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Sample records for ius

  1. Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) software analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, W. L.; Nickel, C. E.; Rose, P. L.; Singh, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) System, an extension of the Space Transportation System (STS) operating regime to include higher orbits, orbital plane changes, geosynchronous orbits, and interplanetary trajectories is presented. The IUS software design, the IUS software interfaces with other systems, and the cost effectiveness in software verification are described. Tasks of the IUS discussed include: (1) design analysis; (2) validation requirements analysis; (3) interface analysis; and (4) requirements analysis.

  2. Orbiter CIU/IUS communications hardware evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    The DOD and NASA inertial upper stage communication system design, hardware specifications and interfaces were analyzed to determine their compatibility with the Orbiter payload communications equipment (Payload Interrogator, Payload Signal Processors, Communications Interface Unit, and the Orbiter operational communications equipment (the S-Band and Ku-band systems). Topics covered include (1) IUS/shuttle Orbiter communications interface definition; (2) Orbiter avionics equipment serving the IUS; (3) IUS communication equipment; (4) IUS/shuttle Orbiter RF links; (5) STDN/TDRS S-band related activities; and (6) communication interface unit/Orbiter interface issues. A test requirement plan overview is included.

  3. Deployment of Galileo and the IUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft and its Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster were deployed from the cargo bay of STS-34 Atlantis. Deployment occurred at 7:15 P.M. EDT on October 18, 1989. Beginning an hour after deployment, two rocket stages of the IUS fired in succession. Galileo separated from the IUS' second stage at 9:05 P.M. and began its ballistic flight to Venus for the first of three gravity-assisted flybys, which will take Galileo to Jupiter.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA'is Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  4. Shuttle/IUS performance for planetary missions. [Interim Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. J.; Driver, J. M.; Wright, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Potential requirements for planetary missions in the 1980s, capabilities of the Interim Upper Stage (IUS) candidates to perform those missions, and Shuttle/IUS mission profile options for performance enhancement are examined. The most demanding planetary missions are the Pioneer Saturn/Uranus/Titan Probe and the Mariner-class orbiters of Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn. Options available to designers of these missions will depend on the specific IUS selected for development and the programmatic phasing of the IUS and the NASA Tug. Use of Shuttle elliptic orbits as initial conditions for IUS ignition offers significant performance improvements; specific values are mission dependent.

  5. Contraindications to IUD and IUS use.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Anita L

    2007-06-01

    Contraindications to IUD or IUS use can be found on product labeling, in the guidelines of various specialty groups and in recommendations from peer-reviewed articles. Overly restrictive contraindications block access to this top-tier method for many women who would be candidates based on current scientific evidence. Assuming that a condition should be listed as a contraindication only if the risk of IUD/IUS use by a woman with that condition exceeds her risk with pregnancy, the list of contraindications is reduced to pregnancy, active uterine infection, malignancy in the uterus or cervix, an inability to place or retain the device, unexplained abnormal bleeding and adverse reaction to product ingredients.

  6. A Real-Time Telemetry Simulator of the IUS Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, Michael E.; Forman, Douglas A.; Baker, Damon M.; Khazoyan, Louis B.; Viazzo, Danilo

    1998-01-01

    A real-time telemetry simulator of the IUS spacecraft has recently entered operation to train Flight Control Teams for the launch of the AXAF telescope from the Shuttle. The simulator has proven to be a successful higher fidelity implementation of its predecessor, while affirming the rapid development methodology used in its design. Although composed of COTS hardware and software, the system simulates the full breadth of the mission: Launch, Pre-Deployment-Checkout, Burn Sequence, and AXAF/IUS separation. Realism is increased through patching the system into the operations facility to simulate IUS telemetry, Shuttle telemetry, and the Tracking Station link (commands and status message).

  7. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  8. Ius Chasma by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 18 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of Ius Chasma.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -1, Longitude 276 East (84 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the

  9. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 2: Interim upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Background data and study results are presented for the interim upper stage (IUS) operations phase of the IUS/tug orbital operations study. The study was conducted to develop IUS operational concepts and an IUS baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for IUS operations. The approach used was to compile and evaluate baseline concepts, definitions, and system, and to use that data as a basis for the IUS operations phase definition, analysis, and costing analysis. Both expendable and reusable IUS configurations were analyzed and two autonomy levels were specified for each configuration. Topics discussed include on-orbit operations and interfaces with the orbiter, the tracking and data relay satellites and ground station support capability analysis, and flight control center sizing to support the IUS operations.

  10. Contamination measurements during IUS thermal vacuum tests in a large space chamber. [IUS equipment support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, C. R.; Shaw, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of contamination that originate from inside the IUS equipment support section (ESS) due to outgassing from electronics components and wiring operating at elevated temperatures (80-160 F) were investigated. Pressure was measured inside and outside the ESS. Mass deposition measurements were made with quartz crystal microbalances (QCM) facing into and away from ESS vents. The OCM's were operated at -50 C and -180 C using thermoelectrically and cryogenically cooled QCM's. Gaseous nitrogen flow inside the ESS was used to obtain the effective molecular flow vent area of the ESS, which was evaluated to be 359 sq cm (56 sq in) compared to the 978 sq cm (150 sq in) estimated by an earlier atmosphere pressure billowing test. The total outgassing rate of the ESS materials at a temperature of 60 C (140 F) decays with a time constant of 11.5 hours based on pressure measurements during the hot cycle. A time constant of 22 hours was estimated for the fraction of the outgassing which will condense on a -50 C surface. In contrast, the time constant is only 10.1 hours for the outgassing material which condenses on a surface at -180 C. A surface at -180 C collects approximately one half of the material vented from the ESS which impinges on it. Pressure measurements show very good correlation with the mass deposition measurements.

  11. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 4: Project planning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Planning data are presented for the development phases of interim upper stage (IUS) and tug systems. Major project planning requirements, major event schedules, milestones, system development and operations process networks, and relevant support research and technology requirements are included. Topics discussed include: IUS flight software; tug flight software; IUS/tug ground control center facilities, personnel, data systems, software, and equipment; IUS mission events; tug mission events; tug/spacecraft rendezvous and docking; tug/orbiter operations interface, and IUS/orbiter operations interface.

  12. Solid rocket technology advancements for space tug and IUS applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ascher, W.; Bailey, R. L.; Behm, J. W.; Gin, W.

    1975-01-01

    In order for the shuttle tug or interim upper stage (IUS) to capture all the missions in the current mission model for the tug and the IUS, an auxiliary or kick stage, using a solid propellant rocket motor, is required. Two solid propellant rocket motor technology concepts are described. One concept, called the 'advanced propulsion module' motor, is an 1800-kg, high-mass-fraction motor, which is single-burn and contains Class 2 propellent. The other concept, called the high energy upper stage restartable solid, is a two-burn (stop-restartable on command) motor which at present contains 1400 kg of Class 7 propellant. The details and status of the motor design and component and motor test results to date are presented, along with the schedule for future work.

  13. Hydrated mineral stratigraphy of Ius Chasma, Valles Marineris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roach, L.H.; Mustard, J.F.; Swayze, G.; Milliken, R.E.; Bishop, J.L.; Murchie, S.L.; Lichtenberg, K.

    2010-01-01

    New high-resolution spectral and morphologic imaging of deposits on walls and floor of Ius Chasma extend previous geomorphic mapping, and permit a new interpretation of aqueous processes that occurred during the development of Valles Marineris. We identify hydrated mineralogy based on visible-near infrared (VNIR) absorptions. We map the extents of these units with CRISM spectral data as well as morphologies in CTX and HiRISE imagery. Three cross-sections across Ius Chasma illustrate the interpreted mineral stratigraphy. Multiple episodes formed and transported hydrated minerals within Ius Chasma. Polyhydrated sulfate and kieserite are found within a closed basin at the lowest elevations in the chasma. They may have been precipitates in a closed basin or diagenetically altered after deposition. Fluvial or aeolian processes then deposited layered Fe/Mg smectite and hydrated silicate on the chasma floor, postdating the sulfates. The smectite apparently was weathered out of Noachian-age wallrock and transported to the depositional sites. The overlying hydrated silicate is interpreted to be an acid-leached phyllosilicate transformed from the underlying smectite unit, or a smectite/jarosite mixture. The finely layered smectite and massive hydrated silicate units have an erosional unconformity between them, that marks a change in surface water chemistry. Landslides transported large blocks of wallrock, some altered to contain Fe/Mg smectite, to the chasma floor. After the last episode of normal faulting and subsequent landslides, opal was transported short distances into the chasma from a few m-thick light-toned layer near the top of the wallrock, by sapping channels in Louros Valles. Alternatively, the material was transported into the chasma and then altered to opal. The superposition of different types of hydrated minerals and the different fluvial morphologies of the units containing them indicate sequential, distinct aqueous environments, characterized by alkaline

  14. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 5: Cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The costing approach, methodology, and rationale utilized for generating cost data for composite IUS and space tug orbital operations are discussed. Summary cost estimates are given along with cost data initially derived for the IUS program and space tug program individually, and cost estimates for each work breakdown structure element.

  15. Duration of use of a levonorgestrel IUS amongst nulliparous and adolescent women

    PubMed Central

    Behringer, Tiffany; Reeves, Matthew F.; Rossiter, Brianna; Chen, Beatrice A.; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla

    2011-01-01

    Background Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are cost-effective if used for two or more years. Early discontinuation may lead to reduced cost-effectiveness of this method and unintended pregnancy if other contraceptives are not used. This study sought to examine rates and reasons for discontinuation of IUS use in adolescents versus older women and nulliparous versus parous women, as these groups may be more likely to discontinue use. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of women receiving a levonorgestrel IUS between June 2005 and April 2008. Medical records were reviewed for all visits following placement of the IUS; rates and reasons for IUS discontinuation were calculated and categorized. Data were examined under two scenarios: (1) assuming that all women not seen for follow-up continued IUS use and (2) Only including women with follow-up visits. Cox regression was used to control for age, parity, race, and marital status in comparing rates of IUS discontinuation and expulsion in nulliparous versus parous women and adolescents versus older women. Results Of the 828 women included in this analysis, 104 (12.6%) were nulliparous, and 131 (15.8%) were <=20 years of age. Nulliparous women were not more likely than parous women to have expelled their IUS [HR 1.40, 95% CI (0.57, 3.43)]. Adolescent women were more likely to experience expulsion than older women, although this did not reach statistical significance [HR 1.49 (0.76, 2.92)]. When we looked at reasons for IUS removal, we found that nulliparous women were not more likely than parous women to have their IUS removed because of dissatisfaction with the contraceptive method (6.7% vs. 11.5%, p=0.15) or desire to become pregnant (1.9% vs. 2.6%, p=0.50). Similarly, adolescents were not more likely than older women to have their IUS removed because of dissatisfaction with the contraceptive method (10.7% vs. 10.9%, p=0.94) or desire to become pregnant (3.1% vs. 2.4%, p=0.43). Conclusions Adolescents and nulliparous women

  16. IUS/SPINSIM - INERTIAL UPPER STAGE SPIN STAGE SIX DEGREE OF FREEDOM SIMULATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauro, V. A.

    1994-01-01

    IUS/SPINSIM was written to evaluate a proposed spinning third stage for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) Jupiter Mission. The third stage of the IUS was not to have altitude control during the solid motor burn for this mission. IUS was to be spun up about its principle thrust axis in the desired attitude prior to ignition of its solid motor. IUS/SPINSIM can also be used to evaluate the performance of other spinning stages that utilize a fixed burn motor. IUS/SPINSIM is a Six-Degree-of-Freedom simulation for exo-atmospheric flight of an IUS. It assumes the stage is released in orbit at or near its desired inertial attitude, and is spinning slowly. The code models three phases: a coast phase in which further spin-up may occur, a burn stage during which a solid rocket motor (SRM) burn injects the space craft into a transfer trajectory, and a final coast phase. IUS/SPINSIM takes into account the effects of the following: a reaction control system (RCS) spinning the vehicle; SRM thrust buildup, decay, and misalignment; changing mass, center of gravity, principle moments of inertia, cross products of inertia, time derivatives of inertia; jet damping moments; and an oblate gravity model. Numerical integration of the equations of motion using a Runge-Kutta fourth order integrator and small step sizes is used to track the vehicle's position, velocity, attitude and spin rates. Instead of using Euler angles or the Direction Cosine Matrix, Quarternions are used to model the attitude and spinning of the vehicle. This eliminates the renormalization difficulties associated with either of the other methods. Program input is taken from a file, and output is to a print file and a data file suitable for use in plotting. The IUS/SPINSIM is written in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX series computers running VMS. The standard distribution medium for this program is a 9track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX BACKUP format. This

  17. Mechanisms to deploy the two-stage IUS from the shuttle cargo bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynie, H. T.

    1980-01-01

    The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) is a two-stage or three-stage booster used to transport spacecraft from the space shuttle orbit to synchronous orbit or on an interplanetary trajectory. The mechanisms which were designed specifically to perform the two-stage IUS required functions while contained within the cargo bay of the space shuttle during the boost phase and while in a low Earth orbit are discussed. The requirements, configuration, and operation of the mechanisms are described, with particular emphasis on the tilt actuator and the mechanism for decoupling the actuators during boost to eliminate redundant load paths.

  18. Hydraulic mechanism to limit torsional loads between the IUS and space transportation system orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, James R.

    1986-01-01

    The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) is a two-stage booster used by NASA and the Defense Department to insert payloads into geosynchronous orbit from low-Earth orbit. The hydraulic mechanism discussed here was designed to perform a specific dynamic and static interface function within the Space Transportation System's Orbiter. Requirements, configuration, and application of the hydraulic mechanism with emphasis on performance and methods of achieving zero external hydraulic leakage are discussed. The hydraulic load-leveler mechanism meets the established design requirements for operation in a low-Earth orbit. Considerable testing was conducted to demonstrate system performance and verification that external leakage had been reduced to zero. Following each flight use of an ASE, all hydraulic mechanism components are carefully inspected for leakage. The ASE, including the hydraulic mechanism, has performed without any anomalies during all IUS flights.

  19. Discovery, observational data and the orbit of the Transneptunian object (420356) Praamžius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černis, K.; Boyle, R. P.; Wlodarczyk, I.

    A project for astrometric and photometric observations of asteroids with the VATT telescope on Mt. Graham is described. One of the most important results is the discovery of the Transneptunian object (420356) Praamžius. We computed its orbit applying 198 optical observations from 2003 February 1 to 2016 January 30. We also followed its orbit searching for minimal distances to Neptune between the years 17 000 and --13 000. Combined with the apparent brightness, the orbit gives the absolute magnitude MR = 5.59 ± 0.37 mag. Using a typical albedo value of 0.08 for Centaurs and TNOs, we get a diameter of (420356) Praamžius in the range 302--425 km.

  20. Shuttle program. STS-7 conceptual flight profile. IUS/TDRS-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) Flight Assignment Manifest has has scheduled a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) spacecraft for a February 1981 launch on STS Flight 7. The preliminary flight profile that conceptually implements the flight requirements and constraints levied by the STS, inertial upper stage (IUS), and the TDRS spacecraft is presented. The integrated major flight design guidelines and requirements used in the development of the flight profile are included together with a flight sequence of events and time line that describe the profile and reflect implementation of the integrated set of requirements.

  1. Submucosal uterine fibroid prolapsed into vagina in a symptomatic patient with IUS.

    PubMed

    Matytsina-Quinlan, Lyubov; Matytsina, Laura

    2014-04-16

    A female patient in her mid 40s presents with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) and a history of spotting/irregular light per vagina (PV) bleeding since intrauterine system (IUS) insertion 1 year ago. She is known to have submucosal uterine fibroid (SMUF). The patient reported abdominal pain and sudden onset of 'miscarriage-like' HMB with clots 2 days ago. On speculum examination there was a smooth round-shaped mass lying over the external cervical os. On bimanual examination PV, a round-shaped smooth mass of a walnut's size was palpable in the upper third of the vagina. Subsequent ultrasound imaging revealed an SMUF prolapsed into the vagina. Further surgical treatment was undertaken. Histology showed a fibroid (leiomyoma) with no evidence of malignancy.

  2. Investigation of storage system designs and techniques for optimizing energy conservation in integrated utility systems. Volume 2: (Application of energy storage to IUS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of energy storage devices to any energy system depends on the performance and cost characteristics of the larger basic system. A comparative assessment of energy storage alternatives for application to IUS which addresses the systems aspects of the overall installation is described. Factors considered include: (1) descriptions of the two no-storage IUS baselines utilized as yardsticks for comparison throughout the study; (2) discussions of the assessment criteria and the selection framework employed; (3) a summary of the rationale utilized in selecting water storage as the primary energy storage candidate for near term application to IUS; (4) discussion of the integration aspects of water storage systems; and (5) an assessment of IUS with water storage in alternative climates.

  3. Preliminary analysis of selected gas dynamic problems. [space shuttle main engine main combustion transients and IUS nozzle flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prozan, R. J.; Farmer, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The VAST computer code was used to analyze SSME main combustion chamber start-up transients and the IUS flow field for a damaged nozzle was investigated to better understand the gas dynamic considerations involved in vehicle problems, the effect of start transients on the nozzle flow field for the SSME, and the possibility that a damaged nozzle could account for the acceleration anomaly noted on IUS burn. The results obtained were compared with a method of characteristics prediction. Pressure solutions from both codes were in very good agreement and the Mach number solution on the nozzle centerline deviates substantially for the high expansions for the SSME. Since this deviation was unexpected, the phenomenon is being further examined.

  4. The NSF IUSE-EHR Program: What's New (and Old) About It, and Resources for Geoscience Proposers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, J.; Ryan, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    The NSF Division of Undergraduate Education recently released a new solicitation for the IUSE program -- the latest iteration in a succession of funding programs dating back over 30 years (including the Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Program (ILI), the Course and Curriculum Development Program (CCD), the Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement Program (CCLI), and the Transforming Undergraduate STEM Education Program (TUES). All of these programs sought/seek to support high quality STEM education for majors and non-majors in lower- and upper-division undergraduate courses. The current IUSE-EHR program is described in a 2-year solicitation that includes two tracks: Engaged Student Learning, and Institutional & Community Transformation. Each track has several options for funding level and project duration. A wide range of activities can be proposed for funding, and the program recognizes the varying needs across STEM disciplines. Geoscientists and other potential IUSE proposers are strongly encouraged to form collaborations with colleagues that conduct educational research and to propose projects that build upon the educational knowledge base in the discipline as well as contribute to it. Achieving this may not be immediately obvious to many geoscientists who have interests in improving student learning in their courses, but are not fluent in the scholarship of education in their field. To lower the barriers that have historically prevented larger numbers of geoscientists from developing their ideas into competitive education-related proposals, we have explored strategies for building and leveraging partnerships, sought to identify available resources for proposers, and explored a range of strategies for engaging and supporting larger numbers of potential geoscience proposers.

  5. Shuttle program standard maneuver sequences for orbiter/upper-stage separation SSUS-A, SSUS-D, and IUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    Descriptions of standard post-ejection maneuver sequences for the deployment of IUS, SSUS-A, and SSUS-D upper stages from the space shuttle orbiter are presented. The sequences were designed to satisfy requirements for limiting the damage inflicted on the orbiter by upper-stage exhaust particles, subject to a further requirement for minimizing the impingement of orbiter thruster plumes on the deployed payload. In all cases it was assumed that the orbital maneuvering system engines would be used to apply the orbiter's major separation velocity increment.

  6. Use of a frameless LNG-IUS as conservative treatment for a pre-malignant uterine polyp in a premenopausal woman – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, D; Verbeeck, G; Wildemeersch, D

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of progression to invasive carcinoma in patients with a premalignant endometrial lesion using longterm treatment with levonorgestrel (LNG) releasing intrauterine systems (IUS) remains controversial, especially when manifest cellular atypia has been found in the endometrial biopsy specimen. We present a case of a 44-year old premenopausal woman with a premalignant uterine polyp who declined hysterectomy and was followed-up for more than 12 years after the first LNG-IUS was inserted. Endometrial atrophy installed, no pathology was detected and hysterectomy was thereby successfully avoided. The positive experience in this case should encourage further studies as literature data indicate that conservative treatment of premalignant endometrial pathology is a real option with a high success rate for women who have a contra-indication for surgery, refuse the classical approach for personal reasons or want to preserve their fertility. PMID:27729971

  7. Workers in the VPF observe the lower end of the IUS to be mated to the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in the Vertical Processing Facility observe the lower end of the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) that will be mated with the Chandra X-ray Observatory (out of sight above it). After the two components are mated, they will undergo testing to validate the IUS/Chandra connections and to check the orbiter avionics interfaces. Following that, an end-to-end test (ETE) will be conducted to verify the communications path to Chandra, commanding it as if it were in space. With the world's most powerful X-ray telescope, Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. Chandra is scheduled for launch July 22 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, on mission STS-93.

  8. Investigation of storage system designs and techniques for optimizing energy conservation in integrated utility systems. Volume 3: (Assessment of technical and cost characteristics of candidate IUS energy storage devices)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Six energy storage technologies (inertial, superconducting magnetic, electrochemical, chemical, compressed air, and thermal) were assessed and evaluated for specific applicability to the IUS. To provide a perspective for the individual storage technologies, a brief outline of the general nature of energy storage and its significance to the user is presented.

  9. IUS guidance algorithm gamma guide assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, R. E.; Dauro, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    The Gamma Guidance Algorithm which controls the inertial upper stage is described. The results of an independent assessment of the algorithm's performance in satisfying the NASA missions' targeting objectives are presented. The results of a launch window analysis for a Galileo mission, and suggested improvements are included.

  10. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 3: Space tug operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop space tug operational concepts and baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for space tug operations. Background data and study results are presented along with a transition phase analysis (the transition from interim upper state to tug operations). A summary is given of the tug operational and interface requirements with emphasis on the on-orbit checkout requirements, external interface operational requirements, safety requirements, and system operational interface requirements. Other topics discussed include reference missions baselined for the tug and details for the mission functional flows and timelines derived for the tug mission, tug subsystems, tug on-orbit operations prior to the tug first burn, spacecraft deployment and retrieval by the tug, operations centers, mission planning, potential problem areas, and cost data.

  11. Development and implementation of Shuttle/IUS proximity operations flight design software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    The High Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP), a trajectory/attitude numerical integration program, was developed and implemented on the MPAD HP-9825A desk top computer systems. A solar and a lunar ephemeris is included in the HFRMP along with models of the oblate Earth, a rotating atmosphere, the orbiter's OMS/RCS/DAP system, orbiter vents, rotor dynamics, and upper stage propulsion systems. Although designed primarily for the analysis of proximity operations, it is useful in other areas such as attitude/stability analysis, propulsive consumables estimation, and trajector perturbation studies. An unique identification was assigned to each of the various configurations of the HFRMP that were developed to test new techniques and algorithms are briefly described. These include the HFRMP Versions 03H, 03M, 03T, 03U, and 05D. Development of orbiter/upper stage separation techniques including flight design support for the TDRS-A and Galileo deployment flights and design of standard maneuver sequences is discussed. Also, the development and implementation of the Euler angle conversion program is briefly addressed.

  12. MObIUS (Massive Object Integrated Universal Store): A Survey Toward a More General Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Sirp, J K; Brugger, S T

    2004-06-07

    General frameworks for distributed computing are slowly evolving out of Grid, Peer Architecture, and Web Services. The following results from a summer long survey into distributing computing practices have revealed three things. One, that Legion and Cactus-G have achieved the most in terms of providing an all-purpose application environment. Two, that extending a local programming environment to operate in a highly distributed fashion can be facilitated with toolkits like Globus. Three, that building a new system from the ground up could be realized, in part, by using some of the following components; an Object Oriented Database, Tapestry, JXTA, BOINC, Globus, component architecture technology, XML and related libraries, Condor-G, Proteus, and ParMETIS.

  13. Art concept of Magellan spacecraft and inertial upper stage (IUS) deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Magellan spacecraft mounted on inertial upper stage drifts above Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, after its deployment during mission STS-30 in this artist concept. Solar panels are deployed and in OV-104's open payload bay (PLB) the airborne support equipment (ASE) is visible. Both spacecraft are orbiting the Earth. Magellan, named after the 16th century Portuguese explorer, will orbit Venus about once every three hours, acquiring radar data for 37 minutes of each orbit when it is closest to the surface. Using an advanced instrument called a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), it will map more than 90 per cent of the surface with resolution ten times better than the best from prior spacecraft. Magellan is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); Martin Marietta Aerospace is developing the spacecraft and Hughes Aircraft Company, the advanced imaging radar.

  14. Western Tithonium Chasma/Ius Chasma, Valles Marineris - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Most remarkable about this MOC image is the discovery of light and dark layers in the rock outcrops of the canyon walls. In the notable, triangular mountain face (at center), some 80 layers, typically alternating in brightness and varying in thickness from 5 to 50 meters (16 to 160 feet), are clearly visible. This shear mountain cliff, over 1000 m (3200 ft) tall, is only one of several outcrops that, together, indicate layering almost the entire depth of the canyon.

    This type of bedrock layering has never been seen before in Valles Marineris. It calls into question common views about the upper crust of Mars, for example, that there is a deep layer of rubble underlying most of the martian surface, and argues for a much more complex early history for the planet.

    Launched on November 7, 1996, Mars Global Surveyor entered Mars orbit on Thursday, September 11, 1997. The original mission plan called for using friction with the planet's atmosphere to reduce the orbital energy, leading to a two-year mapping mission from close, circular orbit (beginning in March 1998). Owing to difficulties with one of the two solar panels, aerobraking was suspended in mid-October and resumed in November 8. Many of the original objectives of the mission, and in particular those of the camera, are likely to be accomplished as the mission progresses.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  15. IUS/payload communication system simulator configuration definition study. [payload simulator for pcm telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udalov, S.; Springett, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements and specifications for a general purpose payload communications system simulator to be used to emulate those communications system portions of NASA and DOD payloads/spacecraft that will in the future be carried into earth orbit by the shuttle are discussed. For the purpose of on-orbit checkout, the shuttle is required to communicate with the payloads while they are physically located within the shuttle bay (attached) and within a range of 20 miles from the shuttle after they have been deployed (detached). Many of the payloads are also under development (and many have yet to be defined), actual payload communication hardware will not be available within the time frame during which the avionic hardware tests will be conducted. Thus, a flexible payload communication system simulator is required.

