Science.gov

Sample records for iucn red list

  1. Scientific Foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Keith, David A.; Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M.; Nicholson, Emily; Aapala, Kaisu; Alonso, Alfonso; Asmussen, Marianne; Bachman, Steven; Basset, Alberto; Barrow, Edmund G.; Benson, John S.; Bishop, Melanie J.; Bonifacio, Ronald; Brooks, Thomas M.; Burgman, Mark A.; Comer, Patrick; Comín, Francisco A.; Essl, Franz; Faber-Langendoen, Don; Fairweather, Peter G.; Holdaway, Robert J.; Jennings, Michael; Kingsford, Richard T.; Lester, Rebecca E.; Nally, Ralph Mac; McCarthy, Michael A.; Moat, Justin; Oliveira-Miranda, María A.; Pisanu, Phil; Poulin, Brigitte; Regan, Tracey J.; Riecken, Uwe; Spalding, Mark D.; Zambrano-Martínez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of risks to biodiversity is needed for planning action to slow current rates of decline and secure ecosystem services for future human use. Although the IUCN Red List criteria provide an effective assessment protocol for species, a standard global assessment of risks to higher levels of biodiversity is currently limited. In 2008, IUCN initiated development of risk assessment criteria to support a global Red List of ecosystems. We present a new conceptual model for ecosystem risk assessment founded on a synthesis of relevant ecological theories. To support the model, we review key elements of ecosystem definition and introduce the concept of ecosystem collapse, an analogue of species extinction. The model identifies four distributional and functional symptoms of ecosystem risk as a basis for assessment criteria: A) rates of decline in ecosystem distribution; B) restricted distributions with continuing declines or threats; C) rates of environmental (abiotic) degradation; and D) rates of disruption to biotic processes. A fifth criterion, E) quantitative estimates of the risk of ecosystem collapse, enables integrated assessment of multiple processes and provides a conceptual anchor for the other criteria. We present the theoretical rationale for the construction and interpretation of each criterion. The assessment protocol and threat categories mirror those of the IUCN Red List of species. A trial of the protocol on terrestrial, subterranean, freshwater and marine ecosystems from around the world shows that its concepts are workable and its outcomes are robust, that required data are available, and that results are consistent with assessments carried out by local experts and authorities. The new protocol provides a consistent, practical and theoretically grounded framework for establishing a systematic Red List of the world’s ecosystems. This will complement the Red List of species and strengthen global capacity to report on and monitor the status of

  2. Scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List of ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Keith, David A; Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M; Nicholson, Emily; Aapala, Kaisu; Alonso, Alfonso; Asmussen, Marianne; Bachman, Steven; Basset, Alberto; Barrow, Edmund G; Benson, John S; Bishop, Melanie J; Bonifacio, Ronald; Brooks, Thomas M; Burgman, Mark A; Comer, Patrick; Comín, Francisco A; Essl, Franz; Faber-Langendoen, Don; Fairweather, Peter G; Holdaway, Robert J; Jennings, Michael; Kingsford, Richard T; Lester, Rebecca E; Mac Nally, Ralph; McCarthy, Michael A; Moat, Justin; Oliveira-Miranda, María A; Pisanu, Phil; Poulin, Brigitte; Regan, Tracey J; Riecken, Uwe; Spalding, Mark D; Zambrano-Martínez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of risks to biodiversity is needed for planning action to slow current rates of decline and secure ecosystem services for future human use. Although the IUCN Red List criteria provide an effective assessment protocol for species, a standard global assessment of risks to higher levels of biodiversity is currently limited. In 2008, IUCN initiated development of risk assessment criteria to support a global Red List of ecosystems. We present a new conceptual model for ecosystem risk assessment founded on a synthesis of relevant ecological theories. To support the model, we review key elements of ecosystem definition and introduce the concept of ecosystem collapse, an analogue of species extinction. The model identifies four distributional and functional symptoms of ecosystem risk as a basis for assessment criteria: A) rates of decline in ecosystem distribution; B) restricted distributions with continuing declines or threats; C) rates of environmental (abiotic) degradation; and D) rates of disruption to biotic processes. A fifth criterion, E) quantitative estimates of the risk of ecosystem collapse, enables integrated assessment of multiple processes and provides a conceptual anchor for the other criteria. We present the theoretical rationale for the construction and interpretation of each criterion. The assessment protocol and threat categories mirror those of the IUCN Red List of species. A trial of the protocol on terrestrial, subterranean, freshwater and marine ecosystems from around the world shows that its concepts are workable and its outcomes are robust, that required data are available, and that results are consistent with assessments carried out by local experts and authorities. The new protocol provides a consistent, practical and theoretically grounded framework for establishing a systematic Red List of the world's ecosystems. This will complement the Red List of species and strengthen global capacity to report on and monitor the status of

  3. A practical guide to the application of the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems criteria

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Keith, David A.; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M.; Murray, Nicholas J.; Nicholson, Emily; Regan, Tracey J.; Miller, Rebecca M.; Barrow, Edmund G.; Bland, Lucie M.; Boe, Kaia; Brooks, Thomas M.; Oliveira-Miranda, María A.; Spalding, Mark; Wit, Piet

    2015-01-01

    The newly developed IUCN Red List of Ecosystems is part of a growing toolbox for assessing risks to biodiversity, which addresses ecosystems and their functioning. The Red List of Ecosystems standard allows systematic assessment of all freshwater, marine, terrestrial and subterranean ecosystem types in terms of their global risk of collapse. In addition, the Red List of Ecosystems categories and criteria provide a technical base for assessments of ecosystem status at the regional, national, or subnational level. While the Red List of Ecosystems criteria were designed to be widely applicable by scientists and practitioners, guidelines are needed to ensure they are implemented in a standardized manner to reduce epistemic uncertainties and allow robust comparisons among ecosystems and over time. We review the intended application of the Red List of Ecosystems assessment process, summarize ‘best-practice’ methods for ecosystem assessments and outline approaches to ensure operational rigour of assessments. The Red List of Ecosystems will inform priority setting for ecosystem types worldwide, and strengthen capacity to report on progress towards the Aichi Targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. When integrated with other IUCN knowledge products, such as the World Database of Protected Areas/Protected Planet, Key Biodiversity Areas and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the Red List of Ecosystems will contribute to providing the most complete global measure of the status of biodiversity yet achieved. PMID:25561664

  4. A practical guide to the application of the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems criteria.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Keith, David A; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M; Murray, Nicholas J; Nicholson, Emily; Regan, Tracey J; Miller, Rebecca M; Barrow, Edmund G; Bland, Lucie M; Boe, Kaia; Brooks, Thomas M; Oliveira-Miranda, María A; Spalding, Mark; Wit, Piet

    2015-02-19

    The newly developed IUCN Red List of Ecosystems is part of a growing toolbox for assessing risks to biodiversity, which addresses ecosystems and their functioning. The Red List of Ecosystems standard allows systematic assessment of all freshwater, marine, terrestrial and subterranean ecosystem types in terms of their global risk of collapse. In addition, the Red List of Ecosystems categories and criteria provide a technical base for assessments of ecosystem status at the regional, national, or subnational level. While the Red List of Ecosystems criteria were designed to be widely applicable by scientists and practitioners, guidelines are needed to ensure they are implemented in a standardized manner to reduce epistemic uncertainties and allow robust comparisons among ecosystems and over time. We review the intended application of the Red List of Ecosystems assessment process, summarize 'best-practice' methods for ecosystem assessments and outline approaches to ensure operational rigour of assessments. The Red List of Ecosystems will inform priority setting for ecosystem types worldwide, and strengthen capacity to report on progress towards the Aichi Targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. When integrated with other IUCN knowledge products, such as the World Database of Protected Areas/Protected Planet, Key Biodiversity Areas and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the Red List of Ecosystems will contribute to providing the most complete global measure of the status of biodiversity yet achieved.

  5. Clarifying misconceptions of extinction risk assessment with the IUCN Red List

    PubMed Central

    Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Gärdenfors, Ulf; Keith, David A.; Punt, André E.; Regan, Helen M.; Böhm, Monika; Hedges, Simon; Seddon, Mary; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffmann, Michael; Bachman, Steven P.; Akçakaya, H. Reşit

    2016-01-01

    The identification of species at risk of extinction is a central goal of conservation. As the use of data compiled for IUCN Red List assessments expands, a number of misconceptions regarding the purpose, application and use of the IUCN Red List categories and criteria have arisen. We outline five such classes of misconception; the most consequential drive proposals for adapted versions of the criteria, rendering assessments among species incomparable. A key challenge for the future will be to recognize the point where understanding has developed so markedly that it is time for the next generation of the Red List criteria. We do not believe we are there yet but, recognizing the need for scrutiny and continued development of Red Listing, conclude by suggesting areas where additional research could be valuable in improving the understanding of extinction risk among species. PMID:27072401

  6. Establishing IUCN Red List criteria for threatened ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Ash, Neville; Benson, John; Boucher, Timothy; Brown, Claire; Burgess, Neil D; Collen, Ben; Jennings, Michael; Keith, David A; Nicholson, Emily; Revenga, Carmen; Reyers, Belinda; Rouget, Mathieu; Smith, Tammy; Spalding, Mark; Taber, Andrew; Walpole, Matt; Zager, Irene; Zamin, Tara

    2011-02-01

    The potential for conservation of individual species has been greatly advanced by the International Union for Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) development of objective, repeatable, and transparent criteria for assessing extinction risk that explicitly separate risk assessment from priority setting. At the IV World Conservation Congress in 2008, the process began to develop and implement comparable global standards for ecosystems. A working group established by the IUCN has begun formulating a system of quantitative categories and criteria, analogous to those used for species, for assigning levels of threat to ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels. A final system will require definitions of ecosystems; quantification of ecosystem status; identification of the stages of degradation and loss of ecosystems; proxy measures of risk (criteria); classification thresholds for these criteria; and standardized methods for performing assessments. The system will need to reflect the degree and rate of change in an ecosystem's extent, composition, structure, and function, and have its conceptual roots in ecological theory and empirical research. On the basis of these requirements and the hypothesis that ecosystem risk is a function of the risk of its component species, we propose a set of four criteria: recent declines in distribution or ecological function, historical total loss in distribution or ecological function, small distribution combined with decline, or very small distribution. Most work has focused on terrestrial ecosystems, but comparable thresholds and criteria for freshwater and marine ecosystems are also needed. These are the first steps in an international consultation process that will lead to a unified proposal to be presented at the next World Conservation Congress in 2012.

  7. Conservation threats and the phylogenetic utility of IUCN Red List rankings in Incilius toads.

    PubMed

    Schachat, Sandra R; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Mendelson, Joseph R

    2016-02-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of extinction threat is an emerging tool in the field of conservation. However, there are problems with the methods and data as commonly used. Phylogenetic sampling usually extends to the level of family or genus, but International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) rankings are available only for individual species, and, although different species within a taxonomic group may have the same IUCN rank, the species may have been ranked as such for different reasons. Therefore, IUCN rank may not reflect evolutionary history and thus may not be appropriate for use in a phylogenetic context. To be used appropriately, threat-risk data should reflect the cause of extinction threat rather than the IUCN threat ranking. In a case study of the toad genus Incilius, with phylogenetic sampling at the species level (so that the resolution of the phylogeny matches character data from the IUCN Red List), we analyzed causes of decline and IUCN threat rankings by calculating metrics of phylogenetic signal (such as Fritz and Purvis' D). We also analyzed the extent to which cause of decline and threat ranking overlap by calculating phylogenetic correlation between these 2 types of character data. Incilius species varied greatly in both threat ranking and cause of decline; this variability would be lost at a coarser taxonomic resolution. We found far more phylogenetic signal, likely correlated with evolutionary history, for causes of decline than for IUCN threat ranking. Individual causes of decline and IUCN threat rankings were largely uncorrelated on the phylogeny. Our results demonstrate the importance of character selection and taxonomic resolution when extinction threat is analyzed in a phylogenetic context.

  8. Establishing IUCN Red List Criteria for Threatened Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Ash, Neville; Benson, John; Boucher, Timothy; Brown, Claire; Burgess, Neil D; Collen, Ben; Jennings, Michael; Keith, David A; Nicholson, Emily; Revenga, Carmen; Reyers, Belinda; Rouget, Mathieu; Smith, Tammy; Spalding, Mark; Taber, Andrew; Walpole, Matt; Zager, Irene; Zamin, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The potential for conservation of individual species has been greatly advanced by the International Union for Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) development of objective, repeatable, and transparent criteria for assessing extinction risk that explicitly separate risk assessment from priority setting. At the IV World Conservation Congress in 2008, the process began to develop and implement comparable global standards for ecosystems. A working group established by the IUCN has begun formulating a system of quantitative categories and criteria, analogous to those used for species, for assigning levels of threat to ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels. A final system will require definitions of ecosystems; quantification of ecosystem status; identification of the stages of degradation and loss of ecosystems; proxy measures of risk (criteria); classification thresholds for these criteria; and standardized methods for performing assessments. The system will need to reflect the degree and rate of change in an ecosystem's extent, composition, structure, and function, and have its conceptual roots in ecological theory and empirical research. On the basis of these requirements and the hypothesis that ecosystem risk is a function of the risk of its component species, we propose a set of four criteria: recent declines in distribution or ecological function, historical total loss in distribution or ecological function, small distribution combined with decline, or very small distribution. Most work has focused on terrestrial ecosystems, but comparable thresholds and criteria for freshwater and marine ecosystems are also needed. These are the first steps in an international consultation process that will lead to a unified proposal to be presented at the next World Conservation Congress in 2012. Establecimiento de Criterios para la Lista Roja de UICN de Ecosistemas Amenazados Resumen El potencial para la conservación de muchas especies ha avanzado enormemente

  9. Building on IUCN regional red lists to produce lists of species of conservation priority: a model with Irish bees.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Una; Murray, Tomás E; Paxton, Robert J; Brown, Mark J F

    2007-10-01

    A World Conservation Union (IUCN) regional red list is an objective assessment of regional extinction risk and is not the same as a list of conservation priority species. Recent research reveals the widespread, but incorrect, assumption that IUCN Red List categories represent a hierarchical list of priorities for conservation action. We developed a simple eight-step priority-setting process and applied it to the conservation of bees in Ireland. Our model is based on the national red list but also considers the global significance of the national population; the conservation status at global, continental, and regional levels; key biological, economic, and societal factors; and is compatible with existing conservation agreements and legislation. Throughout Ireland, almost one-third of the bee fauna is threatened (30 of 100 species), but our methodology resulted in a reduced list of only 17 priority species. We did not use the priority species list to broadly categorize species to the conservation action required; instead, we indicated the individual action required for all threatened, near-threatened, and data-deficient species on the national red list based on the IUCN's conservation-actions template file. Priority species lists will strongly influence prioritization of conservation actions at national levels, but action should not be exclusive to listed species. In addition, all species on this list will not necessarily require immediate action. Our method is transparent, reproducible, and readily applicable to other taxa and regions.

  10. Detecting extinction risk from climate change by IUCN Red List criteria.

    PubMed

    Keith, David A; Mahony, Michael; Hines, Harry; Elith, Jane; Regan, Tracey J; Baumgartner, John B; Hunter, David; Heard, Geoffrey W; Mitchell, Nicola J; Parris, Kirsten M; Penman, Trent; Scheele, Ben; Simpson, Christopher C; Tingley, Reid; Tracy, Christopher R; West, Matt; Akçakaya, H Resit

    2014-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is a key threat to global biodiversity. To inform strategic actions aimed at conserving biodiversity as climate changes, conservation planners need early warning of the risks faced by different species. The IUCN Red List criteria for threatened species are widely acknowledged as useful risk assessment tools for informing conservation under constraints imposed by limited data. However, doubts have been expressed about the ability of the criteria to detect risks imposed by potentially slow-acting threats such as climate change, particularly because criteria addressing rates of population decline are assessed over time scales as short as 10 years. We used spatially explicit stochastic population models and dynamic species distribution models projected to future climates to determine how long before extinction a species would become eligible for listing as threatened based on the IUCN Red List criteria. We focused on a short-lived frog species (Assa darlingtoni) chosen specifically to represent potential weaknesses in the criteria to allow detailed consideration of the analytical issues and to develop an approach for wider application. The criteria were more sensitive to climate change than previously anticipated; lead times between initial listing in a threatened category and predicted extinction varied from 40 to 80 years, depending on data availability. We attributed this sensitivity primarily to the ensemble properties of the criteria that assess contrasting symptoms of extinction risk. Nevertheless, we recommend the robustness of the criteria warrants further investigation across species with contrasting life histories and patterns of decline. The adequacy of these lead times for early warning depends on practicalities of environmental policy and management, bureaucratic or political inertia, and the anticipated species response times to management actions.

  11. Factors influencing IUCN threat levels to orchids across Europe on the basis of national red lists.

    PubMed

    Kull, Tiiu; Selgis, Ulvi; Peciña, Miguel Villoslada; Metsare, Mirjam; Ilves, Aigi; Tali, Kadri; Sepp, Kalev; Kull, Kalevi; Shefferson, Richard P

    2016-09-01

    The red list has become a ubiquitous tool in the conservation of species. We analyzed contemporary trends in the threat levels of European orchids, in total 166 species characterized in 27 national red lists, in relation to their reproductive biology and growth form, distribution area, and land cover where they occur. We found that species in central Europe are more threatened than those in the northern, southern, or Atlantic parts of Europe, while species were least threatened in southern Europe. Nectarless and tuberous species are significantly more threatened than nectariferous and rhizomatous taxa. Land cover (ratios of artificial land cover, area of pastures and grasslands, forests and inland wetlands) also significantly impacted the threat level. A bigger share of artificial land cover increases threat, and a bigger share of pasture and grassland lowers it. Unexpectedly, a bigger share of inland wetland area in a country increased threat level, which we believe may be due to the threatened nature of wetlands themselves relative to other natural land cover types. Finally, species occurring in multiple countries are on average less threatened. We believe that large-scale analysis of current IUCN national red lists as based on their specific categories and criteria may particularly inform the development of coordinated regional or larger-scale management strategies. In this case, we advocate for a coordinated EU protection and restoration strategy particularly aimed at central European orchids and those occurring in wetland area.

  12. Conservation Status of the Australian Humpback Dolphin (Sousa sahulensis) Using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

    PubMed

    Parra, Guido J; Cagnazzi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Australian humpback dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) were recently described as a new species endemic to northern Australia and potentially southern New Guinea. We assessed the species conservation status against IUCN Red List Criteria using available information on their biology, ecology and threatening processes. Knowledge of population sizes and trends across the species range is lacking. Recent genetic studies indicate Australian humpback dolphins live in small and relatively isolated populations with limited gene flow among them. The available abundance estimates range from 14 to 207 individuals and no population studied to date is estimated to contain more than 104 mature individuals. The Potential Biological Removal method indicates populations are vulnerable to even low rates of anthropogenic mortality. Habitat degradation and loss is ongoing and expected to increase across the species range in Australia, and a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is anticipated. Considering the available evidence and following a precautionary approach, we considered this species as Vulnerable under IUCN criterion C2a(i) because the total number of mature individuals is plausibly fewer than 10,000, an inferred continuing decline due to cumulative impacts, and each of the populations studied to date is estimated to contain fewer than 1000 mature individuals. Ongoing research efforts and recently developed research strategies and priorities will provide valuable information towards the future conservation and management of Australian humpback dolphins.

  13. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: an assessment of coral reef fishes in the US Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgliczynski, B. J.; Williams, I. D.; Schroeder, R. E.; Nadon, M. O.; Richards, B. L.; Sandin, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    Widespread declines among many coral reef fisheries have led scientists and managers to become increasingly concerned over the extinction risk facing some species. To aid in assessing the extinction risks facing coral reef fishes, large-scale censuses of the abundance and distribution of individual species are critically important. We use fisheries-independent data collected as part of the NOAA Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program from 2000 to 2009 to describe the range and density across the US Pacific of coral reef fishes included on The International Union for the Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) 2011 Red List of Threatened Species. Forty-five species, including sharks, rays, groupers, humphead wrasse ( Cheilinus undulatus), and bumphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum), included on the IUCN List, were recorded in the US Pacific Islands. Most species were generally rare in the US Pacific with the exception of a few species, principally small groupers and reef sharks. The greatest diversity and densities of IUCN-listed fishes were recorded at remote and uninhabited islands of the Pacific Remote Island Areas; in general, lower densities were observed at reefs of inhabited islands. Our findings complement IUCN assessment efforts, emphasize the efficacy of large-scale assessment and monitoring efforts in providing quantitative data on reef fish assemblages, and highlight the importance of protecting populations at remote and uninhabited islands where some species included on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species can be observed in abundance.

  14. The need to rationalize and prioritize threatening processes used to determine threat status in the IUCN Red List.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Matt W

    2009-12-01

    Thorough evaluation has made the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List the most widely used and accepted authority on the conservation status of biodiversity. Although the system used to determine risk of extinction is rigorously and objectively applied, the list of threatening processes affecting a species is far more subjectively determined and has not had adequate review. I reviewed the threats listed in the IUCN Red List for randomly selected groups within the three most threatened orders of mammals: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, and Primates. These groups are taxonomically related and often ecologically similar, so I expected they would suffer relatively similar threats. Hominoid primates and all other terrestrial fauna faced similar threats, except for bovine artiodactyls and large, predatory carnivores, which faced significantly different threats. Although the status of bovines and hominoids and the number of threats affecting them were correlated, this was not the case for large carnivores. Most notable, however, was the great variation in the threats affecting individual members of each group. For example, the endangered European bison (Bison bonasus) has no threatening processes listed for it, and the lion (Panthera leo) is the only large predator listed as threatened with extinction by civil war. Some threatening processes appear spurious for the conservation of the species, whereas other seemingly important factors are not recorded as threats. The subjective nature of listing threatening processes, via expert opinion, results in substantial biases that may be allayed by independent peer review, use of technical manuals, consensus among multiple assessors, incorporation of probability modeling via decision-tree analysis, and adequate coordination among evaluators. The primary focus should be on species-level threats rather than population-level threats because the IUCN Red List is a global assessment and smaller-scale threats are more

  15. By-Catch Impacts in Fisheries: Utilizing the IUCN Red List Categories for Enhanced Product Level Assessment in Seafood LCAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornborg, Sara; Svensson, Mikael; Nilsson, Per; Ziegler, Friederike

    2013-11-01

    Overexploitation of fish stocks causes concern not only to fisheries managers and conservation biologists, but also engages seafood consumers; more integrated product perspectives would be useful. This could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA); however, further complements of present LCA methodology are needed to assess seafood production, one being by-catch impacts. We studied the scientific rationale behind using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ for assessment of impacts relating to fish species’ vulnerability. For this purpose, the current Red List status of marine fish in Sweden was compared to the advice given in fisheries as well as key life history traits known to indicate sensitivity to high fishing pressure. Further, we quantified the amount of threatened fish (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered) that was discarded in demersal trawl fisheries on the Swedish west coast. The results showed that not only did the national Red List of marine fish have a high consistency with advice given in fisheries and indices of vulnerability, the different fishing practices studied were also found to have vastly different amounts of threatened fish discarded per kilo landing. The suggested approach is therefore promising as a carrier of aggregated information on the extent to which seafood production interferes with conservation priorities, in particular for species lacking adequate stock assessment. To enable extensive product comparisons, it is important to increase coverage of fish species by the global IUCN Red List, and to reconsider the appropriate assessment unit (species or stocks) in order to avoid false alarms.

  16. By-catch impacts in fisheries: utilizing the IUCN red list categories for enhanced product level assessment in seafood LCAs.

    PubMed

    Hornborg, Sara; Svensson, Mikael; Nilsson, Per; Ziegler, Friederike

    2013-11-01

    Overexploitation of fish stocks causes concern not only to fisheries managers and conservation biologists, but also engages seafood consumers; more integrated product perspectives would be useful. This could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA); however, further complements of present LCA methodology are needed to assess seafood production, one being by-catch impacts. We studied the scientific rationale behind using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ for assessment of impacts relating to fish species' vulnerability. For this purpose, the current Red List status of marine fish in Sweden was compared to the advice given in fisheries as well as key life history traits known to indicate sensitivity to high fishing pressure. Further, we quantified the amount of threatened fish (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered) that was discarded in demersal trawl fisheries on the Swedish west coast. The results showed that not only did the national Red List of marine fish have a high consistency with advice given in fisheries and indices of vulnerability, the different fishing practices studied were also found to have vastly different amounts of threatened fish discarded per kilo landing. The suggested approach is therefore promising as a carrier of aggregated information on the extent to which seafood production interferes with conservation priorities, in particular for species lacking adequate stock assessment. To enable extensive product comparisons, it is important to increase coverage of fish species by the global IUCN Red List, and to reconsider the appropriate assessment unit (species or stocks) in order to avoid false alarms.

  17. Assessment of the Conservation Status of the Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphin (Sousa plumbea) Using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

    PubMed

    Braulik, Gill T; Findlay, Ken; Cerchio, Salvatore; Baldwin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Indian Ocean humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) are obligate shallow-water dolphins that occur exclusively in the near-shore waters of the Indian Ocean, from South Africa to the Bay of Bengal. They have a narrow habitat preference, restricted distribution and do not appear very abundant across any part of their range. There is no estimate of total species abundance; all populations that have been quantitatively evaluated have been small in size, usually fewer than 200 individuals. Fishing, dredging, land reclamation, construction blasting, port and harbour construction, pollution, boat traffic and other coastal development activities all occur, or are concentrated within, humpback dolphin habitat and threaten their survival. Although data are far from sufficient to make a rigorous quantitative assessment of population trends for this species, the scale of threats is large enough over a significant enough portion of the range to suspect or infer a decline of at least 50% over three generations, which qualifies it for listing on the IUCN Red List as Endangered. The issue primarily responsible is incidental mortality in fisheries, but the loss and degradation of habitat is likely a contributing factor. None of the threats have been adequately addressed in any part of the species' range, even though threat levels are increasing virtually everywhere.

  18. Re-assessment of the Conservation Status of the Atlantic Humpback Dolphin, Sousa teuszii (), Using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

    PubMed

    Collins, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic humpback dolphin (Sousa teuszii) is an obligate shallow water dolphin that is endemic to the western coasts of Africa, ranging from Western Sahara to Angola. The species occurs exclusively in a limited number of near-shore habitats, a tendency that routinely exposes it to a suite of lethal and deleterious anthropogenic threats. These include habitat degradation, accidental capture in artisanal fishing nets, and hunting for use as food and bait. The species also competes with rapidly expanding human populations for coastal resources in some of the poorest countries on Earth. Data for most aspects of the species' ecology are sparse, but S. teuszii is considered by most qualified observers to be rare and greatly threatened. A lack of appropriate survey data precludes a quantitative assessment of population trends and status. Most populations for which any data are available are considered to be extremely small, numbering in the tens or low hundreds of individuals. The available published estimates suggest that the total population likely falls below 3000 individuals. Declines in abundance have been observed or are suspected for each population and will continue, given projected expansions of identified threats that affect most of the species' known range, and a corresponding lack of appropriate management actions. The apparent scale of threats, the presumed isolation of most populations, and a lack of directed conservation efforts in most areas suggest that the species qualifies for a listing of Critically Endangered (under criteria A3cd) on the IUCN Red List.

