Science.gov

Sample records for iv effects assessment

  1. IV&V Project Assessment Process Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driskell, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) will launch NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). This launch vehicle will provide American launch capability for human exploration and travelling beyond Earth orbit. SLS is designed to be flexible for crew or cargo missions. The first test flight is scheduled for December 2017. The SLS SRR/SDR provided insight into the project development life cycle. NASA IV&V ran the standard Risk Based Assessment and Portfolio Based Risk Assessment to identify analysis tasking for the SLS program. This presentation examines the SLS System Requirements Review/System Definition Review (SRR/SDR), IV&V findings for IV&V process validation correlation to/from the selected IV&V tasking and capabilities. It also provides a reusable IEEE 1012 scorecard for programmatic completeness across the software development life cycle.

  2. Post-deployment effectiveness of malaria control interventions on Plasmodium infections in Madagascar: a comprehensive phase IV assessment.

    PubMed

    Kesteman, Thomas; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Piola, Patrice; Rogier, Christophe

    2016-06-16

    Because international funding for malaria control is plateauing, affected countries that receive foreign funding are expected to maintain a constant budget while continuing to reduce Plasmodium transmission. To investigate the appropriateness of a malaria control policy in Madagascar, the effectiveness of all currently deployed malaria control interventions (MCIs) was measured. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012-2013 at 62 sites throughout Madagascar. A total of 15,746 individuals of all ages were tested for Plasmodium infection using rapid diagnostic tests and were interviewed about their use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women (IPTp), and exposure to information, education and communication (IEC) campaigns. The association between Plasmodium infection and MCI exposure was calculated using multivariate multilevel models, and the protective effectiveness (PE) of an intervention was defined as one minus the odds ratio of this association. The individual PE of regular LLIN use was high and significant (41 %, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 23-54), whereas its community PE was not. The PE of IRS at the household level was significant in one transmission pattern only (44 %, 95 % CI 11-65), and the community PE with high IRS coverage (>75 %) was high and significant overall (78 %, 95 % CI 44-91). Using LLINs after IRS increased the PE, and the reciprocal was also true. The maternal PE of IPTp was high but non-significant (65 %, 95 % CI -32 to 91). The PE of IEC was low, non-significant and restricted to certain areas (24 %, 95 % CI -34 to 57). This snapshot of the effectiveness of MCIs confirms that integrated vector control is required in malaria control policies in Madagascar and suggests combining MCIs when one is questionable. Policymakers should consider the local effectiveness of all deployed MCIs through a similar phase IV assessment.

  3. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Leahy

    2010-06-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated “toolkit” consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  4. Projection models for health effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume IV. SPAHR user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume gives the more advanced user of the SPAHR computer package the information required to create tailor-made programs for addressing specific issues not covered by the three interactive packages. It assumes that the user is familiar with the concepts and terms relating to demography and health risk assessment.

  5. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    SciTech Connect

    P.D. Mattie

    1999-06-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to document total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) Feature IV. Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations for EDA IV are based on the TSPA-VA Base Case which has been modified with a quartz sand invert, quartz sand backfill, line loading and 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields that are placed over a 30 cm thick carbon steel (A5 16) waste package with an integral filler material (CRWMS M&O 1999a & 1999b). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M&O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA IV. The performance measure for this evaluation is the expected value dose-rate history at 20 km from the repository boundary.

  6. [The relationships of intelligence and memory assessed using the WAIS-IV and the WMS-IV].

    PubMed

    Lepach, A C; Daseking, M; Petermann, F; Waldmann, H C

    2013-11-01

    This study examines the relationships of intelligence and memory scores derived from WAIS-IV and WMS-IV. We were especially interested in the reciprocal predictive values of the test scales. A sample of 137 healthy adults with an age range between 16 and 69 years was assessed with the WAIS-IV and the WMS-IV. The test order was balanced. Pearson correlations were conducted on the subtest and scale level. A series of 14 linear regression models was tested with memory performance as predictor for intelligence and vice versa. A model including the 3 main memory scales of the WMS-IV was able to predict the global IQ best. It nevertheless explained only 46% of the variance. The memory and intelligence measures show significant relationships, but also represent distinct functions. WAIS-IV and WMS-IV complement one another. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Genotoxicity hazard assessment of Caramel Colours III and IV.

    PubMed

    Brusick, D J; Jagannath, D R; Galloway, S M; Nestmann, E R

    1992-05-01

    Results from a battery of short-term tests in vitro and in vivo used to assess the genotoxicity of caramel colours are presented and discussed in relation to reports from the literature. No evidence of genotoxicity was found in the Salmonella plate incorporation test using five standard strains or in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene conversion assay using strain D4, either with or without S-9 for activation. A weak clastogenic effect for a sample of Caramel Colour III in CHO cells was abolished in the presence of S-9. Two samples of Caramel Colour IV were not clastogenic in CHO cells. Salmonella pre-incubation tests without S-9 also failed to reveal any mutagenic activity for any of the caramel colours tested. The Caramel Colour III sample that showed clastogenic activity in CHO cells in vitro did not induce micronuclei when evaluated in a mouse bone marrow assay. These results are in general agreement with reports in the literature regarding the genotoxicity of caramel colours, and support the conclusion that caramel colours do not pose a genotoxic hazard to humans.

  8. Once-daily indacaterol 75 μg in moderate- to-severe COPD: results of a Phase IV study assessing time until patients' perceived onset of effect.