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1, UNIT XVI, I--USE AND CARE OF SMALL HAND TOOLS, II--PRINCIPLES OF THE POWER DIVIDER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF SMALL HAND TOOLS USED IN DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE AND THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND MAINTENANCE OF POWER DIVIDERS (GEAR BOXES) USED IN DIESEL ENGINE POWER DISTRIBUTION. TOPICS ARE (1) UNDERSTANDING TORQUE AND HOW IT IS MEASURED, (2) REPAIRING AND REPLACING THREADED…

  17. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: I-Using estrous response to determine the optimal time(s) at which to administer GnRH in beef heifers and postpartum cows.

    PubMed

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments evaluated timing of GnRH administration in beef heifers and cows on the basis of estrous status during split-time artificial insemination (AI) after controlled internal drug release (CIDR) based protocols. In experiment 1, estrus was synchronized for 816 pubertal and prepubertal or peripubertal heifers using the 14-day CIDR-PGF2α (PG) protocol, and in experiment 2, estrus was synchronized for 622 lactating cows using the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. For both experiments, estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PG, with estrus recorded at 66 and 90 hours after PG. Treatments were balanced across locations for heifers using reproductive tract score and weight; whereas for cows, treatments were assigned and balanced to treatment according to age, body condition score, and days postpartum. Timing of AI for heifers and cows was on the basis of estrus expression 66 hours after PG. Females in each treatment that exhibited estrus before 66 hours were inseminated at 66 hours, whereas AI was delayed 24 hours until 90 hours after PG for females failing to exhibit estrus before 66 hours. Females in treatment one received GnRH 66 hours after PG irrespective of estrus expression; however, in treatment 2, GnRH was administered coincident with delayed AI only to females not detected in estrus at 66 hours after PG. Among heifers, there was no effect of treatment on overall estrous response (P = 0.49) or AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.54). Pregnancy rate for heifers inseminated at 66 hours was not influenced by GnRH (P = 0.65), and there were no differences between treatments in estrous response during the 24 hours delay period (P = 0.22). Cows in treatment 2 had a greater (P = 0.04) estrous response during the 24-hour delay period resulting in a greater overall estrous response (P = 0.04), but this did not affect AI pregnancy rate at 90 hours (P = 0.51) or total AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.89). Pregnancy rate resulting from AI for cows inseminated at 66 hours was not influenced by GnRH (P = 0.50). In summary, when split-time AI was used with the 14-day CIDR-PG protocol in heifers or the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol in cows, administration of GnRH at AI to females that exhibited estrus before 66 hours after PG was not necessary. Furthermore, among heifers for which AI was delayed on the basis of failure to exhibit estrus before 66 hours after PG, timing of GnRH (66 vs. 90 hours after PG) was more flexible. Delayed administration of GnRH to 90 hours after PG coincident with AI for cows that failed to exhibit estrus before 66 hours improved overall estrous response; however, in this study, a corresponding increase in pregnancy rate resulting from AI was not observed. PMID:27207474

  18. Beyond Acculturation: Political "Change", Indigenous Knowledges, and Intercultural Higher Education in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Aguilera, Dulce Abigail; Figueroa-Helland, Leonardo E.

    2011-01-01

    This article critiques the evolution of higher education in Mexico in light of the political "change" that led to the establishment of Intercultural Universities (IUs) for Indigenous communities. We argue that the "change" touted by the post-2000 regime isn't as profound or beneficial as claimed. Although IUs embody valuable efforts, they…

  19. The New Cosmopolitan Monolingualism: On Linguistic Citizenship in Twenty-First Century Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramling, David

    2009-01-01

    In the early years of the twenty-first century, being German has become a matter of linguistic competence and performance. An acute shift in citizenship statutes at the end of the 1990s brought about a peripatetic departure from Germany's "right of blood" ("ius sanguinis") toward a French-inspired "right of territory" ("ius soli"). Yet in the nine…

  20. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  1. User benefits and funding strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    A three-step, systematic method is described for selecting relevant and highly beneficial payloads for the Interim Upper Stage (IUS) that will be used with the space shuttle until the space tug becomes available. Viable cost-sharing strategies which would maximize the number of IUS payloads and the benefits obtainable under a limited NASA budget were also determined.

  2. The Marketability of Integrated Energy/Utility Systems: A Guide to the Dollar Savings Potential in Integrated Energy/Utility Systems; for Campuses, Medical Complexes, and Communities; Architect/Engineers, Industrial and Power Plant Owners; Suppliers; and Constructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxe, Edwin F.; Hill, David E.

    This publication acquaints the prospective marketplace with the potential and underlying logic of the Integrated Utility System (IUS) concept. This system holds promise for educational and medical institutions seeking to reduce their energy costs. The generic IUS concept is described and how it can be incorporated into existing heating and…

  3. A Factor Analytic Study of the Internet Usage Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monetti, David M.; Whatley, Mark A.; Hinkle, Kerry T.; Cunningham, Kerry T.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; Kisling, Rhea

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an Internet Usage Scale (IUS) for use with adolescent populations. The IUS is a 26-item scale that measures participants' beliefs about how their Internet usage impacts their behavior. The sample for this study consisted of 947 middle school students. An exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the…

  4. The intolerance of uncertainty scale: measurement invariance, population heterogeneity, and its relation with worry among self-identifying White and Black respondents.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Thomas A; Wu, Kevin D

    2013-10-01

    Although it is understood that assessment tools require evaluation using diverse samples, such evaluations are relatively rare. There are obstacles to such work, but it remains important to pursue psychometric data in broad samples. As such, we evaluated measurement invariance and population heterogeneity of two versions of a widely used measure in the anxiety literature--the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS)--among self-identifying White (N = 1,185) and Black (N = 301) students. Data from multiple-groups confirmatory factor analysis supported the equivalence of the equal form and factor loadings of both IUS versions in White and Black respondents. However, specific IUS items functioned differently in the two groups, with more IUS items appearing biased in the full-length relative to the short-form version. Correlations between IUS factors and worry were equivalent among White and Black respondents. We discuss the implications of these results for future research.

  5. The Effect of Age, Parity and Body Mass Index on the Efficacy, Safety, Placement and User Satisfaction Associated With Two Low-Dose Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Contraceptive Systems: Subgroup Analyses of Data From a Phase III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Apter, Dan; Hauck, Brian; Schmelter, Thomas; Rybowski, Sarah; Rosen, Kimberly; Nelson, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Objective Two low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive systems (LNG-IUSs; total content 13.5 mg [average approx. 8 μg/24 hours over the first year; LNG-IUS 8] and total content 19.5 mg [average approx. 13 μg/24 hours over the first year; LNG-IUS 13]) have previously been shown to be highly effective (3-year Pearl Indices: 0.33 and 0.31, respectively), safe and well tolerated. The present subgroup analyses evaluated whether or not outcomes were affected by parity, age (18–25 vs 26–35 years), or body mass index (BMI, <30 vs ≥30 kg/m2). Methods Nulliparous and parous women aged 18‒35 years with regular menstrual cycles (21‒35 days) requesting contraception were randomized to 3 years of LNG-IUS 8 or LNG-IUS 13 use. Results In the LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 groups, 1432 and 1452 women, respectively, had a placement attempted and were included in the full analysis set; 39.2%, 39.2% and 17.1% were 18–25 years old, nulliparous and had a BMI ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Both systems were similarly effective regardless of age, parity or BMI; the subgroup Pearl Indices had widely overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Placement of LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 was easier (p < 0.0001) and less painful (p < 0.0001) in women who had delivered vaginally than in women who had not. The complete/partial expulsion rate was 2.2–4.2% across all age and parity subgroups and higher in parous than in nulliparous women (p = 0.004). The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease was 0.1–0.6% across all age and parity subgroups: nulliparous and younger women were not at higher risk than parous and older women, respectively. The ectopic pregnancy rate was 0.3–0.4% across all age and parity subgroups. Across all age and parity subgroups, the 3-year completion rate was 50.9–61.3% for LNG-IUS 8 and 57.9–61.1% for LNG-IUS 13, and was higher (p = 0.0001) among older than younger women in the LNG-IUS 8 group only. Conclusions LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 were highly effective

  6. Therapy of heavy menstrual bleeding in Korea: Subanalysis and results from a multinational clinical trial in the Asian region investigating the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system versus conventional therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Xu; Asif, Shaheena; Kraemer, Peter; Hanisch, Jens Ulrich; Inki, Pirjo; Lee, Jung Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare real-life clinical outcomes with the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and conventional medical therapies (CMTs), including combined oral contraceptives and oral progestins in the treatment of idiopathic heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in South Korea. Methods This prospective, observational cohort study recruited a total of 647 women aged 18 to 45 years, diagnosed with HMB from 8 countries in Asia, including 209 women from South Korea (LNG-IUS, 169; CMTs, 40), who were followed up to one year. The primary outcome was cumulative continuation rate (still treated with LNG-IUS and CMTs) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included bleeding pattern, assessment of the treatment efficacy by treating physician and safety profile. Results The continuation rate at 12 months was significantly higher with the LNG-IUS than CMTs (85.1% vs. 48.5%, respectively; P<0.0001). The 51.5% of CMTs patients discontinued treatment and 18.8% of LNG-IUS patients discontinued treatment. The most common reasons for discontinuation for CMTs were switching to another treatment and personal reasons. When compared to CMTs, the LNG-IUS offered better reduction in subjectively assessed menstrual blood loss and the number of bleeding days, tolerability and with better efficacy in HMB, as assessed by physician's final evaluation. Conclusion This study provides novel information on the real-life treatment patterns of HMB in South Korea. The efficacy of CMTs was inferior compared to the LNG-IUS in the clinical outcomes measured in this study. Due to the better compliance with LNG-IUS, the cumulative continuation rate is higher than CMTs. We conclude that the LNG-IUS should be used as the first-line treatment for HMB in Korean women, in line with international guidelines. PMID:25798431

  7. Introduction of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system in Kenya through mobile outreach: review of service statistics and provider perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hubacher, David; Akora, Vitalis; Masaba, Rose; Chen, Mario; Veena, Valentine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG IUS) was developed over 30 years ago, but the product is currently too expensive for widespread use in many developing countries. In Kenya, one organization has received donated commodities for 5 years, providing an opportunity to assess impact and potential future role of the product. Methods: We reviewed service statistics on insertions of the LNG IUS, copper intrauterine device (IUD), and subdermal implant from 15 mobile outreach teams during the 2011 calendar year. To determine the impact of the LNG IUS introduction, we analyzed changes in uptake and distribution of the copper IUD and subdermal implant by comparing periods of time when the LNG IUS was available with periods when it was not available. In addition, we interviewed 27 clinicians to assess their views of the product and of its future role. Results: When the LNG IUS was not available, intrauterine contraception accounted for 39% of long-acting method provision. The addition of the LNG IUS created a slight rise in intrauterine contraception uptake (to 44%) at the expense of the subdermal implant, but the change was only marginally significant (P = .08) and was largely attributable to the copper IUD. All interviewed providers felt that the LNG IUS would increase uptake of long-acting methods, and 70% felt that the noncontraceptive benefits of the product are important to clients. Conclusions: The LNG IUS was well-received among providers and family planning clients in this population in Kenya. Although important changes in service statistics were not apparent from this analysis (perhaps due to the small quantity of LNG IUS that was available), provider enthusiasm for the product was high. This finding, above all, suggests that a larger-scale introduction effort would have strong support from providers and thus increase the chances of success. Adding another proven and highly acceptable long-acting contraceptive technology to the method mix

  8. Space Transportation System Cargo projects: inertial stage/spacecraft integration plan. Volume 1: Management plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Management System for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) - spacecraft processing from KSC arrival through launch is described. The roles and responsibilities of the agencies and test team organizations involved in IUS-S/C processing at KSC for non-Department of Defense missions are described. Working relationships are defined with respect to documentation preparation, coordination and approval, schedule development and maintenance, test conduct and control, configuration management, quality control and safety. The policy regarding the use of spacecraft contractor test procedures, IUS contractor detailed operating procedures and KSC operations and maintenance instructions is defined. Review and approval requirements for each documentation system are described.

  9. Investigation of storage system designs and techniques for optimizing energy conservation in integrated utility systems. Volume 1: (Executive summary)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Integrated Utility Systems (IUS) have been suggested as a means of reducing the cost and conserving the nonrenewable energy resources required to supply utility services (energy, water, and waste disposal) to developments of limited size. The potential for further improving the performance and reducing the cost of IUS installations through the use of energy storage devices is examined and the results are summarized. Candidate energy storage concepts in the general areas of thermal, inertial, superconducting magnetic, electrochemical, chemical, and compressed air energy storage are assessed and the storage of thermal energy as the sensible heat of water is selected as the primary candidate for near term application to IUS.

  10. Pyrolysis system evaluation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of two different pyrolysis concepts which recover energy from solid waste was conducted in order to determine the merits of each concept for integration into a Integrated Utility System (IUS). The two concepts evaluated were a Lead Bath Furnace Pyrolysis System and a Slagging Vertical Shaft, Partial Air Oxidation Pyrolysis System. Both concepts will produce a fuel gas from the IUS waste and sewage sludge which can be used to offset primary fuel consumption in addition to the sanitary disposal of the waste. The study evaluated the thermal integration of each concept as well as the economic impact on the IUS resulting from integrating each pyrolysis concepts. For reference, the pyrolysis concepts were also compared to incineration which was considered the baseline IUS solid waste disposal system.

  11. STS-34 mission highlights resource tape, part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-11-01

    This video tape contains important visual events including launch Galileo/IUS deployment, onboard crew activities, and landing. Also included is air-to-ground transmission between the crew and Mission Control.

  12. Assessment of workload: intrauterine device/intrauterine system provision.

    PubMed

    George, Varghese A; Kishen, Meera

    2006-07-01

    The Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care (FFPRHC) has recently published Service Standards for Workload in Contraception, which state that a minimum of 20 minutes should be made available for intrauterine device/hormonal system (IUD/IUS) provision. This document acknowledges that there is currently little formal evidence relating to assessment of time taken for providing various contraceptive methods. The Abacus Clinics in Liverpool, UK provide an average of 1,300 IUD/IUS fittings in a year. We monitored the time taken for IUD/IUS provision over a 4-week period. Our study revealed that the average time taken for all types of IUD/IUS provision is significantly more than the minimum recommended by the FFPRHC.

  13. STS-26 Post-Flight Crew Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This video tape contains footage selected and narrated by the STS-26 crew including launch, TDRS-C/IUS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite C / Inertial Upper Stage) deployment, onboard activities, and landing.

  14. Interpretive style and intolerance of uncertainty in individuals with anxiety disorders: a focus on generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristin G; Dugas, Michel J; Koerner, Naomi; Radomsky, Adam S; Savard, Pierre; Turcotte, Julie

    2012-12-01

    Interpretations of negative, positive, and ambiguous situations were examined in individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), other anxiety disorders (ANX), and no psychiatric condition (CTRL). Additionally, relationships between specific beliefs about uncertainty (Uncertainty Has Negative Behavioral and Self-Referent Implications [IUS-NI], and Uncertainty Is Unfair and Spoils Everything [IUS-US]) and interpretations were explored. The first hypothesis (that the clinical groups would report more concern for negative, positive, and ambiguous situations than would the CTRL group) was supported. The second hypothesis (that the GAD group would report more concern for ambiguous situations than would the ANX group) was not supported; both groups reported similar levels of concern for ambiguous situations. Exploratory analyses revealed no differences between the GAD and ANX groups in their interpretations of positive and negative situations. Finally, the IUS-US predicted interpretations of negative and ambiguous situations in the full sample, whereas the IUS-NI did not. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23023161

  15. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in heavy menstrual bleeding: a benefit-risk review.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, Andrew M; Inki, Pirjo

    2012-01-22

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common problem in women of reproductive age and can cause irritation, inconvenience, self-consciousness and fear of social embarrassment. Our objective was to review and appraise literature identified from the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to evaluate the clinical evidence and provide an update on the risks and benefits of using the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in the treatment of HMB. The LNG-IUS consistently reduces menstrual blood loss (MBL) in women with HMB, including those with underlying uterine pathology or bleeding disorders. The available data suggest that it reduces MBL to a greater extent than other medical therapies, including combined oral contraceptives, oral progestogens (both short- or long-cycle regimens), tranexamic acid and oral mefenamic acid. In addition, the LNG-IUS and endometrial ablation appear to reduce MBL to a similar extent. The adverse effects reported with the LNG-IUS in women with HMB are similar to those typically observed in women using the system for contraception. Uterine perforations were not reported in any of the studies reviewed, but expulsion rates may be higher than in the general population of LNG-IUS users. Overall, the LNG-IUS has a positive effect on most quality-of-life domains, at least comparable to those achieved with hysterectomy or endometrial ablation, and is consistently a cost-effective option across a variety of countries and settings. In conclusion, the LNG-IUS is an effective treatment option for women with HMB, including those with underlying organic pathology or bleeding disorders.

  16. Estimated economic impact of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system on unintended pregnancy in active duty women.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Mumford, Sunni L; Hill, Micah J; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2014-10-01

    Unintended pregnancy is reportedly higher in active duty women; therefore, we sought to estimate the potential impact of the levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) could have on unintended pregnancy in active duty women. A decision tree model with sensitivity analysis was used to estimate the number of unintentional pregnancies in active duty women which could be prevented. A secondary cost analysis was performed to analyze the direct cost savings to the U.S. Government. The total number of Armed Services members is estimated to be over 1.3 million, with an estimated 208,146 being women. Assuming an age-standardized unintended pregnancy rate of 78 per 1,000 women, 16,235 unintended pregnancies occur each year. Using a combined LNG-IUS failure and expulsion rate of 2.2%, a decrease of 794, 1588, and 3970 unintended pregnancies was estimated to occur with 5%, 10% and 25% usage, respectively. Annual cost savings from LNG-IUS use range from $3,387,107 to $47,352,295 with 5% to 25% intrauterine device usage. One-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated LNG-IUS to be cost-effective when the cost associated with pregnancy and delivery exceeded $11,000. Use of LNG-IUS could result in significant reductions in unintended pregnancy among active duty women, resulting in substantial cost savings to the government health care system. PMID:25269131

  17. Failure of gastroenterologists to apply intestinal ultrasound in inflammatory bowel disease in the Asia-Pacific: a need for action.

    PubMed

    Asthana, Anil Kumar; Friedman, Antony B; Maconi, Giovanni; Maaser, Christian; Kucharzik, Torsten; Watanabe, Mamoru; Gibson, Peter R

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal ultrasound (IUS) is a cheap, noninvasive, risk-free procedure that is significantly underutilized in the diagnosis and management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the Asia-Pacific region. More cost-effective methods of monitoring disease activity are required in light of the increasing global burden of IBD (especially in Asia), the advent of personalized medicine, and the rising cost of healthcare. IUS is a prime example of a technique that meets these needs. Its common clinical applications include assessing the activity and complications of IBD. In continental Europe, countries such as Germany and Italy use this imaging tool as the standard of care and have integrated it into management protocols. There are formal training programs in these countries to train gastroenterologists in IUS, and it is used in an outpatient setting during patient consultations. Barriers to its use in the Asia-Pacific region include lack of experience and research data, and there are few established centers with active training programs. These concerns can be addressed by investing more in IUS service provision and by increasing allocation of resources toward local research and training. Increased uptake of IUS will ultimately benefit patients with IBD.

  18. Tug fleet and ground operations schedules and controls. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This study presents Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls plan. This plan was developed and optimized out of a combination of individual Tug program phased subplans, special emphasis studies, contingency analyses and sensitivity analyses. The subplans cover the Tug program phases: (1) Tug operational, (2) Interim Upper Stage (IUS)/Tug fleet utilization, (3) and IUS/Tug payload integration, (4) Tug site activation, (5) IUS/Tug transition, (6) Tug acquisition. Resource requirements (facility, GSE, TSE, software, manpower, logistics) are provided in each subplan, as are appropriate Tug processing flows, active and total IUS and Tug fleet requirements, fleet management and Tug payload integration concepts, facility selection recommendations, site activation and IUS to Tug transition requirements. The impact of operational concepts on Tug acquisition is assessed and the impact of operating Tugs out of KSC and WTR is analyzed and presented showing WTR as a delta. Finally, cost estimates for fleet management and ground operations of the DDT&E and operational phases of the Tug program are given.

  19. A numerical algorithm to propagate navigation error covariance matrices associated with generalized strapdown inertial measurement units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Kent A.; Wells, Eugene M.

    1990-01-01

    The design and operation of a Strapdown Navigation Analysis Program (SNAP) developed to perform covariance analysis on spacecraft inertial-measurement-unit (IMU) navigation errors are described and demonstrated. Consideration is given to the IMU modeling subroutine (with user-specified sensor characteristics), the data input procedures, state updates and the simulation of instrument failures, the determination of the nominal trajectory, the mapping-matrix and Monte Carlo covariance-matrix propagation methods, and aided-navigation simulation. Numerical results are presented in tables for sample applications involving (1) the Galileo/IUS spacecraft from its deployment from the Space Shuttle to a point 10 to the 8th ft from the center of the earth and (2) the TDRS-C/IUS spacecraft from Space Shuttle liftoff to a point about 2 h before IUS deployment. SNAP is shown to give reliable results for both cases, with good general agreement between the mapping-matrix and Monte Carlo predictions.

  20. Inertial upper stage - Upgrading a stopgap proves difficult

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, J. P.

    The technological and project management difficulties associated with the Inertial Upper Stage's (IUS) development and performance to date are assessed, with a view to future prospects for this system. The IUS was designed for use both on the interim Titan 34D booster and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The IUS malfunctions and cost overruns reported are substantially due to the system's reliance on novel propulsion and avionics technology. Its two solid rocket motors, which were selected on the basis of their inherent safety for use on the Space Shuttle, have the longest burn time extant. A three-dimensional carbon/carbon nozzle throat had to be developed to sustain this long burn, as were lightweight composite wound cases and shirts, insulation, igniters, and electromechanical thrust vector control.

  1. Satisfaction and health-related quality of life in women with heavy menstrual bleeding; results from a non-interventional trial of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or conventional medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ling; Lee, Byung Seok; Asif, Shaheena; Kraemer, Peter; Inki, Pirjo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the patient satisfaction and health related quality of life (HRQoL) for levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) versus conventional medical treatments ([CMTs] combined oral contraceptives, oral progestins, and antifibrinolytics, alone or in combination) in Asian women with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Patients and methods A total of 647 patients diagnosed with HMB were recruited to this non-interventional study from the eight participating countries in Asia. Patient satisfaction was recorded at the last visit (at 12 months or premature discontinuation). At each visit (at 3, 6, and 12 months), patients completed the menorrhagia multi-attribute scale (MMAS) to assess HRQoL. Results A total of 83.5% of patients on the LNG-IUS were “very satisfied” or at least “satisfied” with the therapeutic effect of HMB treatment, compared with 59.2% of patients with CMTs (P<0.05). The mean (± standard deviation) MMAS score increased from 41.4±24.5 to 87.7±21.4 in the LNG-IUS arm, and from 44.1±24.9 to 73.1±25.3 in the CMTs arm. This increase was significantly higher in patients on the LNG-IUS, as compared with those on CMTs (P<0.05). The improvement in HRQoL in both treatment groups correlated with the body mass index of the patient, with larger improvement obtained in women with a higher body mass index. Conclusion The majority of women using the LNG-IUS or CMTs for HMB were satisfied with their treatment, and both treatment modalities were associated with significant improvements in HRQoL over time. The improvement was greater with the LNG-IUS, compared with CMTs. PMID:24920936

  2. The inertial upper stage - A key transportation element of future unmanned planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saucier, S.; Rohrbaugh, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The inertial upper stage (IUS), described in the present paper, is being developed to provide a highly reliable cost effective vehicle with built-in flexibility and adaptability for integration with the space shuttle. It will accurately deliver spacecraft into a wide range of earth orbits. Two high-performance solid-propellant rocket motors, an interstage structure, and an avionics module are the fundamental building blocks for the two-stage, twin-stage, and twin-stage-with-spinner configurations. The simplicity of this IUS family is illustrated.

  3. Analytical investigation of solid rocket nozzle failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, K. E.; Hester, J.

    1985-01-01

    On April 5, 1983, an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) spacecraft experienced loss of control during the burn of the second of two solid rocket motors. The anomaly investigation showed the cause to be a malfunction of the solid rocket motor. This paper presents a description of the IUS system, a failure analysis summary, an account of the thermal testing and computer modeling done at Marshall Space Flight Center, a comparison of analysis results with thermal data obtained from motor static tests, and describes some of the design enhancement incorporated to prevent recurrence of the anomaly.