  19. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K; Jones, Owen R

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  20. Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants.

    PubMed

    Brummitt, Neil A; Bachman, Steven P; Griffiths-Lee, Janine; Lutz, Maiko; Moat, Justin F; Farjon, Aljos; Donaldson, John S; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Meagher, Thomas R; Albuquerque, Sara; Aletrari, Elina; Andrews, A Kei; Atchison, Guy; Baloch, Elisabeth; Barlozzini, Barbara; Brunazzi, Alice; Carretero, Julia; Celesti, Marco; Chadburn, Helen; Cianfoni, Eduardo; Cockel, Chris; Coldwell, Vanessa; Concetti, Benedetta; Contu, Sara; Crook, Vicki; Dyson, Philippa; Gardiner, Lauren; Ghanim, Nadia; Greene, Hannah; Groom, Alice; Harker, Ruth; Hopkins, Della; Khela, Sonia; Lakeman-Fraser, Poppy; Lindon, Heather; Lockwood, Helen; Loftus, Christine; Lombrici, Debora; Lopez-Poveda, Lucia; Lyon, James; Malcolm-Tompkins, Patricia; McGregor, Kirsty; Moreno, Laura; Murray, Linda; Nazar, Keara; Power, Emily; Quiton Tuijtelaars, Mireya; Salter, Ruth; Segrott, Robert; Thacker, Hannah; Thomas, Leighton J; Tingvoll, Sarah; Watkinson, Gemma; Wojtaszekova, Katerina; Nic Lughadha, Eimear M

    2015-01-01

    Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly known, and the rate of new assessments of extinction risk for individual plant species approximates the rate at which new plant species are described. Thus the question 'How threatened are plants?' is still very difficult to answer accurately. While completing assessments for each species of plant remains a distant prospect, by assessing a randomly selected sample of species the Sampled Red List Index for Plants gives, for the first time, an accurate view of how threatened plants are across the world. It represents the first key phase of ongoing efforts to monitor the status of the world's plants. More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources. Gymnosperms (e.g. conifers and cycads) are the most threatened group, while a third of plant species included in this study have yet to receive an assessment or are so poorly known that we cannot yet ascertain whether they are threatened or not. This study provides a baseline assessment from which trends in the status of plant biodiversity can be measured and periodically reassessed.

  1. Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths-Lee, Janine; Lutz, Maiko; Moat, Justin F.; Farjon, Aljos; Donaldson, John S.; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Meagher, Thomas R.; Albuquerque, Sara; Aletrari, Elina; Andrews, A. Kei; Atchison, Guy; Baloch, Elisabeth; Barlozzini, Barbara; Brunazzi, Alice; Carretero, Julia; Celesti, Marco; Chadburn, Helen; Cianfoni, Eduardo; Cockel, Chris; Coldwell, Vanessa; Concetti, Benedetta; Contu, Sara; Crook, Vicki; Dyson, Philippa; Gardiner, Lauren; Ghanim, Nadia; Greene, Hannah; Groom, Alice; Harker, Ruth; Hopkins, Della; Khela, Sonia; Lakeman-Fraser, Poppy; Lindon, Heather; Lockwood, Helen; Loftus, Christine; Lombrici, Debora; Lopez-Poveda, Lucia; Lyon, James; Malcolm-Tompkins, Patricia; McGregor, Kirsty; Moreno, Laura; Murray, Linda; Nazar, Keara; Power, Emily; Quiton Tuijtelaars, Mireya; Salter, Ruth; Segrott, Robert; Thacker, Hannah; Thomas, Leighton J.; Tingvoll, Sarah; Watkinson, Gemma; Wojtaszekova, Katerina; Nic Lughadha, Eimear M.

    2015-01-01

    Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly known, and the rate of new assessments of extinction risk for individual plant species approximates the rate at which new plant species are described. Thus the question ‘How threatened are plants?’ is still very difficult to answer accurately. While completing assessments for each species of plant remains a distant prospect, by assessing a randomly selected sample of species the Sampled Red List Index for Plants gives, for the first time, an accurate view of how threatened plants are across the world. It represents the first key phase of ongoing efforts to monitor the status of the world’s plants. More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources. Gymnosperms (e.g. conifers and cycads) are the most threatened group, while a third of plant species included in this study have yet to receive an assessment or are so poorly known that we cannot yet ascertain whether they are threatened or not. This study provides a baseline assessment from which trends in the status of plant biodiversity can be measured and periodically reassessed. PMID:26252495

  2. Re-assessment of the Conservation Status of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Smith, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    The IUCN Red List designation of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) is re-assessed in light of its newly recognized taxonomic status (it has recently been separated into three species) and findings that humpback dolphins along the coast of Bangladesh, and possibly eastern India, are phylogenetically distinct from other members of the Sousa genus. Sousa chinensis is found in Southeast/South Asia (in both the Indian and Pacific oceans), from at least the southeastern Bay of Bengal east to central China, and then south to the Indo-Malay Archipelago. There are no global population estimates, and the sum of available abundance estimates add up to about 5700 individuals, although only a portion of the range has been covered by surveys. This species occurs in shallow (<30m deep), coastal waters of the tropics and subtropics, and feeds mainly on small fishes. It has a similar reproductive biology to other large dolphins, occurs mostly in small groups, and generally has individual movements of about 50-200km(2). Major threats throughout the range include entanglement in fishing nets (primarily gillnets) and habitat destruction/degradation, although in some more industrialized areas, vessel traffic, and environmental contamination from organochlorines are also serious issues. Conservation management is largely lacking in most parts of the species' range, although there has been significant (though still inadequate) attention in some parts of China (e.g. Hong Kong and adjacent areas, and Taiwan). Much greater efforts are needed toward conservation of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins to stop apparent declines, and to lower the species' extinction risk. Sousa chinensis meets the IUCN Red List requirements for Vulnerable (under criteria A4cd), with fisheries bycatch and habitat loss/degradation being the main pervasive threats.

  3. Application of the Red List Index for conservation assessment of Spanish vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Saiz, Juan Carlos Moreno; Lozano, Felipe Domínguez; Gómez, Manuel Marrero; Baudet, Ángel Bañares

    2015-06-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Index (RLI) is used to measure trends in extinction risk of species over time. The development of 2 red lists for Spanish vascular flora during the past decade allowed us to apply the IUCN RLI to vascular plants in an area belonging to a global biodiversity hotspot. We used the Spanish Red Lists from 2000 and 2010 to assess changes in level of threat at a national scale and at the subnational scales of Canary Islands, Balearic Islands, and peninsular Spain. We assigned retrospective IUCN categories of threat to 98 species included in the Spanish Red List of 2010 but absent in the Spanish Red List of 2000. In addition, we tested the effect of different random and taxonomic and spatial Spanish samples on the overall RLI value. From 2000 to 2010, the IUCN categories of 768 species changed (10% of Spanish flora), mainly due to improved knowledge (63%), modifications in IUCN criteria (14%), and changes in threat status (12%). All measured national and subnational RLI values decreased during this period, indicating a general decline in the conservation status of the Spanish vascular flora. The Canarian RLI value (0.84) was the lowest, although the fastest deterioration in conservation status occurred on peninsular Spain (from 0.93 in 2000 to 0.92 in 2010). The RLI values based on subsamples of the Spanish Red List were not representative of RLI values for the entire country, which would discourage the use of small areas or small taxonomic samples to assess general trends in the endangerment of national biotas. The role of the RLI in monitoring of changes in biodiversity at the global and regional scales needs further reassessment because additional areas and taxa are necessary to determine whether the index is sufficiently sensitive for use in assessing temporal changes in species' risk of extinction.

  4. Remotely Sensed Data Informs Red List Evaluations and Conservation Priorities in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Binbin V.; Hughes, Alice C.; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    The IUCN Red List has assessed the global distributions of the majority of the world’s amphibians, birds and mammals. Yet these assessments lack explicit reference to widely available, remotely-sensed data that can sensibly inform a species’ risk of extinction. Our first goal is to add additional quantitative data to the existing standardised process that IUCN employs. Secondly, we ask: do our results suggest species of concern—those at considerably greater risk than hitherto appreciated? Thirdly, these assessments are not only important on a species-by-species basis. By combining distributions of species of concern, we map conservation priorities. We ask to what degree these areas are currently protected and how might knowledge from remote sensing modify the priorities? Finally, we develop a quick and simple method to identify and modify the priority setting in a landscape where natural habitats are disappearing rapidly and so where conventional species’ assessments might be too slow to respond. Tropical, mainland Southeast Asia is under exceptional threat, yet relatively poorly known. Here, additional quantitative measures may be particularly helpful. This region contains over 122, 183, and 214 endemic mammals, birds, and amphibians, respectively, of which the IUCN considers 37, 21, and 37 threatened. When corrected for the amount of remaining natural habitats within the known elevation preferences of species, the average sizes of species ranges shrink to <40% of their published ranges. Some 79 mammal, 49 bird, and 184 amphibian ranges are <20,000km2—an area at which IUCN considers most other species to be threatened. Moreover, these species are not better protected by the existing network of protected areas than are species that IUCN accepts as threatened. Simply, there appear to be considerably more species at risk than hitherto appreciated. Furthermore, incorporating remote sensing data showing where habitat loss is prevalent changes the locations of

  5. Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Steven; Moat, Justin; Hill, Andrew W; de Torre, Javier; Scott, Ben

    2011-01-01

    GeoCAT is an open source, browser based tool that performs rapid geospatial analysis to ease the process of Red Listing taxa. Developed to utilise spatially referenced primary occurrence data, the analysis focuses on two aspects of the geographic range of a taxon: the extent of occurrence (EOO) and the area of occupancy (AOO). These metrics form part of the IUCN Red List categories and criteria and have often proved challenging to obtain in an accurate, consistent and repeatable way. Within a familiar Google Maps environment, GeoCAT users can quickly and easily combine data from multiple sources such as GBIF, Flickr and Scratchpads as well as user generated occurrence data. Analysis is done with the click of a button and is visualised instantly, providing an indication of the Red List threat rating, subject to meeting the full requirements of the criteria. Outputs including the results, data and parameters used for analysis are stored in a GeoCAT file that can be easily reloaded or shared with collaborators. GeoCAT is a first step toward automating the data handling process of Red List assessing and provides a valuable hub from which further developments and enhancements can be spawned.

  6. The Sampled Red List Index for Plants, phase II: ground-truthing specimen-based conservation assessments

    PubMed Central

    Brummitt, Neil; Bachman, Steven P.; Aletrari, Elina; Chadburn, Helen; Griffiths-Lee, Janine; Lutz, Maiko; Moat, Justin; Rivers, Malin C.; Syfert, Mindy M.; Nic Lughadha, Eimear M.

    2015-01-01

    The IUCN Sampled Red List Index (SRLI) is a policy response by biodiversity scientists to the need to estimate trends in extinction risk of the world's diminishing biological diversity. Assessments of plant species for the SRLI project rely predominantly on herbarium specimen data from natural history collections, in the overwhelming absence of accurate population data or detailed distribution maps for the vast majority of plant species. This creates difficulties in re-assessing these species so as to measure genuine changes in conservation status, which must be observed under the same Red List criteria in order to be distinguished from an increase in the knowledge available for that species, and thus re-calculate the SRLI. However, the same specimen data identify precise localities where threatened species have previously been collected and can be used to model species ranges and to target fieldwork in order to test specimen-based range estimates and collect population data for SRLI plant species. Here, we outline a strategy for prioritizing fieldwork efforts in order to apply a wider range of IUCN Red List criteria to assessments of plant species, or any taxa with detailed locality or natural history specimen data, to produce a more robust estimation of the SRLI. PMID:25561676

  7. The sampled Red List Index for plants, phase II: ground-truthing specimen-based conservation assessments.

    PubMed

    Brummitt, Neil; Bachman, Steven P; Aletrari, Elina; Chadburn, Helen; Griffiths-Lee, Janine; Lutz, Maiko; Moat, Justin; Rivers, Malin C; Syfert, Mindy M; Nic Lughadha, Eimear M

    2015-02-19

    The IUCN Sampled Red List Index (SRLI) is a policy response by biodiversity scientists to the need to estimate trends in extinction risk of the world's diminishing biological diversity. Assessments of plant species for the SRLI project rely predominantly on herbarium specimen data from natural history collections, in the overwhelming absence of accurate population data or detailed distribution maps for the vast majority of plant species. This creates difficulties in re-assessing these species so as to measure genuine changes in conservation status, which must be observed under the same Red List criteria in order to be distinguished from an increase in the knowledge available for that species, and thus re-calculate the SRLI. However, the same specimen data identify precise localities where threatened species have previously been collected and can be used to model species ranges and to target fieldwork in order to test specimen-based range estimates and collect population data for SRLI plant species. Here, we outline a strategy for prioritizing fieldwork efforts in order to apply a wider range of IUCN Red List criteria to assessments of plant species, or any taxa with detailed locality or natural history specimen data, to produce a more robust estimation of the SRLI.

  8. Optimal allocation of Red List assessments to guide conservation of biodiversity in a rapidly changing world.

    PubMed

    Hermoso, Virgilio; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie Renee; Linke, Simon; Dudgeon, David; Petry, Paulo; McIntyre, Peter

    2017-02-06

    The IUCN Red List is the most extensive source of conservation status assessments for species worldwide, but important gaps in coverage remain. Here, we demonstrate the use of a spatial prioritization approach to efficiently prioritize species assessments to achieve increased and up-to-date coverage efficiently. We focus on freshwater fishes, which constitute a significant portion of vertebrate diversity, although comprehensive assessments are available for only 46% of species. We used marxan to identify ecoregions for future assessments that maximize the coverage of species while accounting for anthropogenic stress. We identified a set of priority regions that would help assess one-third (ca 4000 species) of all freshwater fishes in need of assessment by 2020. Such assessments could be achieved without increasing current investment levels. Our approach is suitable for any taxon and can help ensure that species threat assessments are sufficiently complete to guide global conservation efforts in a rapidly changing world.

  9. Comprehensive Red List Assessment Reveals Exceptionally High Extinction Risk to Madagascar Palms

    PubMed Central

    Rakotoarinivo, Mijoro; Dransfield, John; Bachman, Steven P.; Moat, Justin; Baker, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of baseline IUCN Red List assessments for plants is a crucial step in conservation planning. Nowhere is this more important than in biodiversity hotspots that are subject to significant anthropogenic pressures, such as Madagascar. Here, all Madagascar palm species are assessed using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria, version 3.1. Our results indicate that 83% of the 192 endemic species are threatened, nearly four times the proportion estimated for plants globally and exceeding estimates for all other comprehensively evaluated plant groups in Madagascar. Compared with a previous assessment in 1995, the number of Endangered and Critically Endangered species has substantially increased, due to the discovery of 28 new species since 1995, most of which are highly threatened. The conservation status of most species included in both the 1995 and the current assessments has not changed. Where change occurred, more species have moved to lower threat categories than to higher categories, because of improved knowledge of species and their distributions, rather than a decrease in extinction risk. However, some cases of genuine deterioration in conservation status were also identified. Palms in Madagascar are primarily threatened by habitat loss due to agriculture and biological resource use through direct exploitation or collateral damage. The recent extension of Madagascar’s protected area network is highly beneficial for palms, substantially increasing the number of threatened species populations included within reserves. Notably, three of the eight most important protected areas for palms are newly designated. However, 28 threatened and data deficient species are not protected by the expanded network, including some Critically Endangered species. Moreover, many species occurring in protected areas are still threatened, indicating that threatening processes persist even in reserves. Definitive implementation of the new protected areas combined

  10. Comprehensive Red List assessment reveals exceptionally high extinction risk to Madagascar palms.

    PubMed

    Rakotoarinivo, Mijoro; Dransfield, John; Bachman, Steven P; Moat, Justin; Baker, William J

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of baseline IUCN Red List assessments for plants is a crucial step in conservation planning. Nowhere is this more important than in biodiversity hotspots that are subject to significant anthropogenic pressures, such as Madagascar. Here, all Madagascar palm species are assessed using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria, version 3.1. Our results indicate that 83% of the 192 endemic species are threatened, nearly four times the proportion estimated for plants globally and exceeding estimates for all other comprehensively evaluated plant groups in Madagascar. Compared with a previous assessment in 1995, the number of Endangered and Critically Endangered species has substantially increased, due to the discovery of 28 new species since 1995, most of which are highly threatened. The conservation status of most species included in both the 1995 and the current assessments has not changed. Where change occurred, more species have moved to lower threat categories than to higher categories, because of improved knowledge of species and their distributions, rather than a decrease in extinction risk. However, some cases of genuine deterioration in conservation status were also identified. Palms in Madagascar are primarily threatened by habitat loss due to agriculture and biological resource use through direct exploitation or collateral damage. The recent extension of Madagascar's protected area network is highly beneficial for palms, substantially increasing the number of threatened species populations included within reserves. Notably, three of the eight most important protected areas for palms are newly designated. However, 28 threatened and data deficient species are not protected by the expanded network, including some Critically Endangered species. Moreover, many species occurring in protected areas are still threatened, indicating that threatening processes persist even in reserves. Definitive implementation of the new protected areas combined with

  11. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  12. Measuring Global Trends in the Status of Biodiversity: Red List Indices for Birds

    PubMed Central

    Stattersfield, Alison J; Bennun, Leon A; Shutes, Sue M; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Baillie, Jonathan E. M; Stuart, Simon N; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Mace, Georgina M

    2004-01-01

    The rapid destruction of the planet's biodiversity has prompted the nations of the world to set a target of achieving a significant reduction in the rate of loss of biodiversity by 2010. However, we do not yet have an adequate way of monitoring progress towards achieving this target. Here we present a method for producing indices based on the IUCN Red List to chart the overall threat status (projected relative extinction risk) of all the world's bird species from 1988 to 2004. Red List Indices (RLIs) are based on the number of species in each Red List category, and on the number changing categories between assessments as a result of genuine improvement or deterioration in status. The RLI for all bird species shows that their overall threat status has continued to deteriorate since 1988. Disaggregated indices show that deteriorations have occurred worldwide and in all major ecosystems, but with particularly steep declines in the indices for Indo-Malayan birds (driven by intensifying deforestation of the Sundaic lowlands) and for albatrosses and petrels (driven by incidental mortality in commercial longline fisheries). RLIs complement indicators based on species population trends and habitat extent for quantifying global trends in the status of biodiversity. Their main weaknesses are that the resolution of status changes is fairly coarse and that delays may occur before some status changes are detected. Their greatest strength is that they are based on information from nearly all species in a taxonomic group worldwide, rather than a potentially biased subset. At present, suitable data are only available for birds, but indices for other taxonomic groups are in development, as is a sampled index based on a stratified sample from all major taxonomic groups. PMID:15510230

  13. Measuring global trends in the status of biodiversity: red list indices for birds.

    PubMed

    Butchart, Stuart H M; Stattersfield, Alison J; Bennun, Leon A; Shutes, Sue M; Akçakaya, H Resit; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Stuart, Simon N; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Mace, Georgina M

    2004-12-01

    The rapid destruction of the planet's biodiversity has prompted the nations of the world to set a target of achieving a significant reduction in the rate of loss of biodiversity by 2010. However, we do not yet have an adequate way of monitoring progress towards achieving this target. Here we present a method for producing indices based on the IUCN Red List to chart the overall threat status (projected relative extinction risk) of all the world's bird species from 1988 to 2004. Red List Indices (RLIs) are based on the number of species in each Red List category, and on the number changing categories between assessments as a result of genuine improvement or deterioration in status. The RLI for all bird species shows that their overall threat status has continued to deteriorate since 1988. Disaggregated indices show that deteriorations have occurred worldwide and in all major ecosystems, but with particularly steep declines in the indices for Indo-Malayan birds (driven by intensifying deforestation of the Sundaic lowlands) and for albatrosses and petrels (driven by incidental mortality in commercial longline fisheries). RLIs complement indicators based on species population trends and habitat extent for quantifying global trends in the status of biodiversity. Their main weaknesses are that the resolution of status changes is fairly coarse and that delays may occur before some status changes are detected. Their greatest strength is that they are based on information from nearly all species in a taxonomic group worldwide, rather than a potentially biased subset. At present, suitable data are only available for birds, but indices for other taxonomic groups are in development, as is a sampled index based on a stratified sample from all major taxonomic groups.

  14. National red listing beyond the 2010 target.

    PubMed

    Zamin, Tara J; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Miller, Rebecca M; Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Ardid, Ana; Collen, Ben

    2010-08-01

    Following creation of the 2010 Biodiversity Target under the Convention on Biological Diversity and adoption of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, information on status and trends of biodiversity at the national level has become increasingly important to both science and policy. National red lists (NRLs) of threatened species may provide suitable data for reporting on progress toward these goals and for informing national conservation priority setting. This information will also become increasingly important for developing species- and ecosystem-based strategies for climate change adaptation. We conducted a thorough global review of NRLs in 109 countries and analyzed gaps in NRL coverage in terms of geography and taxonomy to determine priority regions and taxonomic groups for further investment. We then examined correlations between the NRL data set and gross domestic product (GDP) and vertebrate species richness. The largest geographic gap was in Oceania, followed by middle Africa, the Caribbean, and western Africa, whereas the largest taxonomic gaps were for invertebrates, fungi, and lichens. The comprehensiveness of NRL coverage within a given country was positively correlated with GDP and negatively correlated with total vertebrate richness and threatened vertebrate richness. This supports the assertion that regions with the greatest and most vulnerable biodiversity receive the least conservation attention and indicates that financial resources may be an integral limitation. To improve coverage of NRLs, we propose a combination of projects that target underrepresented taxa or regions and projects that provide the means for countries to create or update NRLs on their own. We recommend improvements in knowledge transfer within and across regions as a priority for future investment.

  15. Conus: first comprehensive conservation red list assessment of a marine gastropod mollusc genus.

    PubMed

    Peters, Howard; O'Leary, Bethan C; Hawkins, Julie P; Carpenter, Kent E; Roberts, Callum M

    2013-01-01

    Marine molluscs represent an estimated 23% of all extant marine taxa, but research into their conservation status has so far failed to reflect this importance, with minimal inclusion on the authoritative Red List of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). We assessed the status of all 632 valid species of the tropical marine gastropod mollusc, Conus (cone snails), using Red List standards and procedures to lay the groundwork for future decadal monitoring, one of the first fully comprehensive global assessments of a marine taxon. Three-quarters (75.6%) of species were not currently considered at risk of extinction owing to their wide distribution and perceived abundance. However, 6.5% were considered threatened with extinction with a further 4.1% near threatened. Data deficiency prevented 13.8% of species from being categorised although they also possess characteristics that signal concern. Where hotspots of endemism occur, most notably in the Eastern Atlantic, 42.9% of the 98 species from that biogeographical region were classified as threatened or near threatened with extinction. All 14 species included in the highest categories of Critically Endangered and Endangered are endemic to either Cape Verde or Senegal, with each of the three Critically Endangered species restricted to single islands in Cape Verde. Threats to all these species are driven by habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, in particular from urban pollution, tourism and coastal development. Our findings show that levels of extinction risk to which cone snails are exposed are of a similar magnitude to those seen in many fully assessed terrestrial taxa. The widely held view that marine species are less at risk is not upheld.

  16. Conus: First Comprehensive Conservation Red List Assessment of a Marine Gastropod Mollusc Genus

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Howard; O'Leary, Bethan C.; Hawkins, Julie P.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Roberts, Callum M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine molluscs represent an estimated 23% of all extant marine taxa, but research into their conservation status has so far failed to reflect this importance, with minimal inclusion on the authoritative Red List of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). We assessed the status of all 632 valid species of the tropical marine gastropod mollusc, Conus (cone snails), using Red List standards and procedures to lay the groundwork for future decadal monitoring, one of the first fully comprehensive global assessments of a marine taxon. Three-quarters (75.6%) of species were not currently considered at risk of extinction owing to their wide distribution and perceived abundance. However, 6.5% were considered threatened with extinction with a further 4.1% near threatened. Data deficiency prevented 13.8% of species from being categorised although they also possess characteristics that signal concern. Where hotspots of endemism occur, most notably in the Eastern Atlantic, 42.9% of the 98 species from that biogeographical region were classified as threatened or near threatened with extinction. All 14 species included in the highest categories of Critically Endangered and Endangered are endemic to either Cape Verde or Senegal, with each of the three Critically Endangered species restricted to single islands in Cape Verde. Threats to all these species are driven by habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, in particular from urban pollution, tourism and coastal development. Our findings show that levels of extinction risk to which cone snails are exposed are of a similar magnitude to those seen in many fully assessed terrestrial taxa. The widely held view that marine species are less at risk is not upheld. PMID:24376693

  17. A Population Accounting Approach to Assess Tourism Contributions to Conservation of IUCN-Redlisted Mammal Species

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Ralf C.; Castley, J. Guy; Pegas, Fernanda de Vasconcellos; Mossaz, Alexa C.; Steven, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Over 1,000 mammal species are red-listed by IUCN, as Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable. Conservation of many threatened mammal species, even inside protected areas, depends on costly active day-to-day defence against poaching, bushmeat hunting, invasive species and habitat encroachment. Many parks agencies worldwide now rely heavily on tourism for routine operational funding: >50% in some cases. This puts rare mammals at a new risk, from downturns in tourism driven by external socioeconomic factors. Using the survival of individual animals as a metric or currency of successful conservation, we calculate here what proportions of remaining populations of IUCN-redlisted mammal species are currently supported by funds from tourism. This proportion is ≥5% for over half of the species where relevant data exist, ≥15% for one fifth, and up to 66% in a few cases. Many of these species, especially the most endangered, survive only in one single remaining subpopulation. These proportions are not correlated either with global population sizes or recognition as wildlife tourism icons. Most of the more heavily tourism-dependent species, however, are medium sized (>7.5 kg) or larger. Historically, biological concern over the growth of tourism in protected areas has centered on direct disturbance to wildlife. These results show that conservation of threatened mammal species has become reliant on revenue from tourism to a previously unsuspected degree. On the one hand, this provides new opportunities for conservation funding; but on the other, dependence on such an uncertain source of funding is a new, large and growing threat to red-listed species. PMID:22984467

  18. A population accounting approach to assess tourism contributions to conservation of IUCN-redlisted mammal species.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Ralf C; Castley, J Guy; Pegas, Fernanda de Vasconcellos; Mossaz, Alexa C; Steven, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Over 1,000 mammal species are red-listed by IUCN, as Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable. Conservation of many threatened mammal species, even inside protected areas, depends on costly active day-to-day defence against poaching, bushmeat hunting, invasive species and habitat encroachment. Many parks agencies worldwide now rely heavily on tourism for routine operational funding: >50% in some cases. This puts rare mammals at a new risk, from downturns in tourism driven by external socioeconomic factors. Using the survival of individual animals as a metric or currency of successful conservation, we calculate here what proportions of remaining populations of IUCN-redlisted mammal species are currently supported by funds from tourism. This proportion is ≥ 5% for over half of the species where relevant data exist, ≥ 15% for one fifth, and up to 66% in a few cases. Many of these species, especially the most endangered, survive only in one single remaining subpopulation. These proportions are not correlated either with global population sizes or recognition as wildlife tourism icons. Most of the more heavily tourism-dependent species, however, are medium sized (>7.5 kg) or larger. Historically, biological concern over the growth of tourism in protected areas has centered on direct disturbance to wildlife. These results show that conservation of threatened mammal species has become reliant on revenue from tourism to a previously unsuspected degree. On the one hand, this provides new opportunities for conservation funding; but on the other, dependence on such an uncertain source of funding is a new, large and growing threat to red-listed species.