    PubMed

    Siler, Thomas M; LaForce, Craig F; Kianifard, Farid; Williams, James; Spangenthal, Selwyn

    2014-01-01

    Indacaterol 75 μg once daily is a long-acting β2 agonist approved for maintenance bronchodilator treatment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients' perception of onset of effect with a single dose. In this double-blind, crossover, Phase IV study, 40 patients were randomized to receive a single dose of indacaterol 75 μg or placebo via a dry powder inhaler device. The primary variable was time until patient's perception of onset of effect, using a simple self-administered (nonvalidated) questionnaire that patients answered at nine protocol-specified time points. Exploratory variables included change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and change in percent predicted FEV1 from predose to postdose (determined 60-75 minutes postdose). The least-squares mean time to patient's perception of onset of effect was 25.4 minutes and 23.9 minutes for indacaterol and placebo, respectively. There was no significant effect for treatment, period, or sequence on the time to patient's perception. In addition, no statistically significant differences between treatments were observed for patient's global satisfaction with onset of effect and global expectation of treatment adherence. For the exploratory variable change in FEV1 from predose to postdose, indacaterol showed superiority over placebo with a clinically relevant least-squares mean treatment difference of 0.12 L (P<0.0001). There was little or no association between patient's perception of time to onset of effect and change in FEV1, or change in percent predicted FEV1. Both treatments were well tolerated. A single dose of indacaterol 75 μg did not separate from placebo in terms of patient perception of onset, although there was an improvement in FEV1 for indacaterol compared with placebo. Development and use of a validated questionnaire may be needed to address the inconsistency in evaluating this patient-related outcome.

  9. Effect of a single IV administration of L-propionylcarnitine on myocardial microcirculation assessed by coronary flow velocity reserve measurement in patients with systemic sclerosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Montisci, Roberta; Ruscazio, Massimo; Lai, Stefania; Vacca, Alessandra; Cauli, Alberto; Passiu, Giuseppe; Montisci, Massimo; Meloni, Luigi; Mathieu, Alessandro; Iliceto, Sabino

    2007-01-01

    Scleroderma-related cardiac involvement primarily affects coronary microvascular structures and function. The microvasculature disorder is responsible for impairment of coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR), which has been reported in studies of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). L-propionylcarnitine (L-PC) is a metabolic substance that is associated with a beneficial effect on both microcirculation and myocyte function. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not CFVR was acutely improved or restored in patients with SSc after a single administration of IV L-PC. In this pilot study, we screened volunteers with SSc who had no clinical evidence of ischemic heart disease. CFVR was determined by a blinded investigator by evaluating the left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) by transthoracic echocardiography during adenosine infusion (140 microg/kg x min(-1) for 5 minutes), 30 minutes before and 15 minutes after administration of L-PC (300 mg IV in 5-minute bolus). Thirty-three patients were screened for this study. Fourteen patients (mean [SD] age, 54.3 [11.2] years; mean [SD] weight, 63.8 [14.5] kg; mean [SD] height, 156.3 [8.7] cm) with SSc and no evidence of coronary heart disease were included in the study; 13 women and 1 man (4 with the diffuse cutaneous form of SSc and 10 with the limited cutaneous form). After administration of L-PC to patients with SSc, median CFVR was significantly increased from 2.60 to 3.23 (P < 0.001), whereas peak diastolic velocity in the LADCA decreased significantly at the basal evaluation (30.0 vs 26.0, P = 0.009) and significantly increased (80.0 vs 87.5, P = 0.005) during adenosine infusion. No adverse events occurred before, during, or after L-PC infusion. Acute administration of L-PC was associated with a short-term beneficial effect on CFVR in this pilot study of patients with SSc. These results suggest that further, randomized, controlled, double-blind evaluation of longer-term administration to

  10. Once-daily indacaterol 75 μg in moderate- to-severe COPD: results of a Phase IV study assessing time until patients’ perceived onset of effect

    PubMed Central

    Siler, Thomas M; LaForce, Craig F; Kianifard, Farid; Williams, James; Spangenthal, Selwyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Indacaterol 75 μg once daily is a long-acting β2 agonist approved for maintenance bronchodilator treatment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients’ perception of onset of effect with a single dose. Methods In this double-blind, crossover, Phase IV study, 40 patients were randomized to receive a single dose of indacaterol 75 μg or placebo via a dry powder inhaler device. The primary variable was time until patient’s perception of onset of effect, using a simple self-administered (nonvalidated) questionnaire that patients answered at nine protocol-specified time points. Exploratory variables included change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and change in percent predicted FEV1 from predose to postdose (determined 60–75 minutes postdose). Results The least-squares mean time to patient’s perception of onset of effect was 25.4 minutes and 23.9 minutes for indacaterol and placebo, respectively. There was no significant effect for treatment, period, or sequence on the time to patient’s perception. In addition, no statistically significant differences between treatments were observed for patient’s global satisfaction with onset of effect and global expectation of treatment adherence. For the exploratory variable change in FEV1 from predose to postdose, indacaterol showed superiority over placebo with a clinically relevant least-squares mean treatment difference of 0.12 L (P<0.0001). There was little or no association between patient’s perception of time to onset of effect and change in FEV1, or change in percent predicted FEV1. Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion A single dose of indacaterol 75 μg did not separate from placebo in terms of patient perception of onset, although there was an improvement in FEV1 for indacaterol compared with placebo. Development and use of a validated questionnaire may be needed to address the inconsistency in

  11. Phase IV Land Disposal Restrictions Rule - Clarification of Effective Dates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memo to clarify the effective dates for the major provisions of the Phase IV rule. It is supplemental to the final rule preamble at page 28556 (“Effective Dates”) and pages 28634-5 (“State Authority”).