  4. Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System for Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Metabolic and Clinical Effects.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Adriana Valerio; de Melo, Anderson Sanches; Barboza, Rebecca Pontelo; de Paula Martins, Wellington; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Vieira, Carolina Sales

    2016-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is related to clinical and metabolic comorbidities that may limit the prescription of combined hormonal contraceptives, with consequent need to use progestogen-only contraceptives (POCs). Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical and metabolic effects of a POC, the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), in women with PCOS followed up over a period of 6 months compared to baseline and to women without PCOS. Thus, an observational, prospective, controlled study was conducted on 30 women with a diagnosis of PCOS who presented adverse effect secondary to the use of combined oral contraceptives (nausea, headache, mastalgia or vomiting; PCOS group) paired with 30 ovulatory women without PCOS (control group), both groups being free of comorbidities and having chosen the LNG-IUS as contraceptive. Clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic variables were evaluated immediately before LNG-IUS insertion and 6 months after the use of this method. Before LNG-IUS insertion, the PCOS group had higher total testosterone levels (P = .04), lower HDL levels (P = .04), and greater ovarian volume (P < .01) than the control group. Six months after LNG-IUS insertion, there was a 2.3% increase in abdominal circumference (P = .04) and a 3.4% increase in fasting glycemia (P = .02). On the other hand, mean ovarian volume was 10% smaller compared to the volume found before LNG-IUS insertion (P = .04), LDL levels were reduced by 5.2% (P = .03), and total cholesterol levels were reduced by 6.7% (P < .01) compared to baseline evaluation in the PCOS group. The remaining variables did not differ significantly during the 6 months of observation. The control group did not show significant changes compared to the period before LNG-IUS insertion. When the groups were compared after the 6-month follow-up, only glycemia showed a statistically significant variation between the groups, with glycemia levels increasing by 3.4% in

  5. ISTAR: Intelligent System for Telemetry Analysis in Real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Charles

    1994-05-01

    The intelligent system for telemetry analysis in real-time (ISTAR) is an advanced vehicle monitoring environment incorporating expert systems, analysis tools, and on-line hypermedia documentation. The system was developed for the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) in Los Angeles, California, in support of the inertial upper stage (IUS) booster vehicle. Over a five year period the system progressed from rapid prototype to operational system. ISTAR has been used to support five IUS missions and countless mission simulations. There were a significant number of lessons learned with respect to integrating an expert system capability into an existing ground system.

  6. Design synthesis of the SEPS. [Solar Electric Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, S. P.; Watkins, C. L.; Shollenberger, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    This paper summarizes the most current configuration of the Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) design resulting from the synthesis of key tradeoff analyses. The baseline SEPS is a 21-kW propulsion-power vehicle using the Shuttle/Interim Upper Stage (IUS) launch vehicle for planetary and geosynchronous missions. The trade analyses supporting the baseline configuration include ion thruster array pattern, solar array stowage concepts, and number of thrusters and power processors (PP). In addition, an integrated thermal control and structural system was optimized and designed to meet flight loads and dynamics requirements. Payload provisions, mercury propellant refueling, and design compatibility of the SEPS and Shuttle/IUS are presented.

  7. Femilis® 60 Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System—A Review of 10 Years of Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Andrade, Amaury; Goldstuck, Norman

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to update the clinical experience with the Femilis® 60 levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), now up to 10 years in parous and nulliparous women, particularly with regard to ease and safety of insertion, contraceptive performance, retention, acceptability, continuation of use, impact on menstrual blood loss (MBL), and duration of action. STUDY DESIGN Using the Femilis® 60 LNG-IUS releasing 20 µg of levonorgestrel/day, the following studies were conducted: an open, prospective noncomparative contraceptive study, an MBL study, a perimenopausal study, a study for the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia, and early cancer of the uterus, a residue study. RESULTS A total of 599 Femilis LNG-IUS were inserted in various clinical trials, the majority for contraceptive purposes. The total exposure in the first and second contraceptive studies, covering 558 parous and nulliparous women, was 32,717 woman-months. Femilis has high contraceptive effectiveness as only one pregnancy occurred. Expulsion of the LNG-IUS was rare with only two total and no partial expulsions (stem protruding through the cervical canal) occurred. Femilis was well tolerated, with continuation rates remaining high. Several MBL studies were conducted, totaling 80 heavy and normal menstrual bleeders, using the pictorial bleeding assessment chart method or the quantitative alkaline hematin technique. Virtually all women responded well with strongly reduced menstrual bleeding. Amenorrhea rates were high, up to 80% after three months, and ferritin levels simultaneously increased significantly. The Femilis LNG-IUS was tested in 104 symptomatic perimenopausal women for seamless transition to and through menopause, adding estrogen therapy when required. Patient tolerability appeared high as >80% requested a second and a third LNG-IUS. Twenty women presenting with nonatypical and atypical hyperplasia and one woman presenting with early endometrial carcinoma

  8. Reflected view of the TDRS in the STS-6 Challengers payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The stowed tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) and its inertial upper stage (IUS) are seen in duplicate in the frame taken by the STS-6 crew. A reflection in the aft window of the flight deck resulted in the mirage effect of the 'second' TDRS. The three canisters in the aft foreground contain experiments of participants in the STS getaway special (GAS) program.

  9. Defining Distinct Negative Beliefs about Uncertainty: Validating the Factor Structure of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Kathryn A.; Dugas, Michel J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the English version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; French version: M. H. Freeston, J. Rheaume, H. Letarte, M. J. Dugas, & R. Ladouceur, 1994; English version: K. Buhr & M. J. Dugas, 2002) using a substantially larger sample than has been used in previous studies. Nonclinical undergraduate…

  10. ["ReMeEx", the adjustable-tension suburetral sling in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence due to intrinsic sphincteric dysfunction (type III)].

    PubMed

    Cortese, P; Gallo, F; Gastaldi, E; Schenone, M; Ninotta, G; Gilberti, C

    2009-01-01

    The anti-incontinence methods "tension free" may be insufficient in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (IUS) due to intrinsic sphincteric dysfunction (ISD). We report our findings on the use of the suburetral sling with adjustable tension "Remeex" sistem in the treatment of 24 patients. METHODS. Between May 2002 and February 2008, 24 patients with IUS of type III, were subjected to suburetral sling "Reemex." Positioning. The intervention provides a vaginal access to the positioning of suburetral sling and an access to the positioning of a varitensor which the wires are connected at the sling seats, recovered by the passage of a Stamey needle carrier of. The average operative time was approximately 70 minutes, the resignation was in I-II day. The tension of the sling was adjusted the day following intervention by turning the screw connected to the varitensor. Patients were followed with physical examination and completed the Korman's questionnaire about the quality of life. RESULTS. At a follow-up average 30 months, 21 patients (87.5%) were perfectly continent with improvement of quality of life. Among the complications, wound infection occurred in 2 patients (8%); 1 (4%) with mild recurrence IUS; 1 (4%) reported "de novo" urgency, 1 (4%) reported urinary retention. CONCLUSIONS. Our data show that the use of the suburetral sling "ReMeEx" is a effective option in the treatment of IUS due to ISD which is a condition often secondary to urogynecologic surgery and refractory to common techniques antincontinence.

  11. STS-6 sixth Space Shuttle mission. First flight of the Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A prelaunch summary of the sixth Space Shuttle mission is provided. The Challenger orbiter; launching; uprated engines; lighter weight boosters; lightweight tank; external tank reduction; landing; the tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS), TDRS-1 deployment; the inertial upper stage (IUS), the spacewalk;electrophoresis, monodisperse latex reactor, night time/day time optical survey of lightning, and getaway special experiments are described.

  12. SEP ENCKE-87 and Halley rendezvous studies and improved S/C model implementation in HILTOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsewood, J. L.; Mann, F. I.

    1978-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the performance requirements for projected state-of-the-art SEP spacecrafts boosted by the Shuttle/IUS to perform a rendezvous with the comet Halley and a rendezvous with the comet Encke during its 1977 apparition. The spacecraft model of the standard HILTOP computer program was assumed. Numerical and graphical results summarizing the studies are presented.

  13. Role of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system in effective contraception

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Abdelhamid M; Ibrahim, Magdy M; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M

    2013-01-01

    Norgestrel, a synthetic progestin chemically derived from 19-nortestosterone, is six times more potent than progesterone, with variable binding affinity to various steroid receptors. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS) provides a long-acting, highly effective, and reversible form of contraception, with a pearl index of 0.18 per 100 women-years. The locally released hormone leads to endometrial concentrations that are 200–800 times those found after daily oral use and a plasma level that is lower than that with other forms of levonorgestrel-containing contraception. The contraceptive effect of the LNG IUS is achieved mainly through its local suppressive effect on the endometrium, leading to endometrial thinning, glandular atrophy, and stromal decidualization without affecting ovulation. The LNG IUS is generally well tolerated. The main side effects are related to its androgenic activity, which is usually mild and transient, resolving after the first few months. Menstrual abnormalities are also common but well tolerated, and even become desirable (eg, amenorrhea, hypomenorrhea, and oligomenorrhea) with proper counseling of the patient during the choice of the method of contraception. The satisfaction rates after 3 years of insertion are high, reaching between 77% and 94%. The local effect of the LNG IUS on the endometrium and low rates of systemic adverse effects have led to its use in other conditions rather than contraception, as for the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia, benign menorrhagia, endometriosis, adenomyosis, and uterine fibroids. PMID:23990713

  14. Art concept of Magellan spacecraft deployment from OV-104 during STS-30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    In this artist concept, Magellan spacecraft mounted on inertial upper stage (IUS) drifts away from Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, just after deployment during mission STS-30. Magellan, named after the 16th century Portuguese explorer, is shown with solar panels stowed. View provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with alternate number P33264.

  15. Integrated Utility Systems Feasibility Study and Conceptual Design at the University of Florida. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmse, Dale W.; Manyimo, Steve B.

    This executive summary presents a brief analysis of findings and recommendations. The concept of the Integrated Utility System (IUS) is to consider the interaction and mutual support of five utility subsystems needed by a campus complex of buildings. The subsystems are: (1) Electric power service; (2) Heating - ventilating - air conditioning and…

  16. Expanding Access to a New, More Affordable Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System in Kenya: Service Delivery Costs Compared With Other Contraceptive Methods and Perspectives of Key Opinion Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Kate H; Solomon, Marsden; Brett, Tracey; Bratt, John H; Pascual, Claire; Njunguru, Jesse; Steiner, Markus J

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG IUS) is one of the most effective forms of contraception and offers important non-contraceptive health benefits. However, it is not widely available in developing countries, largely due to the high price of existing products. Medicines360 plans to introduce its new, more affordable LNG IUS in Kenya. The public‐sector transfer price will vary by volume between US$12 to US$16 per unit; for an order of 100,000 units, the public-sector transfer price will be approximately US$15 per unit. Methods: We calculated the direct service delivery cost per couple-years of protection (CYP) of various family planning methods. The model includes the costs of contraceptive commodities, consumable supplies, instruments per client visit, and direct labor for counseling, insertion, removal, and resupply, if required. The model does not include costs of demand creation or training. We conducted interviews with key opinion leaders in Kenya to identify considerations for scale-up of a new LNG IUS, including strategies to overcome barriers that have contributed to low uptake of the copper intrauterine device. Results: The direct service delivery cost of Medicines360’s LNG IUS per CYP compares favorably with other contraceptive methods commonly procured for public-sector distribution in Kenya. The cost is slightly lower than that of the 3-month contraceptive injectable, which is currently the most popular method in Kenya. Almost all key opinion leaders agreed that introducing a more affordable LNG IUS could increase demand and uptake of the method. They thought that women seeking the product’s non-contraceptive health benefits would be a key market segment, and most agreed that the reduced menstrual bleeding associated with the method would likely be viewed as an advantage. The key opinion leaders indicated that myths and misconceptions among providers and clients about IUDs must be addressed, and that demand creation

  17. Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System vs. Usual Medical Treatment for Menorrhagia: An Economic Evaluation Alongside a Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sanghera, Sabina; Roberts, Tracy Elizabeth; Barton, Pelham; Frew, Emma; Daniels, Jane; Middleton, Lee; Gennard, Laura; Kai, Joe; Gupta, Janesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To undertake an economic evaluation alongside the largest randomised controlled trial comparing Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (‘LNG-IUS’) and usual medical treatment for women with menorrhagia in primary care; and compare the cost-effectiveness findings using two alternative measures of quality of life. Methods 571 women with menorrhagia from 63 UK centres were randomised between February 2005 and July 2009. Women were randomised to having a LNG-IUS fitted, or usual medical treatment, after discussing with their general practitioner their contraceptive needs or desire to avoid hormonal treatment. The treatment was specified prior to randomisation. For the economic evaluation we developed a state transition (Markov) model with a 24 month follow-up. The model structure was informed by the trial women's pathway and clinical experts. The economic evaluation adopted a UK National Health Service perspective and was based on an outcome of incremental cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) estimated using both EQ-5D and SF-6D. Results Using EQ-5D, LNG-IUS was the most cost-effective treatment for menorrhagia. LNG-IUS costs £100 more than usual medical treatment but generated 0.07 more QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for LNG-IUS compared to usual medical treatment was £1600 per additional QALY. Using SF-6D, usual medical treatment was the most cost-effective treatment. Usual medical treatment was both less costly (£100) and generated 0.002 more QALYs. Conclusion Impact on quality of life is the primary indicator of treatment success in menorrhagia. However, the most cost-effective treatment differs depending on the quality of life measure used to estimate the QALY. Under UK guidelines LNG-IUS would be the recommended treatment for menorrhagia. This study demonstrates that the appropriate valuation of outcomes in menorrhagia is crucial. PMID:24638071

  18. Progestin-Containing Contraceptives Alter Expression of Host Defense-Related Genes of the Endometrium and Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Goldfien, Gabriel A.; Barragan, Fatima; Chen, Joseph; Takeda, Margaret; Irwin, Juan C.; Perry, Jean; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Smith-McCune, Karen K.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that progestin-containing contraceptives increase susceptibility to HIV, although the underlying mechanisms involving the upper female reproductive tract are undefined. To determine the effects of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) on gene expression and physiology of human endometrial and cervical transformation zone (TZ), microarray analyses were performed on whole tissue biopsies. In endometrium, activated pathways included leukocyte chemotaxis, attachment, and inflammation in DMPA and LNG-IUS users, and individual genes included pattern recognition receptors, complement components, and other immune mediators. In cervical TZ, progestin treatment altered expression of tissue remodeling and viability but not immune function genes. Together, these results indicate that progestins influence expression of immune-related genes in endometrium relevant to local recruitment of HIV target cells with potential to increase susceptibility and underscore the importance of the upper reproductive tract when assessing the safety of contraceptive products. PMID:25634912

  19. Utilization of solid-propellant upper stages in STS payload orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    The main purpose of this report is to discuss techniques of trajectory design, maneuver execution, and stage loading that are compatible with the use of SRM's (solid rocket motors) which, once ignited, must burn to propellant depletion. It is anticipated that some shuttle payloads will use non-IUS (interim upper stage) solid propellant kick stages; therefore this subject is also pertinent to shuttle flights other than those involving the use of the IUS. The SRM utilization techniques can be divided into two major categories: (1) those in which the stage performance is adjusted to match the velocity increment magnitude requirements of a preselected trajectory, and (2) those in which the trajectory is designed to match the velocity increment magnitude capability of the stage(s).

  20. Progestin-Containing Contraceptives Alter Expression of Host Defense-Related Genes of the Endometrium and Cervix.

    PubMed

    Goldfien, Gabriel A; Barragan, Fatima; Chen, Joseph; Takeda, Margaret; Irwin, Juan C; Perry, Jean; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Smith-McCune, Karen K; Giudice, Linda C

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that progestin-containing contraceptives increase susceptibility to HIV, although the underlying mechanisms involving the upper female reproductive tract are undefined. To determine the effects of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) on gene expression and physiology of human endometrial and cervical transformation zone (TZ), microarray analyses were performed on whole tissue biopsies. In endometrium, activated pathways included leukocyte chemotaxis, attachment, and inflammation in DMPA and LNG-IUS users, and individual genes included pattern recognition receptors, complement components, and other immune mediators. In cervical TZ, progestin treatment altered expression of tissue remodeling and viability but not immune function genes. Together, these results indicate that progestins influence expression of immune-related genes in endometrium relevant to local recruitment of HIV target cells with potential to increase susceptibility and underscore the importance of the upper reproductive tract when assessing the safety of contraceptive products.

  1. User benefits and funding strategies. [technology assessment and economic analysis of the space shuttles and NASA Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, J. L.; Beauchamp, N. A.; Day, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    The justification, economic and technological benefits of NASA Space Programs (aside from pure scientific objectives), in improving the quality of life in the United States is discussed and outlined. Specifically, a three-step, systematic method is described for selecting relevant and highly beneficial payloads and instruments for the Interim Upper Stage (IUS) that will be used with the space shuttle until the space tug becomes available. Viable Government and private industry cost-sharing strategies which would maximize the number of IUS payloads, and the benefits obtainable under a limited NASA budget were also determined. Charts are shown which list the payload instruments, and their relevance in contributing to such areas as earth resources management, agriculture, weather forecasting, and many others.

  2. IUE observations of periodic comets Tempel-2, Kopff, and Tempel-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Paul D.; Festou, Michel C.

    1992-01-01

    We summarize the results of observations made between 10 Jun. - 18 Dec. 1988 with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUS) of comet P/Tempel-2 during its 1988 appearance. The derived water production rate and relative gas/dust ratio are compared with those of P/Halley, observed with IUE in 1985-86, and other potential Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) target comets, P/Kopff and P/Tempel-1, both observed with IUE in 1983.

  3. Extended use of the intrauterine device: a literature review and recommendations for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Justine P; Pickle, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    There are multiple advantages to "extended use" of the intrauterine device (IUD) use beyond the manufacturer-approved time period, including prolongation of contraceptive and non-contraceptive benefits. We performed a literature review of studies that have reported pregnancy outcomes associated with extended use of IUDs, including copper IUDs and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). Among parous women who are at least 25 years old at the time of IUD insertion, there is good evidence to support extended use of the following devices: the TCu380A and the TCu220 for 12 years, the Multiload Cu-375 for 10 years, the frameless GyneFix® (330 mm²) for 9 years, the levonorgestrel intrauterine system 52 mg (Mirena®) for 7 years and the Multiload Cu-250 for 4 years. Women who are at least 35 years old at the time of insertion of a TCu380A IUD can continue use until menopause with a negligible risk of pregnancy. We found no data to support use of the LNG-IUS 13.5 mg (Skyla®) beyond 3 years. When counseling about extended IUD use, clinicians should consider patient characteristics and preferences, as well as country- and community-specific factors. Future research is necessary to determine the risk of pregnancy associated with extended use of the copper IUD and the LNG-IUS among nulliparous women and women less than 25 years old at the time of IUD insertion. More data are needed on the potential effect of overweight and obesity on the long-term efficacy of the LNG-IUS.

  4. Simple models for the shuttle remote manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, W. T.; Tapley, B. D.; Schutz, B. E.

    1978-01-01

    The investigation is aimed at establishing a series of simple models which can be used to study the forces and moments which occur due to the reaction control system (RCS) jet plume firings during a deployment or retrieval of an IUS type payload. The models considered in this investigation are primarily planar in nature. In this study primary attention is given to the roles the payload play in determining the overall moments on the remote manipulator system arm.

  5. TRW Video News: Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This NASA Kennedy Space Center sponsored video release presents live footage of the Chandra X-ray Observatory prior to STS-93 as well as several short animations recreating some of its activities in space. These animations include a Space Shuttle fly-by with Chandra, two perspectives of Chandra's deployment from the Shuttle, the Chandra deployment orbit sequence, the Initial Upper Stage (IUS) first stage burn, and finally a "beauty shot", which represents another animated view of Chandra in space.

  6. Auditory serial position effects in story retelling for non-brain-injured participants and persons with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Martin B; McNeil, Malcolm R; Doyle, Patrick J; Fossett, Tepanata R D; Timm, Neil H; Park, Grace H

    2003-10-01

    Using story retelling as an index of language ability, it is difficult to disambiguate comprehension and memory deficits. Collecting data on the serial position effect (SPE), however, illuminates the memory component. This study examined the SPE of the percentage of information units (%IU) produced in the connected speech samples of adults with aphasia and age-matched, non-brain-injured (NBI) participants. The NBI participants produced significantly more direct and alternate IUs than participants with aphasia. Significant age and gender differences were found in subsamples of the NBI controls, with younger and female participants generating significantly more direct IUs than male and older NBI participants. Alternate IU productions did not generate an SPE from any group. There was a significant linear increase from the initial (primacy) to the final (recency) portion of the recalled alternate IUs for both the NBI group and the group of participants with aphasia. Results provide evidence that individuals with aphasia recall discourse length information using similar memory functions as the nonimpaired population, though at a reduced level of efficiency or quantity. A quadratic model is suggested for the recall of information directly recalled from discourse-length language material.

  7. The Inertial Upper Stage - A space transportation system element nearing first flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrbaugh, D. J.; Redd, F. J.; Van Rensselaer, F.

    1981-01-01

    The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) developed by the USAF and NASA is a highly reliable, cost-effective solid propellant upper stage, with inherent flexibility and adaptability for integration with the Space Shuttle. The propulsion system is simple, utilizing safe, solid rocket motors with extremely light-weight nonmetallic cases and nozzles. The IUS can deliver 2268 kg from the Shuttle to geosynchronous altitude; it consists of a 9700 kg propellant weight first stage, an interstage structure, a 2720 kg propellant weight second stage, and an equipment support section. The avionics system includes the electronic and electrical hardware used to perform all signal conditioning, data processing, and software formatting associated with navigation, guidance, control, data management, and redundancy management. The generic thermal design of the IUS is suited to a wide range of thermal environments; the software design provides for selectable thermal maneuvers (rotisserie, reciprocating, toasting, space facing, sun facing) to satisfy different payload thermal requirements. A 1982 launch with the Titan 34D and a 1983 launch with the Shuttle Orbiter are planned.

  8. Impact of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Intolerance of Uncertainty in Patients with Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kuk; Lee, Kang Soo; Kim, Borah; Choi, Tai Kiu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a transdiagnostic construct in various anxiety and depressive disorders. However, the relationship between IU and panic symptom severity is not yet fully understood. We examined the relationship between IU, panic, and depressive symptoms during mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in patients with panic disorder. Methods We screened 83 patients with panic disorder and subsequently enrolled 69 of them in the present study. Patients participating in MBCT for panic disorder were evaluated at baseline and at 8 weeks using the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS), Panic Disorder Severity Scale-Self Report (PDSS-SR), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results There was a significant decrease in scores on the IUS (p<0.001), PDSS (p<0.001), and BDI (p<0.001) following MBCT for panic disorder. Pre-treatment IUS scores significantly correlated with pre-treatment PDSS (p=0.003) and BDI (p=0.003) scores. We also found a significant association between the reduction in IU and PDSS after controlling for the reduction in the BDI score (p<0.001). Conclusion IU may play a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of panic disorder. MBCT is effective in lowering IU in patients with panic disorder. PMID:27081380

  9. STS-43 TDRS-E during preflight processing at KSC's VPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-43 Tracking and Data Relay Satellite E (TDRS-E) undergoes preflight processing in the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) before being loaded into a payload canister for transfer to the launch pad and eventually into Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, payload bay (PLB). This side of the TDRS-E will rest at the bottom of the PLB therefore the airborne support equipment (ASE) forward frame keel pin (at center of spacecraft) and the umbilical boom running between the two ASE frames are visible. The solar array panels are covered with protective TRW shields. Above the shields the stowed antenna and solar sail are visible. The inertial upper stage (IUS) booster is the white portion of the spacecraft and rests in the ASE forward frame and ASE aft frame tilt actuator (AFTA) frame (at the bottom of the IUS). The IUS booster nozzle extends beyond the AFTA frame. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-91PC-1079.

  10. Reduced uteroplacental blood flow alters renal arterial reactivity and glomerular properties in the rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Marijke W; Fazzi, Gregorio E; Janssen, Ger M J; de Leeuw, Peter W; Blanco, Carlos E; De Mey, Jo G R

    2004-06-01

    Fetal malnutrition and hypoxia may modify organ system maturation and result in cardiovascular diseases in the adult. We tested whether intrauterine stress (IUS) leads to persistent alterations of renal biology. In rats, intrauterine stress was induced by ligation of the uterine arteries at day 17 of pregnancy. Renal arteries of the 21-day-old male offspring were isolated to study pharmacological reactivity. Kidneys were dissected to analyze renal structure and beta-adrenoceptor expression. At 21 days of age, half of the animals underwent unilateral left nephrectomy. At the age of 12 weeks, rats were instrumented for blood pressure monitoring, blood sampling, and renal function measurements. After IUS, litter size and birth weight were reduced, whereas the hematocrit was increased. Renal arterial responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation and sensitivity to adenylyl cyclase activation were increased, along with the renal expression of beta2-adrenoceptors. At 21 days and at 6 months of age, the number and density of the glomeruli were reduced, whereas their size was increased. The filtration fraction and urinary albumin concentration were increased 12 weeks after intrauterine stress. In control rats, removal of the left kidney at 21 days of age did not affect kidney function and blood pressure. However, after IUS, the remaining right kidney failed to compensate for the loss of the left kidney, and blood pressure was increased. In conclusion, prenatal stress transiently modifies renal arterial reactivity and results in long-lasting adverse effects on renal structure and function and on renal compensatory mechanisms. PMID:15117909

  11. Magellan Prelaunch Mission Operations Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Magellan spacecraft will be launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) within a 31-day overall launch period extending from April 28 to May 28, 1989. The launch will use the Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis to lift an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) and the Magellan Spacecraft into low Earth orbit. After the Shuttle achieves its parking orbit, the IUS and attached Magellan spacecraft are deployed from the payload bay. After a short coast time, the two-stage IUS is fired to inject the Magellan spacecraft into an Earth-Venus transfer trajectory. The Magellan spacecraft is powered by single degree of freedom, sun-tracking, solar panels charging a set of nickel-cadmium batteries. The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized by reaction wheels using gyros and a star sensor for attitude reference. The spacecraft carries a solid rocket motor for Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI). A hydrazine propulsion system allows trajectory correction and prevents saturation of the reaction wheels. Communication with Earth through the Deep Space Network (DSN) is provided by S- and X-band telemetry channels, through alternatively a low, medium, or 3.7 m high-gain parabolic antenna rigidly attached to the spacecraft. The high-gain antenna also serves as the radar and radiometer antenna during orbit around Venus.