  19. Red List of vascular plants of the Wadden Sea Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wind, P.; van der Ende, M.; Garve, E.; Schacherer, A.; Thissen, J. B. M.

    1996-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea area, a total of 248 (sub)species of vascular plants are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 216 (sub)species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trialteral Red List. 17 (sub)species of the listed vascular plants are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 47 (sub)species of vascular plants is (probably) critical; 61 (sub)species are (probably) endangered; the status of 65 (sub)species is (probably) vulnerable and that of 26 (sub)species susceptible.

  20. The role of IUCN protected area categories in the conservation of geoheritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Kyung Sik; Gordon, John E.; Crofts, Roger; Diaz-Martinez, Enrique; McKeever, Patrick J.; Hill, Wesley

    2015-04-01

    Geoheritage comprises those elements of the Earth's geodiversity that are considered to have significant scientific, educational, cultural/aesthetic, ecological or ecosystem service value. IUCN Resolutions 4.040 (2008) and 5.048 (2012) both clearly recognise that geodiversity is part of nature and geoheritage is part of natural heritage. Formal recognition of the geodiversity component of protected areas was made in 2008 in the revised IUCN Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories (Dudley, 2008). All 6 of the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories (strict nature reserve/wilderness area, national park, national monument or feature, habitat/species management area, protected landscape/seascape, and protected area with sustainable use of natural resources) are applicable to the protection of geoheritage and provide opportunities to integrate conservation of geosites and the wider landscape values of geodiversity much more closely in protected area networks (Crofts & Gordon, 2015). Although geoparks are not a protected area category as such, and may only include some parts of protected areas as geosites, the UNESCO-supported Global Geoparks Network also provides an international framework to conserve and enhance geoheritage, as does the UNESCO World Heritage List. The Geoheritage Specialist Group of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas provides specialist advice and guidance on all aspects of geodiversity and geoheritage in relation to the establishment and management of protected areas, the integration of geodiversity into IUCN's programmes, and the promotion of better understanding of the links between geodiversity and biodiversity. http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/gpap_home/gpap_biodiversity/gpap_wcpabiodiv/gpap_geoheritage/). Crofts, R., Gordon, J. E. (2015) Geoconservation in protected areas. In: G.L. Worboys, M. Lockwood, A. Kothari, S. Feary, I. Pulsford (eds), Protected Area Governance and Management. ANU Press, Canberra

  1. Red List of grasshoppers of the Wadden Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, K.; Grein, G.; Dierking, U.; van Wingerden, W. K. R. E.

    1996-10-01

    In typical coastal habitats of the Wadden Sea, 15 species of grasshoppers are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 14 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. The situation in the Danish part of the Wadden Sea could only be taken into consideration in a limited way due to the latest available data in Denmark from 1969. The status of 2 species of grasshoppers in the entire Wadden Sea area is critical, 4 species are endangered, the status of 3 species is vulnerable and of 5 species susceptible.

  2. Using Social Media to Measure the Contribution of Red List Species to the Nature-Based Tourism Potential of African Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Willemen, Louise; Cottam, Andrew J; Drakou, Evangelia G; Burgess, Neil D

    2015-01-01

    Cultural ecosystem services are defined by people's perception of the environment, which make them hard to quantify systematically. Methods to describe cultural benefits from ecosystems typically include resource-demanding survey techniques, which are not suitable to assess cultural ecosystem services for large areas. In this paper we explore a method to quantify cultural benefits through the enjoyment of natured-based tourism, by assessing the potential tourism attractiveness of species for each protected area in Africa using the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species. We use the number of pictures of wildlife posted on a photo sharing website as a proxy for charisma, popularity, and ease of observation, as these factors combined are assumed to determine how attractive species are for the global wildlife tourist. Based on photo counts of 2473 African animals and plants, species that seem most attractive to nature-based tourism are the Lion, African Elephant and Leopard. Combining the photo counts with species range data, African protected areas with the highest potential to attract wildlife tourists based on attractive species occurrence were Samburu National Reserve in Kenya, Mukogodo Forest Reserve located just north of Mount Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park in South-Africa. The proposed method requires only three data sources which are freely accessible and available online, which could make the proposed index tractable for large scale quantitative ecosystem service assessments. The index directly links species presence to the tourism potential of protected areas, making the connection between nature and human benefits explicit, but excludes other important contributing factors for tourism, such as accessibility and safety. This social media based index provides a broad understanding of those species that are popular globally; in many cases these are not the species of highest conservation concern.

  3. Red List of amphibians and reptiles of the Wadden Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fog, K.; Podloucky, R.; Dierking, U.; Stumpel, A. H. P.

    1996-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea, in total, 8 species of amphibians and 4 species of reptiles are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 7 species of amphibians and all 4 species of reptiles are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 1 species of the listed reptiles is (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 1 species of amphibians is endangered, the status of (probably) 4 species of amphibians and 3 species of reptiles are vulnerable and of 2 species of amphibians susceptible.

  4. Quantifying population declines based on presence-only records for red-list assessments.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Sam S; Ozgul, Arpat; Zumbach, Silvia; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2016-10-01

    Accurate trend estimates are necessary for understanding which species are declining and which are most in need of conservation action. Imperfect species detection may result in unreliable trend estimates because this may lead to the overestimation of declines. Because many management decisions are based on population trend estimates, such biases could have severe consequences for conservation policy. We used an occupancy-modeling framework to estimate detectability and calculate nationwide population trends for 14 Swiss amphibian species both accounting for and ignoring imperfect detection. Through the application of International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List criteria to the different trend estimates, we assessed whether ignoring imperfect detection could affect conservation policy. Imperfect detection occurred for all species and detection varied substantially among species, which led to the overestimation of population declines when detectability was ignored. Consequently, accounting for imperfect detection lowered the red-list risk category for 5 of the 14 species assessed. We demonstrate that failing to consider species detectability can have serious consequences for species management and that occupancy modeling provides a flexible framework to account for observation bias and improve assessments of conservation status. A problem inherent to most historical records is that they contain presence-only data from which only relative declines can be estimated. A move toward the routine recording of nonobservation and absence data is essential if conservation practitioners are to move beyond this toward accurate population trend estimation.

  5. Red List of lampreys and marine fishes of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, S.; Krog, C.; Muus, B.; Nielsen, J.; Fricke, R.; Berghahn, R.; Neudecker, Th.; Wolff, W. J.

    1996-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea areas of Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands, a total of 162 fish and lamprey species is known. 72 of these species are migrants entering the area occasionally; the total number of resident species in the Wadden Sea area is 90. In the Wadden Sea, in total, 20 species of fish and lamprey species are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 19 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 2 species of the listed fish and lamprey species are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 5 species of fish and lamprey species is critical, 5 species are (probably) endangered, the status of 6 is vulnerable and of 1 species susceptible. For about 16 rare species which may also be threatened, data were not sufficient to estimate past and present population sizes. The contributors to the list would like to encourage researchers to intensify work on the ecology and the present population sizes of these rare Wadden Sea species (see Fricke et al., 1995).

  6. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) Yearbook, 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    This yearbook covers the period from January 1975 to May 1976. It reviews the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources' (IUCN) conservation strategy for the coming years, important international conservation treaties, IUCN organizational reforms, and the financial report for 1975. Conservation discussions include…

  7. International Union for Conservation of Nature Bulletin (IUCN), Volume 4 Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    Compiled in this newsletter are activities, viewpoints, reports, book reviews, and conference proceedings emanating from the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Principle items deal with viewpoints of politics and conservation and the International Workshop on Environmental Studies in Higher Education and…

  8. International Union for Conservation of Nature Bulletin (IUCN), Volume 3 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IUCN Bulletin, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Compiled in this newsletter are activities, viewpoints, reports, and publications of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The principal article in this issue is a discussion of land use, one of the major forces contributing to the crisis of the human environment in addition to population and pollution.…

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Forest Fragmentation in the Atlantic Forest Reveals More Threatened Bird Species than the Current Red List

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Jessica K.; Harris, Grant M.; Pimm, Stuart L.; Russell, Gareth J.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss and attendant fragmentation threaten the existence of many species. Conserving these species requires a straightforward and objective method that quantifies how these factors affect their survival. Therefore, we compared a variety of metrics that assess habitat fragmentation in bird ranges, using the geographical ranges of 127 forest endemic passerine birds inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. A common, non-biological metric — cumulative area of size-ranked fragments within a species range — was misleading, as the least threatened species had the most habitat fragmentation. Instead, we recommend a modified version of metapopulation capacity. The metric links detailed spatial information on fragment sizes and spatial configuration to the birds’ abilities to occupy and disperse across large areas (100,000+ km2). In the Atlantic Forest, metapopulation capacities were largely bimodal, in that most species’ ranges had either low capacity (high risk of extinction) or high capacity (very small risk of extinction). This pattern persisted within taxonomically and ecologically homogenous groups, indicating that it is driven by fragmentation patterns and not differences in species ecology. Worryingly, we found IUCN considers some 28 of 58 species in the low metapopulation capacity cluster to not be threatened. We propose that assessing the effect of fragmentation will separate species more clearly into distinct risk categories than does a simple assessment of remaining habitat. PMID:23734248

  10. Quantitative analysis of forest fragmentation in the atlantic forest reveals more threatened bird species than the current red list.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Jessica K; Harris, Grant M; Pimm, Stuart L; Russell, Gareth J

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss and attendant fragmentation threaten the existence of many species. Conserving these species requires a straightforward and objective method that quantifies how these factors affect their survival. Therefore, we compared a variety of metrics that assess habitat fragmentation in bird ranges, using the geographical ranges of 127 forest endemic passerine birds inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. A common, non-biological metric - cumulative area of size-ranked fragments within a species range - was misleading, as the least threatened species had the most habitat fragmentation. Instead, we recommend a modified version of metapopulation capacity. The metric links detailed spatial information on fragment sizes and spatial configuration to the birds' abilities to occupy and disperse across large areas (100,000+ km(2)). In the Atlantic Forest, metapopulation capacities were largely bimodal, in that most species' ranges had either low capacity (high risk of extinction) or high capacity (very small risk of extinction). This pattern persisted within taxonomically and ecologically homogenous groups, indicating that it is driven by fragmentation patterns and not differences in species ecology. Worryingly, we found IUCN considers some 28 of 58 species in the low metapopulation capacity cluster to not be threatened. We propose that assessing the effect of fragmentation will separate species more clearly into distinct risk categories than does a simple assessment of remaining habitat.

  11. Control of red phosphorus, white phosphorus and hypophosphorous acid (and its salts) as list I chemicals; exclusions and waivers. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2003-06-24

    On October 17, 2001, DEA published a Final Rulemaking (66 FR 52670) in which DEA added red phosphorus, white phosphorus (also known as yellow phosphorus) and hypophosphorous acid (and its salts) as List I chemicals. This action was taken because of the use and importance of these chemicals in the illicit manufacture of methamphetamine (a Schedule II controlled substance). As List I chemicals, handlers of these materials became subject to Controlled Substances Act (CSA) chemical regulatory controls including registration, recordkeeping, reporting, and import/export requirements. DEA had determined that these controls are necessary to prevent the diversion of these chemicals to clandestine drug laboratories. In order to provide flexibility for legitimate businesses, the October 17, 2001 rule established, on an interim basis, specific exclusions and waivers for chemical handlers engaged in certain activities. DEA has completed its review of comments pertaining to these interim provisions. This rulemaking finalizes these exclusions and waivers related to the handling of the listed chemicals red phosphorus, white phosphorus, and hypophosphorous acid (and its salts).

  12. Session of the General Assembly of IUCN (15th, Christchurch, New Zealand, October 11-23, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    Resolutions adopted by the 15th session of the General Assembly of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) are provided in this document. These resolutions focus on areas/issues related to: (1) world conservation strategy; (2) conservation and peace; (3) people, resources, and environment; (4) environmental…

  13. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Bulletin, New Series Vol. 7, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    Described is the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) marine program which centers around the world wildlife fund marine program. The program has been divided into three phases - launch, main, and follow-up; the launch phase is described. Action plans are described for each sub-program. Each action plan…

  14. Human disturbance threats the red-listed macrolichen Seirophora villosa (Ach.) Frödén in coastal Juniperus habitats: evidence from western peninsular Italy.

    PubMed

    Benesperi, Renato; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Nascimbene, Juri

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, coastal dune systems with Juniperus spp. (Natura 2000 habitat code 2250) are a priority habitat for conservation according to the Natura 2000 policies. Currently, anthropogenic pressure is threatening the biodiversity of this habitat. While the impact of human pressure on animals and vascular plants is already documented, information is still scanty for other organisms such as epiphytic lichens. The main aim of this study is to test the effect of human disturbance on the occurrence and abundance of the red-listed macrolichen Seirophora villosa. We also tested the effect of human disturbance on the whole community of epiphytic lichens in terms of species richness and composition. The study was performed along the coast of Tuscany by comparing both disturbed and undisturbed Juniperus stands according to a stratified random sampling design. Our results provided evidence that in coastal systems the long-term conservation of the red-listed macrolichen S. villosa and its characteristic community composed by several Mediterranean species of conservation concern depends on the maintenance of undisturbed Juniperus habitats. Results also support the possibility of using S. villosa as an indicator species of habitat conservation importance and habitat integrity since its occurrence is predicted on nestedness in term of species composition, assemblages of species poor disturbed stands being subsets of those of richer undisturbed stands.

  15. 76 FR 304 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Red Knot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), please call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877... Littoral Society, American Bird Conservancy, Delaware Audubon, Delaware Nature Society, Delaware... subspecies and the roselaari subspecies.'' The petition further calls for a ``national listing based...

  16. Occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis in the Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) and the Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland.

    PubMed

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Majewska, Anna C; Trzesowska, Ewa; Skrzypczak, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    Encephalitozoon intestinalis is one of the most common microsporidial species found in humans worldwide but it has rarely been identified in animals. The presence of this pathogen has been detected in a few species of domestic, captive and wild mammals as well as in three species of birds. The aim of the present study was to examine fecal samples obtained from mammals housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland, for the presence of potentially human-infectious microsporidia. A total of 339 fresh fecal samples collected from 75 species of mammals belonging to 27 families and 8 orders were examined for the presence of microsporidian spores. Microsporidian spores were identified in 3 out of 339 (0.9%) examined fecal samples. All samples identified as positive by chromotrope 2R and calcofluor white M2R were also positive by the FISH assay. Using multiplex FISH in all 3 fecal samples, only spores of E. intestinalis were identified in 2 out of 14 Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and in one out of 17 Red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra). To our knowledge this is the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis in Ring-tailed and Red ruffed lemurs. It should be mentioned that both lemur species are listed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Although the lemurs were asymptomatically infected, the possibility of widespread infection or death of these animals remains in the event of an elevated stress or a decrease in their immunological functions.

  17. Neither protogynous nor obligatory out-crossed: pollination biology and breeding system of the European Red List Fritillaria meleagris L. (Liliaceae).

    PubMed

    Zych, M; Stpiczyńska, M

    2012-03-01

    For 4 years we studied pollination biology and breeding system of the critically endangered, Red List plant Fritillaria meleagris L. (Liliaceae), in the larger of the two remaining populations of the plant in SE Poland. Our observations indicated that, contrary to literature data, the species is not dichogamous nor is it obligatorily out-crossing. Selfing, although rare in natural populations, results in fully developed seeds. Flowers are visited by several insect species, mostly social and solitary bees. In spite of extremely low visitation rates to this early spring-flowering plant, the species is not pollen limited. Although the largest pollen loads are transferred by solitary bees, the key pollinators are bumblebees (mostly the most common species, Bombus terrestris and B. lapidarius) due to their seasonal and floral constancy, and tolerance of bad weather conditions. The current decline of the studied population seems not to be related to the species' pollination or breeding systems but to plant habitat loss. It is suggested, however, that in smaller populations, the species' dependence on generally rare pollinators and largely out-crossed breeding system may accelerate local extinction.

  18. The Contribution of DNA Metabarcoding to Fungal Conservation: Diversity Assessment, Habitat Partitioning and Mapping Red-Listed Fungi in Protected Coastal Salix repens Communities in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Geml, József; Gravendeel, Barbara; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J.; Neilen, Manon; Lammers, Youri; Raes, Niels; Semenova, Tatiana A.; de Knijff, Peter; Noordeloos, Machiel E.

    2014-01-01

    Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens) represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought. PMID:24937200

  19. Using Social Media to Measure the Contribution of Red List Species to the Nature-Based Tourism Potential of African Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Drakou, Evangelia G.; Burgess, Neil D.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural ecosystem services are defined by people’s perception of the environment, which make them hard to quantify systematically. Methods to describe cultural benefits from ecosystems typically include resource-demanding survey techniques, which are not suitable to assess cultural ecosystem services for large areas. In this paper we explore a method to quantify cultural benefits through the enjoyment of natured-based tourism, by assessing the potential tourism attractiveness of species for each protected area in Africa using the IUCN’s Red List of Threatened Species. We use the number of pictures of wildlife posted on a photo sharing website as a proxy for charisma, popularity, and ease of observation, as these factors combined are assumed to determine how attractive species are for the global wildlife tourist. Based on photo counts of 2473 African animals and plants, species that seem most attractive to nature-based tourism are the Lion, African Elephant and Leopard. Combining the photo counts with species range data, African protected areas with the highest potential to attract wildlife tourists based on attractive species occurrence were Samburu National Reserve in Kenya, Mukogodo Forest Reserve located just north of Mount Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park in South-Africa. The proposed method requires only three data sources which are freely accessible and available online, which could make the proposed index tractable for large scale quantitative ecosystem service assessments. The index directly links species presence to the tourism potential of protected areas, making the connection between nature and human benefits explicit, but excludes other important contributing factors for tourism, such as accessibility and safety. This social media based index provides a broad understanding of those species that are popular globally; in many cases these are not the species of highest conservation concern. PMID:26068111

  20. 77 FR 51767 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Five Species of Sturgeon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... WildEarth Guardians and Friends of Animals to list 15 species of sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii--Adriatic..., Norway, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia and the United Kingdom. According to the petitioner and IUCN, its... sites. The petition also cites the 16th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee in December 2000,...

  1. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  2. Consolidated List of Lists

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of chemicals subject to reporting requirements under the Emergency Planning and Community Right- To-Know Act (EPCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act.

  3. Molecular Systematics of Threatened Seed Plant Species Endemic in the Caribbean Islands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of available Caribbean Island red-lists species (CR and EN categories based on the IUCN guidelines from 2001, and E category established according to the IUCN guidelines from 1980) is presented. A database of at least 1,300 endemic species that are either Critically Endangered or Endangered...

  4. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  5. LINE LISTS FOR THE A {sup 2}Π-X {sup 2}Σ{sup +} (RED) AND B {sup 2}Σ{sup +}-X {sup 2}Σ{sup +} (VIOLET) SYSTEMS OF CN, {sup 13}C{sup 14}N, AND {sup 12}C{sup 15}N, AND APPLICATION TO ASTRONOMICAL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Sneden, Christopher; Lucatello, Sara; Ram, Ram S.; Brooke, James S. A.; Bernath, Peter E-mail: sara.lucatello@oapd.inaf.it E-mail: jsabrooke@gmail.com

    2014-10-01

    New red and violet system line lists for the CN isotopologues {sup 13}C{sup 14}N and {sup 12}C{sup 15}N have been generated. These new transition data are combined with those previously derived for {sup 12}C{sup 14}N, and applied to the determination of CNO abundances in the solar photosphere and in four red giant stars: Arcturus, the bright, very low-metallicity star HD 122563, and the carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars HD 196944 and HD 201626. When both red and violet system lines are detectable in a star, their derived N abundances are in good agreement. The mean N abundances determined in this work are also generally in accord with published values.

  6. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of ... 2000 - The Red Sea between the East Africa coast and Saudi Arabian peninsula. project:  MISR category:  ...

  7. Conservation and the Antarctic environment: the working group reports of the joint IUCN/SCAR symposium on the scientific requirements for Antarctic conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, W.N.; Angel, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    Six working groups were set up at the joint IUCN/SCAR Symposium on the scientific requirements for Antarctic conservation. These were charged with (i) identifying gaps in the scientific understanding of ecosystems that inhibit rational management, and (ii) considering whether present conservation practices were taking enough account of what is known of the region, particularly with regard to protected areas. There is still a need for synthesis and further work on stocks and the life history of krill in the pelagic ecosystem. Studies of crabeater seals deserve priority. The network of existing protected areas is inadequate for preserving all species of birds, seals and whales; new criteria are needed for effective conservation. On land, the Agreed Measures provide an adequate framework for conservation, though additional steps are needed to ensure adherence to their provisions. Selection criteria are deficient and additional measures are required. Commercial mineral exploitation in the Antarctic is a long way in the future but exploitation could result from political motives. There is a need for a data base for the design of investigations and impact assessment. Operational hazards need to be modelled in advance. The relevance of existing drilling technology (both for mining and for deep stratographical information) onshore and offshore, and the applicability of Arctic experience to future operations in the Antarctic need to be assessed. Operational hazards, such as icebergs, pressures encountered while drilling, well blow-outs, and oil spills, need to the anticipated and modelled in advance.

  8. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  9. The List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Some days it is difficult to remember why we love being teachers. For those difficult days, high school teacher Tim Gillespie maintains a list of fifteen reasons to keep teaching. He shares his list to remind us of the "greatest pleasures and highest callings" that we can experience as English teachers, believing that we can sustain ourselves and…

  10. TIP list

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, M E

    2006-06-22

    Subcontractors and vendors providing services, including the installation of purchased goods, are required to complete a TIP List. This list does not include every Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) related concern at LLNL. It is intended to highlight major concerns common to most on-site service activities.

  11. Red Hill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii Administrative Order on Consent (AOC), an enforceable agreement of the Hawaii Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Navy -- Defense Logistics Agency.

  12. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  17. Program Listings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A complete listing of a projectile motion program for the Apple II microcomputer is provided. A discussion of this computer simulation and a table with variables used in the program (as well as their meanings) can be found in SE 533 596. (JN)

  18. American Red Cross

    MedlinePlus

    ... Espanol Local Red Cross ( ) Change Chapter Edit Zip Code Edit Zip Code Shop the Red Cross Store Toggle Navigation Menu ... Espanol Local Red Cross ( ) Change Chapter Edit Zip Code Edit Zip Code Shop the Red Cross Store ...

  19. 40 CFR 262.89 - OECD Waste Lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... addressed in § 262.82. (e) The OECD Green List of Wastes (revised May 1994), Amber List of Wastes and Red..., respectively, to the OECD Council Decision C(92)39/FINAL (Concerning the Control of Transfrontier Movements of... text is set forth as follows: Subpart H—Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for Recovery...

  20. List based prefetch

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Peter; Christ, Norman; Gara, Alan; Kim,; Changhoan,; Mawhinney, Robert; Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2012-08-28

    A list prefetch engine improves a performance of a parallel computing system. The list prefetch engine receives a current cache miss address. The list prefetch engine evaluates whether the current cache miss address is valid. If the current cache miss address is valid, the list prefetch engine compares the current cache miss address and a list address. A list address represents an address in a list. A list describes an arbitrary sequence of prior cache miss addresses. The prefetch engine prefetches data according to the list, if there is a match between the current cache miss address and the list address.

  1. List based prefetch

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Peter; Christ, Norman; Gara, Alan; Kim, Changhoan; Mawhinney, Robert; Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2014-08-12

    A list prefetch engine improves a performance of a parallel computing system. The list prefetch engine receives a current cache miss address. The list prefetch engine evaluates whether the current cache miss address is valid. If the current cache miss address is valid, the list prefetch engine compares the current cache miss address and a list address. A list address represents an address in a list. A list describes an arbitrary sequence of prior cache miss addresses. The prefetch engine prefetches data according to the list, if there is a match between the current cache miss address and the list address.

  2. 77 FR 51522 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Administration. NSN: 9905-00-NIB-0342--Tape, Barricade, Red, ``DANGER'', Economy Grade, 3''W x 1000'L COVERAGE: B... nonprofit agencies listed: Products NSN: 9905-00-NIB-0343--Tape, Barricade, Yellow, ``CAUTION'', Economy Grade, 3''W x 1000'L NSN: 9905-00-NIB-0344--Tape, Barricade, Yellow, ``CAUTION'', Premium Grade, 3''W...

  3. 77 FR 65365 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Coverage: C-List for 100% of the requirements of Veterans Integrated Service Networks 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and... Requirement as aggregated by the General Services Administration. NSN: 9905-00-NIB-0342--Tape, Barricade, Red... aggregated by the General Services Administration. NPA: West Texas Lighthouse for the Blind, San Angelo,...

  4. 75 FR 43152 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ...., Mt Shasta, CA. Contracting Activity: Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Shasta- Trinity National Forest, Redding, CA. Service Type/Location: Grounds Maintenance, National Weather Service Forecast Office... action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be furnished by nonprofit...