  12. WISC-IV GAI and CPI in Psychoeducational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Dawn; McTaggart, Breanne; Saklofske, Donald H.; Janzen, Troy

    2011-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) are two index scores that can be calculated for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Canadian Edition (WISC-IV[superscript CDN]). The GAI comprises the verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning subtests and reflects reasoning abilities. The CPI includes the…

  13. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Region IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report represents a detailed summation of existing workforce levels, training programs, career potential, and staffing level projections through 1981 for EPA Region IV. This region serves the eight southeastern states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. The specific pollution…

  14. WISC-IV GAI and CPI in Psychoeducational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Dawn; McTaggart, Breanne; Saklofske, Donald H.; Janzen, Troy

    2011-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) are two index scores that can be calculated for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Canadian Edition (WISC-IV[superscript CDN]). The GAI comprises the verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning subtests and reflects reasoning abilities. The CPI includes the…

  15. Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

    2006-12-01

    The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed.

  16. Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Harrison H; Myers, Kyle J; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

    2006-12-01

    The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed.

  17. Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed. PMID:17106464

  18. WORKGROUP IV SYNOPSIS: REGULATORY ISSUES AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The discussions in this workgroup started with an identification and brief explanation of U.S. regulations pertaining to wetlands. The Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment Forum was then reviewed in relation to the unique aspects of conducting a wetland assessment. Assessment...

  19. WORKGROUP IV SYNOPSIS: REGULATORY ISSUES AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The discussions in this workgroup started with an identification and brief explanation of U.S. regulations pertaining to wetlands. The Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment Forum was then reviewed in relation to the unique aspects of conducting a wetland assessment. Assessment...

  20. [Does iv paracetamol have preemptive analgesic effect on lumber disc surgeries?].

    PubMed

    Toygar, Pinar; Akkaya, Taylan; Ozkan, Derya; Ozel, Ozgür; Uslu, Ebru; Gümüş, Haluk

    2008-04-01

    In this study, postoperative analgesic effects of intravenous paracetamol administration in lumbar discectomy patients were evaluated. After the approval of ethic committee, 90 patients undergoing lumbar disc hernia operation randomly divided into 3 groups. After standart general anesthesia, patients in group I received 1 gr i.v. paracetamol infusion 15 minutes before the induction, patients in group II received i.v. Paracetamol infusion started 15 minutes before the end of surgery. i.v morphine via PCA is used for postoperative analgesia maintenance and patients pain scores were assessed with VAS at 0., 1., 2., 3., 6., 12. and 24. hours. First analgesic requirement time, total morphine consumption and side effects were recorded. In group I and II, VAS scores, 24 h morphine consumption and first morphine requirement times were significantly different comparing to group III. As a result, we think that in lumbar discectomy cases preoperative administration of 1 gr paracetamol has no preemptive analgesic effect.

  1. Training in Structured Diagnostic Assessment Using DSM-IV Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponniah, Kathryn; Weissman, Myrna M.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Verdeli, Helen; Gameroff, Marc J.; Mufson, Laura; Fitterling, Heidi; Wickramaratne, Priya

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determining a patient's psychiatric diagnosis is an important first step for the selection of empirically supported treatments and a critical component of evidence-based practice. Structured diagnostic assessment covers the range of psychiatric diagnoses and is usually more complete and accurate than unstructured assessment. Method: We…

  2. Training in Structured Diagnostic Assessment Using DSM-IV Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponniah, Kathryn; Weissman, Myrna M.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Verdeli, Helen; Gameroff, Marc J.; Mufson, Laura; Fitterling, Heidi; Wickramaratne, Priya

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determining a patient's psychiatric diagnosis is an important first step for the selection of empirically supported treatments and a critical component of evidence-based practice. Structured diagnostic assessment covers the range of psychiatric diagnoses and is usually more complete and accurate than unstructured assessment. Method: We…

  3. Large excitonic effects in group-IV sulfide monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Blair R.; Alhassan, Saeed M.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2015-12-01

    Large exciton binding energies are a distinguishing feature of two-dimensional semiconductors because of reduced screening, potentially leading to unique optoelectronic applications. Here we use electronic structure methods to calculate the properties of a two-dimensional material class: group-IV monosulfides including SiS, GeS, and SnS. Bulk SiS is predicted to be a metastable layered material. Quasiparticle excitations are calculated with the G0W0 method and the Bethe-Salpeter equation is are used to include electron-hole interactions. For monolayers, strongly bound excitons are found below the quasiparticle absorption edge. The predicted excitonic binding energies are as high as 0.7 eV. Due to large excitonic effects, these group-IV sulfide monolayers have great potential for nanoscale optoelectronic applications.