  12. From speech to thought: the neuronal basis of cognitive units in non-experimental, real-life communication investigated using ECoG.

    PubMed

    Derix, Johanna; Iljina, Olga; Weiske, Johanna; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Ball, Tonio

    2014-01-01

    Exchange of thoughts by means of expressive speech is fundamental to human communication. However, the neuronal basis of real-life communication in general, and of verbal exchange of ideas in particular, has rarely been studied until now. Here, our aim was to establish an approach for exploring the neuronal processes related to cognitive "idea" units (IUs) in conditions of non-experimental speech production. We investigated whether such units corresponding to single, coherent chunks of speech with syntactically-defined borders, are useful to unravel the neuronal mechanisms underlying real-world human cognition. To this aim, we employed simultaneous electrocorticography (ECoG) and video recordings obtained in pre-neurosurgical diagnostics of epilepsy patients. We transcribed non-experimental, daily hospital conversations, identified IUs in transcriptions of the patients' speech, classified the obtained IUs according to a previously-proposed taxonomy focusing on memory content, and investigated the underlying neuronal activity. In each of our three subjects, we were able to collect a large number of IUs which could be assigned to different functional IU subclasses with a high inter-rater agreement. Robust IU-onset-related changes in spectral magnitude could be observed in high gamma frequencies (70-150 Hz) on the inferior lateral convexity and in the superior temporal cortex regardless of the IU content. A comparison of the topography of these responses with mouth motor and speech areas identified by electrocortical stimulation showed that IUs might be of use for extraoperative mapping of eloquent cortex (average sensitivity: 44.4%, average specificity: 91.1%). High gamma responses specific to memory-related IU subclasses were observed in the inferior parietal and prefrontal regions. IU-based analysis of ECoG recordings during non-experimental communication thus elicits topographically- and functionally-specific effects. We conclude that segmentation of spontaneous

  13. Magellan Post Launch Mission Operation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Magellan was successfully launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis from the Kennedy Space Center at 2:47 p.m. EDT on May 4, 1989. The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster and attached Magellan Spacecraft were successfully deployed from Atlantis on Rev. 5 as planned, at 06:14 hrs Mission Elapsed Time (MET). The two IUS propulsion burns which began at 07:14 hrs MET and were completed at 07:22 hrs MET, placed the Magellan Spacecraft almost perfectly on its preplanned trajectory to Venus. The IUS was jettisoned at 07:40 hrs MET and Magellan telemetry was immediately acquired by the Deep Space Network (DSN). A spacecraft trajectory correction maneuver was performed on May 21 and the spacecraft is in the planned standard cruise configuration with all systems operating nominally. An initial attempt was made to launch Atlantis on April 28, 1989, but the launch was scrubbed at T-31 sec due to a failure of the liquid hydrogen recirculation pump on Space Shuttle Main Engine #1. The countdown had proceeded smoothly until T-20 min when the Magellan radio receiver "locked-on" the MIL 71 Unified S-Band (USB) transmission as the transmitter power was increased fro 2 kw to 10 kw in support of the orbiter launch. During the planned hold at T-9 min, the USB was confirmed as the source of the receiver "lock" and Magellan's launch readiness was reaffirmed. In addition a five-minute extension of the T-9 hold occurred when a range safety computer went off-line, creating a loss of redundancy in the range safety computer network. Following resumption of the countdown, both the orbiter and Magellan flows proceeded smoothly until the launch was scrubbed at T-31 sec.

  14. Orbital Evidence for Clay and Acidic Sulfate Assemblages on Mars and Mineralogical Analogs from Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, H. H.; Milliken, R.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Amils, R.; Robertson, K.; Knoll, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    A suite of enigmatic near-infrared reflectance spectra with a 'doublet' absorption between 2.2 and 2.3 µm is observed in CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) hyperspectral images over Ius and Melas Chasma on Mars. The doublet-bearing deposits are found alongside other hydrated minerals including clays, sulfates, and silica, but the mineral(s) responsible for the spectral signature has yet to be identified. Reflectance spectra of rocks and sediments at Rio Tinto, Spain exhibit similar absorptions at airborne, field, and lab spatial scales. Coupled X-ray diffraction and reflectance spectra of these terrestrial examples indicate the absorption arises from a mixture of jarosite, a ferric sulfate, and Al-phyllosilicates (illite/muscovite). Detailed analysis of CRISM data over Ius and Melas Chasma suggests that these deposits also contain mixtures of jarosite and Al-phyllosilicate, where the latter may include halloysite, kaolinite and/or montmorillonite in addition to illite/muscovite. This interpretation is supported because (1) the two absorptions in the doublet feature vary independently, implying the presence of two or more phases, (2) the position of the absorptions is consistent with Al-OH and Fe-OH vibrations in both the Rio Tinto and CRISM spectra and (3) Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite are identified separately in nearby regions. Multiple formation mechanisms are proposed based on stratigraphy in Ius Chasma, where the strength of absorptions varies within a single stratigraphic unit as well as between different units. Mechanisms include authigenic formation of jarosite, which would indicate locally acidic and oxidizing conditions, mixed with detrial Al-phyllosilicates, or authigenic formation of Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite. Each implies different conditions in terms of aqueous geochemistry, redox, and sediment transport. Results from the field, lab, and CRISM analysis will be presented to discuss how placing these spectral

  15. Planetary mission requirements, technology and design considerations for a solar electric propulsion stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. J.; Hastrup, R. C.; Menard, W. A.; Olson, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    High energy planetary missions such as comet rendezvous, Saturn orbiter and asteroid rendezvous require development of a Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) for augmentation of the Shuttle-IUS. Performance and functional requirements placed on the SEPS are presented. These requirements will be used in evolution of the SEPS design, which must be highly interactive with both the spacecraft and the mission design. Previous design studies have identified critical SEPS technology areas and some specific design solutions which are also presented in the paper.

  16. Astronaut Story Musgrave during STS-6 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, STS-6 mission specialist, translates down the Challenger's payload bay door hinge line with a bag of latch tools. In the lower left foreground are three canisters containing three getaway special (GAS) experiments. Part of the starboard wing and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod are seen backdropped against the blackness of space. The gold-foil protected object on the right is the airborne support equipment for the now vacated inertial upper stage (IUS) which aided the deployment of the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS).

  17. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  18. Toward a definition of intolerance of uncertainty: a review of factor analytical studies of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale.

    PubMed

    Birrell, Jane; Meares, Kevin; Wilkinson, Andrew; Freeston, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Since its emergence in the early 1990s, a narrow but concentrated body of research has developed examining the role of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in worry, and yet we still know little about its phenomenology. In an attempt to clarify our understanding of this construct, this paper traces the way in which our understanding and definition of IU have evolved throughout the literature. This paper also aims to further our understanding of IU by exploring the latent variables measures by the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; Freeston, Rheaume, Letarte, Dugas & Ladouceur, 1994). A review of the literature surrounding IU confirmed that the current definitions are categorical and lack specificity. A critical review of existing factor analytic studies was carried out in order to determine the underlying factors measured by the IUS. Systematic searches yielded 9 papers for review. Two factors with 12 consistent items emerged throughout the exploratory studies, and the stability of models containing these two factors was demonstrated in subsequent confirmatory studies. It is proposed that these factors represent (i) desire for predictability and an active engagement in seeking certainty, and (ii) paralysis of cognition and action in the face of uncertainty. It is suggested that these factors may represent approach and avoidance responses to uncertainty. Further research is required to confirm the construct validity of these factors and to determine the stability of this structure within clinical samples.

  19. The polymorphism of crime scene investigation: An exploratory analysis of the influence of crime and forensic intelligence on decisions made by crime scene examiners.

    PubMed

    Resnikoff, Tatiana; Ribaux, Olivier; Baylon, Amélie; Jendly, Manon; Rossy, Quentin

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of scientific literature recurrently indicates that crime and forensic intelligence influence how crime scene investigators make decisions in their practices. This study scrutinises further this intelligence-led crime scene examination view. It analyses results obtained from two questionnaires. Data have been collected from nine chiefs of Intelligence Units (IUs) and 73 Crime Scene Examiners (CSEs) working in forensic science units (FSUs) in the French speaking part of Switzerland (six cantonal police agencies). Four salient elements emerged: (1) the actual existence of communication channels between IUs and FSUs across the police agencies under consideration; (2) most CSEs take into account crime intelligence disseminated; (3) a differentiated, but significant use by CSEs in their daily practice of this kind of intelligence; (4) a probable deep influence of this kind of intelligence on the most concerned CSEs, specially in the selection of the type of material/trace to detect, collect, analyse and exploit. These results contribute to decipher the subtle dialectic articulating crime intelligence and crime scene investigation, and to express further the polymorph role of CSEs, beyond their most recognised input to the justice system. Indeed, they appear to be central, but implicit, stakeholders in intelligence-led style of policing.

  20. Optimisation of sludge pretreatment by low frequency sonication under pressure.

    PubMed

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Barthe, Laurie; Delmas, Henri

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at optimizing sludge pretreatment by non-isothermal sonication, varying frequency, US power (PUS) and intensity (IUS varied through probe size), as well as hydrostatic pressure and operation mode (continuous vs. sequential - or pulsed - process). Under non isothermal sonication sludge solubilization results from both ultrasound disintegration and thermal hydrolysis which are conversely depending on temperature. As found in isothermal operation: - For a given specific energy input, higher sludge disintegration is still achieved at higher PUS and lower sonication time. - US effects can be highly improved by applying a convenient pressure. - 12 kHz always performs better than 20 kHz. Nevertheless the optimum pressure depends not only on PUS and IUS, but also on temperature evolution during sonication. Under adiabatic mode, a sequential sonication using 5 min US-on at 360 W, 12 kHz, and 3.25 bar and 30 min US-off gives the best sludge disintegration, while maintaining temperature in a convenient range to prevent US damping.

  1. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Pointing Control System Performance During Transfer Orbit and Initial On-Orbit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quast, Peter; Tung, Frank; West, Mark; Wider, John

    2000-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO, formerly AXAF) is the third of the four NASA great observatories. It was launched from Kennedy Space Flight Center on 23 July 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia and was successfully inserted in a 330 x 72,000 km orbit by the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS). Through a series of five Integral Propulsion System burns, CXO was placed in a 10,000 x 139,000 km orbit. After initial on-orbit checkout, Chandra's first light images were unveiled to the public on 26 August, 1999. The CXO Pointing Control and Aspect Determination (PCAD) subsystem is designed to perform attitude control and determination functions in support of transfer orbit operations and on-orbit science mission. After a brief description of the PCAD subsystem, the paper highlights the PCAD activities during the transfer orbit and initial on-orbit operations. These activities include: CXO/IUS separation, attitude and gyro bias estimation with earth sensor and sun sensor, attitude control and disturbance torque estimation for delta-v burns, momentum build-up due to gravity gradient and solar pressure, momentum unloading with thrusters, attitude initialization with star measurements, gyro alignment calibration, maneuvering and transition to normal pointing, and PCAD pointing and stability performance.

  2. Europinė Sarmatija ankstyvojoje kartografijoje

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girkus, Romualdas; Lukoševičius, Viktoras

    2010-01-01

    Straipsnio tikslas - analizuojant kartografiniuose fonduose esančius senųjų autorių žemėlapius ir jų aprašymus ie\\vskoti argumentų, kuriais galima būtų pagrįsti hipotezę, kad Lietuva kaip geografinė teritorija egzistavo ne prieš vieną, o prieš kelis tūkstančius metų. Tiesiog ji tuo metu buvo žymima kaip Europinė Sarmatija. Straipsnyje pristatomi žemėlapių, kuriuose atvaizduota Sarmatija, kūrėjai ir sudarytojai, pateikiamos žemėlapių charakteristikos: leidimo metai, atvaizduoti teritoriniai vienetai, geografiniai objektai, genčių bendruomenių apgyventos vietovės, kaimynai ir kt. Apibendrindami tyrimo rezultatus autoriai daro išvadą, kad senoviniai žemėlapiai, kuriuose žymima Europinė Sarmatija, yra puikūs istorijos liudytojai, padedantys suvokti ilgą ir sudėtingą Lietuvos valstybės formavimosi procesą, tačiau, siekiant atskleisti naują mūsų priešistorės koncepciją, vien tik jų analizės neužtenka.

  3. Objective Assessment of Cervical Stiffness after Administration of Misoprostol for Intrauterine Contraceptive Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Badir, S.; Mazza, E.; Bajka, M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to objectively quantify cervical stiffness in misoprostol users prior to IUC insertion and at follow-up consultation to evaluate the feasibility of assessing cervical stiffness and to study the influence of misoprostol on cervical softening. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated 40 women who wished to use the LNG IUS. These women were evaluated immediately before LNG IUS insertion and 6 weeks later at follow-up consultation. Participants received 200 μg of misoprostol combined with 75 mg of diclofenac in a single tablet orally (Arthrotec forte 75/200®, Pfizer, USA) 6–12 h prior to insertion in “off label” use. On both occasions, cervical stiffness was determined using a novel medical device based on the aspiration technique. The Wilcoxon rank-sum and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were applied to compare cervical stiffness assessments at insertion of the IUD and at follow-up. Results: For the first time, cervical stiffness was quantitatively assessed in misoprostol users prior to IUD insertion, proving that the aspiration technique enables detection of pharmacologically induced cervical changes, and also that misoprostol has a detectable softening effect on cervical tissue. Conclusion: The clinical value of the detected cervical softening after misoprostol administration remains unclear. Aspiration measurements could be helpful in searching for the ideal candidate, the appropriate route, dosage and interval of misoprostol intake prior to IUC insertion. PMID:27689173

  4. A randomised controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in primary care against standard treatment for menorrhagia: the ECLIPSE trial.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Janesh K; Daniels, Jane P; Middleton, Lee J; Pattison, Helen M; Prileszky, Gail; Roberts, Tracy E; Sanghera, Sabina; Barton, Pelham; Gray, Richard; Kai, Joe

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common problem, yet evidence to inform decisions about initial medical treatment is limited. OBJECTIVES To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) (Mirena®, Bayer) compared with usual medical treatment, with exploration of women's perspectives on treatment. DESIGN A pragmatic, multicentre randomised trial with an economic evaluation and a longitudinal qualitative study. SETTING Women who presented in primary care. PARTICIPANTS A total of 571 women with HMB. A purposeful sample of 27 women who were randomised or ineligible owing to treatment preference participated in semistructured face-to-face interviews around 2 and 12 months after commencing treatment. INTERVENTIONS LNG-IUS or usual medical treatment (tranexamic acid, mefenamic acid, combined oestrogen-progestogen or progesterone alone). Women could subsequently swap or cease their allocated treatment. OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was the patient-reported score on the Menorrhagia Multi-Attribute Scale (MMAS) assessed over a 2-year period and then again at 5 years. Secondary outcomes included general quality of life (QoL), sexual activity, surgical intervention and safety. Data were analysed using iterative constant comparison. A state transition model-based cost-utility analysis was undertaken alongside the randomised trial. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were derived from the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) and the Short Form questionnaire-6 Dimensions (SF-6D). The intention-to-treat analyses were reported as cost per QALY gained. Uncertainty was explored by conducting both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. RESULTS The MMAS total scores improved significantly in both groups at all time points, but were significantly greater for the LNG-IUS than for usual treatment [mean difference over 2 years was 13.4 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9

  5. The polymorphism of crime scene investigation: An exploratory analysis of the influence of crime and forensic intelligence on decisions made by crime scene examiners.

    PubMed

    Resnikoff, Tatiana; Ribaux, Olivier; Baylon, Amélie; Jendly, Manon; Rossy, Quentin

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of scientific literature recurrently indicates that crime and forensic intelligence influence how crime scene investigators make decisions in their practices. This study scrutinises further this intelligence-led crime scene examination view. It analyses results obtained from two questionnaires. Data have been collected from nine chiefs of Intelligence Units (IUs) and 73 Crime Scene Examiners (CSEs) working in forensic science units (FSUs) in the French speaking part of Switzerland (six cantonal police agencies). Four salient elements emerged: (1) the actual existence of communication channels between IUs and FSUs across the police agencies under consideration; (2) most CSEs take into account crime intelligence disseminated; (3) a differentiated, but significant use by CSEs in their daily practice of this kind of intelligence; (4) a probable deep influence of this kind of intelligence on the most concerned CSEs, specially in the selection of the type of material/trace to detect, collect, analyse and exploit. These results contribute to decipher the subtle dialectic articulating crime intelligence and crime scene investigation, and to express further the polymorph role of CSEs, beyond their most recognised input to the justice system. Indeed, they appear to be central, but implicit, stakeholders in intelligence-led style of policing. PMID:26583959

  6. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a new drug carrier for 3D printed medical drug delivery devices.

    PubMed

    Genina, Natalja; Holländer, Jenny; Jukarainen, Harri; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Sandler, Niklas

    2016-07-30

    The main purpose of this work was to investigate the printability of different grades of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers as new feedstock material for fused-deposition modeling (FDM™)-based 3D printing technology in fabrication of custom-made T-shaped intrauterine systems (IUS) and subcutaneous rods (SR). The goal was to select an EVA grade with optimal properties, namely vinyl acetate content, melting index, flexural modulus, for 3D printing of implantable prototypes with the drug incorporated within the entire matrix of the medical devices. Indomethacin was used as a model drug in this study. Out of the twelve tested grades of the EVA five were printable. One of them showed superior print quality and was further investigated by printing drug-loaded filaments, containing 5% and 15% indomethacin. The feedstock filaments were fabricated by hot-melt extrusion (HME) below the melting point of the drug substance and the IUS and SR were successfully printed at the temperature above the melting point of the drug. As a result, the drug substance in the printed prototypes showed to be at least partly amorphous, while the drug in the corresponding HME filaments was crystalline. This difference affected the drug release profiles from the filaments and printed prototype products: faster release from the prototypes over 30days in the in vitro tests. To conclude, this study indicates that certain grades of EVA were applicable feedstock material for 3D printing to produce drug-loaded implantable prototypes.

  7. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2: Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    The General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) will be used as the prime source of electric power for the spacecraft on the Galileo mission. The use of radioactive material in these missions necessitates evaluations of the radiological risks that may be encountered by launch complex personnel and by the Earth's general population resulting from postulated malfunctions or failures occurring in the mission operations. The purpose of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) is to present the analyses and results of the latest evaluation of the nuclear safety potential of the GPHS-RTG as employed in the Galileo mission. This evaluation is an extension of earlier work that addressed the planned 1986 launch using the Space Shuttle Vehicle with the Centaur as the upper stage. This extended evaluation represents the launch by the Space Shuttle/IUS vehicle. The IUS stage has been selected as the vehicle to be used to boost the Galileo spacecraft into the Earth escape trajectory after the parking orbit is attained.

  8. Impact of a new levonorgestrel intrauterine system, Levosert®, on heavy menstrual bleeding: results of a one-year randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Nollevaux, Fabrice; Nizet, Dominique; Wijzen, Fabienne; Gordenne, Valérie; Tasev, Niso; Segedi, Dimitrije; Marinescu, Bogdan; Enache, Andreea; Parhomenko, Vadim; Frankenne, Francis; Foidart, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a new levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) called Levosert® for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in comparison to the reference product Mirena®. Methods A multicentre, randomised, controlled trial, in non-menopausal women diagnosed with functional HMB (defined as menstrual blood loss [MBL] ≥ 80 mL) randomised to either Levosert® or Mirena® and followed for up to one year. MBL was evaluated using a validated modified version of the Wyatt pictogram. Results A total of 280 women were randomised (141 to Levosert® and 139 to Mirena®). During the one-year treatment period, both Levosert® and Mirena® dramatically decreased MBL and increased haemoglobin and ferritin levels. There were no statistically significant differences between Levosert® and Mirena® regarding any of the parameters evaluated during the study. Similar bleeding patterns were observed in both groups. Levosert® was inserted with the same ease as Mirena®. Both treatments were associated with identical expulsion rates and no perforations occurred in either treatment group. Conclusion Levosert®, a new LNG-IUS designed to release the same daily amount of LNG as Mirena®, is highly effective in the treatment of HMB. No differences were observed between Levosert® and Mirena® regarding all evaluated outcomes, including safety profile. PMID:24666176

  9. Stomaching uncertainty: Relationships among intolerance of uncertainty, eating disorder pathology, and comorbid emotional symptoms.

    PubMed

    Renjan, Vidhya; McEvoy, Peter M; Handley, Alicia K; Fursland, Anthea

    2016-06-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is proposed to be a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor for various emotional disorders. There is robust evidence for the role of IU in anxiety and depressive disorders, but a paucity of evidence in eating disorders (ED). This study evaluated the factorial validity, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Short Form (IUS-12; Carleton, Norton, & Asmundson, 2007), and examined whether IU is associated with ED pathology and comorbid emotional symptoms, in a clinical sample with EDs (N=134). A unitary factor solution provided the best fit. The IUS-12 showed excellent internal consistency, and good convergent validity. IU had an indirect effect on dietary restraint, purging, and emotional symptoms via overvaluation of eating, weight, and shape. The indirect effect was not significant for bingeing. Findings provide partial support for the notion that IU is a vulnerability factor for ED pathology and support the notion that IU is a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor for emotional symptoms. Limitations, research implications, and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:27019977

  10. Stomaching uncertainty: Relationships among intolerance of uncertainty, eating disorder pathology, and comorbid emotional symptoms.

    PubMed

    Renjan, Vidhya; McEvoy, Peter M; Handley, Alicia K; Fursland, Anthea

    2016-06-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is proposed to be a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor for various emotional disorders. There is robust evidence for the role of IU in anxiety and depressive disorders, but a paucity of evidence in eating disorders (ED). This study evaluated the factorial validity, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Short Form (IUS-12; Carleton, Norton, & Asmundson, 2007), and examined whether IU is associated with ED pathology and comorbid emotional symptoms, in a clinical sample with EDs (N=134). A unitary factor solution provided the best fit. The IUS-12 showed excellent internal consistency, and good convergent validity. IU had an indirect effect on dietary restraint, purging, and emotional symptoms via overvaluation of eating, weight, and shape. The indirect effect was not significant for bingeing. Findings provide partial support for the notion that IU is a vulnerability factor for ED pathology and support the notion that IU is a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor for emotional symptoms. Limitations, research implications, and future directions for research are discussed.

  11. Use of mixed-treatment-comparison methods in estimating efficacy of treatments for heavy menstrual bleeding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A variety of pharmacological and surgical treatments have been developed for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB), which can have negative physical, social, psychological, and economic consequences. We conducted a systematic literature review and mixed-treatment-comparison (MTC) meta-analysis of available data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to derive estimates of efficacy for 8 classes of treatments for HMB, to inform health-economic analysis and future studies. Methods A systematic review identified RCTs that reported data on menstrual blood loss (MBL) at baseline and one or more follow-up times. Eight treatment classes were considered: COCs, danazol, endometrial ablation, LNG-IUS, placebo, progestogens given for less than 2 weeks out of 4 during the menstrual cycle, progestogens given for close to 3 weeks out of 4, and TXA. The primary measure of efficacy was the proportion of women who achieved MBL < 80 mL per cycle (month), as measured by the alkaline hematin method. A score less than 100 on an established pictorial blood-loss assessment chart (PBAC) was considered an acceptable substitute for MBL < 80 mL. Estimates of efficacy by treatment class and time were obtained from a Bayesian MTC model. The model also included effects for treatment class, study, and the combination of treatment class and study and an adjustment for baseline mean MBL. Several methodological challenges complicated the analysis. Some trials reported various summary statistics for MBL or PBAC, requiring estimation (with less precision) of % MBL < 80 mL or % PBAC < 100. Also, reported follow-up times varied substantially. Results The evidence network involved 34 RCTs, with follow-up times from 1 to 36 months. Efficacy at 3 months of follow-up (estimated as the posterior median) ranged from 87.5% for the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) to 14.2% for progestogens administered for less than 2 weeks out of 4 in the menstrual cycle. The 95% credible intervals

  12. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Arrives at KSC for Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory, scheduled to launch aboard Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93, arrived at 2:45 p.m. EST today at the Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy airplane. The telescope was shipped from the TRW plant in Redondo Beach, CA, with departure from Los Angeles International Airport occurring earlier this morning. A second airplane also brought the necessary ground support equipment to KSC for the campaign of final prelaunch integration and testing. The ground support equipment is being off loaded today. The Chandra Observatory is to be taken off the airplane early Friday morning and transported to the Vertical Processing Facility located in the KSC Industrial Area. There, the telescope will undergo final installation of associated electronic components, be tested, fueled, and mated with the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster. A set of integrated tests will follow. A major milestone is the test using the Cargo Integrated Test Equipment (CITE) to verify that Chandra and the Inertial Upper Stage will have the ability to receive and reply to commands once aboard the Space Shuttle. Also, an end-to-end test will verify the communications systems of the payload and its ability to communicate through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite system with Mission Control in Houston and the Chandra ground station located in Cambridge, MA. The Chandra/IUS combination will then be ready to go to the launch pad. Once in the payload changeout room at Pad 39-B, the protective cocoon will be removed from around the telescope and it will be installed into Space Shuttle Columbia. An Integrated Verification Test will be conducted to check all of the electrical connections and the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands from Columbia's flight deck. The end-to-end test will be repeated at the pad. Finally the IUS will go through a simulated countdown to verify its readiness for launch. Chandra will use the world

  13. Education in Sustainable Energy by European Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanescu, Corina; Stefureac, Crina

    2010-05-01

    completion. Students also show a great deal of interest towards this course. More information are available on www.school4energy.net/ , www.ises.org/schools/ - The newest is the project "Intelligent Use of Energy in School", starting in this school year. This European project is part of Intelligent Energy program, aims to promote a more efficient way of using energy in every day life among secondary schools students and teachers. IUSES will show secondary school students the basic principles of energy efficiency and give a comprehensive guide to saving energy in their everyday lives. IUSES is currently developing a behaviour-oriented educational kit including: handbooks, multimedia animations and experiment tool-kit. The educational kit will be freely available for downloading on this web site. The project will also include the launch of the European Energy Saving Award in 14 different countries which will reward schools and students that improve their energy efficiency. More information is available on www.iuses.eu or www.iuses.ro

  14. Tug fleet and ground operations schedules and controls. Volume 2: part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls Study addresses both ground operational data and technical requirements that span the Tug planning phase and operations phase. A similar study covering mission operations (by others) provides the complimentary flight operations details. The two studies provide the planning data requirements, resource allocation, and control milestones for supporting the requirements of the STS program. This Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls Study incorporates the basic ground operations requirements and concepts provided by previous studies with the interrelationships of the planning, IUS transition, and Tug fleet operations phases. The interrelationships of these phases were studied as a system to optimize overall program benefits and minimize operational risk factors.