  5. 76 FR 54741 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... added to the Procurement List: Products NSN: M.R. 1001--Towels, Dish, Kitchen Gourmet, Black, 2pc. NSN: M.R. 1002--Towels, Dish, Kitchen Gourmet, Red, 2pc. NSN: M.R. 1003--Towels, Dish, Kitchen Gourmet, Green, 2pc. NSN: M.R. 1005--Cloth, Dish, Kitchen Gourmet, Black, 2pc. NSN: M.R. 1006--Cloth,...

  6. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  7. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317 (a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 17 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  8. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1331(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 31 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  9. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1331(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 31 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  10. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317 (a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 17 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  11. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317 (a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 17 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  12. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1331(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 31 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  13. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317 (a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 17 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  14. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1331(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 31 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  15. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317 (a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 17 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  16. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1331(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 31 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  17. The Red Book through the ages.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Larry K; Peter, Georges; Shulman, Stanford T

    2013-11-01

    The first edition of the Red Book was published in 1938. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the fields of infectious diseases and public health that have decreased morbidity and mortality of infants, children, and adolescents. Over the years, emerging pathogens and disease complexes have been described, sophisticated diagnostic techniques developed, advances in antimicrobial therapy have occurred, and immunizations have been implemented to prevent previously deadly diseases. Of the 18 diseases or organisms in the 1938 edition, 13 are now vaccine-preventable. Since inception of the Red Book, the aims of the editors have been to keep pace with these innovations and to continue to inform the medical community. These goals have made the Red Book a fundamental resource for pediatricians and other health care professionals in terms of guiding diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases. The list of 18 diseases or organisms originally described in the 1938 Red Book has expanded to include over 160 diseases or organisms in the 2012 edition. The pace of biomedical discovery, as well as the amount of information available and the number of methods for its delivery, will continue to accelerate in the future. Integration of information into future editions of the Red Book will ensure that practitioners continue to rely on the Red Book in its various electronic formats for clinical guidance and support.

  18. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus

    ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red ...

  19. Three-dimensional mapping of red stingray ( Dasyatis akajei) movement with reference to bottom topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otaki, Takayoshi; Hamana, Masahiro; Tanoe, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Shibuno, Takuro; Komatsu, Teruhisa

    2015-06-01

    Most demersal fishes maintain strong relations with bottom substrates and bottom depths and/or topography during their lives. It is important to know these relations to for understand their lives. In Tokyo Bay, red stingray, Dasyatis akajei, classified as near-threatened species by IUCN, has increased since the 1980s. It is a top predator and engages in ecosystem engineer by mixing the sand bed surface through burring behavior, and greatly influences a coastal ecosystem. It is reported that this species invades in plage and tidal flats and has sometimes injured beachgoers and people gathering clams in Tokyo bay. Thus, it is necessary to know its behavior and habitat use to avoid accidents and to better conserve the biodiversity of ecosystems. However, previous studies have not examined its relationship with the bottom environment. This study aims to describe its behavior in relation to the bottom environment. We sounded three dimensional bottom topography of their habitat off Kaneda Cove in Tokyo Bay with interferometric sidescan sonar system and traced the movement of red stingrays by attaching a data logger system to survey their migration. The results revealed that red stingray repeated vertical movement between the surface and bottom, and used not only sand beds but also rocky beds.

  20. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  1. Acronym master list

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This document is a master list of acronyms and other abbreviations that are used by or could be useful to, the personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Many specialized and well-known abbreviations are not included in this list.

  2. 76 FR 62016 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Red-Crowned Parrot

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the red-crowned parrot (Amazona viridigenalis) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the red-crowned parrot as endangered or threatened is warranted.......

  3. List mode multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, S. John; Mauger, G. Joseph; Riot, Vincent J.; Knapp, David A.

    2007-08-07

    A digital list mode multichannel analyzer (MCA) built around a programmable FPGA device for onboard data analysis and on-the-fly modification of system detection/operating parameters, and capable of collecting and processing data in very small time bins (<1 millisecond) when used in histogramming mode, or in list mode as a list mode MCA.

  4. Acquisitions List No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  5. Acquisitions List No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  6. Against Reading Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lennard J.

    2012-01-01

    A course's reading list is the skeleton of a semester's body of thought, the inventory that a professor writes up for the departmental Web site and the schedule of courses that lists the goods. Despite the obvious utility of fixed reading lists, one should jettison them when possible. The author has been conducting an informal experiment using a…

  7. 21 CFR 74.2340 - FD&C Red No. 40.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR...) The color additive FD&C Red No. 40 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.340(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. (2) The listing of this color additive includes lakes...

  8. 21 CFR 74.1334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C... additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No. 34 may contain only those diluents that are suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures for...

  9. 21 CFR 74.1340 - FD&C Red No. 40.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... color additive FD&C Red No. 40 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.340(a)(1) and (b). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with FD&C Red No. 40 may contain...

  10. 21 CFR 74.1340 - FD&C Red No. 40.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... color additive FD&C Red No. 40 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.340(a)(1) and (b). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with FD&C Red No. 40 may contain...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  6. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  6. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  11. 76 FR 31824 - Chemical Mixtures Containing Listed Forms of Phosphorus and Change in Application Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Enforcement Administration 21 CFR Part 1310 RIN 1117-AA66 Chemical Mixtures Containing Listed Forms of... rulemaking in which DEA proposed regulations which establish those chemical mixtures containing red... mixtures containing red phosphorus in a concentration of 80 percent or less and mixtures...

  12. 21 CFR 82.304 - FD&C Red No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.304 FD&C Red No. 4. The color additive FD&C Red No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1304(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. FD&C Red No. 4 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  13. 21 CFR 82.304 - FD&C Red No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.304 FD&C Red No. 4. The color additive FD&C Red No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1304(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. FD&C Red No. 4 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  14. 21 CFR 82.304 - FD&C Red No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.304 FD&C Red No. 4. The color additive FD&C Red No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1304(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. FD&C Red No. 4 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  15. 21 CFR 82.304 - FD&C Red No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.304 FD&C Red No. 4. The color additive FD&C Red No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1304(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. FD&C Red No. 4 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  16. 21 CFR 82.304 - FD&C Red No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.304 FD&C Red No. 4. The color additive FD&C Red No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1304(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. FD&C Red No. 4 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  17. Story-List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lanaii

    The program, STORY-LIST, generates alphabetized cumulative word lists by story number within a school grade. It is designed to read a group of cards until it finds a new grade/story number. Each word read is stored in an array, sorted, and an asterisk is added to each word in the array. This array is then merged with the old sorted word list and…

  18. Complexity versus certainty in understanding species’ declines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundstrom, Shana M.; Allen, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional approaches to predict species declines (e.g. government processes or IUCN Red Lists), may be too simplistic and may therefore misguide management and conservation. Using complex systems approaches that account for scale-specific patterns and processes have the potential to overcome these limitations.

  19. Interest Check List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The original edition of the Department of Labor Interest Check List aims at helping students decide what kinds of work they would like and lists activities that are found in a broad range of industries and occupations. The student is advised to read each of approximately 175 items and indicate how he feels about the activity described by placing a…

  20. NSSDC Data Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) are listed. The spacecraft, principal investigator, the experiment, and time span of the data are given. A listing is also included of ground-based data, models, computer routines and composite spacecraft data that are available from NSSDC.

  1. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  2. High Red Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  3. Red Bull Stratos Presentation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Red Bull Stratos High Performance Director Andy Walshe & Technical Project Director Art Thompson share the Stratos story with JSC. Supported by a team of experts, Felix Baumgartner reached 128,100 ...

  4. Red Hill Updates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This and other periodic updates are intended to keep the public informed on major progress being made to protect public health and the environment at the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  5. Aurora Australis, Red Crown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Aurora Australis or Southern Lights (location unknown) shows a spiked band of red airglow called a 'Red Crown' above the Earth Limb. Calculated to be in the 80 - 120 km altitude region, auroral activity is due to exitation of atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere by radiation from the van Allen Radiation Belts and is most common above the 65 degree north and south latitude range during the spring and fall of the year.

  6. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  7. Egypt and Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

  8. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The first part of this listing, Satellite Data, is in an abbreviated form compared to the data catalogs published by NSSDC. It is organized by NSSDC spacecraft common name. The launch date and NSSDC ID are printed for each spacecraft. The experiments are listed alphabetically by the principal investigator's or team leader's last name following the spacecraft name. The experiment name and NSSDC ID are printed for each experiment. The data sets are listed by NSSDC ID following the experiment name. The data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time span of the data as verified by NSSDC are printed for each data set.

  9. Risk assessment of lead poisoning and pesticide exposure in the declining population of red-breasted goose (Branta ruficollis) wintering in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rafael; Petkov, Nikolai; Lopez-Antia, Ana; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Green, Andy J

    2016-11-01

    The red-breasted goose Branta ruficollis is a globally threatened species (IUCN Vulnerable) and the only European goose species currently in decline. Working on the wintering grounds on the Black Sea Coast, we address two potential causes of decline of this species for the first time: lead poisoning, and contamination from pesticides. We quantified the densities of spent Pb shot in three wetlands used by the geese in north-east Bulgaria, and analysed the Pb concentration in the faeces of red-breasted geese and the more abundant greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons, using Al concentration as an indicator of soil ingestion. Pb shot densities in sediments were low, and we found no evidence for Pb shot ingestion in red-breasted geese. On the other hand, we found that the geese were feeding on wheat whose seeds were treated with four fungicides: thiram, tebuconazole, difenoconazole and fludioxonil, and the two first were even detected in geese faecal samples. Using data on the daily food intake, we estimated the exposure levels of the geese to these fungicides, both by measuring the concentrations remaining on seeds and by estimating the amount used to coat the seeds at the time of sowing. We found that the exposure rates estimated during the sowing period for both geese species can exceed the recognized hazardous doses for thiram, and to a lesser extent for tebuconazole, which indicates that some pesticides may be playing a previously overlooked role in the decline of red-breasted geese.

  10. Associative list processing unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  11. An Energy Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VocEd, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Selected energy resource information, from both federal and private sources, is listed under funding, general information and assistance, recycling, solar, transportation, utilities, and wind power. Books, pamphlets, films, journals, newsletters, and other materials are included. (MF)

  12. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify, in a highly summarized way, data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). Most data are maintained as offline data sets gathered from individual instruments carried on spacecraft; these comprise the Satellite Data Listing. Descriptive names, time spans, data form, and quality of these data sets are identified in the listing, which is sorted alphabetically, first by spacecraft name and then by the principal investigator's or team leader's last name. Several data sets not associated with individual spaceflight instruments are identified in separate listings following the Satellite Data Listing. These include composite spacecraft data sets, ground based data, models, and computer routines. NSSDC also offers data via special services and systems in a number of areas, including the Astronomical Data Center, Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops, NASA Climate Data System, Pilot Land Data System, and Crustal Dynamics Data Information System.

  13. Green Power Partner List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  14. The List Poem: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagin, Larry

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of lists and classification in poetry throughout history. Gives examples of lists in verse from Elizabethan to modern times. Offers some basic types and functions of the "list poem." Relates the lists poems of a fourth grade class. (PRA)

  15. The hot list strategy.

    SciTech Connect

    Wos, L.; Pieper, G. W.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    1999-01-01

    Experimentation strongly suggests that, for attacking deep questions and hard problems with the assistance of an automated reasoning program, the more effective paradigms rely on the retention of deduced information. A significant obstacle ordinarily presented by such a paradigm is the deduction and retention of one or more needed conclusions whose complexity sharply delays their consideration. To mitigate the severity of the cited obstacle, I formulated and feature in this article the hot list strategy. The hot list strategy asks the researcher to choose, usually from among the input statements characterizing the problem under study, one or more statements that are conjectured to play a key role for assignment completion. The chosen statements--conjectured to merit revisiting, again and again--are placed in an input list of statements, called the hot list. When an automated reasoning program has decided to retain a new conclusion C--before any other statement is chosen to initiate conclusion drawing--the presence of a nonempty hot list (with an appropriate assignment of the input parameter known as heat) causes each inference rule in use to be applied to C together with the appropriate number of members of the hot list. Members of the hot list are used to complete applications of inference rules and not to initiate applications. The use of the hot list strategy thus enables an automated reasoning program to briefly consider a newly retained conclusion whose complexity would otherwise prevent its use for perhaps many CPU-hours. To give evidence of the value of the strategy, I focus on four contexts: (1) dramatically reducing the CPU time required to reach a desired goal, (2) finding a proof of a theorem that had previously resisted all but the more inventive automated attempts, (3) discovering a proof that is more elegant than previously known, and (4) answering a question that had steadfastly eluded researchers relying on an automated reasoning program. I also

  16. Predicting the distribution of the Asian tapir in Peninsular Malaysia using maximum entropy modeling.

    PubMed

    Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Rayan, D Mark; Aziz, Sheema Abdul; Kawanishi, Kae; Traeholt, Carl; Magintan, David; Yazi, Muhammad Fadlli Abdul; Tingley, Reid

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, the IUCN threat status of the Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) was reclassified from 'vulnerable' to 'endangered'. The latest distribution map from the IUCN Red List suggests that the tapirs' native range is becoming increasingly fragmented in Peninsular Malaysia, but distribution data collected by local researchers suggest a more extensive geographical range. Here, we compile a database of 1261 tapir occurrence records within Peninsular Malaysia, and demonstrate that this species, indeed, has a much broader geographical range than the IUCN range map suggests. However, extreme spatial and temporal bias in these records limits their utility for conservation planning. Therefore, we used maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling to elucidate the potential extent of the Asian tapir's occurrence in Peninsular Malaysia while accounting for bias in existing distribution data. Our MaxEnt model predicted that the Asian tapir has a wider geographic range than our fine-scale data and the IUCN range map both suggest. Approximately 37% of Peninsular Malaysia contains potentially suitable tapir habitats. Our results justify a revision to the Asian tapir's extent of occurrence in the IUCN Red List. Furthermore, our modeling demonstrated that selectively logged forests encompass 45% of potentially suitable tapir habitats, underscoring the importance of these habitats for the conservation of this species in Peninsular Malaysia.

  17. Red-based cumulus.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2015-02-01

    Observations and model simulations of cumulus clouds whose bases are tinted red when the Sun is well above the horizon are presented. Conditions for seeing red bases include (1) a red underlying surface (which may consist of dust clouds, as from haboobs) with high albedo, (2) small fractional cloud cover when the Sun is far enough below the zenith for direct sunlight to illuminate much of the surface directly below and around cloud base, (3) optically thick clouds so that the bases are dark, and (4) clouds with bases that are near enough to the observer to appear high in the sky so that the admixture of scattered light from the intervening atmosphere is minimized.

  18. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard; King, Joseph H.

    1990-01-01

    In a highly summarized way, data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) is identified. Most data are offline data sets (on magnetic tape or as film/print products of various sizes) from individual instruments carried on spacecraft; these compose the Satellite Data Listing. Descriptive names, time spans, data form, and quantity of these data sets are identified in the listing, which is sorted alphabetically-first by spacecraft name and then by the principal investigator's or team leader's last name. Several data sets held at NSSDC, not associated with individual spaceflight instruments, are identified in separate listings following the Satellite Data Listing. These data sets make up the Supplementary Data Listings and include composite spacecraft data sets, ground-based data, models, and computer routines. The identifiers used in the Supplementary Data Listings were created by NSSDC and are explained in the pages preceding the listings. Data set form codes are listed. NSSDC offers primarily archival, retrieval, replication, and dissemination services associated with the data sets discussed in the two major listings identified above. NSSDC also provides documentation which enables the data recipient to use the data received. NSSDC is working toward expanding presently limited capabilities for data subsetting and for promotion of data files to online residence for user downloading. NSSDC data holdings span the range of scientific disciplines in which NASA is involved, and include astrophysics, lunar and planetary science, solar physics, space plasma physics, and Earth science. In addition to the functions mentioned above, NSSDC offers data via special services and systems in a number of areas, including Astronomical Data Center (ADC), Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops (CDAWs), NASA Climate Data System (NCDS), Pilot Land Data System (PLDS), and Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS). Furthermore, NSSDC has a no-password account on its

  19. List-mode likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; White, Timothy; Parra, Lucas C.

    2010-01-01

    As photon-counting imaging systems become more complex, there is a trend toward measuring more attributes of each individual event. In various imaging systems the attributes can include several position variables, time variables, and energies. If more than about four attributes are measured for each event, it is not practical to record the data in an image matrix. Instead it is more efficient to use a simple list where every attribute is stored for every event. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the concept of likelihood for such list-mode data. We present expressions for list-mode likelihood with an arbitrary number of attributes per photon and for both preset counts and preset time. Maximization of this likelihood can lead to a practical reconstruction algorithm with list-mode data, but that aspect is covered in a separate paper [IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (to be published)]. An expression for lesion detectability for list-mode data is also derived and compared with the corresponding expression for conventional binned data. PMID:9379247

  20. Seeing Red over Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes federal case involving suspension of New Jersey high school student for wearing a T-shirt listing top 10 reasons for being a "redneck" in violation of district's racial harassment policy. Court upheld the policy with a minor exception, but ruled its application to the student's "redneck" T-shirt violated his First…

  1. Canadian Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level.

  2. Red Emitting VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({≤} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  3. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  4. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  5. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  6. RED2TEX: A TRIX RED to LATEX converter

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, L.; Langdon, A.B.

    1987-05-20

    A summary of RED2TEX is presented. RED2TEX converts standard TRIX RED format commands to TEX or LATEX commands for subsequent LATEX formatting. LATEX is a special version of the TEX document preparation system. LATEX adds to TEX a collection of commands that simplifies formatting. LATEX runs on the J-Vax and the LLL-LCC Pyramid machines. RED2TEX resides in Unix directory CHASE/TEX.

  7. 21 CFR 74.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 74.1328 Section 74.1328 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  8. 21 CFR 74.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 74.1330 Section 74.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  9. 21 CFR 74.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.1336 Section 74.1336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  10. 21 CFR 74.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 74.1331 Section 74.1331 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  11. 21 CFR 74.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 74.1321 Section 74.1321 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 74.1331 Section 74.1331 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  13. 21 CFR 74.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 74.1328 Section 74.1328 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  14. 21 CFR 74.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 74.1330 Section 74.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  15. 21 CFR 74.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 74.1331 Section 74.1331 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 74.1327 Section 74.1327 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 74.1330 Section 74.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 74.1328 Section 74.1328 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 74.1330 Section 74.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 74.1328 Section 74.1328 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  1. 21 CFR 74.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.1336 Section 74.1336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  2. 21 CFR 74.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 74.1321 Section 74.1321 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1339 - D&C Red No. 39.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 39. 74.1339 Section 74.1339 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1339 D&C Red No. 39. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 74.1321 Section 74.1321 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 74.1331 Section 74.1331 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  6. 21 CFR 74.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.1317 Section 74.1317 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  7. 21 CFR 74.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.1336 Section 74.1336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  8. 21 CFR 74.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.1336 Section 74.1336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  9. 21 CFR 74.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 74.1321 Section 74.1321 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  10. 21 CFR 74.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 74.1327 Section 74.1327 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  11. 21 CFR 74.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 74.1327 Section 74.1327 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 74.1327 Section 74.1327 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  13. 21 CFR 74.1304 - FD&C Red No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FD&C Red No. 4. 74.1304 Section 74.1304 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1304 FD&C Red No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  14. 21 CFR 74.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 74.1322 Section 74.1322 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  15. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  16. List 47: blue honeysuckle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This summary presents the descriptions of a newly released blue honeysuckle (Lonicera cerulea L.) cultivar for the List of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars. This blue honeysuckle cultivar was released in Canada in 2012 and has pending Plant Breeder’s Rights Certification with Agriculture Canada. The cult...

  17. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard; King, Joseph H.

    1993-01-01

    This document identifies, in a highly summarized way, all the data held at the NSSDC. These data cover astrophysics and astronomy, solar and space physics, planetary and lunar, and Earth science disciplines. They are primarily, but not exclusively, from past and ongoing NASA spaceflight missions. We first identify all the data electronically available through NSSDC's principal online (magnetic disk-based) and nearline (robotics jukebox-based) systems, and then those data available on CDROM's. Finally, we identify all NSSDC-held data, the majority of which are still offline on magnetic tape, film, etc., but including the electronically accessible and CD-ROM resident data of earlier sections. These comprehensive identifications are in the form of two listings, one for the majority of NSSDC-held data sets resulting from individual instruments flown on individual spacecraft, and the other listing for the remainder of NSSDC-held data sets which do not adhere to this spacecraft/experiment/dataset hierarchy. The latter listing is presented in two parts, one for the numerous source catalogs of the NSSDC-operated Astronomical Data Center, and the other for the remainder. Access paths to all these data, and to further information about each, are also given in the related sections of this Data Listing. Note that this document is a companion to the electronically accessible information files (in particular, the NASA Master Directory) at NSSDC which also identify NSSDC-resident (and other) data.

  18. Superfund: National Priorities List (NPL)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sites are listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) upon completion of Hazard Ranking System (HRS) screening, public solicitation of comments about the proposed site, and after all public comments have been addressed.

  19. The great red flashlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbach, Edward A.

    After fifty years of fighting with flashlights which persisted in rolling to the ground, being mislaid, or stashed in a pocket, the author designed a unit which was always on hand and needed no search for the switch. A normally closed switch, internal to the bottom of the flashlight case, is opened by the weight of the unit suspended on a cord about the neck. Lifting the unit with two fingers turns on the red light, while releasing the unit automatically turns it off. A felt covering around the flashlight provides comfort on cold nights. Because this red light would be a welcome tool for other variable star observers, more units were assembled and brought to the AAVSO meeting in Houston for distribution to observers who agreed to give each unit a workout and report on its performance. The author is waiting to hear from these observers.

  20. A New Academic Vocabulary List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…

  1. Reading List in Classification Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Phyllis A.

    The reading list contains 180 references and serves as an introduction to classification research literature. While the list includes major viewpoints on basic work in the field of classification as well as related areas, it excludes critical literature. The major divisions of the reading list are: (1) Definition: What is Classification, (2)…

  2. Lists as Research Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) is famous for having turned botany into a systematic discipline, through his classification systems – most notably the sexual system – and his nomenclature. Throughout his life, Linnaeus experimented with various paper technologies designed to display information synoptically. The list took pride of place among these and is also the common element of more complex representations he produced, such as genera descriptions or his “natural system.” Taking our clues from the anthropology of writing, we want to demonstrate that lists can be considered as genuine research technologies. They possess a potential to generate research problems of their own but also pose limitations to inquiries that can only be overcome by the use of new media. PMID:23488242

  3. RCRA NPL listing policy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-10

    The directive discusses that on 6/10/86, EPA announced the first phase of a new policy for listing RCRA Subtitle C facilities on the NPL (51 FR 21057-21062 and 21109-21112). The document presents interim guidance for implementation of the new policy and solicits information from the Regions to assist in the final policy development. Specifically this includes the final and proposed RCRA/NPL listing policy; provides a questionnaire for an initial screening of potential NPL sites with respect to their RCRA status; solicits suggestions about effective policy development and implementation from the Regional Offices; and identifies an interim course of action until more definitive guidance is available.

  4. Lists as research technologies.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

    2012-12-01

    The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) is famous for having turned botany into a systematic discipline, through his classification systems--most notably the sexual system--and his nomenclature. Throughout his life, Linnaeus experimented with various paper technologies designed to display information synoptically. The list took pride of place among these and is also the common element of more complex representations he produced, such as genera descriptions and his "natural system." Taking clues from the anthropology of writing, this essay seeks to demonstrate that lists can be considered as genuine research technologies. They possess a potential to generate research problems of their own but also pose limitations to inquiries that can be overcome only by the use of new media.

  5. NSSDC Data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A convenient reference to space science and supportive data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) is provided. Satellite data are organized by NSSDC spacecraft common name. The launch date and NSSDC ID are given. Experiments are listed alphabetically by the principal investigator or team leader. The experiment name and NSSDC ID, data set ID, data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time span of the data as verified by NSSDC are shown. Ground-based data, models, computer routines, and composite spacecraft data that are available from NSSDC are listed alphabetically by discipline, source, data type, data content, and data set. The data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time span covered where appropriate are included.

  6. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  7. 21 CFR 74.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No. 21 may contain only those diluents that are suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring drugs... (calculated as sodium salts), not more than 10 percent. Insoluble matter (alkaline solution), not more than...

  8. 21 CFR 74.3230 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.3230 Section 74.3230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... required to accomplish the intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization for this use shall not be...

  9. 21 CFR 74.3230 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.3230 Section 74.3230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... required to accomplish the intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization for this use shall not be...

  10. The red ear syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:24093332

  11. 21 CFR 81.10 - Termination of provisional listings of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... listing. In addition, the Commissioner has learned of the possible contamination of D&C Red No. 10, D&C... not yield benzidine from the decomposition of a subsidiary reaction product that might be present in... evidence that will support a safe tolerance for these colors in drugs or cosmetics. In...

  12. Identification list of binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov,, O.; Karchevsky,, A.; Kaygorodov, P.; Kovaleva, D.

    The Identification List of Binaries (ILB) is a star catalogue constructed to facilitate cross-referencing between different catalogues of binary stars. As of 2015, it comprises designations for approximately 120,000 double/multiple systems. ILB contains star coordinates and cross-references to the Bayer/Flemsteed, DM (BD/CD/CPD), HD, HIP, ADS, WDS, CCDM, TDSC, GCVS, SBC9, IGR (and some other X-ray catalogues), PSR designations, as well as identifications in the recently developed BSDB system. ILB eventually became a part of the BDB stellar database.

  13. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  14. Fade to Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust

    This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight.

    In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars.

    The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob.

    Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons.

    Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The

  15. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  16. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard; King, Joseph H.

    1994-01-01

    This document identifies, in a highly summarized way, all the data held at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). These data cover astrophysics and astronomy, solar and space physics, planetary and lunar, and Earth science disciplines. They are primarily but not exclusively from past and on-going NASA spaceflight missions. We first identify all the data electronically available through NSSDC's principal on-line (magnetic disk-based) and near-line (robotics jukebox-based) systems and then those data available on CD-ROM's. Finally, we identify all NSSDC-held data, the majority of which are still off line on magnetic tape, film, etc., but include the electronically accessible and CD-ROM-resident data of earlier sections. These comprehensive identifications are in the form of two listings, one for the majority of NSSDC-held data sets resulting from individual instruments flown on individual spacecraft and the other for the remainder of NSSDC-held data sets that do not adhere to this spacecraft/experiment/data set hierarchy. The latter listing is presented in two parts, one for the numerous source catalogs of the NSSDC-operated Astronomical Data Center and the other for the remainder.

