM-BIA1 T. This strain contains 2384 genes including 1 ribosomal operon, 45 tRNA and 30 pseudogenes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780031304&hterms=streptomyces&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dstreptomyces','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780031304&hterms=streptomyces&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dstreptomyces"><span><span class="hlt">Growth-rate</span> periodicity of Streptomyces levoris during space flight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rogers, T. D.; Brower, M. E.; Taylor, G. R.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Streptomyces levoris provides a suitable biological test system to investigate the effects of space flight on the rhythms of vegetative and spore phase characteristics of both <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> periodicity and culture morphology during the pre-, in-, and post-flight periods of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The objectives of the American participation were to study the effects of space flight on the biorhythms of Streptomyces levoris based on a comparison of the <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> periodicity of the vegetative and spore phase within each culture, to examine the possible alteration of spore morphology and development by SEM, and to compare the effects of a 12-hr phase shift on the periodic <span class="hlt">growth</span> characteristics of this microorganism in cultures which were exchanged during the joint activities of the space flight. No uniform differences in the biorhythm of Streptomyces levoris during space flight were observed. It appears that the single most variable factor related to the experiment was the lack of temperature control for the space-flight specimens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92a2404S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92a2404S"><span>Diffusion-controlled <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of stepped interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saidi, P.; Hoyt, J. J.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>For many materials, the structure of crystalline surfaces or solid-solid interphase boundaries is characterized by an array of mobile steps separated by immobile terraces. Despite the prevalence of step-terraced interfaces a theoretical description of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> has not been completely solved. In this work the boundary element method (BEM) has been utilized to numerically compute the concentration profile in a fluid phase in contact with an infinite array of equally spaced surface steps and, under the assumption that step motion is controlled by diffusion through the fluid phase, the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is computed. It is also assumed that a boundary layer exists between the growing surface and a point in the liquid where complete convective mixing occurs. The BEM results are presented for varying step spacing, supersaturation, and boundary layer width. BEM calculations were also used to study the phenomenon of step bunching during crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span>, and it is found that, in the absence of elastic strain energy, a sufficiently large perturbation in the position of a step from its regular spacing will lead to a step bunching instability. Finally, an approximate analytic solution using a matched asymptotic expansion technique is presented for the case of a stagnant liquid or equivalently a solid-solid stepped interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26274183','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26274183"><span>Diffusion-controlled <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of stepped interfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saidi, P; Hoyt, J J</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>For many materials, the structure of crystalline surfaces or solid-solid interphase boundaries is characterized by an array of mobile steps separated by immobile terraces. Despite the prevalence of step-terraced interfaces a theoretical description of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> has not been completely solved. In this work the boundary element method (BEM) has been utilized to numerically compute the concentration profile in a fluid phase in contact with an infinite array of equally spaced surface steps and, under the assumption that step motion is controlled by diffusion through the fluid phase, the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is computed. It is also assumed that a boundary layer exists between the growing surface and a point in the liquid where complete convective mixing occurs. The BEM results are presented for varying step spacing, supersaturation, and boundary layer width. BEM calculations were also used to study the phenomenon of step bunching during crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span>, and it is found that, in the absence of elastic strain energy, a sufficiently large perturbation in the position of a step from its regular spacing will lead to a step bunching instability. Finally, an approximate analytic solution using a matched asymptotic expansion technique is presented for the case of a stagnant liquid or equivalently a solid-solid stepped interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17111542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17111542"><span>Updating Medicare's physician fees: the sustainable <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> methodology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dummit, Laura A</p> <p>2006-11-10</p> <p>Medicare's method to annually update the fees it pays physicians has been under fire for some time--specifically, since the method determined that physician fees should be reduced rather than increased. The update method, called the sustainable <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (SGR), was implemented to control the <span class="hlt">growth</span> in Medicare physician spending. Yet Congress, in response to physician concerns about beneficiary access to care, has acted to avert physician fee cuts since 2003. Although this signals dissatisfaction with the SGR methodology, there is yet to be a widely accepted physician fee update proposal that balances federal budgetary realities with the need to ensure beneficiary access. And the cost of changing the update method continues to mount, adding to the difficulties of developing a solution that meets the needs of all stakeholders. This issue brief describes the SGR methodology, the reasons why projected physician fee updates are negative, and some options that have been proposed to remedy the current situation. This issue brief is the second of two related papers on physician spending and Medicare's sustainable <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> methodology. The companion paper was published on October 9, 2006 (see Issue Brief 815, available at www.nhpf.org/pdfs_ib/IB815_PhysicianSpending_10-09-06.pdf).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004NucFu..44..999A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004NucFu..44..999A"><span>Prediction of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of VDEs in JET</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Albanese, R.; Mattei, M.; Villone, F.</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>In this paper we show that the effect of the saddle currents in the rigid sectors slows down the vertical instability of JET elongated plasmas with respect to estimates based on pure axisymmetric models. This, together with an accurate description of the passive structures, significantly improves the agreement between the theoretical predictions and the experimental results. Linearized models taking into account the three-dimensional effects of the eddy currents have been applied to various JET pulses; the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> have been estimated within an accuracy of less than 5% for plasmas with a <span class="hlt">growth</span> time longer than 2 ms. This model can be used for JET and extended to ITER-FEAT to provide a reliable test bed for assessing the performance of the vertical control system and obtain an estimate of the loads on the structures during vertical displacement events (VDEs) and plasma disruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=535731','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=535731"><span>Metabolic clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> of radioiodinated human <span class="hlt">growth</span> hormone in man</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cameron, Donald P.; Burger, Henry G.; Catt, Kevin J.; Doig, Alison</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>The nature of the disappearance of radioiodinated human <span class="hlt">growth</span> hormone (HGH) from plasma has been reexamined. The metabolic clearance <span class="hlt">rate</span> (MCR) was determined both from single injection and constant infusion studies. After single injection of highly purified radioiodinated HGH, the disappearance curve remained multiexponential during the period of study (4 hr). The shape of the curve was independent of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> hormone preparation used. Similar disappearance curves were obtained with unlabeled HGH. MCR values calculated from constant infusion studies were 203 ±7.8 liters/day per m2 and values derived from single injection studies agreed closely with this. The multiexponential nature of the disappearance curve does not permit meaningful calculation of volume of distribution or half-time of disappearance. PMID:5822572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMSM13A2188D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMSM13A2188D"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement of ULF waves in the ion foreshock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dorfman, S. E.; Hietala, H.; Astfalk, P.; Angelopoulos, V.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Waves generated by accelerated particles are important throughout our heliosphere. These particles often gain their energy at shocks via Fermi acceleration. At the Earth's bow shock, this mechanism accelerates ion beams back into the solar wind; the beams can then generate ultra low frequency (ULF) waves via an ion-ion right hand resonant instability. These waves influence the shock structure and particle acceleration, lead to coherent structures in the magnetosheath, and are a possible source of the ULF waves that play a key role in magnetospheric dynamics.ULF wave observations at the Earth's ion foreshock have been primarily conducted using missions within 30 Earth radii (Re). However, many of the events observed at this location consist of waves generated further upstream that are convected back towards the spacecraft. By contrast, the present study makes use of the two ARTEMIS spacecraft orbiting the moon at 60 Re from Earth to investigate the properties of ULF waves further upstream while they are in the linear stage of instability <span class="hlt">growth</span>.The present study represents the first satellite measurement of the ULF wave <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the upstream region. Using the flux gate magnetometer and electrostatic analyzer instruments aboard the two ARTEMIS spacecraft, we characterize crescent-shaped ion beams and relatively monochromatic ULF waves. The selected event features spacecraft separation in the solar wind flow direction along a nearly radial Interplanetary Magnetic Field. We estimate the ULF wave <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and find it to match dispersion solver predictions during the initial <span class="hlt">growth</span> time. Observed frequencies and wavenumbers are also within the predicted range. Other ULF wave properties such as the phase speed and obliquity are consistent with expectations from prior satellite measurements. Multiple frequency peaks observed in ARTEMIS data and additional events characterized by diffuse ion beams are currently under investigation.Supported by NASA & NASA Eddy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28347953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28347953"><span>Maximum specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of anammox bacteria revisited.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Lei; Narita, Yuko; Gao, Lin; Ali, Muhammad; Oshiki, Mamoru; Okabe, Satoshi</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Anammox bacteria have long been considered to be slow-growing bacteria. However, it has recently been reported that they could grow much faster than previously thought when they were cultivated in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a step-wise decrease in the solid retention time (SRT). Here, we reevaluated the maximum specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> (μmax) of three phylogenetically distant anammox bacterial species (i.e. "Ca. Brocadia sinica", "Ca. Jettenia caeni" and "Ca. Scalindua sp.") by directly measuring 16S rRNA gene copy numbers using newly developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. When free-living planktonic "Ca. B. sinica" and "Ca. J. caeni" cells were immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium alginate (SA) gel beads and cultivated in an up-flow column reactor with high substrate loading <span class="hlt">rates</span> at 37 °C, the μmax were determined to be 0.33 ± 0.02 d(-1) and 0.18 d(-1) (corresponding doubling time of 2.1 day and 3.9 day) from the exponential increases in 16S rRNA genes copy numbers, respectively. These values were faster than the fastest <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> reported for these species so far. The cultivation of anammox bacteria in gel beads was achieved less than one month without special cultivation method and selection pressure, and the exponential increase in 16S rRNA gene numbers was directly measured by qPCR with high reproducibility; therefore, the resulting μmax values were considered accurate. Taken together, the fast <span class="hlt">growth</span> is, therefore, considered to be an intrinsic kinetic property of anammox bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12158058','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12158058"><span>[Mexico City: a new course in its <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Partida Bush, V</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Mexico City, like other large cities, has entered a phase of slower <span class="hlt">growth</span> which has led to revision in the projected future population of the metropolitan area. Rapid and sustained <span class="hlt">growth</span> at a <span class="hlt">rate</span> of over 5% annually between 1921 and 1970 justified the UN projection of 31 million inhabitants by the year 2000. National projections were more conservative. If the goals of the National Population Council for internal migration were met, the population would be 23.4 million. The 1980 census showed that the population was slightly under 13 million, substantially below the 15 million projected for that year. The revised UN projection was 24.4 million in 2000, which would make Mexico City the world's largest urban conglomeration. The 1990 census indicated a population of 15 million in the Mexico City metropolitan area. The intense movement to Mexico City over the course of the twentieth century was due to the concentration of political, industrial, and financial activity, urban services and infrastructure, and public and private health, educational, and cultural facilities in the capital on the one hand, and the backwardness of many of the nation's other regions on the other. The abrupt decline in Mexico City's <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> after 1970 was due to both fertility decline and decline in in-migration. The <span class="hlt">rate</span> of out-migration has also increased. Government policies calling for decentralization of public and private enterprises and the near prohibition of new industries in the Valley of Mexico, together with growing problems in the quality of life, environment, and public safety in Mexico City have been factors in the slowing expansion. New projections based on existing trends are for a population of 17 million in the year 2000 and 18.4 million in 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24325284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24325284"><span>Female promiscuity and maternally dependent offspring <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in mammals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garratt, Michael; Brooks, Robert C; Lemaître, Jean-François; Gaillard, Jean-Michel</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Conflicts between family members are expected to influence the duration and intensity of parental care. In mammals, the majority of this care occurs as resource transfer from mothers to offspring during gestation and lactation. Mating systems can have a strong influence on the severity of familial conflict--where female promiscuity is prevalent, conflict is expected to be higher between family members, causing offspring to demand more resources. If offspring are capable of manipulating their mothers and receive resources in proportion to their demands, resource transfer should increase with elevated promiscuity. We tested this prediction, unexplored across mammals, using a comparative approach. The total durations of gestation and lactation were not related to testes mass, a reliable proxy of female promiscuity across taxa. Offspring <span class="hlt">growth</span> during gestation, however, and weaning mass, were positively correlated with testes mass, suggesting that offspring gain resources from their mothers at faster <span class="hlt">rates</span> when familial conflict is greater. During gestation, the relationship between offspring <span class="hlt">growth</span> and testes mass was also related to placenta morphology, with a stronger relationship between testes mass and <span class="hlt">growth</span> observed in species with a less invasive placenta. Familial conflict could have a pervasive influence on patterns of parental care in mammals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5352820','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5352820"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, transmission mode and virulence in human pathogens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cornwallis, Charlie K.; Buckling, Angus; West, Stuart A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The harm that pathogens cause to hosts during infection, termed virulence, varies across species from negligible to a high likelihood of rapid death. Classic theory for the evolution of virulence is based on a trade-off between pathogen <span class="hlt">growth</span>, transmission and host survival, which predicts that higher within-host <span class="hlt">growth</span> causes increased transmission and higher virulence. However, using data from 61 human pathogens, we found the opposite correlation to the expected positive correlation between pathogen <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and virulence. We found that (i) slower growing pathogens are significantly more virulent than faster growing pathogens, (ii) inhaled pathogens and pathogens that infect via skin wounds are significantly more virulent than pathogens that are ingested, but (iii) there is no correlation between symptoms of infection that aid transmission (such as diarrhoea and coughing) and virulence. Overall, our results emphasize how virulence can be influenced by mechanistic life-history details, especially transmission mode, that determine how parasites infect and exploit their hosts. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289261</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27103615','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27103615"><span>Adaptation to Low Temperature Exposure Increases Metabolic <span class="hlt">Rates</span> Independently of <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Caroline M; Szejner-Sigal, Andre; Morgan, Theodore J; Edison, Arthur S; Allison, David B; Hahn, Daniel A</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Metabolic cold adaptation is a pattern where ectotherms from cold, high-latitude, or -altitude habitats have higher metabolic <span class="hlt">rates</span> than ectotherms from warmer habitats. When found, metabolic cold adaptation is often attributed to countergradient selection, wherein short, cool growing seasons select for a compensatory increase in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and development times of ectotherms. Yet, ectotherms in high-latitude and -altitude environments face many challenges in addition to thermal and time constraints on lifecycles. In addition to short, cool growing seasons, high-latitude and - altitude environments are characterized by regular exposure to extreme low temperatures, which cause ectotherms to enter a transient state of immobility termed chill coma. The ability to resume activity quickly after chill coma increases with latitude and altitude in patterns consistent with local adaptation to cold conditions. We show that artificial selection for fast and slow chill coma recovery among lines of the fly Drosophila melanogaster also affects <span class="hlt">rates</span> of respiratory metabolism. Cold-hardy fly lines, with fast recovery from chill coma, had higher respiratory metabolic <span class="hlt">rates</span> than control lines, with cold-susceptible slow-recovering lines having the lowest metabolic <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Fast chill coma recovery was also associated with higher respiratory metabolism in a set of lines derived from a natural population. Although their metabolic <span class="hlt">rates</span> were higher than control lines, fast-recovering cold-hardy lines did not have faster <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> or development times than control lines. This suggests that raised metabolic <span class="hlt">rates</span> in high-latitude and -altitude species may be driven by adaptation to extreme low temperatures, illustrating the importance of moving "Beyond the Mean". © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4930064','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4930064"><span>Adaptation to Low Temperature Exposure Increases Metabolic <span class="hlt">Rates</span> Independently of <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Williams, Caroline M.; Szejner-Sigal, Andre; Morgan, Theodore J.; Edison, Arthur S.; Allison, David B.; Hahn, Daniel A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Metabolic cold adaptation is a pattern where ectotherms from cold, high-latitude, or -altitude habitats have higher metabolic <span class="hlt">rates</span> than ectotherms from warmer habitats. When found, metabolic cold adaptation is often attributed to countergradient selection, wherein short, cool growing seasons select for a compensatory increase in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and development times of ectotherms. Yet, ectotherms in high-latitude and -altitude environments face many challenges in addition to thermal and time constraints on lifecycles. In addition to short, cool growing seasons, high-latitude and - altitude environments are characterized by regular exposure to extreme low temperatures, which cause ectotherms to enter a transient state of immobility termed chill coma. The ability to resume activity quickly after chill coma increases with latitude and altitude in patterns consistent with local adaptation to cold conditions. We show that artificial selection for fast and slow chill coma recovery among lines of the fly Drosophila melanogaster also affects <span class="hlt">rates</span> of respiratory metabolism. Cold-hardy fly lines, with fast recovery from chill coma, had higher respiratory metabolic <span class="hlt">rates</span> than control lines, with cold-susceptible slow-recovering lines having the lowest metabolic <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Fast chill coma recovery was also associated with higher respiratory metabolism in a set of lines derived from a natural population. Although their metabolic <span class="hlt">rates</span> were higher than control lines, fast-recovering cold-hardy lines did not have faster <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> or development times than control lines. This suggests that raised metabolic <span class="hlt">rates</span> in high-latitude and -altitude species may be driven by adaptation to extreme low temperatures, illustrating the importance of moving “Beyond the Mean”. PMID:27103615</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16426690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16426690"><span>Examining structural breaks and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in international health expenditures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Narayan, Paresh Kumar</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in examining health expenditures. In this paper, we study the behaviour of health expenditures in the G3 countries (USA, the UK, and Japan) and three European countries (the UK, Switzerland and Spain) over the period 1960-2000 from a different perspective, in that we examine: (1) whether there is a common structural break in health expenditures across the G3 and European countries; (2) whether structural breaks have slowed down health expenditure <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in these countries or vice versa. Our main findings are that: (1) health expenditures share a common break in both bivariate and trivariate cases, and structural breaks and break intervals suggest that either one or a combination of events (second oil price shock, the 1987 stock market crash and/or recessions) have contributed to the commonality of break in health expenditures in the G3, while the oil price shocks have been instrumental in the commonality of breaks for the European countries; (2) except for the UK, structural breaks have slowed down <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in health expenditures for the USA, Japan, Switzerland and Spain.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840020555&hterms=Dendrite+growth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DDendrite%2Bgrowth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840020555&hterms=Dendrite+growth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DDendrite%2Bgrowth"><span>The Effect of <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> on Interface Morphology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Trivedi, R.; Somboonsuk, K.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Since significantly different solidification structures of a given alloy can be obtained by varying experimental <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, it is desirable to understand the basic factors which control the formation and stability of these microstructures when conditions are altered. Directional solidification experiments are described and the results obtained in metallic and transparent organic systems are presented. Emphasis is on the characteristics of dendritic structures obtained under different solidification conditions. Specifically, the effect of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> on the primary dendritic spacing, the secondary dendrite spacing, and the dendrite tip radius is discussed. It is shown that significant changes in the primary spacing are observed when a dendrite to cellular transition takes place at lower velocities. It is found that the primary cellular spacing is much smaller than the primary dendrite spacing so that a maximum in the primary spacing occurs as a function of velocity at the dendrite-cellular transition. A theoretical model is also described which quantitatively explains various microstructural features of dendritic and cellular structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..CAL.D1001L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..CAL.D1001L"><span>Crystallization of Solids in the Presence of Anisotropic <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> and Gaussian Nucleation <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lokovic, Kimberly; Bill, Andreas; Bergmann, Ralf</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>The grain size distribution allows characterizing quantitatively the microstructure of an amorphous solid at different stages of crystallization. We review the theory developed recently for the grain size distribution (GSD) [1] and present two extensions of the model. In the first generalization, we replace the isotropic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> by an anisotropic <span class="hlt">rate</span> that leads to the formation of ellipsoidal grains. Different anisotropic <span class="hlt">growth</span> mechanisms are considered. We obtain an analytical expression for the GSD when the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> leads to a change of volume leaving the shape of grains invariant [2]. In the second generalization, we study how the GSD is affected by replacing the Dirac-type source term of nuclei by a more physical Gaussian-type source. We use that model to analyze the GSD at early stages of crystallization.[4pt] [1] A.V.Teran, R.B.Bergmann and A.Bill, Phys. Rev. B 81, 075319 (2010).[0pt] [2] K.S.Lokovic, R.B.Bergmann and A.Bill, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1245, A16-07 (2010).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25070864','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25070864"><span>Perspectives on massive coral <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in a changing ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lough, Janice M; Cantin, Neal E</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The tropical ocean environment is changing at an unprecedented <span class="hlt">rate</span>, with warming and severe tropical cyclones creating obvious impacts to coral reefs within the last few decades and projections of acidification raising concerns for the future of these iconic and economically important ecosystems. Documenting variability and detecting change in global and regional climate relies upon high-quality observational records of climate variables supplemented, prior to the mid-19th century, with reconstructions from various sources of proxy climate information. Here we review how annual density banding patterns that are recorded in the skeletons of massive reef-building corals have been used to document environmental change and impacts within coral reefs. Massive corals provide a historical perspective of continuous calcification processes that pre-date most ecological observations of coral reefs. High-density stress bands, abrupt declines in annual linear extension, and evidence of partial mortality within the skeletal <span class="hlt">growth</span> record reveal signatures of catastrophic stress events that have recently been attributed to mass bleaching events caused by unprecedented thermal stress. Comparison of recent trends in annual calcification with century-scale baseline calcification <span class="hlt">rates</span> reveals that the frequency of <span class="hlt">growth</span> anomalies has increased since the late 1990s throughout most of the world's coral reef ecosystems. Continuous coral <span class="hlt">growth</span> histories provide valuable retrospective information on the coral response to environmental change and the consequences of anthropogenic climate change. Co-ordinated efforts to synthesize and combine global calcification histories will greatly enhance our understanding of current calcification responses to a changing ocean. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221253','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221253"><span>Non-linear stochastic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and redshift space distortions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David</p> <p>2015-04-09</p> <p>The linear <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = ∇ ∙ v(x,t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc<sup>-1</sup> to 25 per cent at k ~ 0.45 h Mpc<sup>-1</sup> at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 10<sup>12</sup> M<sub>⊙</sub> h<sup>-1</sup>, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear <span class="hlt">growth</span> effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -f<sub>LT</sub>δ, where f<sub>LT </sub>is the linear <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc<sup>-1</sup>. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the θ – δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of f<sub>LT</sub> from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of f<sub>LT</sub> extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1221253-non-linear-stochastic-growth-rates-redshift-space-distortions','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1221253-non-linear-stochastic-growth-rates-redshift-space-distortions"><span>Non-linear stochastic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and redshift space distortions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Jennings, Elise; Jennings, David</p> <p>2015-04-09</p> <p>The linear <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is commonly defined through a simple deterministic relation between the velocity divergence and the matter overdensity in the linear regime. We introduce a formalism that extends this to a non-linear, stochastic relation between θ = ∇ ∙ v(x,t)/aH and δ. This provides a new phenomenological approach that examines the conditional mean <θ|δ>, together with the fluctuations of θ around this mean. We also measure these stochastic components using N-body simulations and find they are non-negative and increase with decreasing scale from ~10 per cent at k < 0.2 h Mpc-1 to 25 per cent at kmore » ~ 0.45 h Mpc-1 at z = 0. Both the stochastic relation and non-linearity are more pronounced for haloes, M ≤ 5 × 1012 M⊙ h-1, compared to the dark matter at z = 0 and 1. Non-linear <span class="hlt">growth</span> effects manifest themselves as a rotation of the mean <θ|δ> away from the linear theory prediction -fLTδ, where fLT is the linear <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. This rotation increases with wavenumber, k, and we show that it can be well-described by second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) fork < 0.1 h Mpc-1. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the θ – δ relation is not so simply described by 2LPT, and we discuss its impact on measurements of fLT from two-point statistics in redshift space. Furthermore, given that the relationship between δ and θ is stochastic and non-linear, this will have implications for the interpretation and precision of fLT extracted using models which assume a linear, deterministic expression.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3759705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3759705"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and compensatory <span class="hlt">growth</span> on body composition in lambs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Turgeon, O A; Brink, D R; Bartle, S J; Klopfenstein, T J; Ferrell, C L</p> <p>1986-09-01</p> <p>Fifty lambs were used in a comparative slaughter experiment to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and compensatory <span class="hlt">growth</span> on body composition. The study consisted of a growing and a finishing phase. During the growing phase, lambs (20 to 30 kg) were fed three different concentrate levels (30, 50 or 70%) to gain at three different <span class="hlt">rates</span> (slow, medium and rapid). The finishing phase was evaluated in two periods (early, 30 to 38 kg; late, 38 to 45 kg). All lambs received 70% concentrate diets during the finishing phase. Groups of five lambs were sacrificed at 20, 30, 38 and 45 kg fleece-free weights for whole-body chemical analysis. At 30 kg live weight, lambs on a rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span> diet were the fattest (P less than .01) and contained the least protein (P less than .05) in their empty bodies. The slower the lambs gained during the growing phase, the greater (P less than .05) was the response in <span class="hlt">rate</span> of gain and feed efficiency during both periods of the finishing phase. Compensatory <span class="hlt">growth</span> occurred in two stages; a greater proportion of protein gain was made early while a greater proportion of the fat gain was made during the late period of the finishing phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JCrGr.171..559H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JCrGr.171..559H"><span>Protein crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are face-specifically modified by structurally related contaminants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirschler, Joachim; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan Carlos</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of turkey egg-white lysozyme (TEWL) crystal faces have been measured in uncontaminated solutions as well as in solutions contaminated by the homologous hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL). Comparison of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> from uncontaminated and contaminated solutions shows that the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the {112} faces drops significantly in the presence of the contaminant, whereas the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the {110} faces does not change. This demonstrates that HEWL acts specifically on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> process of the {112} faces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14994475','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14994475"><span>[Specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of energy metabolism in the ontogenesis of axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vladimirova, I G; Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Alekseeva, T A; Radzinskaia, L I</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Concordant changes in the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of energy metabolism and specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of axolotls have been revealed. Several periods of ontogeny are distinguished, which differ in the ratio of energy metabolism to body weight and, therefore, are described by different allometric equations. It is suggested that the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of an animal determines the type of dependence of energy metabolism on body weight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812908G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812908G"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> controlled barium partitioning in calcite and aragonite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goetschl, Katja Elisabeth; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Baldermann, Andre; Purgstaller, Bettina; Dietzel, Martin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The barium (Ba) content and the Ba/Ca molar ratios in biogenic and abiotic carbonates have been widely used from the scientific community as a geochemical proxy especially in marine and early diagenetic settings. The Ba content of carbonate minerals has been earlier associated to changes in oceanic circulation that may have been caused by upwelling, changes in weathering regimes and river-runoff as well as melt water discharge. The physicochemical controls of Ba ion incorporation in the two most abundant CaCO3 polymorphs found in Earth's surface environments, i.e. calcite and aragonite, have adequately been studied only for calcite. These earlier studies (i.e. [1]) suggest that at increasing <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, Ba partitioning in calcite is increasing as well. In contrast, to date the effect of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> on the partitioning of Ba in aragonite remains questionable, despite the fact that this mineral phase is the predominant carbonate-forming polymorph in shallow marine environments. To shed light on the mechanisms controlling Ba ion uptake in carbonates in this study we performed steady-state Ba co-precipitation experiments with calcite and aragonite at 25°C. The obtained results for the partitioning of Ba in calcite are in good agreement with those reported earlier by [1], whereas those for aragonite indicate a reduction of Ba partitioning at elevated aragonite <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, with the partitioning coefficient value between solid and fluid to be approaching the unity. This finding is good agreement with the formation of a solid solution in the aragonite-witherite system, owing to the isostructural crystallography of the two mineral phases. Moreover, our data set provides new insights that are required for reconstructing the evolution of the Ba content of pristine marine versus diagenetically altered carbonate minerals commonly occurring in marine subfloor settings, as the thermodynamically less stable aragonite will transform to calcite enriched in Ba, whilst affecting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16245572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16245572"><span>[Calculating the intrinsic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>: comparison of definition and model].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Voronov, D A</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>It was shown that well known equation r = ln[N(t2)/N(t1)]/(t2 - t1) is the definition of the average value of intrinsic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of population r within any given interval of time t2-t1 and changing arbitrarity its numbers N(t). The common opinion considering the equation as suitable only for exponentially growing population was found to be incorrect. The fundamentally different approach is based on the calculation of r within the framework of demographic model, realized as Euler - Lotka equation or population projection matrices. However this model requires simultaneous realization of several assumptions improbable for natural populations: exponential change in population size, stable age structure and maintaining constant age-dependent birth and death <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The calculation of r by definition requires the data on the dynamics of population numbers, whereas calculation on the basis of the model requires the demographic tables of birth and death <span class="hlt">rate</span>, but not the population numbers. With the example of American ginseng it was shown that evalution of r by definition and model approaches could produce opposite results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23677351','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23677351"><span>Does seed mass drive the differences in relative <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> between <span class="hlt">growth</span> forms?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Houghton, Jennie; Thompson, Ken; Rees, Mark</p> <p>2013-07-07</p> <p>The idea that herbaceous plants have higher relative <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> (RGRs) compared with woody plants is fundamental to many of the most influential theories in plant ecology. This difference in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is thought to reflect systematic variation in physiology, allocation and leaf construction. Previous studies documenting this effect have, however, ignored differences in seed mass. As woody species often have larger seeds and RGR is negatively correlated with seed mass, it is entirely possible the lower RGRs observed in woody species is a consequence of having larger seeds rather than different <span class="hlt">growth</span> strategies. Using a synthesis of the published literature, we explored the relationship between RGR and <span class="hlt">growth</span> form, accounting for the effects of seed mass and study-specific effects (e.g. duration of study and pot volume), using a mixed-effects model. The model showed that herbaceous species do indeed have higher RGRs than woody species, and that the difference was independent of seed mass, thus at all seed masses, herbaceous species on average grow faster than woody ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975219','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975219"><span>Extended Simulations of Graphene <span class="hlt">Growth</span> with Updated <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Coefficients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Whitesides, R; You, X; Frenklach, M</p> <p>2010-03-18</p> <p>New simulations of graphene <span class="hlt">growth</span> in flame environments are presented. The simulations employ a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm coupled to molecular mechanics (MM) geometry optimization to track individual graphenic species as they evolve. Focus is given to incorporation of five-member rings and resulting curvature and edge defects. The model code has been re-written to be more computationally efficient enabling a larger set of simulations to be run, decreasing stochastic fluctuations in the averaged results. The model also includes updated <span class="hlt">rate</span> coefficients for graphene edge reactions recently published in the literature. The new simulations are compared to results from the previous model as well as to hydrogen to carbon ratios recorded in experiment and calculated with alternate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://deepseacoraldata.noaa.gov/library/2015-state-of-dsc-report-folder/Ch10_Spotlight_Prouty.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://deepseacoraldata.noaa.gov/library/2015-state-of-dsc-report-folder/Ch10_Spotlight_Prouty.pdf"><span>Age, <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and paleoclimate studies of deep sea corals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Prouty, Nancy G; Roark, E. Brendan; Andrews, Allen; Robinson, Laura; Hill, Tessa; Sherwood, Owen; Williams, Branwen; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Fallon, Stewart</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Deep-water corals are some of the slowest growing, longest-lived skeletal accreting marine organisms. These habitat-forming species support diverse faunal assemblages that include commercially and ecologically important organisms. Therefore, effective management and conservation strategies for deep-sea corals can be informed by precise and accurate age, <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and lifespan characteristics for proper assessment of vulnerability and recovery from perturbations. This is especially true for the small number of commercially valuable, and potentially endangered, species that are part of the black and precious coral fisheries (Tsounis et al. 2010). In addition to evaluating time scales of recovery from disturbance or exploitation, accurate age and <span class="hlt">growth</span> estimates are essential for understanding the life history and ecology of these habitat-forming corals. Given that longevity is a key factor for population maintenance and fishery sustainability, partly due to limited and complex genetic flow among coral populations separated by great distances, accurate age structure for these deep-sea coral communities is essential for proper, long-term resource management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2732687','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2732687"><span>A Bayesian analysis of the effect of selection for <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> on <span class="hlt">growth</span> curves in rabbits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Blasco, Agustín; Piles, Miriam; Varona, Luis</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Gompertz <span class="hlt">growth</span> curves were fitted to the data of 137 rabbits from control (C) and selected (S) lines. The animals came from a synthetic rabbit line selected for an increased <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The embryos from generations 3 and 4 were frozen and thawed to be contemporary of rabbits born in generation 10. Group C was the offspring of generations 3 and 4, and group S was the contemporary offspring of generation 10. The animals were weighed individually twice a week during the first four weeks of life, and once a week thereafter, until 20 weeks of age. Subsequently, the males were weighed weekly until 40 weeks of age. The random samples of the posterior distributions of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> curve parameters were drawn by using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. As a consequence of selection, the selected animals were heavier than the C animals throughout the entire <span class="hlt">growth</span> curve. Adult body weight, estimated as a parameter of the Gompertz curve, was 7% higher in the selected line. The other parameters of the Gompertz curve were scarcely affected by selection. When selected and control <span class="hlt">growth</span> curves are represented in a metabolic scale, all differences disappear. PMID:12605849</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017098','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017098"><span>Climate Forcing <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span>: Doubling Down on Our Faustian Bargain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Rahmstorf et al 's (2012) conclusion that observed climate change is comparable to projections, and in some cases exceeds projections, allows further inferences if we can quantify changing climate forcings and compare those with projections. The largest climate forcing is caused by well-mixed long-lived greenhouse gases. Here we illustrate trends of these gases and their climate forcings, and we discuss implications. We focus on quantities that are accurately measured, and we include comparison with fixed scenarios, which helps reduce common misimpressions about how climate forcings are changing. Annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions have shot up in the past decade at about 3/yr, double the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the prior three decades (figure 1). The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> falls above the range of the IPCC (2001) 'Marker' scenarios, although emissions are still within the entire range considered by the IPCC SRES (2000). The surge in emissions is due to increased coal use (blue curve in figure 1), which now accounts for more than 40 of fossil fuel CO2 emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17025719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17025719"><span>Percolation model for <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of aggregates and its application for business firm <span class="hlt">growth</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fu, Dongfeng; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Salinger, Michael A; Stanley, H Eugene</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>Motivated by recent empirical studies of business firm <span class="hlt">growth</span>, we develop a dynamic percolation model which captures some of the features of the economical system--i.e., merging and splitting of business firms--represented as aggregates on a d-dimensional lattice. We find the steady-state distribution of the aggregate size and explore how this distribution depends on the model parameters. We find that at the critical threshold, the standard deviation of the aggregate <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, sigma, increases with aggregate size S as sigma approximately S(beta), where beta can be explained in terms of the connectedness length exponent nu and the fractal dimension d(f), with beta=1(2nud(f)) approximately 0.20 for d=2 and 0.125 for d-->infinity. The distributions of aggregate <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> have a sharp peak at the center and pronounced wings extending over many standard deviations, giving the distribution a tent-shape form--the Laplace distribution. The distributions for different aggregate sizes scaled by their standard deviations collapse onto the same curve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22609666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22609666"><span>Initial-<span class="hlt">rate</span> based method for estimating the maximum heterotrophic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> parameter (μHmax).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fall, C; Hooijmans, C M; Esparza-Soto, M; Olguin, M T; Bâ, K M</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Currently, the method most used for measuring the maximum specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (μ(Hmax)) of heterotrophic biomass is by respirometry, using <span class="hlt">growth</span> batch tests performed at high food/microorganism ratio. No other technique has been suggested, although the former approach was criticized for providing kinetic constants that could be unrepresentative of the original biomass. An alternative method (seed-increments) is proposed, which relies on measuring the initial <span class="hlt">rates</span> of respiration (r(O2)(_ini)) at different seeding levels, in a single batch, and in the presence of excess readily biodegradable substrate (S(S)). The ASM1-based underlying equations were developed, which showed that μ(Hmax) could be estimated through the slope of the linear function of r(O2)(_ini)·(V(WW)+v(ML)) vs v(ML) (volume of mixed liquor inoculum); V(WW) represent the wastewater volume added. The procedure was tested, being easy to apply; the postulated linearity was constantly observed and the method is claimed to measure the characteristics of the biomass of interest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15975786','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15975786"><span>Effect of compost temperature on oxygen uptake <span class="hlt">rate</span>, specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and enzymatic activity of microorganisms in dairy cattle manure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miyatake, Fumihito; Iwabuchi, Kazunori</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Investigations were carried out to find out the relationship between temperature and microbial activity in dairy cattle manure composting using oxygen uptake <span class="hlt">rate</span>, specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and enzymatic activities during autothermal and isothermal composting experiments. In autothermal composting, oxygen uptake <span class="hlt">rate</span> and specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> were found to be most intensive in order of 43 degrees C, 60 degrees C and 54 degrees C. Isothermal composting at 54 degrees C resulted highest levels of enzymatic activity and promoted the volatile solids reduction. Based on the maximum enzymatic activity, specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> appeared to be more closely linked with microbial activity in compost than with oxygen uptake <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The enhancement of specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, enzymatic activity and volatile solids reduction were induced at 54 degrees C in cattle manure composting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990JCrGr.102..245R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990JCrGr.102..245R"><span>Strain variation in the ?100? <span class="hlt">growth</span> sectors of potash alum single crystals and its relationship to <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dispersion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ristić, R. I.; Sherwood, J. N.; Shripathi, T.</p> <p>1990-04-01</p> <p>X-ray topographic studies of <span class="hlt">growth</span> sector geometry in {110} sections of large potash alum crystals confirm the occurrence of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dispersion of the {100} <span class="hlt">growth</span> fronts. Contrary to previous speculations that this variation arises as a consequence of the refraction of screw dislocations in and out of these sectors we show that the dispersion occurs even in the absence of this effect and despite the presence of continuously propagating edge dislocations in the sectors. Strain mapping using double crystal diffractometry yields a strong correlation between increase of lattice strain along the sector and cessation of <span class="hlt">growth</span>. This leads to the speculation that the potential cause of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dispersion is the absorption of undetectable amounts of impurities at the <span class="hlt">growth</span> interface to generate the observed strain which in turn influences the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (or vice versa). This speculation is in agreement with other observations of the influence of lattice strain on crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14572658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14572658"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> regulation of lac operon expression in Escherichia coli is cyclic AMP dependent.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuo, Jong-Tar; Chang, Yu-Jen; Tseng, Ching-Ping</p> <p>2003-10-23</p> <p>In contrast to the ribosomal RNA gene expression increasing with <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, transcription of the lac operon is downregulated by cell <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. In continuous culture, <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> regulation of lac promoter was independent of carbon substrate used and its location on the chromosome. Since the lac operon is activated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which decreases with increasing cell <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, expression of plac-lacZ reporter fusion was analyzed in cya mutant under various <span class="hlt">growth</span> conditions. The results demonstrated that expression of plac-lacZ in cya mutant was both lower and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> independent. In addition, ppGpp (guanosine tetraphosphate) was not involved in the mechanism of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> regulation of the lac promoter. Thus, the results of this study indicate that cAMP mediates the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent regulation of lac operon expression in Escherichia coli.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=273458','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=273458"><span>Body composition of piglets exhibiting different <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">growth</span> and composition of the neonatal pig is of interest because of potential impact on subsequent <span class="hlt">growth</span> and finally, composition at market weight. The purpose of this study was to compare at weaning the <span class="hlt">growth</span> and body composition of the largest and smallest pigs (excluding runts) from each o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24402566','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24402566"><span>Simultaneous identification of <span class="hlt">growth</span> law and estimation of its <span class="hlt">rate</span> parameter for biological <span class="hlt">growth</span> data: a new approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhowmick, Amiya Ranjan; Chattopadhyay, Gaurangadeb; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Scientific formalizations of the notion of <span class="hlt">growth</span> and measurement of the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> in living organisms are age-old problems. The most frequently used metric, "Average Relative <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span>" is invariant under the choice of the underlying <span class="hlt">growth</span> model. Theoretically, the estimated <span class="hlt">rate</span> parameter and relative <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> remain constant for all mutually exclusive and exhaustive time intervals if the underlying law is exponential but not for other common <span class="hlt">growth</span> laws (e.g., logistic, Gompertz, power, general logistic). We propose a new <span class="hlt">growth</span> metric specific to a particular <span class="hlt">growth</span> law and show that it is capable of identifying the underlying <span class="hlt">growth</span> model. The metric remains constant over different time intervals if the underlying law is true, while the extent of its variation reflects the departure of the assumed model from the true one. We propose a new estimator of the relative <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, which is more sensitive to the true underlying model than the existing one. The advantage of using this is that it can detect crucial intervals where the <span class="hlt">growth</span> process is erratic and unusual. It may help experimental scientists to study more closely the effect of the parameters responsible for the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of the organism/population under study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1574....8N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1574....8N"><span>Estimation of uncertainty for fatigue <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> at cryogenic temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nyilas, Arman; Weiss, Klaus P.; Urbach, Elisabeth; Marcinek, Dawid J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (FCGR) measurement data for high strength austenitic alloys at cryogenic environment suffer in general from a high degree of data scatter in particular at ΔK regime below 25 MPa√m. Using standard mathematical smoothing techniques forces ultimately a linear relationship at stage II regime (crack propagation <span class="hlt">rate</span> versus ΔK) in a double log field called Paris law. However, the bandwidth of uncertainty relies somewhat arbitrary upon the researcher's interpretation. The present paper deals with the use of the uncertainty concept on FCGR data as given by GUM (Guidance of Uncertainty in Measurements), which since 1993 is a recommended procedure to avoid subjective estimation of error bands. Within this context, the lack of a true value addresses to evaluate the best estimate by a statistical method using the crack propagation law as a mathematical measurement model equation and identifying all input parameters. Each parameter necessary for the measurement technique was processed using the Gaussian distribution law by partial differentiation of the terms to estimate the sensitivity coefficients. The combined standard uncertainty determined for each term with its computed sensitivity coefficients finally resulted in measurement uncertainty of the FCGR test result. The described procedure of uncertainty has been applied within the framework of ITER on a recent FCGR measurement for high strength and high toughness Type 316LN material tested at 7 K using a standard ASTM proportional compact tension specimen. The determined values of Paris law constants such as C0 and the exponent m as best estimate along with the their uncertainty value may serve a realistic basis for the life expectancy of cyclic loaded members.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMP....55h3305P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMP....55h3305P"><span>Long-run <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in a random multiplicative model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pirjol, Dan</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We consider the long-run <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the average value of a random multiplicative process xi + 1 = aixi where the multipliers a_i=1+ρ exp (σ W_i - 1/2σ ^2 t_i) have Markovian dependence given by the exponential of a standard Brownian motion Wi. The average value ⟨xn⟩ is given by the grand partition function of a one-dimensional lattice gas with two-body linear attractive interactions placed in a uniform field. We study the Lyapunov exponent λ =lim _{nrArr infty } 1/n log < x_nrangle, at fixed β = 1/2 σ^2 t_n n, and show that it is given by the equation of state of the lattice gas in thermodynamical equilibrium. The Lyapunov exponent has discontinuous partial derivatives along a curve in the (ρ, β) plane ending at a critical point (ρC, βC) which is related to a phase transition in the equivalent lattice gas. Using the equivalence of the lattice gas with a bosonic system, we obtain the exact solution for the equation of state in the thermodynamical limit n → ∞.