  4. Use of the TAT in the assessment of DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, S J; Clemence, A J; Weatherill, R; Hilsenroth, M J

    1999-12-01

    The Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS), developed by Western, Lohr, Silk, Kerber, and Goodrich (1985), is a diagnostic instrument used to assess an array of psychological functioning by using clinical narratives such as the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) stories. This study investigated the utility of the SCORS to differentiate between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) antisocial personality disorder (ANPD), borderline personality disorder (BPD), narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), and Cluster C personality disorder (CPD). A sample of 58 patients was separated into four groups: ANPD (n = 9), BPD (n = 21; 18 with a primary BPD diagnosis and 3 with prominent borderline traits who met 4 of the 5 DSM-IV criteria necessary for a BPD diagnosis), NPD (n = 16; 8 with a primary NPD diagnosis and 8 with prominent narcissistic traits who met 4 of the 5 DSM-IV criteria necessary for a NPD diagnosis), and CPD (n = 12). These groups were then compared on the 8 SCORS variables by using 5 TAT cards (1, 2, 3BM, 4, and 13MF). Spearman-Brown correction for 2-way mixed effects model of reliability for the 8 SCORS variables ranged from .70 to .95. The results of categorical and dimensional analyses indicate that (a) SCORS variables can be used to differentiate ANPD, BPD, and NPD; (b) the BPD group scored significantly lower (greater maladjustment) than did the CPD group on certain variables; (c) the BPD group scored significantly lower (greater maladjustment) than did the NPD group on all 8 SCORS variables; (d) the ANPD group scored significantly lower than did the NPD group on certain variables; (e) certain variables were found to be empirically related to the total number of DSM-IV ANPD, BPD, and NPD criteria; and (f) certain variables were found to be empirically related to Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen

  5. IV ATP potentiates midazolam sedation as assessed by bispectral index.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Satoru; Fukunaga, Atsuo; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    In this study, by measuring bispectral index (BIS), we tested the hypothesis that intravenous adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) infusion would deepen the level of midazolam-induced sedation. Ten healthy volunteers underwent 2 experiments with at least 2 weeks' interval: immediately after intravenous bolus administration of midazolam (0.04 mg/kg), they received continuous infusion of either ATP infusion (100 μg/kg/min) or placebo (saline) for 40 minutes in a double-blind, randomized, crossover manner. Changes in BIS values and responsiveness to verbal command as well as cardiorespiratory variables were observed throughout the study periods. Administration of midazolam alone reduced BIS value from control: 97 ± 1 to 68 ± 18 at 25 minutes, which was accompanied by significant cardiopulmonary depressant effects, while maintaining responsiveness to verbal command (consciousness) throughout the study period. Coadministration of ATP with midazolam further reduced BIS value to 51 ± 13, associated with complete loss of consciousness without adverse effect on the cardiorespiratory systems. We conclude that the addition of ATP infusion to midazolam significantly enhances midazolam sedation without disturbing cardiorespiratory functions.

  6. Quantifying the effect of IV contrast media on integrated PET/CT: clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mawlawi, Osama; Erasmus, Jeremy J; Munden, Reginald F; Pan, Tinsu; Knight, Amy E; Macapinlac, Homer A; Podoloff, Donald A; Chasen, Marvin

    2006-02-01

    The use of IV contrast media in PET/CT can result in an overestimation of PET attenuation factors that potentially can affect interpretation. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of IV contrast media in PET/CT and assess its impact on patients with intrathoracic malignancies. Nine patients had CTs performed with and without IV contrast media followed by (18)F-FDG PET. PET images were reconstructed using contrast-enhanced and unenhanced CT. To quantify the effect of contrast media on standardized uptake values (SUV), similar regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on the subclavian vein, heart, liver, spleen, and site of malignancy on both CT and corresponding reconstructed PET images, and the mean and maximum values were compared. In addition, two physicians blinded to the imaging parameters that were used evaluated the reconstructed PET images to assess whether IV contrast media had an effect on clinical interpretation. For all patient studies, the subclavian vein region on the ipsilateral side of contrast media administration had the highest increase in CT numbers with a corresponding average SUV(max) increase of 27.1%. Similarly, ROIs of the heart and at the site of malignancy showed an increase in the maximum attenuation value with a corresponding average SUV(max) increase of 16.7% and 8.4%, respectively. Other locations had relatively small attenuation value differences with a correspondingly negligible SUV variation. Although there is a significant increase in SUV in regions of high-contrast concentration when contrast-enhanced CT is used for attenuation correction, this increase is clinically insignificant. Accordingly, in PET/CT, IV contrast-enhanced CT can be used in combination with the PET to evaluate patients with cancer.

  7. Practitioner Expectations and Experiences with the Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (TAA40104): Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Berwyn; Meyers, Dave; Bateman, Andrea; Bluer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This document supports the report "Practitioner Expectations and Experiences with the Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (TAA40104)". The first section outlines the methodology used to undertake the research and covers the design of the research, sample details, data collection processes and the strategy for data analysis and…

  8. Validity of DSM-IV axis V global assessment of relational functioning scale: a multimethod assessment.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michelle B; Hilsenroth, Mark; Pinsker-Aspen, Janet H; Primavera, Louis

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the convergent validity of the DSM-IV Axis V Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale (GARF; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). This study included 79 patients at a university-based outpatient treatment clinic. We examined clinician-rated GARF and the relationship to self-reported (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems; IIP-C; Horowitz et al. 2000) and free response themes [Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale: SCORS; Hilsenroth, Stein & Pinsker, 2004; Westen, 1995] of interpersonal functioning. Clinician ratings of the GARF scale and SCORS variables were highly reliable and internally consistent. Convergent Validity among the GARF, SCORS, and IIP scores was calculated using a Principal Components Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Results of the Principal Components Analysis revealed that the GARF, SCORS, and IIP scores converged on a single factor, although findings of the CFA did not fully confirm the 1 factor model originally proposed. Intercorrelations among the GARF, SCORS, and IIP variables were analyzed and a pattern of significant relationships was found between the GARF and SCORS variables. This study helps support the convergent validity GARF as a relational functioning measure and is one of the first investigations to examine this scale multidimensionally.