  17. The status of coral reef ecology research in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berumen, M. L.; Hoey, A. S.; Bass, W. H.; Bouwmeester, J.; Catania, D.; Cochran, J. E. M.; Khalil, M. T.; Miyake, S.; Mughal, M. R.; Spaet, J. L. Y.; Saenz-Agudelo, P.

    2013-09-01

    The Red Sea has long been recognized as a region of high biodiversity and endemism. Despite this diversity and early history of scientific work, our understanding of the ecology of coral reefs in the Red Sea has lagged behind that of other large coral reef systems. We carried out a quantitative assessment of ISI-listed research published from the Red Sea in eight specific topics (apex predators, connectivity, coral bleaching, coral reproductive biology, herbivory, marine protected areas, non-coral invertebrates and reef-associated bacteria) and compared the amount of research conducted in the Red Sea to that from Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and the Caribbean. On average, for these eight topics, the Red Sea had 1/6th the amount of research compared to the GBR and about 1/8th the amount of the Caribbean. Further, more than 50 % of the published research from the Red Sea originated from the Gulf of Aqaba, a small area (<2 % of the area of the Red Sea) in the far northern Red Sea. We summarize the general state of knowledge in these eight topics and highlight the areas of future research priorities for the Red Sea region. Notably, data that could inform science-based management approaches are badly lacking in most Red Sea countries. The Red Sea, as a geologically "young" sea located in one of the warmest regions of the world, has the potential to provide insight into pressing topics such as speciation processes as well as the capacity of reef systems and organisms to adapt to global climate change. As one of the world's most biodiverse coral reef regions, the Red Sea may yet have a significant role to play in our understanding of coral reef ecology at a global scale.

  18. Count Listings in the October 2001 MLA "Job Information List."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADE Bulletin, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents the annual coding of positions listed in the October 2001 Modern Language Association (MLA) "Job Information List." Notes increases in the number of English as well as foreign language positions. Presents numerous additional findings. Includes 10 tables and 5 figures of data. (RS)

  19. Oxygen delivery from red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A; Federspiel, W J; Clark, P A; Cokelet, G R

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical analysis of the unloading of oxygen from a red cell. A scale analysis of the governing transport equations shows that the solutions have a boundary layer structure near the red-cell membrane. The boundary layer is a region of chemical nonequilibrium, and it owes its existence to the fact that the kinetic time scales are shorter than the diffusion time scales in the red cell. The presence of the boundary layer allows an analytical solution to be obtained by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. A very useful result from the analysis is a simple, lumped-parameter description of the oxygen delivery from a red cell. The accuracy of the lumped-parameter description has been verified by comparing its predictions with results obtained by numerical integration of the full equations for a one-dimensional slab. As an application, we calculate minimum oxygen unloading times for red cells. PMID:3978198

  20. Polysaccharides of the red algae.

    PubMed

    Usov, Anatolii I

    2011-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) are known as the source of unique sulfated galactans, such as agar, agarose, and carrageenans. The wide practical uses of these polysaccharides are based on their ability to form strong gels in aqueous solutions. Gelling polysaccharides usually have molecules built up of repeating disaccharide units with a regular distribution of sulfate groups, but most of the red algal species contain more complex galactans devoid of gelling ability because of various deviations from the regular structure. Moreover, several red algae may contain sulfated mannans or neutral xylans instead of sulfated galactans as the main structural polysaccharides. This chapter is devoted to a description of the structural diversity of polysaccharides found in the red algae, with special emphasis on the methods of structural analysis of sulfated galactans. In addition to the structural information, some data on the possible use of red algal polysaccharides as biologically active polymers or as taxonomic markers are briefly discussed.

  1. Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Orsini, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    High consumption of red meat and processed meat has been associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from prospective studies on red meat and processed meat consumption in relationship to all-cause mortality. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed through May 2013 and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. Prospective studies that reported relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for the association of red meat or processed meat consumption with all-cause mortality were eligible. Study-specific results were combined by using a random-effects model. Nine prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. The summary relative risks of all-cause mortality for the highest versus the lowest category of consumption were 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98, 1.22; n = 6 studies) for unprocessed red meat, 1.23 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.28; n = 6 studies) for processed meat, and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.24, 1.35; n = 5 studies) for total red meat. In a dose-response meta-analysis, consumption of processed meat and total red meat, but not unprocessed red meat, was statistically significantly positively associated with all-cause mortality in a nonlinear fashion. These results indicate that high consumption of red meat, especially processed meat, may increase all-cause mortality.

  2. Cosmetology Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  3. Listing of Food Service Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    A comprehensive listing of food service equipment including--(1) companies authorized to use the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, and (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF standards including soda fountains, spray-type dishwashers, dishwashing equipment, cooking equipment, commerical cooking and warming equipment, freezers,…

  4. Microcomputer Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the microcomputer series. Each occupation is divided into 5 to 11 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  5. Printing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 10 occupations in the printing series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  6. Advisory List of Computer Courseware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Educational Media.

    Computer courseware appropriate for instruction in grades K-12 is listed in two advisory lists. Entries, selected from materials submitted by producers which received favorable reviews by educators, are arranged in the following categories: arts education, communication skills, mathematics, science, utility (a quiz generator), word processing, and…

  7. Welding Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the welding series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  8. Toxic Substances List. 1972 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Herbert E., Ed.; And Others

    The second edition of the Toxic Substances List, containing some 13,000 entries, is prepared annually by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. The purpose of the List is to identify all known toxic substances but not to quantitate the hazard. The List…

  9. Red Marks the Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This hematite abundance index map helps geologists choose hematite-rich locations to visit around Opportunity's landing site. Blue dots equal areas low in hematite and red dots equal areas high in hematite.

    Why Hematite Geologists are eager to reach the hematite-rich area in the upper left to closely examine the soil, which may reveal secrets about how the hematite got to this location. Knowing how the hematite on Mars was formed may help scientists characterize the past environment and determine whether that environment provided favorable conditions for life.

    The Plan Over the next few sols, engineers and scientists plan to drive Opportunity to the hematite-rich area then attempt a 'pre-trench' sequence, taking measurements with the Moessbauer spectrometer, alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and microscopic imager. Next, the plan is to trench the hematite rich area by spinning one wheel in place to 'dig' a shallow hole. Finally, scientists will aim the instrument arm back at the same area where it pre-trenched to get post-trench data with the same instruments to compare and contrast the levels of hematite and revel how deep the hematite lays in the dirt.

    Index Map Details The hematite abundance index map was created using data from the miniature thermal emission instrument. The first layer is a mosaic of panoramic camera images taken prior to egress, when Opportunity was still on the lander. The colored dots represent data collected by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on sol 11, after Opportunity had rolled off of the lander and the rover was located at the center of the blue semi-circle.

    The spectrometer is located on the panoramic camera mast. On sol 11, it took a low-angle 180-degree panorama of the area in front of the rover, indicated by the blue shaded dots. The instrument then raised the angle of its field of view a few degrees higher to sweep around behind the rover, indicated by the red and yellow dots offset at the far sides of the

  10. Pragmatic Perspective on Conservation Genetics and Demographic History of the Last Surviving Population of Kashmir Red Deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in India

    PubMed Central

    Mukesh; Kumar, Ved P.; Sharma, Lalit K.; Shukla, Malay; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) is of great conservation concern because it represents the easternmost and only hope for an Asiatic survivor of the red deer species in the Indian subcontinent. Despite the rigorous conservation efforts of the Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu & Kashmir, the hangul population has experienced a severe decline in numbers and range contraction in the past few decades. The hangul population once abundant in the past has largely become confined to the Dachigam landscape, with a recent population estimate of 218 individuals. We investigated the genetic variability and demographic history of the hangul population and found that it has shown a relatively low diversity estimates when compared to other red deer populations of the world. Neutrality tests, which are used to evaluate demographic effects, did not support population expansion, and the multimodal pattern of mismatch distribution indicated that the hangul population is under demographic equilibrium. Furthermore, the hangul population did not exhibit any signature of bottleneck footprints in the past, and Coalescent Bayesian Skyline plot analysis revealed that the population had not experienced any dramatic changes in the effective population size over the last several thousand years. We observed a strong evidence of sub-structuring in the population, wherein the majority of individuals were assigned to different clusters in Bayesian cluster analysis. Population viability analysis demonstrated insignificant changes in the mean population size, with a positive growth rate projected for the next hundred years. We discuss the phylogenetic status of hangul for the first time among the other red deer subspecies of the world and strongly recommend to upgrade hangul conservation status under IUCN that should be discrete from the other red deer subspecies of the world to draw more conservation attention from national and international bodies. PMID:25671567

  11. Pragmatic perspective on conservation genetics and demographic history of the last surviving population of Kashmir red deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in India.

    PubMed

    Mukesh; Kumar, Ved P; Sharma, Lalit K; Shukla, Malay; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) is of great conservation concern because it represents the easternmost and only hope for an Asiatic survivor of the red deer species in the Indian subcontinent. Despite the rigorous conservation efforts of the Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu & Kashmir, the hangul population has experienced a severe decline in numbers and range contraction in the past few decades. The hangul population once abundant in the past has largely become confined to the Dachigam landscape, with a recent population estimate of 218 individuals. We investigated the genetic variability and demographic history of the hangul population and found that it has shown a relatively low diversity estimates when compared to other red deer populations of the world. Neutrality tests, which are used to evaluate demographic effects, did not support population expansion, and the multimodal pattern of mismatch distribution indicated that the hangul population is under demographic equilibrium. Furthermore, the hangul population did not exhibit any signature of bottleneck footprints in the past, and Coalescent Bayesian Skyline plot analysis revealed that the population had not experienced any dramatic changes in the effective population size over the last several thousand years. We observed a strong evidence of sub-structuring in the population, wherein the majority of individuals were assigned to different clusters in Bayesian cluster analysis. Population viability analysis demonstrated insignificant changes in the mean population size, with a positive growth rate projected for the next hundred years. We discuss the phylogenetic status of hangul for the first time among the other red deer subspecies of the world and strongly recommend to upgrade hangul conservation status under IUCN that should be discrete from the other red deer subspecies of the world to draw more conservation attention from national and international bodies.

  12. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  13. Red Yeast Rice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterol-reducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, non-augmented, standardized amount of monacolins. PMID:28257063

  14. 75 FR 76021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITY Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  15. Pediatric red cell disorders and pure red cell aplasia.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Sherrie L

    2004-12-01

    Anemia in children may arise from a wide variety of pathogenetic mechanisms that include congenital and acquired disorders. Often the diagnostic considerations include disorders that are not seen commonly in adults and lifelong disorders that arise in children and persist throughout life. Consideration of diverse causes of anemia such as red cell membrane disorders, red cell enzymopathies, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, congenital sideroblastic anemias, and hereditary pure red cell aplasia (Diamond-Blackfan anemia), as well as infectious causes such as parvovirus B19 infection, often is required when diagnosing anemia in an infant or young child. Knowledge of these entities that are important causes of anemia in the pediatric population, including clinical manifestations and laboratory workup, will aid in recognition of the specific disease entities and effective workup of pediatric red cell disorders.

  16. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species.

  17. Long Secondary Periods in variable red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, C. P.; Wood, P. R.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Soszyński, I.

    2009-11-01

    We present a study of a sample of Large Magellanic Cloud red giants exhibiting Long Secondary Periods (LSPs). We use radial velocities obtained from VLT spectral observations and MACHO and OGLE light curves to examine properties of the stars and to evaluate models for the cause of LSPs. This sample is much larger than the combined previous studies of Hinkle et al. and Wood, Olivier & Kawaler. Binary and pulsation models have enjoyed much support in recent years. Assuming stellar pulsation, we calculate from the velocity curves that the typical fractional radius change over an LSP cycle is greater than 30 per cent. This should lead to large changes in Teff that are not observed. Also, the small light amplitude of these stars seems inconsistent with the radius amplitude. We conclude that pulsation is not a likely explanation for the LSPs. The main alternative, physical movement of the star - binary motion - also has severe problems. If the velocity variations are due to binary motion, the distribution of the angle of periastron in our large sample of stars has a probability of 1.4 × 10-3 that it comes from randomly aligned binary orbits. In addition, we calculate a typical companion mass of 0.09Msolar. Less than 1 per cent of low-mass main-sequence stars have companions near this mass (0.06-0.12Msolar) whereas ~25-50 per cent of low-mass red giants end up with LSPs. We are unable to find a suitable model for the LSPs and conclude by listing their known properties.

  18. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  19. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  20. Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report: Red Lake River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    The two lakes are remnants of glacial Lake Agassiz and together comprise the largest lake area wholly contained in Minnesota. Biology The principal...Red River Valley Laku Plain, Glacial Lake Agassiz Beachlines, Aspen Parklands, Glacial Lake Agassiz Lowlands, Border-Prairie Transition, and North...Areas of particular aesthetic appeal include Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, seven state forests, Upper and Lower Red Lakes, and the natural wooded

  1. Red blood cells, spherocytosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Spherocytosis is a hereditary disorder of the red blood cells (RBCs), which may be associated with a mild anemia. Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers seen ...

  2. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePlus

    ... name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC Antibody Screen ; Blood Typing ; Type ... a positive RBC antibody screen or a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) . It is used to identify ...

  3. Safety equipment list

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.; Roe, N.A.

    1995-04-13

    This analysis assigns preliminary safety class (SC) designations to major systems and structures associated with the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project in accordance with the Multi-Function QAPP, W-236A (Hall 1994). Also included are SC assignments for those subsystems and major components of the major systems discussed in this document (see Appendices A and B). Component safety classifications have been completed through inspection (using engineering judgement) for simple systems, and through use of logic models (i.e., fault trees) for complicated systems. This analysis is intended to augment the SC systems list supplied in Chapter 9 of the MWTF Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (WHC 1994). Whereas WHC (1994) only addresses select systems, this analysis addresses the SC ramifications of all MWTF systems and structures as identified in the Title 1 design media. This document provides additional analyses of the system safety classifications assignments, and classifies systems not addressed in WHC (1994). This analysis specifically describes the safety functions) that must be performed by each MWTF system.

  4. Transient Photochemistry of Neutral Red.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    ascorbic acid system to 50 successive flashes, indicating that no ground state neutral red is permanently converted to leuco dye . Since leuco neutral...complete regeneration of ground state neutral red in this pH range in the present study suggests that formation of leuco dye is not significant. The second...radical disproportionation step is followed by a slower step which converts leuco dye to semireduced radical. Because coupling the two steps

  5. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of Germain's Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron germaini (Aves, Galliformes, Phasianidae).

    PubMed

    Omeire, Destiny; Abdin, Shaunte; Brooks, Daniel M; Miranda, Hector C

    2015-04-01

    The Germain's Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron germaini (Aves, Galliformes, Phasianidae) is classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. germaini is 16,699 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. All of the 13 protein-coding genes have ATG as start codon. Eight of the 13 protein-coding genes have TAA as stop codon.

  7. Alien species as a driver of recent extinctions.

    PubMed

    Bellard, Céline; Cassey, Phillip; Blackburn, Tim M

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of alien species as a driver of recent extinctions in five major taxa (plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals), using data from the IUCN Red List. Our results show that alien species are the second most common threat associated with species that have gone completely extinct from these taxa since AD 1500. Aliens are the most common threat associated with extinctions in three of the five taxa analysed, and for vertebrate extinctions overall.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus): the only extant Tapiridae species in the old world.

    PubMed

    Muangkram, Yuttamol; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Kaolim, Nongnid; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Kamolnorranath, Sumate; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Dongsaard, Khwanruean; Maikaew, Umaporn; Sanannu, Saowaphang

    2016-01-01

    Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is categorized as Endangered on the 2008 IUCN red list. The first full-length mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Asian tapir is 16,717 bp in length. Base composition shows 34.6% A, 27.2% T, 25.8% C and 12.3% G. Highest polymorphic site is on the control region as typical for many species.

  9. Alien species as a driver of recent extinctions

    PubMed Central

    Bellard, Céline; Cassey, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of alien species as a driver of recent extinctions in five major taxa (plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals), using data from the IUCN Red List. Our results show that alien species are the second most common threat associated with species that have gone completely extinct from these taxa since AD 1500. Aliens are the most common threat associated with extinctions in three of the five taxa analysed, and for vertebrate extinctions overall. PMID:26888913

  10. Pesticide Data Submitters List (PDSL)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Data Submitters List is a compilation of names and addresses of registrants who wish to be notified and offered compensation for use of their data. It was developed to assist pesticide applicants in fulfilling their obligation under FIFRA.

  11. List 9 - Active CERCLIS Sites:

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The List 9 displays the sequence of activities undertaken at active CERCLIS sites. An active site is one at which site assessment, removal, remedial, enforcement, cost recovery, or oversight activities are being planned or conducted.

  12. STS-107 Master Experiment List

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A master list of the various experiments conducted aboard the STS-107 Space Mission is presented. The topics include: 1) Biology; 2) Earth and Space Sciences; 3) Physical Sciences; 4) Space Product Development; and 6) Technology Development.

  13. The SPELLINGCLUES Project at Red Deer College: Dialogue With the Computer as an Approach Toward Improving English Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubba, Lydia; Thorhallsson, Jon

    A computer-assisted instructional (CAI) program jointly sponsored by the English and Computer Science Departments at Red Deer College is being used to examine the ability of the computer to drill students in spelling. The program, called SPELLINGCLUES, runs in FORTRAN IV on an IBM 360/67 computer and covers a list of 100 frequently misspelled…

  14. Core Journal Lists: Classic Tool, New Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Robin A.; Jackson, Rose M.; Mullen, Laura Bowering

    2010-01-01

    Reviews the historical context of core journal lists, current uses in collection assessment, and existing methodologies for creating lists. Outlines two next generation core list projects developing new methodologies and integrating novel information/data sources to improve precision: a national-level core psychology list and the other a local…

  15. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  16. Characterizing warfare in red teaming.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ang; Abbass, Hussein A; Sarker, Ruhul

    2006-04-01

    Red teaming is the process of studying a problem by anticipating adversary behaviors. When done in simulations, the behavior space is divided into two groups; one controlled by the red team which represents the set of adversary behaviors or bad guys, while the other is controlled by the blue team which represents the set of defenders or good guys. Through red teaming, analysts can learn about the future by forward prediction of scenarios. More recently, defense has been looking at evolutionary computation methods in red teaming. The fitness function in these systems is highly stochastic, where a single configuration can result in multiple different outcomes. Operational, tactical and strategic decisions can be made based on the findings of the evolutionary method in use. Therefore, there is an urgent need for understanding the nature of these problems and the role of the stochastic fitness to gain insight into the possible performance of different methods. This paper presents a first attempt at characterizing the search space difficulties in red teaming to shed light on the expected performance of the evolutionary method in stochastic environments.

  17. 78 FR 26648 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  18. 77 FR 2561 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  19. 76 FR 20911 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Prairie...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... accepted by the scientific community. The prairie chub is listed as a species in the Common and Scientific... species that have invaded the Red River basin include common carp (Cyprinus carpio), threadfin shad... species mentioned in the petition (common carp, threadfin shad, and inland silverside) may be acting...

  20. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B. ); Adams, H.S. )

    1987-10-01

    In this letter, the authors take issue with Zedaker, Hyink, and Smith who have indicated that observed red spruce growth declines can be expected based on growth trends for even-aged stands of red spruce as documented in Meyer (1929). Recently, an examination was made of stand stocking levels at 750 sites where red spruce were cored and neither the rate of growth decline nor the extent of mortality were found to be related to stand stocking levels or previous disturbance history. The authors conclude that the Meyer data do not represent an appropriate model for stand dynamics of old-growth, high-elevation stands and no not adequately explain the growth declines observed at many of those sites.

  1. Red facts: Ethylene. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. The pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The RED FACTS fact sheet summarizes EPA's conclusion, as set forth in the Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED), that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

  2. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  3. Clusters rich in red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio

    In the past few years, several clusters containing large numbers of red supergiants have been discovered. These clusters are amongst the most massive young clusters known in the Milky Way, with stellar masses reaching a few 104 M ⊙. They have provided us, for the first time, with large homogeneous samples of red supergiants of a given age. These large populations make them, despite heavy extinction along their sightlines, powerful laboratories to understand the evolutionary status of red supergiants. While some of the clusters, such as the eponymous RSGC1, are so obscured that their members are only observable in the near-IR, some of them are easily accessible, allowing for an excellent characterisation of cluster and stellar properties. The information gleaned so far from these clusters gives strong support to the idea that late-M type supergiants represent a separate class, characterised by very heavy mass loss. It also shows that the spectral-type distribution of red supergiants in the Milky Way is very strongly peaked towards M1, while suggesting a correlation between spectral type and evolutionary stage.

  4. Infra-red soft universality

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, I.

    1997-06-15

    In a special class of supersymmetric grand unified theories, the commonly assumed universal form of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms is approached in the infra-red limit. The resulting universal scalar mass and trilinear coupling are predicted in terms of the gaugino mass.

  5. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Zedaker, S.M.; Hyink, D.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two decades second-growth red spruce stands in the Northeast have demonstrated declines in radial increment. Some observers are implicating air pollution as a primary cause of the declines, based on recently acquired increment cores from dominant trees. Various forms of air pollution (O/sub 3/, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, and trace metals) are known to reduce growth and development of tree species, but few studies have provided concrete evidence of regional pollution-caused declines in forest ecosystems. Recently published evidence of a synchronous, consistent, and unprecedented regional decline in red spruce should be weighed against the realization that radial increment in red spruce declines naturally as stands age. Separating anthropogenic stress-caused growth patterns from natural stand dynamics requires an in-depth knowledge of forest growth and yield, tree silvics, and forest ecosystem processes. Detailed analyses of growth by stand characteristics - site index, density, elevation, stand history - will be necessary to implicate air pollution as a primary cause of red spruce decline.

  6. Chemical Contamination of Red Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical residues have been present in red meat products since meat eating began. Only in the last few decades, however has man been able to identify and quantify these residues in meat products and to ascribe to them specific risks to human health. For some residues, uncertainties with respect to q...

  7. Pesa Large Red Dry Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Released in 2006, Pesa was derived from the single cross Rojo x Kablanketi made in Dec-Jan 1992-93. The parent ‘Rojo’ is a large red-seeded cultivar released by SUA in 1997. It has I bc-12 resistance to BCMV and BCMNV, resistance to the prevalent races of ALS, and moderate resistance to CBB, and H...

  8. Still red light for red light cameras? An update.

    PubMed

    Høye, Alena

    2013-06-01

    The present study has replicated the results from a previous meta-analysis by Erke (2009) [Erke, A., 2009. Red light for red-light cameras? A meta-analysis of the effects of red-light cameras on crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention 41 (5), 897-905.] based on a larger sample of RLC-studies, and provides answers to the criticisms that were raised by Lund et al. (2009) [Lund, A.K., Kyrychenko, S.Y., Retting, R.A., 2009. Caution: a comment on Alena Erke's red light for red-light cameras? A meta-analysis of the effects of red-light cameras on crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention 41, 895-896.] against the previous meta-analysis. The addition of recent studies to the meta-analysis and a more thorough investigation of potential moderator variables lead to a slight improvement of the estimated effects of RLC in the previous meta-analysis. The present study found a non-significant increase of all crashes by 6% and a non-significant decrease of all injury crashes by 13%. Right-angle collisions were found to decrease by 13% and rear-end collisions were found to increase by 39%. For right-angle injury collisions a decrease by 33% was found and for rear-end injury collisions a smaller increase was found (+19%). The effects of RLC are likely to be more favorable when RLC-warning signs are set up at main entrances to areas with RLC enforcement than when each RLC-intersection is signposted. The effects of RLC may become more favorable over time, this could however not be investigated empirically. Several results indicate that spillover effects may occur for right-angle collisions, but most likely not for rear-end and other crashes. If spillover effects do not occur for rear-end crashes, which increase at RLC intersection, this would be a positive result for RLC. However, the results seem to be affected to some degree by publication bias and the effects may therefore be somewhat less favorable than indicated by the results from meta-analysis.

  9. Genetic Basis for Red Coloration in Birds.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo J; Johnson, James D; Toomey, Matthew B; Ferreira, Mafalda S; Araujo, Pedro M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Andersson, Leif; Hill, Geoffrey E; Corbo, Joseph C; Carneiro, Miguel

    2016-06-06

    The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation.

  10. List of Posters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List of Posters: Dark matter annihilation in the Galactic galo, by Dokuchaev Vyacheslav, et al. NEMO developments towards km3 telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The NEMO project. Neutrino Mediterranean Observatory By Antonio Capone, NEMO Collaboration. Alignment as a result from QCD jet production or new still unknown physics at LHC? By Alexander Snigirev. Small-scale fluctuations of extensive air showers: systematics in energy and muon density estimation By Grigory Rubtsov. SHINIE: Simulation of High-Energy Neutrino Interacting with the Earth By Lin Guey-Lin, et al.. Thermodynamics of rotating solutions in n+1 dimensional Einstein - Maxwell -dilation gravity By Ahmad Sheykhi, et al.. Supernova neutrino physics with future large Cherenkov detectors By Daniele Montanino. Crossing of the Cosmological Constant Barrier in the string Inspired Dark Energy Model By S. Yu. Vernov. Calculations of radio signals produced by ultra-high and extremely high energy neutrino induced cascades in Antarctic ice By D. Besson, et al.. Inflation, Cosmic Acceleration and string Gravity By Ischwaree Neupane. Neutrino Physics: Charm and J/Psi production in the atmosphere By Liudmila Volkova. Three generation flavor transitions and decays of supernova relic neutrinos By Daniele Montanino. Lattice calculations & computational quantum field theory: Sonification of Quark and Baryon Spectra By Markum Harald, et al.. Generalized Kramers-Wannier Duality for spin systems with non-commutative symmetry By V. M. Buchstaber, et al.. Heavy ion collisions & quark matter: Nuclear matter jets and multifragmentation By Danut Argintaru, et al.. QCD hard interactions: The qT-spectrum of the Higgs and Slepton-pairs at the LHC By Guiseppe Bozzi. QCD soft interactions: Nonperturbative effects in Single-Spin Asymmetries: Instantons and TMD-parton distributions By Igor Cherednikov, et al.. Gluon dominance model and high multiplicity By Elena Kokoulina. Resonances in eta pi- pi- pi+ system By Dmitry Ryabchikov

  11. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  12. Course Listing 1971-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Program for Continuing Education in Public Health, San Francisco, CA.

    Courses to be presented in 12 states for the benefit of professional personnel in health and related fields are listed and briefly described. The courses were developed by the Program of Continuing Education in Public Health, with the aid of Graduate Schools of Public Health of the University of California at Berkeley and at Los Angeles, the…

  13. Electricity Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in electricity. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 10 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: residential electrician apprentice, material handler/supply clerk, maintenance electrician apprentice,…

  14. The program RADLST (Radiation Listing)

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, T.W.