  15. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems for long-acting contraception: current perspectives, safety, and patient counseling

    PubMed Central

    Costescu, Dustin J

    2016-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a significant global problem. In 2008, there were over 100 million unplanned pregnancies worldwide, representing approximately 41% of global conceptions. Family planning strategies in many countries are shifting from increasing the uptake of contraception among nonusers to increasing the uptake of the most effective methods among users of less effective methods. One of the most effective and acceptable methods of contraception is the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS); however, its uptake varies widely by country. This article reviews the currently available LNG IUSs, the rationale for increasing uptake of these methods, and evidence regarding safety, and discusses counseling strategies to best inform women about this option for contraception. PMID:27785107

  16. Layers in Oudemans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 July 2004 The central peak of Oudemans Crater, located near 10.0oS, 92.1oW, contains light-toned, layered rock that has been uplifted and severely tilted. When seen from overhead, as in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, the dipping layered rocks form a banded pattern on the landscape. These rocks were once in the ground beneath the present floor of Oudemans Crater. The impact which produced the crater brought these rocks to the surface. They are light-toned and very similar to some of the varieties of sedimentary rock outcrops found in portions of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Oudemans Crater sits on the edge of the Valles Marineris, near the intersection of the Labyrinthus Noctis and Ius Chasma. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left. The 180 meter scale bar is equal to about 197 yards.

  17. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2, Book 2: Accident model document: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    This section of the Accident Model Document (AMD) presents the appendices which describe the various analyses that have been conducted for use in the Galileo Final Safety Analysis Report II, Volume II. Included in these appendices are the approaches, techniques, conditions and assumptions used in the development of the analytical models plus the detailed results of the analyses. Also included in these appendices are summaries of the accidents and their associated probabilities and environment models taken from the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116), plus summaries of the several segments of the recent GPHS safety test program. The information presented in these appendices is used in Section 3.0 of the AMD to develop the Failure/Abort Sequence Trees (FASTs) and to determine the fuel releases (source terms) resulting from the potential Space Shuttle/IUS accidents throughout the missions.

  18. Art concept of Magellan spacecraft in cruise configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Magellan spacecraft cruise configuration is illustrated in this artist concept. With solar panels deployed and having jettisoned the inertial upper stage (IUS), Magellan approaches the sun which it will orbit approximately 1.6 times before encountering Venus. Magellan, named after the 16th century Portuguese explorer, will orbit Venus about once every three hours, acquiring radar data for 37 minutes of each orbit when it is closest to the surface. Using an advanced instrument called a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), it will map more than 90 per cent of the surface with resolution ten times better than the best from prior spacecraft. Magellan is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); Martin Marietta Aerospace is developing the spacecraft and Hughes Aircraft Company, the advanced imaging radar. Magellan will be deployed from payload bay (PLB) of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during the STS-30 mission.

  19. Space tug/shuttle interface compatibility study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Shuttle interfaces required for space tug accommodation are primarily involved with supporting and servicing the tug during launch countdown, flight, and postlanding; deploying and retrieving the tug on orbit; and maintaining control over the tug when it is in or near the orbiter. Each of these interface areas was investigated to determine the best physical and operational method of accomplishing the required functions, with an overriding goal of establishing simple and flexible orbiter interface requirements suitable for tug, tug payloads, IUS and other cargo. It is concluded the orbiter payload accommodations and the MSFC baseline tug are generally interface compatible. Specific minor changes to tug and orbiter interfaces were identified to provide full compatibility. A system concept for supporting and deploying tug from orbiter is described.

  20. Centaur Propellant Thermal Conditioning Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blatt, M. H.; Pleasant, R. L.; Erickson, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A wicking investigation revealed that passive thermal conditioning was feasible and provided considerable weight advantage over active systems using throttled vent fluid in a Centaur D-1s launch vehicle. Experimental wicking correlations were obtained using empirical revisions to the analytical flow model. Thermal subcoolers were evaluated parametrically as a function of tank pressure and NPSP. Results showed that the RL10 category I engine was the best candidate for boost pump replacement and the option showing the lowest weight penalty employed passively cooled acquisition devices, thermal subcoolers, dry ducts between burns and pumping of subcooler coolant back into the tank. A mixing correlation was identified for sizing the thermodynamic vent system mixer. Worst case mixing requirements were determined by surveying Centaur D-1T, D-1S, IUS, and space tug vehicles. Vent system sizing was based upon worst case requirements. Thermodynamic vent system/mixer weights were determined for each vehicle.

  1. One- and Two-Phase Nozzle Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, I-Shih

    1980-12-01

    A time-dependent technique, in conjunction with the boundary-fitted coordinates system, is applied to solve a gas-only one-phase flow and a fully-coupled, gas-particle two-phase flow inside nozzles with small throat radii of curvature, steep wall gradients, and submerged configurations. The emphasis of the study has been placed on one- and two-phase flow in the transonic region. Various particle sizes and particle mass fractions have been investigated in the two-phase flow. The salient features associated with the two-phase nozzle flow compared with those of the one-phase flow are illustrated through the calculations of the JPL nozzle, the Titan III solid rocket motor, and the submerged nozzle configuration found in the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) solid rocket motor.

  2. STS-43 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-43 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-47 (LWT-40); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-045. The primary objective of the STS-43 mission was to successfully deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-E/Inertial Upper Stage (TDRS-E/IUS) satellite and to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) payload and the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE-2).

  3. STS-93: Crew Interview - Cady Coleman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage of a preflight interview with Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman is presented. The interview addresses many different questions including why Coleman wanted to be an astronaut, why she wanted to become a chemist, and how this historic flight (first female Commander of a mission) will influence little girls. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is the deployment of the Chandra satellite, why people care about x ray energy, whether or not Chandra will compliment the other X Ray Observatories currently in operation, and her responsibilities during the major events of this mission. Coleman mentions the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) rocket that will deploy Chandra, and the design configuration of Chandra that will allow for the transfer of information. The Southwest Research Ultraviolet Imaging System (SWUIS) Telescope on board Columbia, the Plant Growth Investigation in Microgravity (PGIM) experiment, and the two observatories presently in orbit (Gamma Ray Observatory, and Hubble Space Telescope) are also discussed.

  4. Opening a new era in space. [Space Transportation System utilizing Shuttle, Spacelab and Interim Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbertson, P. E.; Bold, T. P.

    1977-01-01

    The overall payload planning aimed at initial projected use of the Space Transportation System (STS) which will establish a new capability for exploring and using space through operations of the Shuttle, Spacelab, and Interim Upper Stage (IUS) in the Eighties is reviewed, and the significance of this planning for science and technology is discussed. The first payloads will fly on the STS during Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) beginning in March 1979. Primary OFT objectives include verifying flight systems and the Shuttle's ability to accomodate various types of payloads in different mission modes. The STS schedule will build up to as many as 60 flights in 1984. The STS payloads will make contributions to the management on a global scale of the interrelationship of production, consumption, population growth, and pollution.

  5. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 2: Theme summary. 6: Advanced transportation systems. A: Theme statement. B. 26 April 1976 presentation. C. Theme summary. D. Initiative actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Technology requirements for an integrated space transportation system capability which will allow the nation to use space efficiently, reliably, and routinely in the years between 1985 and 2000 with a significant return on invested resources will build on the currently defined space transportation system using shuttle, the IUS, and the advanced upper stage such as the solar electric propulsion system. Contributing technologies should include those which support (1) total reusability with minimal refurbishment; (2) responsiveness to high launch rate requirements when operation and energy are the predominant recurring costs; and (3) maximum flexibility in operation between earth and LEO and between LEO and GEO. Initiatives undertaken to advance the heavy lift to launch vehicles, single stage to orbit vehicles, and orbit transfer vehicles are listed.

  6. Hyperchaotic set in continuous chaos-hyperchaos transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingdu; Tang, Song; Yang, Xiao-Song

    2014-10-01

    Topological horseshoes with two-directional expansion imply invariant sets with two positive Lyapunov exponents (LE), which are recognized as a signature of hyperchaos. However, we find such horseshoes in two piecewise linear systems and one smooth system, which all exhibit chaotic attractors with one positive LE. The three concrete systems are the simple circuit by Tamaševičius et al., the Matsumoto-Chua-Kobayashi (MCK) circuit and the linearly controlled Lorenz system, respectively. Substantial numerical evidence from these systems suggests that a hyperchaotic set can be embedded in a chaotic attractor with one positive LE, and keeps existing while the attractor becomes hyperchaotic from chaotic. This paper presents such a new scenario of the continuous chaos-hyperchaos transition.

  7. The electric rail gun for space propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, D. P.; Barber, J. P.; Vahlberg, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    An analytic feasibility investigation of an electric propulsion concept for space application is described. In this concept, quasistatic thrust due to inertial reaction to repetitively accelerated pellets by an electric rail gun is used to propel a spacecraft. The study encompasses the major subsystems required in an electric rail gun propulsion system. The mass, performance, and configuration of each subsystem are described. Based on an analytic model of the system mass and performance, the electric rail gun mission performance as a reusable orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) is analyzed and compared to a 30 cm ion thruster system (BIMOD) and a chemical propulsion system (IUS) for payloads with masses of 1150 kg and 2300 kg. For system power levels in the range from 25 kW(e) to 100 kW(e) an electric rail gun OTV is more attractive than a BIMOD system for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit transfer durations in the range from 20 to 120 days.

  8. Mission options for the first SEPS application. [rendezvous with near earth asteroids and comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, C.-W. L.

    1981-01-01

    Missions to comets and asteroids are primary candidates for Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS) applications. NASA estimates that the first SEPS mission might be launched as early as 1988. This paper presents mission opportunities available for launches between 1988 and early 1991 and discusses the performance capabilities of the current SEPS. Use of a Shuttle Two-Stage IUS and/or a Shuttle Wide Tank Centaur launch vehicle is assumed in the performance assessment. The list of possible first SEPS missions consists of nine missions to comets of primary interest and examples of multiple asteroid rendezvous missions. Both an earth crossing asteroid and a main belt asteroid are considered as first possible targets in the multiple asteroid rendezvous examples. Mission opportunity and performance maps for Eros and Anteros are presented which provide exact performance data and optimal launch and arrival dates for any launch year.

  9. Second Shuttle Join NASA's STS Fleet: Challenger Launches First New Tracking Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA made a major stride in readying a second delivery vehicle for its Space Transportation System (STS) fleet with the perfect landing of Shuttle Orbiter Challenger at Edwards Air Force Base, California, April 9, 1983. Besides being the first flight test of Challenger's performance, the mission marked the orbiting of the first spacecraft in NASA's new Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The new family of orbiting space communications platforms is essential to serve future Shuttle missions. Although the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) second stage engine firing failed to place TDRS in its final 35,888 kilometer (22,300 mile) geosynchronous orbit, its release from the orbiter cargo bay went as planned. Launch officials were confident they can achieve its planned orbit in a matter of weeks.

  10. Shuttle Atlantis to deploy Galileo probe toward Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of Space Shuttle Mission STS-34 are described along with major flight activities, prelaunch and launch operations, trajectory sequence of events, and landing and post-landing operations. The primary objective of STS-34 is to deploy the Galileo planetary exploration spacecraft into low earth orbit. Following deployment, Galileo will be propelled on a trajectory, known as Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA), by an inertial upper stage (IUS). The objectives of the Galileo mission are to study the chemical composition, state, and dynamics of the Jovian atmosphere and satellites, and investigate the structure and physical dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere. Secondary STS-34 payloads include the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) instrument; the Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE); and various other payloads involving polymer morphology, the effects of microgravity on plant growth hormone, and the growth of ice crystals.

  11. Technology status of a fluorine-hydrazine propulsion system for planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The basic technology exists and a system integration program is well underway to allow incorporation of a fluorine-hydrazine propulsion system into future spacecraft required for unmanned planetary missions. These spacecraft would be inserted in earth orbit using the Space Transportation System Shuttle and given its initial sendoff by the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS). The design of a typical propulsion system, assessment of thermal and structural impacts on a selected spacecraft and comparative studies with conventional propulsion systems have been completed. A major part of the current JPL Program involves assembly of a 3650 N thrust demonstration system using titanium tanks, flight weight components and structure. This system will be used to demonstrate the state-of-the-art throughout a representative flight system's qualification.

  12. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding intrauterine contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Bahamondes, Luis; Makuch, Maria Y; Monteiro, Ilza; Marin, Victor; Lynen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Intrauterine contraceptives (IUCs), including the copper intrauterine device and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), are among the reversible contraceptive methods with high effectiveness. However, use is low in many settings, including some Latin American countries, mainly due to the influences of myths, fears, and negative attitudes, not only of users and potential users, but also of different cadres of health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of a group of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding IUCs. Methods A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting organized in Chile in 2014 to present and discuss updated information about contraception. Obstetricians and gynecologists from 12 Latin American countries, who reported that they provide daily contraception services in both the public and private sectors, participated in the meeting. Participants who agreed to take part in the survey responded to a multiple-choice questionnaire on issues regarding knowledge, use, and attitudes about IUCs. Results Of the 210 obstetricians and gynecologists participating in the meeting, the respondents to each question varied from 168 (80.0%) to 205 (97.6%). Almost 50% recognized that the failure rate of combined oral contraceptives, patches, and vaginal rings is 8%–10%. Furthermore, 10% of the participants did not recognize the high contraceptive effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Additionally, almost 80% of the respondents answered that they did not offer IUCs to nulligravidas and almost 10% did not offer IUCs to adolescents, albeit almost 90% of the respondents reported that nulligravidas are candidates for an LNG-IUS. Conclusion Some deficiencies and contradictions in terms of knowledge and attitudes were identified from the answers of the Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists who participated in the survey. The knowledge and

  13. Orbital evidence for clay and acidic sulfate assemblages on Mars based on mineralogical analogs from Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Hannah H.; Milliken, Ralph E.; Fernández-Remolar, David; Amils, Ricardo; Robertson, Kevin; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2016-09-01

    Outcrops of hydrated minerals are widespread across the surface of Mars, with clay minerals and sulfates being commonly identified phases. Orbitally-based reflectance spectra are often used to classify these hydrated components in terms of a single mineralogy, although most surfaces likely contain multiple minerals that have the potential to record local geochemical conditions and processes. Reflectance spectra for previously identified deposits in Ius and Melas Chasma within the Valles Marineris, Mars, exhibit an enigmatic feature with two distinct absorptions between 2.2 and 2.3 μm. This spectral 'doublet' feature is proposed to result from a mixture of hydrated minerals, although the identity of the minerals has remained ambiguous. Here we demonstrate that similar spectral doublet features are observed in airborne, field, and laboratory reflectance spectra of rock and sediment samples from Rio Tinto, Spain. Combined visible-near infrared reflectance spectra and X-ray diffraction measurements of these samples reveal that the doublet feature arises from a mixture of Al-phyllosilicate (illite or muscovite) and jarosite. Analyses of orbital data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows that the martian spectral equivalents are also consistent with mixtures of Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite, where the Al-phyllosilicate may also include kaolinite and/or halloysite. A case study for a region within Ius Chasma demonstrates that the relative proportions of the Al-phyllosilicate(s) and jarosite vary within one stratigraphic unit as well as between stratigraphic units. The former observation suggests that the jarosite may be a diagenetic (authigenic) product and thus indicative of local pH and redox conditions, whereas the latter observation may be consistent with variations in sediment flux and/or fluid chemistry during sediment deposition.

  14. Prenatal Substance Exposure: What Predicts Behavioral Resilience by Early Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Liebschutz, Jane; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Heymann, Orlaith D.; Lange, Allison V.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure (IUSE) in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (age 12.4–15.9) at-risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. IUSEs included in this analysis were cocaine (IUCE), tobacco (IUTE), alcohol (IUAE), and marijuana (IUME). We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African-American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower IUCE level predicted resilience compared to higher IUCE, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.90–19.00, p=0.002), lower violence exposure (AOR=4.07, 95% CI=1.77–9.38, p<0.001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR=3.71, 95% CI= 1.28–10.74, p=0.02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predict behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. PMID:26076097

  15. Parametric imaging using subharmonic signals from ultrasound contrast agents in patients with breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Eisenbrey, John R; Dave, Jaydev K; Merton, Daniel A; Palazzo, Juan P; Hall, Anne L; Forsberg, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Parametric maps showing perfusion of contrast media can be useful tools for characterizing lesions in breast tissue. In this study we show the feasibility of parametric subharmonic imaging (SHI), which allows imaging of a vascular marker (the ultrasound contrast agent) while providing near complete tissue suppression. Digital SHI clips of 16 breast lesions from 14 women were acquired. Patients were scanned using a modified LOGIQ 9 scanner (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) transmitting/receiving at 4.4/2.2 MHz. Using motion-compensated cumulative maximum intensity (CMI) sequences, parametric maps were generated for each lesion showing the time to peak (TTP), estimated perfusion (EP), and area under the time-intensity curve (AUC). Findings were grouped and compared according to biopsy results as benign lesions (n = 12, including 5 fibroadenomas and 3 cysts) and carcinomas (n = 4). For each lesion CMI, TTP, EP, and AUC parametric images were generated. No significant variations were detected with CMI (P = .80), TTP (P = .35), or AUC (P = .65). A statistically significant variation was detected for the average pixel EP (P = .002). Especially, differences were seen between carcinoma and benign lesions (mean ± SD, 0.10 ± 0.03 versus 0.05 ± 0.02 intensity units [IU]/s; P = .0014) and between carcinoma and fibroadenoma (0.10 ± 0.03 versus 0.04 ± 0.01 IU/s; P = .0044), whereas differences between carcinomas and cysts were found to be nonsignificant. In conclusion, a parametric imaging method for characterization of breast lesions using the high contrast to tissue signal provided by SHI has been developed. While the preliminary sample size was limited, results show potential for breast lesion characterization based on perfusion flow parameters.

  16. Reflectance Spectra Comparison of Orbital Debris, Intact Spacecraft, and Intact Rocket Bodies in the GEO Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Ed; Abercromby, Kira J.; Abell, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A key objective of NASA s Orbital Debris program office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is to characterize the debris environment by way of assessing the physical properties (type, mass, density, and size) of objects in orbit. Knowledge of the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) debris environment in particular can be used to determine the hazard probability at specific GEO altitudes and aid predictions of the future environment. To calculate an optical size from an intensity measurement of an object in the GEO regime, a 0.175 albedo is assumed currently. However, identification of specific material type or types could improve albedo accuracy and yield a more accurate size estimate for the debris piece. Using spectroscopy, it is possible to determine the surface materials of space objects. The study described herein used the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) to record spectral data in the 0.6 to 2.5 micron regime on eight catalogued space objects. For comparison, all of the objects observed were in GEO or near-GEO. The eight objects consisted of two intact spacecraft, three rocket bodies, and three catalogued debris pieces. Two of the debris pieces stemmed from Titan 3C transtage breakup and the third is from COSMOS 2054. The reflectance spectra of the Titan 3C pieces share similar slopes (increasing with wavelength) and lack any strong absorption features. The COSMOS debris spectra is flat and has no absorption features. In contrast, the intact spacecraft show classic absorption features due to solar panels with a strong band gap feature near 1 micron. The two spacecraft are spin-stabilized objects and therefore have solar panels surrounding the outer surface. Two of the three rocket bodies are inertial upper stage (IUS) rocket bodies and have similar looking spectra. The slopes flatten out near 1.5 microns with absorption features in the near-infrared that are similar to that of white paint. The third rocket body has a similar flattening of slope but with fewer

  17. Influence of Vitamin D Status and Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Genome Wide Expression of White Blood Cells: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Spira, Avrum; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409). Methods and Findings A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3) or 2000 IUs (n = 5) vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D<20 ng/ml) and subjects with a 25(OH)D>20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the

  18. Morphology, stratigraphy, and mineralogical composition of a layered formation covering the plateaus around Valles Marineris, Mars: Implications for its geological history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Deit, L.; Bourgeois, O.; Mège, D.; Hauber, E.; Le Mouélic, S.; Massé, M.; Jaumann, R.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2010-08-01

    An extensive layered formation covers the high plateaus around Valles Marineris. Mapping based on HiRISE, CTX and HRSC images reveals these layered deposits (LDs) crop out north of Tithonium Chasma, south of Ius Chasma, around West Candor Chasma, and southwest of Juventae Chasma and Ganges Chasma. The estimated area covered by LDs is ˜42,300 km 2. They consist of a series of alternating light and dark beds, a 100 m in total thickness that is covered by a dark unconsolidated mantle possibly resulting from their erosion. Their stratigraphic relationships with the plateaus and the Valles Marineris chasmata indicate that the LDs were deposited during the Early- to Late Hesperian, and possibly later depending on the region, before the end of the backwasting of the walls near Juventae Chasma, and probably before Louros Valles sapping near Ius Chasma. Their large spatial coverage and their location mainly on highly elevated plateaus lead us to conclude that LDs correspond to airfall dust and/or volcanic ash. The surface of LDs is characterized by various morphological features, including lobate ejecta and pedestal craters, polygonal fractures, valleys and sinuous ridges, and a pitted surface, which are all consistent with liquid water and/or water ice filling the pores of LDs. LDs were episodically eroded by fluvial processes and were possibly modified by sublimation processes. Considering that LDs correspond to dust and/or ash possibly mixed with ice particles in the past, LDs may be compared to Dissected Mantle Terrains currently observed in mid- to high latitudes on Mars, which correspond to a mantle of mixed dust and ice that is partially or totally dissected by sublimation. The analysis of CRISM and OMEGA hyperspectral data indicates that the basal layer of LDs near Ganges Chasma exhibits spectra with absorption bands at ˜1.4 μm, and ˜1.9 μm and a large deep band between ˜2.21 and ˜2.26 μm that are consistent with previous spectral analysis in other regions

  19. Mars Orbiter Camera High Resolution Images: Some Results From The First 6 Weeks In Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images acquired shortly after orbit insertion were relatively poor in both resolution and image quality. This poor performance was solely the result of low sunlight conditions and the relative distance to the planet, both of which have been progressively improving over the past six weeks. Some of the better images are used here (see PIA01021 through PIA01029) to illustrate how the MOC images provide substantially better views of the martian surface than have ever been recorded previously from orbit.

    This U.S. Geological Survey shaded relief map provides an overall context for the MGS MOC images of the Tithonium/Ius Chasma, Ganges Chasma, and Schiaparelli Crater. Closeup images of the Tithonium/Ius Chasma area are visible in PIA01021 through PIA01023. Closeups of Ganges Chasma are available as PIA01027 through PIA01029, and Schiaparelli Crater is shown in PIA01024 through PIA01026. The Mars Pathfinder landing site is shown to the north of the sites of the MGS images.

    Launched on November 7, 1996, Mars Global Surveyor entered Mars orbit on Thursday, September 11, 1997. The original mission plan called for using friction with the planet's atmosphere to reduce the orbital energy, leading to a two-year mapping mission from close, circular orbit (beginning in March 1998). Owing to difficulties with one of the two solar panels, aerobraking was suspended in mid-October and resumed in November 8. Many of the original objectives of the mission, and in particular those of the camera, are likely to be accomplished as the mission progresses.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from

  20. Reflectance Spectra Comparison of Orbital Debris, Intact Spacecraft, and Intact Rocket Bodies in the GEO Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albercromby, Kira J.; Abell, Paul; Barker, Ed

    2009-03-01

    A key objective of NASA's Orbital Debris program office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is to characterize the debris environment by way of assessing the physical properties (type, mass, density, and size) of objects in orbit. Knowledge of the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) debris environment in particular can be used to determine the hazard probability at specific GEO altitudes and aid predictions of the future environment. To calculate an optical size from an intensity measurement of an object in the GEO regime, a 0.175 albedo is assumed currently. However, identification of specific material type or types could improve albedo accuracy and yield a more accurate size estimate for the debris piece. Using spectroscopy, it is possible to determine the surface materials of space objects. The study described herein used the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) to record spectral data in the ~ 0.65 to 2.5 micron regime on eight catalogued space objects. For comparison, all of the objects observed were in GEO or near-GEO. The eight objects consisted of two intact spacecraft, three rocket bodies, and three catalogued debris pieces. Two of the debris pieces stemmed from Titan 3C transtage breakup and the third is from COSMOS 2054. The reflectance spectra of the Titan 3C pieces share similar slopes (increasing with wavelength) and lack any strong absorption features. The COSMOS debris spectrum has a slight slope and has no absorption features. In contrast, the intact spacecraft show classic absorption features due to solar cells with a strong band gap feature near 1 micron. The two spacecraft were spin-stabilized objects and therefore have solar panels surrounding the outer surface. Two of the three rocket bodies are inertial upper stage (IUS) rocket bodies and have similar looking spectra. The slopes flatten out near 1.5 microns with absorption features in the near-infrared that are similar to that of white paint. The third rocket body has a similar flattening of slope but

  1. Synthesis and characterization of covalently bound benzocaine graphite oxide derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabbani, Ahmad; Kabbani, Mohamad; Safadi, Khadija

    2015-09-01

    Graphite oxide (GO) derived materials include chemically functionalize or reduced graphene oxide (exfoliated from GO) sheets, assembled paper-like forms , and graphene-based composites GO consists of intact graphitic regions interspersed with sp3-hybridized carbons containing hydroxyl and epoxide functional groups on the top and bottom surfaces of each sheet and sp2-hybridized carbons containing carboxyl and carbonyl groups mostly at the sheet edges. Hence, GO is hydrophilic and readily disperses in water to form stable colloidal suspensions Due to the attached oxygen functional groups, GO was used to prepare different derivatives which result in some physical and chemical properties that are dramatically different from their bulk counterparts .The present work discusses the covalent cross linking of graphite oxide to benzocaine or ethyl ester of para-aminobenzoic acid,structure I,used in many over-the-counter ointment drug.Synthesis is done via diazotization of the amino group.The product is characterized via IR,Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as electron microscopy.