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22306202','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22306202"><span>Long-run <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in a random multiplicative model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pirjol, Dan</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We consider the long-run <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the average value of a random multiplicative process x{sub i+1} = a{sub i}x{sub i} where the multipliers a{sub i}=1+ρexp(σW{sub i}₋1/2 σ²t{sub i}) have Markovian dependence given by the exponential of a standard Brownian motion W{sub i}. The average value (x{sub n}) is given by the grand partition function of a one-dimensional lattice gas with two-body linear attractive interactions placed in a uniform field. We study the Lyapunov exponent λ=lim{sub n→∞}1/n log(x{sub n}), at fixed β=1/2 σ²t{sub n}n, and show that it is given by the equation of state of the lattice gas in thermodynamical equilibrium. The Lyapunov exponent has discontinuous partial derivatives along a curve in the (ρ, β) plane ending at a critical point (ρ{sub C}, β{sub C}) which is related to a phase transition in the equivalent lattice gas. Using the equivalence of the lattice gas with a bosonic system, we obtain the exact solution for the equation of state in the thermodynamical limit n → ∞.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002APS..DPPCP1047K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002APS..DPPCP1047K"><span>Zonal Flow <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span>: Modulational Instability vs Statistical Steady States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krommes, J. A.; Kolesnikov, R. A.</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>The nonlinear <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of zonal flows has been the subject of various investigations. The calculations can be grouped into two major classes: those based on modulational instability of a fixed pump wave;(L. Chen et al., Phys. Plasmas 7), 3129 (2000); P. N. Guzdar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 015001 (2001); C. N. Lashmore-Davies et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 5121 (2001). and those employing statistical formalism to describe a self-consistent, energy-conserving steady state.(J. A. Krommes and C.--B. Kim, Phys. Rev. E 62), 8508 (2000), and references therein. The results from these two approaches do not necessarily agree either in their dependence on parameters like the plasma pressure β, on the threshold for instability, or even, in some cases, on the sign. The reasons for such disagreements are isolated, and it is shown to what extent the steady-state statistical approach can be reconciled with a generic modulational instability calculation. Generalizations of the statistical formalism to the multifield systems appropriate for finite β are described. Specific calculations based on model systems are used to illustrate the general arguments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16268164','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16268164"><span>Validation of otolith <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> analysis using cadmium-exposed larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rose, Wendy L; Hobbs, James A; Nisbet, Roger M; Green, Peter G; Cherr, Gary N; Anderson, Susan L</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>We applied otolith <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> analysis to an investigation of cadmium (Cd)-exposed larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) to determine if <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was a more sensitive measure than somatic <span class="hlt">growth</span> (body wt or length). Topsmelt otoliths, calcareous concretions in the fish inner ear, formed daily increments, and otolith <span class="hlt">growth</span> was proportional to somatic <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Nine-day posthatch larval topsmelt were exposed to Cd (0-100 ppb) in seawater for 14 d and fed low or high ration levels in separate experiments. Whereas Cd impaired topsmelt <span class="hlt">growth</span> and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, the extent of <span class="hlt">growth</span> reduction was dependent on the ration level. At high ration levels, otolith and somatic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of fish exposed to Cd (50 and 100 ppb) were significantly reduced; however, no differences in final mean weight and only marginal differences in final mean length of Cd-exposed topsmelt were observed. At low ration levels, we detected reductions in both somatic <span class="hlt">growth</span> as well as otolith and somatic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of topsmelt exposed to Cd (50 and 100 ppb). Otolith <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> analysis was more sensitive than <span class="hlt">growth</span> measurements of Cd-exposed topsmelt, because it allowed the detection of small differences in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> even when differences in somatic <span class="hlt">growth</span> were not observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/15771','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/15771"><span>Canopy disturbance intervals, early <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and canopy accession trends of oak-dominated old-<span class="hlt">growth</span> forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>James S. Rentch; Ray R., Jr. Hicks</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Using a radial <span class="hlt">growth</span> averaging technique, changes in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of overstory oaks were used to quantify canopy disturbance events at five old-<span class="hlt">growth</span> sites. On average, at least one canopy disturbance occurred on these sites every 3 years; larger multiple-tree disturbances occurred every 17 years. Although there was some variation by site and by historical period,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16892976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16892976"><span>Evolution of intrinsic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>: metabolic costs drive trade-offs between <span class="hlt">growth</span> and swimming performance in Menidia menidia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arnott, Stephen A; Chiba, Susumu; Conover, David O</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>There is strong evidence that genetic capacity for <span class="hlt">growth</span> evolves toward an optimum rather than an absolute maximum. This implies that fast <span class="hlt">growth</span> has a cost and that trade-offs occur between <span class="hlt">growth</span> and other life-history traits, but the fundamental mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous work on the Atlantic silverside fish Menidia menidia has demonstrated a trade-off between <span class="hlt">growth</span> and swimming performance. We hypothesize that the trade-off derives from the competing metabolic demands associated with <span class="hlt">growth</span> and swimming activity. We tested this by measuring standard metabolic <span class="hlt">rate</span> (M(STD)), maximum sustainable metabolic <span class="hlt">rate</span> (M(ACT)) and metabolic scope of laboratory-reared silversides originating from two geographically distinct populations with well-documented differences in genetic capacity for <span class="hlt">growth</span>. The fast-<span class="hlt">growth</span> genotype had a significantly greater M(STD) than the slow-<span class="hlt">growth</span> genotype, but a similar MACT when swum to near exhaustion. The scope for activity of the fast-<span class="hlt">growth</span> genotype was lower than that of the slow-<span class="hlt">growth</span> genotype. Furthermore, the fast-<span class="hlt">growth</span> genotype eats larger meals, thereby incurring a greater postprandial oxygen demand. We conclude that a metabolic trade-off occurs between <span class="hlt">growth</span> and other metabolic demands and that this trade-off provides a general mechanism underlying the evolution of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960051365&hterms=dead+zones&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddead%2Bzones','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960051365&hterms=dead+zones&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddead%2Bzones"><span>The Averaged Face <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> of lysozyme Crystals: The Effect of Temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nadarajah, Arunan; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of the averaged or macroscopic face <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of lysozyme crystals are reported here for the (110) face of tetragonal lysozyme, at three sets of pH and salt concentrations, with temperatures over a 4-22 C range for several protein concentrations. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> trends with supersaturation were similar to previous microscopic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurements. However, it was found that at high super-saturations the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> attain a maximum and then start decreasing. No 'dead zone' was observed but the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were found to approach zero asymptotically at very low super-saturations. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> data also displayed a dependence on pH and salt concentration which could not be characterized solely by the super-saturation. A complete mechanism for lysozyme crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span>, involving the formation of an aggregate <span class="hlt">growth</span> unit, mass transport of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> unit to the crystal interface and faceted crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> by <span class="hlt">growth</span> unit addition, is suggested. Such a mechanism may provide a more consistent explanation for the observed <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> trends than those suggested by other investigators. The nutrient solution interactions leading to the formation of the aggregate <span class="hlt">growth</span> unit may, thus, be as important as those occurring at the crystal interface and may account for the differences between small molecule and protein crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23229003','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23229003"><span>Developmental transcription of genes putatively associated with <span class="hlt">growth</span> in two sturgeon species of different <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Farahmand, Hamid; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Ramezanpour, Sanaz; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Rytkönen, Kalle T; Nikinmaa, Mikko</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>In the present study, we surveyed developmental changes in the transcription of <span class="hlt">growth</span> hormone (gh), insulin-like <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor-I (igf-I), ghrelin (ghrl) and vascular endothelial <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor (vegf) genes in the largest freshwater fish, European sturgeon (Beluga, Huso huso) and compared the same parameters to that of its phylogenically close moderate-sized species, Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). The transcripts of gh, igf-I, ghrl and vegf were detected at all developmental time-points of Persian sturgeon and Beluga from embryos to juvenile fish. Changes in normalized gh, igf-I, ghrl and vegf transcription by using the geometric average of genes encoding ribosomal protein L6 (RPL6) and elongation factor (EF1A) over the time of development of Persian sturgeon and Beluga were statistically significant (P<0.05). Our results showed that the mRNA expression levels of both igf-I and ghrl were low during early larval development and then increased significantly to the late larval time-points when larvae started exogenous feeding. In both Beluga and Persian sturgeon, after a low mRNA expression during the embryonic stage, the transcript levels of vegf displayed an increasing trend during yolk-sac fry, consistent with organogenesis. The vegf level remained constantly high in the time of exogenous feeding. The highest detection of gh transcripts coincided with the end of the embryonic stage (hatching time) in Persian sturgeon and 3 days-post-hatching (dph) in Beluga. In Persian sturgeon, the gh transcript started to decrease to the rest of the developmental time-points, whereas in Beluga gh transcript had a marked second increase from the time of exogenous feeding (20-dph). This Beluga specific increase in gh transcription may be associated with the marked <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and extraordinary size of this fish species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.2037H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.2037H"><span>Effect of Tides On Sea Ice Deformation and <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hutchings, J.; Heil, P.; Hibler, W. D.</p> <p></p> <p>Due to high ice strength in present formulations of non-linear plastic sea ice dynamic models, the relatively small tides in the Arctic Basin produces little relative motion. However, recent work with a stand alone sea ice model including a more realistic for- mulation of ice-ocean coupling [Heil & Hibler, accepted] has produced more realistic inertial motion in agreement with observations. With such improved model physics, we expect tidal motion of the ice pack to have a more pronounced effect on simulated periodic lead opening and closing, enhancing winter ice <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. To investigate this process, tidal forcing [Kowalik 1998] is included in the momentum balance of a stand alone sea ice model [Heil & Hibler, accepted]. The model includes a modi- fied coulombic rheology, hourly interpolated NCEP reanalysis atmospheric forcing, climatological cloud fraction [Gorshkov,1980] , oceanic currents and heat flux from Polyakov et al. [1998] and inertial embedding as Hibler et al. [1998]. Arctic sea ice is simulated for the period 1948-2000 and compared to a control without tidal forcing. It is investigated how tidal motion and inertial motion interact. As the inertial period is close to the major semi-diurnal tidal period we expect ice deformation in tidally active regions (such as the Barents Sea) to be amplified through inertial resonance. The tidal influence on ice mass balance is estimated. The interannual variability of ice mass is examined to show how tidal influence differs between years of high Arctic Oscillation (AO) index, when ice divergence is increased and trans-polar transport widened, and low AO index, when the Arctic high dominates and convergent motion prevails.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/29799','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/29799"><span>Effect of tree-<span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> on papermaking fiber properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Junyong Zhu; David W. Vahey; C. Tim Scott; Gary C. Myers</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of wood density and anatomical properties of wood disks were conducted by SilviScan (CSIRO Australia) and a new imaging technique. The disks included red pine obtained from a never-thinned experimental forest with five different plantation densities and Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine (one normal <span class="hlt">growth</span> and the other suppressed <span class="hlt">growth</span>) both supplied by a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27286443','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27286443"><span>Physiological <span class="hlt">growth</span> hormone replacement and <span class="hlt">rate</span> of recurrence of craniopharyngioma: the Genentech National Cooperative <span class="hlt">Growth</span> Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Timothy R; Cote, David J; Jane, John A; Laws, Edward R</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to establish recurrence <span class="hlt">rates</span> in patients with craniopharyngioma postoperatively treated with recombinant human <span class="hlt">growth</span> hormone (rhGH) as a basis for determining the risk of rhGH therapy in the development of recurrent tumor. METHODS The study included 739 pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma who were naïve to GH upon entering the Genentech National Cooperative <span class="hlt">Growth</span> Study (NCGS) for treatment. Reoperation for tumor recurrence was documented as an adverse event. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were developed for time to recurrence, using age as the outcome and enrollment date as the predictor. Patients without recurrence were treated as censored. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the incidence of recurrence with adjustment for the amount of time at risk. RESULTS Fifty recurrences in these 739 surgically treated patients were recorded. The overall craniopharyngioma recurrence <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the NCGS was 6.8%, with a median follow-up time of 4.3 years (range 0.7-6.4 years.). Age at the time of study enrollment was statistically significant according to both Cox (p = 0.0032) and logistic (p < 0.001) models, with patients under 9 years of age more likely to suffer recurrence (30 patients [11.8%], 0.025 recurrences/yr of observation, p = 0.0097) than those ages 9-13 years (17 patients [6.0%], 0.17 recurrences/yr of observation) and children older than 13 years (3 patients [1.5%], 0.005 recurrences/yr of observation). CONCLUSIONS Physiological doses of GH do not appear to increase the recurrence <span class="hlt">rate</span> of craniopharyngioma after surgery in children, but long-term follow-up of GH-treated patients is required to establish a true natural history in the GH treatment era.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1334150-growth-rate-effects-formation-dislocation-loops-around-deep-helium-bubbles-tungsten','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1334150-growth-rate-effects-formation-dislocation-loops-around-deep-helium-bubbles-tungsten"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> effects on the formation of dislocation loops around deep helium bubbles in Tungsten</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Sandoval, Luis; Perez, Danny; Uberuaga, Blas P.; ...</p> <p>2016-11-15</p> <p>Here, the <span class="hlt">growth</span> process of spherical helium bubbles located 6 nm below a (100) surface is studied using molecular dynamics and parallel replica dynamics simulations, over <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> from 106 to 1012 helium atoms per second. Slower <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> lead to a release of pressure and lower helium content as compared with fast <span class="hlt">growth</span> cases. In addition, at slower <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, helium bubbles are not decorated by multiple dislocation loops, as these tend to merge or emit given sufficient time. At faster <span class="hlt">rates</span>, dislocation loops nucleate faster than they can emit, leading to a more complicated dislocation structure around themore » bubble.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1334150','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1334150"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> effects on the formation of dislocation loops around deep helium bubbles in Tungsten</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sandoval, Luis; Perez, Danny; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Voter, Arthur Ford</p> <p>2016-11-15</p> <p>Here, the <span class="hlt">growth</span> process of spherical helium bubbles located 6 nm below a (100) surface is studied using molecular dynamics and parallel replica dynamics simulations, over <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> from 10<sup>6</sup> to 10<sup>12</sup> helium atoms per second. Slower <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> lead to a release of pressure and lower helium content as compared with fast <span class="hlt">growth</span> cases. In addition, at slower <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, helium bubbles are not decorated by multiple dislocation loops, as these tend to merge or emit given sufficient time. At faster <span class="hlt">rates</span>, dislocation loops nucleate faster than they can emit, leading to a more complicated dislocation structure around the bubble.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981E%26PSL..56..429L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981E%26PSL..56..429L"><span>Implications of a concentration-dependent <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> on the boundary layer crystal-melt model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lasaga, Antonio C.</p> <p>1981-12-01</p> <p>The influence of a melt boundary layer on crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> is analyzed. The treatment extends the results of Burton, Prim and Slichter (1953) and incorporates composition-dependent <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. It is shown that in these general cases the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> cannot be arbitrarily fixed but must satisfy a self-consistent equation. Self-consistency problems arise because the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> determines the composition profile in the melt and, in turn, the composition profile determines the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The self-consistent <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is shown to vary markedly with the ratio δ/D, where δ is the thickness of the boundary layer and D is the appropriate diffusion coefficient in the melt. This self-consistency can be very important in the analysis of both field and laboratory <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> as well as in trace element partition kinetic models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5259725','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5259725"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> control of flagellar assembly in Escherichia coli strain RP437</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sim, Martin; Koirala, Santosh; Picton, David; Strahl, Henrik; Hoskisson, Paul A.; Rao, Christopher V.; Gillespie, Colin S.; Aldridge, Phillip D.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The flagellum is a rotary motor that enables bacteria to swim in liquids and swarm over surfaces. Numerous global regulators control flagellar assembly in response to cellular and environmental factors. Previous studies have also shown that flagellar assembly is affected by the <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> of the cell. However, a systematic study has not yet been described under controlled <span class="hlt">growth</span> conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> on flagellar assembly in Escherichia coli using steady-state chemostat cultures where we could precisely control the cell <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span>. Our results demonstrate that flagellar abundance correlates with <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, where faster growing cells produce more flagella. They also demonstrate that this <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> dependent control occurs through the expression of the flagellar master regulator, FlhD4C2. Collectively, our results demonstrate that motility is intimately coupled to the <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> of the cell. PMID:28117390</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCrGr.468...43Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JCrGr.468...43Y"><span>Existence of thickness threshold for crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of ascorbic acid from its thin solution film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Yoshino, Hiroki; Kikuchi, Mitsunobu; Kashiwase, Sakiko</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of ascorbic acid crystal domains from its aqueous solution film depends on the film thickness. Existence of a thickness threshold is experimentally confirmed below which <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> becomes quite low and is considered to almost stop. This threshold is one of the essential factors for the dynamical transition between uniform and rhythmic <span class="hlt">growth</span> modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/801033','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/801033"><span>Effect of specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and glucose concentration on <span class="hlt">growth</span> and glucose metabolism of Escherichia coli K-12.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hollywood, N; Doelle, H W</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Chemostat cultures of E. coli K-12 revealed that the metabolic change from respiration to aerobic fermentation can be obtained with increasing specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> at low glucose input concentration (0.1%), or increasing glucose input concentrations at low specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (0.1 h-1). Both effects do not affect biomass formation. The metabolic change is not related to a pathway switch of glucose utilization. The increase in specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> causes suppression of succinate dehydrogenase, and NADH oxidase, whereas glucose increases cause suppression of succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome a and 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. Both phenomena are reflected in the specific oxygen uptake <span class="hlt">rate</span>, specific carbon dioxide production <span class="hlt">rate</span> and respiratory quotient values. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> limitation could be related to a maximal glucose uptake <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the cell and thus constitutes an entirely different effect caused by high glucose input concentration.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1692b0001S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1692b0001S"><span>Adoption of multivariate copulae in prognostication of economic <span class="hlt">growth</span> by means of interest <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saputra, Dewi Tanasia; Indratno, Sapto Wahyu, Dr.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Inflation, at a healthy <span class="hlt">rate</span>, is a sign of growing economy. Nonetheless, when inflation <span class="hlt">rate</span> grows uncontrollably, it will negatively influence economic <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Many tackle this problem by increasing interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> to help protecting the value of money which is detained by inflation. There are few, however, who study the effects of interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> in economic <span class="hlt">growth</span>. The main purposes of this paper are to find how the change of interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> affects economic <span class="hlt">growth</span> and to use the relationship in prognostication of economic <span class="hlt">growth</span>. By using expenditure model, a linear relationship between economic <span class="hlt">growth</span> and interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> is developed. The result is then used for prediction by normal copula and Vine Archimedean copula. It is shown that increasing interest <span class="hlt">rate</span> to tackle inflation is a poor solution. Whereas implementation of copula in predicting economic <span class="hlt">growth</span> yields an accurate result, with not more than 0.5% difference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014604','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014604"><span>Ice Particle <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> Under Upper Troposphere Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peterson, Harold; Bailey, Matthew; Hallett, John</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Atmospheric conditions for <span class="hlt">growth</span> of ice crystals (temperature and ice supersaturation) are often not well constrained and it is necessary to simulate such conditions in the laboratory to investigate such <span class="hlt">growth</span> under well controlled conditions over many hours. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> of ice crystals from the vapour in both prism and basal planes was observed at temperatures of -60 C and -70 C under ice supersaturation up to 100% (200% relative humidity) at pressures derived from the standard atmosphere in a static diffusion chamber. Crystals grew outward from a vertical glass filament, thickening in the basal plane by addition of macroscopic layers greater than 2 m, leading to <span class="hlt">growth</span> in the prism plane by passing of successive layers conveniently viewed by time lapse video.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100022030','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100022030"><span>Ice Crystal <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> Under Upper Troposphere Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peterson, Harold S.; Bailey, Matthew; Hallett, John</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Atmospheric conditions for <span class="hlt">growth</span> of ice crystals (temperature and ice supersaturation) are often not well constrained and it is necessary to simulate such conditions in the laboratory to investigate such <span class="hlt">growth</span> under well controlled conditions over many hours. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> of ice crystals from the vapour in both prism and basal planes was observed at temperatures of -60 C and -70 C under ice supersaturation up to 100% (200% relative humidity) at pressures derived from the standard atmosphere in a static diffusion chamber. Crystals grew outward from a vertical glass filament, thickening in the basal plane by addition of macroscopic layers greater than 2 m, leading to <span class="hlt">growth</span> in the prism plane by passing of successive layers conveniently viewed by time lapse video.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25867378','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25867378"><span>Estimation of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> curve and heritability of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> for giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) cubs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Che, T D; Wang, C D; Jin, L; Wei, M; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, H M; Li, D S</p> <p>2015-03-27</p> <p>Giant panda cubs have a low survival <span class="hlt">rate</span> during the newborn and early <span class="hlt">growth</span> stages. However, the <span class="hlt">growth</span> and developmental parameters of giant panda cubs during the early lactation stage (from birth to 6 months) are not well known. We examined the <span class="hlt">growth</span> and development of giant panda cubs by the Chapman <span class="hlt">growth</span> curve model and estimated the heritability of the maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> at the early lactation stage. We found that 83 giant panda cubs reached their maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> at approximately 75-120 days after birth. The body weight of cubs at 75 days was 4285.99 g. Furthermore, we estimated that the heritability of the maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was moderate (h(2) = 0.38). Our study describes the <span class="hlt">growth</span> and development of giant panda cubs at the early lactation stage and provides valuable <span class="hlt">growth</span> benchmarks. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point for more detailed research on increasing the survival <span class="hlt">rate</span> of giant panda cubs. Feeding programs for giant panda cubs need further improvement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860052498&hterms=Czochralski+method&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCzochralski%2Bmethod','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860052498&hterms=Czochralski+method&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCzochralski%2Bmethod"><span>Czochralski <span class="hlt">growth</span> of crystals - Simple models for <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and interface shape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Srivastava, R. K.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Dudukovic, M. P.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>A simple model for the crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> by the Czochralski (CZ) process has been proposed based on semiquantitative arguments. The model provides empirical relationships for the dependence of the pulling <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the interface shape on the important process variables such as crystal radius, crucible temperature, height of the melt level, and the height of the exposed portion of the crucible wall. The parameters of the model can be evaluated by matching the results obtained from a detailed mathematical model of the CZ process or from extensive experimental data. The model has, therefore, the potential application for determining the best process conditions and for on-line control and optimization of the crystal puller to grow crystals with constant diameter and nearly planar interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27995610','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27995610"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and resource imbalance interactively control biomass stoichiometry and elemental quotas of aquatic bacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Godwin, Casey M; Whitaker, Emily A; Cotner, James B</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The effects of resource stoichiometry and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> on the elemental composition of biomass have been examined in a wide variety of organisms, but the interaction among these effects is often overlooked. To determine how <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and resource imbalance affect bacterial carbon (C): nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) stoichiometry and elemental content, we cultured two strains of aquatic heterotrophic bacteria in chemostats at a range of dilution <span class="hlt">rates</span> and P supply levels (C:P of 100:1 to 10,000:1). When growing below 50% of their maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, P availability and dilution <span class="hlt">rate</span> had strong interactive effects on biomass C:N:P, elemental quotas, cell size, respiration <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and <span class="hlt">growth</span> efficiency. In contrast, at faster <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, biomass stoichiometry was strongly homeostatic in both strains (C:N:P of 70:13:1 and 73:14:1) and elemental quotas of C, N, and P were tightly coupled (but not constant). Respiration and cell size increased with both <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and P limitation, and P limitation induced C accumulation and excess respiration. These results show that bacterial biomass stoichiometry is relatively constrained when all resources are abundant and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are high, but at low <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> resource imbalance is relatively more important than <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in controlling bacterial biomass composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19419035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19419035"><span>[Population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis (Rotifera: Brachionidae) in a two-stage chemostat].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cabrera, María I</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>The population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis (Rotifera: Brachionidae) in two-stage chemostat. The population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of Brachionus rotundiformis were estimated in two-stage chemostat cultures. Chlorella sorokiniana was supplied continuously from a steady state culture growing with constant illumination on limiting nitrate. Rotifer <span class="hlt">growth</span> in the second stage was limited by the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of algal supply. The algal supply <span class="hlt">rate</span> and rotifer population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> were determined by the second-stage dilution <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The maximum population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the transient state of B. rotundiformis (1.96 day(-1)) was observed at 2.5 x 10(6) cel/ml of the algae whereas in the steady state the maximum population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (1.09 day(-1)) was similar to the point Hopf's bifurcation predicted by Fussmann and was observed at 1 x 10(6) cel/ml of the algae. In the transient state, the rotifer's <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> increased and the duplication time decreased at higher algal concentrations, until reaching a peak where the population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> begins to decrease. In the steady state, the opposite was true. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> observed in this work are among the highest recorded for this rotifer in continuous cultures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21575739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21575739"><span>Plasma metabolite levels predict bird <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>: A field test of model predictive ability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Albano, Noelia; Masero, José A; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Abad-Gómez, José María; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Bird <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are usually derived from nonlinear relationships between age and some morphological structure, but this procedure may be limited by several factors. To date, nothing is known about the capacity of plasma metabolite profiling to predict chick <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Based on laboratory-trials, we here develop predictive logistic models of body mass, and tarsus and wing length <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica chicks from measurements of plasma metabolite levels at different developmental stages. The predictive model obtained during the fastest <span class="hlt">growth</span> period (at the age of 12 days) explained 65-68% of the chicks' <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, with fasting triglyceride level explaining most of the variation in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. At the end of pre-fledging period, β-hydroxybutyrate level was also a good predictor of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Finally, we carried out a field test to check the predictive capacity of the models in two colonies of wild Gull-billed Tern, comparing field-measured and model-predicted <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> between groups. Both, measured and predicted <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, matched statistically. Plasma metabolite levels can thus be applied in comparative studies of chick <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> when semi-precocial birds can be captured only once.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JCrGr.160..330R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JCrGr.160..330R"><span>Long and short period <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> variations in potash alum crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ristic, R. I.; Shekunov, B.; Shewood, J. N.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Recent studies of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the different faces of potash alum crystals have revealed that these grow with variable <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. This phenomena can be considered on two time scales. In the long term "constant" <span class="hlt">growth</span> remains for period of hours followed by <span class="hlt">growth</span> arrests and so on. Superimposed on this are short term (minutes) fluctuations. The potential causes for these variations were discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168405','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168405"><span>Metabolism correlates with variation in post-natal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> among songbirds at three latitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ton, Riccardo; Martin, Thomas E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>4. Our results suggest that variation in metabolic <span class="hlt">rates</span> has an important influence on broad patterns of avian <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> at a global scale. We suggest further studies that address the ecological and physiological costs and consequences of variation in metabolism and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19734547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19734547"><span>Age class, longevity and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> relationships: protracted <span class="hlt">growth</span> increases in old trees in the eastern United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, Sarah E; Abrams, Marc D</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>This study uses data from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank website and tree cores collected in the field to explore <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (basal area increment, BAI) relationships across age classes (from young to old) for eight tree species in the eastern US. These species represent a variety of ecological traits and include those in the genera Populus, Quercus, Pinus, Tsuga and Nyssa. We found that most trees in all age classes and species exhibit an increasing BAI throughout their lives. This is particularly unusual for trees in the older age classes that we expected to have declining <span class="hlt">growth</span> in the later years, as predicted by physiological <span class="hlt">growth</span> models. There exists an inverse relationship between <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and increasing age class. The oldest trees within each species have consistently slow <span class="hlt">growth</span> throughout their lives, implying an inverse relationship between <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and longevity. Younger trees (< 60 years of age) within each species are consistently growing faster than the older trees when they are of the same age resulting from a higher proportion of fast-growing trees in these young age classes. Slow, but increasing, BAI in the oldest trees in recent decades is a continuation of their <span class="hlt">growth</span> pattern established in previous centuries. The fact that they have not shown a decreasing <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in their old age contradicts physiological <span class="hlt">growth</span> models and may be related to the stimulatory effects of global change phenomenon (climate and land-use history).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5295150','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5295150"><span>Silicide layer <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in Mo/Si multilayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rosen, R.S.; Stearns, D.G. ); Viliardos, M.A.; Kassner, M.E. ); Vernon, S.P. ); Cheng, Y. )</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>The thermal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si multilayers was investigated by annealing studies at relatively low temperatures ([similar to]250--350 [degree]C) for various times (0.5--3000 h). Two distinct stages of thermally activated Mo/Si interlayer <span class="hlt">growth</span> were found: a primary surge, followed by a (slower) secondary steady-state <span class="hlt">growth</span> in which the interdiffusion coefficient is constant. The interdiffusion coefficients for the interlayer formed by deposition of Mo-on-Si are higher than those of the interlayer formed by deposition of Si-on-Mo. Assuming that the activation energy is constant, an extrapolation of our results to ambient temperature finds that interlayer <span class="hlt">growth</span> is negligible, suggesting long-term thermal stability in soft-x-ray projection lithography applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JCrGr..71..220G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JCrGr..71..220G"><span>Effects of bismarck brown R on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of large and small potassium alum crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girolami, Martha W.; Rousseau, Ronald W.</p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>Experimental data show that Bismarck Brown R, at a concentration of 10 ppm, substantially inhibited <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of potassium alum. All faces of the crystal were affected similarly, although there was some evidence that inhibition of the (111) faces was slightly greater. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of small crystals were inhibited more than larger crystals; this is explained using observations of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dispersion believed due to variations in screw dislocation activities. Data showing time-dependent inhibition of <span class="hlt">growth</span> was used to support the hypothesis that Bismarck Brown R forms complexes or chelates that completely inhibited <span class="hlt">growth</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA475761','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA475761"><span>A Crack <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Conversion Module: Theory, Development, User Guide and Examples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>crack closure model, such as FASTRAN, CGAP and AFGROW, requires the conversion of crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> versus the nominal stress ...based on plasiticty-induced crack closure model, such as FASTRAN, CGAP and AFGROW, requires the conversion of crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> versus the nominal stress ...intensity range curves to a "single" curve of crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> versus the effective stress intensity range. In order to minimise the error</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22135464','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22135464"><span>Investment in rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span> shapes the evolutionary <span class="hlt">rates</span> of essential proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vieira-Silva, Sara; Touchon, Marie; Abby, Sophie S; Rocha, Eduardo P C</p> <p>2011-12-13</p> <p>Proteins evolve at very different <span class="hlt">rates</span> and, most notably, at <span class="hlt">rates</span> inversely proportional to the level at which they are produced. The relative frequency of highly expressed proteins in the proteome, and thus their impact on the cell budget, increases steeply with <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The maximal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is a key life-history trait reflecting trade-offs between rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span> and other fitness components. We show that the maximal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is weakly affected by genetic drift. The negative correlation between protein expression levels and evolutionary <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the positive correlation between expression levels of highly expressed proteins and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, suggest that investment in <span class="hlt">growth</span> affects the evolutionary <span class="hlt">rate</span> of proteins, especially the highly expressed ones. Accordingly, analysis of 61 families of orthologs in 74 proteobacteria shows that differences in evolutionary <span class="hlt">rates</span> between lowly and highly expressed proteins depend on maximal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Analyses of complexes with key roles in bacterial <span class="hlt">growth</span> and strikingly different expression levels, the ribosome and the replisome, confirm these patterns and suggest that the <span class="hlt">growth</span>-related sequence conservation is associated with protein synthesis. Maximal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> also shape protein evolution in the other bacterial clades. Long-branch attractions associated with this effect might explain why clades with persistent history of slow <span class="hlt">growth</span> are attracted to the root when the tree of prokaryotes is inferred using highly, but not lowly, expressed proteins. These results indicate that reconstruction of deep phylogenies can be strongly affected by maximal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and highlight the importance of life-history traits and their physiological consequences for protein evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ERL.....8a1006H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ERL.....8a1006H"><span>Climate forcing <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>: doubling down on our Faustian bargain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Rahmstorf et al 's (2012) conclusion that observed climate change is comparable to projections, and in some cases exceeds projections, allows further inferences if we can quantify changing climate forcings and compare those with projections. The largest climate forcing is caused by well-mixed long-lived greenhouse gases. Here we illustrate trends of these gases and their climate forcings, and we discuss implications. We focus on quantities that are accurately measured, and we include comparison with fixed scenarios, which helps reduce common misimpressions about how climate forcings are changing. Annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions have shot up in the past decade at about 3% yr-1, double the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the prior three decades (figure 1). The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> falls above the range of the IPCC (2001) 'Marker' scenarios, although emissions are still within the entire range considered by the IPCC SRES (2000). The surge in emissions is due to increased coal use (blue curve in figure 1), which now accounts for more than 40% of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Figure 1. Figure 1. CO2 annual emissions from fossil fuel use and cement manufacture, an update of figure 16 of Hansen (2003) using data of British Petroleum (BP 2012) concatenated with data of Boden et al (2012). The resulting annual increase of atmospheric CO2 (12-month running mean) has grown from less than 1 ppm yr-1 in the early 1960s to an average ~2 ppm yr-1 in the past decade (figure 2). Although CO2 measurements were not made at sufficient locations prior to the early 1980s to calculate the global mean change, the close match of global and Mauna Loa data for later years suggests that Mauna Loa data provide a good approximation of global change (figure 2), thus allowing a useful estimate of annual global change beginning with the initiation of Mauna Loa measurements in 1958 by Keeling et al (1973). Figure 2. Figure 2. Annual increase of CO2 based on data from the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL 2012). CO2 change</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1794586','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1794586"><span><span class="hlt">Growth-rate</span> regulated genes have profound impact on interpretation of transcriptome profiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Regenberg, Birgitte; Grotkjær, Thomas; Winther, Ole; Fausbøll, Anders; Åkesson, Mats; Bro, Christoffer; Hansen, Lars Kai; Brunak, Søren; Nielsen, Jens</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is central to the development of cells in all organisms. However, little is known about the impact of changing <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. We used continuous cultures to control <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and studied the transcriptional program of the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with generation times varying between 2 and 35 hours. Results A total of 5930 transcripts were identified at the different <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> studied. Consensus clustering of these revealed that half of all yeast genes are affected by the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and that the changes are similar to those found when cells are exposed to different types of stress (>80% overlap). Genes with decreased transcript levels in response to faster <span class="hlt">growth</span> are largely of unknown function (>50%) whereas genes with increased transcript levels are involved in macromolecular biosynthesis such as those that encode ribosomal proteins. This group also covers most targets of the transcriptional activator RAP1, which is also known to be involved in replication. A positive correlation between the location of replication origins and the location of <span class="hlt">growth</span>-regulated genes suggests a role for replication in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> regulation. Conclusion Our data show that the cellular <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> has great influence on transcriptional regulation. This, in turn, implies that one should be cautious when comparing mutants with different <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Our findings also indicate that much of the regulation is coordinated via the chromosomal location of the affected genes, which may be valuable information for the control of heterologous gene expression in metabolic engineering. PMID:17105650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pharmacology+AND+Psychiatry&pg=6&id=EJ754442','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pharmacology+AND+Psychiatry&pg=6&id=EJ754442"><span>Stimulant-Related Reductions of <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in the PATS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Swanson, James; Greenhill, Laurence; Wigal, Tim; Kollins, Scott; Stehli, Annamarie; Davies, Mark; Chuang, Shirley; Vitiello, Benedetto; Skrobala, Anne; Posner, Kelly; Abikoff, Howard; Oatis, Melvin; McCracken, James; McGough, James; Riddle, Mark; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Cunningham, Charles; Wigal, Sharon</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To investigate <span class="hlt">growth</span> of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS) before and after initiation of treatment with methylphenidate at titrated doses (average, 14.2 mg/day) administered three times daily, 7 days/week for approximately equal to 1 year. Method: The heights and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16310729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16310729"><span>Selection of microalgal <span class="hlt">growth</span> model for describing specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>-light response using extended information criterion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kurano, Norihide; Miyachi, Shigetoh</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>The effects of light intensity and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of the highly CO2-tolerant green alga Chlorococcum littorale were studied in batch cultures. Four mathematical representations were compared for the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>-light response curve: a rectangular hyperbolic function, Steele's exponential function, a Poisson function and a hyperbolic tangent function. The hyperbolic tangent function, which is commonly used for representing the photosynthesis-light relationship, gave the best fit as evaluated by the extended information criterion (EIC). EIC proved to be applicable as a criterion to this kind of nonlinear model selection problem. Carbon dioxide, the sole carbon source for photoautotrophic <span class="hlt">growth</span> of this alga, inhibited the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> at concentrations higher than pCO2 of 0.02. A substrate inhibition model was successfully used to simulate the relationship between the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and CO2 response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhRvL..97y8104E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhRvL..97y8104E"><span>Bistable Bacterial <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> in Response to Antibiotics with Low Membrane Permeability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elf, Johan; Nilsson, Karin; Tenson, Tanel; Ehrenberg, Måns</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>We demonstrate that <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> bistability for bacterial cells growing exponentially at a fixed external antibiotic concentration can emerge when the cell wall permeability for the drug is low and the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> sensitivity to the intracellular drug concentration is high. Under such conditions, an initially high <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> can remain high, due to dilution of the intracellular drug concentration by rapid cell volume increase, while an initially low <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> can remain low, due to slow cell volume increase and insignificant drug dilution. Our findings have implications for the testing of novel antibiotics on growing bacterial strains.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSP...155...47T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSP...155...47T"><span>Generalised Central Limit Theorems for <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Distribution of Complex Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takayasu, Misako; Watanabe, Hayafumi; Takayasu, Hideki</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>We introduce a solvable model of randomly growing systems consisting of many independent subunits. Scaling relations and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> distributions in the limit of infinite subunits are analysed theoretically. Various types of scaling properties and distributions reported for <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of complex systems in a variety of fields can be derived from this basic physical model. Statistical data of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for about 1 million business firms are analysed as a real-world example of randomly growing systems. Not only are the scaling relations consistent with the theoretical solution, but the entire functional form of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> distribution is fitted with a theoretical distribution that has a power-law tail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2818994','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2818994"><span><span class="hlt">Growth-rate</span> dependent global effects on gene expression in bacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Klumpp, Stefan; Zhang, Zhongge; Hwa, Terence</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Summary Bacterial gene expression depends not only on specific regulations but also directly on bacterial <span class="hlt">growth</span>, because important global parameters such as the abundance of RNA polymerases and ribosomes are all <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> dependent. Understanding these global effects is necessary for a quantitative understanding of gene regulation and for the robust design of synthetic genetic circuits. The observed <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> dependence of constitutive gene expression can be explained by a simple model using the measured <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> dependence of the relevant cellular parameters. More complex <span class="hlt">growth</span> dependences for genetic circuits involving activators, repressors and feedback control were analyzed, and salient features were verified experimentally using synthetic circuits. The results suggest a novel feedback mechanism mediated by general <span class="hlt">growth</span>-dependent effects and not requiring explicit gene regulation, if the expressed protein affects cell <span class="hlt">growth</span>. This mechanism can lead to <span class="hlt">growth</span> bistability and promote the acquisition of important physiological functions such as antibiotic resistance and tolerance (persistence). PMID:20064380</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED407230.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED407230.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> of Knowledge of <span class="hlt">Rate</span> in Four Precalculus Students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hauger, Garnet Smith</p> <p></p> <p>Several studies have shown the difficulties students encounter in making sense of situations involving <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change. This study concerns how students discover errors and refine their knowledge when working with <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change. The part of the study reported here concerns the responses of four precalculus students to a task which asked them to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/277595','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/277595"><span>A crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> equation for ancient dolomites: Evidence for millimeter-scale flux-limited <span class="hlt">growth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nordeng, S.H.; Sibley, D.F.