    1988-02-29

    The program RADLST (Radiation Listing) is designed to calculate the nuclear and atomic radiations associated with the radioactive decay of nuclei. It uses as its primary input nuclear decay data in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) format. The code is written in FORTRAN 77 and, with a few exceptions, is consistent with the ANSI standard. 65 refs.

  15. Energy Materials: A Classified Listing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography includes 615 books and audiovisual products on energy and related topics. Books are listed in the following categories: reference, general, alternative sources, citizen action, coal, conservation and ecology, economics and politics, electricity, gas, geothermal, nuclear power, oil, solar, water, wind, and juveniles. A/V materials…

  16. SEAL /Subnetwork Enumeration And Listing/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Happ, W. W.; Mc Intosh, F. J.

    1968-01-01

    SEAL /Subnetwork Enumeration And Listing/ computer program uses combinatorial techniques to generate all of the nonredundant subnetwork configurations derivable from an asymmetrical network or device. This is accomplished by a systematic shorting and opening of accessible terminals to obtain the desired allowable configurations.

  17. Holidays. Instructional Media Advisory List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Media Evaluation Service.

    This annotated bibliography is directed at teachers of students in grades preK-6 and covers books about holidays. The holidays for which materials are listed are: Christmas, Easter, Halloween, Hanukkah, Passover, Purim, Rosh Hashanah, Sukkot, Thanksgiving, and Valentine's Day. A directory of publishers from whom these items are available is…

  18. The Making of "The List"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, David T.; Venable, Colleen; Barman, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Many educators, librarians, and even some parents anticipate the publication of the Outstanding Science Trade Books (OSTB) for grades K-12 each year. wondered how Some wonder how the mountain of trade books out there gets evaluated or how books are chosen as "outstanding"? This list does not just magically appear but is the result of a careful…

  19. The Making of the List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, David T.; Venable, Colleen; Barman, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Many educators, librarians, and even some parents anticipate the publication of the Outstanding Science Trade Books (OSTB) for grades K-12 each year (page 23). Have you ever wondered how the mountain of trade books out there gets evaluated or how books are chosen as "outstanding"? This list doesn't just magically appear but is the result of a…

  20. Schindler's List: A Viewer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulkower, Benjamin; And Others

    This guide aids in understanding the film, "Schindlers List," and how to present it for classroom use. The guide contains: (1) an historical overview of Krakow (Poland); (2) guidelines for viewing; (3) preparation for viewing; (4) topics for discussion after viewing; (5) activities after viewing; and (6) classroom enrichment activities…

  1. Red blood cell and leukocyte alloimmunization in patients awaiting kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Silvia Fernandes Ribeiro; Ferreira, Gláucia Maria; da Silva, Sonia Leite; Alves, Tânia Maria de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Ilana Farias; Ribeiro, Thyciana Rodrigues; Cavalcante, Maria do Carmo Serpa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the rates of red blood cell and leukocyte alloimmunization in patients with chronic kidney disease awaiting kidney transplantation. Methods In this cross-sectional and prospective study, the serum of 393 chronic kidney disease patients on a transplant waiting list in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil were tested for red cell and leukocyte antibodies. In addition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Results The average age in the sample of 393 patients was 34.1 ± 14 years. Slightly more than half (208; 52.9%) were male. The average numbers of transfusions and gestations were 3.1 ± 3.3 and 1.6 ± 6, respectively. One third (33.6%) were alloimmunized: 78% with leukocyte antibodies, 9.1% with red cell antibodies and 12.9% with both. Red cell antibodies were detected in 29 cases (7.4%), 17 of whom were women, who had received more transfusions than the males (p-value < 0.0001). The most frequently detected red cell antibodies belonged to the Rh (24.1%) and Kell (13.8%) blood group systems. Leukocyte antibodies were detected in 30.5% of cases, 83 of whom were women, who had received more transfusions than the males (p-value < 0.0001) and were more reactive to panel reactive antibodies (p-value < 0.0001). The mean alloreactivity to panel reactive antibodies was 47.7 ± 31.2%. Conclusion Chronic kidney disease patients on the transplant waiting list in Ceará, Brazil, display high rates of red cell (7.4%) and leukocyte (30.5%) alloimmunization. In this sample, alloimmunization was significantly associated with the number of transfusions and gender. PMID:23904808

  2. In Brief: Threats to species continue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-11-01

    Of 47,677 assessed species, 17,291 are threatened with extinction, according to the latest update of the Red List of Threatened Species issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) on 3 November. The list indicates that amphibians are the most threatened group of species known to date, with 1895 (nearly 30%) of 6285 amphibians in danger of extinction. Thirty-nine are already extinct or extinct in the wild, 484 are critically endangered, 754 are endangered, and 657 are vulnerable, according to IUCN. Under threat are 21% of mammals, 30% of amphibians, 12% of birds, 28% of reptiles, 37% of freshwater fishes, 70% of plants, and 35% of invertebrates assessed to date. “We have only managed to assess 47,663 species so far; there are many more millions out there which could be under serious threat,” according to IUCN Red List Unit Manager Craig Hilton-Taylor. For more information, visit http://www.iucnredlist.org.

  3. MedlinePlus Connect: Email List

    MedlinePlus

    ... email list will be useful for health IT developers and other interested users. To subscribe to the ... Web application and Web service Technical information for developers Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) MedlinePlus Connect email list ...

  4. RTO Technical Publications: A Quarterly Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a listing of recent unclassified RTO technical publications processed by the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information from Oct 1, 2001 through Dec 31, 2001. This listing includes one citataion titled 'Logistics Test and Evaluation in Flight'.

  5. 77 FR 64567 - Product List Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Classification Schedule competitive product list. The Postal Service seeks to remove International Restricted Delivery service from the competitive product list due to low customer demand.\\2\\ It states that there...

  6. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  12. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  13. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  14. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  15. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  16. Neutral red staining for plant vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Birgit; Hülskamp, Martin

    2010-06-01

    For almost 100 years, neutral red has been used to stain living cells and fixed tissue. It can be used as a general-purpose stain, a pH indicator (turning from red to yellow, as the medium becomes alkaline), or a nuclear stain. In this protocol, neutral red is used to stain plant vacuoles.

  17. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This packet provides information on the balance between the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker and modern forestry in Texas. A set of classroom activities about the Red-cockaded Woodpecker and its habitat for grades 3-6, and a booklet, a pamphlet, and a poster are featured. Sections of the booklet include: (1) "The Red-cockaded…

  18. “AmaRosa,” a red skinned, red fleshed fingerling with high phytonutrient value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...

  19. JPL preferred parts list: Reliable electronic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covey, R. E.; Scott, W. R.; Hess, L. M.; Steffy, T. G.; Stott, F. R.

    1982-01-01

    The JPL Preferred Parts List was prepared to provide a basis for selection of electronic parts for JPL spacecraft programs. Supporting tests for the listed parts were designed to comply with specific spacecraft environmental requirements. The list tabulates the electronic, magnetic, and electromechanical parts applicable to all JPL electronic equipment wherein reliability is a major concern. The parts listed are revelant to equipment supplied by subcontractors as well as fabricated at the laboratory.

  20. Three-dimensional rotation electron diffraction: software RED for automated data collection and data processing.

    PubMed

    Wan, Wei; Sun, Junliang; Su, Jie; Hovmöller, Sven; Zou, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    Implementation of a computer program package for automated collection and processing of rotation electron diffraction (RED) data is described. The software package contains two computer programs: RED data collection and RED data processing. The RED data collection program controls the transmission electron microscope and the camera. Electron beam tilts at a fine step (0.05-0.20°) are combined with goniometer tilts at a coarse step (2.0-3.0°) around a common tilt axis, which allows a fine relative tilt to be achieved between the electron beam and the crystal in a large tilt range. An electron diffraction (ED) frame is collected at each combination of beam tilt and goniometer tilt. The RED data processing program processes three-dimensional ED data generated by the RED data collection program or by other approaches. It includes shift correction of the ED frames, peak hunting for diffraction spots in individual ED frames and identification of these diffraction spots as reflections in three dimensions. Unit-cell parameters are determined from the positions of reflections in three-dimensional reciprocal space. All reflections are indexed, and finally a list with hkl indices and intensities is output. The data processing program also includes a visualizer to view and analyse three-dimensional reciprocal lattices reconstructed from the ED frames. Details of the implementation are described. Data collection and data processing with the software RED are demonstrated using a calcined zeolite sample, silicalite-1. The structure of the calcined silicalite-1, with 72 unique atoms, could be solved from the RED data by routine direct methods.

  1. Extremely red quasars in BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Ross, Nicholas; Paris, Isabelle; Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Villforth, Carolin; Richards, Gordon T.; Herbst, Hanna; Brandt, W. Niel; Cook, Ben; Denney, Kelly D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Red quasars are candidate young objects in an early transition stage of massive galaxy evolution. Our team recently discovered a population of extremely red quasars (ERQs) in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that has a suite of peculiar emission-line properties including large rest equivalent widths (REWs), unusual `wingless' line profiles, large N V/Lyα, N V/C IV, Si IV/C IV and other flux ratios, and very broad and blueshifted [O III] λ5007. Here we present a new catalogue of C IV and N V emission-line data for 216 188 BOSS quasars to characterize the ERQ line properties further. We show that they depend sharply on UV-to-mid-IR colour, secondarily on REW(C IV), and not at all on luminosity or the Baldwin Effect. We identify a `core' sample of 97 ERQs with nearly uniform peculiar properties selected via i-W3 ≥ 4.6 (AB) and REW(C IV) ≥ 100 Å at redshifts 2.0-3.4. A broader search finds 235 more red quasars with similar unusual characteristics. The core ERQs have median luminosity ˜ 47.1, sky density 0.010 deg-2, surprisingly flat/blue UV spectra given their red UV-to-mid-IR colours, and common outflow signatures including BALs or BAL-like features and large C IV emission-line blueshifts. Their SEDs and line properties are inconsistent with normal quasars behind a dust reddening screen. We argue that the core ERQs are a unique obscured quasar population with extreme physical conditions related to powerful outflows across the line-forming regions. Patchy obscuration by small dusty clouds could produce the observed UV extinctions without substantial UV reddening.

  2. 77 FR 35942 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ..., Pittsburgh, PA. Coverage: C-List for 100% of the requirements of Veterans Integrated Service Networks 1, 3, 4.... SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the Procurement List that will be... required to procure the products and services listed below from nonprofit agencies employing persons...

  3. 77 FR 26795 - Product List Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Product List Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to remove Parcel Post from the market dominant product list and to add a nearly identical ``Parcel Post'' to the competitive product list. Alaska...

  4. 77 FR 39274 - Product List Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Product List Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... competitive product list. The Postal Service has also filed a related contract. This notice addresses... information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 8 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The...

  5. 77 FR 30336 - Product List Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Product List Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing. DATES: Comments... competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 7 is...

  6. 77 FR 39275 - Product List Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Product List Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... competitive product list. The Postal Service has also filed a related contract. This notice addresses... information to add First-Class Package Service Contract 9 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The...

  7. 77 FR 30335 - Product List Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Product List Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... competitive product list. This notice addresses procedural steps associated with this filing. DATES: Comments... competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that First- Class Package Service Contract 6 is...

  8. Elementary Language Arts: Authorized Resources Annotated List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    This comprehensive, annotated resource list is designed to assist educators in selecting language arts resources for the elementary classroom. The authorized resources are listed under two main headings: series and individual resources. The series are listed alphabetically under each grade level. The individual resources are often authorized…

  9. Elementary Science: Authorized Resources Annotated List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    This comprehensive annotated resource list is designed to assist in the selection of science resources for elementary classrooms. This guide is organized by grade level, and within that heading by series and topic. Following the lists for individual grades is a list of elementary science resources, which are not topic specific, authorized for…

  10. 78 FR 45183 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Services Administration, New York, NY. COVERAGE: A-List for the Total Government Requirement as aggregated... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY:...

  11. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  12. 38 CFR 59.50 - Priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority list. 59.50 Section 59.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.50 Priority list. (a) The Secretary will make a list prioritizing the applications...

  13. The ESL Teacher's Book of Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Jacqueline E.

    The book for teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL) contains 80 lists of words, expressions, constructions, ideas, and materials for use in ESL lesson planning and classroom instruction. The lists are presented in seven groups: (1) general vocabulary, consisting of 21 lists of English words used in various situations in daily life,…

  14. Acquisitions List No. 39, October 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The Acquisitions List of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  15. Acquisitions List No. 41, January 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The Acquisitions List of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katherine Dexter-McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  16. Publication List - New York State Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Museum, Albany.

    Presented is a list of publications in six areas: (1) Anthropology and Archeology, (2) Botany, (3) Entomology, (4) Zoology, (5) Geology and Paleontology, and (6) Miscellaneous. This list was produced by the New York State Department of Education in cooperation with the New York State Museum. The list includes the publication number, author(s),…

  17. 15 CFR 286.11 - Listings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.11 Listings. (a) NIST maintains lists of all bodies holding current NIST program certificates, together with the assessment areas for which they are issued. (b) NIST also maintains lists of those qualified conformity assessment bodies that are...

  18. 15 CFR 286.11 - Listings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.11 Listings. (a) NIST maintains lists of all bodies holding current NIST program certificates, together with the assessment areas for which they are issued. (b) NIST also maintains lists of those qualified conformity assessment bodies that are...

  19. 15 CFR 286.11 - Listings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.11 Listings. (a) NIST maintains lists of all bodies holding current NIST program certificates, together with the assessment areas for which they are issued. (b) NIST also maintains lists of those qualified conformity assessment bodies that are...

  20. 15 CFR 286.11 - Listings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.11 Listings. (a) NIST maintains lists of all bodies holding current NIST program certificates, together with the assessment areas for which they are issued. (b) NIST also maintains lists of those qualified conformity assessment bodies that are...

  1. 76 FR 45542 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... production by the nonprofit agency listed: Product NSN: 8970-01-576-1950--Kit, Remote Feeding and Cleaning.... SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a product to the Procurement List that will be furnished by a... product listed below from the nonprofit agency employing persons who are blind or have other...

  2. Red cell DAMPs and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Rafaela; Silveira, Angélica A A; Conran, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Intravascular hemolysis, or the destruction of red blood cells in the circulation, can occur in numerous diseases, including the acquired hemolytic anemias, sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, as well as during some transfusion reactions, preeclampsia and infections, such as those caused by malaria or Clostridium perfringens. Hemolysis results in the release of large quantities of red cell damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) into the circulation, which, if not neutralized by innate protective mechanisms, have the potential to activate multiple inflammatory pathways. One of the major red cell DAMPs, heme, is able to activate converging inflammatory pathways, such as toll-like receptor signaling, neutrophil extracellular trap formation and inflammasome formation, suggesting that this DAMP both activates and amplifies inflammation. Other potent DAMPs that may be released by the erythrocytes upon their rupture include heat shock proteins (Hsp), such as Hsp70, interleukin-33 and Adenosine 5' triphosphate. As such, hemolysis represents a major inflammatory mechanism that potentially contributes to the clinical manifestations that have been associated with the hemolytic diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension and leg ulcers, and likely plays a role in specific complications of sickle cell disease such as endothelial activation, vaso-occlusive processes and tissue injury.

  3. Global Assessment of Extinction Risk to Populations of Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Peter S.; Goslin, Matthew; Gross, Mart R.; Irvine, James R.; Augerot, Xanthippe; McHugh, Peter A.; Bugaev, Victor F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Concern about the decline of wild salmon has attracted the attention of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The IUCN applies quantitative criteria to assess risk of extinction and publishes its results on the Red List of Threatened Species. However, the focus is on the species level and thus may fail to show the risk to populations. The IUCN has adapted their criteria to apply to populations but there exist few examples of this type of assessment. We assessed the status of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as a model for application of the IUCN population-level assessments and to provide the first global assessment of the status of an anadromous Pacific salmon. Methods/Principal Findings We found from demographic data that the sockeye salmon species is not presently at risk of extinction. We identified 98 independent populations with varying levels of risk within the species' range. Of these, 5 (5%) are already extinct. We analyzed the risk for 62 out of 93 extant populations (67%) and found that 17 of these (27%) are at risk of extinction. The greatest number and concentration of extinct and threatened populations is in the southern part of the North American range, primarily due to overfishing, freshwater habitat loss, dams, hatcheries, and changing ocean conditions. Conclusions/Significance Although sockeye salmon are not at risk at the species-level, about one-third of the populations that we analyzed are at risk or already extinct. Without an understanding of risk to biodiversity at the level of populations, the biodiversity loss in salmon would be greatly underrepresented on the Red List. We urge government, conservation organizations, scientists and the public to recognize this limitation of the Red List. We also urge recognition that about one-third of sockeye salmon global population diversity is at risk of extinction or already extinct. PMID:22511930

  4. Managing the kidney waiting list.

    PubMed

    Zarifian, April; O'Rourke, Marian

    2006-09-01

    Candidates on the kidney transplant list wait for longer periods and have increasing numbers of comorbid conditions. To ensure that these candidates are acceptable for transplantation when an organ becomes available, physical, psychosocial, and financial strategies are essential. The authors surveyed 68 transplant centers to determine current practices. Eighteen percent of centers did not reevaluate candidates. Other programs used time on the list, disease, age, or a combination of these factors as evaluation criteria. Initial cardiac evaluation was relied upon by 51.4% of centers, with varying criteria used to determine status. Social work evaluation was done by 42.6% of centers, usually annually. Annual financial reevaluation was performed in 57.4%. Data support reviewing candidates, especially those with diabetes, those who have been receiving dialysis for a long time, and those older than 60 years. The dedication of one coordinator to manage waitlisted candidates using age, diagnosis, and time receiving dialysis was effective in this study.

  5. Updated Starshade Technology Gap List

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crill, Brendan P.; Siegler, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) guides the development of technology that enables the direct imaging and characterization of exo-Earths in the habitable zone of their stars, for future space observatories. Here we present the Starshade portion of the 2017 ExEP Enabling Technology Gap List, an annual update to ExEP's list of of technology to be advanced in the next 1-5 years. A Starshade is an external occulter on an independent spacecraft, allowing a space telescope to achieve exo-Earth imaging contrast requirements by blocking starlight before it enters the telescope. Building and operating a Starshade requires new technology: the occulter is a structure tens of meters in diameter that must be positioned precisely at a distance of tens of thousands of kilometers from the telescope. We review the current state-of-the-art performance and the performance level that must be achieved for a Starshade.

  6. Graben infilling in Gulf of Suez and Red Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Burollet, P.F.

    1986-05-01

    During the last 4 years, the French research group Genegass has completed geological and geophysical studies in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez. Neogene infilling of the basin is related with basement quality and volume of clastic supply, and inherited structural features are important to the development of Miocene rifting. The Neogene series may be divided into four major groups (Listed A-D), each limited by unconformities that seem to reflect the major stages of rifting. (A) The lowermost formations begin with a conglomerate and are followed by a variegated unit of sand and clay. In the Gulf of Suez, especially on the eastern bank, these formations are marine. Along the Red Sea, tilted blocks may be capped by stromatolites, and the valleys between them are the site of shale and evaporite sedimentation (lower Miocene). (B) The main extension phase results in an invasion of marine shales. The lower zones contain coarse clastics, and the high zones contain reefs and bioclastic limestone (late Burdigalian to early Serravallian). (C) The middle to late Miocene corresponds to a regional basinward tilting. Stromatolites coat the slopes, and conglomerate fans are found in the lower zones. Evaporite sedimentation dominates; anhydrite is found on the borders, and in the basin, thick halite is overlain by a clastic series. Basement shoulders are uplifted. (D) During the Pliocene and Pleistocene, the central part of the graben showed an important subsidence, and salt tectonism was active with diapirs and collapses.

  7. Red list plants: colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, B; Haselwandter, K

    2004-08-01

    Since information concerning the mycorrhization of endangered plants is of major importance for their potential re-establishment, we determined the mycorrhizal status of Serratula tinctoria (Asteraceae), Betonica officinalis (Lamiaceae), Drosera intermedia (Droseraceae) and Lycopodiella inundata (Lycopodiaceae), occurring at one of two wetland sites (fen meadow and peat bog), which differed in soil pH and available P levels. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) was quantified. Colonization by AMF appeared to be more frequent in the fen meadow than in the peat bog, and depended on the host plant. Roots of S. tinctoria and B. officinalis were well colonized by AMF in the fen meadow (35-55% root length) and both arbuscules and vesicles were observed to occur in spring as well as in autumn. In the peat bog, L. inundata showed a low level of root colonization in spring, when vesicles were found frequently but no arbuscules. In roots of D. intermedia from the peat bog, arbuscules and vesicles were observed, but AMF colonization was lower than in L. inundata. In contrast, the amount of AMF spores extracted from soil at the peat bog site was higher than from the fen meadow soil. Spore numbers did not differ between spring and autumn in the fen meadow, but they were higher in spring than in autumn in the peat bog. Acaulospora laevis or A. colossica and Glomus etunicatum were identified amongst the AMF spores extracted from soil at the two sites. S. tinctoria and B. officinalis roots were also regularly colonized by DSE (18-40% root length), while L. inundata was only rarely colonized and D. intermedia did not seem to be colonized by DSE at all.

  8. Red giants: then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ρsh/ρolinec and

  9. Nitric oxide scavenging by red cell microparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Zhao, Weixin; Christ, George J; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B

    2013-12-01

    Red cell microparticles form during the storage of red blood cells and in diseases associated with red cell breakdown and asplenia, including hemolytic anemias such as sickle cell disease. These small phospholipid vesicles that are derived from red blood cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of transfusion of aged stored blood and hemolytic diseases, via activation of the hemostatic system and effects on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Red cell microparticles react with the important signaling molecule NO almost as fast as cell-free hemoglobin, about 1000 times faster than red-cell-encapsulated hemoglobin. The degree to which this fast reaction with NO by red cell microparticles influences NO bioavailability depends on several factors that are explored here. In the context of stored blood preserved in ADSOL, we find that both cell-free hemoglobin and red cell microparticles increase as a function of duration of storage, and the proportion of extra erythrocytic hemoglobin in the red cell microparticle fraction is about 20% throughout storage. Normalized by hemoglobin concentration, the NO-scavenging ability of cell-free hemoglobin is slightly higher than that of red cell microparticles as determined by a chemiluminescence NO-scavenging assay. Computational simulations show that the degree to which red cell microparticles scavenge NO will depend substantially on whether they enter the cell-free zone next to the endothelial cells. Single-microvessel myography experiments performed under laminar flow conditions demonstrate that microparticles significantly enter the cell-free zone and inhibit acetylcholine, endothelial-dependent, and NO-dependent vasodilation. Taken together, these data suggest that as little as 5 μM hemoglobin in red cell microparticles, an amount formed after the infusion of one unit of aged stored packed red blood cells, has the potential to reduce NO bioavailability and impair endothelial-dependent vasodilation.

  10. Red is romantic, but only for feminine females: sexual dimorphism moderates red effect on sexual attraction.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Sun, Shan; Liu, Ke

    2014-08-08

    Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  11. Birds of a feather: using species assemblages to assess vulnerability to extinction.

    PubMed

    Paini, Dean R; Mokany, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Estimating extinction vulnerability for a large number of species presents significant challenges for researchers, but is of high importance considering the large number of species that are currently unassessed. We present a method using a type of artificial neural network (self organizing map; SOM), which utilizes the co-occurrence patterns of species to estimate each species' vulnerability to extinction. We use this method on Australian bird assemblages and compare the SOM-generated rankings for vulnerability with assessments from the IUCN Red List for those species in which populations have actually been estimated. For species that have had their populations estimated, the SOM performed well in distinguishing those species ranked of least concern by IUCN from those species in one of the other IUCN categories. Further, 19 species that were identified as highly vulnerable by the SOM analysis have never had their populations estimated and have been ranked by the IUCN of least concern. We show how the SOM can identify spatial variation in vulnerability for a species, and identify those regions in Australia in which the resident species have the greatest levels of vulnerability (central Australia). We conclude that the SOM provides a useful tool for researchers and agencies dealing with conservation strategies focused on large numbers of species and we urge a more detailed assessment of the 19 bird species identified by this analysis as vulnerable to extinction.

  12. Still from Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.

    This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  13. Schubert edits JGR-Red

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    ‘As editor, my major concern will be to maintain and strengthen the Journal of Geophysical Research's position as the preeminent journal in solid earth and solid planet geophysics,’ asserted Gerald Schubert, the new editor of the red section of JGR. ‘I will endeavor to ensure that all major subject areas covered by JGR-Red are adequately represented among the published papers.’ Schubert, professor of geophysics and planetary physics at the University of California, Los Angeles, officially begins his 4-year term as editor on December 1, although he has been receiving manuscripts since October 1.The new editor brings to JGR enthusiasm and dedication. ‘I will try to make it the type of journal that the readers want it to be in terms of both rapid publication time and publication of the best papers.’ He expects to continue the traditions that his predecessor, Thomas J . Ahrens, has established. In particular, Schubert wants to continue publishing special issues that focus on specific research topics. He welcomes suggestions for such issues from the research community.

  14. Development of 10 highly-polymorphic microsatellite markers in the vulnerable Galápagos land iguanas (genus Conolophus).

    PubMed

    Rosa, Sabrina F P; Monteyne, Daniel; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2009-01-01

    The two species of Galápagos land iguanas (Conolophus subcristatus and C. pallidus) are listed as 'vulnerable' species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List; http://www.iucnredlist.org). Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of 10 microsatellite markers using 562 individuals sampled on all Galápagos islands where Conolophus species occur today. We show that these 10 loci are highly polymorphic and display diagnostic alleles for five out of the six island populations. These markers will be useful for Conolophus population genetic analyses as well as for guiding ongoing captive breeding programmes.