  2. Spacecraft environmental interactions: A joint Air Force and NASA research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, C. P.; Purvis, C. K.; Hudson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A joint Air Force/NASA comprehensive research and technology program on spacecraft environmental interactions to develop technology to control interactions between large spacecraft systems and the charged-particle environment of space is described. This technology will support NASA/Department of Defense operations of the shuttle/IUS, shuttle/Centaur, and the force application and surveillance and detection missions, planning for transatmospheric vehicles and the NASA space station, and the AFSC military space system technology model. The program consists of combined contractual and in-house efforts aimed at understanding spacecraft environmental interaction phenomena and relating results of ground-based tests to space conditions. A concerted effort is being made to identify project-related environmental interactions of concern. The basic properties of materials are being investigated to develop or modify the materials as needed. A group simulation investigation is evaluating basic plasma interaction phenomena to provide inputs to the analytical modeling investigation. Systems performance is being evaluated by both groundbased tests and analysis.

  3. Sniff and mimic - Intranasal oxytocin increases facial mimicry in a sample of men.

    PubMed

    Korb, Sebastian; Malsert, Jennifer; Strathearn, Lane; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Niedenthal, Paula

    2016-08-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has many potential social benefits. For example, intranasal administration of OT appears to trigger caregiving behavior and to improve the recognition of emotional facial expressions. But the mechanism for these effects is not yet clear. Recent findings relating OT to action imitation and to the visual processing of the eye region of faces point to mimicry as a mechanism through which OT improves processing of emotional expression. To test the hypothesis that increased levels of OT in the brain enhance facial mimicry, 60 healthy male participants were administered, in a double-blind between-subjects design, 24 international units (IUs) of OT or placebo (PLA) through nasal spray. Facial mimicry and emotion judgments were recorded in response to movie clips depicting changing facial expressions. As expected, facial mimicry was increased in the OT group, but effects were strongest for angry infant faces. These findings provide further evidence for the importance of OT in social cognitive skills, and suggest that facial mimicry mediates the effects of OT on improved emotion recognition. PMID:27283377

  4. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 1, Reference design document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The Galileo mission uses nuclear power sources called Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide the spacecraft's primary electrical power. Because these generators contain nuclear material, a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is required. A preliminary SAR and an updated SAR were previously issued that provided an evolving status report on the safety analysis. As a result of the Challenger accident, the launch dates for both Galileo and Ulysses missions were later rescheduled for November 1989 and October 1990, respectively. The decision was made by agreement between the DOE and the NASA to have a revised safety evaluation and report (FSAR) prepared on the basis of these revised vehicle accidents and environments. The results of this latest revised safety evaluation are presented in this document (Galileo FSAR). Volume I, this document, provides the background design information required to understand the analyses presented in Volumes II and III. It contains descriptions of the RTGs, the Galileo spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the trajectory and flight characteristics including flight contingency modes, and the launch site. There are two appendices in Volume I which provide detailed material properties for the RTG.

  5. BVRI photometric observations and light-curve analysis of GEO objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Tommaso; Seitzer, Patrick; Rossi, Alessandro; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Santoni, Fabio

    2016-08-01

    BVRI photometric observations of Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) objects were conducted with the 1.5 m Cassini Telescope located in Loiano, Italy. The observatory is operated by the INAF (National Institute for Astrophysics) Astronomical Observatory of Bologna, Italy. The Ritchey-Chrétien optical system is equipped with the BFOSC (Bologna Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera), a multipurpose instrument for imaging and spectroscopy, with an EEV CCD (1340 × 1300 pixel). This paper deals with the results of the photometric observations of several targets from the SSN (Space Surveillance Network) catalog that were acquired in May and December 2013. In particular: 1 piece of debris from Ekran: SSN 29014 1 piece of debris from LES 8: SSN 13753 5 SL-12 rocket bodies: SSN 38104, 17125, 20926, 17705 and 27444 2 IUS rocket bodies: SSN 19913, 21641 3 operational GEO satellite: SSN 34810, 27509, 28912 1 non-operational GEO satellites: SSN 02653 Observations of Landolt standard fields were performed for calibration purposes. In addition, long exposures with sidereal tracking with no filter have been taken where the object image is trailed to study the brightness variability over timescales of a second. This paper describes the results of the code developed in order to detect the primary frequencies of the object's brightness variation.

  6. Upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1992-01-01

    Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additive. These propellants increase the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other Earth-orbital transfer missions. However, using metallized propellants for planetary missions can deliver great reductions in flight time with a single-stage, upper-stage system. Tradeoff studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with nonmetallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages, launched from the STS and STS-C, are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to high altitude orbits and onto interplanetary trajectories that are unattainable with only the Space Transportation System (STS) and the Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C). The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the STS and STS-C launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

  7. Safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission. Volume 2, book 1: Accident model document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-12-01

    The Accident Model Document (AMD) is the second volume of the three volume Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Galileo outer planetary space science mission. This mission employs Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) as the prime electrical power sources for the spacecraft. Galileo will be launched into Earth orbit using the Space Shuttle and will use the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster to place the spacecraft into an Earth escape trajectory. The RTG's employ silicon-germanium thermoelectric couples to produce electricity from the heat energy that results from the decay of the radioisotope fuel, Plutonium-238, used in the RTG heat source. The heat source configuration used in the RTG's is termed General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), and the RTG's are designated GPHS-RTGs. The use of radioactive material in these missions necessitates evaluations of the radiological risks that may be encountered by launch complex personnel as well as by the Earth's general population resulting from postulated malfunctions or failures occurring in the mission operations. The FSAR presents the results of a rigorous safety assessment, including substantial analyses and testing, of the launch and deployment of the RTGs for the Galileo mission. This AMD is a summary of the potential accident and failure sequences which might result in fuel release, the analysis and testing methods employed, and the predicted source terms. Each source term consists of a quantity of fuel released, the location of release and the physical characteristics of the fuel released. Each source term has an associated probability of occurrence.

  8. [Demographic changes and health management].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2006-01-01

    Since our Constitution declaration in 1978 and General Law for Health in 1986, to date, the Spanish society has undergorne marked social changes. Socio-economic and health indicators in Spain have also improved as to an increased life expectancy, important reduction in infant mortality, and favourable changes reported in the national Health Survey. Risk factors influence the main causes of death, thus it is said that "man does not die but it kills himself". Healthy health practices are specified, and there is empirical evidence of greater disability-adjusted life years, a better adherence to Mediterranean diet, no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, enough time of sleeping, weight control, avoiding obsity and overweight, and increased physical activity, all the above practices achieving a healthier life. At a global scale in the world we live, famine has no frontiers, and fighting against this plague can not await longer. Overall, health and poverty are correlated and it must be overcome for reasons of human dignity, universal rights (even in ius gentium), and ethical dimension as normative of new socio-economic structures. Present must be transformed to recover hope in ou global world, still hungry, and in need of justice, enlightenment and solidarity.

  9. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Galileo Mission (Tier 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) addresses the proposed action of completing the preparation and operation of the Galileo spacecraft, including its planned launch on the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle in October 1989, and the alternative of canceling further work on the mission. The Tier 1 (program level) EIS (NASA 1988a) considered the Titan IV launch vehicle as an alternative booster stage for launch in May 1991 or later. The May 1991 Venus launch opportunity is considered a planetary back-up for the Magellan (Venus Radar Mapper) mission, the Galileo mission, and the Ulysses mission. Plans were underway to enable the use of a Titan IV launch vehicle for the planetary back-up. However, in November 1988, the U.S. Air Force, which procures the Titan IV for NASA, notified NASA that it could not provide a Titan IV vehicle for the May 1991 launch opportunity due to high priority Department of Defense requirements. Consequently, NASA terminated all mission planning for the Titan IV planetary back-up. A minimum of 3 years is required to implement mission-specific modifications to the basic Titan IV launch configuration; therefore, insufficient time is available to use a Titan IV vehicle in May 1991. Thus, the Titan IV launch vehicle is no longer a feasible alternative to the STS/Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) for the May 1991 launch opportunity.

  10. Draft environmental impact statement for the Galileo Mission (Tier 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) addresses the environmental impacts which may be caused by the preparation and operation of the Galileo spacecraft, including its planned launch on the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle and the alternative of canceling further work on the mission. The launch configuration will use the STS/Inertial Upper Stage (IUS)/Payload Assist Module-Special (PAM-S) combination. The Tier 1 EIS included a delay alternative which considered the Titan 4 launch vehicle as an alternative booster stage for launch in 1991 or later. However, the U.S. Air Force, which procures the Titan 4 for NASA, could not provide a Titan 4 vehicle for the 1991 launch opportunity because of high priority Department of Defense requirements. The only expected environmental effects of the proposed action are associated with normal Shuttle launch operations. These impacts are limited largely to the near-field at the launch pad, except for temporary stratospheric ozone effects during launch and occasional sonic boom effects near the landing site. These effects have been judged insufficient to preclude Shuttle launches. In the event of: (1) an accident during launch, or (2) reentry of the spacecraft from earth orbit, there are potential adverse health and environmental effects associated with the possible release of plutonium dioxide from the spacecraft's radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG).

  11. Advanced Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Using Liquid Propulsion and Metallized Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1990-01-01

    Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum (Al) particles are the metal additive. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellant for volume-and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System (STS) and Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C) launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

  12. Intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitions in a non-clinical sample with problematic and normal eating attitudes.

    PubMed

    Konstantellou, Anna; Reynolds, Martina

    2010-08-01

    The present study investigates intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitions in individuals with problematic eating attitudes (PEA) and individuals with normal eating attitudes (NEA). It was hypothesised that individuals with PEA will show higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitions compared to individuals with NEA, and that the two variables would be positively associated. A non-clinical sample of 116 UK-based university students completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30) and Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS). Twenty-seven participants formed the PEA group and 89 the NEA group. Results overall supported the hypotheses, participants with PEA scored significantly higher on three of the five metacognition factors, total metacognition score and intolerance of uncertainty compared to participants with NEA. Positive correlations were also found between intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitions. Findings point towards further examining intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitions in the field of eating disorders. Changing metacognitions and targeting high levels of intolerance of uncertainty could contribute to better treatment outcome for individuals with eating disorders.

  13. Defining distinct negative beliefs about uncertainty: validating the factor structure of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Kathryn A; Dugas, Michel J

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the English version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; French version: M. H. Freeston, J. Rhéaume, H. Letarte, M. J. Dugas, & R. Ladouceur, 1994; English version: K. Buhr & M. J. Dugas, 2002) using a substantially larger sample than has been used in previous studies. Nonclinical undergraduate students and adults from the community (M age = 23.74 years, SD = 6.36; 73.0% female and 27.0% male) who participated in 16 studies in the Anxiety Disorders Laboratory at Concordia University in Montreal, Canada were randomly assigned to 2 datasets. Exploratory factor analysis with the 1st sample (n = 1,230) identified 2 factors: the beliefs that "uncertainty has negative behavioral and self-referent implications" and that "uncertainty is unfair and spoils everything." This 2-factor structure provided a good fit to the data (Bentler-Bonett normed fit index = .96, comparative fit index = .97, standardized root-mean residual = .05, root-mean-square error of approximation = .07) upon confirmatory factor analysis with the 2nd sample (n = 1,221). Both factors showed similarly high correlations with pathological worry, and Factor 1 showed stronger correlations with generalized anxiety disorder analogue status, trait anxiety, somatic anxiety, and depressive symptomatology. PMID:19485672

  14. Euthanasia of companion animals: a legal and ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Passantino, Annamaria; Fenga, Carmela; Morciano, Cristina; Morelli, Chiara; Russo, Maria; Di Pietro, Carlotta; Passantino, Michele

    2006-01-01

    In Italy, the conditions under which euthanasia of small pets is justified are only partially regulated by law n. 281/1991, article 2 n. 6 and 9, by the later Ministry Circular n. 9 made on 10/03/1992 and by law n. 189/2004. Law n. 281/1991, besides delegating the job of birth control in cat and dog populations to the regions, has made it statutory that stray dogs may only be euthanised when they are 'seriously or incurably ill or proven to be dangerous'. The Ministry Circular underlines the fact that 'euthanasia of dogs is prohibited except in special justified cases'. On the other hand, due to the legal classification of animals as property, the owner has the right of ownership over his animal so that he can sell it and kill it (ius vitae ac necis). In this view a request for euthanasia is licit, whatever the animal's state of health may be. The authors feel that further legislation to regulate the question more completely would be opportune and thus they analyse the problems of legal-ethics and public health that a veterinarian faces when carrying out euthanasia, also bearing in mind the laws and codes of professional ethics. They suggest possible solutions which could be adopted by the competent authorities. PMID:17361075

  15. STS-44 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-44 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-53 (LWT-46); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-047. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L019A for the left SRB and 360W019B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the STS-44 mission was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense (DOD) Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite/inertial upper stage (IUS) into a 195 nmi. earth orbit at an inclination of 28.45 deg. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: Terra Scout, Military Man in Space (M88-1), Air Force Maui Optical System Calibration Test (AMOS), Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM), Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3), Visual Function Tester-1 (VFT-1), and the Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (IOCM) secondary payloads/experiments.

  16. Modeling of Landslides in Valles Marineris, Mars, and Implications for Initiation Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsige, Meaza; Ruiz, Javier; del Río, Ian A.; Jiménez-Díaz, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    The Valles Marineris canyon system in Mars shows large landslides across its walls, which can be 40 km wide and up to 60 km long, with fall scarps height as high as 7 km. These landslides were produced through a large mass movement at high speed by gravity across the trough floor. Although the triggering factors are unclear, several mechanisms have been proposed as, among others, large amounts of subsurface water, quake produced through normal faulting close to the canyon walls, and meteoritic impacts. In this work we examine the limit equilibrium slope stability of three landslides (placed respectively at Ius, Candor, and Melas Chasmata), which can be considered representative, with the aims of constraining their formation conditions. Our results suggest that external factors (as high pore fluid pressure, seismic loading or rock mass disturbance) do not seem necessary for the failure of slopes if they are composed of unconsolidated materials, while high pore water pressure or ground acceleration are needed to trigger slides in slopes composed of strong basaltic-like materials. Moreover, the presence of sub-surface ice would contribute to slope stability. As a whole, our findings point to ground shaking due to meteorite impacts as the main triggering force for most landslides in the Valles Marineris.

  17. Materials, Processes and Manufacturing in Ares 1 Upper Stage: Integration with Systems Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.

    2008-01-01

    Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage is designed and developed based on sound systems engineering principles. Systems Engineering starts with Concept of Operations and Mission requirements, which in turn determine the launch system architecture and its performance requirements. The Ares I-Upper Stage is designed and developed to meet these requirements. Designers depend on the support from materials, processes and manufacturing during the design, development and verification of subsystems and components. The requirements relative to reliability, safety, operability and availability are also dependent on materials availability, characterization, process maturation and vendor support. This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of materials and manufacturing engineering during the various phases of Ares IUS development, including design and analysis, hardware development, test and verification. Emphasis is placed how materials, processes and manufacturing support is integrated over the Upper Stage Project, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the paper describes the approach used to ensure compliance with materials, processes, and manufacturing requirements during the project cycle, with focus on hardware systems design and development.

  18. Euthanasia of companion animals: a legal and ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Passantino, Annamaria; Fenga, Carmela; Morciano, Cristina; Morelli, Chiara; Russo, Maria; Di Pietro, Carlotta; Passantino, Michele

    2006-01-01

    In Italy, the conditions under which euthanasia of small pets is justified are only partially regulated by law n. 281/1991, article 2 n. 6 and 9, by the later Ministry Circular n. 9 made on 10/03/1992 and by law n. 189/2004. Law n. 281/1991, besides delegating the job of birth control in cat and dog populations to the regions, has made it statutory that stray dogs may only be euthanised when they are 'seriously or incurably ill or proven to be dangerous'. The Ministry Circular underlines the fact that 'euthanasia of dogs is prohibited except in special justified cases'. On the other hand, due to the legal classification of animals as property, the owner has the right of ownership over his animal so that he can sell it and kill it (ius vitae ac necis). In this view a request for euthanasia is licit, whatever the animal's state of health may be. The authors feel that further legislation to regulate the question more completely would be opportune and thus they analyse the problems of legal-ethics and public health that a veterinarian faces when carrying out euthanasia, also bearing in mind the laws and codes of professional ethics. They suggest possible solutions which could be adopted by the competent authorities.

  19. STS-41 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-41 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle, Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-39/LWT-32), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-040. The primary objective of the STS-41 mission was to successfully deploy the Ulysses/inertial upper stage (IUS)/payload assist module (PAM-S) spacecraft. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Spectrometer, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Space Life Sciences Training Program Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Voice Command System (VCS), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Radiation Monitoring Experiment - 3 (RME-3), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Air Force Maui Optical Calibration Test (AMOS), and Intelsat Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) payloads. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  20. Liftoff of STS-26

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery takes off from Launch Pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to being Mission STS-26 on 29 September 1988,11:37:00 a.m. EDT. The 26th shuttle mission lasted four days, one hour, zero minutes, and 11 seconds. Discovery landed 3 October 1988, 9:37:11 a.m. PDT, on Runway 17 at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Its primary payload, NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-3 (TDRS-3) attached to an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), became the second TDRS deployed. After deployment, IUS propelled the satellite to a geosynchronous orbit. The crew consisted of Frederick H. Hauck, Commander; Richard O. Covey, Pilot; John M. Lounge, Mission Specialist 1; George D. Nelson, Mission Specialist 2; and David C. Hilmers, Mission Specialist 3. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into

  1. Sniff and mimic - Intranasal oxytocin increases facial mimicry in a sample of men.

    PubMed

    Korb, Sebastian; Malsert, Jennifer; Strathearn, Lane; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Niedenthal, Paula

    2016-08-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has many potential social benefits. For example, intranasal administration of OT appears to trigger caregiving behavior and to improve the recognition of emotional facial expressions. But the mechanism for these effects is not yet clear. Recent findings relating OT to action imitation and to the visual processing of the eye region of faces point to mimicry as a mechanism through which OT improves processing of emotional expression. To test the hypothesis that increased levels of OT in the brain enhance facial mimicry, 60 healthy male participants were administered, in a double-blind between-subjects design, 24 international units (IUs) of OT or placebo (PLA) through nasal spray. Facial mimicry and emotion judgments were recorded in response to movie clips depicting changing facial expressions. As expected, facial mimicry was increased in the OT group, but effects were strongest for angry infant faces. These findings provide further evidence for the importance of OT in social cognitive skills, and suggest that facial mimicry mediates the effects of OT on improved emotion recognition.

  2. Shuttle Discovery Being Unloaded from SCA-747 at Palmdale, California, Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden

  3. STS-35 Leaves Dryden on 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) Bound for Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

  4. Shuttle Atlantis Returning to Kennedy Space Center after 10 Month Refurbishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

  5. Shuttle Atlantis Returning to Kennedy Space Center after 10 Month Refurbishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    , and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

  6. Shuttle Atlantis in Mate-Demate Device Being Loaded onto SCA-747 for Return to Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    . The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

  7. Shuttle Atlantis Returning to Kennedy Space Center after 10-Month Refurbishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    , and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

  8. Shuttle Atlantis Returning to Kennedy Space Center after 10-Month Refurbishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

  9. STS-31 on Runway 22 at Edwards with Recovery Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When

  10. STS-49 Landing at Edwards with First Drag Chute Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long

  11. Shuttle Enterprise Being Worked on in Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is

  12. STS Challenger Mated to 747 SCA for Initial Delivery to Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    , weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

  13. Shuttle Columbia Post-landing Tow - with Reflection in Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. MartinMarietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

  14. Parking Lot and Public Viewing Area for STS-4 Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

  15. STS-68 on Runway with 747 SCA - Columbia Ferry Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981

  16. STS-49 Landing at Edwards with First Drag Chute Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long

  17. Enterprise - First Tailcone Off Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden

  18. Shuttle Discovery Mated to 747 SCA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45

  19. STS-68 on Runway with 747 SCA/Columbia Ferry Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981

  20. Shuttle Endeavour Mated to 747 SCA Taxi to Runway for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in

  1. Shuttle in Mate-Demate Device being Loaded onto SCA-747 - Rear View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was

  2. Shuttle Endeavour Mated to 747 SCA Takeoff for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    . They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden

  3. Shuttle Columbia Mated to 747 SCA with Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle

  4. STS-66 Edwards Landing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the

  5. STS-66 Edwards Landing with Drag Chute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the

  6. Shuttle in Mate-Demate Device being Loaded onto SCA-747 - Side View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards

  7. Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) Fleet Photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main

  8. Shuttle in Mate-Demate Device being Loaded onto SCA-747

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary

  9. Shuttle Enterprise Mated to 747 SCA for Delivery to Smithsonian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary

  10. STS-68 747 SCA Ferry Flight Takeoff for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    , provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site

  11. STS-66 Atlantis 747 SCA Ferry Flight Morning Takeoff for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981

  12. Integrated Surveys of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Southern Sudan: How Much Do They Cost and Can They Be Refined?

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Hanson, Kara; Robinson, Emily; Picon, Diana; Sabasio, Anthony; Mpakateni, Martin; Lado, Mounir; Moore, Stephen; Petty, Nora; Brooker, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasing emphasis on integrated control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) requires identification of co-endemic areas. Integrated surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF), schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection have been recommended for this purpose. Integrated survey designs inevitably involve balancing the costs of surveys against accuracy of classifying areas for treatment, so-called implementation units (IUs). This requires an understanding of the main cost drivers and of how operating procedures may affect both cost and accuracy of surveys. Here we report a detailed cost analysis of the first round of integrated NTD surveys in Southern Sudan. Methods and Findings Financial and economic costs were estimated from financial expenditure records and interviews with survey staff using an ingredients approach. The main outcome was cost per IU surveyed. Uncertain variables were subjected to univariate sensitivity analysis and the effects of modifying standard operating procedures were explored. The average economic cost per IU surveyed was USD 40,206 or USD 9,573, depending on the size of the IU. The major cost drivers were two key categories of recurrent costs: i) survey consumables, and ii) personnel. Conclusion The cost of integrated surveys in Southern Sudan could be reduced by surveying larger administrative areas for LF. If this approach was taken, the estimated economic cost of completing LF, schistosomiasis and STH mapping in Southern Sudan would amount to USD 1.6 million. The methodological detail and costing template provided here could be used to generate cost estimates in other settings and readily compare these to the present study, and may help budget for integrated and single NTDs surveys elsewhere. PMID:20644619

  13. STS-70 Space Shuttle Mission Report - September 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-70 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-fifth flight since the return-to-flight, and the twenty-first flight of the Orbiter Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-71; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2036, 2019, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated 81-073. The RSRMs, designated RSRM-44, were installed in each SRB and were designated as 36OL044A for the left SRB, and 36OL044B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-G/Inertial Upper Stage (TDRS-G/IUS). The secondary objectives were to fulfill the requirements of the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Rodents (PARE/NIH-R); Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS); Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) experiment; Space Tissue Loss/National Institutes of Health - Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment; Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2); Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4); Hand-Held, Earth-Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES); Microencapsulation in Space-B (MIS-B) experiment; Window Experiment (WINDEX); Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3); and the Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST) payload.

  14. Effect of weight reduction on cardiovascular risk factors and CD34-positive cells in circulation.

    PubMed

    Mikirova, Nina A; Casciari, Joseph J; Hunninghake, Ronald E; Beezley, Margaret M

    2011-01-01

    Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia of obesity is characterized by elevated fasting triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Endothelial damage and dysfunction is considered to be a major underlying mechanism for the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with increased adiposity. Alterations in endothelial cells and stem/endothelial progenitor cell function associated with overweight and obesity predispose to atherosclerosis and thrombosis. In our study, we analyzed the effect of a low calorie diet in combination with oral supplementation by vitamins, minerals, probiotics and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 125-180 IUs) on the body composition, lipid profile and CD34-positive cells in circulation. During this dieting program, the following parameters were assessed weekly for all participants: fat free mass, body fat, BMI, extracellular/intracellular water, total body water and basal metabolic rate. For part of participants blood chemistry parameters and circulating CD34-positive cells were determined before and after dieting. The data indicated that the treatments not only reduced body fat mass and total mass but also improved the lipid profile. The changes in body composition correlated with the level of lipoproteins responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk factors. These changes in body composition and lipid profile parameters coincided with the improvement of circulatory progenitor cell numbers. As the result of our study, we concluded that the improvement of body composition affects the number of stem/progenitor cells in circulation.