  9. Comparing personality disorder models: cross-method assessment of the FFM and DSM-IV-TR.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas W

    2010-12-01

    The current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) defines personality disorders as categorical entities that are distinct from each other and from normal personality traits. However, many scientists now believe that personality disorders are best conceptualized using a dimensional model of traits that span normal and abnormal personality, such as the Five-Factor Model (FFM). However, if the FFM or any dimensional model is to be considered as a credible alternative to the current model, it must first demonstrate an increment in the validity of the assessment offered within a clinical setting. Thus, the current study extended previous research by comparing the convergent and discriminant validity of the current DSM-IV-TR model to the FFM across four assessment methodologies. Eighty-eight individuals receiving ongoing psychotherapy were assessed for the FFM and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders using self-report, informant report, structured interview, and therapist ratings. The results indicated that the FFM had an appreciable advantage over the DSM-IV-TR in terms of discriminant validity and, at the domain level, convergent validity. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Astragaloside IV on Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats Via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Na; Sun, Li-Feng; Yang, Hua

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of astragaloside IV (As-IV) on pulmonary fibrosis and its mechanisms of action. Sprague-Dawley rats were used in a model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by an intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (BLM). Rats were intraperitoneally injected with As-IV (10, 20, 50 mg/kg) daily for 28 days, while the rats in control and BLM groups were injected with a saline solution. The effects of As-IV treatment on pulmonary injury were evaluated with the lung wet/dry weight ratios, cell counts, and histopathologic. Oxidative stress was evaluated by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lung tissue. Inflammation was assessed by measuring the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The results indicated that As-IV treatment remarkably ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and attenuated BLM-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Our findings indicate that As-IV-mediated suppression of fibroproliferation may contribute to the anti-fibrotic effect against BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Its mechanisms of action are associated with inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory response. In summary, our study suggests a therapeutic potential of As-IV in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  11. Transitioning from DSM-IV to DSM-5: A systematic review of eating disorder prevalence assessment.

    PubMed

    Lindvall Dahlgren, Camilla; Wisting, Line

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on assessment of eating disorder prevalence during the DSM-IV era (1994-2015). A PubMed search was conducted targeting articles on prevalence, incidence and epidemiology of eating disorders. The review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, and was limited to DSM-IV based eating disorder diagnoses published between 1994 and 2015. A total of 74 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Results yielded evidence of over 40 different assessment instruments used to assess eating disorder prevalence, with the EAT-40 being the most commonly used screening instrument, and the SCID being the most frequently used interview. The vast majority of studies employed two-stage designs, closely followed by clinical interviews. Observations of higher prevalence rates were found in studies employing self-reports compared to two-stage designs and interviews. Eating disorder prevalence rates have varied significantly during the DSM-IV era, and are dependent on assessment methods used and samples investigated. Following the transition to the DSM-5, eating disorder prevalence will change, warranting novel approaches to assessment and treatment planning. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Synergistic protective effect of astragaloside IV-tetramethylpyrazine against cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury induced by transient focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiehong; Li, Jinhui; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Yuyan; Zhu, Zhenhong; Wan, Haitong

    2012-03-06

    Astragaloside IV and tetramethylpyrazine have been extensively used in the cardio-cerbrovascular diseases of medicine as a chief ingredient of glycoside or alkaloid formulations for the treatment of stroke and myocardial ischemia diseases. To investigate the effects of astragaloside IV (ASG IV) and tetramethylpyrazine (TMPZ) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury model in rat model. Rats were randomly divided into the following five groups: sham group, IR group and treatment group including ASG IV, ASG IV-TMPZ and nimodipine treatment. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by micro-positron emission tomography (Micro-PET) using (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose. The neurological examination, infarct volume and the levels of oxidative stress- and cell apoptosis-related molecules were assessed. Micro-PET imaging showed that glucose metabolism in the right hippocampus was significantly decreased in the IR group compared to the sham group (P<0.01). ASG IV and ASG IV-TMPZ treatments reversed the decreased glucose metabolism in the model group (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). IR induced the increase of Caspase-3 mRNA levels, MDA content and iNOS activity, but it caused the decrease of SOD activity and Bcl-2 expression compared the sham group (P<0.01). ASG IV-TMPZ and ASG IV reversed the IR-induced changes of these parameters, i.e. the down regulation of Caspase-3 mRNA, MDA content and iNOS activity, and the up regulation of SOD activity and Bcl-2 expression (P<0.05). This study showed that ASG IV-TMPZ played a pivotal synergistic protective role against focal cerebral ischemic reperfusion damage in a rat experimental model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis, immunomodulation and cytotoxic effects of vanadium (IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Ashiq, Uzma; Jamal, Rifat Ara; Mesaik, Mohammad Ahmed; Mahroof-Tahir, Muhammad; Shahid, Saba; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    Vanadium is known to exhibit several bioactivities and shows potential as a pharmaceutical drug. The current studies were conducted with the goal of synthesizing a new generation of oxovanadium(IV) complexes, investigating their effects on cancer cell proliferation and their immunomodulatory properties, and predicting possible structure activity relationships. The elucidation of the structures of the synthesized complexes was achieved using elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, magnetic property measurements, and IR and electronic spectroscopies. These studies suggest that the synthesized complexes have a binuclear structure. All of the complexes were evaluated on different cancer cell lines, including HeLa, PC-3, and C33A, and on the normal 3T3 fibroblast cells. Some of the compounds exhibited prominent inhibitory activities on the cervical cancer cell lines and the prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The immunomodulatory activity of the vanadium compounds was evaluated on human phagocytes for ROS (reactive oxygen species) production using luminol- and lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assays. No potent effect was exerted by the majority of the tested compounds on whole blood oxidative burst activity. A study of human T-cells proliferation in vitro on vanadium complexes was also conducted. The majority of the compounds were observed to exhibit potent inhibitory effects. The superoxide, nitric oxide and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging properties were also determined.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, R.; Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Kalenchuk, D.