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>A linear correlation exists between the width of cathodoluminescent zones (CL) and the size of individual crystals in the Seroe Domi Fm (Miocene, Netherlands Antilles), Burlington-Keokuk Fm (Mississippian), Fort Payne Fm (Mississippian), and Saluda Fm (Ordovician). If individual zones, correlated by CL character and stratigraphy are isochronous, then the width of a zone is directly proportional to the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Linear correlation coefficients for between-zone thickness and crystal size in individual thin sections range from 0.98 to 0.41, indicating a size dependence governing individual dolomite crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Mononuclear, polynuclear, spiral dislocation, and diffusion-limited crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> models operating under homogeneous or inhomogeneous kinetic conditions were considered as possible crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> mechanisms. Of the models considered, only mononuclear <span class="hlt">growth</span> may result in a correlation between zone width and crystal radius in chemically homogeneous systems. However, this relationship is not linear. Any of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> laws considered may produce a linear size-dependent <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> when there are temporally constant differences between crystals in the kinetic factors governing <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Differences in the kinetic factors governing <span class="hlt">growth</span> could arise from stable variations in the chemistry of pore fluids related to permeability variations in the rock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875454','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875454"><span>The Effect of Load-Line Displacement <span class="hlt">Rate</span> on the SCC <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Nickel Alloys and Mechanistic Implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D Morton</p> <p>2005-10-19</p> <p>A key set of SCC <span class="hlt">growth</span> experiments was designed to test the hypothesis that deformation/creep is the <span class="hlt">rate</span> controlling step in LPSCC. These tests were performed on Alloy X-750 AH compact tension specimens at a various constant displacement <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The deformation/creep <span class="hlt">rate</span> within the crack tip zone is proportional to the test displacement <span class="hlt">rate</span>. If crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were observed to increase with the load-line displacement <span class="hlt">rate</span>, then this would indicate that deformation/creep is a critical SCC mechanism process. However, results obtained from the load-line displacement tests did not find X-750 AH SCC <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> to be dependent on the position <span class="hlt">rate</span> and therefore do not support the assumption that deformation/creep is the <span class="hlt">rate</span> controlling process in LPSCC. The similarities between the SCC response of X-750, Alloy 600 and EN82H suggests that it is likely that the same SCC process is occurring for all these alloys (i.e., the same <span class="hlt">rate</span> controlling step) and that deformation based models are also inappropriate for Alloy 600 and EN82H. The strong temperature and coolant hydrogen dependencies exhibited by these alloys make it more likely that nickel alloy LPSCC is controlled by an environmental or corrosion driven process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JCrGr..85..543S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JCrGr..85..543S"><span>The measurement of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of K-alum contact nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shimizu, Kenji; Kato, Hirosi; Kubota, Noriaki</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of K-alum secondary nuclei produced by glass-rod-crystal contact was investigated by microscopic observation. The initial sizes of the nuclei were widely distributed from several μm to about 50 μm, and their shapes were irregular and looked like broken pieces from the parent crystal. Their <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were dispersed in a wide range and were independent of the initial size. This <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dispersion is explained by the fact that a damaged crystal generally grows at a different <span class="hlt">rate</span> than a perfect crystal. The so-called size-dependent crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is an apparent phenomenon, which stems from the fact that nuclei having faster <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> become larger earlier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JASTP.156...97W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JASTP.156...97W"><span>Solar effect on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> as simulated by the NCAR TIEGCM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Qian</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The TIEGCM (Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model) is used to investigate the solar effect on the equatorial ionospheric Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, which is responsible for the occurrence of the plasma bubbles. The R-T <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is calculated for the solar maximum year 2003 and minimum 2009. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is strongly dependent on the solar activity. During solar maximum, the pre-reversal enhancement is much stronger leading to higher R-T <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The R-T <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> from the TIEGCM follow the same solar dependence as the observed occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles by DMSP satellites. The R-T <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> also enhances when the day/night terminator is parallel to the magnetic field line near the equator. The R-T <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> does not correlate well with the solar F10.7 index on a short time scale ( 10 days) because the field-line integrated electron content gradient cancels out the positive correlation between the vertical ion drift with the F10.7 index. The TIEGCM result shows the importance of the electron content gradient to the R-T <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the plasma bubble occurrence. The bubble occurrence <span class="hlt">rates</span> were estimated based on the vertical ion drift simulation results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=105707','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=105707"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> on Resistance of Candida albicans Biofilms to Antifungal Agents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baillie, George S.; Douglas, L. Julia</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A perfused biofilm fermentor, which allows <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> control of adherent microbial populations, was used to assess whether the susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to antifungal agents is dependent on <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Biofilms were generated under conditions of glucose limitation and were perfused with drugs at a high concentration (20 times the MIC). Amphotericin B produced a greater reduction in the number of daughter cells in biofilm eluates than ketoconazole, fluconazole, or flucytosine. Similar decreases in daughter cell counts were observed when biofilms growing at three different <span class="hlt">rates</span> were perfused with amphotericin B. In a separate series of experiments, intact biofilms, resuspended biofilm cells, and newly formed daughter cells were removed from the fermentor and were exposed to a lower concentration of amphotericin B for 1 h. The susceptibility profiles over a range of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were then compared with those obtained for planktonic cells grown at the same <span class="hlt">rates</span> under glucose limitation in a chemostat. Intact biofilms were resistant to amphotericin B at all <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> tested, whereas planktonic cells were resistant only at low <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> (≤0.13 h−1). Cells resuspended from biofilms were less resistant than intact biofilm populations but more resistant than daughter cells; the susceptibilities of both these cell types were largely independent of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Our findings indicate that the amphotericin B resistance of C. albicans biofilms is not simply due to a low <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> but depends on some other feature of the biofilm mode of <span class="hlt">growth</span>. PMID:9687381</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26506470','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26506470"><span>Geometric analysis and estimation of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> gradient on gastropod shells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noshita, Koji; Shimizu, Keisuke; Sasaki, Takenori</p> <p>2016-01-21</p> <p>The morphology of gastropod shells provides a record of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> at the aperture of the shell, and molecular biological studies have shown that the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> gradient along the aperture of a gastropod shell can be closely related to gene expression at the aperture. Here, we develop a novel method for deriving microscopic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> from the macroscopic shapes of gastropod shells. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> vector map of a shell provides information on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> gradient as a vector field along the aperture, over the <span class="hlt">growth</span> history. However, it is difficult to estimate the <span class="hlt">growth</span> vector map directly from the macroscopic shape of a specimen, because the degree of freedom of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> vector map is very high. In order to overcome this difficulty, we develop a method of estimating the <span class="hlt">growth</span> vector map based on a growing tube model, where the latter includes fewer parameters to be estimated. In addition, we calculate an aperture map specifying the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> vector at each location, which can be compared with the expression levels of several genes or proteins that are important in morphogenesis. Finally, we show a concrete example of how macroscopic shell shapes evolve in a morphospace when microscopic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> gradient changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24367654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24367654"><span>Spatial and directional variation of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in Arabidopsis root apex: a modelling study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakielski, Jerzy; Lipowczan, Marcin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Growth</span> and cellular organization of the Arabidopsis root apex are investigated in various aspects, but still little is known about spatial and directional variation of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in very apical part of the apex, especially in 3D. The present paper aims to fill this gap with the aid of a computer modelling based on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> tensor method. The root apex with a typical shape and cellular pattern is considered. Previously, on the basis of two types of empirical data: the published velocity profile along the root axis and dimensions of cell packets formed in the lateral part of the root cap, the displacement velocity field for the root apex was determined. Here this field is adopted to calculate the linear <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in different points and directions. The results are interpreted taking principal <span class="hlt">growth</span> directions into account. The root apex manifests a significant anisotropy of the linear <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The directional preferences depend on a position within the root apex. In the root proper the <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the periclinal direction predominates everywhere, while in the root cap the predominating direction varies with distance from the quiescent centre. The rhizodermis is distinguished from the neighbouring tissues (cortex, root cap) by relatively high contribution of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the anticlinal direction. The degree of <span class="hlt">growth</span> anisotropy calculated for planes defined by principal <span class="hlt">growth</span> directions and exemplary cell walls may be as high as 25. The changes in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> variation are modelled.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=intervention+AND+Asia&pg=7&id=EJ1040433','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=intervention+AND+Asia&pg=7&id=EJ1040433"><span>Exploring Latent Class Based on <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Number Sense Ability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kim, Dongil; Shin, Jaehyun; Lee, Kijyung</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to explore latent class based on <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in number sense ability by using latent <span class="hlt">growth</span> class modeling (LGCM). LGCM is one of the noteworthy methods for identifying <span class="hlt">growth</span> patterns of the progress monitoring within the response to intervention framework in that it enables us to analyze latent sub-groups based not…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=one+AND+class+AND+pattern&id=EJ1040433','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=one+AND+class+AND+pattern&id=EJ1040433"><span>Exploring Latent Class Based on <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Number Sense Ability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kim, Dongil; Shin, Jaehyun; Lee, Kijyung</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to explore latent class based on <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in number sense ability by using latent <span class="hlt">growth</span> class modeling (LGCM). LGCM is one of the noteworthy methods for identifying <span class="hlt">growth</span> patterns of the progress monitoring within the response to intervention framework in that it enables us to analyze latent sub-groups based not…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4830519','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4830519"><span>A Minimalistic Resource Allocation Model to Explain Ubiquitous Increase in Protein Expression with <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Keren, Leeat; Segal, Eran; Milo, Ron</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Most proteins show changes in level across <span class="hlt">growth</span> conditions. Many of these changes seem to be coordinated with the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> rather than the <span class="hlt">growth</span> environment or the protein function. Although cellular <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, gene expression levels and gene regulation have been at the center of biological research for decades, there are only a few models giving a base line prediction of the dependence of the proteome fraction occupied by a gene with the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. We present a simple model that predicts a widely coordinated increase in the fraction of many proteins out of the proteome, proportionally with the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The model reveals how passive redistribution of resources, due to active regulation of only a few proteins, can have proteome wide effects that are quantitatively predictable. Our model provides a potential explanation for why and how such a coordinated response of a large fraction of the proteome to the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> arises under different environmental conditions. The simplicity of our model can also be useful by serving as a baseline null hypothesis in the search for active regulation. We exemplify the usage of the model by analyzing the relationship between <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and proteome composition for the model microorganism E.coli as reflected in recent proteomics data sets spanning various <span class="hlt">growth</span> conditions. We find that the fraction out of the proteome of a large number of proteins, and from different cellular processes, increases proportionally with the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Notably, ribosomal proteins, which have been previously reported to increase in fraction with <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, are only a small part of this group of proteins. We suggest that, although the fractions of many proteins change with the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, such changes may be partially driven by a global effect, not necessarily requiring specific cellular control mechanisms. PMID:27073913</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27073913','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27073913"><span>A Minimalistic Resource Allocation Model to Explain Ubiquitous Increase in Protein Expression with <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barenholz, Uri; Keren, Leeat; Segal, Eran; Milo, Ron</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Most proteins show changes in level across <span class="hlt">growth</span> conditions. Many of these changes seem to be coordinated with the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> rather than the <span class="hlt">growth</span> environment or the protein function. Although cellular <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, gene expression levels and gene regulation have been at the center of biological research for decades, there are only a few models giving a base line prediction of the dependence of the proteome fraction occupied by a gene with the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. We present a simple model that predicts a widely coordinated increase in the fraction of many proteins out of the proteome, proportionally with the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The model reveals how passive redistribution of resources, due to active regulation of only a few proteins, can have proteome wide effects that are quantitatively predictable. Our model provides a potential explanation for why and how such a coordinated response of a large fraction of the proteome to the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> arises under different environmental conditions. The simplicity of our model can also be useful by serving as a baseline null hypothesis in the search for active regulation. We exemplify the usage of the model by analyzing the relationship between <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and proteome composition for the model microorganism E.coli as reflected in recent proteomics data sets spanning various <span class="hlt">growth</span> conditions. We find that the fraction out of the proteome of a large number of proteins, and from different cellular processes, increases proportionally with the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Notably, ribosomal proteins, which have been previously reported to increase in fraction with <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, are only a small part of this group of proteins. We suggest that, although the fractions of many proteins change with the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, such changes may be partially driven by a global effect, not necessarily requiring specific cellular control mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859472','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859472"><span>Family Poverty Affects the <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Human Infant Brain <span class="hlt">Growth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hanson, Jamie L.; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G.; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain <span class="hlt">growth</span> as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain <span class="hlt">growth</span> were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of <span class="hlt">growth</span> during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24349025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24349025"><span>Family poverty affects the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of human infant brain <span class="hlt">growth</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hanson, Jamie L; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain <span class="hlt">growth</span> as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain <span class="hlt">growth</span> were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of <span class="hlt">growth</span> during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28309328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28309328"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and longevity of some gastropod mollusks on the coral reef at Heron Island.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frank, Peter W</p> <p>1969-02-01</p> <p>Information on <span class="hlt">growth</span>, gained from individually marked animals, is provided for at least one species of each of the families Trochidae, Neritidae, Strombidae, Cypraeidae, Thaisidae, Fasciolariidae, Vasidae and Conidae. Except in the cowries and strombs, which have determinate <span class="hlt">growth</span>, shell <span class="hlt">growth</span> is adequately described by a von Bertalanffy curve only to a certain point. Beyond this, <span class="hlt">growth</span> continues slowly and at a <span class="hlt">rate</span> that is independent of size. Size frequency distributions are characteristically negatively skew, mainly because early <span class="hlt">growth</span> is fast relative to the total life span. Longevities seem to indicate that turnover <span class="hlt">rates</span> are comparable to those of Prosobranch mollusks from colder seas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1092058','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1092058"><span>Gradient of <span class="hlt">Growth</span>, Spontaneous Changes in <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> and Response to Auxin of Excised Hypocotyl Segments of Phaseolus aureus 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Prat, Roger</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Spontaneous <span class="hlt">growth</span> was studied in excised mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) hypocotyl segments. Measurements were made with a <span class="hlt">growth</span>-recording apparatus using displacement transducers on single 5- to 6-millimeter samples excised from the <span class="hlt">growth</span> zone immediately below the hook. Even for a given zone and under controlled experimental conditions, there are differences in the spontaneous <span class="hlt">growth</span> of individual explants. Nevertheless, in every case, two phases of endogenous acceleration are found at 15 to 20 minutes, and 120 to 150 minutes after excision. Accelerations were separated by steady <span class="hlt">growth</span> phases. Knowledge of the spontaneous <span class="hlt">growth</span> curve appears important for the choice of the time of application of experimental stimuli. Auxin was added at various times after excision (0 to 6 hours). The classical biphasic response to auxin was obtained when the hormone was added during a steady phase of <span class="hlt">growth</span>. However, the response was difficult to interpret when the hormone was added during an acceleration phase. Spontaneous and indoleacetic acid-induced <span class="hlt">growth</span> were studied along the hypocotyl. Spontaneous <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and <span class="hlt">growth</span> potential revealed by indoleacetic acid changed markedly along the <span class="hlt">growth</span> gradient. The nature of spontaneous changes according to experimental time and state of differentiation of the cells is discussed. PMID:16660473</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/27481','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/27481"><span>Associations between heterozygosity and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> variables in three western forest trees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Jeffry B. Milton; Peggy Knowles; Kareen B. Sturgeon; Yan B. Linhart; Martha Davis</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>For each of three species, quaking aspen, ponderosa pine, and lodgepole pine, we determined the relationships between a ranking of heterozygosity of individuals and measures of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Genetic variation was assayed by starch gel electrophoresis of enzymes. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were characterized by the mean, standard deviation, logarithm of the variance, and coefficient...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26390362','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26390362"><span>Influence of Polymers on the Crystal <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Felodipine: Correlating Adsorbed Polymer Surface Coverage to Solution Crystal <span class="hlt">Growth</span> Inhibition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schram, Caitlin J; Taylor, Lynne S; Beaudoin, Stephen P</p> <p>2015-10-20</p> <p>The bioavailability of orally administered drugs that exhibit poor aqueous solubility can be enhanced with the use of supersaturating dosage forms. Stabilization of these forms by preventing or inhibiting crystallization in solution is an important area of study. Polymers can be used to stabilize supersaturated systems; however, the properties that impact their effectiveness as crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> inhibitors are not yet fully understood. In this study, the impact of various polymers on the crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of felodipine and the conformation of these polymers adsorbed to crystalline felodipine was investigated in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> inhibition. It was determined that polymer hydrophobicity impacted polymer adsorption as well as adsorbed polymer conformation. Polymer conformation impacts its surface coverage, which was shown to directly correlate to the polymer's effectiveness as a <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> inhibitor. By modeling this correlation, it is possible to predict polymer effectiveness given the surface coverage of the polymer.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeCoA..64.2255T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeCoA..64.2255T"><span>Kinetics of calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span>: surface processes and relationships to macroscopic <span class="hlt">rate</span> laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Teng, H. Henry; Dove, Patricia M.; De Yoreo, James J.</p> <p>2000-07-01</p> <p>This study links classical crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> theory with observations of microscopic surface processes to quantify the dependence of calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span> on supersaturation, σ, and show relationships to the same dependencies often approximated by affinity based expressions. In situ Atomic Force Microscopy was used to quantify calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and observe transitions in <span class="hlt">growth</span> processes on {10 overline14} faces in characterized solutions with variable σ. When σ < 0.8, <span class="hlt">growth</span> occurs by step flow at surface defects, including screw dislocations. As σ exceeds 0.8, two-dimensional surface nucleation becomes increasingly important. The single sourced, single spirals that are produced at lower σ were examined to measure <span class="hlt">rates</span> of step flow and the slopes of <span class="hlt">growth</span> hillocks. These data were used to obtain the surface-normal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, Rm, by the pure spiral mechanism. The dependence of overall <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> upon dislocation source structure was analyzed using the fundamentals of crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> theory. The resulting surface process-based <span class="hlt">rate</span> expressions for spiral <span class="hlt">growth</span> show the relationships between Rm and the distribution and structures of dislocation sources. These theoretical relations are upheld by the process-based experimental <span class="hlt">rate</span> data reported in this study. The analysis further shows that the dependence of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> on dislocation source structures is essential for properly representing <span class="hlt">growth</span>. This is because most <span class="hlt">growth</span> sources exhibit complex structures with multiple dislocations. The expressions resulting from this analysis were compared to affinity-based <span class="hlt">rate</span> equations to show where popular affinity-based <span class="hlt">rate</span> laws hold or break down. Results of this study demonstrate that the widely used second order chemical affinity-based <span class="hlt">rate</span> laws are physically meaningful only under special conditions. The exponent in affinity-based expressions is dependent upon the supersaturation range used to fit data. An apparent second order dependence is achieved when solution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=redd&id=EJ812084','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=redd&id=EJ812084"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Lags Again in Graduate Schools' International Admissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCormack, Eugene</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The number of foreign students admitted to graduate schools at American colleges and universities grew in 2008 for the fourth straight year, but the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of increase over the previous year declined for the third consecutive year, according to survey results released by the Council of Graduate Schools. Based on previous years' data, this year's…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MSMSE..22a5003A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MSMSE..22a5003A"><span>Nucleation kinetics and crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> with fluctuating <span class="hlt">rates</span> at the intermediate stage of phase transitions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alexandrov, D. V.; Malygin, A. P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> kinetics accompanied by particle <span class="hlt">growth</span> with fluctuating <span class="hlt">rates</span> at the intermediate stage of phase transitions is analyzed theoretically. The integro-differential model of governing equations is solved analytically for size-independent <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and arbitrary dependences of the nucleation frequency on supercooling/supersaturation. Two important cases of Weber-Volmer-Frenkel-Zel'dovich and Mier nucleation kinetics are detailed. A Fokker-Plank type equation for the crystal-size density distribution function is solved explicitly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22252042','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22252042"><span>The effect of density gradient on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of relativistic Weibel instability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mahdavi, M.; Khodadadi Azadboni, F.</p> <p>2014-02-15</p> <p>In this paper, the effect of density gradient on the Weibel instability <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is investigated. The density perturbations in the near corona fuel, where temperature anisotropy, η, is larger than the critical temperature anisotropy, η{sub c}, (η > η{sub c}), enhances the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Weibel instability due to the sidebands coupled with the electron oscillatory velocity. But for η < η{sub c}, the thermal spread of the energetic electrons reduces the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Also, the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> can be reduced if the relativistic parameter (Lorentz factor) is sufficiently large, γ > 2. The analysis shows that relativistic effects and density gradient tend to stabilize the Weibel instability. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> can be reduced by 88% by reducing η by a factor of 100 and increasing relativistic parameter by a factor of 3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25087723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25087723"><span>Effects of Eucommia ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in adolescent female rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jeong-Il; Song, MiKyung; Lee, Donghun; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Soo Young; Park, Juyeon; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Eucommia ulmoides is one of the popular tonic herbs for the treatment of low back pain and bone fracture and is used in Korean medicine to reinforce muscles and bones. This study was performed to investigate the effects of E. ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, <span class="hlt">growth</span> plate height, and the expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and insulin-like <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor 1 (IGF-1) in adolescent female rats. In two groups, we administered a twice-daily dosage of E. ulmoides extract (at 30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) per os over 4 days, and in a control group, we administered vehicle only under the same conditions. Longitudinal bone <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in newly synthesized bone was observed using tetracycline labeling. Chondrocyte proliferation in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> plate was observed using cresyl violet dye. In addition, we analyzed the expressions of BMP-2 and IGF-1 using immunohistochemistry. Eucommia ulmoides extract significantly increased longitudinal bone <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and <span class="hlt">growth</span> plate height in adolescent female rats. In the immunohistochemical study, E. ulmoides markedly increased BMP-2 and IGF-1 expressions in the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. In conclusion, E. ulmoides increased longitudinal bone <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> by promoting chondrogenesis in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> plate and the levels of BMP-2 and IGF-1. Eucommia ulmoides could be helpful for increasing bone <span class="hlt">growth</span> in children who have <span class="hlt">growth</span> retardation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/525023','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/525023"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and transition to turbulence of a gas curtain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vorobieff, P.; Rightley, P.; Benjamin, R.</p> <p>1997-09-01</p> <p>The authors conduct shock-tube experiments to investigate Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability of a narrow curtain of heavy gas (SF{sub 6}) embedded in lighter gas (air). Initial perturbations of the curtain can be varied, producing different flow patterns in the subsequent evolution of the curtain. Multiple-exposure video flow visualization provides images of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of the instability and its transition to turbulence, making it possible to extract quantitative information such as the width of the perturbed curtain. They demonstrate that the width of the curtain with initial perturbation on the downstream side is non-monotonic. As the initial perturbation undergoes phase inversion, the width of the curtain actually decreases before beginning to grow as the RM instability evolves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870049903&hterms=supercooling&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsupercooling','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870049903&hterms=supercooling&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsupercooling"><span><span class="hlt">Rate</span> limits in silicon sheet <span class="hlt">growth</span> - The connections between vertical and horizontal methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Paul D.; Brown, Robert A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Meniscus-defined techniques for the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of thin silicon sheets fall into two categories: vertical and horizontal <span class="hlt">growth</span>. The interactions of the temperature field and the crystal shape are analyzed for both methods using two-dimensional finite-element models which include heat transfer and capillarity. Heat transfer in vertical <span class="hlt">growth</span> systems is dominated by conduction in the melt and the crystal, with almost flat melt/crystal interfaces that are perpendicular to the direction of <span class="hlt">growth</span>. The high axial temperature gradients characteristic of vertical <span class="hlt">growth</span> lead to high thermal stresses. The maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is also limited by capillarity which can restrict the conduction of heat from the melt into the crystal. In horizontal <span class="hlt">growth</span> the melt/crystal interface stretches across the surface of the melt pool many times the crystal thickness, and low <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are achievable with careful temperature control. With a moderate axial temperature gradient in the sheet a substantial portion of the latent heat conducts along the sheet and the surface of the melt pool becomes supercooled, leading to dendritic <span class="hlt">growth</span>. The thermal supercooling is surpressed by lowering the axial gradient in the crystal; this configuration is the most desirable for the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of high quality crystals. An expression derived from scaling analysis relating the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the crucible temperature is shown to be reliable for horizontal <span class="hlt">growth</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870049903&hterms=Capillarity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCapillarity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870049903&hterms=Capillarity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCapillarity"><span><span class="hlt">Rate</span> limits in silicon sheet <span class="hlt">growth</span> - The connections between vertical and horizontal methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Paul D.; Brown, Robert A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Meniscus-defined techniques for the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of thin silicon sheets fall into two categories: vertical and horizontal <span class="hlt">growth</span>. The interactions of the temperature field and the crystal shape are analyzed for both methods using two-dimensional finite-element models which include heat transfer and capillarity. Heat transfer in vertical <span class="hlt">growth</span> systems is dominated by conduction in the melt and the crystal, with almost flat melt/crystal interfaces that are perpendicular to the direction of <span class="hlt">growth</span>. The high axial temperature gradients characteristic of vertical <span class="hlt">growth</span> lead to high thermal stresses. The maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is also limited by capillarity which can restrict the conduction of heat from the melt into the crystal. In horizontal <span class="hlt">growth</span> the melt/crystal interface stretches across the surface of the melt pool many times the crystal thickness, and low <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are achievable with careful temperature control. With a moderate axial temperature gradient in the sheet a substantial portion of the latent heat conducts along the sheet and the surface of the melt pool becomes supercooled, leading to dendritic <span class="hlt">growth</span>. The thermal supercooling is surpressed by lowering the axial gradient in the crystal; this configuration is the most desirable for the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of high quality crystals. An expression derived from scaling analysis relating the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the crucible temperature is shown to be reliable for horizontal <span class="hlt">growth</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012QuRes..77..424M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012QuRes..77..424M"><span>Mammoth tooth enamel <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> inferred from stable isotope analysis and histology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Metcalfe, Jessica Z.; Longstaffe, Fred J.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Mammoth (Mammuthus sp.) teeth are relatively abundant in Quaternary deposits from Eurasia and North America, and their isotopic compositions can be used to reconstruct past seasonal patterns in precipitation, diet, and migration. Strategies for collecting and interpreting such data, however, are strongly dependent on <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, which can vary among species, individuals, and within teeth. In this study, we use histological and isotopic measurements to determine enamel <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for a Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) tooth in two directions. Using histology, the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> through the enamel thickness (ET; perpendicular to the height of the tooth) is estimated at 0.8 to 1.5 mm/yr. Isotopic sampling through the innermost 0.36 mm of the ET recovered less than half a period of variation (i.e., half an inferred year of <span class="hlt">growth</span>), which is consistent with the histological estimate for ET <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. A combination of histological and isotopic measurements suggests that the enamel extension <span class="hlt">rate</span> (<span class="hlt">growth</span> in the height of the tooth) is 13-14 mm/yr. Knowledge of enamel <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> should improve the design and interpretation of future isotopic studies of mammoth teeth. The combination of histological and isotopic measurements may also prove useful in determining <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for other extinct taxa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMOS22A..06F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMOS22A..06F"><span>Amazon Shelf Sediment Accumulation <span class="hlt">Rate</span> and Subaqueous Delta <span class="hlt">Growth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Figueiredo, A. G.; Nittrouer, C. A.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The Amazon drainage basin is one of the largest basins on Earth extending over 7x106 km2, and water and sediment produced are carried by the Amazon River. Sediment brought to Amazon shelf is spread on a subaqueous delta along the coast from river mouth to the Guiana coast, 1600 km to the north. Delta width varies from 200 km at the river mouth to 40 km at Cape Orange (Brazil). The subaqueous delta has topset, foreset and bottomset beds. The topset beds are found in water depths between 10 and 30-40 m, the foreset are between 30-40 m and 70 m, and bottomset are from 70 to 75-80 m. Shallow seismic data reveals that the beds of the foreset prograde oceanward at a larger <span class="hlt">rate</span> than the topset buildup, indicating that shelf subsidence <span class="hlt">rate</span> is less than sediment accumulation <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The subaqueous delta progrades over carbonate-rich sandier substrate that extends to the shelf break. The substrate is molded by tidal currents into ridges normal to subaqueous-delta progradation. Subaqueous-delta sediments are sandy near the river mouth and become muddier toward north. Muddy sediments move seaward and partially fill the inter-ridge depressions. Near the river mouth, sediment magnetic susceptibility measured along cores is higher and more variable (250-550 x 106 SI), and in the distal portion is lower and less variable (280-350 x 106 SI). Despite diverse sediment types, accumulation <span class="hlt">rates</span> based on C-14 dating in the foreset beds near the river mouth and distal portion are very similar, 5.1 mm/y and 4.3 mm/y. Accumulation <span class="hlt">rates</span> based on Pb-210 are two orders of magnitude greater (100-600 mm/y). Particulate organic matter derived from the terrestrial basin and from marine plankton production are incorporated and buried in the delta. Biogeochemical processes transform part of the organic matter into methane gas, which can escape to the atmosphere or be trapped in sediment. High-resolution, shallow seismic data indicate a large amount of methane gas in the subaqueous delta</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25435593','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25435593"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are related to production efficiencies in juveniles of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heflin, L E; Gibbs, V K; Jones, W T; Makowsky, R; Lawrence, A L; Watts, S A</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of newly-metamorphosed urchins from a single spawning event (three males and three females) were highly variable, despite being held en masse under identical environmental and nutritional conditions. As individuals reached ~5 mm diameter (0.07-0.10 g wet weight), they were placed in <span class="hlt">growth</span> trials (23 dietary treatments containing various nutrient profiles). Elapsed time from the first individual entering the <span class="hlt">growth</span> trials to the last individual entering was 121 days (N = 170 individuals). During the five-week <span class="hlt">growth</span> trials, urchins were held individually and proffered a limiting ration to evaluate <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and production efficiency. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> among individuals within each dietary treatment remained highly variable. Across all dietary treatments, individuals with an initially high <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (entering the study first) continued to grow at a faster <span class="hlt">rate</span> than those with an initially low <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (entering the study at a later date), regardless of feed intake. Wet weight gain (ranging from 0.13 -3.19 g, P < 0.0001, R(2) = 0.5801) and dry matter production efficiency (ranging from 25.2-180.5%, P = 0.0003, R(2) = 0.6162) were negatively correlated with stocking date, regardless of dietary treatment. Although canalization of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> during en masse early post-metamorphic <span class="hlt">growth</span> is possible, we hypothesize that intrinsic differences in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are, in part, the result of differences (possibly genetic) in production efficiencies of individual Lytechinus variegatus. That is, some sea urchins are more efficient in converting feed to biomass. We further hypothesize that this variation may have evolved as an adaptive response to selective pressure related to food availability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4245032','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4245032"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are related to production efficiencies in juveniles of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Heflin, L.E.; Gibbs, V.K.; Jones, W.T.; Makowsky, R.; Lawrence, A.L.; Watts, S.A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of newly-metamorphosed urchins from a single spawning event (three males and three females) were highly variable, despite being held en masse under identical environmental and nutritional conditions. As individuals reached ~5 mm diameter (0.07–0.10 g wet weight), they were placed in <span class="hlt">growth</span> trials (23 dietary treatments containing various nutrient profiles). Elapsed time from the first individual entering the <span class="hlt">growth</span> trials to the last individual entering was 121 days (N = 170 individuals). During the five-week <span class="hlt">growth</span> trials, urchins were held individually and proffered a limiting ration to evaluate <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and production efficiency. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> among individuals within each dietary treatment remained highly variable. Across all dietary treatments, individuals with an initially high <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (entering the study first) continued to grow at a faster <span class="hlt">rate</span> than those with an initially low <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (entering the study at a later date), regardless of feed intake. Wet weight gain (ranging from 0.13 −3.19 g, P < 0.0001, R2 = 0.5801) and dry matter production efficiency (ranging from 25.2–180.5%, P = 0.0003, R2 = 0.6162) were negatively correlated with stocking date, regardless of dietary treatment. Although canalization of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> during en masse early post-metamorphic <span class="hlt">growth</span> is possible, we hypothesize that intrinsic differences in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are, in part, the result of differences (possibly genetic) in production efficiencies of individual Lytechinus variegatus. That is, some sea urchins are more efficient in converting feed to biomass. We further hypothesize that this variation may have evolved as an adaptive response to selective pressure related to food availability. PMID:25435593</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23850820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23850820"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, organic carbon and nutrient removal <span class="hlt">rates</span> of Chlorella sorokiniana in autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Sunjin; Park, Jeong-eun; Cho, Yong-Beom; Hwang, Sun-Jin</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>This study sought to investigate the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and organic carbon and nutrient removal efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana under autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the microalgae were 0.24 d(-1), 0.53 d(-1) and 0.44 d(-1) in autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions, respectively. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of C. sorokiniana was significantly higher for that grown under heterotrophic conditions. The nitrogen removal <span class="hlt">rates</span> were 13.1 mg-N/L/day, 23.9 mg-N/L/day and 19.4 mg-N/L/day, respectively. The phosphorus removal <span class="hlt">rates</span> reached to 3.4 mg-P/L/day, 5.6 mg-P/L/day and 5.1 mg-P/L/day, respectively. Heterotrophic conditions were superior in terms of the microalgae <span class="hlt">growth</span> and removal of nitrogen and phosphorus compared to autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions, suggesting that microalgae cultured under this condition would be most useful for application in wastewater treatment systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5198170','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5198170"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span>-Phase Sterigmatocystin Formation on Lactose Is Mediated via Low Specific <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Aspergillus nidulans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Németh, Zoltán; Molnár, Ákos P.; Fejes, Balázs; Novák, Levente; Karaffa, Levente; Keller, Nancy P.; Fekete, Erzsébet</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Seed contamination with polyketide mycotoxins such as sterigmatocystin (ST) produced by Aspergilli is a worldwide issue. The ST biosynthetic pathway is well-characterized in A. nidulans, but regulatory aspects related to the carbon source are still enigmatic. This is particularly true for lactose, inasmuch as some ST production mutant strains still synthesize ST on lactose but not on other carbon substrates. Here, kinetic data revealed that on d-glucose, ST forms only after the sugar is depleted from the medium, while on lactose, ST appears when most of the carbon source is still available. Biomass-specified ST production on lactose was significantly higher than on d-glucose, suggesting that ST formation may either be mediated by a carbon catabolite regulatory mechanism, or induced by low specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> attainable on lactose. These hypotheses were tested by d-glucose limited chemostat-type continuous fermentations. No ST formed at a high <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, while a low <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> led to the formation of 0.4 mg·L−1 ST. Similar results were obtained with a CreA mutant strain. We concluded that low specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> may be the primary cause of mid-<span class="hlt">growth</span> ST formation on lactose in A. nidulans, and that carbon utilization <span class="hlt">rates</span> likely play a general regulatory role during biosynthesis. PMID:27916804</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21429043','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21429043"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and energy intake of hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Morton, R H</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is an important factor in neonatal survival. The aim of this study was to determine <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in hand-reared cheetah cubs in South Africa fed a prescribed energy intake, calculated for <span class="hlt">growth</span> in the domestic cat. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> was then compared with previously published data from hand-reared cubs in North America and the relationship between <span class="hlt">growth</span> and energy intake explored. Daily body weight (BW) gain, feed and energy intake data was collected from 18 hand-reared cheetah cubs up to 120 days of age. The average pre-weaning <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was 32 g/day, which is lower than reported in mother-reared cubs and hand-reared cubs in North American facilities. However, post-weaning <span class="hlt">growth</span> increased to an average of 55 g/day. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> was approximately linear prior to weaning, but over the entire age range it exhibited a sigmoidal shape with an asymptotic plateau averaging 57 kg. Energy intake associated with pre-weaning <span class="hlt">growth</span> was 481 kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). Regression analysis described the relationship between metabolic BW, metabolisable energy (ME) intake, and hence daily weight gain. This relationship may be useful in predicting energy intake required to achieve <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in hand-reared cheetah cubs similar to those observed for their mother-reared counterparts. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960018274','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960018274"><span>The effects of temperature and NaCl concentration on tetragonal lysozyme face <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc Lee</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Measurements were made of the (110) and (101) face <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the tetragonal form of hen egg white lysozyme at 0.1M sodium acetate buffer, pH 4.0, from 4 to 22 C and with 3.0%, 5.0%, and 7.0% NaCl used as the precipitating salt. The data were collected at supersaturation ratios ranging from approximately 4 to approximately 63. Both decreasing temperature and increasing salt concentrations shifted plots of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> versus C/C(sat) to the right, i.e. higher supersaturations were required for comparable <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The observed trends in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> data are counter to those expected from the solubility data. If tetragonal lysozyme crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> is by addition of ordered aggregates from the solution, then the observed <span class="hlt">growth</span> data could be explained as a result of the effects of lowered temperature and increased salt concentration on the kinetics and equilibrium processes governing protein-protein interactions in solution. The data indicate that temperature would be a more tractable means of controlling the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> for tetragonal lysozyme crystals contrary to the usual practice in, e.g., vapor diffusion protein crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span>, where both the precipitant and protein concentrations are simultaneously increased. However, the available range for control is dependent upon the protein concentration, with the greatest <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> control being at the lower concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25851030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25851030"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> hypothesis and efficiency of protein synthesis under different sulphate concentrations in two green algae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Giordano, Mario; Palmucci, Matteo; Raven, John A</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> hypothesis (GRH) predicts a positive correlation between <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and RNA content because <span class="hlt">growth</span> depends upon the protein synthesis machinery. The application of this hypothesis to photoautotrophic organisms has been questioned. We tested the GRH on one prasinophycean, Tetraselmis suecica, and one chlorophycean, Dunaliella salina, grown at three sulphate concentrations. Sulphate was chosen because its concentration in the oceans increased through geological time and apparently had a role in the evolutionary trajectories of phytoplankton. Cell protein content and P quota were positively related to the RNA content (r = 0.62 and r = 0.74, respectively). The correlation of the RNA content with <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> (r = 0.95) indicates that the GRH was valid for these species when <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were below 0.82 d(-1) .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JCrGr.130..411V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JCrGr.130..411V"><span>About supersaturation and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of hydrargillite Al(OH) 3 in alumina caustic solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veesler, Stéphane; Boistelle, Roland</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of hydrargillite crystals, Al(OH) 3, growing from concentrated caustic solutions, are traditionally plotted and discussed as a function of the difference between actual concentration and solubility of alumina. This way to express supersaturation is probably due to practical or technical reasons, as hydrargillite is mainly grown in industrial plants. However, as the solubility of hydrargillite is greatly affected by the presence of caustic soda there are as many <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> curves as there are solutions at different soda concentrations, if supersaturation is expressed as a concentration difference. In the present paper we show that all <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, measured in different caustic solutions, lie on a single curve if supersaturation is normalized with respect to solubility, i.e. expressed as a ratio of actual concentration over solubility. Accordingly, <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> become independent of the caustic concentrations when <span class="hlt">growth</span> takes place at the same supersaturation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4889980','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4889980"><span>Phytoplankton production and taxon-specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the Costa Rica Dome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Selph, Karen E.; Landry, Michael R.; Taylor, Andrew G.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Andrés; Stukel, Michael R.; Wokuluk, John; Pasulka, Alexis</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>During summer 2010, we investigated phytoplankton production and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> at 19 stations in the eastern tropical Pacific, where winds and strong opposing currents generate the Costa Rica Dome (CRD), an open-ocean upwelling feature. Primary production (14C-incorporation) and group-specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> and net <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> (two-treatment seawater dilution method) were estimated from samples incubated in situ at eight depths. Our cruise coincided with a mild El Niño event, and only weak upwelling was observed in the CRD. Nevertheless, the highest phytoplankton abundances were found near the dome center. However, mixed-layer <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were lowest in the dome center (∼0.5–0.9 day−1), but higher on the edge of the dome (∼0.9–1.0 day−1) and in adjacent coastal waters (0.9–1.3 day−1). We found good agreement between independent methods to estimate <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Mixed-layer <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were largely balanced by mortality, whereas eukaryotic phytoplankton showed positive net <span class="hlt">growth</span> (∼0.5–0.6 day−1), that is, <span class="hlt">growth</span> available to support larger (mesozooplankton) consumer biomass. These are the first group-specific phytoplankton <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimates in this region, and they demonstrate that integrated primary production is high, exceeding 1 g C m−2 day−1 on average, even during a period of reduced upwelling. PMID:27275025</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008BGeo....5.1601R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008BGeo....5.1601R"><span>Anthropogenic and biophysical contributions to increasing atmospheric CO2 <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and airborne fraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raupach, M. R.; Canadell, J. G.; Le Quéré, C.</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>We quantify the relative roles of natural and anthropogenic influences on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of atmospheric CO2 and the CO2 airborne fraction, considering both interdecadal trends and interannual variability. A combined ENSO-Volcanic Index (EVI) relates most (~75%) of the interannual variability in CO2 <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> to the El-Niño-Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) climate mode and volcanic activity. Analysis of several CO2 data sets with removal of the EVI-correlated component confirms a previous finding of a detectable increasing trend in CO2 airborne fraction (defined using total anthropogenic emissions including fossil fuels and land use change) over the period 1959 2006, at a proportional <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> 0.24% y-1 with probability ~0.9 of a positive trend. This implies that the atmospheric CO2 <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> increased slightly faster than total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. To assess the combined roles of the biophysical and anthropogenic drivers of atmospheric CO2 <span class="hlt">growth</span>, the increase in the CO2 <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (1.9% y-1 over 1959 2006) is expressed as the sum of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of four global driving factors: population (contributing +1.7% y-1); per capita income (+1.8% y-1); the total carbon intensity of the global economy (-1.7% y-1); and airborne fraction (averaging +0.2% y-1 with strong interannual variability). The first three of these factors, the anthropogenic drivers, have therefore dominated the last, biophysical driver as contributors to accelerating CO2 <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Together, the recent (post-2000) increase in <span class="hlt">growth</span> of per capita income and decline in the negative <span class="hlt">growth</span> (improvement) in the carbon intensity of the economy will drive a significant further acceleration in the CO2 <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> over coming decades, unless these recent trends reverse.