  15. An integrated model-based neurosurgical guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Songbai; Fan, Xiaoyao; Fontaine, Kathryn; Hartov, Alex; Roberts, David; Paulsen, Keith

    2010-02-01

    Maximal tumor resection without damaging healthy tissue in open cranial surgeries is critical to the prognosis for patients with brain cancers. Preoperative images (e.g., preoperative magnetic resonance images (pMR)) are typically used for surgical planning as well as for intraoperative image-guidance. However, brain shift even at the start of surgery significantly compromises the accuracy of neuronavigation, if the deformation is not compensated for. Compensating for brain shift during surgical operation is, therefore, critical for improving the accuracy of image-guidance and ultimately, the accuracy of surgery. To this end, we have developed an integrated neurosurgical guidance system that incorporates intraoperative three-dimensional (3D) tracking, acquisition of volumetric true 3D ultrasound (iUS), stereovision (iSV) and computational modeling to efficiently generate model-updated MR image volumes for neurosurgical guidance. The system is implemented with real-time Labview to provide high efficiency in data acquisition as well as with Matlab to offer computational convenience in data processing and development of graphical user interfaces related to computational modeling. In a typical patient case, the patient in the operating room (OR) is first registered to pMR image volume. Sparse displacement data extracted from coregistered intraoperative US and/or stereovision images are employed to guide a computational model that is based on consolidation theory. Computed whole-brain deformation is then used to generate a model-updated MR image volume for subsequent surgical guidance. In this paper, we present the key modular components of our integrated, model-based neurosurgical guidance system.

  16. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2: Book 1, Accident model document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    The Accident Model Document (AMD) is the second volume of the three volume Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Galileo outer planetary space science mission. This mission employs Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) as the prime electrical power sources for the spacecraft. Galileo will be launched into Earth orbit using the Space Shuttle and will use the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster to place the spacecraft into an Earth escape trajectory. The RTG's employ silicon-germanium thermoelectric couples to produce electricity from the heat energy that results from the decay of the radioisotope fuel, Plutonium-238, used in the RTG heat source. The heat source configuration used in the RTG's is termed General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), and the RTG's are designated GPHS-RTGs. The use of radioactive material in these missions necessitates evaluations of the radiological risks that may be encountered by launch complex personnel as well as by the Earth's general population resulting from postulated malfunctions or failures occurring in the mission operations. The FSAR presents the results of a rigorous safety assessment, including substantial analyses and testing, of the launch and deployment of the RTGs for the Galileo mission. This AMD is a summary of the potential accident and failure sequences which might result in fuel release, the analysis and testing methods employed, and the predicted source terms. Each source term consists of a quantity of fuel released, the location of release and the physical characteristics of the fuel released. Each source term has an associated probability of occurrence. 27 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Risk-based verification, validation, and accreditation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elele, James N.; Smith, Jeremy

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a risk-based Verification, Validation, and Accreditation (VV&A) process for Models and Simulations (M&S). Recently, the emphasis on M&S used to support Department of Defense (DoD) acquisition has been based on the level of resources allocated to establishing the credibility of the M&S on the risks associated with the decision being supported by the M&S. In addition, DoD VV&A regulations recommend tailoring the V&V process to allow efficient use of resources. However, one problem is that no methodology is specified for such tailoring processes. The BMV&V has developed a risk-based process that implements tailoring of the VV&A activities based on risk. Our process incorporates MIL-STD 3022 for new M&S. For legacy M&S, the process starts by first assessing the current risk level of the M&S based on the credibility attributes of the M&S as defined through its Capability, Accuracy and Usability, relative to the articulated Intended Use Statement (IUS). If the risk is low, the M&S is credible for application, and no further V&V is required. If the risk is medium or high, the Accreditation Authority determines whether the M&S can be accepted as-is or if the risk should be mitigated. If the Accreditation Authority is willing to accept the risks, then a Conditional Accreditation is made. If the risks associated with using the M&S as-is are deemed too high to accept, then a Risk Mitigation/Accreditation Plan is developed to guide the process. The implementation of such a risk mitigation plan is finally documented through an Accreditation Support Package.

  18. Effect of weight reduction on cardiovascular risk factors and CD34-positive cells in circulation.

    PubMed

    Mikirova, Nina A; Casciari, Joseph J; Hunninghake, Ronald E; Beezley, Margaret M

    2011-01-01

    Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia of obesity is characterized by elevated fasting triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Endothelial damage and dysfunction is considered to be a major underlying mechanism for the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with increased adiposity. Alterations in endothelial cells and stem/endothelial progenitor cell function associated with overweight and obesity predispose to atherosclerosis and thrombosis. In our study, we analyzed the effect of a low calorie diet in combination with oral supplementation by vitamins, minerals, probiotics and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 125-180 IUs) on the body composition, lipid profile and CD34-positive cells in circulation. During this dieting program, the following parameters were assessed weekly for all participants: fat free mass, body fat, BMI, extracellular/intracellular water, total body water and basal metabolic rate. For part of participants blood chemistry parameters and circulating CD34-positive cells were determined before and after dieting. The data indicated that the treatments not only reduced body fat mass and total mass but also improved the lipid profile. The changes in body composition correlated with the level of lipoproteins responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk factors. These changes in body composition and lipid profile parameters coincided with the improvement of circulatory progenitor cell numbers. As the result of our study, we concluded that the improvement of body composition affects the number of stem/progenitor cells in circulation. PMID:21850193

  19. Ocean Tracks: College Edition - Promoting Data Literacy in Science Education at the Undergraduate Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochevar, R. E.; Krumhansl, R.; Louie, J.; Aluwihare, L.; Bardar, E. W.; Hirsch, L.; Hoyle, C.; Krumhansl, K.; Madura, J.; Mueller-Northcott, J.; Peach, C. L.; Trujillo, A.; Winney, B.; Zetterlind, V.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Tracks is a Web-based interactive learning experience which allows users to explore the migrations of marine apex predators, and the way their behaviors relate to the physical and chemical environment surrounding them. Ocean Tracks provides access to data from the Tagging of Pelagic Predators (TOPP) program, NOAA's Global Drifter Program, and Earth-orbiting satellites via the Ocean Tracks interactive map interface; customized data analysis tools; multimedia supports; along with laboratory modules customized for undergraduate student use. It is part of a broader portfolio of projects comprising the Oceans of Data Institute, dedicated to transforming education to prepare citizens for a data-intensive world. Although originally developed for use in high school science classrooms, the Ocean Tracks interface and associated curriculum has generated interest among instructors at the undergraduate level, who wanted to engage their students in hands-on work with real scientific datasets. In 2014, EDC and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography received funding from NSF's IUSE program for Ocean Tracks: College Edition, to investigate how a learning model that includes a data interface, set of analysis tools, and curricula can be used to motivate students to learn and do science with real data; bringing opportunities to engage broad student populations, including both in-classroom and remote, on-line participants, in scientific practice. Phase 1, completed in the summer of 2015, was a needs assessment, consisting of a survey and interviews with students in oceanography classes at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Palomar Community College; a document review of course syllabi and primary textbooks used in current college marine science courses across the country; and interviews and a national survey of marine science faculty. We will present the results of this work, and will discuss new curriculum materials that are being classroom tested in the fall of 2015.

  20. Interior layered deposits within a perched basin, southern Coprates Chasma, Mars: Evidence for their formation, alteration, and erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fueten, F.; Flahaut, J.; Le Deit, L.; Stesky, R.; Hauber, E.; Gwinner, K.

    2011-02-01

    A basin-like area containing three interior layer deposits (ILDs) on the southern margin of Coprates Chasma was studied. We interpret the area as an ancestral basin and demonstrate that ILD deposition postdates the formation of the current wall rock slopes. The geometry of the ILD and the wall rock spurs form a catchment area between each ILD and the plateau to the south. Erosional remnants of extensive ash or dust layers deposited on the plateau south of Valles Marineris also crop out on the southern plateau of Coprates Chasma. A mass balance calculation suggests that the volume of each ILD is compatible with the volume of the ash or dust that would have been deposited within each catchment area. We propose that the ILDs likely formed by episodically washing such aerially deposited material down from chasma walls. Rifting of the Ius-Melas-Coprates graben opened the enclosed basin and removed any standing water. Faults within the ILDs are compatible with this chasm opening. Sulfates are associated with the ILDs and light-toned material on the basin floor. We suggest that they result from water alteration of preexisting deposits, though the timing of that alteration may predate or postdate the breaching of the basin. Scours within one ILD are similar to terrestrial glacial scours. During a period of high obliquity ice would accumulate in this region; hence we argue the scours are Martian glacial scours. A late deposited layer marks the end of the active local geological history between 100 My and 1 Gy.

  1. The Use of Long Acting Reversible Contraceptives and the Relationship between Discontinuation Rates due to Menopause and to Female and Male Sterilizations.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jessica Mayra; Monteiro, Ilza; Castro, Sara; Villarroel, Marina; Silveira, Carolina; Bahamondes, Luis

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Women require effective contraception until they reach menopause. The long acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) and the depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, Depo-Provera®, Pfizer, Puurs, Belgium) are great options and can replace possible sterilizations. Purpose To assess the relationship between the use of LARCs and DMPA and terminations ascribed to menopause and sterilizations in a Brazilian clinic. Methods We reviewed the records of women between 12 and 50 years of age attending the clinic that chose to use a LARC method or DMPA. Cumulative termination rates due to sterilization or because the woman had reached menopause were computed using single decrement life-table analysis over 32 years. We also examined all records of surgical sterilization at our hospital between the years 1980-2012. Results Three hundred thirty-two women had continuously used the same contraceptive until menopause, and 555 women had discontinued the method because they or their partners underwent sterilization. From year 20 to year 30 of use, levonorgestrel intrauterine-releasing system (LNG-IUS - Mirena®, Bayer Oy, Turku, Finland; available since 1980), copper intrauterine device (IUD - available since 1980) and DMPA users showed a trend of cumulative higher discontinuation rates due to menopause when compared with the discontinuation rates due to sterilization. Over the study period, a steep decline in the use of sterilization occurred. Conclusion Over the past 15 years of research we have observed a trend: women usually preferred to continue using LARC methods or DMPA until menopause rather than decide for sterilization, be it their own, or their partners'. The annual number of sterilizations dropped in the same period. The use of LARC methods and DMPA until menopause is an important option to avoid sterilization, which requires a surgical procedure with potential complications. PMID:27187927

  2. Enabling Field Experiences in Introductory Geoscience Classes through the Use of Immersive Virtual Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moysey, S. M.; Smith, E.; Sellers, V.; Wyant, P.; Boyer, D. M.; Mobley, C.; Brame, S.

    2015-12-01

    Although field experiences are an important aspect of geoscience education, the opportunity to provide physical world experiences to large groups of introductory students is often limited by access, logistical, and financial constraints. Our project (NSF IUSE 1504619) is investigating the use of immersive virtual reality (VR) technologies as a surrogate for real field experiences in introductory geosciences classes. We are developing a toolbox that leverages innovations in the field of VR, including the Oculus Rift and Google Cardboard, to enable every student in an introductory geology classroom the opportunity to have a first-person virtual field experience in the Grand Canyon. We have opted to structure our VR experience as an interactive game where students must explore the Canyon to accomplish a series of tasks designed to emphasize key aspects of geoscience learning. So far we have produced two demo products for the virtual field trip. The first is a standalone "Rock Box" app developed for the iPhone, which allows students to select different rock samples, examine them in 3D, and obtain basic information about the properties of each sample. The app can act as a supplement to the traditional rock box used in physical geology labs. The second product is a fully functioning VR environment for the Grand Canyon developed using satellite-based topographic and imagery data to retain real geologic features within the experience. Players can freely navigate to explore anywhere they desire within the Canyon, but are guided to points of interest where they are able to complete exercises that will be aligned with specific learning goals. To this point we have integrated elements of the "Rock Box" app within the VR environment, allowing players to examine 3D details of rock samples they encounter within the Grand Canyon. We plan to provide demos of both products and obtain user feedback during our presentation.

  3. Alternative routes to the leader male role in a multi-level society: follower vs. solitary male strategies and outcomes in hamadryas baboons.

    PubMed

    Pines, Mathew; Saunders, Julian; Swedell, Larissa

    2011-07-01

    The nested one-male units (OMUs) of the hamadryas baboon are part of a complex social system in which "leader" males achieve near exclusive mating access by forcibly herding females into permanent consortships. Within this multi-level social system (troops, bands, clans and OMUs) are two types of prereproductive males--the follower and solitary male--whose different trajectories converge on the leader role. Here we compare OMU formation strategies of followers, who associate with a particular OMU and may have social access to females, with those of solitary males, who move freely within the band and do not associate regularly with OMUs. Data were derived from 42 OMU formations (16 by followers and 26 by solitary males) occurring over 8 years in a hamadryas baboon band at the Filoha site in Ethiopia. "Initial units" (IUs) with sexually immature females (IU strategy) were formed by 44% of followers and 46% of solitary males. The remaining followers took over mature females when their leader was deposed (challenge strategy) or disappeared (opportunistic strategy), or via a seemingly peaceful transfer (inheritance strategy). Solitary males took over mature females from other clans and bands, but mainly from old, injured or vanished leaders within their clan (via both the challenge and opportunistic strategies). Former followers of an OMU were more successful at taking over females from those OMUs than any other category of male. Despite this advantage enjoyed by ex-follower leaders, ex-solitary leaders were equally capable of increasing their OMU size at a comparable rate in their first 2 years as a leader. These results demonstrate the potential for males to employ both multiple roles (follower vs. solitary male) and multiple routes (IU, inheritance, challenge, opportunistic) to acquire females and become a leader male in a mating system characterized by female defense polygyny in a competitive arena.

  4. Thin-skinned deformation of sedimentary rocks in Valles Marineris, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, Joannah; Grotzinger, John; Okubo, Chris; Milliken, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Deformation of sedimentary rocks is widespread within Valles Marineris, characterized by both plastic and brittle deformation identified in Candor, Melas, and Ius Chasmata. We identified four deformation styles using HiRISE and CTX images: kilometer-scale convolute folds, detached slabs, folded strata, and pull-apart structures. Convolute folds are detached rounded slabs of material with alternating dark- and light-toned strata and a fold wavelength of about 1 km. The detached slabs are isolated rounded blocks of material, but they exhibit only highly localized evidence of stratification. Folded strata are composed of continuously folded layers that are not detached. Pull-apart structures are composed of stratified rock that has broken off into small irregularly shaped pieces showing evidence of brittle deformation. Some areas exhibit multiple styles of deformation and grade from one type of deformation into another. The deformed rocks are observed over thousands of kilometers, are limited to discrete stratigraphic intervals, and occur over a wide range in elevations. All deformation styles appear to be of likely thin-skinned origin. CRISM reflectance spectra show that some of the deformed sediments contain a component of monohydrated and polyhydrated sulfates. Several mechanisms could be responsible for the deformation of sedimentary rocks in Valles Marineris, such as subaerial or subaqueous gravitational slumping or sliding and soft sediment deformation, where the latter could include impact-induced or seismically induced liquefaction. These mechanisms are evaluated based on their expected pattern, scale, and areal extent of deformation. Deformation produced from slow subaerial or subaqueous landsliding and liquefaction is consistent with the deformation observed in Valles Marineris.

  5. One million cubic kilometers of fossil ice in Valles Marineris: Relicts of a 3.5 Gy old glacial landsystem along the Martian equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourronc, Marine; Bourgeois, Olivier; Mège, Daniel; Pochat, Stéphane; Bultel, Benjamin; Massé, Marion; Le Deit, Laetitia; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mercier, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Self-consistent landform assemblages suggest that Valles Marineris, the giant valley system that stretches along the Martian equator, was entirely glaciated during Late Noachian to Early Hesperian times and still contains huge volumes of fossil ice. Some of these glacial landform assemblages are illustrated here, with representative examples selected in three regions: Ius Chasma, Central Candor Chasma and the junction between Coprates Chasma and Capri Chasma. A morphological boundary separating an upper spur-and-gully morphology from a smooth basal escarpment has been spectacularly preserved along valley walls throughout Valles Marineris. The boundary winds around topographic obstacles and displays long-wavelength variations in elevation. It is associated with lateral benches, hanging valleys and truncated spurs. Comparisons with terrestrial analogs indicate that it is most reasonably interpreted as a glacial trimline. Chasma floors are covered by various kinds of terrains, including hummocky terrains, platy terrains, lateral banks, layered benches and a draping mantle. Landforms in these terrains and their spatial relationship with the interpreted trimline suggest that they correspond to various disintegration stages of an ancient glacial fill, currently protected by a superficial cover of ablation till. Altogether, these landforms and terrains compose a full glacial landsystem with wet-based glaciers that were able to flow and slide over their beds. It was most probably fed by ice accumulating at low elevations directly from the atmosphere onto valley floors and walls, with only minor contributions from tributary glaciers flowing down from higher elevations. Similar fossil glacial landsystems dating back from the early Martian history are to be expected in many other low-latitude troughs such as chasmata, chaos, valleys, impact craters and other basins.

  6. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Ulysses Mission (Tier 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) addresses the environmental impacts which may be caused by the preparation and operation of the Ulysses spacecraft, including its planned launch on the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle and the alternative of canceling further work on the mission. The launch configuration will use the STS/Inertial Upper Stage (IUS)/Payload Assist Module-Special(PAM-S) combination. The Tier 1 EIS included a delay alternative which considered the Titan 4 launch vehicle as an alternative booster stage for launch in 1991 or later. However, the U.S. Air Force, which procures the Titan 4 for NASA, could not provide a Titan 4 vehicle for the 1991 launch opportunity because of high priority Department of Defense requirements. The only expected environmental effects of the proposed action are associated with normal Shuttle launch operations. These impacts are limited largely to the near-field at the launch pad, except for temporary stratospheric ozone effects during launch and occasional sonic boom effects near the landing site. These effects have been judged insufficient to preclude Shuttle launches. In the event of (1) an accident during launch, or (2) reentry of the spacecraft from earth orbit, there are potential adverse health and environmental effects associated with the possible release of plutonium dioxide from the spacecraft's radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). The potential effects considered in this EIS include risks of air and water quality impacts, local land area contamination, adverse health and safety impacts, the disturbance of biotic resources, impacts on wetland areas or areas containing historical sites, and socioeconomic impacts. Intensive analysis of the possible accidents associated with the proposed action are underway and preliminary results indicate small health or environmental risks. The results of a Final Safety Analysis Report will be available for inclusion into the final EIS.

  7. Interstellar Extinction in the Direction of the Open Cluster M29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straižys, V.; Vrba, F. J.; Boyle, R. P.; Milašius, K.; Černis, K.; Zdanavičius, K.; Zdanavičius, J.; Kazlauskas, A.; Macijauskas, M.; Janusz, R.

    2015-05-01

    The interstellar extinction is investigated in a 1.5 deg2 area in the direction of the open cluster M29 (NGC 6913) in Cygnus, centered at R.A. = 20h 24m, decl. = +38° 30‧. The study is based on photometric classification of 1110 stars in spectral and luminosity classes down to V = 19 mag using photometry in the Vilnius seven-color system published in Paper I (Milašius et al. 2013). Additionally, in the same area the extinction is investigated using 1147 red clump giants (RCGs), identified by combining selected two-color diagrams of the 2MASS and Spitzer surveys. The investigated area is divided into three parts with different obscuration and in these directions the extinction versus distance plots up to 5 kpc are presented. In the whole area a steep rise of the extinction is observed at a distance of ˜800 pc; it should be related to dust clouds in the Great Cygnus Rift obscuring the stars behind it by AV = 4.0-4.7 mag. RCGs exhibit much larger extinction values, up to {{A}{{Ks}}} = 1.2-1.3 mag in the more transparent areas and 1.45 mag in the northeastern part of the area and above it, where the dust cloud TGU H466 is located. These values of {{A}{{Ks}}} correspond to AV = 10-12 mag. We do not exclude the possibility that the largest values of the extinction belong not to RCGs but to some contaminating intrinsically red AGB stars penetrated through the applied RCG selection constraints. The extinction in the TGU H466 cloud probably originates in two cloud systems—the Great Cygnus Rift at 800 pc and the Cygnus X complex of dust and molecular clouds at 1.3-1.5 kpc.

  8. NSF Support for Physics at the Undergraduate Level: A View from Inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Duncan

    2015-03-01

    NSF has supported a wide range of projects in physics that involve undergraduate students. These projects include NSF research grants in which undergraduates participate; Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) centers and supplements; and education grants that range from upper-division labs that may include research, to curriculum development for upper- and lower-level courses and labs, to courses for non-majors, to Physics Education Research (PER). The NSF Divisions of Physics, Materials Research, and Astronomy provide most of the disciplinary research support, with some from other parts of NSF. I recently retired as the permanent physicist in NSF's Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE), which supports the education grants. I was responsible for a majority of DUE's physics grants and was involved with others overseen by a series of physics rotators. There I worked in programs entitled Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement (ILI); Course and Curriculum Development (CCD); Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI); Transforming Undergraduate STEM Education (TUES); and Improving Undergraduate STEM Education (IUSE). NSF support has enabled physics Principal Investigators to change and improve substantially the way physics is taught and the way students learn physics. The most important changes are increased undergraduate participation in physics research; more teaching using interactive engagement methods in classes; and growth of PER as a legitimate field of physics research as well as outcomes from PER that guide physics teaching. In turn these have led, along with other factors, to students who are better-prepared for graduate school and work, and to increases in the number of undergraduate physics majors. In addition, students in disciplines that physics directly supports, notably engineering and chemistry, and increasingly biology, are better and more broadly prepared to use their physics education in these fields. I will describe NSF

  9. Lietuvos erdvinės informacijos sklaidos galimybės ir perspektyvos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beconytė, Giedrė; Papšienė, Lina; Kryžanauskas, Audrius

    2010-01-01

    Padidėjęs erdvinių duomenų ir jų naudojimo poreikis paskatino kurti erdvinių duomenų infrastruktūras, leidžiančias teikti erdvinius duomenis aprašančią informaciją bei pačius duomenis iš įvairių šaltinių, nepriklausomai kur jie bebūtų bei duomenų formato ar struktūros. Lietuvoje dauguma erdvinių duomenų rinkinių "izoliuoti", o informacija apie juos sunkiai prieinama, todėl buvo siekiama sukurti modernią visą šalį apimančią vieną viešojo sektoriaus erdvinių duomenų paie\\vskos ir perdavimo sistemą. 2009 m. buvo sukurta Lietuvos erdvinės informacijos infrastruktūra (LEII), suteikianti priemones užtikrinti nacionalinių erdvinių duomenų pasiekiamumą ir teikimą internetu naudotojams jiems priimtinu būdu. Pagrindinis Europos Bendrijos erdvinės informacijos infrastruktūros (INSPIRE) kūrimo tikslas - pasiekti visų Bendrijos narių erdvinės informacijos suderinamumą. Įvairiose šalyse duomenų kaupimo, tvarkymo ir teikimo praktika skirtinga, todėl yra kuriamos bendros, vienijančios INSPIRE temų erdvinių duomenų rinkinių specifikacijos. Europos Bendrijos narės bus įpareigotos teikti duomenis INSPIRE laikantis šių specifkacijų, todėl atsiras galimybė iš skirtingų Europos Bendrijos valstybių gautus erdvinius duomenis sujungti ir naudoti kaip bendrus. Sukūrus LEII, Lietuvoje technologi\\vskai pasirengta teikti erdvinius duomenis bei yra sukaupti 56 oficialių duomenų rinkiniai, atitinkantys INSPIRE temas. Nors kol kas visi duomenų rinkiniai ne visi\\vskai atitinka patvirtintąsias specifikacijas, taikant Lietuvos erdvinės informacijos infrastruktūros technologijas, duomenis galima transformuoti į reikiamą struktūrą teikimo proceso metu.

  10. Identification and spatial distribution of light-toned deposits enriched in Al-phyllosilicates on the plateaus around Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Deit, L.; Flahaut, J.; Quantin, C.; Allemand, P.

    2009-12-01

    The plateaus around Valles Marineris consist in series of mafic rocks suggested to be flood basalts (McEwen et al., 1998), lavas interbedded with sediments (Malin and Edgett, 2000), layered intrusive rocks (Williams et al., 2003), or lava flows dated from the Noachian to the late Hesperian epochs (Scott and Carr, 1978). Recent studies show the occurrence of light layered deposits of hundred meters thick cropping out on plateaus near Ius Chasma, Melas Chasma, Candor Chasma, Juventae Chasma and Ganges Chasma deposited during the Hesperian epoch by fluvio-lacustrine processes (Weitz et al., 2009), or by air-fall processes (Le Deit et al., 2009). These layered deposits are enriched in hydrated minerals including opaline silica (Milliken et al., 2008), hydroxylated ferric sulfates (Bishop et al., 2009), and possibly Al-rich phyllosilicates (Le Deit et al., 2009). We identified another type of formation corresponding to light-toned massive deposits cropping out around Valles Marineris. It appears that these light-toned deposits are associated to bright, rough, and highly cratered terrains, located beneath a dark and thin capping unit. Previous studies report the occurrence of phyllosilicates on few locations around Valles Marineris based on OMEGA data analyses (Gondet et al., 2007; Carter et al., 2009). The analysis of CRISM data show that the light-toned deposits are associated with spectra displaying absorption bands at 1.4 μm, 1.9 μm, and a narrow band at 2.2 μm. These spectral characteristics are consistent with the presence of Al-rich phyllosilicates such as montmorillonite, or illite in the light-toned deposits. They constitute dozens of outcrops located on the plateaus south and east of Coprates Chasma and Capri Chasma, and west of Ganges Chasma. All outcrops investigated so far are present over Noachian terrains mapped as the unit Npl2 by Scott and Tanaka (1986), and Witbeck et al. (1991). These light-toned deposits could result from in situ aqueous alteration

  11. The protective effect of heat acclimation from hypoxic damage in the brain involves changes in the expression of glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yacobi, Assaf; Stern Bach, Yael; Horowitz, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Long-term heat acclimation (34 °C, 30d) alters the physiological responses and the metabolic state of organisms. It also improves ability to cope with hypoxic stress via a cross-tolerance mechanism. Within the brain, the hippocampal and frontal cortex neurons are the most sensitive to hypoxia and cell death is mainly caused by calcium influx via glutamate-gated ion channels, specifically NMDA and AMPA receptors. GluN1 subunit levels of NMDA-R correspond to NMDA-R levels. GluN2B/GluN2A subunit ratio is a qualitative index of channel activity; a higher ratio implies lower calcium permeability. The GluA2 subunit of AMPA-R controls channel permeability by inhibiting calcium penetration. Here, in rats model we (i)used behavioral-assessment tests to evaluate heat acclimation mediated hypoxic (15’ 4.5 ± 0.5% O2) neuroprotection, (ii) measured protein and transcript levels of NMDA-R and AMPA-R subunits before and after hypoxia in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex, to evaluate the role of Ca2+ in neuro-protection/cross-tolerance. Behavioral tests confirmed hypoxic tolerance in long-term (30d) but not in short-term (2d) heat acclimated rats. Hypoxic tolerance in the long-term acclimated phenotype was accompanied by a significant decrease in basal NMDA receptor GluN1 protein and an increase in its mRNA. The long-term acclimated rats also showed post ischemic increases in the GluN2B/GluN2A subunit ratio and GluA2 subunit of the AMPA receptor, supporting the hypothesis that reduced calcium permeability contributes to heat acclimation mediated hypoxia cross-tolerance. Abrupt post ischemic change in GluN2B/GluN2A subunit ratio with no change in NMDA-R subunits transcript levels implies that post-translational processes are inseparable acclimatory cross-tolerance mechanism. PMID:27583282

  12. Topography of Valles Marineris: Implications for erosional and structural history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.; Isbell, N. K.; Howington-Kraus, A.