    2004-10-06

    Enhanced proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) is one of the technology goals for advanced nuclear concepts, such as Generation IV systems. Under the auspices of the Generation IV International Forum, the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology of the U.S. DOE, the Office of Nonproliferation Policy of the National Nuclear Security Administration, and participating organizations from six other countries are sponsoring an international working group to develop an evaluation methodology for PR&PP. This methodology will permit an objective PR&PP comparison between alternative nuclear systems (e.g., different reactor types or fuel cycles) and support design optimization to enhance robustness against proliferation, theft and sabotage. The paper summarizes the proposed assessment methodology including the assessment framework, measures used to express the PR&PP characteristics of the system, threat definition, system element and target identification, pathway identification and analysis, and estimation of the measures.

  15. Effect of Supercoiling on the Mechanical and Permeability Properties of Model Collagen IV Networks.

    PubMed

    Gyoneva, Lazarina; Segal, Yoav; Dorfman, Kevin D; Barocas, Victor H

    2015-07-01

    Collagen IV networks in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) are essential for the maintenance and regulation of blood filtration in the kidneys. The GBM contains two different types of collagen IV networks: [α1(IV)]2α2(IV) and α3(IV)α4(IV)α5(IV), the latter of which has a higher number of supercoils (two or more collagens coiling around each other). To investigate the effects of supercoiling on the mechanical and permeability properties of collagen IV networks, we generated model collagen IV networks in the GBM and reconnected them to create different levels of supercoiling. We found that supercoiling greatly increases the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreases the permeability. Also, doubling the amount of supercoils in a network had a bigger effect than doubling the stiffness of the supercoils. Our results suggest that the formation of supercoils is a specialized mechanism by the GBM that provides with a network stiff and strong enough to withstand the high hydrostatic pressures of filtration, yet porous enough that filtration is not hindered. Clinically, understanding the effects of supercoiling gives us insight into the mechanisms of GBM failure in some disease states where the normal collagen IV structure is disrupted.

  16. Effects of Astragaloside IV on heart failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhuanyou; Wang, Weiting; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Kerui; Han, Yingmei; Xu, Weiren; Tang, Lida

    2009-01-01

    Background Astragaloside IV (ASI) in Radix Astragali is believed to be the active component in treating heart failure. The present study aims to examine the effects of ASI on cardiovascular parameters in long-term heart failure in rats. Methods Using echocardiographic and haemodynamic measurements, we studied the effects of ASI on congestive heart failure (CHF) induced by ligation of the left coronary artery in rats. Results ASI (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg/day) attenuated the decline of fractional shortening (FS). The peak derivatives of the left ventricle (LV) pressure (dp/dt) in ASI-treated groups significantly increased. Both LV internal diameters in diastole (LVIDd) and in systole (LVIDs) decreased significantly after ASI treatment (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg/day). ASI (1.0 mg/kg/day) attenuated the decrease of LV systolic pressure (LVSP). ASI treatment inhibited compensatory hypertrophy of myocardial cells and lowered the number of apoptotic myocytes. Conclusion ASI improved cardiac functions as measured by cardiovascular parameters. PMID:19338675

  17. Gravitational effects from a series of IVS R&D VLBI-sessions with observations close to the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinkelmann, R.; Soja, B.; Schuh, H.

    2015-08-01

    In 2011 and 2012 the IVS observed twelve VLBI research and development (R&D) sessions that include successful observations as angularly close as 3.9° from the heliocenter. Among others, one purpose of these IVS-R&D sessions was to achieve an improvement in the determination of the PPN parameter γ . Besides, by analyzing this specific set of IVS sessions, it was for the first time possible to measure the dispersive effect of the Solar corona with VLBI (Soja et al., 2014). In this work we assess the formal error of the γ-parameter and the contributions of the various terms to the partial derivative of the γ-parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the size of the gravitational delays caused by: (i) Solar monopole field at rest and with approximately linear translation, (ii) rotation of the Solar monopole field, (iii) Solar gravitational field quadrupole expansion, and (iv) Solar higher order term.

  18. Amidase activity in soils. IV. Effects of trace elements and pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenberger, W.T., Jr.; Tabatabai, M.A.

    1981-11-01

    Amidase was recently detected in soils, and this study was carried out to assess the effects of 21 trace elements, 12 herbicides, 2 fungicides, and 2 insecticides on the activity of this enzyme. Results showed that most of the trace elements and pesticides studied inhibited amidase activity in soils. The degree of inhibition varied among the soils used. When the trace elements were compared by using 5 ..mu..mol/g of soil, the average inhibition of amidase in three soils showed that Ag(I), Hg(I), As(III), and Se(IV) were the most effective inhibitors, but only Ag(I) and As(III) showed average inhibition > 50%. The least effective inhibitors (average inhibition < 3%) included Cu(I), Ba(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Al(III), Fe(III), Ti(IV), V(IV), As(V), Mo(VI), and W(VI). Other elements that inhibited amidase activity in soils were Cd(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Pb(II), Sn(II), Zn(II), B(III), and Cr(III). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that As(III) was a competitive inhibitor of amidase, whereas Ag(I), Hg(II), and Se(IV) were noncompetitive inhibitors. When the pesticides studied were compared by using 10 ..mu..g of active ingredient per gram of soil, the average inhibition of amidase in three soils ranged from 2% with dinitroamine, EPTC plus R-25788, and captan to 10% with butylate. Other pesticides that inhibited amidase activity in soils were atrazine, naptalam, chloramben, dicamba, cyanazine, 2,4-D, alachlor, paraquat, trifluralin, maneb, diazinon, and malathion. The inhibition of amidase by diazinon, alachlor, and butylate followed noncompetitive kinetics.