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24823823','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24823823"><span>Faster is not always better: selection on <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> fluctuates across life history and environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Monro, Keyne; Marshall, Dustin J</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is increasingly recognized as a key life-history trait that may affect fitness directly rather than evolve as a by-product of selection on size or age. An ongoing challenge is to explain the abundant levels of phenotypic and genetic variation in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> often seen in natural populations, despite what is expected to be consistently strong selection on this trait. Such a paradox suggests limits to how contemporary <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> evolve. We explored limits arising from variation in selection, based on selection differentials for age-specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> expressed under different ecological conditions. We present results from a field experiment that measured <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and reproductive output in wild individuals of a colonial marine invertebrate (Hippopodina iririkiensis), replicated within and across the natural range of succession in its local community. Colony <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> varied phenotypically throughout this range, but not all such variation was available for selection, nor was it always targeted by selection as expected. While the maintenance of both phenotypic and genetic variation in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is often attributed to costs of growing rapidly, our study highlights the potential for fluctuating selection pressures throughout the life history and across environments to play an important role in this process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26287350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26287350"><span>[Correlation between <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of corpus callosum and neuromotor development in preterm infants].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Rui-Ke; Sun, Jie; Hu, Li-Yan; Liu, Fang</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>To investigate the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of corpus callosum by cranial ultrasound in very low birth weight preterm infants and to provide a reference for early evaluation and improvement of brain development. A total of 120 preterm infants under 33 weeks' gestation were recruited and divided into 26-29(+6) weeks group (n=64) and 30-32(+6) weeks group (n=56) according to the gestational age. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of corpus callosum was compared between the two groups. The correlation between the corpus callosum length and the cerebellar vermis length and the relationship of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of corpus callosum with clinical factors and the neuromotor development were analyzed. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of corpus callosum in preterm infants declined since 2 weeks after birth. Compared with the 30-32(+6) weeks group, the 26-29(+6) weeks group had a significantly lower <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of corpus callosum at 3-4 weeks after birth, at 5-6 weeks after birth, and from 7 weeks after birth to 40 weeks of corrected gestational age. There was a positive linear correlation between the corpus callosum length and the cerebellar vermis length. Small-for-gestational age infants had a low <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of corpus callosum at 2 weeks after birth. The 12 preterm infants with severe abnormal intellectual development had a lower <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of corpus callosum compared with the 108 preterm infants with non-severe abnormal intellectual development at 3-6 weeks after birth. The 5 preterm infants with severe abnormal motor development had a significantly lower <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of corpus callosum compared with the 115 preterm infants with non-severe abnormal motor development at 3-6 weeks after birth. The decline of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of corpus callosum in preterm infants at 2-6 weeks after birth can increase the risk of severe abnormal neuromotor development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.U44A..05A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.U44A..05A"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the lithospheric mantle: variations in time and space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Artemieva, I. M.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Two global databases for the continents, (a) for tectono-thermal ages and (b) for lithospheric thermal thickness (Artemieva, Tectonophysics, 2006 and available for download at the web-site), are used to calculate (i) the volume of the preserved continental lithosphere of different ages within the individual cratons, (ii) the lithospheric <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> for different continents over the past 3.6 Ga, (iii) a global model of lithosphere <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> since the Archean. The submerged areas with continental crust are excluded from the analysis. On the scale of a craton, significant differences in the <span class="hlt">rates</span> of lithosphere <span class="hlt">growth</span> are observed between the individual cratons. These data are compared with independent estimates of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of juvenile crust on different continents as constrained by sedimentary record, geological and isotope data. On the global scale, the results show a general agreement between the global cumulative <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the continental lithosphere and juvenile crust (Condie, 1998). The most pronounced peak in lithosphere <span class="hlt">growth</span> occurred at 2.1-1.7 Ga, when the volume of lithospheric mantle was increasing with the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of ca. 10-20 (km3 per year). Contrary to <span class="hlt">growth</span> models of juvenile crust, the peaks in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the lithospheric mantle at ca. 2.7- 2.6 Ga and 1.3-1.1 Ga are weak, ca. 5-8 (km3 per year). The differences between the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the lithosphere and juvenile crust are interpreted as indicator of the preservation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the cratonic lithosphere since the Archean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JCrGr.316...60C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JCrGr.316...60C"><span>High <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> 4H-SiC epitaxial <span class="hlt">growth</span> using dichlorosilane in a hot-wall CVD reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chowdhury, Iftekhar; Chandrasekhar, M. V. S.; Klein, Paul B.; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Sudarshan, Tangali</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Thick, high quality 4H-SiC epilayers have been grown in a vertical hot-wall chemical vapor deposition system at a high <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> on (0 0 0 1) 8° off-axis substrates. We discuss the use of dichlorosilane as the Si-precursor for 4H-SiC epitaxial <span class="hlt">growth</span> as it provides the most direct decomposition route into SiCl 2, which is the predominant <span class="hlt">growth</span> species in chlorinated chemistries. A specular surface morphology was attained by limiting the hydrogen etch <span class="hlt">rate</span> until the system was equilibrated at the desired <span class="hlt">growth</span> temperature. The RMS roughness of the grown films ranged from 0.5-2.0 nm with very few morphological defects (carrots, triangular defects, etc.) being introduced, while enabling <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of 30-100 μm/h, 5-15 times higher than most conventional <span class="hlt">growths</span>. Site-competition epitaxy was observed over a wide range of C/Si ratios, with doping concentrations <1×10 14 cm -3 being recorded. X-ray rocking curves indicated that the epilayers were of high crystallinity, with linewidths as narrow as 7.8 arcsec being observed, while microwave photoconductive decay (μPCD) measurements indicated that these films had high injection (ambipolar) carrier lifetimes in the range of 2 μs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApPhL..97o3105C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApPhL..97o3105C"><span>Different <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for catalyst-induced and self-induced GaN nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chèze, C.; Geelhaar, L.; Jenichen, B.; Riechert, H.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>The catalyst- and self-induced pathways of GaN nanowire <span class="hlt">growth</span> by molecular beam epitaxy are compared. The catalyst-induced nanowires elongate faster than the self-induced ones and their <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is fully determined by the impinging N <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The self-induced nanowire <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is identical on both Si(111) and Si(001) and approaches the impinging N <span class="hlt">rate</span> only for the few longest nanowires. This difference is attributed to the presence of the Ni-catalyst which enhances the incorporation of Ga at the nanowire tip while for the self-induced nanowires, <span class="hlt">growth</span> is limited by the different incorporation <span class="hlt">rates</span> on the nanowire tip and sidewall facets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28562625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28562625"><span>Estimating blue whale skin isotopic incorporation <span class="hlt">rates</span> and baleen <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>: Implications for assessing diet and movement patterns in mysticetes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Busquets-Vass, Geraldine; Newsome, Seth D; Calambokidis, John; Serra-Valente, Gabriela; Jacobsen, Jeff K; Aguíñiga-García, Sergio; Gendron, Diane</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Stable isotope analysis in mysticete skin and baleen plates has been repeatedly used to assess diet and movement patterns. Accurate interpretation of isotope data depends on understanding isotopic incorporation <span class="hlt">rates</span> for metabolically active tissues and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for metabolically inert tissues. The aim of this research was to estimate isotopic incorporation <span class="hlt">rates</span> in blue whale skin and baleen <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> by using natural gradients in baseline isotope values between oceanic regions. Nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope values of blue whale skin and potential prey were analyzed from three foraging zones (Gulf of California, California Current System, and Costa Rica Dome) in the northeast Pacific from 1996-2015. We also measured δ15N and δ13C values along the lengths of baleen plates collected from six blue whales stranded in the 1980s and 2000s. Skin was separated into three strata: basale, externum, and sloughed skin. A mean (±SD) skin isotopic incorporation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 163±91 days was estimated by fitting a generalized additive model of the seasonal trend in δ15N values of skin strata collected in the Gulf of California and the California Current System. A mean (±SD) baleen <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 15.5±2.2 cm y-1 was estimated by using seasonal oscillations in δ15N values from three whales. These oscillations also showed that individual whales have a high fidelity to distinct foraging zones in the northeast Pacific across years. The absence of oscillations in δ15N values of baleen sub-samples from three male whales suggests these individuals remained within a specific zone for several years prior to death. δ13C values of both whale tissues (skin and baleen) and potential prey were not distinct among foraging zones. Our results highlight the importance of considering tissue isotopic incorporation and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> when studying migratory mysticetes and provide new insights into the individual movement strategies of blue whales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28313711','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28313711"><span>Sex differentiation in postnatal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>: a test in a wild boar population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gaillard, J -M; Pontier, D; Brandt, S; Jullien, J-M; Allainé, D</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>In wild boar individual <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is linear between 0.5 and 6 months after birth, based on successive body weight measurements. Contrary to expectation for a dimorphic and polygynous mammal like wild boar, no sexual dimorphism in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> could be detected between 0.5 and 6 months. We argue that high total maternal invesment in offspring due to large litter size and/or strong selection for early reproduction in this population with a short generation time could explain this absence of early differentiation in postnatal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> according to offspring sex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.7952W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.7952W"><span>Longitudinal and seasonal variation of the equatorial flux tube integrated Rayleigh-Taylor instability <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Qian</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM), the ionospheric Rayleigh-Taylor instability <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is calculated. The seasonal and longitudinal variations of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> from the TIEGCM appear to match that of the spread F observed by various satellite missions. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is strongly dependent on the angle between the sunset terminator and the geomagnetic field line near the magnetic equator. The TIEGCM simulations with nonmigrating tides show the zonal wave number 4 structure in the Rayleigh-Taylor instability due to the inclusion of the nonmigrating diurnal eastward zonal wave number 3 and semidiurnal eastward zonal wave number 2 tides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860062330&hterms=nir&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dnir','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860062330&hterms=nir&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dnir"><span>Thin film <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> effects for primary ion beam deposited diamondlike carbon films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nir, D.; Mirtich, M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Diamondlike carbon (DLC) films were grown by primary ion beam deposition and the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were measured for various beam energies, types of hydrocarbon gases and their ratio to Ar, and substrate materials. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> had a linear dependence upon hydrocarbon content in the discharge chamber, and only small dependence on other parameters. For given deposition conditions a threshold in the atomic ratio of carbon to argon gas was identified below which films did not grow on fused silica substrate, but grew on Si substrate and on existing DLC films. Ion source deposition parameters and substrate material were found to affect the deposition threshold and film <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..398..264M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..398..264M"><span>A model for scaling in firms’ size and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Metzig, Cornelia; Gordon, Mirta B.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>We introduce a simple agent-based model which allows us to analyze three stylized facts: a fat-tailed size distribution of companies, a ‘tent-shaped’ <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> distribution, the scaling relation of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> variance with firm size, and the causality between them. This is achieved under the simple hypothesis that firms compete for a scarce quantity (either aggregate demand or workforce) which is allocated probabilistically. The model allows us to relate size and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> distributions. We compare the results of our model to simulations with other scaling relationships, and to similar models and relate it to existing theory. Effects arising from binning data are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28378354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28378354"><span>Ecological regime shift drives declining <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of sea turtles throughout the West Atlantic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bjorndal, Karen A; Bolten, Alan B; Chaloupka, Milani; Saba, Vincent S; Bellini, Cláudio; Marcovaldi, Maria A G; Santos, Armando J B; Bortolon, Luis Felipe Wurdig; Meylan, Anne B; Meylan, Peter A; Gray, Jennifer; Hardy, Robert; Brost, Beth; Bresette, Michael; Gorham, Jonathan C; Connett, Stephen; Crouchley, Barbara Van Sciver; Dawson, Mike; Hayes, Deborah; Diez, Carlos E; van Dam, Robert P; Willis, Sue; Nava, Mabel; Hart, Kristen M; Cherkiss, Michael S; Crowder, Andrew G; Pollock, Clayton; Hillis-Starr, Zandy; Muñoz Tenería, Fernando A; Herrera-Pavón, Roberto; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Lorences, Armando; Negrete-Philippe, Ana; Lamont, Margaret M; Foley, Allen M; Bailey, Rhonda; Carthy, Raymond R; Scarpino, Russell; McMichael, Erin; Provancha, Jane A; Brooks, Annabelle; Jardim, Adriana; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; González-Paredes, Daniel; Estrades, Andrés; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Martínez-Souza, Gustavo; Vélez-Rubio, Gabriela M; Boulon, Ralf H; Collazo, Jaime A; Wershoven, Robert; Guzmán Hernández, Vicente; Stringell, Thomas B; Sanghera, Amdeep; Richardson, Peter B; Broderick, Annette C; Phillips, Quinton; Calosso, Marta; Claydon, John A B; Metz, Tasha L; Gordon, Amanda L; Landry, Andre M; Shaver, Donna J; Blumenthal, Janice; Collyer, Lucy; Godley, Brendan J; McGowan, Andrew; Witt, Matthew J; Campbell, Cathi L; Lagueux, Cynthia J; Bethel, Thomas L; Kenyon, Lory</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Somatic <span class="hlt">growth</span> is an integrated, individual-based response to environmental conditions, especially in ectotherms. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> dynamics of large, mobile animals are particularly useful as bio-indicators of environmental change at regional scales. We assembled <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> data from throughout the West Atlantic for green turtles, Chelonia mydas, which are long-lived, highly migratory, primarily herbivorous mega-consumers that may migrate over hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Our dataset, the largest ever compiled for sea turtles, has 9690 <span class="hlt">growth</span> increments from 30 sites from Bermuda to Uruguay from 1973 to 2015. Using generalized additive mixed models, we evaluated covariates that could affect <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>; body size, diet, and year have significant effects on <span class="hlt">growth</span>. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> increases in early years until 1999, then declines by 26% to 2015. The temporal (year) effect is of particular interest because two carnivorous species of sea turtles-hawksbills, Eretmochelys imbricata, and loggerheads, Caretta caretta-exhibited similar significant declines in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> starting in 1997 in the West Atlantic, based on previous studies. These synchronous declines in productivity among three sea turtle species across a trophic spectrum provide strong evidence that an ecological regime shift (ERS) in the Atlantic is driving <span class="hlt">growth</span> dynamics. The ERS resulted from a synergy of the 1997/1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-the strongest on record-combined with an unprecedented warming <span class="hlt">rate</span> over the last two to three decades. Further support is provided by the strong correlations between annualized mean <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of green turtles and both sea surface temperatures (SST) in the West Atlantic for years of declining <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> (r = -.94) and the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) for all years (r = .74). Granger-causality analysis also supports the latter finding. We discuss multiple stressors that could reinforce and prolong the effect of the ERS. This study demonstrates the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70187310','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70187310"><span>Ecological regime shift drives declining <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of sea turtles throughout the West Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani; Saba, Vincent S.; Bellini, Cláudio; Marcovaldi, Maria A.G.; Santos, Armando J.B.; Bortolon, Luis Felipe Wurdig; Meylan, Anne B.; Meylan, Peter A.; Gray, Jennifer; Hardy, Robert; Brost, Beth; Bresette, Michael; Gorham, Jonathan C.; Connett, Stephen; Crouchley, Barbara Van Sciver; Dawson, Mike; Hayes, Deborah; Diez, Carlos E.; van Dam, Robert P.; Willis, Sue; Nava, Mabel; Hart, Kristen M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Crowder, Andrew; Pollock, Clayton; Hillis-Starr, Zandy; Muñoz Tenería, Fernando A.; Herrera-Pavón, Roberto; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Lorences, Armando; Negrete-Philippe, Ana; Lamont, Margaret M.; Foley, Allen M.; Bailey, Rhonda; Carthy, Raymond R.; Scarpino, Russell; McMichael, Erin; Provancha, Jane A.; Brooks, Annabelle; Jardim, Adriana; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; González-Paredes, Daniel; Estrades, Andrés; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Martínez-Souza, Gustavo; Vélez-Rubio, Gabriela M.; Boulon, Ralf H.; Collazo, Jaime; Wershoven, Robert; Hernández, Vicente Guzmán; Stringell, Thomas B.; Sanghera, Amdeep; Richardson, Peter B.; Broderick, Annette C.; Phillips, Quinton; Calosso, Marta C.; Claydon, John A.B.; Metz, Tasha L.; Gordon, Amanda L.; Landry, Andre M.; Shaver, Donna J.; Blumenthal, Janice; Collyer, Lucy; Godley, Brendan J.; McGowan, Andrew; Witt, Matthew J.; Campbell, Cathi L.; Lagueux, Cynthia J.; Bethel, Thomas L.; Kenyon, Lory</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Somatic <span class="hlt">growth</span> is an integrated, individual-based response to environmental conditions, especially in ectotherms. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> dynamics of large, mobile animals are particularly useful as bio-indicators of environmental change at regional scales. We assembled <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> data from throughout the West Atlantic for green turtles, Chelonia mydas, which are long-lived, highly migratory, primarily herbivorous mega-consumers that may migrate over hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Our dataset, the largest ever compiled for sea turtles, has 9690 <span class="hlt">growth</span> increments from 30 sites from Bermuda to Uruguay from 1973 to 2015. Using generalized additive mixed models, we evaluated covariates that could affect <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>; body size, diet, and year have significant effects on <span class="hlt">growth</span>. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> increases in early years until 1999, then declines by 26% to 2015. The temporal (year) effect is of particular interest because two carnivorous species of sea turtles – hawksbills, Eretmochelys imbricata, and loggerheads, Caretta caretta – exhibited similar significant declines in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> starting in 1997 in the West Atlantic, based on previous studies. These synchronous declines in productivity among three sea turtle species across a trophic spectrum provide strong evidence that an ecological regime shift (ERS) in the Atlantic is driving <span class="hlt">growth</span> dynamics. The ERS resulted from a synergy of the 1997/1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) – the strongest on record – combined with an unprecedented warming <span class="hlt">rate</span> over the last two to three decades. Further support is provided by the strong correlations between annualized mean <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of green turtles and both sea surface temperatures (SST) in the West Atlantic for years of declining <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> (r = -0.94) and the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) for all years (r = 0.74). Granger-causality analysis also supports the latter finding. We discuss multiple stressors that could reinforce and prolong the effect of the ERS. This study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=208142','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=208142"><span>Genetic and physical analyses of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent regulation of Escherichia coli zwf expression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rowley, D L; Pease, A J; Wolf, R E</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent regulation of the level of Escherichia coli glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, encoded by zwf, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, encoded by gnd, is similar during steady-state <span class="hlt">growth</span> and after nutritional upshifts. To determine whether the mechanism regulating zwf expression is like that of gnd, which involves a site of posttranscriptional control located within the structural gene, we prepared and analyzed a set of zwf-lacZ protein fusions in which the fusion joints are distributed across the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase coding sequence. Expression of beta-galactosidase from the protein fusions was as <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dependent as that of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase itself, indicating that regulation does not involve an internal regulatory region. The level of beta-galactosidase in zwf-lac operon fusion strains and the level of zwf mRNA from a wild-type strain increased with increasing <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, which suggests that <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> control is exerted on the mRNA level. The half-life of the zwf mRNA mass was 3.0 min during <span class="hlt">growth</span> on glucose and 3.4 min during <span class="hlt">growth</span> on acetate. Thus, zwf transcription appears to be the target for <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> control of the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase level. Images PMID:1906868</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4884970','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4884970"><span>Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors increase <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> with time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pearson, Alexander T.; Finkel, Kelsey A.; Warner, Kristy A.; Nör, Felipe; Tice, David; Martins, Manoela D.; Jackson, Trachette L.; Nör, Jacques E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are frequently used for translational cancer research, and are assumed to behave consistently as the tumor ages. However, <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> constancy as a function of time is unclear. Notably, variable PDX <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> over time might have implications for the interpretation of translational studies. We characterized four PDX models through several in vivo passages from primary human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma. We developed a mathematical approach to merge <span class="hlt">growth</span> data from different passages into a single measure of relative tumor volume normalized to study initiation size. We analyzed log-relative tumor volume increase with linear mixed effect models. Two oral pathologists analyzed the PDX tissues to determine if histopathological feature changes occurred over in vivo passages. Tumor <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> increased over time. This was determined by repeated measures linear regression statistical analysis in four different PDX models. A quadratic statistical model for the temporal effect predicted the log-relative tumor volume significantly better than a linear time effect model. We found a significant correlation between passage number and histopathological features of higher tumor grade. Our mathematical treatment of PDX data allows statistical analysis of tumor <span class="hlt">growth</span> data over long periods of time, including over multiple passages. Non-linear tumor <span class="hlt">growth</span> in our regression models revealed the exponential <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> increased over time. The dynamic tumor <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> correlated with quantifiable histopathological changes that related to passage number in multiple types of cancer. PMID:26783960</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5624776','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5624776"><span>Effects of loading on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of deep stress-corrosion cracks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Beavers, J.A.; Christman, T.K.</p> <p>1990-08-01</p> <p>The goal of this research program was to determine the effects of loading on <span class="hlt">growth</span> of stress-corrosion cracks (SCC) in line pipe steel and whether special loading procedures could actually inhibit crack <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Of particular interest was the effect of hydrostatic retesting on the subsequent <span class="hlt">growth</span> of existing cracks. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> experiments showed that the slow-strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> loading could successfully nucleate a group of fine cracks with depths up to 0.025 inches (0.64 mm). However, the subsequent cyclic loading at typical operating stress levels (lower than experienced during the slow- strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> loading) produced minimal crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> and stopped soon after the test was started. The limited <span class="hlt">growth</span> is believed to be a real phenomenon which means this is not a suitable procedure for the measurement of average crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. These experiments indicate that cracks grown at high stress (as in the slow-strain <span class="hlt">rate</span> phase) do not readily propagate at lower stress levels. This may be because of crack closure (compressive crack tip residual stress) induced by the initial higher stress level. If that is true, then hydrostatic retests could inhibit the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of existing stress-corrosion cracks, especially if the hydrostatic tests are conducted at high stress levels. 15 figures, 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26783960','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26783960"><span>Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors increase <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> with time.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pearson, Alexander T; Finkel, Kelsey A; Warner, Kristy A; Nör, Felipe; Tice, David; Martins, Manoela D; Jackson, Trachette L; Nör, Jacques E</p> <p>2016-02-16</p> <p>Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are frequently used for translational cancer research, and are assumed to behave consistently as the tumor ages. However, <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> constancy as a function of time is unclear. Notably, variable PDX <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> over time might have implications for the interpretation of translational studies. We characterized four PDX models through several in vivo passages from primary human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma. We developed a mathematical approach to merge <span class="hlt">growth</span> data from different passages into a single measure of relative tumor volume normalized to study initiation size. We analyzed log-relative tumor volume increase with linear mixed effect models. Two oral pathologists analyzed the PDX tissues to determine if histopathological feature changes occurred over in vivo passages. Tumor <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> increased over time. This was determined by repeated measures linear regression statistical analysis in four different PDX models. A quadratic statistical model for the temporal effect predicted the log-relative tumor volume significantly better than a linear time effect model. We found a significant correlation between passage number and histopathological features of higher tumor grade. Our mathematical treatment of PDX data allows statistical analysis of tumor <span class="hlt">growth</span> data over long periods of time, including over multiple passages. Non-linear tumor <span class="hlt">growth</span> in our regression models revealed the exponential <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> increased over time. The dynamic tumor <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> correlated with quantifiable histopathological changes that related to passage number in multiple types of cancer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927130','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927130"><span>Daily changes in temperature, not the circadian clock, regulate <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in Brachypodium distachyon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matos, Dominick A; Cole, Benjamin J; Whitney, Ian P; MacKinnon, Kirk J-M; Kay, Steve A; Hazen, Samuel P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Plant <span class="hlt">growth</span> is commonly regulated by external cues such as light, temperature, water availability, and internal cues generated by the circadian clock. Changes in the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> within the course of a day have been observed in the leaves, stems, and roots of numerous species. However, the relative impact of the circadian clock on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of grasses has not been thoroughly characterized. We examined the influence of diurnal temperature and light changes, and that of the circadian clock on leaf length <span class="hlt">growth</span> patterns in Brachypodium distachyon using high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Pronounced changes in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> were observed under combined photocyles and thermocycles or with thermocycles alone. A considerably more rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was observed at 28°C than 12°C, irrespective of the presence or absence of light. In spite of clear circadian clock regulated gene expression, plants exhibited no change in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> under conditions of constant light and temperature, and little or no effect under photocycles alone. Therefore, temperature appears to be the primary cue influencing observed oscillations in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and not the circadian clock or photoreceptor activity. Furthermore, the size of the leaf meristem and final cell length did not change in response to changes in temperature. Therefore, the nearly five-fold difference in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> observed across thermocycles can be attributed to proportionate changes in the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of cell division and expansion. A better understanding of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> cues in B. distachyon will further our ability to model metabolism and biomass accumulation in grasses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..460..166A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..460..166A"><span>Crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in core shroud horizontal welds using two models for a BWR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arganis Juárez, C. R.; Hernández Callejas, R.; Medina Almazán, A. L.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>An empirical crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> correlation model and a predictive model based on the slip-oxidation mechanism for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) were used to calculate the crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in a BWR core shroud. In this study, the crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was calculated by accounting for the environmental factors related to aqueous environment, neutron irradiation to high fluence and the complex residual stress conditions resulting from welding. In estimating the SCC behavior the crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> measurements data from a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plant are referred to, and the stress intensity factor vs crack depth throughout thickness is calculated using a generic weld residual stress distribution for a core shroud, with a 30% stress relaxation induced by neutron irradiation. Quantitative agreement is shown between the measurements of SCC <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the predictions of the slip-oxidation mechanism model for relatively low fluences (5 × 1024 n/m2), and the empirical model predicted better the SCC <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> than the slip-oxidation model for high fluences (>1 × 1025 n/m2). The relevance of the models predictions for SCC <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> behavior depends on knowing the model parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v44/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v44/"><span>Phytoplankton <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in a light-limited environment, San Francisco Bay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Alpine, Andrea E.; Cloern, James E.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>This study was motivated by the need for quantitative measures of phytoplankton population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in an estuarine environment, and was designed around the presumption that <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> can be related empirically to light exposure. We conducted the study in San Francisco Bay (California, USA), which has large horizontal gradients in light availability (Zp:Zm) typical of many coastal plain estuaries, and nutrient concentrations that often exceed those presumed to limit phytoplankton <span class="hlt">growth</span> (Cloern et al. 1985). We tested the hypothesis that light availability is the primary control of phytoplankton <span class="hlt">growth</span>, and that previous estimates of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> based on the ratio of productivity to biomass (Cloern et al. 1985) are realistic. Specifically, we wanted to verify that <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> varies spatially along horizontal gradients of light availability indexed as Zp:Zm, such that phytoplankton turnover <span class="hlt">rate</span> is rapid in shallow clear areas (high Zp:Zm) and slow in deep turbid areas (low Zp:Zm). We used an in situ incubation technique which simulated vertical mixing, and measured both changes in cell number and carbon production as independent estimates of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> across a range of Zp:Zm ratios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27939317','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27939317"><span>Regional <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Differences Specified by Apical Notch Activities Regulate Liverwort Thallus Shape.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Solly, Jeremy E; Cunniffe, Nik J; Harrison, C Jill</p> <p>2017-01-09</p> <p>Plants have undergone 470 million years of evolution on land and different groups have distinct body shapes. Liverworts are the most ancient land plant lineage and have a flattened, creeping body (the thallus), which grows from apical cells in an invaginated "notch." The genetic mechanisms regulating liverwort shape are almost totally unknown, yet they provide a blueprint for the radiation of land plant forms. We have used a combination of live imaging, <span class="hlt">growth</span> analyses, and computational modeling to determine what regulates liverwort thallus shape in Marchantia polymorpha. We find that the thallus undergoes a stereotypical sequence of shape transitions during the first 2 weeks of <span class="hlt">growth</span> and that key aspects of global shape depend on regional <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> differences generated by the coordinated activities of the apical notches. A "notch-drives-<span class="hlt">growth</span>" model, in which a diffusible morphogen produced at each notch promotes specified isotropic <span class="hlt">growth</span>, can reproduce the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> distributions that generate thallus shape given <span class="hlt">growth</span> suppression at the apex. However, in surgical experiments, tissue <span class="hlt">growth</span> persists following notch excision, showing that this model is insufficient to explain thallus <span class="hlt">growth</span>. In an alternative "notch-pre-patterns-<span class="hlt">growth</span>" model, a persistently acting <span class="hlt">growth</span> regulator whose distribution is pre-patterned by the notches can account for the discrepancies between <span class="hlt">growth</span> dynamics in the notch-drives-<span class="hlt">growth</span> model and real plants following excision. Our work shows that <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> heterogeneity is the primary shape determinant in Marchantia polymorpha and suggests that the thallus is likely to have zones with specialized functions. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5367290','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5367290"><span>Threshold effect of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> on population variability of Escherichia coli cell lengths</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A long-standing question in biology is the effect of <span class="hlt">growth</span> on cell size. Here, we estimate the effect of Escherichia coli <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (r) on population cell size distributions by estimating the coefficient of variation of cell lengths (CVL) from image analysis of fixed cells in DIC microscopy. We find that the CVL is constant at <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> less than one division per hour, whereas above this threshold, CVL increases with an increase in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. We hypothesize that stochastic inhibition of cell division owing to replication stalling by a RecA-dependent mechanism, combined with the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> threshold of multi-fork replication (according to Cooper and Helmstetter), could form the basis of such a threshold effect. We proceed to test our hypothesis by increasing the frequency of stochastic stalling of replication forks with hydroxyurea (HU) treatment and find that cell length variability increases only when the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> exceeds this threshold. The population effect is also reproduced in single-cell studies using agar-pad cultures and ‘mother machine’-based experiments to achieve synchrony. To test the role of RecA, critical for the repair of stalled replication forks, we examine the CVL of E. coli ΔrecA cells. We find cell length variability in the mutant to be greater than wild-type, a phenotype that is rescued by plasmid-based RecA expression. Additionally, we find that RecA-GFP protein recruitment to nucleoids is more frequent at <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> exceeding the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> threshold and is further enhanced on HU treatment. Thus, we find <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> greater than a threshold result in increased E. coli cell lengths in the population, and this effect is, at least in part, mediated by RecA recruitment to the nucleoid and stochastic inhibition of division. PMID:28386413</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhBio..13c6005D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhBio..13c6005D"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> against entropy in bacterial metabolism: the phenotypic trade-off behind empirical <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> distributions in E. coli</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Martino, Daniele; Capuani, Fabrizio; De Martino, Andrea</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The solution space of genome-scale models of cellular metabolism provides a map between physically viable flux configurations and cellular metabolic phenotypes described, at the most basic level, by the corresponding <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. By sampling the solution space of E. coli's metabolic network, we show that empirical <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> distributions recently obtained in experiments at single-cell resolution can be explained in terms of a trade-off between the higher fitness of fast-growing phenotypes and the higher entropy of slow-growing ones. Based on this, we propose a minimal model for the evolution of a large bacterial population that captures this trade-off. The scaling relationships observed in experiments encode, in such frameworks, for the same distance from the maximum achievable <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, the same degree of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> maximization, and/or the same <span class="hlt">rate</span> of phenotypic change. Being grounded on genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions, these results allow for multiple implications and extensions in spite of the underlying conceptual simplicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27232645','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27232645"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> against entropy in bacterial metabolism: the phenotypic trade-off behind empirical <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> distributions in E. coli.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martino, Daniele De; Capuani, Fabrizio; Martino, Andrea De</p> <p>2016-05-27</p> <p>The solution space of genome-scale models of cellular metabolism provides a map between physically viable flux configurations and cellular metabolic phenotypes described, at the most basic level, by the corresponding <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. By sampling the solution space of E. coli's metabolic network, we show that empirical <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> distributions recently obtained in experiments at single-cell resolution can be explained in terms of a trade-off between the higher fitness of fast-growing phenotypes and the higher entropy of slow-growing ones. Based on this, we propose a minimal model for the evolution of a large bacterial population that captures this trade-off. The scaling relationships observed in experiments encode, in such frameworks, for the same distance from the maximum achievable <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, the same degree of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> maximization, and/or the same <span class="hlt">rate</span> of phenotypic change. Being grounded on genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions, these results allow for multiple implications and extensions in spite of the underlying conceptual simplicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27070559','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27070559"><span>Effects of Phlomis umbrosa Root on Longitudinal Bone <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> in Adolescent Female Rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Donghun; Kim, Young-Sik; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Guo, Hailing; Kim, Hocheol</p> <p>2016-04-07</p> <p>This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone <span class="hlt">growth</span> and <span class="hlt">growth</span> mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human <span class="hlt">growth</span> hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8-10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in response to P. umbrosa administration in either <span class="hlt">growth</span> plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial <span class="hlt">growth</span> plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in <span class="hlt">growth</span> plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486440','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486440"><span>Ab initio determination of the instability <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of warm dense beryllium-deuterium interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ping; Li, Zi; Li, DaFang</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>Accurate knowledge about the interfacial unstable <span class="hlt">growth</span> is of great importance in inertial confinement fusion. During implosions, the deuterium-tritium capsule is driven by laser beams or X-rays to access the strongly coupled and partially degenerated warm dense matter regime. At this stage, the effects of dissipative processes, such as diffusion and viscosity, have significant impact on the instability <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Here, we present ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to determine the equations of state and the transport coefficients. Several models are used to estimate the reduction in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dispersion curves of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities with considering the presence of these dissipative effects. We show that these instability <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are effectively reduced when considering diffusion. The findings provide significant insights into the microscopic mechanism of the instability <span class="hlt">growth</span> at the ablator-fuel interface and will refine the models used in the laser-driven hydrodynamic instability experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022709&hterms=population+growth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpopulation%2Bgrowth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022709&hterms=population+growth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpopulation%2Bgrowth"><span>Delta L: An Apparatus for Measuring Macromolecular Crystal <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Microgravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Judge, Russell A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>In order to determine how macromolecule crystal quality improvement in microgravity is related to crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> characteristics, is was necessary to develop new hardware that could measure the crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of a population of crystals growing under the same solution conditions. As crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is defined as the change or delta in a defined dimension or length (L) of a crystal over time, the hardware was named Delta L. Delta L consists of fluids, optics, and data acquisition, sub-assemblies. Temperature control is provided for the crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> chamber. Delta L will be used in connection with the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Delta L prototype hardware has been assembled. This paper will describe an overview of the design of Delta L and present preliminary crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24383800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24383800"><span>Using scale characteristics and water temperature to reconstruct <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beakes, M P; Sharron, S; Charish, R; Moore, J W; Satterthwaite, W H; Sturm, E; Wells, B K; Sogard, S M; Mangel, M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from a northern California Central Valley population were reared in a controlled laboratory experiment. Significantly different <span class="hlt">rates</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> were observed among fish reared under two ration treatments and three temperature treatments (8, 14 and 20°C). Wider circulus spacing and faster deposition was associated with faster <span class="hlt">growth</span>. For the same <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, however, circulus spacing was two-fold wider and deposited 36% less frequently in the cold compared to the hot temperature treatment. In a multiple linear regression, median circulus spacing and water temperature accounted for 68% of the variation in observed O. mykiss <span class="hlt">growth</span>. These results corroborate previous research on scale characteristics and <span class="hlt">growth</span>, while providing novel evidence that highlights the importance of water temperature in these relationships. Thus, this study establishes the utility of using scale analysis as a relatively non-invasive method for inferring <span class="hlt">growth</span> in salmonids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=208021','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=208021"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> regulation of translation initiation factor IF3 biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liveris, D; Klotsky, R A; Schwartz, I</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>infC, the gene encoding translation initiation factor IF3 in Escherichia coli, can be transcribed from three promoters. Two of these promoters, PI1 and PI2, are located in the upstream thrS sequence which codes for threonyl-tRNA synthetase. Previous studies had shown that PI2 was the major promoter for infC. In the present study, the extent of transcription from PI1 and/or PI2 at a variety of steady-state <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> was analyzed by promoter fusion studies. PI2 was the more active promoter (two- to threefold stronger than PI1) at all <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> tested. A fusion plasmid containing both PI1 and PI2 exhibited a transcription level approximately equal to the sum of those observed with the fusion plasmids containing the individual promoters. The transcriptional activities of PI1 and PI2 did not change as the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was varied from 0.3 to 1.7 doublings per h. In contrast, a fusion plasmid carrying the rrnB P1 promoter displayed the expected <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> response. The steady-state concentrations of infC mRNA in cells grown at different <span class="hlt">rates</span> were measured and found not to vary. These results indicate that the previously reported <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> regulation of IF3 biosynthesis neither is accomplished by transcriptional control nor is a result of differential mRNA stability. In view of these results, the steady-state levels of IF3 in cells grown at a number of different <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were determined by quantitative immunoblotting. IF3 levels were found to vary with <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in a manner essentially identical to that observed for ribosomes. A model accounting for these results and describing a mechanism for coordinate <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>-regulated expression of ribosomes and IF3 is presented. Images PMID:2050639</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25753546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25753546"><span>Elevational variation in adult body size and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> but not in metabolic <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the tree weta Hemideina crassidens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bulgarella, Mariana; Trewick, Steven A; Godfrey, A Jonathan R; Sinclair, Brent J; Morgan-Richards, Mary</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Populations of the same species inhabiting distinct localities experience different ecological and climatic pressures that might result in differentiation in traits, particularly those related to temperature. We compared metabolic <span class="hlt">rate</span> (and its thermal sensitivity), <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and body size among nine high- and low-elevation populations of the Wellington tree weta, Hemideina crassidens, distributed from 9 to 1171 m a.s.l across New Zealand. Our results did not indicate elevational compensation in metabolic <span class="hlt">rates</span> (metabolic cold adaptation). Cold acclimation decreased metabolic <span class="hlt">rate</span> compared to warm-acclimated individuals from both high- and low-elevation populations. However, we did find countergradient variation in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, with individuals from high-elevation populations growing faster and to a larger final size than individuals from low-elevation populations. Females grew faster to a larger size than males, although as adults their metabolic <span class="hlt">rates</span> did not differ significantly. The combined physiological and morphological data suggest that high-elevation individuals grow quickly and achieve larger size while maintaining metabolic <span class="hlt">rates</span> at levels not significantly different from low-elevation individuals. Thus, morphological differentiation among tree weta populations, in concert with genetic variation, might provide the material required for adaptation to changing conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25148782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25148782"><span>The effects of population density on juvenile <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in white-tailed deer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barr, Brannon; Wolverton, Steve</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic <span class="hlt">growth</span> period, and/or to the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Data requirements are high for studying these <span class="hlt">growth</span> mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In North America, large harvest datasets exist for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), but such data are collected under a variety of conditions and are generally dismissed for ecological research beyond local population and habitat management. We contend that such data are useful for studying the ecology of white-tailed deer <span class="hlt">growth</span> and body size when analyzed at ordinal scale. In this paper, we test the response of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> to food availability by fitting a logarithmic equation that estimates <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> only to harvest data from Fort Hood, Texas, and track changes in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> over time. Results of this ordinal scale model are compared to previously published models that include additional parameters, such as birth weight and adult weight. It is shown that body size responds to food availability by variation in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Models that estimate multiple parameters may not work with harvest data because they are prone to error, which renders estimates from complex models too variable to detect interannual changes in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> that this ordinal scale model captures. This model can be applied to harvest data, from which inferences about factors that influence animal <span class="hlt">growth</span> and body size (e.g., habitat quality and nutritional availability) can be drawn.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EnMan..54..897B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EnMan..54..897B"><span>The Effects of Population Density on Juvenile <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> in White-Tailed Deer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barr, Brannon; Wolverton, Steve</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic <span class="hlt">growth</span> period, and/or to the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Data requirements are high for studying these <span class="hlt">growth</span> mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In North America, large harvest datasets exist for white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), but such data are collected under a variety of conditions and are generally dismissed for ecological research beyond local population and habitat management. We contend that such data are useful for studying the ecology of white-tailed deer <span class="hlt">growth</span> and body size when analyzed at ordinal scale. In this paper, we test the response of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> to food availability by fitting a logarithmic equation that estimates <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> only to harvest data from Fort Hood, Texas, and track changes in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> over time. Results of this ordinal scale model are compared to previously published models that include additional parameters, such as birth weight and adult weight. It is shown that body size responds to food availability by variation in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Models that estimate multiple parameters may not work with harvest data because they are prone to error, which renders estimates from complex models too variable to detect interannual changes in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> that this ordinal scale model captures. This model can be applied to harvest data, from which inferences about factors that influence animal <span class="hlt">growth</span> and body size (e.g., habitat quality and nutritional availability) can be drawn.