  15. Pesticides selectivity list to beneficial arthropods in four field vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Hautier, L; Jansen, J P; Mabon, N; Schiffers, B

    2007-01-01

    Selectivity of pesticides to beneficial arthropods is a key data for the implementation of IPM program. In the context of field vegetables crop, a set of 16 fungicides, 17 herbicides and 14 insecticides commonly used in Belgium were tested on 5 indicator species: the parasitic hymenoptera Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Stefani-Perez) (Hym., Aphidiidae), the aphid foliage dwelling predators Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Col., Coccinellidae) and Episyrphus balteatus (Dipt., Syrphidae) and the ground-dwelling predators Aleochara bilineata (Col., Staphyllinidae) and Bembidion lampros (Col., Carabidae). Pesticides were tested according a testing scheme including a first assessment on inert substrate (glass plates for adults of A. rhopalosiphi, larvae of A. bipunctata and E. balteatus, sand on adults of A. bilineata and B. lampros) and, for product that were toxic, a second assessment on natural substrate (barley seedlings for A. rhopalosiphi, french bean plants for A. bipunctato and E. balteatus and two type of soil for 8. lampros and A. bilineato). The effects of the product were assessed on basis on mortality, except for A. bilineata (Onion fly pupae parasitism). According to the final results obtained at the end of this testing scheme, the product were listed in toxicity class: green list if effect < or =30%, yellow list 30% < effect < 60% and orange list 60% < effect < or =80%. Products with toxicity higher than 80% on plants or on soils, or that reduce parasitism more than 80% on soil were put in red list and are not recommended for IPM. Results showed that all fungicides and herbicides were included in the green list except tebuconazole and boscalid + pyraclostrobin that were labeled as yellow for A. bipunctata. In opposite, no foliar insecticide was totally selective for all beneficial tested. However some products are in green list for one or several species. Soil insecticides were all are very toxic for ground dwelling arthropods and classed in red list. All results

  16. Is PZ MON a Red Dwarf or a Red Giant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar', N. I.; Sergeev, S. G.

    Hipparcos data (ESA 1997) give for PZ Mon a parallax π = 0.71 +- 1.17 mas that is not in agreement with earlier estimations of distance to the star of 15-30 ps and with its status of K- dwarf. There are presented spectra of PZ Mon in the region 3750-6150 Α with resolution of 7 ≍ Α, which were carried out in the Nasmith focus of 2.6 m reflector in the Crimean Astrophysical observatory. Intensities of molecular absorptions in this spectral range are determined relative a nearby continuum and their relations between absolute magnitudes are considered. The calculated Mν =6.74 and r=29 ps correspond to an earlier classiffication of PZ Mon as a red dwarf.

  17. Malignant Melanoma Arising in Red Tattoo Ink

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Gerald; McKenna, Dermot; Regan, Padraic James

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with a malignant melanoma on his anterior chest wall. The lesion was only found in the red ink pigment of the tattoo, as were several in-transit dermal metastases. Possible explanations include a pre-existing lesion which was seeded with red ink or the possibility of the red ink causing an inflammatory reaction leading to malignant transformation. This is the first reported case of a melanoma developing in the red ink pigment of a multi-colored tattoo. PMID:26217569

  18. Red cell transfusion "trigger": a review.

    PubMed

    Petrides, Marian

    2003-07-01

    Despite the publication of several consensus guidelines that set forth recommendations for the transfusion of red cells, actual clinical practice continues to vary widely. Animal data and studies in human volunteers and patients support a red cell transfusion threshold of 7 to 8 g/dl in most patients. However, conflicting data, particularly in cardiac patients and in the elderly, suggest that it may be impossible to define a single red cell "trigger" for all patients. A well-designed, randomized, controlled trial is still needed to establish a safe threshold for red cell transfusion in adults with coronary artery disease.

  19. Warning times for species extinctions due to climate change.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Jessica C; Shoemaker, Kevin T; Pearson, Richard G; Akçakaya, H Resit

    2015-03-01

    Climate change is likely to become an increasingly major obstacle to slowing the rate of species extinctions. Several new assessment approaches have been proposed for identifying climate-vulnerable species, based on the assumption that established systems such as the IUCN Red List need revising or replacing because they were not developed to explicitly consider climate change. However, no assessment approach has been tested to determine its ability to provide advanced warning time for conservation action for species that might go extinct due to climate change. To test the performance of the Red List system in this capacity, we used linked niche-demographic models with habitat dynamics driven by a 'business-as-usual' climate change scenario. We generated replicate 100-year trajectories for range-restricted reptiles and amphibians endemic to the United States. For each replicate, we categorized the simulated species according to IUCN Red List criteria at annual, 5-year, and 10-year intervals (the latter representing current practice). For replicates that went extinct, we calculated warning time as the number of years the simulated species was continuously listed in a threatened category prior to extinction. To simulate data limitations, we repeated the analysis using a single criterion at a time (disregarding other listing criteria). Results show that when all criteria can be used, the Red List system would provide several decades of warning time (median = 62 years; >20 years for 99% of replicates), but suggest that conservation actions should begin as soon as a species is listed as Vulnerable, because 50% of replicates went extinct within 20 years of becoming uplisted to Critically Endangered. When only one criterion was used, warning times were substantially shorter, but more frequent assessments increased the warning time by about a decade. Overall, we found that the Red List criteria reliably provide a sensitive and precautionary way to assess extinction

  20. The effect of a red leaf pigment on the relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Macler, Bruce A.; Plummer, Stephen E.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a leaf pigment - red amaranthin - on red edge and chlorophyll concentration is investigated in amaranth leaves by means of treatments with nitrate and salts. A near-linear relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration is observed for leaves with low amaranthin concentration, and no relationship is noted at high concentrations. The study demonstrates the limitation inherent in estimating chlorophyll concentration by using remotely sensed red edge.

  1. Would protecting tropical forest fragments provide carbon and biodiversity cobenefits under REDD+?

    PubMed

    Magnago, Luiz Fernando S; Magrach, Ainhoa; Laurance, William F; Martins, Sebastião V; Meira-Neto, João Augusto A; Simonelli, Marcelo; Edwards, David P

    2015-09-01

    Tropical forests store vast amounts of carbon and are the most biodiverse terrestrial habitats, yet they are being converted and degraded at alarming rates. Given global shortfalls in the budgets required to prevent carbon and biodiversity loss, we need to seek solutions that simultaneously address both issues. Of particular interest are carbon-based payments under the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) mechanism to also conserve biodiversity at no additional cost. One potential is for REDD+ to protect forest fragments, especially within biomes where contiguous forest cover has diminished dramatically, but we require empirical tests of the strength of any carbon and biodiversity cobenefits in such fragmented systems. Using the globally threatened Atlantic Forest landscape, we measured above-ground carbon stocks within forest fragments spanning 13 to 23 442 ha in area and with different degrees of isolation. We related these stocks to tree community structure and to the richness and abundance of endemic and IUCN Red-listed species. We found that increasing fragment size has a positive relationship with above-ground carbon stock and with abundance of IUCN Red-listed species and tree community structure. We also found negative relationships between distance from large forest block and tree community structure, endemic species richness and abundance, and IUCN Red-listed species abundance. These resulted in positive congruence between carbon stocks and Red-listed species, and the abundance and richness of endemic species, demonstrating vital cobenefits. As such, protecting forest fragments in hotspots of biodiversity, particularly larger fragments and those closest to sources, offers important carbon and biodiversity cobenefits. More generally, our results suggest that macroscale models of cobenefits under REDD+ have likely overlooked key benefits at small scales, indicating the necessity to apply models that include finer

  2. Site maps and facilities listings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    In September 1989, a Memorandum of Agreement among DOE offices regarding the environmental management of DOE facilities was signed by appropriate Assistant Secretaries and Directors. This Memorandum of Agreement established the criteria for EM line responsibility. It stated that EM would be responsible for all DOE facilities, operations, or sites (1) that have been assigned to DOE for environmental restoration and serve or will serve no future production need; (2) that are used for the storage, treatment, or disposal of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed hazardous waste materials that have been properly characterized, packaged, and labelled, but are not used for production; (3) that have been formally transferred to EM by another DOE office for the purpose of environmental restoration and the eventual return to service as a DOE production facility; or (4) that are used exclusively for long-term storage of DOE waste material and are not actively used for production, with the exception of facilities, operations, or sites under the direction of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. As part of the implementation of the Memorandum of Agreement, Field Offices within DOE submitted their listings of facilities, systems, operation, and sites for which EM would have line responsibility. It is intended that EM facility listings will be revised on a yearly basis so that managers at all levels will have a valid reference for the planning, programming, budgeting and execution of EM activities.

  3. 77 FR 34025 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... added to the Procurement List: Service Service Type/Locations: Janitorial Services, Engineering Research & Development Center (ERDC), Construction Engineering Research Lab (CERL), 2902 Newmark Drive, Champaign, IL....

  4. Program/project management resource lists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Program/Project Management Collection at NASA Headquarters Library is part of a larger initiative by the Training and Development Division, Code FT, NASA Headquarters. The collection is being developed to support the Program/Project Management Initiative which includes the training of NASA managers. These PPM Resource Lists have proven to be a useful method of informing NASA employees nationwide about the subject coverage of the library collection. All resources included on the lists are available at or through NASA Headquarters Library. NASA employees at other Centers may request listed books through interlibrary loan, and listed articles by contacting me by phone, mail, or e-mail.

  5. NASA thesaurus. Volume 1: Hierarchical Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    There are over 17,000 postable terms and nearly 4,000 nonpostable terms approved for use in the NASA scientific and technical information system in the Hierarchical Listing of the NASA Thesaurus. The generic structure is presented for many terms. The broader term and narrower term relationships are shown in an indented fashion that illustrates the generic structure better than the more widely used BT and NT listings. Related terms are generously applied, thus enhancing the usefulness of the Hierarchical Listing. Greater access to the Hierarchical Listing may be achieved with the collateral use of Volume 2 - Access Vocabulary and Volume 3 - Definitions.

  6. NASA thesaurus. Volume 1: Hierarchical listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    There are 16,835 postable terms and 3,765 nonpostable terms approved for use in the NASA scientific and technical information system in the Hierarchical Listing of the NASA Thesaurus. The generic structure is presented for many terms. The broader term and narrower term relationships are shown in an indented fashion that illustrates the generic structure better than the more widely used BT and NT listings. Related terms are generously applied, thus enhancing the usefulness of the Hierarchical Listing. Greater access to the Hierarchical Listing may be achieved with the collateral use of Volume 2 - Access Vocabulary.

  7. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 1: Hierarchical listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    There are 16,713 postable terms and 3,716 nonpostable terms approved for use in the NASA scientific and technical information system in the Hierarchical Listing of the NASA Thesaurus. The generic structure is presented for many terms. The broader term and narrower term relationships are shown in an indented fashion that illustrates the generic structure better than the more widely used BT and NT listings. Related terms are generously applied, thus enhancing the usefulness of the Hierarchical Listing. Greater access to the Hierarchical Listing may be achieved with the collateral use of Volume 2 - Access Vocabulary.

  8. 76 FR 75536 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... production by the nonprofit agency listed: Service Service Type/Location: Grounds Maintenance, Beale AFB, CA... Squadron, Beale AFB, CA. Patricia Briscoe, Deputy Director, Business Operations, Pricing and...

  9. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  10. Demonstration project cuts red tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Results from a demonstration project aimed at cutting red tape in federal grants for basic research at universities are "very encouraging" so far, according to Don I. Phillips, executive director of the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. The roundtable is coordinating the experimental effort, with the participation of five major federal agencies as well as the Florida state university system and the University of Miami (a private institution in Coral Gables, Fla.).Under the project, special conditions apply to grants from the participating agencies to individual researchers at the participating universities: Investigators do not have to ask the agency's permission for changes in budget allocations, purchases of permanent equipment, or foreign travel. Grant money can be spent up to a year after the grant ends without a special request. Under this plan, researchers, with agency approval, can also ask to have their entire research program covered as a single administrative entity, rather than as several individual projects.

  11. A red metallic oxide photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoxiang; Randorn, Chamnan; Efstathiou, Paraskevi; Irvine, John T. S.

    2012-07-01

    Light absorption across the bandgap in semiconductors is exploited in many important applications such as photovoltaics, light emitting diodes and photocatalytic conversion. Metals differ from semiconductors in that there is no energy gap separating occupied and unoccupied levels; however, it is still possible to excite electrons between bands. This is evidenced by materials with metallic properties that are also strongly coloured. An important question is whether such coloured metals could be used in light harvesting or similar applications. The high conductivity of a metal would preclude sufficient electric field being available to separate photocarriers; however, the high carrier mobility in a metal might also facilitate kinetic charge separation. Here we clearly demonstrate for the first time the use of a red metallic oxide, Sr1-xNbO3 as an effective photocatalyst. The material has been used under visible light to photocatalyse the oxidation of methylene blue and both the oxidation and reduction of water assisted by appropriate sacrificial elements.

  12. EPCRA/CERCLA/CAA §112(r) Consolidated List of Lists – March 2015 Version

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of Lists was prepared to help firms handling chemicals determine, for a specific chemical, whether they may be subject to the following reporting requirements under Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know, CERCLA, and Clean Air Act.

  13. Chemical toxicity of red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Piomelli, S

    1981-01-01

    Exposure to toxic chemicals may result in alterations of red cell function. In certain cases, the toxic effect requires a genetic predisposition and thus affects only a restricted number of individuals; in other instances, the toxic effect is exerted on the hematopoietic system of every person. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is probably the most widespread genetic disorder. It is observed at highest frequency in populations from subtropical countries as a result of its selective advantage vis à vis falciparum malaria. The gene controlling this enzyme is located on the X-chromosome; thus, the defect is sex-linked. Individuals with a genetic defect of this enzyme are extremely susceptible to hemolysis, when exposed to oxidant drugs (such as certain antimalarials and sulfonamides) because of the inability of their red cells to regenerate NADPH. Lead poisoning result in profound effects on the process of heme synthesis. Among the steps most sensitive to lead toxicity are the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and the intramitochondrial step that leads to the incorporation of iron into protoporphyrin. By these mechanisms, in severe lead intoxication there is an accumulation of large amounts of delta-aminolevulinic acid (a compound with inherent neurotoxicity), and there are abnormalities of mitochondrial function in all cells of the body. Individuals living in an industrialized society are unavoidably exposed to some environmental lead. Recent evidence indicates that, even at levels of exposure which do not increase the blood lead level above values presently considered normal, abnormalities of heme synthesis are clearly detectable. PMID:7016524

  14. Task Lists for Agricultural Occupations, 1988: Cluster Matrices for Agricultural Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepple, Jerry

    This document contains four publications for agricultural occupations in Illinois. "Task Lists for Agricultural Occupations" provide lists of employability skills for the following: park aide; hand sprayer; gardener/groundskeeper; salesperson, parts, agricultural equipment; and dairy processing equipment operator. Each list contains skills…

  15. Red Dirt Thinking on Aspiration and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Sam; Guenther, John

    2013-01-01

    This article sets the scene for the series of five articles on "red dirt thinking". It first introduces the idea behind red dirt thinking as opposed to "blue sky thinking". Both accept that there are any number of creative and expansive solutions and possibilities to identified challenges--in this case, the challenge of…

  16. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  17. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  18. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  19. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  20. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  1. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  2. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  3. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  4. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  5. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  6. Public perceptions of Florida red tide risks.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Sara E; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A

    2009-07-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals' responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides.

  7. Preparation of special cements from red mud

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Upadhayay, S.N.; Prasad, P.M.

    1996-12-31

    Red mud from HINDALCO (Hindustan Aluminium Corporation) Industries Limited, Renukoot, India, contains significant quantities of alumina, iron oxide and silica. Presence of the said constituents makes it a suitable ingredient for the preparation of special cements. Preparation of three varieties of cements was investigated, namely: (a) aluminoferrite (C{sub 4}AF)-belite ({beta}-C{sub 2}S) using lime + red mud + fly ash; (b) aluminoferrite-ferrite (C{sub 2}F)-aluminates (C{sub 3}A and C{sub 12}A{sub 7}) utilizing lime + red mud + bauxite; and (c) sulfoaluminate (C{sub 4}A{sub 3}{bar S})-aluminoferrite-ferrite using lime + red mud + bauxite + gypsum. The effects of composition (proportions of lime, red mud, fly ash, bauxite and gypsum), firing temperature and duration on the properties of cements produced were studied in detail. Cements made from lime + red mud + bauxite or lime + red mud + bauxite + gypsum exhibit strengths comparable or superior to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). On the other hand, those prepared using lime + red mud + fly ash did not have sufficient strength. Moreover, it was not possible to replace bauxite by fly ash (as a source of alumina) in any significant quantity.

  8. Parapoxvirus infections of red deer, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scagliarini, Alessandra; Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus.

  9. Parapoxvirus Infections of Red Deer, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus. PMID:21470460

  10. Grape (Vitis spp.)- Grapevine red blotch disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and elsewhere in the United States The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negative for...

  11. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of red cabbage is due to the accumulation of large quantity of anthocyanins. To investigate the general regulatory control of anthocyanin production in red cabbages, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulators from eight commercial cultivars was examined. While the four...

  12. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    PubMed Central

    Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  13. Improving Mineral Nutrition of Micropropagated Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro propagation is important for fast multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberry. The variation in genetic background of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to successfully use one growth medium for all. Although most cultivars will grow on Murashig...

  14. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  15. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  16. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  17. Red, Rank, and Romance in Women Viewing Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Niesta Kayser, Daniela; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Gramzow, Richard H.; Maier, Markus A.; Liu, Huijun

    2010-01-01

    In many nonhuman species of vertebrates, females are attracted to red on male conspecifics. Red is also a signal of male status in many nonhuman vertebrate species, and females show a mating preference for high-status males. These red-attraction and red-status links have been found even when red is displayed on males artificially. In the present…

  18. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  19. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  20. Red and processed meat intake and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingyu; Wei, Wei; Zhan, Lixing

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological studies regarding the association between red and processed meat intake and the risk of breast cancer have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted an updated and comprehensive meta-analysis which included 14 prospective studies to evaluate the association of red and processed meat intake with breast cancer risk. Relevant prospective cohort studies were identified by searching PubMed through October 31, 2014, and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. Study-specific relative risk (RR) estimates were pooled using a random-effects model. Fourteen prospective studies on red meat (involving 31,552 cases) and 12 prospective studies on processed meat were included in the meta-analysis. The summary RRs (95 % CI) of breast cancer for the highest versus the lowest categories were 1.10 (1.02, 1.19) for red meat, and 1.08 (1.01, 1.15) for processed meat. The estimated summary RRs (95 % CI) were 1.11 (1.05, 1.16) for an increase of 120 g/day of red meat, and 1.09 (1.03, 1.16) for an increase of 50 g/day of processed meat. Our findings indicate that increased intake of red and processed meat is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Further research with well-designed cohort or interventional studies is needed to confirm the association.

  1. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  2. Inflight Assay of Red Blood Cell Deformability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, M.; Paglia, D. E.; Eckstein, E. C.; Frazer, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on Soviet and American astronauts have demonstrated that red blood cell production is altered in response to low gravity (g) environment. This is associated with changes in individual red cells including increased mean cell volume and altered membrane deformability. During long orbital missions, there is a tendency for the red cell mass deficit to be at least partly corrected although the cell shape anomalies are not. Data currently available suggest that the observed decrease in red cell mass is the result of sudden suppression of erythropoieses and that the recovery trend observed during long missions reflects re-establishment of erythropoietic homeostasis at a "set point" for the red cell mass that is slightly below the normal level at 1 g.

  3. The Art of Red Tide Science.

    PubMed

    Hall, Emily R; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J; Heil, Cynthia A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined "The Art of Red Tide Science," consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues.

  4. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication.

  5. Vegetation used for nesting by the red-winged blackbird in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stowers, J.F.; Harke, D.T.; Stickley, A.R.

    1968-01-01

    During the breeding season of 1966, as an adjunct to a taxonomic study of Red-winged Blackbirds in Florida, 177 Redwin g nests were found. The general habitat types were noted, and the plant species harboring nests were listed.....Redwing nests were found in 30 genera of plants. Buttonbush was the primary choice; it was used to support 50 of the 177 nests. Silverling and willow were the next most often used plants. Nests also were found in other shrubs and trees, in assorted herbs and grasses, and in fields of sweet corn and sugarcane. The great degree of nesting adaptability of the Red-winged Blackbird is attested by the diversity of nesting site selections in several habitats.

  6. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Janus, Marleen M.; ten Cate, Jacob M.; de Soet, Johannes J.; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries. PMID:27997567

  7. A review of the use of red mud as adsorbent for the removal of toxic pollutants from water and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2011-01-01

    Red mud (an aluminium industry waste) has received wide attention as an effective adsorbent for water pollution control, showing significant adsorption potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. In this review, an extensive list of red-mud-based adsorbents has been compiled and their adsorption capacities (maximum uptake value of the adsorbent for the pollutant or adsorbate being removed) for various aquatic pollutants (metal ions, dyes, phenolic compounds, inorganic anions) are presented. The review provides a summary of recent information obtained using batch studies and deals with the adsorption mechanisms involved. It is evident from the literature survey that red mud has been found to be efficient for the removal of various aquatic pollutants, especially arsenic and phosphate. However, there is still a need to investigate the practical utility of these adsorbents on a commercial scale.

  8. 48 CFR 13.102 - Source list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Source list. 13.102... AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.102 Source list. (a) Contracting... as their primary sources of vendor information. Offices maintaining additional vendor source files...

  9. Listing Intonation in Cameroon English Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouafeu, Yves Talla Sando

    2006-01-01

    Compelling evidence from the literature on English intonation suggests that the tone patterns of some sentence types like lists have been grossly underresearched. This undercharacterization of listing intonation in English is inferable from the paucity of literature on this topic. The main thrust of this study is to report the findings from the…

  10. 48 CFR Appendix - List of IAAR Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false List of IAAR Forms Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms The Broadcasting Board of Governors forms. List of IAAR Forms 1953.370-21The Broadcasting Board...

  11. 42 CFR 121.5 - Listing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Listing requirements. 121.5 Section 121.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT ORGAN PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.5 Listing requirements. (a) A transplant hospital which is...

  12. Emergency Medical Technician Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 12 duties in the occupation of emergency medical technician. Each duty is divided into a number of tasks. A separate page for each duty lists the task with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for comments. The 12 duties…

  13. Textbooks in Greek and Latin: 1975 List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Thomas G.

    1975-01-01

    List of textbooks in Greek and Latin for 1975. Subject, title, publisher and price are noted. Greek and Latin works are listed separately under the eight categories of texts, beginner's books, grammars, books about the language, readers and anthologies, composition, dictionaries, and New Testament Greek and Later Latin. (RM)

  14. Machine Tool Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course to prepare machine tool, drill press, grinding machine, lathe, mill, and/or power saw operators. The listing is divided into six sections, with each one outlining the tasks required to perform the duties that have been identified for the given occupation.…

  15. Auto Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the auto mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  16. Elementary Social Studies. Authorized Resources Annotated List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    This comprehensive, annotated resource list is designed to assist in selecting resources authorized by the Alberta (Canada) Education Department for the elementary social studies classroom. Within each grade and topic, annotated entries for basic learning resources are listed, followed by support learning resources and authorized teaching…

  17. Elementary Health: Authorized Resources Annotated List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    This comprehensive, annotated resource list is designed to assist in selecting resources authorized by the Alberta (Canada) Education Department for the elementary health classroom (Grades 1-6). Within each grade and topic, annotated entries for basic learning resources are listed, followed by support learning resources and authorized teaching…

  18. 77 FR 32591 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ...: Custodial Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Weather Service, 32.... SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the Procurement List that will be... procure the products and services listed below from nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind...

  19. 77 FR 34026 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Service, National Weather Service, Ohio River Forecast Center, 1901 S. State Route 134, Wilmington, OH.... SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement List that will be provided by... services listed below from nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other...

  20. 75 FR 60739 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Services Service Type/Location: Custodial, National Weather..., Norfolk, VA. Service Type/Location: Food Service Attendant, Pease Air National Guard Base, Newington, NH.... SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement List that will be provided...

  1. 77 FR 47823 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... Administration, New York, NY Coverage: A-List for the Total Government Requirement as aggregated by the General... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement...

  2. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  3. RTO Technical Publications: A Quarterly Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A quarterly listing of RTO technical publications is presented. The topics include: Handbook on the Analysis of Smaller-Scale Contingency Operations in Long Term Defence Planning; 2) Radar Polarimetry and Interferometry; 3) Combat Casualty Care in Ground-Based Tactical Situations: Trauma Technology and Emergency Medical Procedures; and 4) RTO Technical Publications: A Quarterly Listing

  4. 48 CFR 13.102 - Source list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... as their primary sources of vendor information. Offices maintaining additional vendor source files or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Source list. 13.102... AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.102 Source list. (a)...

  5. 77 FR 27737 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement List... nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. Comments Must...

  6. 77 FR 55195 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This... persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. DATES: Effective Date: 10/8/2012....

  7. 77 FR 44220 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List... nonprofit agency employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. DATES: Comments Must...

  8. Learning Disabilities: A First Reading List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intended for parents and professionals, the document contains a listing of books, newsletters, periodicals, and free material on learning disabilities. Publications are listed alphabetically by author or sponsor with entries that usually provide the following information: title, publisher, publisher's address, publication date, cost, and brief…

  9. 75 FR 70124 - Product List Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... 30 CFR Part 3020 Product List Update AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Commission order. The referenced policy assumes periodic updates. The updates are identified in the body of this document. The product lists, which are re-published in their entirety, include these...

  10. 77 FR 75377 - Product List Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... 39 CFR Part 3020 Product List Update AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Commission order. The referenced policy assumes periodic updates. The updates are identified in the body of this document. The product lists, which are re-published in their entirety, include these...

  11. 76 FR 1357 - Product List Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... 30 CFR Part 3020 Product List Update AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Commission order. The referenced policy assumes periodic updates. The updates are identified in the body of this document. The product lists, which are re-published in their entirety, include these...

  12. 76 FR 9338 - List of Correspondence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... of Correspondence AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Department of Education. ACTION: List of Correspondence from July 1, 2010 through September 30, 2010. SUMMARY: The... publish in the Federal Register a list of correspondence from the U.S. Department of Education...

  13. Listing of data systems elements authorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA personnel have a need to be aware of and to interact with key technical experts in all areas of data systems. This report presents a partial listing (names, addresses and telephone numbers) of individuals known to be authorities in selected areas of data systems of interest to NASA. The listings are based primarily on recent publications by the named individuals.

  14. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  15. Residential Carpentry Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for nine occupations in the residential carpentry series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to…

  16. Data Processing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for five occupations in the data processing series. Each occupation is divided into 5 to 11 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  17. Occupational Food Service Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the occupational food service series. Each occupation is divided into three to eight duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and…

  18. Business & Office Secretarial Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 11 occupations in the business and office secretarial series. Each occupation is divided into three to seven duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught…

  19. 29 CFR 780.108 - Listed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Agriculture Farming in All Its Branches § 780.108 Listed activities. Section 3(f), in defining the... specifically listed in the earlier portion of the definition (the “primary” meaning) as “farming” operations. They may therefore be considered as illustrative of “farming in all its branches” as used in...