  19. Apolipoprotein A-IV polymorphism in Saami and Finns: frequency and effect on serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, S; Luoma, P; Näyhä, S; Hassi, J; Ehnholm, C; Nikkari, T; Peltonen, N; Jokela, H; Koivula, T; Lehtimäki, T

    1998-04-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a glycoprotein constituent of triglyceride-rich and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and may thus play an important role in lipid metabolism. In Finland two common isoforms (A-IV-1 and A-IV-2) of apoA-IV have been found. The isoforms are the result of the G to T substitution in the third base of the codon 360 in the apoA-IV-2 allele of the apoA-IV gene. The purpose of the study was to determine the apoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns, and to relate the apoA-IV phenotypes to serum lipids. The sample was drawn in connection with a Reindeer Herders' Health Survey performed in northern Finland in 1989. The study group included 248 men with known ethnic origin, Saami and Finns, who lived in the area of the nine northernmost municipalities of Finland. ApoA-IV phenotypes from 71 Saami (both parents Saami) and 177 Finns (both parents Finns) were determined by isoelectric focusing and Western blotting. Serum lipids were determined enzymatically. ApoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns were for A-IV-1 0.894 vs 0.944 and for A-IV-2 0.106 vs 0.056, respectively (chi2-test, P < 0.05). The effect of the apoA-IV phenotype on serum HDL-cholesterol levels differed significantly between the Saami and the Finns (two-way ANCOVA, interaction between ethnicity and apoA-IV phenotype, P < 0.02). In the Saami, HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the apoA-IV-2/1 than in the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes (ANCOVA, P < 0.05). Mean total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ statistically significantly between the Saami and the Finns. Yet, there was a trend in the Saami of having higher mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels than the Finns among the apoA-IV-2/1 phenotypes, while there was only a small difference in these parameters between the Saami and the Finns among the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes. In

  20. [Assessment of intelligence of 6-year-old children--practical comparability of HAWIVA-III and HAWIK-IV].

    PubMed

    Daseking, Monika; Petermann, Franz; Waldmann, Hans-Christian

    2010-03-01

    The present study focuses on the practical comparability of HAWIVA-III and HAWIK-IV test results. HAWIVA-III and HAWIK-IV were administered in counterbalanced order to N=45 6-year-old children. The study presents means, standard deviations, and uncorrected and corrected correlations, as well as standard differences. Regression analysis was used to predict IQ values. There is a significant positive correlation between indices of HAWIVA-III and HAWIK-IV (VT/SV: r=.81; HT/WLD: r=.86; VG/VG: r=.77) and between the two Full Scale IQs (r=.91). Predicted WISC-IV values based on WPPSI-III indices are reported. The results of this study indicate that there is a close relation between HAWIVA-III and HAWIK-IV. Therefore, HAWIK-IV-results can be compared with diagnostic findings assessed by HAWIVA-III.

  1. [Effect of cimetidine with chemotherapy on stage IV colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Hashimoto, Masahiko; Umehara, Arihiro; Yokomizo, Hajime; Yoshida, Kiyohito; Fujimoto, Takashi; Iwasaki, Kiyo; Ogawa, Kenji

    2003-10-01

    We herein report the result of a prospective study to investigate the efficacy of cimetidine administration in conjunction with chemotherapy for stage IV colorectal cancer. Sixty-two patients treated with Leucovorin/5-fluorouracil therapy were enrolled from 1996 to 2000. Both groups were well matched for pre-treatment characteristics. There was no difference in survival in cur B patients. However, the cimetidine group had significantly prolonged survival in the patients with cur C or non-resectable carcinoma. This study suggests that cimetidine treatment may improve the survival of patients with non-curative surgery for stage IV colorectal cancer.

  2. Some supplementary methods for the analysis of WAIS-IV index scores in neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Crawford, John R; Garthwaite, Paul H; Longman, R Stewart; Batty, Abigail M

    2012-09-01

    To develop supplementary methods for the analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) in neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric. The following methods are made available: (a) provision of traditional confidence intervals (CIs) on index scores, (b) expression of the endpoints of CIs as percentile ranks; (c) quantification of the number of abnormally low index scores exhibited by a case and accompanying estimate of the percentage of the normative population expected to exhibit at least this number of low scores; (d) quantification of the reliability and abnormality of index score deviations from an individual's index score mean (thereby offering an alternative to the pairwise approach to index score comparisons available in the WAIS-IV manual); (e) provision of CIs on an individual's deviation scores or pairwise difference scores, (f) estimation of the percentage of the normative population expected to exhibit at least as many abnormal deviations or abnormal pairwise differences as a case; and (g) calculation of a case's Mahalanobis distance index (MDI), thereby providing a multivariate estimate of the overall abnormality of an index score profile. With the exception of the MDI, all the methods can be applied using tables provided in this paper. However, for ease and speed of application, and to reduce the possibility of clerical error, all the methods have also been implemented in a computer program. The methods are useful for neuropsychological interpretation of the WAIS-IV. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Analysis of School Leaders Licensure Assessment Content Category I-V Scores and Principal Internship Self-Assessment Scores for ISLLC Standards I-V