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034647','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034647"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of rainbow smelt in Lake Champlain: Effects of density and diet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stritzel, Thomson J.L.; Parrish, D.L.; Parker-Stetter, S. L.; Rudstam, L. G.; Sullivan, P.J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Stritzel Thomson JL, Parrish DL, Parker-Stetter SL, Rudstam LG, Sullivan PJ. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of rainbow smelt in Lake Champlain: effects of density and diet. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2010. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract- We estimated the densities of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) using hydroacoustics and obtained specimens for diet analysis and groundtruthed acoustics data from mid-water trawl sampling in four areas of Lake Champlain, USA-Canada. Densities of rainbow smelt cohorts alternated during the 2-year study; age-0 rainbow smelt were very abundant in 2001 (up to 6fish per m2) and age-1 and older were abundant (up to 1.2fish per m2) in 2002. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and densities varied among areas and years. We used model selection on eight area-year-specific variables to investigate biologically plausible predictors of rainbow smelt <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The best supported model of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of age-0 smelt indicated a negative relationship with age-0 density, likely associated with intraspecific competition for zooplankton. The next best-fit model had age-1 density as a predictor of age-0 <span class="hlt">growth</span>. The best supported models (N=4) of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of age-1 fish indicated a positive relationship with availability of age-0 smelt and resulting levels of cannibalism. Other plausible models were contained variants of these parameters. Cannibalistic rainbow smelt consumed younger conspecifics that were up to 53% of their length. Prediction of population dynamics for rainbow smelt requires an understanding of the relationship between density and <span class="hlt">growth</span> as age-0 fish outgrow their main predators (adult smelt) by autumn in years with fast <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, but not in years with slow <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35.1227B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35.1227B"><span>In situ <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of deep-water octocorals determined from 3D photogrammetric reconstructions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bennecke, Swaantje; Kwasnitschka, Tom; Metaxas, Anna; Dullo, Wolf-Christian</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of deep-water corals provide important information on the recovery potential of these ecosystems, for example from fisheries-induced impacts. Here, we present in situ <span class="hlt">growth</span> dynamics that are currently largely unknown for deep-water octocorals, calculated by applying a non-destructive method. Videos of a boulder harbouring multiple colonies of Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis in the Northeast Channel Coral Conservation Area at the entrance to the Gulf of Maine at 863 m depth were collected in 2006, 2010 and 2014. Photogrammetric reconstructions of the boulder and the fauna yielded georeferenced 3D models for all sampling years. Repeated measurements of total length and cross-sectional area of the same colonies allowed the observation of <span class="hlt">growth</span> dynamics. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of total length of Paragorgia arborea decreased over time with higher <span class="hlt">rates</span> between 2006 and 2010 than between 2010 and 2014, while <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of cross-sectional area remained comparatively constant. A general trend of decreasing <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of total length with size of the coral colony was documented. While no <span class="hlt">growth</span> was observed for the largest colony (165 cm in length) between 2010 and 2014, a colony 50-65 cm in length grew 3.7 cm yr-1 between 2006 and 2010. Minimum <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of 1.6-2.7 cm yr-1 were estimated for two recruits (<23 cm in 2014) of Primnoa resedaeformis. We successfully extracted biologically meaningful data from photogrammetric models and present the first in situ <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for these coral species in the Northwest Atlantic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5346290','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5346290"><span>Reduction of translating ribosomes enables Escherichia coli to maintain elongation <span class="hlt">rates</span> during slow <span class="hlt">growth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dai, Xiongfeng; Zhu, Manlu; Warren, Mya; Balakrishnan, Rohan; Patsalo, Vadim; Okano, Hiroyuki; Williamson, James R.; Fredrick, Kurt; Wang, Yi-Ping; Hwa, Terence</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Bacteria growing in different conditions experience a broad range of demand on the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of protein synthesis which profoundly affects cellular resource allocation. During fast <span class="hlt">growth</span>, protein synthesis is long known to be modulated by adjusting the ribosome content, with the vast majority of ribosomes engaged at a near-maximal <span class="hlt">rate</span> of elongation. Here we characterized protein synthesis by E. coli systematically, focusing on slow <span class="hlt">growth</span> conditions. We establish that the translational elongation <span class="hlt">rate</span> decreases as <span class="hlt">growth</span> slows down, exhibiting a Michaelis-Menten dependence on the abundance of the cellular translational apparatus. However, an appreciable elongation <span class="hlt">rate</span> is maintained even towards zero <span class="hlt">growth</span> including the stationary phase. This maintenance, critical for timely protein synthesis in harsh environments, is accompanied by a drastic reduction in the fraction of active ribosomes. Interestingly, well-known antibiotics such as chloramphenicol also cause substantial reduction in the pool of active ribosomes, instead of slowing down translational elongation as commonly thought. PMID:27941827</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25187878','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25187878"><span>Density but not climate affects the population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of guanacos ( Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of population <span class="hlt">growth</span> in the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (λ) was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (λ) as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of guanaco population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> were not statistically significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/203792','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/203792"><span>Initial results of Alloy 600 crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> testing in PWR environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Foster, J.P.; Bamford, W.H.; Pathania, R.S.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Initial crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> results on the effects of stress intensity factor, temperature, material heat and experimental methods were studied on Alloy 600 control rod drive head penetrations using fracture mechanics samples. Crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> data were obtained using the reverse DC potential difference crack monitoring method on 1/2T CT samples tested at temperatures of 310 to 330 C in 1200 ppm B + 2 ppm Li + 25 cc/kg H{sub 2} water. The results are consistent with a crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimation model developed by Scott. Most of the heats tested to date are consistent with the Scott model; however, enhanced crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were exhibited by two heats with low grain boundary carbide coverage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982ApJ...259..198F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982ApJ...259..198F"><span>Theoretical <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, periods, and pulsation constants for long-period variables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fox, M. W.; Wood, P. R.</p> <p>1982-08-01</p> <p>An extensive set of linear, nonadiabatic pulsation models for red giant and supergiant stars is computed, in order that the dependence of pulsation periods (P), pulsation constants (Q), and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> on physical input parameters can be determined from the systematic behavior seen in the models. Also investigated is the extent of the dependence of P, Q, and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> on uncertain quantities such as atmospheric molecular opacity, surface boundary conditions, and effective temperature. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> for the fundamental mode is found to increase with luminosity on the giant branch while the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> for the first overtone decreases. Dynamical instabilities found in previous adiabatic models of extreme red giants do not occur when nonadiabatic effects are included in the models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12282371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12282371"><span>On a logistic process oriented population model for the optimal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of a population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Biswas, S; Ebraheem, N A</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Assuming that a population is not stable but converging rapidly towards stability, while its instantaneous birth and death <span class="hlt">rates</span> being density dependent, 1 of the useful stochastic models approximately describing the process is the 'Logistic' model. A suitable stochastic model representing the population <span class="hlt">growth</span> patterned by the logistic law has, therefore, been derived from its deterministic analogue in this paper. Further, the model so developed has been utilized in obtaining the estimates of the maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> which may be feasible under a desirable size of the population lying within a certain specified confidence range. This exercise has been taken by the simplex method of solving linear programming problems. The motivation of this exercise (in relation to a population experiencing high <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>) lies in obtaining the minimal feasible <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> which may be achieved from a planning point of view.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920020947','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920020947"><span>Crossflow effects on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of inviscid Goertler vortices in a hypersonic boundary layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fu, Yibin; Hall, Philip</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The effects of crossflow on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of inviscid Goertler vortices in a hypersonic boundary layer with pressure gradient are studied. Attention is focused on the inviscid mode trapped in the temperature adjustment layer; this mode has greater <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> than any other mode. The eigenvalue problem which governs the relationship between the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, the crossflow amplitude, and the wavenumber is solved numerically, and the results are then used to clarify the effects of crossflow on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of inviscid Goertler vortices. It is shown that crossflow effects on Goertler vortices are fundamentally different for incompressible and hypersonic flows. The neutral mode eigenvalue problem is found to have an exact solution, and as a by-product, we have also found the exact solution to a neutral mode eigenvalue problem which was formulated, but unsolved before, by Bassom and Hall (1991).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16269712','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16269712"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> and grazing mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> of phylogenetic groups of bacterioplankton in coastal marine environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yokokawa, Taichi; Nagata, Toshi</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Dilution culture experiments were conducted in western North Pacific coastal regions to determine <span class="hlt">growth</span> and grazing mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> of bacterial phylogenetic groups (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacter cluster) detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> varied greatly (1.2- to 4.0-fold) among different groups, and they were related to environmental variables (chlorophyll a concentrations and temperature) in a group-specific fashion. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of alpha-proteobacteria, the most abundant group in all the samples examined, were generally lower than those of less abundant groups, including the Cytophaga-Flavobacter cluster and gamma-proteobacteria. Grazing mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> and mean cell volumes varied little among different groups. These results provide insights into factors that affect distributions of different groups, but <span class="hlt">growth</span> and grazing mortality alone did not fully explain bacterial community compositions at a broad phylogenetic level.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27941827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27941827"><span>Reduction of translating ribosomes enables Escherichia coli to maintain elongation <span class="hlt">rates</span> during slow <span class="hlt">growth</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dai, Xiongfeng; Zhu, Manlu; Warren, Mya; Balakrishnan, Rohan; Patsalo, Vadim; Okano, Hiroyuki; Williamson, James R; Fredrick, Kurt; Wang, Yi-Ping; Hwa, Terence</p> <p>2016-12-12</p> <p>Bacteria growing under different conditions experience a broad range of demand on the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of protein synthesis, which profoundly affects cellular resource allocation. During fast <span class="hlt">growth</span>, protein synthesis has long been known to be modulated by adjusting the ribosome content, with the vast majority of ribosomes engaged at a near-maximal <span class="hlt">rate</span> of elongation. Here, we systematically characterize protein synthesis by Escherichia coli, focusing on slow-<span class="hlt">growth</span> conditions. We establish that the translational elongation <span class="hlt">rate</span> decreases as <span class="hlt">growth</span> slows, exhibiting a Michaelis-Menten dependence on the abundance of the cellular translational apparatus. However, an appreciable elongation <span class="hlt">rate</span> is maintained even towards zero <span class="hlt">growth</span>, including the stationary phase. This maintenance, critical for timely protein synthesis in harsh environments, is accompanied by a drastic reduction in the fraction of active ribosomes. Interestingly, well-known antibiotics such as chloramphenicol also cause a substantial reduction in the pool of active ribosomes, instead of slowing down translational elongation as commonly thought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800066556&hterms=Quartz&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DQuartz','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800066556&hterms=Quartz&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DQuartz"><span>Dependence of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of quartz in fused silica on pressure and impurity content</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fratello, V. J.; Hays, J. F.; Turnbull, D.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The effects of pressure, temperature, and some variations in impurity content on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> u of quartz into fused silica were measured. Under all conditions the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was interface controlled and increased exponentially with pressure with an activation volume averaging -21.2 cu cm/mole. The activation enthalpy for all specimens is extrapolated to a zero pressure value of 64 kcal/mole, within the experimental uncertainty. At a given stoichiometry the effect of hydroxyl content on <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is described entirely by a linear term C(OH) in the prefactor of the equation for the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The effect of chlorine impurity can be described similarly. Also u is increased as the ideal stoichiometry is approached from the partially reduced state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4149246','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4149246"><span>Density but not climate affects the population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of guanacos ( Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of population <span class="hlt">growth</span> in the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (λ) was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (λ) as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of guanaco population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> were not statistically significant. PMID:25187878</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22619770','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22619770"><span>The sustainable <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>: the elephant in the room of deficit reduction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perez, Ken</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The sustainable <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (SGR) is a formulaic approach intended to restrain the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of Medicare spending on physician services. Permanently replacing the SGR will cost $300 billion to $400 billion. Ten years of congressional overrides have contributed to higher Medicare spending on physician services. The absence of a replacement for the SGR leaves the federal government with a significant budget deficit exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1077608','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1077608"><span>Flavonoids Released Naturally from Alfalfa Seeds Enhance <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Rhizobium meliloti1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hartwig, Ueli A.; Joseph, Cecillia M.; Phillips, Donald A.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) releases different flavonoids from seeds and roots. Imbibing seeds discharge 3′,4′,5,7-substituted flavonoids; roots exude 5-deoxy molecules. Many, but not all, of these flavonoids induce nodulation (nod) genes in Rhizobium meliloti. The dominant flavonoid released from alfalfa seeds is identified here as quercetin-3-O-galactoside, a molecule that does not induce nod genes. Low concentrations (1-10 micromolar) of this compound, as well as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, another major flavonoid released from germinating seeds, and the aglycones, quercetin and luteolin, increase <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of R. meliloti in a defined minimal medium. Tests show that the 5,7-dihydroxyl substitution pattern on those molecules was primarily responsible for the <span class="hlt">growth</span> effect, thus explaining how 5-deoxy flavonoids in root exudates fail to enhance <span class="hlt">growth</span> of R. meliloti. Luteolin increases <span class="hlt">growth</span> by a mechanism separate from its capacity to induce rhizobial nod genes, because it still enhanced <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of R. meliloti lacking functional copies of the three known nodD genes. Quercetin and luteolin also increased <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Pseudomonas putida. They had no effect on <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Bacillus subtilis or Agrobacterium tumefaciens, but they slowed <span class="hlt">growth</span> of two fungal pathogens of alfalfa. These results suggest that alfalfa can create ecochemical zones for controlling soil microbes by releasing structurally different flavonoids from seeds and roots. PMID:16668056</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSED14A1614B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSED14A1614B"><span>Tank cultivation of the red algae Palmaria mollis: Effects of nutrients on <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, biochemical quality, and epiphytic <span class="hlt">growth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ben, D.; Langdon, C. J.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Pacific dulse (Palmaria mollis) is a candidate for aquaculture production in Oregon due to its high protein content, fast <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and ability to fare in cold water conditions. Current cultivation methods use the F/2 medium to supply nutrients to macroalgae cultures. The F/2 medium is a costly mixture of nitrate, phosphate, trace metals and vitamins. The F/2 medium has been the standard for microalgae cultivation, but research has lacked on the necessity of all or part of this mixture for macroalgae cultivation. This study is designed to contribute to the development of Pacific dulse cultivation by measuring how different fertilizer regimens affect the <span class="hlt">growth</span>, biochemical composition, and quality of Palmaria mollis (C-3 variety) in hopes to reduce the production cost. I hypothesis that dulse will not require additional nutrients during summer cultivation, due to summer upwelling conditions. Experiments were conducted in a flow-through water system, controlling for flow <span class="hlt">rate</span>, stocking density, and nutrient supplementation. To test this, two replicates of four nutrient regimes were organized: no supplemental nutrients, all nutrients (standard F/2 medium), nitrate/phosphate only, and nitrate/phosphate with trace metals. Each tank was monitored weekly for color quality, epiphytic <span class="hlt">growth</span>, specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, production and a final biochemical analysis. This study has preliminarily concluded that supplemental nutrients have no significant effect on production or biochemical quality, but does have an effect quality of epiphytic <span class="hlt">growth</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21390210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21390210"><span>Rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span> reduces cold resistance: evidence from latitudinal variation in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, cold resistance and stress proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stoks, Robby; De Block, Marjan</p> <p>2011-02-24</p> <p>Physiological costs of rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span> may contribute to the observation that organisms typically grow at submaximal <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Although, it has been hypothesized that faster growing individuals would do worse in dealing with suboptimal temperatures, this type of cost has never been explored empirically. Furthermore, the mechanistic basis of the physiological costs of rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span> is largely unexplored. Larvae of the damselfly Ischnura elegans from two univoltine northern and two multivoltine southern populations were reared at three temperatures and after emergence given a cold shock. Cold resistance, measured by chill coma recovery times in the adult stage, was lower in the southern populations. The faster larval <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the southern populations contributed to this latitudinal pattern in cold resistance. In accordance with their assumed role in cold resistance, Hsp70 levels were lower in the southern populations, and faster growing larvae had lower Hsp70 levels. Yet, individual variation in Hsp70 levels did not explain variation in cold resistance. WE PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR A NOVEL COST OF RAPID <span class="hlt">GROWTH</span>: reduced cold resistance. Our results indicate that the reduced cold resistance in southern populations of animals that change voltinism along the latitudinal gradient may not entirely be explained by thermal selection per se but also by the costs of time constraint-induced higher <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. This also illustrates that stressors imposed in the larval stage may carry over and shape fitness in the adult stage and highlights the importance of physiological costs in the evolution of life-histories at macro-scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008BGD.....5.2867R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008BGD.....5.2867R"><span>Anthropogenic and biophysical contributions to increasing atmospheric CO2 <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and airborne fraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raupach, M. R.; Canadell, J. G.; Le Quéré, C.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>We quantify the relative roles of natural and anthropogenic influences on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of atmospheric CO2 and the CO2 airborne fraction, considering both interdecadal trends and interannual variability. A combined ENSO-Volcanic Index (EVI) relates most (~75%) of the interannual variability in CO2 <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> to the El-Niño-Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) climate mode and volcanic activity. Analysis of several CO2 data sets with removal of the EVI-correlated component confirms a previous finding of a detectable increasing trend in CO2 airborne fraction (defined using total anthropogenic emissions including fossil fuels and land use change) over the period 1959 2006, at a proportional <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> 0.24% y-1 with probability ~0.9 of a positive trend. This implies that the atmospheric CO2 <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> increased slightly faster than total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. An extended form of the Kaya identity relates the increase in the CO2 <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (1.9% y-1 over 1959 2006) to the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of four global driving factors: population (contributing +1.7% y-1); per capita income (+1.8% y-1); the total carbon intensity of the global economy (-1.7% y-1); and airborne fraction (averaging +0.2% y-1 with strong interannual variability). Together, the recent (post-2000) increase in <span class="hlt">growth</span> of per capita income and decline in the negative <span class="hlt">growth</span> (improvement) in the carbon intensity of the economy will drive a significant acceleration in the CO2 <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> over coming decades, unless these recent trends reverse. To achieve an annual reduction <span class="hlt">rate</span> in total emissions of -2% y-1 (which would halve emissions in 35 years) in the presence of a per-capita income <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 2% y-1 and a population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 1% y-1, it is necessary to achieve a decline in total carbon intensity of the economy at a <span class="hlt">rate</span> of around -5% y-1, three times the 1959 2006 average.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMEP...20..147S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMEP...20..147S"><span>Plate Thickness Variation Effects on Crack <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in 7050-T7451 Alloy Thick Plate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schubbe, Joel J.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>A study has been accomplished to characterize the fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and mechanisms in thick plate (16.51 cm) commercial grade 7050-T7451 aluminum plate in the L-S orientation. Examination of the effects of potential property gradients in the plate material was accomplished through hardness measurements along the short transverse direction and with compact tension tests. Tests exhibited a distinct trend of reduced center plane hardness in the plates. Compact tension specimens and the compliance method were used to determine crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for specimens machined from the t/4 and t/2 planar locations and oriented for L-S crack <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> data (long crack) from the tests highlighted significant <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> differences between the t/4 and t/2 locations. No significant effect of R-ratio was observed in the 0.05-0.3 range tested. Additionally, crack front splitting was noted in all specimens to differing degrees with data showing significant retardation of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> curves for the L-S orientation above 13 MPa √m in the center plane, and 10 MPa √m at quarter plane, where branching and splitting parallel to the load axis are dominant <span class="hlt">growth</span> mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18315815','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18315815"><span>Phylogenetic, functional, and structural components of variation in bone <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of amniotes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cubo, Jorge; Legendre, Pierre; de Ricqlès, Armand; Montes, Laëtitia; de Margerie, Emmanuel; Castanet, Jacques; Desdevises, Yves</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The biological features observed in every living organism are the outcome of three sets of factors: historical (inherited by homology), functional (biological adaptation), and structural (properties inherent to the materials with which organs are constructed, and the morphogenetic rules by which they grow). Integrating them should bring satisfactory causal explanations of empirical data. However, little progress has been accomplished in practice toward this goal, because a methodologically efficient tool was lacking. Here we use a new statistical method of variation partitioning to analyze bone <span class="hlt">growth</span> in amniotes. (1) Historical component. The variation of bone <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> contains a significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting that the observed patterns are partly the outcome of shared ancestry. (2) Functional causation. High <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, although energy costly, may be adaptive (i.e., they may increase survival <span class="hlt">rates</span>) in taxa showing short <span class="hlt">growth</span> periods (e.g., birds). In ectothermic amniotes, low resting metabolic <span class="hlt">rates</span> may limit the maximum possible <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. (3) Structural constraint. Whereas soft tissues grow through a multiplicative process, <span class="hlt">growth</span> of mineralized tissues is accretionary (additive, i.e., mineralization fronts occur only at free surfaces). Bone <span class="hlt">growth</span> of many amniotes partially circumvents this constraint: it is achieved not only at the external surface of the bone shaft, but also within cavities included in the bone cortex as it grows centrifugally. Our approach contributes to the unification of historicism, functionalism, and structuralism toward a more integrated evolutionary biology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSP...150..722Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSP...150..722Z"><span>Computation of <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> of Random Sequences with Multi-step Memory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Chenfei; Lan, Yueheng</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We extend the generating function approach to the computation of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of random Fibonacci sequences with long memory. Functional iteration equations are obtained and its general form is conjectured and proved, based on which an asymptotic representation of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is obtained. The validity of both the derived and the conjectured formula are verified upon comparison with Monte Carlo simulation. A numerical scheme of the functional iteration is designed and implemented successfully.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JCrGr.129...13T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JCrGr.129...13T"><span>Measurement and discussion of potash alum crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> fluctuations and dispersion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tulke, Arnd; Offerman, Hans</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>The results of fluidized bed experiments for the two systems, potash alum/water and sodium chloride/water, can be described using the random fluctuation model. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> fluctuations postulated by this model are confirmed in single crystal measurements for {111} faces of potash alum crystals. It is shown how the parameter DG ( = effective <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> diffusivity) can be determined using the results of the single crystal experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24525238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24525238"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and selection pressure on <span class="hlt">rates</span> of transfer of an antibiotic resistance plasmid between E. coli strains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schuurmans, Jasper M; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Piet, Jurgen R; Händel, Nadine; Smelt, Jan; Brul, Stanley; ter Kuile, Benno H</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Antibiotic resistance increases costs for health care and causes therapy failure. An important mechanism for spreading resistance is transfer of plasmids containing resistance genes and subsequent selection. Yet the factors that influence the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of transfer are poorly known. <span class="hlt">Rates</span> of plasmid transfer were measured in co-cultures in chemostats of a donor and a acceptor strain under various selective pressures. To document whether specific mutations in either plasmid or acceptor genome are associated with the plasmid transfer, whole genome sequencing was performed. The DM0133 TetR tetracycline resistance plasmid was transferred between Escherichia coli K-12 strains during co-culture at frequencies that seemed higher at increased <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Modeling of the take-over of the culture by the transformed strain suggests that in reality more transfer events occurred at low <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. At moderate selection pressure due to an antibiotic concentration that still allowed <span class="hlt">growth</span>, a maximum transfer frequency was determined of once per 10(11) cell divisions. In the absence of tetracycline or in the presence of high concentrations the frequency of transfer was sometimes zero, but otherwise reduced by at least a factor of 5. Whole genome sequencing showed that the plasmid was transferred without mutations, but two functional mutations in the genome of the recipient strain accompanied this transfer. Exposure to concentrations of antibiotics that fall within the mutant selection window stimulated transfer of the resistance plasmid most. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026274','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026274"><span>Landscape scale measures of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioenergetic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> potential in Lake Michigan and comparison with angler catch <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Geddes, C.A.; Mason, D.M.; Schwab, D.J.; Fleischer, G.W.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The relative quality of a habitat can influence fish consumption, <span class="hlt">growth</span>, mortality, and production. In order to quantify habitat quality, several authors have combined bioenergetic and foraging models to generate spatially explicit estimates of fish <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> potential (GRP). However, the capacity of GRP to reflect the spatial distributions of fishes over large areas has not been fully evaluated. We generated landscape scale estimates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) GRP throughout Lake Michigan for 1994-1996, and used these estimates to test the hypotheses that GRP is a good predictor of spatial patterns of steelhead catch <span class="hlt">rates</span>. We used surface temperatures (measured with AVHRR satellite imagery) and acoustically measured steelhead prey densities (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus) as inputs for the GRP model. Our analyses demonstrate that potential steelhead <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in Lake Michigan are highly variable in both space and time. Steelhead GRP tended to increase with latitude, and mean GRP was much higher during September 1995, compared to 1994 and 1996. In addition, our study suggests that landscape scale measures of GRP are not good predictors of steelhead catch <span class="hlt">rates</span> throughout Lake Michigan, but may provide an index of interannual variation in system-wide habitat quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6142145','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6142145"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of a deep-sea coral using sup 210 Pb and other isotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Druffel, E.R.M.; King, L.I.; Belastock, R.A.; Buesseler, K.O. )</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>A deep-sea coral was studied to determine its <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and to reconstruct time histories of isotope distributions in the deep ocean. The specimen was collected at a depth of 600 m off Little Bahama Banks using the Deep Submergence Vehicle (DSV) Alvin. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the calcitic coral trunk was determined using excess {sup 210}Pb measured in concentric bands. Excess {sup 210}Pb was found in the outer half of the coral's radius, and a <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 0.11 {plus minus} 0.02 mm/a is calculated. Assuming a constant <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> during formation of the entire trunk, an age of 180 {plus minus} 40 a is estimated for the coral. The decrease observed in radiocarbon activities measured on the same bands (Griffin and Druffel, 1989) concurred with the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> estimated from excess {sup 210}Pb activity. {sup 239,240}Pu activities measured by mass spectrometry were also detected in the outer two bands of the coral, as expected from the {sup 210}Pb chronology. Stable oxygen and carbon isotopes measured in samples collected by a variety of techniques are positively correlated. This is evidence of a variable kinetic isotope effect most likely caused by variations in the skeletal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Long-lived corals such as this specimen have the potential for serving as integrators of seawater chemistry in the deep-sea over several century timescales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1058203','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1058203"><span>Effect of Oxygen-Supply <span class="hlt">Rates</span> on <span class="hlt">Growth</span> of Escherichia coli</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McDaniel, L. E.; Bailey, E. G.; Zimmerli, A.</p> <p>1965-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Growth</span> of Escherichia coli and chemical changes in the medium were very similar in highly baffled flasks and in a 50-liter fermentor run under the same oxygen-supply conditions, based on sulfite-oxidation <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Flasks with stainless-steel baffles (Biotech) gave <span class="hlt">growth</span> patterns and <span class="hlt">rates</span> of glucose and NH4-N utilization almost identical to those of the fermentor; results with Bellco 598 flasks (with 6 to 7 mm deep indentations) were quite similar. Unbaffled and Bellco 600 flasks (3 to 4 mm indentations) were similar to the fermentor at very high and very low oxygen-transfer <span class="hlt">rates</span>, but gave much less <span class="hlt">growth</span> than the fermentor at intermediate levels. Maximal oxygen-uptake <span class="hlt">rates</span> occurred in the fermentor at the end of the logarithmic-<span class="hlt">growth</span> phase when <span class="hlt">growth</span> was 40 to 75% of maximum. In the fermentor, both sulfite-oxidation <span class="hlt">rates</span> and <span class="hlt">rates</span> of oxygen uptake correlated reasonably well with the total amount of <span class="hlt">growth</span> produced. PMID:14264839</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25633107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25633107"><span>The Modellers' Halting Foray into Ecological Theory: Or, What is This Thing Called '<span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span>'?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deveau, Michael; Karsten, Richard; Teismann, Holger</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This discussion paper describes the attempt of an imagined group of non-ecologists ("Modellers") to determine the population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> from field data. The Modellers wrestle with the multiple definitions of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> available in the literature and the fact that, in their modelling, it appears to be drastically model-dependent, which seems to throw into question the very concept itself. Specifically, they observe that six representative models used to capture the data produce <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> values, which differ significantly. Almost ready to concede that the problem they set for themselves is ill-posed, they arrive at an alternative point of view that not only preserves the identity of the concept of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, but also helps discriminate between competing models for capturing the data. This is accomplished by assessing how robustly a given model is able to generate <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> values from randomized time-series data. This leads to the proposal of an iterative approach to ecological modelling in which the definition of theoretical concepts (such as the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>) and model selection complement each other. The paper is based on high-quality field data of mites on apple trees and may be called a "data-driven opinion piece".</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25076138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25076138"><span>Factors influencing crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> from undercooled liquids of pharmaceutical compounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trasi, Niraj S; Baird, Jared A; Kestur, Umesh S; Taylor, Lynne S</p> <p>2014-08-21</p> <p>Amorphous forms of drugs are increasingly being used to deliver poorly water-soluble compounds. Therefore, understanding the magnitude and origin of differences in crystallization kinetics is highly important. The goal of this study was to better understand the factors that influence crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> from pharmaceutically relevant undercooled liquids and to evaluate the range of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> observed. The crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of 31 drugs were determined using an optical microscope in the temperature region between the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the melting temperature (Tm). Thermodynamic parameters such as Tm, melting enthalpy, and Tg were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Selected viscosity values for the undercooled liquid were taken from the literature. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the different compounds were found to be very different from each other with a variation of about 5 orders of magnitude between the fastest growing compounds and the slowest growing compounds. A comparison of the physicochemical properties showed that compounds that had fast crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> had smaller molecular weights, higher melting temperatures, lower melt entropies, lower melt viscosities, and higher crystal densities. Variations in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the compounds could be rationalized to a large extent by considering the thermodynamic driving force for crystallization, the viscosity, and the entropy difference between the melt and undercooled liquid. This study therefore provides important insight into factors that may compromise the stability of amorphous pharmaceuticals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..456..228D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JNuM..456..228D"><span>SCC crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of cold worked 316L stainless steel in PWR environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Du, Donghai; Chen, Kai; Yu, Lun; lu, Hui; Zhang, Lefu; Shi, Xiuqiang; Xu, Xuelian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Many component failures in nuclear power plants were found to be caused by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of cold worked austenitic steels. Some of the pressure boundary component materials are even cold worked up to 35% plastic deformation, leaving high residual stress and inducing high <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of corrosion crack. Controlling water chemistry is one of the best counter measure to mitigate this problem. In this work, the effects of temperature (200 up to 325 °C) and dissolved oxygen (0 up to 2000 μg/L) on SCC crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of cold worked austenitic stainless steel type 316L have been tested by using direct current potential drop (DCPD) method. The results showed that temperature affected SCC crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> more significantly in oxygenated water than in deaerated water. In argon deaerated water, the crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> exhibited a peak at about 250 °C, which needs further verification. At 325 °C, the SCC crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> increased rapidly with the increase of dissolved oxygen concentration within the range from 0 up to 200 μg/L, while when dissolved oxygen was above 200 μg/L, the crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> followed a shallower dependence on dissolved oxygen concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17940244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17940244"><span><span class="hlt">Rate</span> of head circumference <span class="hlt">growth</span> as a function of autism diagnosis and history of autistic regression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Webb, Sara Jane; Nalty, Theresa; Munson, Jeff; Brock, Catherine; Abbott, Robert; Dawson, Geraldine</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Several reports indicate that autism spectrum disorder is associated with increased <span class="hlt">rate</span> of head <span class="hlt">growth</span> in early childhood. Increased <span class="hlt">rate</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> may index aberrant processes during early development, may precede the onset of symptoms, and may predict severity of the disease course. We examined <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change in occipitofrontal circumference measurements (abstracted from medical records) in 28 boys with autism spectrum disorder and in 8 boys with developmental delay without autism from birth to age 36 months. Only children who had more than 3 occipitofrontal circumference measurements available during this age period were included. All data were converted to z scores based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention norms. <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> from birth to age 36 months was statistically significantly higher for the autism spectrum disorder group than the developmental delay group, with children with autism spectrum disorder showing a statistically significant increase in occipitofrontal circumference relative to norms between 7 and 10 months; this group difference in <span class="hlt">rate</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> was more robust when height was used as a covariate. <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> was not found to be different for children with autism spectrum disorder whose parents reported a history of loss of skills (regression) vs those whose parents reported early onset of autism symptoms. Findings from this study suggest that the aberrant <span class="hlt">growth</span> is present in the first year of life and precedes the onset and diagnosis in children with autism spectrum disorder with and without a history of autistic regression.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2977982','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2977982"><span><span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Head Circumference <span class="hlt">Growth</span> as a Function of Autism Diagnosis and History of Autistic Regression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Webb, Sara Jane; Nalty, Theresa; Munson, Jeff; Brock, Catherine; Abbott, Robert; Dawson, Geraldine</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Several reports indicate that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with increased <span class="hlt">rate</span> of head <span class="hlt">growth</span> in early childhood. Increased <span class="hlt">rate</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> may index aberrant processes during early development, may precede the onset of symptoms, and may predict severity of the disease course. We examined <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change in occipitofrontal circumference measurements (abstracted from medical records) in 28 boys with ASD and in 8 boys with developmental delay without autism from birth to age 36 months. Only children who had more than 3 occipitofrontal circumference measurements available during this age period were included. All data were converted to z scores based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention norms. <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> from birth to age 36 months was statistically significantly higher for the ASD group than the developmental delay group, with children with ASD showing a statistically significant increase in occipitofrontal circumference relative to norms between 7 and 10 months; this group difference in <span class="hlt">rate</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> was more robust when height was used as a covariate. <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> was not found to be different for children with ASD whose parents reported a history of loss of skills (regression) vs those whose parents reported early onset of autism symptoms. Findings from this study suggest that the aberrant <span class="hlt">growth</span> is present in the first year of life and precedes the onset of diagnosis in children with ASD with and without a history of autistic regression. PMID:17940244</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22792053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22792053"><span>Prediction of microbial <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> versus biomass yield by a metabolic network with kinetic parameters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adadi, Roi; Volkmer, Benjamin; Milo, Ron; Heinemann, Matthias; Shlomi, Tomer</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Identifying the factors that determine microbial <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> under various environmental and genetic conditions is a major challenge of systems biology. While current genome-scale metabolic modeling approaches enable us to successfully predict a variety of metabolic phenotypes, including maximal biomass yield, the prediction of actual <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is a long standing goal. This gap stems from strictly relying on data regarding reaction stoichiometry and directionality, without accounting for enzyme kinetic considerations. Here we present a novel metabolic network-based approach, MetabOlic Modeling with ENzyme kineTics (MOMENT), which predicts metabolic flux <span class="hlt">rate</span> and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> by utilizing prior data on enzyme turnover <span class="hlt">rates</span> and enzyme molecular weights, without requiring measurements of nutrient uptake <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The method is based on an identified design principle of metabolism in which enzymes catalyzing high flux reactions across different media tend to be more efficient in terms of having higher turnover numbers. Extending upon previous attempts to utilize kinetic data in genome-scale metabolic modeling, our approach takes into account the requirement for specific enzyme concentrations for catalyzing predicted metabolic flux <span class="hlt">rates</span>, considering isozymes, protein complexes, and multi-functional enzymes. MOMENT is shown to significantly improve the prediction accuracy of various metabolic phenotypes in E. coli, including intracellular flux <span class="hlt">rates</span> and changes in gene expression levels under different <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Most importantly, MOMENT is shown to predict <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of E. coli under a diverse set of media that are correlated with experimental measurements, markedly improving upon existing state-of-the art stoichiometric modeling approaches. These results support the view that a physiological bound on cellular enzyme concentrations is a key factor that determines microbial <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090415&hterms=Cucumbers&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCucumbers','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090415&hterms=Cucumbers&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCucumbers"><span>Rapid, bilateral changes in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and curvature during gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: implications for mechanism of <span class="hlt">growth</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cosgrove, D. J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">growth</span> response of etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls to gravitropic stimulation was examined by means of time-lapse photography and high-resolution analysis of surface expansion and curvature. In comparison with video analysis, the technique described here has five- to 20-fold better resolution; moreover, the mathematical fitting method (cubic splines) allows direct estimation of local and integrated curvature. After switching seedlings from a vertical to horizontal position, both upper and lower surfaces of the stem reacted after a lag of about 11 min with a two- to three-fold increase in surface expansion <span class="hlt">rate</span> on the lower side and a cessation of expansion, or slight compression, on the upper surface. This <span class="hlt">growth</span> asymmetry was initiated simultaneously along the length of the hypocotyl, on both upper and lower surfaces, and did not migrate basipetally from the apex. Later stages in the gravitropic response involved a complex reversal of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> asymmetry, with the net result being a basipetal migration of the curved region. This secondary <span class="hlt">growth</span> reversal may reflect oscillatory and/or self-regulatory behaviour of growing cells. With some qualifications, the kinetics and pattern of <span class="hlt">growth</span> response are consistent with a mechanism involving hormone redistribution, although they do not prove such a mechanism. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> kinetics require a <span class="hlt">growth</span> mechanism which can be stimulated by two- to three-fold or completely inhibited within a few minutes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090415&hterms=time+curvature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtime%2Bcurvature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090415&hterms=time+curvature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtime%2Bcurvature"><span>Rapid, bilateral changes in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and curvature during gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: implications for mechanism of <span class="hlt">growth</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cosgrove, D. J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">growth</span> response of etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls to gravitropic stimulation was examined by means of time-lapse photography and high-resolution analysis of surface expansion and curvature. In comparison with video analysis, the technique described here has five- to 20-fold better resolution; moreover, the mathematical fitting method (cubic splines) allows direct estimation of local and integrated curvature. After switching seedlings from a vertical to horizontal position, both upper and lower surfaces of the stem reacted after a lag of about 11 min with a two- to three-fold increase in surface expansion <span class="hlt">rate</span> on the lower side and a cessation of expansion, or slight compression, on the upper surface. This <span class="hlt">growth</span> asymmetry was initiated simultaneously along the length of the hypocotyl, on both upper and lower surfaces, and did not migrate basipetally from the apex. Later stages in the gravitropic response involved a complex reversal of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> asymmetry, with the net result being a basipetal migration of the curved region. This secondary <span class="hlt">growth</span> reversal may reflect oscillatory and/or self-regulatory behaviour of growing cells. With some qualifications, the kinetics and pattern of <span class="hlt">growth</span> response are consistent with a mechanism involving hormone redistribution, although they do not prove such a mechanism. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> kinetics require a <span class="hlt">growth</span> mechanism which can be stimulated by two- to three-fold or completely inhibited within a few minutes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSEle.128..135S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSEle.128..135S"><span>Anisotropic interpolation method of silicon carbide oxidation <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for three-dimensional simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Šimonka, Vito; Nawratil, Georg; Hössinger, Andreas; Weinbub, Josef; Selberherr, Siegfried</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We investigate anisotropical and geometrical aspects of hexagonal structures of Silicon Carbide and propose a direction dependent interpolation method for oxidation <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. We compute three-dimensional oxidation <span class="hlt">rates</span> and perform one-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations for 4H- and 6H-Silicon Carbide thermal oxidation. The <span class="hlt">rates</span> of oxidation are computed according to the four known <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> values for the Si- (0 0 0 1) , a- (1 1 2 bar 0) , m- (1 1 bar 0 0) , and C-face (0 0 0 1 bar) . The simulations are based on the proposed interpolation method together with available thermal oxidation models. We additionally analyze the temperature dependence of Silicon Carbide oxidation <span class="hlt">rates</span> for different crystal faces using Arrhenius plots. The proposed interpolation method is an essential step towards highly accurate three-dimensional oxide <span class="hlt">growth</span> simulations which help to better understand the anisotropic nature and oxidation mechanism of Silicon Carbide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050215293','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050215293"><span>7075-T6 and 2024-T351 Aluminum Alloy Fatigue Crack <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Forth, Scott C.; Wright, Christopher W.; Johnston, William M., Jr.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Experimental test procedures for the development of fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> data has been standardized by the American Society for Testing and Materials. Over the past 30 years several gradual changes have been made to the standard without rigorous assessment of the affect these changes have on the precision or variability of the data generated. Therefore, the ASTM committee on fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> has initiated an international round robin test program to assess the precision and variability of test results generated using the standard E647-00. Crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> data presented in this report, in support of the ASTM roundrobin, shows excellent precision and repeatability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14624982','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14624982"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of potash alum crystals: comparison of silent and ultrasonic conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amara, N; Ratsimba, B; Wilhelm, A; Delmas, H</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The influence of power ultrasound on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of potash alum was investigated. The experiments on <span class="hlt">growth</span> of potash alum crystals were carried out in a stirred double jacket tank in silent conditions as well as in the presence of power ultrasound (20 kHz) at 32 degrees C, with different initial crystal sizes. It was observed that the mass <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of potash alum was faster under ultrasound compared to that under silent conditions. The shape was not modified by ultrasound but the size of crystals, which are grown under ultrasound, are smaller and with higher density compared to those grown under silent conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992FFEMS..15..825S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992FFEMS..15..825S"><span>A model for predicting crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> for mixed mode fracture under biaxial loads</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shliannikov, V. N.; Braude, N. Z.