  20. 4 CFR 200.16 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mailing lists. 200.16 Section 200.16 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.16 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  1. Diesel Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 11 occupations in the diesel mechanics series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  2. RTO Technical Publications: A Quarterly Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a listing of recent unclassified RTO technical publications processed by the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information. Contents include the following: RTO Technical Publications: A Quarterly Listing. Implications of Multilingual Interoperability of Speech Technology for Military Use. Non-Lethal Weapons and Future Peace Enforcement Operations.

  3. Advisory List of Computer-Related Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Educational Media.

    Materials appropriate for instruction in the use of computers in the intermediate grades, junior high schools, and high schools are listed in this advisory list by type of media: activity cards; books; books (for teacher use); books (supplementary texts); book (workbook); book (workbook) with disks; filmstrips (sound); kit (including disks, guide…

  4. List of Core Journals in Earth Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council for Scientific and Technical Information, Paris (France).

    Selection and acquisition of relevant materials for building and developing an information infrastructure are modern worldwide problems. This document provides a core listing of journals in the earth sciences in an effort to develop a tool for the improvement of information handling and transfer. The core list was generated using several databases…

  5. 48 CFR Appendix - List of IAAR Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true List of IAAR Forms Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms The Broadcasting Board of Governors forms. List of IAAR Forms 1953.370-21The Broadcasting Board of Governors Form IA-21, Abstract...

  6. 14 CFR 145.215 - Capability list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capability list. 145.215 Section 145.215 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.215 Capability list. (a)...

  7. 77 FR 67343 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    .... SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a product and services to the Procurement List that will be... required to procure the product and services listed below from nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. The following product and services are proposed for addition...

  8. 77 FR 780 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    .... SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a product and service to the Procurement List that will be... procure the product and service listed below from nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or... organizations that will furnish the product and service to the Government. 2. If approved, the action...

  9. 77 FR 46948 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of... 7A008, add ``License Requirements'' above ``Reason for Control''. 0 D. On page 843, in 7B101, in the...: Supplement No. 1 to Part 774--The Commerce Control List * * * * * Category 7 * * * * * 7A002 Gyros or...

  10. 76 FR 81793 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of... paragraphs from the end of the entry: 0 79. In Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 (the Commerce Control List...'' for repair, rebuild and overhaul. Excluded from 9E001 to 9E003 control are: technical data,...

  11. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  12. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  13. 10 CFR 1304.116 - Mailing lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mailing lists. 1304.116 Section 1304.116 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.116 Mailing lists. The Board shall not sell or rent an individual's name and/or address unless such action is specifically authorized by law....

  14. Fashion Merchandising Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for seven occupations in the fashion merchandising series. Each occupation is divided into 6 to 15 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to…

  15. 29 CFR 780.108 - Listed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Agriculture Farming in All Its Branches § 780.108 Listed activities. Section 3(f), in defining the... specifically listed in the earlier portion of the definition (the “primary” meaning) as “farming” operations. They may therefore be considered as illustrative of “farming in all its branches” as used in...

  16. 29 CFR 780.108 - Listed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Agriculture Farming in All Its Branches § 780.108 Listed activities. Section 3(f), in defining the... specifically listed in the earlier portion of the definition (the “primary” meaning) as “farming” operations. They may therefore be considered as illustrative of “farming in all its branches” as used in...

  17. 29 CFR 780.108 - Listed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Agriculture Farming in All Its Branches § 780.108 Listed activities. Section 3(f), in defining the... specifically listed in the earlier portion of the definition (the “primary” meaning) as “farming” operations. They may therefore be considered as illustrative of “farming in all its branches” as used in...

  18. 29 CFR 780.108 - Listed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Agriculture Farming in All Its Branches § 780.108 Listed activities. Section 3(f), in defining the... specifically listed in the earlier portion of the definition (the “primary” meaning) as “farming” operations. They may therefore be considered as illustrative of “farming in all its branches” as used in...

  19. Word Processing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for two occupations in the word processing series. Each occupation is divided into 9 or 10 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  20. Establishment of a Medical Academic Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing; Liang, Shao-lan; Ge, Guang-chun

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a corpus-based lexical study of the most frequently used medical academic vocabulary in medical research articles (RAs). A Medical Academic Word List (MAWL), a word list of the most frequently used medical academic words in medical RAs, was compiled from a corpus containing 1 093 011 running words of medical RAs from online…

  1. Modeling and simulation of Red Teaming. Part 1, Why Red Team M&S?

    SciTech Connect

    Skroch, Michael J.

    2009-11-01

    Red teams that address complex systems have rarely taken advantage of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) in a way that reproduces most or all of a red-blue team exchange within a computer. Chess programs, starting with IBM's Deep Blue, outperform humans in that red-blue interaction, so why shouldn't we think computers can outperform traditional red teams now or in the future? This and future position papers will explore possible ways to use M&S to augment or replace traditional red teams in some situations, the features Red Team M&S should possess, how one might connect live and simulated red teams, and existing tools in this domain.

  2. Portunoid crabs as indicators of the Red Sea fauna history and endemism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, Vassily; Türkay, Michael; Brösing, Andreas; Al-Aidaroos, Ali

    2013-04-01

    Peculiar environmental conditions and "turbulent" geological history make the Red Sea a laboratory of evolution and a significant area for understanding adaptation processes. To interpret the results of this basin-scale evolutionary experiment revised inventories of taxonomic diversity of particular groups of marine biota are essential. As one of the first results of the Red Sea Biodiversity Survey (RSBS) in the years 2011 - 2012 along the coast of Saudi Arabia (http://www.redseabiodiversity.org/) and examination of earlier collections and literature a revised species list is provided for the portunoid (swimming) crabs (Crustacea Decapoda Portunoidea). This superfamily is one of the most species rich and has one of the broadest habitat scopes among Brachyura in the global scale. The present assessment results in 54 shallow water species (including 2 recorded for the first time in the Red Sea during RSBS), 2 deep water species and 1 semipelagic species Charybdis smithii. Doubtful literature records of another 7 shallow water species remain unconfirmed. Among reliably recorded shallow water species 58 % belong to widespread Indo-West-Pacific (IWP) species, 13% are the species restricted to the western Indian Ocean, 11 % are endemics of the Arabian region (occurring also either in the western Gulf of Aden or along the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, or in both areas) which are usually vicariant to the widespread IWP species, 11% are taxa that are similar to the species occurring elsewhere in the IWP but have morphological peculiarities and probably deserve a specific or subspecific status. Finally 4% of species (Thalamita murinae and Liocarcinus subcorrugatus) appear to be endemic for the Red Sea and show remarkable disjunctions from most closely related species. Carcinus sp. (probably C. aestuarii) is an introduced (but not established) species in the northern Red Sea. The deep water fauna of the Red Sea is unique because it lives in the warm (20.5-21.5 ° C

  3. Using the OCLC union listing component for a statewide health sciences union list of serials.

    PubMed

    Sutton, L S; Wolfgram, P A

    1986-04-01

    Union lists of serials are critical to the effective operation of interlibrary loan networks. The Michigan Health Sciences Libraries Association used the OCLC union list component to produce the Michigan Statewide Health Sciences Union List of Serials (MISHULS). MISHULS, which includes the serials holdings of ninety-three hospital health sciences libraries, is a subset of a statewide multi-type union list maintained on OCLC. The rationale for a statewide list and the criteria for choosing vendors are discussed. Typical costs are provided. Funding sources are identified and a unique approach to decentralized input is described. The benefits of resource sharing in a larger, multi-type library network are also explored.

  4. Recycling red mud from the production of aluminium as a red cement-based mortar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojie; Zhao, Jianfeng; Li, Haoxin; Zhao, Piqi; Chen, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Current management for red mud is insufficient and a new method is needed. A series of experiments have been carried out to develop a new approach for effective management of red mud. Mortars without or with 3%, 6% and 9% red mud were prepared and their fresh and hardened properties were measured to access the possibility of recycling the red mud in the production of red cement-based mortar. The mechanisms corresponding to their mechanical performance variations were explored by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the fresh mortars with red mud present an increase of viscosity as compared with the control. However, little difference is found when the content of red mud is altered. It also can be seen that red mud increases flow time and reduces the slump flow of the mortar. Meanwhile, it is found that mortar with red mud is provided with higher air content. Red mud is eligible to adjust the decorative mortar colour. Compressive strength of mortar is improved when less than 6% red mud is added. However, overall it has a slightly negative effect on tensile bond strength. It decreases the Ca(OH)2 content and densifies the microstructure of hardened paste. The heavy metal concentrations in leachates of mortars with red mud are much lower than the values required in the standard, and it will not do harm to people's health and the environment. These results are important to recycle and effectively manage red mud via the production of red cement-based mortar.

  5. Red Wine and Resveratrol: Good for Your Heart?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Red wine and something in red wine called resveratrol might be heart healthy. Find out the facts, ... antioxidants, such as flavonoids or a substance called resveratrol, have heart-healthy benefits. Red wine seems to ...

  6. Trends in amphibian occupancy in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Michael J.; Miller, David A.W.; Muths, Erin; Corn, Paul Stephen; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Bailey, Larissa L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Sadinski, Walter J.; Waddle, Hardin; Walls, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Though a third of amphibian species worldwide are thought to be imperiled, existing assessments simply categorize extinction risk, providing little information on the rate of population losses. We conducted the first analysis of the rate of change in the probability that amphibians occupy ponds and other comparable habitat features across the United States. We found that overall occupancy by amphibians declined 3.7% annually from 2002 to 2011. Species that are Red-listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) declined an average of 11.6% annually. All subsets of data examined had a declining trend including species in the IUCN Least Concern category. This analysis suggests that amphibian declines may be more widespread and severe than previously realized.

  7. Reaching for the red planet

    PubMed

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet.

  8. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    PubMed

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy.

  9. Red Giant Plunging Through Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (left panel) shows the 'bow shock' of a dying star named R Hydrae, or R Hya, in the constellation Hydra.

    Bow shocks are formed where the stellar wind from a star are pushed into a bow shape (illustration, right panel) as the star plunges through the gas and dust between stars. Our own Sun has a bow shock, but prior to this image one had never been observed around this particular class of red giant star.

    R Hya moves through space at approximately 50 kilometers per second. As it does so, it discharges dust and gas into space. Because the star is relatively cool, that ejecta quickly assumes a solid state and collides with the interstellar medium. The resulting dusty nebula is invisible to the naked eye but can be detected using an infrared telescope. This bow shock is 16,295 astronomical units from the star to the apex and 6,188 astronomical units thick (an astronomical unit is the distance between the sun and Earth). The mass of the bow shock is about 400 times the mass of the Earth.

    The false-color Spitzer image shows infrared emissions at 70 microns. Brighter colors represent greater intensities of infrared light at that wavelength. The location of the star itself is drawn onto the picture in the black 'unobserved' region in the center.

  10. The JCS 94-Target List: A Vietnam Myth That Still Distorts Military Thought

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    the 14 targets on the list above, these included Dong Hoi highway bridge (18.1), Thanh Yen highway bridge (18.2), Cau Tung highway bridge (18.3), Huu...Evidently, the enemy thought so too. Se­ nior Col Bui Tin of the North Vietnamese Army General Staff remarked in an interview: Q: What of American bombing...Hanoi railroad/highway bridge (Red River) Hanoi railroad/highway bridge (canal) Thanh Hoa railroad/highway bridge Viet Tri railroad/highway bridge

  11. Redox alters yellow dragonflies into red.

    PubMed

    Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema

    2012-07-31

    Body color change associated with sexual maturation--so-called nuptial coloration--is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait.

  12. Redox alters yellow dragonflies into red

    PubMed Central

    Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema

    2012-01-01

    Body color change associated with sexual maturation—so-called nuptial coloration—is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait. PMID:22778425

  13. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-05-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37/sup 0/C in the presence of /sup 14/C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with /sup 14/C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine.

  14. Red supergiants as type II supernova progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Dorda, Ricardo; González-Fernández, Carlos; Marco, Amparo

    2015-08-01

    Recent searches for supernova IIp progenitors in external galaxies have led to the identification of red objects with magnitudes and colours indicative of red supergiants, in most cases implying quite low luminosities and hence masses well below 10Msol. Stellar models, on the other hand, do not predict explosions from objects below 9 Msol. What does our knowledge of local red supergiants tells us about the expected properties of such objects?We have carried out a comprehensive spectroscopic and photometric study of a sample of hundreds of red supergiants in the Milky Way and both Magellanic Clouds. We have explored correlations between different parameters and the position of stars in the HR diagrams of open clusters. At solar metallicty, there is strong evidence for a phase of very heavy mass loss at the end of the red supergiant phase, but the existence of such a phase is still not confirmed at SMC metallicities. Objects of ~ 7Msol, on the other hand, become very dusty in the SMC, and appear as very luminous Miras.Among Milky Way clusters, we find a surprising lack of objects readily identifiable as the expected 7 to 10 Msol red supergiants or AGB stars. We are carrying out an open cluster survey aimed at filling this region of the HR diagram with reliable data. Finally, we will discuss the implications of all this findings for the expected properties of supernova progenitors, as it looks unlikely that typical red supergiants may explode without undergoing further evolution.

  15. Anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine.

    PubMed

    Eng, E T; Williams, D; Mandava, U; Kirma, N; Tekmal, R R; Chen, S

    2002-06-01

    Estrogen synthesized in situ plays a more important role in breast cancer cell proliferation than does circulating estrogen. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen and is expressed at a higher level in breast cancer tissue than in surrounding noncancer tissue. A promising route of chemoprevention against breast cancer may be through the suppression of in situ estrogen formation using aromatase inhibitors. A diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the incidence of breast cancer, because they contain phytochemicals that can act as aromatase inhibitors. In our previous studies, we found that grapes and wine contain potent phytochemicals that can inhibit aromatase. We show that red wine was more effective than white wine in suppressing aromatase activity. Interestingly, our results from white wine studies suggest a weak inductive effect of alcohol on aromatase activity. On the other hand, the potent effect of anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine overcomes the weak inductive effect of alcohol in wine. Several purification procedures were performed on whole red wine to separate active aromatase inhibitors from non-active compounds. These techniques included liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel chromatography, various solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and high performance liquid chromatography. An active Pinot Noir red wine SPE C18 column fraction (20% acetonitrile:water) was more effective than complete Pinot Noir wine in suppressing aromatase assay. This red wine extract was further analyzed in a transgenic mouse model in which aromatase was over-expressed in mammary tissue. Our gavaged red wine extract completely abrogated aromatase-induced hyperplasia and other neoplastic changes in mammary tissue. These results suggest that red wine or red wine extract may be a chemopreventive diet supplement for postmenopausal women who have a high risk of breast cancer. Further research is underway to purify and characterize the active compounds in red

  16. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists

    PubMed Central

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E.; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide. PMID:20824108

  17. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide.

  18. The second-order gravitational red shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, J.

    1973-01-01

    The direct measurement of the nonlinear term of the gravitational field equations by using very stable clocks is discussed along with measuring the perhelion advance of a planet or satellite. These are considered measurements of the second-order gravitational red shift. The exact expression for the frequency shift of light in a gravitational field is derived. Other topics discussed include: The Doppler-cancelling technique; the second-order red shift in a spherically symmetric gravitational field; finite signal transit time; and the reality and interpretation of coordinates in the second-order red shift experiment.

  19. Phytochromes are the sole photoreceptors for perceiving red/far-red light in rice

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Makoto; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Xie, Xianzhi; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Baba-Kasai, Akiko; Tanabata, Takanari; Shinomura, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    Phytochromes are believed to be solely responsible for red and far-red light perception, but this has never been definitively tested. To directly address this hypothesis, a phytochrome triple mutant (phyAphyBphyC) was generated in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare) and its responses to red and far-red light were monitored. Since rice only has three phytochrome genes (PHYA, PHYB and PHYC), this mutant is completely lacking any phytochrome. Rice seedlings grown in the dark develop long coleoptiles while undergoing regular circumnutation. The phytochrome triple mutants also show this characteristic skotomorphogenesis, even under continuous red or far-red light. The morphology of the triple mutant seedlings grown under red or far-red light appears completely the same as etiolated seedlings, and they show no expression of the light-induced genes. This is direct evidence demonstrating that phytochromes are the sole photoreceptors for perceiving red and far-red light, at least during rice seedling establishment. Furthermore, the shape of the triple mutant plants was dramatically altered. Most remarkably, triple mutants extend their internodes even during the vegetative growth stage, which is a time during which wild-type rice plants never elongate their internodes. The triple mutants also flowered very early under long day conditions and set very few seeds due to incomplete male sterility. These data indicate that phytochromes play an important role in maximizing photosynthetic abilities during the vegetative growth stage in rice. PMID:19706555

  20. Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers, Red Lake County, Minnesota. Reconnaissance Report for Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    the -stbbasin. These are the result of efforts by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (e.g., Agassiz Lake Project and Goose Lake Project), U.S. Soil...by glacial Lake Agassiz . Upper and Lower Red Lakes are remnants of this glacial lake. The topography of the subbasin ranges from 800 feet above mean...glacial Lake Agassiz and together comprise thelargest lake area wholly contained in Minnesota. The watershed drained by the Red Lake River lies within

  1. Green Zines: A List of Alternative Environmental Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of 200 alternative environmental periodicals. The list's scope includes animal welfare, vegetarianism, sustainable agriculture, conservation, renewable energy, and antinuclear activism. (MDH)

  2. NASA directives master list and index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This handbook sets forth in two parts, Master List of Management Directives and Index to NASA Management Directives, the following information for the guidance of users of the NASA Management Directives System. Chapter 1 contains introductory information material on how to use this handbook. Chapter 2 is a complete master list of agencywide management directives, describing each directive by type, number, effective date, expiration date, title, and organization code of the office responsible for the directive. Chapter 3 includes a consolidated numerical list of all delegations of authority and a breakdown of such delegation by the office or center to which special authority is assigned. Chapter 4 sets forth a consolidated list of all NASA handbooks (NHB's) and important footnotes covering the control and ordering of such documents. Chapter 5 is a consolidated list of NASA management directives applicable to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Chapter 6 is a consolidated list of NASA regulations published in the Code of Federal Regulations. Chapter 7 is a consolidated list of NASA regulations published in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Complementary manuals to the NASA Management Directives System are described in Chapter 8. The second part contains an in depth alphabetical index to all NASA management directives other than handbooks, most of which are indexed by titles only.

  3. Status assessment of New Zealand's naturally uncommon ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Holdaway, Robert J; Wiser, Susan K; Williams, Peter A

    2012-08-01

    Globally, ecosystems are under increasing anthropogenic pressure; thus, many are at risk of elimination. This situation has led the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to propose a quantitative approach to ecosystem-risk assessment. However, there is a need for their proposed criteria to be evaluated through practical examples spanning a diverse range of ecosystems and scales. We applied the IUCN's ecosystem red-list criteria, which are based on changes in extent of ecosystems and reductions in ecosystem processes, to New Zealand's 72 naturally uncommon ecosystems. We aimed to test the applicability of the proposed criteria to ecosystems that are naturally uncommon (i.e., those that would naturally occur over a small area in the absence of human activity) and to provide information on the probability of ecosystem elimination so that conservation priorities might be set. We also tested the hypothesis that naturally uncommon ecosystems classified as threatened on the basis of IUCN Red List criteria contain more threatened plant species than those classified as nonthreatened. We identified 18 critically endangered, 17 endangered, and 10 vulnerable ecosystems. We estimated that naturally uncommon ecosystems contained 145 (85%) of mainland New Zealand's taxonomically distinct nationally critical, nationally endangered, and nationally vulnerable plant species, 66 (46%) of which were endemic to naturally uncommon ecosystems. We estimated there was a greater number of threatened plant species (per unit area) in critically endangered ecosystems than in ecosystems classified as nonthreatened. With their high levels of endemism and rapid and relatively well-documented history of anthropogenic change, New Zealand's naturally uncommon ecosystems provide an excellent case-study for the ongoing development of international criteria for threatened ecosystems. We suggest that interactions and synergies among decline in area, decline in function, and the scale of

  4. Predicting a Luminous Red Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Noord, Daniel; Molnar, Larry; Kinemuchi, Karen; Steenwyk, Steven; Alexander, Cara; Spedden, Chris; Kobulnicky, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Luminous Red Novae (LRN) are rare transient events believed to be caused by the merger of a main sequence contact binary. Since the discovery of the prototype, V838 Mon, only a handful of LRN events have been observed. Tylenda et al. (2011) analyzed the OGLE data preceding the 2008 Novae of V1309 Sco and found that it exhibited a similar light curve to that of a contact binary with one interesting exception, the orbital period of V1309 Sco showed exponential period change going to zero. Unfortunately the system was discovered to be a binary after the merger, preventing any targeted observations to narrow down how the system entered this unusual state. However the extreme period change observed in V1309 Sco gives us a signature to look for in other contact binaries, allowing the discovery of merger candidates for follow up. We will present an analysis of light curves and spectra of KIC 9832227 (NSVS 5597755) that show it is a contact binary system with a negative period derivative that is becoming more extreme with time. These data span more than 15 years and are taken from the NSVS, ASAS, WASP, and Kepler surveys, with ongoing measurements from the Calvin College Observatory and the Apache Point Observatory. The ongoing period change observed in the system is consistent with the exponential model fit from V1309 Sco and the rate of period change has surpassed that of all other measured contact binaries with the exception of V1309 Sco. If the exponential period decay continues the system will likely merge between 2019 and 2022 resulting in a naked eye nova. If this event occurs, this star will present the unprecedented opportunity to study a LRN progenitor and to follow the evolution of the merger.

  5. Master list and index to NASA directives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    All NASA management directives in force as of August 1, 1982 are listed by major subject headings showing number, effective data, title, responsible office, and distribution code. Delegations of authority in print by that date are listed numerically as well as by the installation or office to which special authority is assigned. Other consolidated lists show all management handbooks, directives applicable to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, directions published in the Code of Federal Regulations, complementary manuals, and NASA safety standards. Distribution policies and instructions for ordering directives are included.

  6. NSSDC data listing. [spaceborne experiments and photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Data Listing is in an abbreviated form compared to the data catalogs normally published by NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S. It is organized by NSSDC spacecraft common name. The launch date and NSSDC ID are printed for each spacecraft. The experiments are listed alphabetically by the principal investigator's name and NSSDC ID are printed for each experiment. The data sets are listed by NSSDC ID following the experiment name. The data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time span of the data as verified by NSSDC are printed for each data set. Information on NSSDC facilities and ordering procedures are included.

  7. Master list and index to NASA directives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    All NASA management directives in force as of August 1, 1984 are listed by major subject headings showing number, effective date, title, responsible office, and distribution code. Delegations of authority in print by that date are listed numerically as well as by the installation or office to which special authority is assigned. Other consolidated lists show all management handbooks, directives applicable to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, directives published in the Code of Federal Regulations, complementary manuals, and NASA safety standards. Distribution policies and instructions for ordering directives are included.

  8. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... such as those caused by floods, tornados, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, explosions, etc., and not to... and community planning for disasters. (5) When appropriate, the Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  9. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such as those caused by floods, tornados, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, explosions, etc., and not to... and community planning for disasters. (5) When appropriate, the Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  10. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... such as those caused by floods, tornados, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, explosions, etc., and not to... and community planning for disasters. (5) When appropriate, the Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  11. Variable Red Giants--The MACHO View

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S C; Cook, K H

    2003-01-03

    The authors present a study of the MACHO red variable population in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This study reveals six period-luminosity relations among the red variable population. Only two of these were known prior to MACHO. The results are consistent with Mira pulsation in the fundamental mode. A sequence comprising 26% of the red variable population can not be explained by pulsation. They propose a dust {kappa}-mechanism in the circumstellar environment is responsible for the long period variation of these objects. The luminosity function of the variables shows a sharp edge at the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). This is the first clear indication of a population of variable stars within the immediate vicinity of the TRGB. The results indicate this population amounts to 8% of the RGB population near the TRGB.

  12. Doppler interpretation of quasar red shifts.

    PubMed

    Zapolsky, H S

    1966-08-05

    The hypothesis that the quasistellar sources (quasars) are local objects moving with velocities close to the speed of light is examined. Provided there is no observational cutoff on apparent bolometric magnitude for the quasars, the transverse Doppler effect leads to the expectation of fewer blue shifts than red shifts for an isotropic distribution of velocities. Such a distribution also yields a function N(z), the number of objects with red shift less than z which is not inconsistent with the present data. On the basis of two extreme assumptions concerning the origin of such rapidly moving sources, we computed curves of red shift plotted against magnitude. In particular, the curve obtained on the assumption that the quasars originated from an explosion in or nearby our own galaxy is in as good agreement with the observations as the curve of cosmological red shift plotted against magnitude.

  13. Red wine polyphenols for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-05-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  14. Human spleen and red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George; Buffet, Pierre; Dao, Ming

    2016-11-01

    Spleen plays multiple roles in the human body. Among them is removal of old and altered red blood cells (RBCs), which is done by filtering cells through the endothelial slits, small micron-sized openings. There is currently no experimental technique available that allows us to observe RBC passage through the slits. It was previously noticed that people without a spleen have less deformable red blood cells, indicating that the spleen may play a role in defining the size and shape of red blood cells. We used detailed RBC model implemented within the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation framework to study the filter function of the spleen. Our results demonstrate that spleen indeed plays major role in defining the size and shape of the healthy human red blood cells.

  15. Red Shifts with Obliquely Approaching Light Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, C. E.; Moore-Head, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Refutes the Doppler effect as the explanation of large red shifts in the spectra of distant galaxies and explains the relativistic effects in which the light sources approach the observer obliquely. Provides several diagrams and graphs. (YP)

  16. The Red School House: An Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Founded in 1971 in St. Paul, Minnesota, the Red School House offers a model curriculum which blends academics and American Indian culture assembled by the students, staff, parents, and the director, Eddie Benton Banai. (JC)

  17. California Red-legged Frog - Stipulated Injunction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA will make effects determinations and initiate consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, regarding the potential effects of 66 pesticide active ingredient registrations on the California red-legged frog.

  18. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    DOEpatents

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  19. [Red yeast rice: An unsafe food supplement?

    PubMed

    Steffen, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Red yeast rice is the fermentation product of the mould Monascus ruber and is traditionally used in East Asia to dye and conserve food. Its main pharmacologically active compound, monakolin K, was isolated from red yeast rice and is used as an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis under the INN lovastatin. Lovastatin and several other statins are marketed as drugs whereas red yeast rice is offered as a food supplement. As statins can cause severe side effects, such as muscle damage and kidney failure, the dosing and information about interactions with drugs and food is essential for the use of these products. Furthermore, red yeast rice can contain the mycotoxin citrinin and several other substances that are not yet toxicologically evaluated.

  20. Day Pass Down the Red Sea

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the southeastern Mediterranean Sea and down the coastline of the Red Sea was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was ta...