    1994-02-01

    Compilation of a simplified geologic/geomorphic map onto digital terrain models of the Valles Marineris permitted an evaluation of elevations in the vicinity of the troughs and the calculation of depth of troughs below surrounding plateaus, thickness of deposits inside the troughs, volumes of void spaces above geologic/geomorphic units, and volumes of deposits. The central troughs north Ophir, north and central Candor, and north Melas Chasmata lie as much as 11 km below the adjacent plateaus. In Ophir and Candor chasmata, interior layered deposits reach 8 km in elevation. If the deposits are lacustrine and if all troughs were interconnected, lake waters standing 8 km high would have spilled out of Coprates Chasma onto the surrounding plateaus having surface elevations of only 4-5 km. On the other hand, the troughs may not have been interconnected at the time of interior-deposit emplacement; they may have formed isolated ancestral basins. The existence of such basins is supported by independent structural and stratigraphic evidence. The ancestral basins may have eventually merged, perhaps through renewed faulting, to form northern subsidiary troughs in Ophir and Candor Chasmata and the Coprates/north Melas/Ius graben system. The peripheral troughs are only 2-5 km deep, shallower than the central troughs. Chaotic terrain is seen in the peripheral troughs near a common contour level of about 4 km on the adjacent plateaus, which supports the idea of release of water under artesian pressure from confined aquifers. The layered deposits in the peripheral troughs may have formed in isolated depressions that harbored lakes and predated the formation of the deep outflow channels. (If these layered deposits are of volcanic origin, they may have been emplaced beneath ice in the manner of table mountains.) Areal and volumetric computations show that erosion widened the troughs by about one-third and that deposits occupy one-sixth of the interior space. Even though the volume

  13. Atmospheric Effects in IR Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released August 3, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image covering parts of Ius Chasma and Oudemans Crater. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    This image is dominated by atmospheric effects. The pink/magenta colors inside the canyon show areas with a large amount of atmospheric dust. In the bottom half of the image, the patchy blue/cyan colors indicate the presence of water ice clouds out on the plains. Water ice clouds and high amounts of dust do not generally occur at the same place and time on Mars because the dust absorbs sunlight and heats the atmosphere. The more dust that is present, the warmer the atmosphere becomes, sublimating the water ice into water vapor and dissipating any clouds.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 267.9 East (92.1.West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is

  14. Data assimilation and determining forms for weakly damped, dispersive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadigov, Tural

    In this work, we show that the global attractor of the 1D damped, driven, nonlinear Schrodinger equations (NLS) is embedded in the long-time dynamics of a determining form. The determining form for the NLS is an ordinary differential equation in a space of trajectories X = Cb 1(R,PmH2) where Pm is the L2-projector onto the span of the ?rst m Fourier modes. Similarly, we also find a determining form for the damped, driven Korteweg de-Vries equations (KdV). This time, the determining form for the KdV is an ordinary differential equation in a space of trajectories X = Cb 1(R,PmH2). In both cases, there is a one-to-one identi?cation with the trajectories in the global attractor of the underlying equations and the steady states of the determining form for the that equation. The determining form for both of these equations is dv(s, t)/ dt= - sup{s∈R} |v( s, t) - PmW (v( s, t))|2(v(s, t) - Pmu* (s, t)), where v( s) ∈ X, u* is a steady state of the underlying equation and W is a special map from X to a different Banach space which contains the relation between the underlying partial differential equation and the determining form. Additionally, we prove that the determining modes property holds for both of these equations. We give an improved estimate for the number of the determining modes for the NLS and we give an estimate for the number of determining modes for the KdV. Moreover, we give a continuous data assimilation algorithm via feedback control approach for the NLS and the KdV using only definitely many modes. The NLS and the KdV equations are ius + uxx + |u|2u + gammau = f, (NLS) us + uux + uxxx + gamma u = f, (KdV) respectively. We prove the following theorem: Theorem. Let u be a solution of the following equation us = F( u), with an initial data u(s 0), where the above equation is either (NLS) or (KdV), and let w be the solution of the corresponding data assimilation equation ws = F(w) - micro Pm(w - u), with an arbitrary initial data w(s0). For micro large

  15. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Ulysses Mission (Tier 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This Final (Tier 2) Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) addresses the environmental impacts which may be caused by implementation of the Ulysses mission, a space flight mission to observe the polar regions of the Sun. The proposed action is completion of preparation and operation of the Ulysses spacecraft, including its planned launch at the earliest available launch opportunity on the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle in October 1990 or in the backup opportunity in November 1991. The alternative is canceling further work on the mission. The Tier 1 EIS included a delay alternative which considered the Titan 4 launch vehicle as an alternative booster stage for launch in 1991 or later. This alternative was further evaluated and eliminated from consideration when, in November 1988, the U.S. Air Force, which procures the Titan 4, notified that it could not provide a Titan 4 vehicle for the 1991 launch opportunity because of high priority Department of Defense requirements. The Titan 4 launch vehicle is no longer a feasible alternative to the STS/Inertial Upper Stage (IUS)/Payload Assist Module-Special (PAM-S) for the November 1991 launch opportunity. The only expected environment effects of the proposed action are associated with normal launch vehicle operation and are treated elsewhere. The environmental impacts of normal Shuttle launches were addressed in existing NEPA documentation and are briefly summarized. These impacts are limited largely to the near-field at the launch pad, except for temporary stratospheric ozone effects during launch and occasional sonic boom effects near the landing site. These effects were judged insufficient to preclude Shuttle launches. There could also be environmental impacts associated with the accidental release of radiological material during launch, deployment, or interplanetary trajectory injection of the Ulysses spacecraft. Intensive analysis indicates that the probability of release is small. There are no environmental

  16. Topography of Valles Marineris: Implications for erosional and structural history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.; Isbell, N. K.; Howington-Kraus, A.

    1994-01-01

    Compilation of a simplified geologic/geomorphic map onto digital terrain models of the Valles Marineris permitted an evaluation of elevations in the vicinity of the troughs and the calculation of depth of troughs below surrounding plateaus, thickness of deposits inside the troughs, volumes of void spaces above geologic/geomorphic units, and volumes of deposits. The central troughs north Ophir, north and central Candor, and north Melas Chasmata lie as much as 11 km below the adjacent plateaus. In Ophir and Candor chasmata, interior layered deposits reach 8 km in elevation. If the deposits are lacustrine and if all troughs were interconnected, lake waters standing 8 km high would have spilled out of Coprates Chasma onto the surrounding plateaus having surface elevations of only 4-5 km. On the other hand, the troughs may not have been interconnected at the time of interior-deposit emplacement; they may have formed isolated ancestral basins. The existence of such basins is supported by independent structural and stratigraphic evidence. The ancestral basins may have eventually merged, perhaps through renewed faulting, to form northern subsidiary troughs in Ophir and Candor Chasmata and the Coprates/north Melas/Ius graben system. The peripheral troughs are only 2-5 km deep, shallower than the central troughs. Chaotic terrain is seen in the peripheral troughs near a common contour level of about 4 km on the adjacent plateaus, which supports the idea of release of water under artesian pressure from confined aquifers. The layered deposits in the peripheral troughs may have formed in isolated depressions that harbored lakes and predated the formation of the deep outflow channels. (If these layered deposits are of volcanic origin, they may have been emplaced beneath ice in the manner of table mountains.) Areal and volumetric computations show that erosion widened the troughs by about one-third and that deposits occupy one-sixth of the interior space. Even though the volume

  17. Epidemiological Assessment of Eight Rounds of Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in India: Implications for Monitoring and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Subramanian; Perumal, Vanamail; Adinarayanan, Srividya; Kaliannagounder, Krishnamoorthy; Rengachari, Ravi; Purushothaman, Jambulingam

    2012-01-01

    Background Monitoring and evaluation guidelines of the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis require impact assessments in at least one sentinel and one spot-check site in each implementation unit (IU). Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) that assess antigenaemia (Ag) in children in IUs that have completed at least five rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) each with >65% coverage and with microfilaria (Mf) levels <1% in the monitored sites form the basis for stopping the MDA. Despite its rigour, this multi-step process is likely to miss sites with transmission potential (‘hotspots’) and its statistical assumptions for sampling and threshold levels for decision-making have not been validated. We addressed these issues in a large-scale epidemiological study in two primary health centres in Thanjavur district, India, endemic for bancroftian filariasis that had undergone eight rounds of MDA. Methodology/Principal Findings The prevalence and intensity of Mf (per 60 µl blood) were 0.2% and 0.004 respectively in the survey that covered >70% of 50,363 population. The corresponding values for Ag were 2.3% and 17.3 Ag-units respectively. Ag-prevalence ranged from 0.7 to 0.9%, in children (2–10 years) and 2.7 to 3.0% in adults. Although the Mf-levels in the survey and the sentinel/spot check sites were <1% and Ag-level was <2% in children, we identified 7 “residual” (Mf-prevalence ≥1%, irrespective of Ag-status in children) and 17 “transmission” (at least one Ag-positive child born during the MDA period) hotspots. Antigenaemic persons were clustered both at household and site levels. We identified an Ag-prevalence of ∼1% in children (equivalent to 0.4% community Mf-prevalence) as a possible threshold value for stopping MDA. Conclusions/Significance Existence of ‘hotspots’ and spatial clustering of infections in the study area indicate the need for developing good surveillance strategies for detecting ‘hotspots’, adopting evidence

  18. Noctis Landing: A Proposed Landing Site/Exploration Zone for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; Acedillo, Shannen; Braham, Stephen; Brown, Adrian; Elphic, Richard; Fong, Terry; Glass, Brian; Hoftun, Christopher; Johansen, Brage W.; Lorber, Kira; Mittlefehldt, David; Takagi, Yuta; Thomas, Peter; West, Michael; West, Stephen; Zolensky, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The proposed Noctis Landing Site/Exploration Zone (LS/EZ) is shown in Figure 1. Our preliminary study suggests that the proposed site meets all key Science and Resources (incl. Civil Engineering) requirements. The site is of significant interest, as the EZ not only offers a large number and wide range of regions of interest (ROIs) for short-term exploration, it is also located strategically at the crossroads between Tharsis and Valles Marineris, which are key for long-term exploration. The proposed site contains Regions of Interest (ROIs) that meet the following Science requirements: -­- Access to (1) deposits with a high preservation potential for evidence of past habitability and fossil biosignatures and (2) sites that are promising for present habitability. The site presents a wide variety of ROIs qith likely aqueous features and deposits, including sinous channels and valleys, slope gullies, lobate debris aprons, impact craters with lobate ejecta flows, and "bathtub ring" deposits. Neutron spectrometry also suggests hydrogen is present within the topmost 0.3 m or so of 4 to 10 wt% WEH (Water Equivalent Hydrogen). -­- Noachian and/or Hesperian rocks in a stratigraphic context that have a high likelihood of containing trapped atmospheric gases. Collapsed canyon rim material with preserved stratigraphy is abundantly present and accessible. -­- Exposures of at least two crustal units that have regional or global extents, that are suitable for radiometric dating, and that have relative ages that sample a significant range of martian geological time. Canyons floors in Ius Chasma, Tithonium Chasma, and plateau tops on Tharsis and in Sinai Planum offer access to distinct crustal units of regional extent. -­- Access to outcrops with linked morphological and/or geochemical signatures indicative of aqueous or groundwater/ mineral interactions. Iron and sulfur-bearing deposits on canyon floors in Noctis Labyrinthus, and in Ius Chasma (IC) and Tithonium Chasma (TC

  19. STS-36 on Edwards Runway with Recovery Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a

  20. STS-31 on Runway 22 at Edwards with Recovery Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When

  1. STS-68 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a

  2. STS-68 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the

  3. STS-76 - Being Prepared for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center via SCA 747 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space

  4. STS-76 - Being Prepared for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center via SCA 747 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards

  5. STS-76 - Being Prepared for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center via SCA 747 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary

  6. STS-76 - SCA 747 Aircraft Takeoff for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981

  7. Shuttle Discovery Landing at Palmdale, California, Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary

  8. STS-67 Endeavour Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and

  9. STS-66 Edwards Landing with Drag Chute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the

  10. Shuttle Discovery Overflight of Edwards Enroute to Palmdale, California, Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing

  11. STS-68 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981

  12. STS-66 Edwards Landing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the

  13. STS-68 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a

  14. Shuttle Enterprise Mated to 747 SCA in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    . When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour

  15. Shuttle Enterprise Mated to 747 SCA on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17

  16. STS-76 Landing - Space Shuttle Atlantis Lands at Edwards Air Force Base, Drag Chute Deploy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the

  17. STS-58 Landing at Edwards with Drag Chute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the

  18. STS-76 Landing - Space Shuttle Atlantis Lands at Edwards Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In

  19. STS-76 Landing - Space Shuttle Atlantis Lands at Edwards Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a

  20. STS-68 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the

  1. STS-68 on Runway with 747 SCA/Columbia Ferry Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981

  2. Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) Fleet Photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main

  3. STS-58 Landing at Edwards with Drag Chute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the

  4. STS-68 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981

  5. STS-29 Landing Approach at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle

  6. STS-49 Shuttle Endevour in Mate-Demate Device being Loaded onto SCA-747 - Front View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a

  7. Shuttle Enterprise Mated to 747 SCA in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    . When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour

  8. Shuttle Discovery Landing at Palmdale, California, Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary

  9. Shuttle Enterprise Mated to 747 SCA on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17

  10. Shuttle Atlantis Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise

  11. STS-76 Landing - Space Shuttle Atlantis Lands at Edwards Air Force Base, Drag Chute Deploy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the

  12. STS-36 Shuttle in Mate-Demate Device (MDD) Close-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle

  13. Shuttle Discovery Overflight of Edwards Enroute to Palmdale, California, Maintenance Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing

  14. STS-76 Landing - Space Shuttle Atlantis Lands at Edwards Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a

  15. STS-64 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    , without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of

  16. Shuttle Discovery Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in

  17. STS-76 - Being Prepared for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center via SCA 747 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space

  18. STS-40 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    . When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour

  19. STS-76 - SCA 747 Aircraft Takeoff for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981

  20. STS-64 and 747-SCA Ferry Flight Takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    , without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of

  1. STS-37 Shuttle Crew after Edwards landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the

  2. STS-76 - Being Prepared for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center via SCA 747 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards

  3. STS-36 on Edwards Runway with Recovery Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a

  4. Shuttle Atlantis Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    , provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site

  5. STS-76 Landing - Space Shuttle Atlantis Lands at Edwards Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In

  6. STS-55 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    , however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and

  7. STS-51 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or

  8. STS-76 - Being Prepared for Delivery to Kennedy Space Center via SCA 747 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary

  9. Shuttle Endevour Loaded onto SCA-747 Exiting the Mate-Demate Device for Return to Kennedy Space Cent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a

  10. STS-67 Endeavour Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and

  11. New Mars Camera's First Image of Mars from Mapping Orbit (Full Frame)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The high resolution camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter captured its first image of Mars in the mapping orbit, demonstrating the full resolution capability, on Sept. 29, 2006. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) acquired this first image at 8:16 AM (Pacific Time). With the spacecraft at an altitude of 280 kilometers (174 miles), the image scale is 25 centimeters per pixel (10 inches per pixel). If a person were located on this part of Mars, he or she would just barely be visible in this image.

    The image covers a small portion of the floor of Ius Chasma, one branch of the giant Valles Marineris system of canyons. The image illustrates a variety of processes that have shaped the Martian surface. There are bedrock exposures of layered materials, which could be sedimentary rocks deposited in water or from the air. Some of the bedrock has been faulted and folded, perhaps the result of large-scale forces in the crust or from a giant landslide. The image resolves rocks as small as small as 90 centimeters (3 feet) in diameter. It includes many dunes or ridges of windblown sand.

    This image (TRA_000823_1720) was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on Sept. 29, 2006. Shown here is the full image, centered at minus 7.8 degrees latitude, 279.5 degrees east longitude. The image is oriented such that north is to the top. The range to the target site was 297 kilometers (185.6 miles). At this distance the image scale is 25 centimeters (10 inches) per pixel (with one-by-one binning) so objects about 75 centimeters (30 inches) across are resolved. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:30 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59.7 degrees, thus the sun was about 30.3 degrees above the horizon. The season on Mars is northern winter, southern summer.

    [Photojournal note: Due to the large sizes of the high

  12. Analyses of the Currently Noneclipsing Binary SS Lacertae or SS Lacertae's Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.; Schiller, S. J.; Munari, U.; Kallrath, J.

    2000-03-01

    , & Szafraniec). As a consequence, small, temporal variations in such system properties as the eccentricity, argument of periastron, modified Roche potentials, luminosities, and third light level, cannot be ruled out from currently available data. However, solutions with WD95, a self-iterating, damped-least squares version of the Wilson-Devinney program, reveal optimized inclinations for the data sets that project an inclination variation of 0.16d yr-1, but no evidence of apsidal motion. We find a distance for the system of 898+/-95 pc, consistent with the value of Vansevičius et al. of 1040+/-10 pc, and finally, on the bases of location on the sky, proper motion, radial velocity, photometry, and properties deduced in the present study, we confirm its membership in the cluster NGC 7209. Publications of the Rothney Astrophysical Observatory, No. 73.

  13. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  14. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research.Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this category

  15. CRISM's First 'Targeted' Observation of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This shows the first site on Mars imaged by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) using its full-resolution hyperspectral capability, with a 'targeted image.'

    During a targeted image, CRISM's movable gimbal tracks a point on the surface, and slowly scans across it for about three minutes. The image is built up one line at a time, and each pixel in the image is measured in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers. During this time the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's range to the target starts at about 410 kilometers (250 miles), decreases to about 290 kilometers (190 miles) when the spacecraft makes its closest approach, and increases again to 410 kilometers at the end of the image. The change in geometry during image acquisition gives each CRISM targeted image a characteristic hourglass shape.

    This first targeted image was acquired at 1515 UTC (11:15 a.m. EDT) on Sept. 29, 2006, near 7.7 degrees south latitude, 270.5 degrees east longitude. Only minimal processing and map projection of the data have been done. At the center of the image the spatial resolution is as good as 18 meters (60 feet) per pixel. The three wavelengths shown here provide an approximate true color representation. The hourglass-shaped image covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) north-south and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) east-west. The upper left panel shows the image's regional context, on a mosaic from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) taken in infrared frequencies. This western part of the Valles Marineris canyon system is called Ius Chasma. The canyon system is about five kilometers (about three miles) deep and exposes ancient rocks from deep in the crust. The lower left panel shows local context, using a THEMIS visible-wavelengths image (THEMIS-VIS), which is comparable in resolution to CRISM data. Outcrops of light-toned layered rocks 1-2 kilometers (0.6-1.2 miles) across are

  16. Chronicles of recent disasters. Are Agencies and Civil Protections getting sloppy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miozzo, D.; Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Musso, L.

    2010-09-01

    Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models and forecasts have a paramount role in the real time decision making command chain. It is thanks to them that Civil Protection (CP) across Europe and the World were able to redeploy towards preventing calamities rather than passively awaiting for their happening. However, from the implementation of these new methodological and procedural instruments stems the process of codification of a generalized Ius Commune. This natural drive towards Positive Law grants the fruition and tutelage of new rights but, if not adequately controlled, can initiate vicious circles leading towards the overcriminalization of the system. Trials, intended against CP operators and guardians or guarantors, according to civil law acception, showed how meteorological weather prediction can be faulty and dangerously underestimate an incoming event. The margin of error unfolds on both a temporal and a spatial plan. The discrepancy which emerged from ex post analysis (Molini et al. 2009) tells us that state of the art instruments can possibly induce CP operators to make wrong decisions. In addition to these computational and modelling problems, the complex orography of our territories impedes to deterministically asses and characterize hydrometeorological risk. The best instrument in our hands, a part from radar and satellite data (which both have a yet important delay in the acquisition of data due to its transfer), is still represented by NWP models and by the experience of whom, on a daily basis, issues meteorological bulletins and alert whom are the foremost link between CPs and the population. Envisaging the problem of the overcriminalization phenomenon and its social consequences, unpredicted flash floods are extremely rare to count. Nevertheless they do happen and create the basis for a much more dangerous problem: the lowering of the alert threshold to an excessively precautionary level, thus, eliminating any kind of discretionality in assessing

  17. The role of the mantle in Variscan post-collisional magmatism - insights from Muntele Mic and Culmea Cernei plutons (Romanian Southern Carpathians)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stremtan, Ciprian; Balica, Constantin; Savov, Ivan; Ryan, Jeffrey; Balintoni, Ioan

    2013-04-01

    The Danubian domain of the Romanian Southern Carpathians corresponds to the lowest nappe system pertaining to the Alpine stack and it is composed of pre-Alpine basement assemblages covered by low-grade Mesozoic metamorphic rocks. The pre-Alpine components of the Danubian terranes are two continental fragments of Avalonian origin (the Lainici-Păius; and Drăgsan) sutured by the Tisovina-Iuni ophiolite complex. Both basement terranes are heavily intruded by granitoid plutons, some of them dated as late Carboniferous to early Permian [1,3]. While significant progress has been achieved in dating the emplacement of Variscan plutons [1,2,3] intruding the Neoproterozoic basement of the Danubian domain (Romanian Southern Carpathians), little work has been carried out in understanding the processes and sources that led to the formation of these plutons. We present new geochemical and geo-thermometry data for two of the Danubian Variscan plutons (Muntele Mic and Culmea Cernei, of 326±5 Ma and 286±2.9 Ma, respectively - zircon U/Pb age data[1,3]) that help constrain their sources as well as tectonic setting. Muntele Mic (MM) and Culmea Cernei (CC) are two relatively small granitoid bodies intruding both of the Danubian basement terranes. CC is a composite pluton with lithologies ranging from hornblende-granodiorite to (hornblende)biotite-granite and diorite, while MM is composed mainly of biotite-hornblende granodiorite and subordinate biotite-granite. Both plutons are metaluminous to peraluminous. CC granitoids have calc-alkaline affinities, while MM is high-K calc-alkaline (with some shoshonitic samples). MM granitoids have overall lower ΣREE (ranging from 550 to 746 ppm) and less fractionated, concave upward chondrite-normalized REE trends (LaN/YbN from 5 to 9.5). CC samples have higher ΣREE (720 to 1150), more fractionated REE patterns (LaN/YbN from 10 to 14.5) and show little evidence in their patterns for the involvement of amphibole. Modest differences in their Eu

  18. Morphology, composition, age and spatial extent of a layered superficial formation covering the plains around Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Deit, L.; Bourgeois, O.; Le Mouélic, S.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Mège, D.; Sotin, C.; Massé, M.; Sarago, V.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction An extensive light-toned layered formation covers the plains surrounding Valles Marineris on Mars. It is particularly visible south of Ius Chasma and of Melas Chasma [1], southwest of Juventae Chasma [2,3], north of Tithonium Chasma and west of Ganges Chasma. Some deposits of this formation may be enriched in hydrated silicates such as hydrated glasses, chalcedony, opal or other hydrated Si-rich phases according to CRISM data [1]. From an analysis of HRSC, THEMIS, MOC, HiRISE, MOLA PEDR, OMEGA and CRISM data, we discuss the morphology, the composition, the age, the spatial extent and the emplacement processes of these layered deposits (LDs). Here we focus on two regions where the LDs are particularly spectacular: Ganges Chasma and Juventae Chasma. Regional map We have compiled a regional map of the LDs around Valles Marineris (orange in Fig. 1a). In some cases their spatial extent is unclear due to their being covered either by dark material or by dust that appears yellow on IRB color HiRISE images (Fig 1b). Dashed contours on Fig. 1a outline these poorly constrained boundaries, whereas plain contours correspond to regions where the stratigraphic contact between the LDs and the underlying basement is unambiguous. The light-toned LDs are located stratigraphically and topographically above the basaltic basement that constitutes the plains surrounding Valles Marineris. The total thickness of the LDs does not exceed a hundred meters on average. They consist of subparallel light-toned layers of various thicknesses that are apparently interbedded with darker beds (Fig. 1b). This difference in albedo can be due to variations in mineralogical composition, topographic slope, roughness, grain size or state of erosion of the different layers, or to partial covering of certain layers by a dark mantle. Ganges Chasma West of Ganges Chasma, the LDs rest topographically and stratigraphically above the Noachian plains that have been defined as the Npl2 unit [4] (Fig. 1