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>A model for predicting the crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of an initially angled crack under biaxial loads of arbitrary direction is suggested. The model is based on a combination of both the Manson-Coffin equation for low cycle fatigue and the Paris equation for fatigue crack propagation. The model takes into consideration the change in material plastic properties in the region around the crack tip due to the stress state, together with the initial orientation of the crack and also its trajectory of <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Predictions of crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> for any mixed mode fracture is based on the results of uniaxial tension experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.6240D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.6240D"><span>Effects of Phytoplankton Concentration, Temperature, and Body Size On The <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Pseudocalanus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Pseudocalanus sp. for copepodite stages of selected body weight was obtained as a function of food concentration (in ppm ­ case 1 and in mg C m-3 ­ case 2), body weight (in µgd.w. ­ case 1 and in µg C ­ case 2) and temperature. The results demonstrate that for all body weights, the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> increased hyper- bolically with food concentration. The maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> decreased logarithmi- cally with a linear increasing body weight. However, with changes in temperature, the maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> changed more for the smaller than for the larger copepods. The analysis shows that the minimum food concentration required to sustain <span class="hlt">growth</span> in- creased logarithmically (case 1) and linearly (case 2) with increasing body weight. The slope of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> (case 1) was inversely related to body size and temperature. However, the half-saturation constant for <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (case 2) increased logarithmi- cally with increasing body weight and temperature. The critical food concentration for <span class="hlt">growth</span> increased with body size and temperature. This trend is particularly evident when data for the extreme temperatures are compared. The calculations show that, in case 1 (case 2), for the small copepods the critical food concentration was 0.47 ppm (43.13 mg C m-3) at 8C and 1.15 ppm (98.17 mg C m-3) at 15.5C, and increase in food concentration of less than 0.7 ppm increased the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> about 60%, from 13.7% day-1 at 8C to 22.5% day-1 at 15.5C. However, for the larger individuals the critical food concentration was 0.55 ppm (56.45 mg C m-3) at 8C and 2.02 ppm (164.33 mg C m-3) at 15.5C, and a considerably greater increase in food concentra- tion of more than 1.5 ppm increased the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> 40%, from 13.14% day-1 at 8C, to 18.4% day-1 at 15.5C. The calculated <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> as function of food concentra- tion, body weight and temperature was used to show differences between the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of Pseudocalanus sp. and Pseudocalanus el.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/248256','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/248256"><span>A simplified method for determining reactive <span class="hlt">rate</span> parameters for reaction ignition and <span class="hlt">growth</span> in explosives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miller, P.J.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>A simplified method for determining the reactive <span class="hlt">rate</span> parameters for the ignition and <span class="hlt">growth</span> model is presented. This simplified ignition and <span class="hlt">growth</span> (SIG) method consists of only two adjustable parameters, the ignition (I) and <span class="hlt">growth</span> (G) <span class="hlt">rate</span> constants. The parameters are determined by iterating these variables in DYNA2D hydrocode simulations of the failure diameter and the gap test sensitivity until the experimental values are reproduced. Examples of four widely different explosives were evaluated using the SIG model. The observed embedded gauge stress-time profiles for these explosives are compared to those calculated by the SIG equation and the results are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037650','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037650"><span>Context-specific influence of water temperature on brook trout <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Xu, C.; Letcher, B.H.; Nislow, K.H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>1. Modelling the effects of climate change on freshwater fishes requires robust field-based estimates accounting for interactions among multiple factors.2. We used data from an 8-year individual-based study of a wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) population to test the influence of water temperature on season-specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> in the context of variation in other environmental (i.e. season, stream flow) or biotic factors (local brook trout biomass density and fish age and size) in West Brook, a third-order stream in western Massachusetts, U.S.A.3. Changes in ambient temperature influenced individual <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. In general, higher temperatures were associated with higher <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in winter and spring and lower <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in summer and autumn. However, the effect of temperature on <span class="hlt">growth</span> was strongly context-dependent, differing in both magnitude and direction as a function of season, stream flow and fish biomass density.4. We found that stream flow and temperature had strong and complex interactive effects on trout <span class="hlt">growth</span>. At the coldest temperatures (in winter), high stream flows were associated with reduced trout <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. During spring and autumn and in typical summers (when water temperatures were close to <span class="hlt">growth</span> optima), higher flows were associated with increased <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. In addition, the effect of flow at a given temperature (the flow-temperature interaction) differed among seasons.5. Trout density negatively affected <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and had strong interactions with temperature in two of four seasons (i.e. spring and summer) with greater negative effects at high temperatures.6. Our study provided robust, integrative field-based estimates of the effects of temperature on <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for a species which serves as a model organism for cold-water adapted ectotherms facing the consequences of environmental change. Results of the study strongly suggest that failure to derive season-specific estimates, or to explicitly consider interactions with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26039073','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26039073"><span>Effects of climate change on plant population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and community composition change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Bao-Ming; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Ting; Jia, Xiao-Rong; Peng, Shao-Lin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The impacts of climate change on forest community composition are still not well known. Although directional trends in climate change and community composition change were reported in recent years, further quantitative analyses are urgently needed. Previous studies focused on measuring population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in a single time period, neglecting the development of the populations. Here we aimed to compose a method for calculating the community composition change, and to testify the impacts of climate change on community composition change within a relatively short period (several decades) based on long-term monitoring data from two plots-Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China (DBR) and Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI)-that are located in tropical and subtropical regions. We proposed a relatively more concise index, Slnλ, which refers to an overall population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> based on the dominant species in a community. The results indicated that the population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of a majority of populations has decreased over the past few decades. This decrease was mainly caused by population development. The increasing temperature had a positive effect on population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and community change <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Our results promote understanding and explaining variations in population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and community composition <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and are helpful to predict population dynamics and population responses to climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12727555','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12727555"><span>Chick metabolic <span class="hlt">rate</span> and <span class="hlt">growth</span> in three species of albatross: a comparative study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Phillips, R A; Green, J A; Phalan, B; Croxall, J P; Butler, P J</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>The relative importance of genetic vs. environmental factors in determining the pattern of avian post-embryonic development is much debated. Previous cross-fostering of albatrosses suggested that although inter-specific variation in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was determined primarily by differences in dietary energy content, species-specific constraints might have evolved that could limit maximal <span class="hlt">growth</span>, even in chicks fed at similar <span class="hlt">rates</span> and on similar diets. This study aimed to determine whether intrinsic differences in resting metabolic <span class="hlt">rate</span> were apparent during the linear phase of <span class="hlt">growth</span> in chicks of three species (black-browed, grey-headed and light-mantled sooty albatrosses). There was a gradual increase in absolute, and a reduction in mass-specific metabolic <span class="hlt">rate</span> from 5.0 W kg(-1) during the earliest part of linear <span class="hlt">growth</span>, to 3.5 W kg(-1) by the time chicks reached peak mass. These values are considerably higher than in resting adults of comparable or lower mass, presumably reflecting the large size and high metabolic demand of organs involved in rapid nutrient processing and tissue synthesis by chicks. The lack of any detectable inter-specific variation in the pattern of metabolic <span class="hlt">rate</span> changes casts some doubt on the existence of fundamental differences in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> that cannot be attributed simply to differences in dietary energy or nutrient delivery <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7111714','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7111714"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, grazing, sinking, and iron limitation of equatorial Pacific phytoplankton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chavez, F.P.; Buck, K.R. ); Coale, K.H.; Martin, J.H.; DiTullio, G.R.; Welschmeyer, N.A. ); Barber, R.T. ); Jacobson, A.C.</p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>Concentrations of phytoplankton and NO{sub 3} are consistently low and high in surface waters of the oceanic eastern and central equatorial Pacific, and phytoplankton populations are dominated by small solitary phytoplankton. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of natural phytoplankton populations, needed to assess the relative importance of many of the processes considered in the equatorial Pacific, were estimated by several methods. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of natural phytoplankton populations were found to be {approximately}0.7 d{sup {minus}1} or 1 biomass doubling d{sup {minus}1} and were similar for all methods. To keep this system in its observed balance requires that loss <span class="hlt">rates</span> approximate observed <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Grazing <span class="hlt">rates</span>, measured with a dilution grazing experiment, were high, accounting for a large fraction of the daily production. Additions of various forms of Fe to 5-7-d incubations utilizing ultraclean techniques resulted in significant shifts in autotrophic and heterotrophic assemblages between initial samples, controls, and Fe enrichments, which were presumably due to Fe, grazing by both protistan and metazoan components, and incubation artifacts. Estimated <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of small pennate diatoms showed increases in Fe enrichments with respect to controls. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the pennate diatoms were similar to those estimated for the larger size fraction of the natural populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/978397','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/978397"><span>An Improved Reaction <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Equation for Simulating the Ignition and <span class="hlt">Growth</span> of Reaction in High Explosives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murphy, M J</p> <p>2010-03-08</p> <p>We describe an improved reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> equation for simulating ignition and <span class="hlt">growth</span> of reaction in high explosives. It has been implemented into CALE and ALE3D as an alternate to the baseline the Lee-Tarver reactive flow model. The reactive flow model treats the explosive in two phases (unreacted/reactants and reacted/products) with a reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> equation to determine the fraction reacted, F. The improved <span class="hlt">rate</span> equation has fewer parameters, is continuous with continuous derivative, results in a unique set of reaction <span class="hlt">rate</span> parameters for each explosive while providing the same functionality as the baseline <span class="hlt">rate</span> equation. The improved <span class="hlt">rate</span> equation uses a cosine function in the ignition term and a sine function in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> and completion terms. The improved <span class="hlt">rate</span> equation is simpler with fewer parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..85o5313C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..85o5313C"><span>Quantitative description for the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of self-induced GaN nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Consonni, V.; Dubrovskii, V. G.; Trampert, A.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We determine with high precision the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of self-induced GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy under various conditions from scanning electron micrographs by taking into account in situ measurements of the initial incubation time, which is needed before the nanowire <span class="hlt">growth</span> starts. In order to quantitatively describe the dependence of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> on <span class="hlt">growth</span> time, gallium flux, and <span class="hlt">growth</span> temperature, we develop a detailed theoretical model of diffusion-induced nanowire <span class="hlt">growth</span> specifically for the self-induced approach, i.e., without any droplet at the nanowire top. The theoretical fits are in excellent agreement with the experimental data and allow us to deduce important kinetic parameters of the self-induced GaN nanowire <span class="hlt">growth</span>. The gallium adatom effective diffusion length on the nanowire sidewalls composed of m-plane facets is only 45 nm, which is consistent with our experimental finding that the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> initially decreases drastically as the contribution from the adatoms on the planar substrate surface rapidly vanishes. In contrast, the gallium adatom effective diffusion length on the amorphous silicon nitride substrate surface reaches about 100 nm. Furthermore, the nucleation energy on the nanowire sidewalls is found to be 5.44 eV and is larger than on their top facet accounting for the nanowire elongation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JCrGr.147..172Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JCrGr.147..172Z"><span>The influence of internal crystal perfection on <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dispersion in a continuous suspension crystallizer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zacher, U.; Mersmann, A.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the work presented here is to demonstrate the influence of induced lattice strain on <span class="hlt">growth</span> behaviour of potassium alum crystals in a continuously operated mixed suspension mixed product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer. Therefore crystal size distributions in the crystallizer and individual <span class="hlt">growth</span> velocities, especially of small particles (initial size 20-60 μm) in a flow-through cell, were simultaneously determined. Moreover Laue diffraction patterns of crystals withdrawn from the MSMPR crystallizer were carried out indicating lattice deformation and strain. Most crystals exhibit constant crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> (CCG) behaviour with significant <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dispersion. The mean <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of small particles in the sub-sieve size range is considerably smaller than the mean <span class="hlt">rate</span> of product sized crystals at constant supersaturation. Small potash alum crystals show a clear tendency of increased lattice strain with increasing supersaturation which can be explained by the refaceting process of attrition nuclei in the crystallizer. The average amount of induced strain in crystals having the same <span class="hlt">growth</span> history is obviously related to crystal size. Only slightly strained particles with sufficiently high <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> will reach the product size range in the MSMPR crystallizer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2737911','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2737911"><span>Quantitative Physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at Near-Zero Specific <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> ▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boender, Léonie G. M.; de Hulster, Erik A. F.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale A. S.; Pronk, Jack T.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Growth</span> at near-zero specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> is a largely unexplored area of yeast physiology. To investigate the physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under these conditions, the effluent removal pipe of anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat culture (dilution <span class="hlt">rate</span>, 0.025 h−1) was fitted with a 0.22-μm-pore-size polypropylene filter unit. This setup enabled prolonged cultivation with complete cell retention. After 22 days of cultivation, specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> had decreased below 0.001 h−1 (doubling time of >700 h). Over this period, viability of the retentostat cultures decreased to ca. 80%. The viable biomass concentration in the retentostats could be accurately predicted by a maintenance coefficient of 0.50 mmol of glucose g−1 of biomass h−1 calculated from anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures grown at dilution <span class="hlt">rates</span> of 0.025 to 0.20 h−1. This indicated that, in contrast to the situation in several prokaryotes, maintenance energy requirements in S. cerevisiae do not substantially change at near-zero specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. After 22 days of retentostat cultivation, glucose metabolism was predominantly geared toward alcoholic fermentation to meet maintenance energy requirements. The strict correlation between glycerol production and biomass formation observed at higher specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> was not maintained at the near-zero <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> reached in the retentostat cultures. In addition to glycerol, the organic acids acetate, d-lactate, and succinate were produced at low <span class="hlt">rates</span> during prolonged retentostat cultivation. This study identifies robustness and by-product formation as key issues in attempts to uncouple <span class="hlt">growth</span> and product formation in S. cerevisiae. PMID:19592533</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1693027','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1693027"><span>Trophic interactions and population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>: describing patterns and identifying mechanisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hudson, Peter J; Dobson, Andy P; Cattadori, Isabella M; Newborn, David; Haydon, Dan T; Shaw, Darren J; Benton, Tim G; Grenfell, Bryan T</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>While the concept of population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> has been of central importance in the development of the theory of population dynamics, few empirical studies consider the intrinsic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in detail, let alone how it may vary within and between populations of the same species. In an attempt to link theory with data we take two approaches. First, we address the question 'what <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> patterns does theory predict we should see in time-series?' The models make a number of predictions, which in general are supported by a comparative study between time-series of harvesting data from 352 red grouse populations. Variations in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> between grouse populations were associated with factors that reflected the quality and availability of the main food plant of the grouse. However, while these results support predictions from theory, they provide no clear insight into the mechanisms influencing reductions in population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and regulation. In the second part of the paper, we consider the results of experiments, first at the individual level and then at the population level, to identify the important mechanisms influencing changes in individual productivity and population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The parasitic nematode Trichostrongylus tenuis is found to have an important influence on productivity, and when incorporated into models with their patterns of distribution between individuals has a destabilizing effect and generates negative <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The hypothesis that negative <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> at the population level were caused by parasites was demonstrated by a replicated population level experiment. With a sound and tested model framework we then explore the interaction with other natural enemies and show that in general they tend to stabilize variations in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Interestingly, the models show selective predators that remove heavily infected individuals can release the grouse from parasite-induced regulation and allow equilibrium populations to rise. By contrast, a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980019575','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980019575"><span>Stress Ratio Effects on Crack Opening Loads and Crack <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in Aluminum Alloy 2024</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Riddell, William T.; Piascik, Robert S.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The effects of stress ratio (R) and crack opening behavior on fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> (da/dN) for aluminum alloy (AA) 2024-T3 were investigated using constant-delta K testing, closure measurements, and fractography. Fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were obtained for a range of delta K and stress ratios. Results show that constant delta K fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> for R ranging from near 0 to 1 is divided into three regions. In Region 1, at low R, da/dN increases with increasing R. In Region 2, at intermediate R, fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are relatively independent of R. In Region 3, at high R, further increases in da/dN are observed with increasing R.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JCrGr.192..439T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JCrGr.192..439T"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> enhancement by microcrystals and the quality of resulting potash alum crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takiyama, H.; Tezuka, N.; Matsuoka, M.; Ristic, R. I.; Sherwood, J. N.</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> enhancement resulting from the addition of ground powder crystals to a growing larger crystal has been examined for the potash alum-water system. The crystal quality of the large crystal after the addition and subsequent <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> enhancement was evaluated in terms of the formation of inclusions and dislocations. Inclusions were observed with an optical microscope and the dislocations were analysed using X-ray transmission topography. It was found that the development of inclusions occurs at the time of the addition to the solution of the ground powder crystals and their attachment to the growing crystal surface. Simultaneously, dislocation bundles were generated. It is proposed that the inclusions form as the growing crystal surface envelopes the adhering particles and that the dislocations form both as a consequence of the strain that develops and the lattice mismatch required to refacet the surface. Both result in the development of additional <span class="hlt">growth</span> centres which cause the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> enhancement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9084923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9084923"><span>Effect of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shigeta, M; Komatsuzawa, H; Sugai, M; Suginaka, H; Usui, T</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of biofilm cells of a leucine-requiring mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa HU1 was regulated by the leucine concentration in the chemically defined medium, and the effect of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of biofilm cells on the antimicrobial activities of the antimicrobial agents piperacillin (PIPC), imipenem (IPM) and ofloxacin (OFLX) were evaluated. PIPC showed little effect on the biofilm bacteria regardless of the leucine concentration in the medium. IPM showed weak bactericidal activity to biofilm cells; activity was greater in younger biofilm cells growing in high concentrations of leucine. On the other hand, OFLX revealed strong bactericidal activity to biofilm bacteria regardless of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Our data suggest that the bactericidal action of antimicrobial agents to biofilm bacteria is different from that to planktonic bacteria. The bioassay using mutants with regulated <span class="hlt">growth</span> is useful for the evaluation of the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against biofilm bacteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=195185','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=195185"><span>Effects of Nutrients on Specific <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Bacterioplankton in Oligotrophic Lake Water Cultures †</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Coveney, Michael F.; Wetzel, Robert G.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The effects of organic and inorganic nutrient additions on the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of bacterioplankton in oligotrophic lake water cultures were investigated. Lake water was first passed through 0.8-μm-pore-size filters (prescreening) to remove bacterivores and to minimize confounding effects of algae. Specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were calculated from changes in both bacterial cell numbers and biovolumes over 36 h. Gross specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in unmanipulated control samples were estimated through separate measurements of grazing losses by use of penicillin. The addition of mixed organic substrates alone to prescreened water did not significantly increase bacterioplankton specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The addition of inorganic phosphorus alone significantly increased one or both specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in three of four experiments, and one experiment showed a secondary stimulation by organic substrates. The stimulatory effects of phosphorus addition were greatest concurrently with the highest alkaline phosphatase activity in the lake water. Because bacteria have been shown to dominate inorganic phosphorus uptake in other P-deficient systems, the demonstration that phosphorus, rather than organic carbon, can limit bacterioplankton <span class="hlt">growth</span> suggests direct competition between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton for inorganic phosphorus. PMID:16348620</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/umrsmas/bullmar/1994/00000054/00000003/art00006','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/umrsmas/bullmar/1994/00000054/00000003/art00006"><span>Environmental implications of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> changes in Montastrea Annularis: Biscayne National Park, Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hudson, J. Harold; Hanson, Kirby J.; Halley, Robert B.; Kindinger, Jack G.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Long-term annual <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were determined for 25 Montastrea annularis colonies at eight reef sites in Biscayne National Park, Florida. X-radiographs of slabbed coral cores revealed chronologies that averaged 113.5 years in length with a range of 40 to 242 years. A total of 2,837 annual <span class="hlt">growth</span> increments were identified and measured. Dating of density bands was verified by visually crossdating fluorescent bands within the coral skeleton. Average accretion <span class="hlt">rates</span> of individual colonies varied from 5.0 mm·yr−1 in the northernmost sector of the Park to 11.3 mm·yr−1 in the southernmost sector. Long-term <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of most corals in this study were greatest prior to about 1950 except for a major, 3–5 year, decline in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> record of older corals centered around 1878. Waxing and waning coral <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are discussed in relation to natural and anthropogenic perturbations that impact this high latitude reef ecosystem. Attention is drawn to nutrients from sewage outfalls as a possible contributing factor to observed <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> decline since 1950.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990079793&hterms=average+temperature+over+time&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Daverage%2Btemperature%2Bover%2Btime','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990079793&hterms=average+temperature+over+time&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Daverage%2Btemperature%2Bover%2Btime"><span>Measurement of Temperature Fluctuations and Microscopic <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in a Silicon Floating Zone and Microgravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schweizer, Markus; Croell, Arne</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A silicon crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> experiment has been accomplished using the floating-zone technique under microgravity on a sounding rocket (TEXUS 36). Measurements of temperature fluctuations in the silicon melt zone due to time dependent thermocapillary convection (Marangoni convection) and an observation of the microscopic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> were simultaneously performed during the experiment. Temperature fluctuations of about 0.5 - 0.7 C with a frequency range < 0.5Hz were detectable. The microscopic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> fluctuates considerably around the average <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 1 mm/min: <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> up to 3 to 4mm/min, close to zero mm/min, as well as negative values (backmelting) were observed. Dopant striations are clearly visible in the Sb-doped crystal. They were characterized by Spreading Resistance measurements and Differential Interference Contrast microscopy. The frequencies of temperature fluctuations, microscopic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and the dopant inhomogeneities correspond quite well, with main frequencies between 0.1 and 0.3 Hz. 3D numerical simulations were performed to predict the optimum position of the temperature sensor, and the characteristic temperature amplitudes and frequencies. At a position 3.4mm above the interface and 1.4mm inside the melt, equivalent to the sensor tip position in the experiment, temperature fluctuations up to 1.8 C and frequencies ? 0.25Hz were found in the simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5689578','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5689578"><span>Effects of nutrients on specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of bacterioplankton in oligotrophic lake water cultures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Coveney, M.F.; Wetzel, R.G. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The effects of organic and inorganic nutrient additions on the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of bacterioplankton in oligotrophic lake water cultures were investigated. Lake water was first passed through 0.8-{mu}m-pore-size filters (prescreening) to remove bacterivores and to minimize confounding effects of algae. Specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were calculated from changes in both bacterial cell numbers and biovolumes over 36 h. Gross specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in unmanipulated control samples were estimated through separate measurements of grazing losses by use of penicillin. The addition of mixed organic substrates alone to prescreened water did not significantly increase bacterioplankton specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The addition of inorganic phosphorus alone significantly increased one or both specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in three of four experiments, and one experiment showed a secondary stimulation by organic substrates. The stimulatory effects of phosphorus addition were greatest concurrently with the highest alkaline phosphatase activity in the lake water. Because bacteria have been shown to dominate inorganic phosphorus uptake in other P-deficient systems, the demonstration that phosphorus, rather than organic carbon, can limit bacterioplankton <span class="hlt">growth</span> suggests direct competition between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton for inorganic phosphorus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990079793&hterms=negative+rates&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dnegative%2Brates','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990079793&hterms=negative+rates&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dnegative%2Brates"><span>Measurement of Temperature Fluctuations and Microscopic <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in a Silicon Floating Zone and Microgravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schweizer, Markus; Croell, Arne</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A silicon crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> experiment has been accomplished using the floating-zone technique under microgravity on a sounding rocket (TEXUS 36). Measurements of temperature fluctuations in the silicon melt zone due to time dependent thermocapillary convection (Marangoni convection) and an observation of the microscopic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> were simultaneously performed during the experiment. Temperature fluctuations of about 0.5 - 0.7 C with a frequency range < 0.5Hz were detectable. The microscopic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> fluctuates considerably around the average <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 1 mm/min: <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> up to 3 to 4mm/min, close to zero mm/min, as well as negative values (backmelting) were observed. Dopant striations are clearly visible in the Sb-doped crystal. They were characterized by Spreading Resistance measurements and Differential Interference Contrast microscopy. The frequencies of temperature fluctuations, microscopic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and the dopant inhomogeneities correspond quite well, with main frequencies between 0.1 and 0.3 Hz. 3D numerical simulations were performed to predict the optimum position of the temperature sensor, and the characteristic temperature amplitudes and frequencies. At a position 3.4mm above the interface and 1.4mm inside the melt, equivalent to the sensor tip position in the experiment, temperature fluctuations up to 1.8 C and frequencies ? 0.25Hz were found in the simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040001155','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040001155"><span>Fatigue Crack <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> and Stress-Intensity Factor Corrections for Out-of-Plane Crack <span class="hlt">Growth</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Forth, Scott C.; Herman, Dave J.; James, Mark A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> testing is performed by automated data collection systems that assume straight crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> in the plane of symmetry and use standard polynomial solutions to compute crack length and stress-intensity factors from compliance or potential drop measurements. Visual measurements used to correct the collected data typically include only the horizontal crack length, which for cracks that propagate out-of-plane, under-estimates the crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and over-estimates the stress-intensity factors. The authors have devised an approach for correcting both the crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and stress-intensity factors based on two-dimensional mixed mode-I/II finite element analysis (FEA). The approach is used to correct out-of-plane data for 7050-T7451 and 2025-T6 aluminum alloys. Results indicate the correction process works well for high DeltaK levels but fails to capture the mixed-mode effects at DeltaK levels approaching threshold (da/dN approximately 10(exp -10) meter/cycle).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4344143','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4344143"><span>Fishing directly selects on <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> via behaviour: implications of <span class="hlt">growth</span>-selection that is independent of size</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Biro, Peter A.; Sampson, Portia</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Size-selective harvest of fish and crustacean populations has reduced stock numbers, and led to reduced <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and earlier maturation. In contrast to the focus on size-selective effects of harvest, here, we test the hypothesis that fishing may select on life-history traits (here, <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>) via behaviour, even in the absence of size selection. If true, then traditional size-limits used to protect segments of a population cannot fully protect fast growers, because at any given size, fast-growers will be more vulnerable owing to bolder behaviour. We repeatedly measured individual behaviour and <span class="hlt">growth</span> of 86 crayfish and found that fast-growing individuals were consistently bold and voracious over time, and were subsequently more likely to be harvested in single- and group-trapping trials. In addition, there was some indication that sex had independent effects on behaviour and trappability, whereby females tended to be less active, shyer, slower-growing and less likely to be harvested, but not all these effects were significant. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first across-individual support for this hypothesis, and suggests that behaviour is an important mechanism for fishing selectivity that could potentially lead to evolution of reduced intrinsic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. PMID:25608882</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhRvE..77e6102P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhRvE..77e6102P"><span>Size-dependent standard deviation for <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>: Empirical results and theoretical modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Pammolli, Fabio; Wang, Fengzhong; Stanley, H. Eugene; Grosse, I.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>We study annual logarithmic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> R of various economic variables such as exports, imports, and foreign debt. For each of these variables we find that the distributions of R can be approximated by double exponential (Laplace) distributions in the central parts and power-law distributions in the tails. For each of these variables we further find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation σ(R) on the average size of the economic variable with a scaling exponent surprisingly close to that found for the gross domestic product (GDP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3275 (1998)]. By analyzing annual logarithmic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> R of wages of 161 different occupations, we find a power-law dependence of the standard deviation σ(R) on the average value of the wages with a scaling exponent β≈0.14 close to those found for the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of exports, imports, debt, and the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of the GDP. In contrast to these findings, we observe for payroll data collected from 50 states of the USA that the standard deviation σ(R) of the annual logarithmic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> R increases monotonically with the average value of payroll. However, also in this case we observe a power-law dependence of σ(R) on the average payroll with a scaling exponent β≈-0.08 . Based on these observations we propose a stochastic process for multiple cross-correlated variables where for each variable (i) the distribution of logarithmic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> decays exponentially in the central part, (ii) the distribution of the logarithmic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> decays algebraically in the far tails, and (iii) the standard deviation of the logarithmic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> depends algebraically on the average size of the stochastic variable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15705560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15705560"><span>Evolution of juvenile <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata): predator regime or resource level?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arendt, Jeffrey D; Reznick, David N</p> <p>2005-02-07</p> <p>Recent theoretical and empirical work argues that <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> can evolve and be optimized, rather than always being maximized. Chronically low resource availability is predicted to favour the evolution of slow <span class="hlt">growth</span>, whereas attaining a size-refuge from mortality risk is predicted to favour the evolution of rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) evolve differences in behaviour, morphology and life-history traits in response to predation, thus demonstrating that predators are potent agents of selection. Predators in low-predation environments prey preferentially on small guppies, but those in high-predation environments appear to be non-selective. Because guppies can outgrow their main predator in low- but not high-predation localities, we predict that predation will select for higher <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the low-predation environments.However, low-predation localities also tend to have lower productivity than high-predation localities, yield-ing the prediction that guppies from these sites should have slower <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Here we compare the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the second laboratory-born generation of guppies from paired high- and low-predation localities from four different drainages. In two out of four comparisons, guppies from high-predation sites grew significantly faster than their low-predation counterparts. We also compare laboratory born descendants from a field introduction experiment and show that guppies introduced to a low-predation environment evolved slower <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> after 13 years, although this was evident only at the high food level. The weight of the evidence suggests that resource availability plays a more important role than predation in shaping the evolution of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70161977','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70161977"><span>Effects of light intensity and temperature on Cryptomonas ovata (Cryptophyceae) <span class="hlt">growth</span> and nutrient uptake <span class="hlt">rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cloern, James E.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Cryptomonas ovata var. palustris Pringsheim was measured in batch culture at 14 light-temperature combinations. Both the maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (μm) and optimum light intensity (Iopt) fit an empirical function that increases exponentially with temperature up to an optimum (Topt), then declines rapidly as temperature exceeds Topt. Incorporation of these functions into Steele's <span class="hlt">growth</span> equation gives a good estimate of specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> over a wide range of temperature and light intensity. <span class="hlt">Rates</span> of phosphate, ammonium and nitrate uptake were measured separately at 16 combinations of irradiance and temperature and following a spike addition of all starved cells initially took up nutrient at a rapid <span class="hlt">rate</span>. This transitory surge was followed by a period of steady, substrate-saturated uptake that persisted until external nutrient concentration fell. Substrate-saturated NO3−-uptake proceeded at very slow <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the dark and was stimulated by both increased temperature and irradiance; NH4+-uptake apparently proceeded at a basal <span class="hlt">rate</span> at 8 and l4 C and was also stimulated by increased temperature and irradiance. <span class="hlt">Rates</span> of NH4−-uptake were much higher than NO3−-uptake at all light-temperature combinations. Below 20 C, PO4−3-uptake was more rapid in dark than in light, but was light enhanced at 26 C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=242188','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=242188"><span>Estimates of bacterial <span class="hlt">growth</span> from changes in uptake <span class="hlt">rates</span> and biomass.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kirchman, D; Ducklow, H; Mitchell, R</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rates</span> of nucleic acid synthesis have been used to examine microbiol <span class="hlt">growth</span> in natural waters. These <span class="hlt">rates</span> are calculated from the incorporation of [3H]adenine and [3H]thymidine for RNA and DNA syntheses, respectively. Several additional biochemical parameters must be measured or taken from the literature to estimate <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> from the incorporation of the tritiated compounds. We propose a simple method of estimating a conversion factor which obviates measuring these biochemical parameters. The change in bacterial abundance and incorporation <span class="hlt">rates</span> of [3H]thymidine was measured in samples from three environments. The incorporation of exogenous [3H]thymidine was closely coupled with <span class="hlt">growth</span> and cell division as estimated from the increase in bacterial biomass. Analysis of the changes in incorporation <span class="hlt">rates</span> and initial bacterial abundance yielded a conversion factor for calculating bacterial production <span class="hlt">rates</span> from incorporation <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of only those bacteria incorporating the compound can be estimated. The data analysis and experimental design can be used to estimate the proportion of nondividing cells and to examine changes in cell volumes. PMID:6760812</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19466478','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19466478"><span>Plant <span class="hlt">growth</span>-promoting rhizobacteria allow reduced application <span class="hlt">rates</span> of chemical fertilizers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adesemoye, A O; Torbert, H A; Kloepper, J W</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>The search for microorganisms that improve soil fertility and enhance plant nutrition has continued to attract attention due to the increasing cost of fertilizers and some of their negative environmental impacts. The objectives of this greenhouse study with tomato were to determine (1) if reduced <span class="hlt">rates</span> of inorganic fertilizer coupled with microbial inoculants will produce plant <span class="hlt">growth</span>, yield, and nutrient uptake levels equivalent to those with full <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the fertilizer and (2) the minimum level to which fertilizer could be reduced when inoculants were used. The microbial inoculants used in the study were a mixture of plant <span class="hlt">growth</span>-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IN937a and Bacillus pumilus T4, a formulated PGPR product, and the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF), Glomus intraradices. Results showed that supplementing 75% of the recommended fertilizer <span class="hlt">rate</span> with inoculants produced plant <span class="hlt">growth</span>, yield, and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) uptake that were statistically equivalent to the full fertilizer <span class="hlt">rate</span> without inoculants. When inoculants were used with <span class="hlt">rates</span> of fertilizer below 75% of the recommended <span class="hlt">rate</span>, the beneficial effects were usually not consistent; however, inoculation with the mixture of PGPR and AMF at 70% fertility consistently produced the same yield as the full fertility <span class="hlt">rate</span> without inoculants. Without inoculants, use of fertilizer <span class="hlt">rates</span> lower than the recommended resulted in significantly less plant <span class="hlt">growth</span>, yield, and nutrient uptake or inconsistent impacts. The results suggest that PGPR-based inoculants can be used and should be further evaluated as components of integrated nutrient management strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARX53007C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARX53007C"><span>Hydrogen Isotope Effect on the Fatigue Crack <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> in Pipeline Steel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Connolly, Matthew; Slifka, Andrew; Drexler, Elizabeth; Hydrogen Pipeline Safety Team</p> <p></p> <p>Hydrogen (H2) is desirable for energy storage as it is cleaner burning and can store a larger amount of energy than an equal mass of gasoline. One problem in the development of a hydrogen economy is to find or develop materials that ensure the safe, reliable, and cost-effective flow of energy from the source to the user. It is expected steels will be needed to serve this function. However, the existing network of natural gas pipeline, for example, is constructed of ferrous materials which are susceptible to embrittlement and subsequent increased fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> after exposure to hydrogen. It is expected that diffusion <span class="hlt">rates</span> play an important role on fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. We report the measurement of the fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in a high strength pipeline steel in a gaseous deuterium (D2) environment, in an effort to determine the role of diffusion <span class="hlt">rate</span> on FCGR, because D2 is chemically identical to H2, but with twice the mass. We found that the D2 fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was not enhanced compared to air as is seen in an H2 environment; in fact our D2 <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement was slightly slower than in air, a result which is not expected to be due to diffusion <span class="hlt">rates</span> alone. NIST Materials Measurement Laboratory, Applied Chemicals and Materials Division.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1077852','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1077852"><span>Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kay, Steve A.</p> <p>2013-05-02</p> <p>Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant <span class="hlt">growth</span> and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant <span class="hlt">growth</span> is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass (Brachypodium distachyon) also exhibit daily rhythms in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated <span class="hlt">growth</span> behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic <span class="hlt">growth</span> in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily <span class="hlt">growth</span> patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3695991','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3695991"><span>Maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Mycobacterium avium in continuous culture or chronically infected BALB/c mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCarthy, C M; Taylor, M A; Dennis, M W</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Mycobacterium avium is a human pathogen which may cause either chronic or disseminated disease and the organism exhibits a slow <span class="hlt">rate</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span>. This study provides information on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the organism in chronically infected mice and its maximal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in vitro. M. avium was grown in continuous culture, limited for nitrogen with 0.5 mM ammonium chloride and dilution <span class="hlt">rates</span> that ranged from 0.054 to 0.153 h-1. The steady-state concentration of ammonia nitrogen and M. avium cells for each dilution <span class="hlt">rate</span> were determined. The bacterial saturation constant for <span class="hlt">growth</span>-limiting ammonia was 0.29 mM (4 micrograms nitrogen/ml) and, from this, the maximal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> for M. avium was estimated to be 0.206 h-1 or a doubling time of 3.4 h. BALB/c mice were infected intravenously with 3 x 10(6) colony-forming units and a chronic infection resulted, typical of virulent M. avium strains. During a period of 3 months, the number of mycobacteria remained constant in the lungs, but increased 30-fold and 8,900-fold, respectively, in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. The latter increase appeared to be due to proliferation in situ. The generation time of M. avium in the mesenteric lymph nodes was estimated to be 7 days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDD25006F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDD25006F"><span>Effect of cell size and shear stress on bacterium <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fadlallah, Hadi; Jarrahi, Mojtaba; Herbert, Éric; Peerhossaini, Hassan; PEF Team</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Effect of shear stress on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Synechocystis and Chlamydomonas cells is studied. An experimental setup was prepared to monitor the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the microorganisms versus the shear <span class="hlt">rate</span> inside a clean room, under atmospheric pressure and 20 °C temperature. Digital magnetic agitators are placed inside a closed chamber provided with airflow, under a continuous uniform light intensity over 4 weeks. In order to study the effect of shear stress on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, different frequencies of agitation are tested, 2 vessels filled with 150 ml of each specie were placed on different agitating system at the desired frequency. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is monitored daily by measuring the optical density and then correlate it to the cellular concentration. The PH was adjusted to 7 in order to maintain the photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, to measure the shear stress distribution, the flow velocity field was measured using PIV. Zones of high and low shear stress were identified. Results show that the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is independent of the shear stress magnitude, mostly for Synechocystis, and with lower independency for Chlamydomonas depending on the cell size for each species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21039649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21039649"><span>Element content of Ochromonas danica: a replicated chemostat study controlling the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and temperature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simonds, Savannah; Grover, James P; Chrzanowski, Thomas H</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Ecological stoichiometry focuses on the balance between multiple nutrient elements in resources and in consumers of those resources. The major consumers of bacteria in aquatic food webs are heterotrophic and mixotrophic nanoflagellates. Despite the importance of this consumer-resource interaction to understanding nutrient dynamics in the aquatic food web, few data are available addressing the element stoichiometry of flagellate consumers. Ochromonas danica, a mixotrophic bacterivore, was used as a model organism to study the relationships among temperature, <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and element stoichiometry. Ochromonas danica was grown in chemostats at dilution <span class="hlt">rates</span> ranging between 0.03 and 0.10 h(-1) and temperatures ranging between 15 and 28 °C. Cells accumulated elements as interactive functions of temperature and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, with the highest element concentrations corresponding to cells grown at a low temperature and high <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The highest concentrations of elements were associated with small cells. Temperature and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> affected the element stoichiometry (as C:N, C:P and N:P) of O. danica in a complex manner, but the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> had a greater effect on ratios than did temperature. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27745560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27745560"><span>The dependence of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and meat content of young boars on semen parameters and conception <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knecht, D; Jankowska-Mąkosa, A; Duziński, K</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Boars have a decisive impact on the progress in pig production, however, there is no recent information about the optimal <span class="hlt">growth</span> parameters during the rearing period for modern breed later used in artificial insemination (AI) stations. Therefore, the objective of the research was to conduct semen parameter and conception <span class="hlt">rate</span> analyses on the basis of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and meat content assessments made during the rearing of AI boars of different genotypes. The study was carried out between 2010 and 2014 and included 184 boars in five breed combinations: 46 Polish Large White, 50 Polish Landrace, 27 Pietrain, 36 Duroc×Pietrain and 25 Hampshire×Pietrain. Boars were qualified by daily gains and meat content assessment (between 170 and 210 days of life). A total number of 38 272 ejaculates were examined (semen volume (ml), spermatozoa concentration (×106 ml-1), total number of spermatozoa (×109) and number of insemination doses from one ejaculate (n)). The fertility was determined by the conception <span class="hlt">rate</span> (%). Semen volume, spermatozoa concentration and conception <span class="hlt">rate</span> (P<0.01), followed by the total number of spermatozoa and insemination doses (P<0.05) were characterized by the highest variability in relation to breed of boars. The effect of daily gains was reported for spermatozoa concentration, number of insemination doses, conception <span class="hlt">rate</span> (all P<0.01) and total number of spermatozoa (P<0.05). The peak of <span class="hlt">growth</span> for spermatozoa concentration, total number of spermatozoa, insemination doses and conception <span class="hlt">rate</span> was achieved for 800 to 850 g gains. Meat content affected semen volume, number of insemination doses and conception <span class="hlt">rate</span> (P<0.05). Rearing boars while maintaining daily gains at the 800 to 850 g level and 62.5% to 65% meat content helps AI stations to increase the efficiency and economic profitability, and the number of insemination doses to increase by up to 300 doses/boar within a year. The analyses of <span class="hlt">growth</span> parameters may help increase the efficiency and</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5451050','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5451050"><span>Estimating blue whale skin isotopic incorporation <span class="hlt">rates</span> and baleen <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>: Implications for assessing diet and movement patterns in mysticetes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Busquets-Vass, Geraldine; Newsome, Seth D.; Calambokidis, John; Serra-Valente, Gabriela; Jacobsen, Jeff K.; Aguíñiga-García, Sergio; Gendron, Diane</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Stable isotope analysis in mysticete skin and baleen plates has been repeatedly used to assess diet and movement patterns. Accurate interpretation of isotope data depends on understanding isotopic incorporation <span class="hlt">rates</span> for metabolically active tissues and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for metabolically inert tissues. The aim of this research was to estimate isotopic incorporation <span class="hlt">rates</span> in blue whale skin and baleen <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> by using natural gradients in baseline isotope values between oceanic regions. Nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope values of blue whale skin and potential prey were analyzed from three foraging zones (Gulf of California, California Current System, and Costa Rica Dome) in the northeast Pacific from 1996–2015. We also measured δ15N and δ13C values along the lengths of baleen plates collected from six blue whales stranded in the 1980s and 2000s. Skin was separated into three strata: basale, externum, and sloughed skin. A mean (±SD) skin isotopic incorporation <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 163±91 days was estimated by fitting a generalized additive model of the seasonal trend in δ15N values of skin strata collected in the Gulf of California and the California Current System. A mean (±SD) baleen <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 15.5±2.2 cm y-1 was estimated by using seasonal oscillations in δ15N values from three whales. These oscillations also showed that individual whales have a high fidelity to distinct foraging zones in the northeast Pacific across years. The absence of oscillations in δ15N values of baleen sub-samples from three male whales suggests these individuals remained within a specific zone for several years prior to death. δ13C values of both whale tissues (skin and baleen) and potential prey were not distinct among foraging zones. Our results highlight the importance of considering tissue isotopic incorporation and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> when studying migratory mysticetes and provide new insights into the individual movement strategies of blue whales. PMID:28562625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16673418','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16673418"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> on cell extract performance in cell-free protein synthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zawada, James; Swartz, James</p> <p>2006-07-05</p> <p>Cell-free protein synthesis is a useful research tool and now stands poised to compete with in vivo expression for commercial production of proteins. However, both the extract preparation and protein synthesis procedures must be scaled up. A key challenge is producing the required amount of biomass that also results in highly active cell-free extracts. In this work, we show that the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the culture dramatically affects extract performance. Extracts prepared from cultures with a specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 0.7/h or higher produced approximately 0.9 mg/mL of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) in a batch reaction. In contrast, when the source culture <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was 0.3/h, the resulting extract produced only 0.5 mg/mL CAT. Examination of the ribosome content in the extracts revealed that the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the source cells strongly influenced the final ribosome concentration. Polysome analysis of cell-free protein synthesis reactions indicated that about 22% of the total 70S ribosomes are in polysomes for all extracts regardless of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Furthermore, the overall specific production from the 70S ribosomes is about 22 CAT proteins per ribosome over the course of the reaction in all cases. It appears that rapid culture <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are essential for producing a productive extract. However, <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> does not seem to influence specific ribosome activity. Rather, the increase in extract productivity is a result of a higher ribosome concentration. These results are important for cell-free technology and also suggest an assay for intrinsic in vivo protein synthesis activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23689021','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23689021"><span>Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling and the <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> theorem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cohen, Joel E</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Taylor's law (TL), a widely verified empirical relationship in ecology, states that the variance of population density is approximately a power-law function of mean density. The <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> theorem (GR) states that, in a subdivided population, the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of change of the overall <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is proportional to the variance of the subpopulations' <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. We show that continuous-time exponential change implies GR at every time and, asymptotically for large time, TL with power-law exponent 2. We also show why diverse population-dynamic models predict TL in the limit of large time by identifying simple features these models share: If the mean population density and the variance of population density are (exactly or asymptotically) non-constant exponential functions of a parameter (e.g., time), then the variance of density is (exactly or asymptotically) a power-law function of mean density. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2698124','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2698124"><span>Concurrent <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> and Transcript Analyses Reveal Essential Gene Stringency in Escherichia coli</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goh, Shan; Boberek, Jaroslaw M.; Nakashima, Nobutaka; Stach, Jem; Good, Liam</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Genes essential for bacterial <span class="hlt">growth</span> are of particular scientific interest. Many putative essential genes have been identified or predicted in several species, however, little is known about gene expression requirement stringency, which may be an important aspect of bacterial physiology and likely a determining factor in drug target development. Methodology/Principal Findings Working from the premise that essential genes differ in absolute requirement for <span class="hlt">growth</span>, we describe silencing of putative essential genes in E. coli to obtain a titration of declining <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and transcript levels by using antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNA) and expressed antisense RNA. The relationship between mRNA decline and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> decline reflects the degree of essentiality, or stringency, of an essential gene, which is here defined by the minimum transcript level for a 50% reduction in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (MTL50). When applied to four <span class="hlt">growth</span> essential genes, both RNA silencing methods resulted in MTL50 values that reveal acpP as the most stringently required of the four genes examined, with ftsZ the next most stringently required. The established antibacterial targets murA and fabI were less stringently required. Conclusions RNA silencing can reveal stringent requirements for gene expression with respect to <span class="hlt">growth</span>. This method may be used to validate existing essential genes and to quantify drug target requirement. PMID:19557168</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22416553','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22416553"><span>Pretreatment <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Niu, Nina N.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Larvie, Mykol; Curtin, Hugh; Loeffler, Jay S.; McKenna, Michael J.; Shih, Helen A.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion <span class="hlt">rates</span> were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change <span class="hlt">rates</span> (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5013775','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5013775"><span>Lifespan, <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and body size across latitude in marine Bivalvia, with implications for Phanerozoic evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ivany, Linda C.; Judd, Emily J.; Cummings, Patrick W.; Bearden, Claire E.; Kim, Woo-Jun; Artruc, Emily G.; Driscoll, Jeremy R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mean body size in marine animals has increased more than 100-fold since the Cambrian, a discovery that brings to attention the key life-history parameters of lifespan and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> that ultimately determine size. Variation in these parameters is not well understood on the planet today, much less in deep time. Here, we present a new global database of maximum reported lifespan and shell <span class="hlt">growth</span> coupled with body size data for 1 148 populations of marine bivalves and show that (i) lifespan increases, and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> decreases, with latitude, both across the group as a whole and within well-sampled species, (ii) <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and hence metabolic <span class="hlt">rate</span>, correlates inversely with lifespan, and (iii) opposing trends in lifespan and <span class="hlt">growth</span> combined with high variance obviate any demonstrable pattern in body size with latitude. Our observations suggest that the proposed increase in metabolic activity and demonstrated increase in body size of organisms over the Phanerozoic should be accompanied by a concomitant shift towards faster <span class="hlt">growth</span> and/or shorter lifespan in marine bivalves. This prediction, testable from the fossil record, may help to explain one of the more fundamental patterns in the evolutionary and ecological history of animal life on this planet. PMID:27488653</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27488653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27488653"><span>Lifespan, <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and body size across latitude in marine Bivalvia, with implications for Phanerozoic evolution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moss, David K; Ivany, Linda C; Judd, Emily J; Cummings, Patrick W; Bearden, Claire E; Kim, Woo-Jun; Artruc, Emily G; Driscoll, Jeremy R</p> <p>2016-08-17</p> <p>Mean body size in marine animals has increased more than 100-fold since the Cambrian, a discovery that brings to attention the key life-history parameters of lifespan and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> that ultimately determine size. Variation in these parameters is not well understood on the planet today, much less in deep time. Here, we present a new global database of maximum reported lifespan and shell <span class="hlt">growth</span> coupled with body size data for 1 148 populations of marine bivalves and show that (i) lifespan increases, and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> decreases, with latitude, both across the group as a whole and within well-sampled species, (ii) <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and hence metabolic <span class="hlt">rate</span>, correlates inversely with lifespan, and (iii) opposing trends in lifespan and <span class="hlt">growth</span> combined with high variance obviate any demonstrable pattern in body size with latitude. Our observations suggest that the proposed increase in metabolic activity and demonstrated increase in body size of organisms over the Phanerozoic should be accompanied by a concomitant shift towards faster <span class="hlt">growth</span> and/or shorter lifespan in marine bivalves. This prediction, testable from the fossil record, may help to explain one of the more fundamental patterns in the evolutionary and ecological history of animal life on this planet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030066434&hterms=snell&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsnell','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030066434&hterms=snell&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsnell"><span>Crystal <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Dispersion: A Predictor of Crystal Quality in Microgravity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kephart, Richard D.; Judge, Russell A.; Snell, Edward H.; vanderWoerd, Mark J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In theory macromolecular crystals grow through a process involving at least two transport phenomena of solute to the crystal surface: diffusion and convection. In absence of standard gravitational forces, the ratio of these two phenomena can change and explain why crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> in microgravity is different from that on Earth. Experimental evidence clearly shows, however, that crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> of various systems is not equally sensitive to reduction in gravitational forces, leading to quality improvement in microgravity for some crystals but not for others. We hypothesize that the differences in final crystal quality are related to crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dispersion. If <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dispersion exists on Earth, decreases in microgravity, and coincides with crystal quality improvements then this dispersion is a predictor for crystal quality improvement. In order to test this hypothesis, we will measure <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dispersion both in microgravity and on Earth and will correlate the data with previously established data on crystal quality differences for the two environments. We present here the first crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement data for three proteins (lysozyme, xylose isomerase and human recombinant insulin), collected on Earth, using hardware identical to the hardware to be used in microgravity and show how these data correlate with crystal quality improvements established in microgravity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1019615','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1019615"><span>Recent Advances in High-<span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Single-Crystal CVD Diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liang, Q.; Yan, C; Meng, Y; Lai, J; Krasnicki, S; Mao, H; Hemley, R</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>There have been important advances in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) of large single-crystal CVD diamond at high <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and applications of this diamond. The types of gas chemistry and <span class="hlt">growth</span> conditions, including microwave power, pressure, and substrate surface temperatures, have been varied to optimize diamond quality and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The diamond has been characterized by a variety of spectroscopic and diffraction techniques. We have grown single-crystal CVD diamond over ten carats and above 1 cm in thickness at <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of 50-100 {micro}m/h. Colorless and near colorless single crystals up to two carats have been produced by further optimizing the process. The nominal Vickers fracture toughness of this high-<span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> diamond can be tuned to exceed 20 MPa m{sup 1/2} in comparison to 5-10 MPa m{sup 1/2} for conventional natural and CVD diamond. Post-<span class="hlt">growth</span> high-pressure/high-temperature (HPHT) and low-pressure/high-temperature (LPHT) annealing have been carried out to alter the optical, mechanical, and electronic properties. Most recently, single-crystal CVD diamond has been successfully annealed by LPHT methods without graphitization up to 2200 C and < 300 Torr for periods of time ranging from a fraction of minute to a few hours. Significant changes observed in UV, visible, infrared, and photoluminescence spectra are attributed to changes in various vacancy centers and extended defects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/218427','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/218427"><span>The use of Ampelisca abdita <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> as an indicator of sediment quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weston, D.P.; Thompson, B.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Acute lethal bioassays with amphipod crustaceans are routinely used to assess toxicity of bulk sediments. A study within the San Francisco Bay Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) is in progress to develop a chronic bioassay with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita, measuring both survivorship and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. This approach is attractive because depression of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is likely to be a more sensitive indicator of toxic effects than acute lethality, and natural populations of A. abdita exist throughout the Bay. Spiked sediment bioassays, using cadmium and crude oil, were used to demonstrate the relative sensitivity of the standard 10-day lethal test vs. the 30-day <span class="hlt">growth</span> test. Sediments were also collected from 9 sites throughout the Bay, ranging from areas adjacent to municipal wastewater discharges to areas distant from known point source inputs. These samples were then split, and used for side-by-side comparison of acute (lethal) and chronic (<span class="hlt">growth</span>) toxicity tests. Survivorship exceeded 90% in all tests, including those sediments collected nearest the wastewater outfalls. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were contrasted among the various treatments to examine the utility of this end point in discriminating the outfall sites. Data on the spatial distribution, abundance, and size-frequency distribution of native populations was examined within the context of using <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> as an indicator of toxic effects in natural populations as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030066434&hterms=Snell&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSnell','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030066434&hterms=Snell&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSnell"><span>Crystal <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Dispersion: A Predictor of Crystal Quality in Microgravity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kephart, Richard D.; Judge, Russell A.; Snell, Edward H.; vanderWoerd, Mark J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In theory macromolecular crystals grow through a process involving at least two transport phenomena of solute to the crystal surface: diffusion and convection. In absence of standard gravitational forces, the ratio of these two phenomena can change and explain why crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> in microgravity is different from that on Earth. Experimental evidence clearly shows, however, that crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> of various systems is not equally sensitive to reduction in gravitational forces, leading to quality improvement in microgravity for some crystals but not for others. We hypothesize that the differences in final crystal quality are related to crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dispersion. If <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dispersion exists on Earth, decreases in microgravity, and coincides with crystal quality improvements then this dispersion is a predictor for crystal quality improvement. In order to test this hypothesis, we will measure <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> dispersion both in microgravity and on Earth and will correlate the data with previously established data on crystal quality differences for the two environments. We present here the first crystal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurement data for three proteins (lysozyme, xylose isomerase and human recombinant insulin), collected on Earth, using hardware identical to the hardware to be used in microgravity and show how these data correlate with crystal quality improvements established in microgravity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3059216','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3059216"><span>Human Disturbance Influences Reproductive Success and <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> in California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>French, Susannah S.; González-Suárez, Manuela; Young, Julie K.; Durham, Susan; Gerber, Leah R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change) and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification) scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. To do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental conditions on population dynamics. We investigated the influence of human activity on important life history parameters (reproductive <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and body condition, and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of neonate pups) for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Increased human presence was associated with lower reproductive <span class="hlt">rates</span>, which translated into reduced long-term population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and suggested that human activities are a disturbance that could lead to population declines. We also observed higher body <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in pups with increased exposure to humans. Increased <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in pups may reflect a density dependent response to declining reproductive <span class="hlt">rates</span> (e.g., decreased competition for resources). Our results highlight the potentially complex changes in life history parameters that may result from human disturbance, and their implication for population dynamics. We recommend careful monitoring of human activities in the Gulf of California and emphasize the importance of management strategies that explicitly consider the potential impact of human activities such as ecotourism on vertebrate populations. PMID:21436887</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21436887','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21436887"><span>Human disturbance influences reproductive success and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>French, Susannah S; González-Suárez, Manuela; Young, Julie K; Durham, Susan; Gerber, Leah R</p> <p>2011-03-16</p> <p>The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change) and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification) scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. To do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental conditions on population dynamics. We investigated the influence of human activity on important life history parameters (reproductive <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and body condition, and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of neonate pups) for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Increased human presence was associated with lower reproductive <span class="hlt">rates</span>, which translated into reduced long-term population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and suggested that human activities are a disturbance that could lead to population declines. We also observed higher body <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in pups with increased exposure to humans. Increased <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in pups may reflect a density dependent response to declining reproductive <span class="hlt">rates</span> (e.g., decreased competition for resources). Our results highlight the potentially complex changes in life history parameters that may result from human disturbance, and their implication for population dynamics. We recommend careful monitoring of human activities in the Gulf of California and emphasize the importance of management strategies that explicitly consider the potential impact of human activities such as ecotourism on vertebrate populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28313419','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28313419"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of selected Australian tropical rainforest tree species under controlled conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herwitz, Stanley R</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>Controlled environment treatments were applied to assess the effects of temperature on the seedling mortality and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of Toona australis and Flindersia brayleyana, two tropical rainforest tree species from northeast Queensland, Australia. Past workers have assigned these two species to the same ecological niche in terms of their response to canopy disturbance and gap-phase regeneration; however, their geographic ranges are very different. The hypothesis was that the species confined to the warm tropics (F. brayleyana) would have higher seedling mortality and a slower <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> at lower temperatures than the species that occurs over a wide latitudinal range from the warm tropics to cooler temperate environments (T. australis). Significant differences were found in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of these two species in the warm (29/22° C) and cool (22/10°C), but not the intermediate (24/16° C), day/night temperature regimes. Their <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> both decreased with decreasing temperature, but the decrease was significantly less for F. brayleyana which had the faster <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and lower seedling mortality in the cool regime. These results led to the rejection of the hypothesis and a test of the assignment of these two species to the same ecological niche. The test involved monitoring their <span class="hlt">growth</span> to sapling-size in the intermediate temperature regime together with four other co-occurring tropical rainforest tree species belonging to different ecological niches. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and proportions of above-ground biomass allocated to woody tissue distinguished T. australis and a fast-growing pioneer species from F. brayleyana and three primary forest species. The stem heights and aboveground biomass of T. australis and the pioneer species exceeded the other four species by factors ranging from two to five. It is concluded that T. australis does not belong to the same ecological niche as F. brayleyana, and it is recommended that more research be conducted on the ecotypic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4720290','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4720290"><span>Trace incorporation of heavy water reveals slow and heterogeneous pathogen <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in cystic fibrosis sputum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kopf, Sebastian H.; Sessions, Alex L.; Cowley, Elise S.; Reyes, Carmen; Van Sambeek, Lindsey; Hu, Yang; Orphan, Victoria J.; Kato, Roberta; Newman, Dianne K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Effective treatment for chronic infections is undermined by a significant gap in understanding of the physiological state of pathogens at the site of infection. Chronic pulmonary infections are responsible for the morbidity and mortality of millions of immunocompromised individuals worldwide, yet drugs that are successful in laboratory culture are far less effective against pathogen populations persisting in vivo. Laboratory models, upon which preclinical development of new drugs is based, can only replicate host conditions when we understand the metabolic state of the pathogens and the degree of heterogeneity within the population. In this study, we measured the anabolic activity of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus directly in the sputum of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), by combining the high sensitivity of isotope ratio mass spectrometry with a heavy water labeling approach to capture the full range of in situ <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Our results reveal S. aureus generation times with a median of 2.1 d, with extensive <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> heterogeneity at the single-cell level. These <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are far below the detection limit of previous estimates of CF pathogen <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and the <span class="hlt">rates</span> are slowest in acutely sick patients undergoing pulmonary exacerbations; nevertheless, they are accessible to experimental replication within laboratory models. Treatment regimens that include specific antibiotics (vancomycin, piperacillin/tazobactam, tobramycin) further appear to correlate with slow <span class="hlt">growth</span> of S. aureus on average, but follow-up longitudinal studies must be performed to determine whether this effect holds for individual patients. PMID:26715741</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691858','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691858"><span>Predators select against high <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and risk-taking behaviour in domestic trout populations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Biro, Peter A.; Abrahams, Mark V.; Post, John R.; Parkinson, Eric A.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Domesticated (farm) salmonid fishes display an increased willingness to accept risk while foraging, and achieve high <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> not observed in nature. Theory predicts that elevated <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in domestic salmonids will result in greater risk-taking to access abundant food, but low survival in the presence of predators. In replicated whole-lake experiments, we observed that domestic trout (selected for high <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>) took greater risks while foraging and grew faster than a wild strain. However, survival consequences for greater <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> depended upon the predation environment. Domestic trout experienced greater survival when risk was low, but lower survival when risk was high. This suggests that animals with high intrinsic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are selected against in populations with abundant predators, explaining the absence of such phenotypes in nature. This is, to our knowledge, the first large-scale field experiment to directly test this theory and simultaneously quantify the initial invasibility of domestic salmonid strains that escape into the wild from aquaculture operations, and the ecological conditions affecting their survival. PMID:15539348</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PNAS..113E.110K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PNAS..113E.110K"><span>Trace incorporation of heavy water reveals slow and heterogeneous pathogen <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in cystic fibrosis sputum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kopf, Sebastian H.; Sessions, Alex L.; Cowley, Elise S.; Reyes, Carmen; Van Sambeek, Lindsey; Hu, Yang; Orphan, Victoria J.; Kato, Roberta; Newman, Dianne K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Effective treatment for chronic infections is undermined by a significant gap in understanding of the physiological state of pathogens at the site of infection. Chronic pulmonary infections are responsible for the morbidity and mortality of millions of immunocompromised individuals worldwide, yet drugs that are successful in laboratory culture are far less effective against pathogen populations persisting in vivo. Laboratory models, upon which preclinical development of new drugs is based, can only replicate host conditions when we understand the metabolic state of the pathogens and the degree of heterogeneity within the population. In this study, we measured the anabolic activity of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus directly in the sputum of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), by combining the high sensitivity of isotope ratio mass spectrometry with a heavy water labeling approach to capture the full range of in situ <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Our results reveal S. aureus generation times with a median of 2.1 d, with extensive <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> heterogeneity at the single-cell level. These <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are far below the detection limit of previous estimates of CF pathogen <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, and the <span class="hlt">rates</span> are slowest in acutely sick patients undergoing pulmonary exacerbations; nevertheless, they are accessible to experimental replication within laboratory models. Treatment regimens that include specific antibiotics (vancomycin, piperacillin/tazobactam, tobramycin) further appear to correlate with slow <span class="hlt">growth</span> of S. aureus on average, but follow-up longitudinal studies must be performed to determine whether this effect holds for individual patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060027240','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060027240"><span>The Effect of the Laboratory Specimen on Fatigue Crack <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Forth, S. C.; Johnston, W. M.; Seshadri, B. R.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Over the past thirty years, laboratory experiments have been devised to develop fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> data that is representative of the material response. The crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> data generated in the laboratory is then used to predict the safe operating envelope of a structure. The ability to interrelate laboratory data and structural response is called similitude. In essence, a nondimensional term, called the stress intensity factor, was developed that includes the applied stresses, crack size and geometric configuration. The stress intensity factor is then directly related to the <span class="hlt">rate</span> at which cracks propagate in a material, resulting in the material property of fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> response. Standardized specimen configurations and experimental procedures have been developed for laboratory testing to generate crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> data that supports similitude of the stress intensity factor solution. In this paper, the authors present laboratory fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> test data and finite element analyses that show similitude between standard specimen configurations tested using the constant stress ratio test method is unobtainable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28003453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28003453"><span>Size evolution in microorganisms masks trade-offs predicted by the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> hypothesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gounand, Isabelle; Daufresne, Tanguy; Gravel, Dominique; Bouvier, Corinne; Bouvier, Thierry; Combe, Marine; Gougat-Barbera, Claire; Poly, Franck; Torres-Barceló, Clara; Mouquet, Nicolas</p> <p>2016-12-28</p> <p>Adaptation to local resource availability depends on responses in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and nutrient acquisition. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> hypothesis (GRH) suggests that growing fast should impair competitive abilities for phosphorus and nitrogen due to high demand for biosynthesis. However, in microorganisms, size influences both <span class="hlt">growth</span> and uptake <span class="hlt">rates</span>, which may mask trade-offs and instead generate a positive relationship between these traits (size hypothesis, SH). Here, we evolved a gradient of maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (μmax) from a single bacterium ancestor to test the relationship among μmax, competitive ability for nutrients and cell size, while controlling for evolutionary history. We found a strong positive correlation between μmax and competitive ability for phosphorus, associated with a trade-off between μmax and cell size: strains selected for high μmax were smaller and better competitors for phosphorus. Our results strongly support the SH, while the trade-offs expected under GRH were not apparent. Beyond plasticity, unicellular populations can respond rapidly to selection pressure through joint evolution of their size and maximum <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Our study stresses that physiological links between these traits tightly shape the evolution of competitive strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25691756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25691756"><span>Consequences of different <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in broiler breeder and layer hens on embryogenesis, metabolism and metabolic <span class="hlt">rate</span>: A review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buzała, M; Janicki, B; Czarnecki, R</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Intensive genetic selection of broiler breeders and layer hens for economically important production traits, which has been carried out for almost a century, resulted in considerable differences in the mechanisms of <span class="hlt">growth</span> and development and, thus, in avian metabolism, both during embryogenesis and after hatching. Selection for meat production (broiler breeders) and eggs (layer hens) led to increased productivity but also brought about metabolic disorders. That intensive genetic selection of broiler breeders and layer hens is effective is seen, for example, in the differences in <span class="hlt">growth</span> and development, metabolism of the yolk sac, hormones and lipids, gas exchange, and thermogenesis. Due to genetic proximity and different developmental mechanisms in broiler breeders and layer hens, avian embryos and chicks serve as excellent models for fundamental scientific research. This review paper discusses the consequences of different <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> as a result of long-term genetic selection on embryonic development and metabolic <span class="hlt">rate</span> of broilers and layers. The evidence presented herein indicates that it would be worth comparing these issues in a meta-analysis. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18831171','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18831171"><span>Biomass rather than <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> determines variation in net primary production by giant kelp.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reed, Daniel C; Rassweiler, Andrew; Arkema, Katie K</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>Net primary production (NPP) is influenced by disturbance-driven fluctuations in foliar standing crop (FSC) and resource-driven fluctuations in <span class="hlt">rates</span> of recruitment and <span class="hlt">growth</span>, yet most studies of NPP have focused primarily on factors influencing <span class="hlt">growth</span>. We quantified NPP, FSC, recruitment, and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> for the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, at three kelp forests in southern California, U.S.A., over a 54-month period and determined the relative roles of FSC, recruitment, and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in contributing to variation in annual NPP. Net primary production averaged between 0.42 and 2.38 kg dry mass x m(-2) x yr(-1) at the three sites. The initial FSC present at the beginning of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> year and the recruitment of new plants during the year explained 63% and 21% of the interannual variation observed in NPP, respectively. The previous year's NPP and disturbance from waves collectively accounted for 80% of the interannual variation in initial FSC. No correlation was found between annual <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (i.e., the amount of new kelp mass produced per unit of existing kelp mass) and annual NPP (i.e., the amount of new kelp mass produced per unit area of ocean bottom), largely because annual <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was consistent compared to initial FSC and recruitment, which fluctuated greatly among years and sites. Although <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was a poor predictor of variation in annual NPP, it was principally responsible for the high mean values observed for NPP by Macrocystis. These high mean values reflected rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span> (average of approximately 2% per day) of a relatively small standing crop (maximum annual mean = 444 g dry mass/m2) that replaced itself approximately seven times per year. Disturbance-driven variability in FSC may be generally important in explaining variation in NPP, yet it is rarely examined because cycles of disturbance and recovery occur over timescales of decades or more in many systems. Considerable insight into how variation in FSC drives variation in NPP may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28592825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28592825"><span>Variation in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of branching corals along Australia's Great Barrier Reef.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, Kristen D; Cantin, Neal E; Heron, Scott F; Pisapia, Chiara; Pratchett, Morgan S</p> <p>2017-06-07</p> <p>Coral <span class="hlt">growth</span> is an important component of reef health and resilience. However, few studies have investigated temporal and/or spatial variation in <span class="hlt">growth</span> of branching corals, which are important contributors to the structure and function of reef habitats. This study assessed <span class="hlt">growth</span> (linear extension, density, and calcification) of three branching coral species (Acropora muricata, Pocillopora damicornis and Isopora palifera) at three distinct locations (Lizard Island, Davies/Trunk Reef, and Heron Island) along Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Annual <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of all species were highest at Lizard Island and declined with increasing latitude, corresponding with differences in temperature. Within locations, however, seasonal variation in <span class="hlt">growth</span> did not directly correlate with temperature. Between October 2012 and October 2014, the highest <span class="hlt">growth</span> of A. muricata was in the 2013-14 summer at Lizard Island, which was unusually cool and ~0.5 °C less than the long-term summer average temperature. At locations where temperatures reached or exceeded the long-term summer maxima, coral <span class="hlt">growth</span> during summer periods was equal to, if not lower than, winter periods. This study shows that temperature has a significant influence on spatiotemporal patterns of branching coral <span class="hlt">growth</span>, and high summer temperatures in the northern GBR may already be constraining coral <span class="hlt">growth</span> and reef resilience.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25149444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25149444"><span>The effect of light direction and suspended cell concentrations on algal biofilm <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schnurr, Peter J; Espie, George S; Allen, D Grant</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Algae biofilms were grown in a semicontinuous flat plate biofilm photobioreactor to study the effects of light direction and suspended algal cell populations on algal biofilm <span class="hlt">growth</span>. It was determined that, under the <span class="hlt">growth</span> conditions and biofilm thicknesses studied, light direction had no effect on long-term algal biofilm <span class="hlt">growth</span> (26 days); however, light direction did affect the concentration of suspended algal cells by influencing the photon flux density in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> medium in the photobioreactors. This suspended algal cell population affected short-term (7 days) algae cell recruitment and algal biofilm <span class="hlt">growth</span>, but additional studies showed that enhanced suspended algal cell populations did not affect biofilm <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> over the long term (26 days). Studying profiles of light transmittance through biofilms as they grew showed that most of the light became attenuated by the biomass after just a few days of <span class="hlt">growth</span> (88 % after 3 days). The estimated biofilm thicknesses after these few days of <span class="hlt">growth</span> were approximately 150 μm. The light attenuation data suggests that, although the biofilms grew to 700-900 μm, under these light intensities, only the first few hundred micrometers of the biofilm is receiving enough light to be photosynthetically active. We postulate that this photosynthetically active layer of the biofilm grows adjacent to the light source, while the rest of the biofilm is in a stationary <span class="hlt">growth</span> phase. The results of this study have implications for algal biofilm photobioreactor design and operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060008099','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060008099"><span>Fatigue Crack <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Inconel 718 Sheet at Cryogenic Temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wells, Douglas; Wright, Jonathan; Hastings, Keith</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Inconel 718 sheet material was tested to determine fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (FCGR) at cryogenic conditions representative of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) environment at -423 degree F. Tests utilized M(T) and ESE(T) specimen geometries and environments were either cold gaseous helium or submersion in LH2. The test results support a significant improvement in the fatigue crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> threshold at -423 degree F compared to -320 degree F or 70 degree F.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2160515','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2160515"><span>Inhibition of <span class="hlt">rate</span> of tumour <span class="hlt">growth</span> in rodent species by inoculation of herpesviruses and encephalomyocarditis virus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cowan, M; Davies, J; Brookes, K; Billstrom, M; McLeish, P; Buchan, A; Skinner, G R</p> <p>1990-03-01</p> <p>Inoculation of herpesviruses and encephalomyocarditis virus into subcutaneous tumours in hamsters and mice reduced the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of tumour <span class="hlt">growth</span> compared to untreated tumours or secondary tumours which had arisen following surgical excision of the primary tumour; in addition, survival times were increased in animals whose tumours were inoculated with virus. It is suggested that the role of virus in the modification of tumour <span class="hlt">growth</span> merits further exploration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22704187','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22704187"><span>Maximising electricity production by controlling the biofilm specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in microbial fuel cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ledezma, Pablo; Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The aim of this work is to study the relationship between <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and electricity production in perfusion-electrode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), across a wide range of flow <span class="hlt">rates</span> by co-measurement of electrical output and changes in population numbers by viable counts and optical density. The experiments hereby presented demonstrate, for the first time to the authors' knowledge, that the anodic biofilm specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> can be determined and controlled in common with other loose matrix perfusion systems. Feeding with nutrient-limiting conditions at a critical flow <span class="hlt">rate</span> (50.8 mL h(-1)) resulted in the first experimental determination of maximum specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> μ(max) (19.8 day(-1)) for Shewanella spp. MFC biofilms, which is considerably higher than those predicted or assumed via mathematical modelling. It is also shown that, under carbon-energy limiting conditions there is a strong direct relationship between <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and electrical power output, with μ(max) coinciding with maximum electrical power production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21511137','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21511137"><span>A new mechanistic <span class="hlt">growth</span> model for simultaneous determination of lag phase duration and exponential <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and a new Bĕlehdrádek-type model for evaluating the effect of temperature on <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Lihan</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>A new mechanistic <span class="hlt">growth</span> model was developed to describe microbial <span class="hlt">growth</span> under isothermal conditions. The new mathematical model was derived from the basic observation of bacterial <span class="hlt">growth</span> that may include lag, exponential, and stationary phases. With this model, the lag phase duration and exponential <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of a <span class="hlt">growth</span> curve were simultaneously determined by nonlinear regression. The new model was validated using Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in broth or meat. Statistical results suggested that both bias factor (B(f)) and accuracy factor (A(f)) of the new model were very close to 1.0. A new Bĕlehdrádek-type <span class="hlt">rate</span> model and the Ratkowsky square-root model were used to describe the temperature dependence of bacterial <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. It was observed that the maximum and minimum temperatures were more accurately estimated by a new Bĕlehdrádek-type <span class="hlt">rate</span> model. Further, the inverse of square-roots of lag phases was found proportional to temperature, making it possible to estimate the lag phase duration from the <span class="hlt">growth</span> temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5295343','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5295343"><span>Determination of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> depression of some green algae by atrazine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hersh, C.M.; Crumpton, W.G.</p> <p>1987-12-01</p> <p>A common contaminant of surface waters of agricultural regions is the triazine herbicide, atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isoproplyamino-s-triazine). Atrazine effectively inhibits <span class="hlt">growth</span> and photosynthesis of most plants, including freshwater algae. Both depression of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and reduced yield have been used as parameters in studies of the effects of atrazine on algal <span class="hlt">growth</span>. Considerable variation exists among algal toxicity methods despite attempts at standardization. Experimental endpoints range from percent inhibitions to EC50s. Algae from two different Iowa springs were the subjects of a study of naturally occurring atrazine tolerance. The authors report here the results of two aspects of that study: development of a quick method of assessing toxin effects on algal <span class="hlt">growth</span>, and investigation of a ecologically meaningful endpoint for toxin-<span class="hlt">growth</span> experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JCrGr.352..151R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JCrGr.352..151R"><span>Calcite <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> inhibition by fulvic acid and magnesium ion—Possible influence on biogenic calcite formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reddy, Michael M.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Increases in ocean surface water dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations retard biocalcification by reducing calcite supersaturation (Ωc). Reduced calcification <span class="hlt">rates</span> may influence <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> dependent magnesium ion (Mg) incorporation into biogenic calcite modifying the use of calcifying organisms as paleoclimate proxies. Fulvic acid (FA) at biocalcification sites may further reduce calcification <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Calcite <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> inhibition by FA and Mg, two common constituents of seawater and soil water involved in the formation of biogenic calcite, was measured separately and in combination under identical, highly reproducible experimental conditions. Calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> (pH=8.5 and Ωc=4.5) are reduced by FA (0.5 mg/L) to 47% and by Mg (10-4 M) to 38%, compared to control experiments containing no added <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> inhibitor. Humic acid (HA) is twice as effective a calcite <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> inhibitor as FA. Calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the presence of both FA (0.5 mg/L) and Mg (10-4 M) is reduced to 5% of the control <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Mg inhibits calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> by substitution for calcium ion at the <span class="hlt">growth</span> site. In contrast, FA inhibits calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> by binding multiple carboxylate groups on the calcite surface. FA and Mg together have an increased affinity for the calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span> sites reducing calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042984','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042984"><span>Calcite <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> inhibition by fulvic acid and magnesium ion—Possible influence on biogenic calcite formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Reddy, Michael M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Increases in ocean surface water dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations retard biocalcification by reducing calcite supersaturation (Ωc). Reduced calcification <span class="hlt">rates</span> may influence <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> dependent magnesium ion (Mg) incorporation into biogenic calcite modifying the use of calcifying organisms as paleoclimate proxies. Fulvic acid (FA) at biocalcification sites may further reduce calcification <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Calcite <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> inhibition by FA and Mg, two common constituents of seawater and soil water involved in the formation of biogenic calcite, was measured separately and in combination under identical, highly reproducible experimental conditions. Calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> (pH=8.5 and Ωc=4.5) are reduced by FA (0.5 mg/L) to 47% and by Mg (10−4 M) to 38%, compared to control experiments containing no added <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> inhibitor. Humic acid (HA) is twice as effective a calcite <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> inhibitor as FA. Calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the presence of both FA (0.5 mg/L) and Mg (10−4 M) is reduced to 5% of the control <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Mg inhibits calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> by substitution for calcium ion at the <span class="hlt">growth</span> site. In contrast, FA inhibits calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> by binding multiple carboxylate groups on the calcite surface. FA and Mg together have an increased affinity for the calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span> sites reducing calcite <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754869','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754869"><span>How fast-growing bacteria robustly tune their ribosome concentration to approximate <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> maximization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bosdriesz, Evert; Molenaar, Douwe; Teusink, Bas; Bruggeman, Frank J</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Maximization of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is an important fitness strategy for bacteria. Bacteria can achieve this by expressing proteins at optimal concentrations, such that resources are not wasted. This is exemplified for Escherichia coli by the increase of its ribosomal protein-fraction with <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, which precisely matches the increased protein synthesis demand. These findings and others have led to the hypothesis that E. coli aims to maximize its <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in environments that support <span class="hlt">growth</span>. However, what kind of regulatory strategy is required for a robust, optimal adjustment of the ribosome concentration to the prevailing condition is still an open question. In the present study, we analyze the ppGpp-controlled mechanism of ribosome expression used by E. coli and show that this mechanism maintains the ribosomes saturated with its substrates. In this manner, overexpression of the highly abundant ribosomal proteins is prevented, and limited resources can be redirected to the synthesis of other <span class="hlt">growth</span>-promoting enzymes. It turns out that the kinetic conditions for robust, optimal protein-partitioning, which are required for <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> maximization across conditions, can be achieved with basic biochemical interactions. We show that inactive ribosomes are the most suitable 'signal' for tracking the intracellular nutritional state and for adjusting gene expression accordingly, as small deviations from optimal ribosome concentration cause a huge fractional change in ribosome inactivity. We expect to find this control logic implemented across fast-growing microbial species because <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> maximization is a common selective pressure, ribosomes are typically highly abundant and thus costly, and the required control can be implemented by a small, simple network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26142358','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26142358"><span>Estimating Nursing Wage Bill in Canada and Breaking Down the <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span>: 2000 to 2010.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ariste, Ruolz; Béjaoui, Ali</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Even though the nursing professional category (registered nurses [RNs] and licensed practical nurses) made up about one-third of the Canadian health professionals, no study exists about their wage bill, the composition and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of this wage bill. This paper attempts to fill this gap by estimating the nursing wage bill in the Canadian provinces and breaking down the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> for the 2000-2010 period, using the 2001 Census and the 2011 National Household Survey. Total wage bill for the nursing professional category in Canada was estimated at $20.1 billion ($17.3 billion for RNs), which suggests that it is as substantial as net physician remuneration. The average annual <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of this wage bill was 6.6% for RNs. This increase was mainly driven by real (inflation-adjusted) wage per hour, which was 3.0%, suggesting the existence of a "health premium" of 1.7 percentage points during the study period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoTPh..66..709H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoTPh..66..709H"><span>Weibel Instability <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> in Magnetized Plasmas with Quasi-Relativistic Distribution Function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hosseini, Sayed Ahmad; Mahdavi, Mohammad</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The mechanism of the Weibel instability is investigated for dense magnetized plasmas. As we know, due to the electron velocity distribution, the Coulomb collision effect of electron-ion and the relativistic properties play an important role in such study. In this study an analytical expression for the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the condition of restricting the Weibel instability are derived for low-frequency limit. These calculations are done for the oscillation frequency dependence on the electron cyclotron frequency. It is shown that, the relativistic properties of the particle lead to increasing the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of the instability. On the other hand the collision effects and background magnetic field try to decrease the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> by decreasing the temperature anisotropy and restricting the particles movement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750063402&hterms=diffusion+rate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddiffusion%2Brate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750063402&hterms=diffusion+rate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddiffusion%2Brate"><span>Calculated diffusion coefficients and the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of olivine in a basalt magma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Donaldson, C. H.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Concentration gradients in glass adjacent to skeletal olivines in a basalt have been examined by electron probe. The glass is depleted in Mg, Fe, and Cr and enriched in Si, Al, Na, and Ca relative to that far from olivine. Ionic diffusion coefficients for the glass compositions are calculated from temperature, ionic radius and melt viscosity, using the Stokes-Einstein relation. At 1170 C, the diffusion coefficient of Mg(2+) ions in the basalt is 4.5 billionths sq cm per sec. Comparison with measured diffusion coefficients in a mugearite suggests this value may be 16 times too small. The concentration gradient data and the diffusion coefficients are used to calculate instantaneous olivine <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> necessarily preceded emplacement such that the composition of the crystals plus the enclosing glass need not be that of a melt. The computed olivine <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are compatible with the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of crystallization deduced for the Skaegaard intrusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20365469','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20365469"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing layers with the foliation approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Poujade, Olivier; Peybernes, Mathieu</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>For years, astrophysicists, plasma fusion, and fluid physicists have puzzled over Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing layers. In particular, strong discrepancies in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> have been observed between experiments and numerical simulations. Although two phenomenological mechanisms (mode-coupling and mode-competition) have brought some insight on these differences, convincing theoretical arguments are missing to explain the observed values. In this paper, we provide an analytical expression of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> compatible with both mechanisms and is valid for a self-similar, low Atwood Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing subjected to a constant or time-varying acceleration. The key step in this work is the presentation of foliated averages and foliated turbulent spectra highlighted in our three-dimensional numerical simulations. We show that the exact value of the Rayleigh-Taylor <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> not only depends upon the acceleration history but is also bound to the power-law exponent of the foliated spectra at large scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21344702','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21344702"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing layers with the foliation approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Poujade, Olivier; Peybernes, Mathieu</p> <p>2010-01-15</p> <p>For years, astrophysicists, plasma fusion, and fluid physicists have puzzled over Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing layers. In particular, strong discrepancies in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> have been observed between experiments and numerical simulations. Although two phenomenological mechanisms (mode-coupling and mode-competition) have brought some insight on these differences, convincing theoretical arguments are missing to explain the observed values. In this paper, we provide an analytical expression of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> compatible with both mechanisms and is valid for a self-similar, low Atwood Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing subjected to a constant or time-varying acceleration. The key step in this work is the presentation of foliated averages and foliated turbulent spectra highlighted in our three-dimensional numerical simulations. We show that the exact value of the Rayleigh-Taylor <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> not only depends upon the acceleration history but is also bound to the power-law exponent of the foliated spectra at large scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvF...2f2001A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvF...2f2001A"><span>Interface coupling and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> measurements in multilayer Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adkins, Raymond; Shelton, Emily M.; Renoult, Marie-Charlotte; Carles, Pierre; Rosenblatt, Charles</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Magnetic levitation was used to measure the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> Σ vs wave vector k of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a three-layer fluid system, a crucial step in the elucidation of interface coupling in finite-layer instabilities. For a three-layer (low-high-low density) system, the unstable mode <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> decreases as both the height h of the middle layer and k are reduced, consistent with an interface coupling ∝e-k h . The ratios of the three-layer to the established two-layer <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are in good agreement with those of classic linear stability theory, which has long resisted verification in that configuration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/253786','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/253786"><span>In-situ estimation of MOCVD <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> via a modified Kalman filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Woo, W.W.; Svoronos, S.A.; Sankur, H.O.; Bajaj, J.; Irvine, S.J.C.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>In-situ laser reflectance monitoring of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is an effective way to monitor <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and epitaxial layer thickness of a variety of III-V and II-VI semiconductors. Materials with low optical extinction coefficients, such as ZnTe/GaAs and AlAs/GaAs for a 6,328 {angstrom} HeNe laser, are ideal for such an application. An extended Kalman filter modified to include a variable forgetting factor was applied to the MOCVD systems. The filter was able to accurately estimate thickness and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> while filtering out process noise and cope with sudden changes in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, reflectance drift, and bias. Due to the forgetting factor, the Kalman filter was successful, even when based on very simple process models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhPl...24i0702D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhPl...24i0702D"><span>Maximum initial <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> of strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dell, Z. R.; Pandian, A.; Bhowmick, A. K.; Swisher, N. C.; Stanic, M.; Stellingwerf, R. F.; Abarzhi, S. I.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>We focus on the classical problem of the dependence on the initial conditions of the initial <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span> of strong shock driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) by developing a novel empirical model and by employing rigorous theories and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations to describe the simulation data with statistical confidence in a broad parameter regime. For the given values of the shock strength, fluid density ratio, and wavelength of the initial perturbation of the fluid interface, we find the maximum value of the RMI initial <span class="hlt">growth-rate</span>, the corresponding amplitude scale of the initial perturbation, and the maximum fraction of interfacial energy. This amplitude scale is independent of the shock strength and density ratio and is characteristic quantity of RMI dynamics. We discover the exponential decay of the ratio of the initial and linear <span class="hlt">growth-rates</span> of RMI with the initial perturbation amplitude that excellently agrees with available data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750063402&hterms=rate+diffusion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Drate%2Bdiffusion','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750063402&hterms=rate+diffusion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Drate%2Bdiffusion"><span>Calculated diffusion coefficients and the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of olivine in a basalt magma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Donaldson, C. H.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Concentration gradients in glass adjacent to skeletal olivines in a basalt have been examined by electron probe. The glass is depleted in Mg, Fe, and Cr and enriched in Si, Al, Na, and Ca relative to that far from olivine. Ionic diffusion coefficients for the glass compositions are calculated from temperature, ionic radius and melt viscosity, using the Stokes-Einstein relation. At 1170 C, the diffusion coefficient of Mg(2+) ions in the basalt is 4.5 billionths sq cm per sec. Comparison with measured diffusion coefficients in a mugearite suggests this value may be 16 times too small. The concentration gradient data and the diffusion coefficients are used to calculate instantaneous olivine <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> necessarily preceded emplacement such that the composition of the crystals plus the enclosing glass need not be that of a melt. The computed olivine <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are compatible with the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of crystallization deduced for the Skaegaard intrusion.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/218426','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/218426"><span>Population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> determinants for Arbacia: Evaluating ecological relevance of toxicity test endpoints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nacci, D.; Gleason, T.; Munns, W.R. Jr.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>A population dynamics model for the sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata, was recently developed incorporating life stage endpoints frequently measured in acute and chronic toxicity studies. Model elasticity analysis was used to demonstrate that population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was influenced most by adult survival and least by early life stage success, calling into question the ecological relevance of results from standardized Arbacia fertilization and larval development toxicity tests. Two approaches were used to continue this evaluation. Actual and hypothetical dose-response curves for toxicant exposures over multiple life stages were used to evaluate contributions to population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of stage-specific toxicant effects. Additionally, relationships between critical life stages were developed from laboratory data for Arbacia. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of understanding both endpoint sensitivity to toxicants and sensitivity of population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> to test endpoints in determining the ecological relevance of toxicity tests results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMS....88..239C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMS....88..239C"><span>Pan-Svalbard <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability and environmental regulation in the Arctic bivalve Serripes groenlandicus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carroll, Michael L.; Ambrose, William G.; Levin, Benjamin S.; Locke V, William L.; Henkes, Gregory A.; Hop, Haakon; Renaud, Paul E.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Growth</span> histories contained in the shells of bivalves provide continuous records of environmental and biological information over lifetimes spanning decades to centuries, thereby linking ecosystem responses to both natural and anthropogenic climatic variations over a range of scales. We examined <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and temporal <span class="hlt">growth</span> patterns of 260 individuals of the circumpolar Greenland Smooth Cockle ( Serripes groenlandicus) collected between 1997 and 2009 from 11 sites around the Svalbard Archipelago. These sites encompass a range of oceanographic and environmental conditions, from strongly Atlantic-influenced conditions on the west coast to high-Arctic conditions in northeast Svalbard. Absolute <span class="hlt">growth</span> was up to three times greater at the most strongly Atlantic-influenced locations compared to the most Arctic-influenced areas, and <span class="hlt">growth</span> performance was highest at sites closest to the West Spitsbergen Current. We also developed <span class="hlt">growth</span> chronologies up to 34 years in length extending back to 1974. Standardized <span class="hlt">growth</span> indices (SGI) exhibited substantial inter-site variability, but there were also common temporal features including steadily increasing <span class="hlt">growth</span> from the late 1980's to the mid-1990's followed by a marked shift from relatively greater to poorer <span class="hlt">growth</span> in the mid-1990's and from 2004 to 2008. This pattern was consistent with phase-shifts in large-scale climatic drivers. Interannual variability in SGI was also related to local manifestations of the large-scale drivers, including sea temperature and sea ice extent. The temporal <span class="hlt">growth</span> pattern at Rijpfjorden, on northeast Svalbard, was broadly representative (R = 0.81) of the entire dataset. While there were site-related differences in the specific relationships between <span class="hlt">growth</span> and environmental parameters, the aggregated dataset indicated an overriding regional driver of bivalve <span class="hlt">growth</span>: the Arctic Climate Regime Index (ACRI). These results demonstrate that sclerochronological proxies can be useful retrospective</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/203832','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/203832"><span>Crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of Alloy 182 in high-temperature water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Itow, M.; Abe, Y.; Sudo, A.; Kaneko, T.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> tests on Alloy 182 under constant load conditions were carried out in 288 C pure water in order to evaluate the effects of stress intensity factor (K) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. 1T-CT specimens were machined from 70mm heavy thickness weld joint made of wrought Alloy 600 and Alloy 182 weld metal. A fatigue pre-crack was introduced into each specimen, so that environmentally assisted cracks would propagate parallel to the weld dendrite direction. The weld metal chemistries had a sulfur content of 0.006% and a phosphorus content of 0.012%. During their crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> testing with an applied constant load, the reversing d.c. potential drop technique was conducted to monitor crack length. The crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was increased with increasing K from 25 to 41 MPa{radical}m under 250 ppb DO water. The threshold of K for crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> was considered to be within 15--20 MPa{radical}m. The crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> at 35 MPa{radical}m were retarded by changing the DO concentration from 250 ppb to 20 ppb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26048933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26048933"><span>Physiological and Transcriptional Responses of Different Industrial Microbes at Near-Zero Specific <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ercan, Onur; Bisschops, Markus M M; Overkamp, Wout; Jørgensen, Thomas R; Ram, Arthur F; Smid, Eddy J; Pronk, Jack T; Kuipers, Oscar P; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Kleerebezem, Michiel</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The current knowledge of the physiology and gene expression of industrially relevant microorganisms is largely based on laboratory studies under conditions of rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span> and high metabolic activity. However, in natural ecosystems and industrial processes, microbes frequently encounter severe calorie restriction. As a consequence, microbial <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in such settings can be extremely slow and even approach zero. Furthermore, uncoupling microbial <span class="hlt">growth</span> from product formation, while cellular integrity and activity are maintained, offers perspectives that are economically highly interesting. Retentostat cultures have been employed to investigate microbial physiology at (near-)zero <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. This minireview compares information from recent physiological and gene expression studies on retentostat cultures of the industrially relevant microorganisms Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. Shared responses of these organisms to (near-)zero <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> include increased stress tolerance and a downregulation of genes involved in protein synthesis. Other adaptations, such as changes in morphology and (secondary) metabolite production, were species specific. This comparison underlines the industrial and scientific significance of further research on microbial (near-)zero <span class="hlt">growth</span> physiology. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4551249','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4551249"><span>Physiological and Transcriptional Responses of Different Industrial Microbes at Near-Zero Specific <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ercan, Onur; Bisschops, Markus M. M.; Overkamp, Wout; Jørgensen, Thomas R.; Ram, Arthur F.; Smid, Eddy J.; Pronk, Jack T.; Kuipers, Oscar P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The current knowledge of the physiology and gene expression of industrially relevant microorganisms is largely based on laboratory studies under conditions of rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span> and high metabolic activity. However, in natural ecosystems and industrial processes, microbes frequently encounter severe calorie restriction. As a consequence, microbial <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in such settings can be extremely slow and even approach zero. Furthermore, uncoupling microbial <span class="hlt">growth</span> from product formation, while cellular integrity and activity are maintained, offers perspectives that are economically highly interesting. Retentostat cultures have been employed to investigate microbial physiology at (near-)zero <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. This minireview compares information from recent physiological and gene expression studies on retentostat cultures of the industrially relevant microorganisms Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. Shared responses of these organisms to (near-)zero <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> include increased stress tolerance and a downregulation of genes involved in protein synthesis. Other adaptations, such as changes in morphology and (secondary) metabolite production, were species specific. This comparison underlines the industrial and scientific significance of further research on microbial (near-)zero <span class="hlt">growth</span> physiology. PMID:26048933</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=106631','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=106631"><span>Effect of Specific <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> on Fermentative Capacity of Baker’s Yeast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Van Hoek, Pim; Van Dijken, Johannes P.; Pronk, Jack T.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is a key control parameter in the industrial production of baker’s yeast. Nevertheless, quantitative data describing its effect on fermentative capacity are not available from the literature. In this study, the effect of the specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> on the physiology and fermentative capacity of an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain in aerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures was investigated. At specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> (dilution <span class="hlt">rates</span>, D) below 0.28 h−1, glucose metabolism was fully respiratory. Above this dilution <span class="hlt">rate</span>, respirofermentative metabolism set in, with ethanol production <span class="hlt">rates</span> of up to 14 mmol of ethanol · g of biomass−1 · h−1 at D = 0.40 h−1. A substantial fermentative capacity (assayed offline as ethanol production <span class="hlt">rate</span> under anaerobic conditions) was found in cultures in which no ethanol was detectable (D < 0.28 h−1). This fermentative capacity increased with increasing dilution <span class="hlt">rates</span>, from 10.0 mmol of ethanol · g of dry yeast biomass−1 · h−1 at D = 0.025 h−1 to 20.5 mmol of ethanol · g of dry yeast biomass−1 · h−1 at D = 0.28 h−1. At even higher dilution <span class="hlt">rates</span>, the fermentative capacity showed only a small further increase, up to 22.0 mmol of ethanol · g of dry yeast biomass−1 · h−1 at D = 0.40 h−1. The activities of all glycolytic enzymes, pyruvate decarboxylase, and alcohol dehydrogenase were determined in cell extracts. Only the in vitro activities of pyruvate decarboxylase and phosphofructokinase showed a clear positive correlation with fermentative capacity. These enzymes are interesting targets for overexpression in attempts to improve the fermentative capacity of aerobic cultures grown at low specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. PMID:9797269</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EPJB...57..127P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EPJB...57..127P"><span>A generalized preferential attachment model for business firms <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. I. Empirical evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pammolli, F.; Fu, D.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Riccaboni, M.; Matia, K.; Yamasaki, K.; Stanley, H. E.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>We introduce a model of proportional <span class="hlt">growth</span> to explain the distribution P(g) of business firm <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The model predicts that P(g) is Laplace in the central part and depicts an asymptotic power-law behavior in the tails with an exponent ζ = 3. Because of data limitations, previous studies in this field have been focusing exclusively on the Laplace shape of the body of the distribution. We test the model at different levels of aggregation in the economy, from products, to firms, to countries, and we find that the predictions are in good agreement with empirical evidence on both <span class="hlt">growth</span> distributions and size-variance relationships.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOS.B34A0340M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOS.B34A0340M"><span>Respiration, and <span class="hlt">growth</span>-efficiency of coastal prokaryote communities in continuous cultures under different <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> and temperatures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maske, H.; Cajal-Medrano, R.; Villegas-Mendoza, J.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Organotrophic prokaryotes in aquatic environments account for about half of community respiration in surface oceans and are key trophic links in the plankton food web connecting dissolved organics and higher trophic levels. The transfer efficiency is partially characterized by the ratio of prokaryote respiration <span class="hlt">rates</span> (r, day-1) to <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> (m, day-1) and the resulting <span class="hlt">growth</span> efficiency (Y). Much literature has been published about the response of these parameters to temperature in monospecific cultures, but little is known about the response of a community of pelagic prokaryotes were the sum of the genotypes and phenotype define the physiological potential. We inoculated 10 turbidostats and 39 chemostats with coastal bacteria and measured CO2 production, carbon biomass and cell abundance, with m ranging from 0.05 to 62 day-1 between 10 and 26oC. Under substrate limited conditions, common in the ocean, r showed no significant trend with temperature and was proportional to m implying constant Y. Under temperature-limited, nutrient replete <span class="hlt">growth</span> the m of coastal prokaryote communities increased with temperature but r decreased (Q10: 0.4), resulting in an increase of Y with temperature (Q10: 2.5). The carbon demand <span class="hlt">rate</span> (b, fmol C (cell day)-1) of turbidostat cultures showed a very high Q10 of 8.4. Casting the data in the framework of the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE), the physiological <span class="hlt">rates</span> normalized to cell carbon showed no significant changes with temperature using either respiration or carbon demand as a proxy for physiological <span class="hlt">rate</span>. Our results suggest that physiological patterns related to temperature are very different under nutrient limited or replete conditions and under neither condition it followed the pattern expected by MTE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18543628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18543628"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, seed size, and physiology: do small-seeded species really grow faster?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Turnbull, Lindsay A; Paul-Victor, Cloé; Schmid, Bernhard; Purves, Drew W</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Relative <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> (RGR) is currently the most commonly used method for measuring and comparing species' intrinsic <span class="hlt">growth</span> potential. Comparative studies have, for example, revealed that small-seeded species have higher RGR, leading to the common belief that small-seeded species possess physiological adaptations for rapid <span class="hlt">growth</span> that would allow them to outgrow large-seeded species, given sufficient time. We show that, because RGR declines as individual plants grow, it is heavily biased by initial size and does not measure the size-corrected <span class="hlt">growth</span> potential that determines the outcome of competition in the long-term. We develop a daily <span class="hlt">growth</span> model that includes a simple mechanistic representation of aboveground and belowground <span class="hlt">growth</span> and its dependency on plant size and environmental factors. Intrinsic <span class="hlt">growth</span> potential is encapsulated by the size-independent <span class="hlt">growth</span> coefficient, G. We parameterized the model using repeated-harvest data from 1724 plants of nine species growing in contrasting nutrient and temperature regimes. Using information-theoretic criteria, we found evidence for interspecific differences in only three of nine model parameters: G, aboveground allocation, and frost damage. With other parameters shared between species, the model accurately reproduced above- and belowground biomass trajectories for all nine species in each set of environmental conditions. In contrast to conventional wisdom, the relationship between G and seed size was positive, despite a strong negative correlation between seed size and average RGR, meaning that large-seeded rather than small-seeded species have higher size-corrected <span class="hlt">growth</span> potential. Further, we found a significant positive correlation between G and frost damage that, according to simulations, causes rank reversals in final biomass under daily temperature changes of +/- 5 degrees C. We recommend the wider use of this new kind of plant <span class="hlt">growth</span> analysis as a better way of understanding underlying differences in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916066','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916066"><span>Individual <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in natural field vole, Microtus agrestis, populations exhibiting cyclic population dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burthe, Sarah Janette; Lambin, Xavier; Telfer, Sandra; Douglas, Alex; Beldomenico, Pablo; Smith, Andrew; Begon, Michael</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Rodents that have multi-annual cycles of density are known to have flexible <span class="hlt">growth</span> strategies, and the "Chitty effect", whereby adults in the high-density phase of the cycle exhibit larger average body mass than during the low phase, is a well-documented feature of cyclic populations. Despite this, there have been no studies that have repeatedly monitored individual vole <span class="hlt">growth</span> over time from all phases of a density cycle, in order to evaluate whether such variation in body size is due to differences in juvenile <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, differences in <span class="hlt">growth</span> periods, or differential survival of particularly large or small voles. This study compares <span class="hlt">growth</span> trajectories from voles during the peak, increase and crash phases of the cycle in order to evaluate whether voles are exhibiting fast or slow <span class="hlt">growth</span> strategies. We found that although voles reach highest asymptotic weights in the peak phase and lowest asymptotes during the crash, initial <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> were not significantly different. This suggests that voles attain larger body size during the peak phase as a result of growing for longer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1897V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1897V"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> effects on Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios constrained by belemnite calcite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vinzenz Ullmann, Clemens</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Multiple temperature proxies from single species are important to achieve robust palaeotemperature estimates. Besides the commonly employed oxygen isotope thermometer, also Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios perform well as proxies for calcification temperature in the shells of some species. While salinity changes affect the ratios of earth alkaline elements much less than the δ18O thermometer, metabolic effects may exert a strong control on the expression of element ratios. Such effects are hard to study because biomineralization experiments have to overcome large intraspecific variability and can hardly ever isolate the controls of a single parameter on shell geochemistry. The unique geometry of the belemnite rostrum constitutes an exception to this rule. Its shape, large size, and the visibility of <span class="hlt">growth</span> increments as bands enable the analysis of multiple, correlatable, high resolution geochemical profiles in a single fossil. The effects of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> variability amongst these profiles on Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios has been tested here. Within a specimen of Passaloteuthis bisulcata (Early Toarcian, Cleveland Basin, UK), Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca data were obtained from four profiles. With respect to <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the first profile, which was taken as a reference, the relative <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> in the remaining three profiles varied by a factor of 0.9 to 2.7. Results suggest that relative <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> is linearly correlated with Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca, with a decrease of Mg/Ca by 8 % and increase of Sr/Ca by 6 % per 100 % increase in relative <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. The observed trends are consistent with abiogenic precipitation experiments and suggest that crystal precipitation <span class="hlt">rate</span> exerts a significant, predictable control on the element distribution in biogenic calcite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B14A..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B14A..05H"><span>Global observation of nitrous oxide: changes in <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and spatial patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hall, B. D.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Dutton, G. S.; Nance, J. D.; Crotwell, A. M.; Mondeel, D. J.; Elkins, J. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Nitrous oxide (N2O) currently exerts the third largest climate forcing of the long-lived greenhouse gases, after CO2 and CH4. N2O is also involved in the destruction of stratospheric ozone. It is produced by microbial activity in soils and oceans, and also by industry. The atmospheric burden of N2O has increased more than 20% from its preindustrial level of ~270 nmol mol-1 (ppb). Much of this increase is related to the application of nitrogen-containing fertilizers, including manure. The NOAA Global Monitoring Division has measured the atmospheric mole fraction of N2O at Earth's surface in air samples collected around the globe (since the late 1970s) and at in situ sites mostly in the Western Hemisphere (since 1998). ). Measurements of the global burden and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> constrain global emissions, e.g. 18.2 ± 2.7 Tg N yr-1 in 2013, where most of the uncertainty is related to uncertainty in the global lifetime. The average <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of N2O from 1990 to 2010 was ~0.75 ppb yr-1. Since 2004, however, the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> has been increasing, and is now about 25% higher than the 1990-2010 average. Between 2010 and 2013 the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> averaged ~0.95 ppb yr-1. As the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> increased from 2004-2013, gradients derived from surface, zonal-mean N2O mole fraction, such the mean pole-to-pole difference, and the difference between NH temperate latitudes and the southern polar region, decreased. This suggests a change in the distribution of N2O emissions over this period. We will present our N2O data and examine trends, gradients, and other features that could shed light on recent changes in the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>. We will also compare N2O gradients to those of other trace gases, such as SF6.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4789241','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4789241"><span>Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on survival <span class="hlt">rate</span> and <span class="hlt">growth</span> performance of Convict Cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mohammadi, F; Mousavi, S. M.; Ahmadmoradi, E.; Zakeri, M.; Jahedi, A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Using probiotics can control pathogens by a variety of mechanisms. Probiotics can promote <span class="hlt">growth</span> performance and have, therefore, become increasingly important in the aquaculture industry. Convict Cichlid belongs to the family of Cichlidae and is known for its rapid development in laboratory conditions and is suitable for behavioral examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on <span class="hlt">growth</span> performance, survival <span class="hlt">rate</span> and body composition of Convict Cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). One hundred sixty eight Convict Cichlids (mean weight: 2.1 ± 0.12 g and mean length: 2.2 ± 0.05 cm) were fed by commercial diets with different concentrations of S. cerevisiae (0, 0.5%, 1%, 2%). At the end of the experiment, survival <span class="hlt">rate</span> and <span class="hlt">growth</span> indices were measured. Based on the results, <span class="hlt">growth</span> performance significantly increased with probiotic, S. cerevisiae, specially, at the 2% probiotic level of concentration. In the present study, the best FCR (feed conversion <span class="hlt">rate</span>), SGR (specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>), CF (condition factor) and BWG (body weight gain) values were observed in a 2% concentration of S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that this yeast could improve feed utilization in this fish species. PMID:27175152</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27175152','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27175152"><span>Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on survival <span class="hlt">rate</span> and <span class="hlt">growth</span> performance of Convict Cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohammadi, F; Mousavi, S M; Ahmadmoradi, E; Zakeri, M; Jahedi, A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Using probiotics can control pathogens by a variety of mechanisms. Probiotics can promote <span class="hlt">growth</span> performance and have, therefore, become increasingly important in the aquaculture industry. Convict Cichlid belongs to the family of Cichlidae and is known for its rapid development in laboratory conditions and is suitable for behavioral examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on <span class="hlt">growth</span> performance, survival <span class="hlt">rate</span> and body composition of Convict Cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). One hundred sixty eight Convict Cichlids (mean weight: 2.1 ± 0.12 g and mean length: 2.2 ± 0.05 cm) were fed by commercial diets with different concentrations of S. cerevisiae (0, 0.5%, 1%, 2%). At the end of the experiment, survival <span class="hlt">rate</span> and <span class="hlt">growth</span> indices were measured. Based on the results, <span class="hlt">growth</span> performance significantly increased with probiotic, S. cerevisiae, specially, at the 2% probiotic level of concentration. In the present study, the best FCR (feed conversion <span class="hlt">rate</span>), SGR (specific <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>), CF (condition factor) and BWG (body weight gain) values were observed in a 2% concentration of S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that this yeast could improve feed utilization in this fish species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25152215','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25152215"><span>Modeling circadian clock-cell cycle interaction effects on cell population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El Cheikh, R; Bernard, S; El Khatib, N</p> <p>2014-12-21</p> <p>The circadian clock and the cell cycle are two tightly coupled oscillators. Recent analytical studies have shown counter-intuitive effects of circadian gating of the cell cycle on <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of proliferating cells which cannot be explained by a molecular model or a population model alone. In this work, we present a combined molecular-population model that studies how coupling the circadian clock to the cell cycle, through the protein WEE1, affects a proliferating cell population. We show that the cell cycle can entrain to the circadian clock with different rational period ratios and characterize multiple domains of entrainment. We show that coupling increases the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> for autonomous periods of the cell cycle around 24 h and above 48 h. We study the effect of mutation of circadian genes on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of cells and show that disruption of the circadian clock can lead to abnormal proliferation. Particularly, we show that Cry 1, Cry 2 mutations decrease the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of cells, Per 2 mutation enhances it and Bmal 1 knockout increases it for autonomous periods of the cell cycle less than 21 h and decreases it elsewhere. Combining a molecular model to a population model offers new insight on the influence of the circadian clock on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of a cell population. This can help chronotherapy which takes benefits of physiological rhythms to improve anti-cancer efficacy and tolerance to drugs by administering treatments at a specific time of the day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27193784','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27193784"><span>Translation elicits a <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent, genome-wide, differential protein production in Bacillus subtilis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borkowski, Olivier; Goelzer, Anne; Schaffer, Marc; Calabre, Magali; Mäder, Ulrike; Aymerich, Stéphane; Jules, Matthieu; Fromion, Vincent</p> <p>2016-05-17</p> <p>Complex regulatory programs control cell adaptation to environmental changes by setting condition-specific proteomes. In balanced <span class="hlt">growth</span>, bacterial protein abundances depend on the dilution <span class="hlt">rate</span>, transcript abundances and transcript-specific translation efficiencies. We revisited the current theory claiming the invariance of bacterial translation efficiency. By integrating genome-wide transcriptome datasets and datasets from a library of synthetic gfp-reporter fusions, we demonstrated that translation efficiencies in Bacillus subtilis decreased up to fourfold from slow to fast <span class="hlt">growth</span>. The translation initiation regions elicited a <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent, differential production of proteins without regulators, hence revealing a unique, hard-coded, <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent mode of regulation. We combined model-based data analyses of transcript and protein abundances genome-wide and revealed that this global regulation is extensively used in B. subtilis We eventually developed a knowledge-based, three-step translation initiation model, experimentally challenged the model predictions and proposed that a <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>-dependent drop in free ribosome abundance accounted for the differential protein production. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25721476','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25721476"><span>Bacterial <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are influenced by cellular characteristics of individual species when immersed in electromagnetic fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tessaro, Lucas W E; Murugan, Nirosha J; Persinger, Michael A</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Previous studies have shown that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) have negative effects on the <span class="hlt">rate</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> of bacteria. In the present study, two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative species were exposed to six magnetic field conditions in broth cultures. Three variations of the 'Thomas' pulsed frequency-modulated pattern; a strong-static "puck" magnet upwards of 5000G in intensity; a pair of these magnets rotating opposite one another at ∼30rpm; and finally a strong dynamic magnetic field generator termed the 'Resonator' with an average intensity of 250μT were used. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was discerned by optical density (OD) measurements every hour at 600nm. ELF-EMF conditions significantly affected the <span class="hlt">rates</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> of the bacterial cultures, while the two static magnetic field conditions were not statistically significant. Most interestingly, the 'Resonator' dynamic magnetic field increased the <span class="hlt">rates</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> of three species (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), while slowing the <span class="hlt">growth</span> of one (Serratia marcescens). We suggest that these effects are due to individual biophysical characteristics of the bacterial species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhCS..90a2046G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhCS..90a2046G"><span>Influence of arterial geometry on a model for <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of atheromas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gessaghi, Valeria C.; Raschi, Marcelo A.; Larreteguy, Axel E.; Perazzo, y. Carlos A.</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>Atherosclerosis is a disease that affects medium and large size arteries and it can partially or totally obstruct blood flow through them. The lack of blood supply to the heart or the brain can cause an infarct or a stroke with fatal consequences or permanent effects. This disease involves the proliferation of cells and the accumulation of fat, cholesterol, cell debris, calcium and other substances in the artery wall. Such accumulation results in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques called atheromas, which may cause the obstruction of the blood flow. Cardiovascular diseases, among which atherosclerosis is the most frequent, are the first cause of death in developed countries. The published works in the subject suggest that hemodynamic forces on arterial walls have influence on the localization, initial development and <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of atheromas. This paper presents a model for this <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, and explores the influence of the bifurcation angle on the blood flow patterns and on the predictions of the model in a simplified carotid artery. The choice of the carotid bifurcation as the subject for this study obeys the fact that atheromas in this artery are often responsible for strokes. Our model predicts a larger initial <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> in the external walls of the bifurcation and smaller <span class="hlt">growth</span> area and lower <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> as the bifurcation angle is increased. The reason for this seems to be the appearance of helical flow patterns as the angle is increased.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27022075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27022075"><span>Measuring selection in human populations using the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> per generation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ewbank, Douglas</p> <p>2016-04-19</p> <p>Estimates of the speed of evolution between generations depend on the association between individual traits and a measure of fitness. The two most frequently used measures of fitness are the net reproduction <span class="hlt">rate</span> and the 1-year <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor implied by the fertility and mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Results based on the two lead to very different results. The reason is that the 1-year <span class="hlt">growth</span> factor is not a measure of change between generations. Therefore, studies of changes between generations should use the amount of <span class="hlt">growth</span> over the length of a generation. This is especially important for studies of human populations because of the long length of generation. In addition, estimates based on a single year's <span class="hlt">growth</span> are overly sensitive to data on individuals who fail to reproduce. The effects of using a generational measure are demonstrated using data from Kenya and Ukraine. These results demonstrate that using a 1-year <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> to measure fitness leads to estimates that understate the <span class="hlt">rate</span> at which evolution changes the characteristics of a human population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11124094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11124094"><span>Radiographic analysis of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of long bones in bustards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naldo, J L; Bailey, T A; Samour, J H</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>A serial radiographic study was conducted on seven houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii), 10 rufous-crested bustard (Eupodotis ruficrista), four white-bellied bustard (Eupodotis senegalensis) and eight kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) chicks to determine the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of long bones and to establish radiographic standards for assessing skeletal maturity. The <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of the tarsometatarsus and tibiotarsus in the bustard species investigated were similar to those in domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) and some long-legged avian species. Maturation of long bones occurred earlier in houbara bustards compared with rufous-crested, white-bellied and kori bustards.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1242486','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1242486"><span>Collaborative Project: Understanding the Chemical Processes tat Affect <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of Freshly Nucleated Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McMurry, Peter; Smuth, James</p> <p>2015-11-12</p> <p>This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to <span class="hlt">growth</span> and the <span class="hlt">rates</span> at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA244119','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA244119"><span>Crack <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> Modeling of a Titanium-Aluminide Alloy Under Thermal-Mechanical Cycling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>induced creep or environmental degradation [36]. This damage can occur on or below the surface of a material. One of the best examples of this is...Hastelloy-X, and B-1900 + hafnium . They were successful in predicting TMF crack <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> to within a factor of five with all the parameters except...superalloys: MAR-M 509, B-1900 + hafnium (Hf), and MAR-M200 + Hf. They concludpd that at low <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>, da/dN depends only on AK, . Out-of-phase TMF</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990CorRe...8..211G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990CorRe...8..211G"><span>Reduced <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of Montastrea annularis following the 1987 1988 coral-bleaching event</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goreau, T. J.; Macfarlane, A. H.</p> <p>1990-04-01</p> <p>Montastrea annularis, the major Caribbean reef building coral, was severely affected by the unprecedented 1987 1988 bleaching event. Most colonies on the fore reef were affected but few were bleached in the back reef. Skeletal <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> of M. annularis populations were measured non-destructively in the field at Discovery Bay, Jamaica, from the peak of bleaching in Nov. 1987 until recovery was almost complete, in May 1988. Unbleached corals grew at normal <span class="hlt">rates</span>. Partially bleached corals survived but skeletal <span class="hlt">growth</span> ceased through this period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA181548','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA181548"><span>Effect of Frequency on Fatigue Crack <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Inconel 718 at High Temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1987-06-01</p> <p>Potential 6 and Displacement Measurements. 2 Fractured Specimens of Inconel 718 Showing 13 Different Cracking*Regions Corresponding to Test Under Different...Conditions. 3 Typical a vs N Experimental Data with the 16 Fitted Linear Regression Line. 4 Fatigue Crack <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rate</span> (da/dN) for 17 Inconel 718 as a...Temperature Air Data are Given. 5 Time <span class="hlt">Rate</span> of Crack <span class="hlt">Growth</span>, (da/dt) for 18 Inconel 718 as a Function of Frequency at Kmax = 40 MPa-ml/ 2 , R = 0.1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19412636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19412636"><span>Periodic matrix population models: <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span>, basic reproduction number, and entropy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bacaër, Nicolas</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>This article considers three different aspects of periodic matrix population models. First, a formula for the sensitivity analysis of the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> lambda is obtained that is simpler than the one obtained by Caswell and Trevisan. Secondly, the formula for the basic reproduction number R0 in a constant environment is generalized to the case of a periodic environment. Some inequalities between lambda and R0 proved by Cushing and Zhou are also generalized to the periodic case. Finally, we add some remarks on Demetrius' notion of evolutionary entropy H and its relationship to the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> lambda in the periodic case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22025541','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22025541"><span><span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and start current in Smith-Purcell free-electron lasers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, D.; Imasaki, K.; Hangyo, M.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Yang, Z.; Wei, Y.; Miyamoto, S.; Asakawa, M. R.</p> <p>2012-05-07</p> <p>This letter reports a theory to calculate the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and start current of a Smith-Purcell free-electron laser, which is a promising radiation source in the terahertz domain. A two-dimensional model was used to investigate the interaction between a sheet electron beam and the surface wave above a lamellar grating. After deriving the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> from the dispersion equation, the start current was carefully estimated by considering the power flow above the grating. The agreement between the predictions of our theory and the results from the particle-in-cell simulations is acceptable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24834324','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24834324"><span>High <span class="hlt">rates</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> recorded for hawksbill sea turtles in Anegada, British Virgin Islands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hawkes, Lucy A; McGowan, Andrew; Broderick, Annette C; Gore, Shannon; Wheatley, Damon; White, Jim; Witt, Matthew J; Godley, Brendan J</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Management of species of conservation concern requires knowledge of demographic parameters, such as <span class="hlt">rates</span> of recruitment, survival, and <span class="hlt">growth</span>. In the Caribbean, hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) have been historically exploited in huge numbers to satisfy trade in their shells and meat. In the present study, we estimated <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of juvenile hawksbill turtles around Anegada, British Virgin Islands, using capture-mark-recapture of 59 turtles over periods of up to 649 days. Turtles were recaptured up to six times, having moved up to 5.9 km from the release location. Across all sizes, turtles grew at an average <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 9.3 cm year(-1) (range 2.3-20.3 cm year(-1)), and gained mass at an average of 3.9 kg year(-1) (range 850 g-16.1 kg year(-1)). Carapace length was a significant predictor of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and mass gain, but there was no relationship between either variable and sea surface temperature. These are among the fastest <span class="hlt">rates</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> reported for this species, with seven turtles growing at a <span class="hlt">rate</span> that would increase their body size by more than half per year (51-69% increase in body length). This study also demonstrates the importance of shallow water reef systems for the developmental habitat for juvenile hawksbill turtles. Although <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for posthatching turtles in the pelagic, and turtles larger than 61 cm, are not known for this population, the implications of this study are that Caribbean hawksbill turtles in some areas may reach body sizes suggesting sexual maturity in less time than previously considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4020687','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4020687"><span>High <span class="hlt">rates</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> recorded for hawksbill sea turtles in Anegada, British Virgin Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hawkes, Lucy A; McGowan, Andrew; Broderick, Annette C; Gore, Shannon; Wheatley, Damon; White, Jim; Witt, Matthew J; Godley, Brendan J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Management of species of conservation concern requires knowledge of demographic parameters, such as <span class="hlt">rates</span> of recruitment, survival, and <span class="hlt">growth</span>. In the Caribbean, hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) have been historically exploited in huge numbers to satisfy trade in their shells and meat. In the present study, we estimated <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of juvenile hawksbill turtles around Anegada, British Virgin Islands, using capture–mark–recapture of 59 turtles over periods of up to 649 days. Turtles were recaptured up to six times, having moved up to 5.9 km from the release location. Across all sizes, turtles grew at an average <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 9.3 cm year−1 (range 2.3–20.3 cm year−1), and gained mass at an average of 3.9 kg year−1 (range 850 g–16.1 kg year−1). Carapace length was a significant predictor of <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> and mass gain, but there was no relationship between either variable and sea surface temperature. These are among the fastest <span class="hlt">rates</span> of <span class="hlt">growth</span> reported for this species, with seven turtles growing at a <span class="hlt">rate</span> that would increase their body size by more than half per year (51–69% increase in body length). This study also demonstrates the importance of shallow water reef systems for the developmental habitat for juvenile hawksbill turtles. Although <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for posthatching turtles in the pelagic, and turtles larger than 61 cm, are not known for this population, the implications of this study are that Caribbean hawksbill turtles in some areas may reach body sizes suggesting sexual maturity in less time than previously considered. PMID:24834324</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24901349','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24901349"><span>Survival, recruitment, and population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of an important mesopredator: the northern raccoon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Troyer, Elizabeth M; Cameron Devitt, Susan E; Sunquist, Melvin E; Goswami, Varun R; Oli, Madan K</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores) are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor), using Pradel's temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936-0.960) than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893-0.920), while monthly recruitment <span class="hlt">rate</span> was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078-0.106) than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042-0.067). Finally, monthly realized population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996-1.004), indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/458308','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/458308"><span>Comparison of an Ampelisca abdita <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> test with other standard amphipod sediment toxicity tests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schafer, K.; Weston, D.P.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Amphipod crustaceans are often used to measure the toxicity of bulk sediments. Acute lethal bioassays are commonly employed, but this study investigated the potential for using a chronic <span class="hlt">growth</span> bioassay with Ampelisca abdita. A potential advantage of this method is that the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> could be a more sensitive measure of contamination than mortality. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for A. abdita in sediments spiked with cadmium and crude oil were compared to mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> in A. abdita, Eohaustorius estuaries, and Rhepoxynius abronius in sediments with the same concentrations of contaminants. A. abdita was more sensitive to cadmium than the other two species. For crude oil, there was a significant shift in size distribution from the control even at concentrations as low as 150 mg/kg of oil. The standard acute lethal tests for all species, on the other hand, did not show significant mortality until at least 1,600 mg/kg. The results confirm that <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> are a more sensitive indicator of toxicity, and to at least the three contaminants tested, A. abdita is as sensitive as E. estuarius and R. abronius. This study also confirmed the reported high mortality <span class="hlt">rates</span> of E. estuaries in San Francisco Bay sediments. The causes of this high mortality are unknown but give further reason for using A. abdita for toxicity tests in this region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990109650&hterms=average+temperature+over+time&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Daverage%2Btemperature%2Bover%2Btime','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990109650&hterms=average+temperature+over+time&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Daverage%2Btemperature%2Bover%2Btime"><span>Measurement of Temperature Fluctuations and Microscopic <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in a Silicon Floating Zone on TEXUS36</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Croell, Arne; Schweizer, Markus; Dold, P.; Kaiser, Th.; Benz, K. W.; Lichtensteiger, M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Several earlier (micro)g experiments have shown that time-dependent thermocapillary (Marangoni) convection is the major cause for the formation of dopant striations in floating-zone grown semiconductor crystals, at least in small-scale systems not employing RF heating. To quantify this correlation, a silicon floating-zone experiment was performed on the TEXUS36 flight (February 7, 1 998) in the monoellipsoid mirror furnace TEM02-ELLI. During the experiment, temperature fluctuations in the silicon melt zone and the microscopic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> were simultaneously measured. Temperature fluctuations of 0.5 C - 0.7 C with main frequencies between 0.1 Hz and 0.3 Hz were detectable. The microscopic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> fluctuated considerably around the average <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rate</span> of 1 mm/min: <span class="hlt">rates</span> from 4mm/min to negative values (backmelting) were observed. Dopant striations are clearly visible in the Sb-doped crystal. The frequencies associated with the dopant inhomogeneities correspond quite well with those of the temperature fluctuations and microscopic <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. 3D numerical simulations were performed to predict the optimum position of the temperature sensor, to evaluate characteristic temperature amplitudes and frequencies, and to give insight into the instability mechanisms of Maran-goni convection in this configuration. The simulations were in good agreement with the experimental values, showing temperature fluctuations with frequencies f? 0.25 Hz and amplitudes up to 1.8 C at a position equivalent to that of the sensor tip in the experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM31E4248M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM31E4248M"><span>Plasma Instability <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">Rates</span> in the F-Region Cusp Ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moen, J. I.; Daabakk, Y.; Oksavik, K.; Clausen, L.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Abe, T.; Saito, Y.; Baddeley, L. J.; Lorentzen, D. A.; Sigernes, F.; Yeoman, T. K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>There are at least two different micro-instability processes that applies to the F-region cusp/polar cap ionosphere. These are the Gradient Drift Instability (GDI) and the Kelvin Helmholtz Instability (KHI). Due to space weather effects on radio communication and satellite signals it is of practical interest to assess the relative importance of these two instability modes and to quantify their <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The Investigation of Cusp Irregularities (ICI) rocket program has been developed to investigate these plasma instabilities and formation scintillation irregularities. High resolution measurements are critical to get realistic quantities on the <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span>. The results achieved so far demonstrates that cusp ionosphere precipitation can give rise to km scale plasma structures on which grow <span class="hlt">rates</span> are down to a few tens of seconds compared to earlier measures of ten minutes based on ground observations. This has to do with the spatial resolution required for these measurements. <span class="hlt">Growth</span> <span class="hlt">rates</span> for the KHI instability is found to be of the same order, which is consistent with <span class="hlt">growth</span> <span class=