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    This study compares School Leaders Licensure Assessment (SLLA) sub-scores with principal interns' self-assessment sub-scores (ISA) for a principal internship evaluation instrument in one educational leadership graduate program. The results of the study will be used to help establish the effectiveness of the current principal internship program,…

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of Standard Care With IV Thrombolysis Versus Without IV Thrombolysis for Mild Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jay Chol; Jang, Min Uk; Kang, Kyusik; Park, Jong‐Moo; Ko, Youngchai; Lee, Soo‐Joo; Cha, Jae‐Kwan; Kim, Dae‐Hyun; Park, Sang Soon; Park, Tai Hwan; Lee, Kyung Bok; Lee, Jun; Kim, Joon‐Tae; Cho, Ki‐Hyun; Yu, Kyung‐Ho; Oh, Mi‐Sun; Lee, Byung‐Chul; Cho, Yong‐Jin; Kim, Dong‐Eog; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Juneyoung; Gorelick, Philip B.; Bae, Hee‐Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background One third of patients presenting with initially mild strokes have unfavorable outcomes, and the efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in this population has not been proven. This study aimed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of standard care with IVT versus without IVT in mild stroke patients. Methods and Results Using a multicenter stroke registry database, we identified patients with acute ischemic stroke who presented within 4.5 hours of symptom onset and had initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores ≤5. Multivariable logistic analysis and propensity score matching were used to adjust for baseline imbalances between the patients who did and did not receive IVT. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs of IVT were estimated for 3‐month modified Rankin Scale scores of 0 to 1 and symptomatic. Of 13 117 patients with stroke who were hospitalized between April 2008 and May 2012, 1386 met the eligibility criteria, and 194 (14.0%) were treated with IVT. For a modified Rankin Scale of 0 to 1 at 3 months, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.96 (95% CI, 1.28 to 3.00; P=0.002) by multivariable logistic analysis and 1.68 (1.10 to 2.56; P=0.02) by propensity score matching analysis, respectively. There was a statistically nonsignificant excess of symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation (odds ratios=3.76 [0.95 to 16.42; P=0.06] and 4.81 [0.84 to 49.34; P=0.09]), respectively. Conclusions In this observational registry‐based study, standard care with IVT is more effective than not receiving IVT in mild ischemic stroke patients, and there is a statistically nonsignificant risk of symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation. PMID:25628404

  5. A Comparison of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and the Stanford-Binet IV for the Assessment of Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Davis C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Administered Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) and Stanford-Binet Fourth Edition (Binet IV) to 32 gifted third- and fourth-graders. Binet IV scores averaged eight points higher than K-ABC scores. Concurrent validity coefficient of .70 indicated high degree of association between test performance on two tests. Results support use of…

  6. Clinical assessment of DSM-IV anxiety disorders in fragile X syndrome: prevalence and characterization.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Lisa; Ballinger, Elizabeth; Hagerman, Randi; Hessl, David

    2011-03-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability (ID). Anxiety and social withdrawal are considered core features of the FXS phenotype, yet there is limited diagnostic evidence of the prevalence of formal anxiety disorders in FXS. This study assessed the prevalence of anxiety disorders in a sample of 58 males and 39 females with FXS (ages 5.0-33.3 years). Participants' parents completed the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS-IV), a clinical interview based on DSM-IV criteria, and the Anxiety Depression and Mood Scale (ADAMS), a psychiatric disorders screening instrument normed in ID. We conducted cognitive (IQ) and autism (AUT) assessments and surveyed medication use. Despite a high rate of psychopharmacological treatment, 86.2% of males and 76.9% of females met criteria for an anxiety disorder, with social phobia and specific phobia the most commonly diagnosed. Proband status, gender, and IQ were not significantly related to any anxiety disorders, however significantly higher rates of a few anxiety disorders were found in older age and AUT groups. Significant correlations between ADIS diagnoses and ADAMS scores provided cross-validation of instruments, indicating that the ADIS is suitable for use in FXS. A greater percentage of our sample met criteria for most anxiety disorders than has been reported in other ID groups or the general population. The rate of anxiety compared to general ID suggests that the FMR1 full mutation confers an especially high risk for these disorders, regardless of factors commonly associated with FXS clinical involvement. A thorough clinical assessment and treatment of anxiety should be included in the FXS standard of care.

  7. Assessing Intellectual Functioning in Young Adolescents: How Do the WISC-IV and SB5 Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kimberley; Gilmore, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and the Stanford-Binet--Fifth Edition (SB5) are two of the most commonly used intelligence tests for children and adolescents. No comparative studies of the WISC-IV and SB5 have yet been published. In the current study the WISC-IV and SB5 were administered in counterbalanced…

  8. Assessing Intellectual Functioning in Young Adolescents: How Do the WISC-IV and SB5 Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kimberley; Gilmore, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and the Stanford-Binet--Fifth Edition (SB5) are two of the most commonly used intelligence tests for children and adolescents. No comparative studies of the WISC-IV and SB5 have yet been published. In the current study the WISC-IV and SB5 were administered in counterbalanced…

  9. Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vierow, Karen; Aldemir, Tunc

    2009-09-10

    The project entitled, “Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors”, was conducted as a DOE NERI project collaboration between Texas A&M University and The Ohio State University between March 2006 and June 2009. The overall goal of the proposed project was to develop practical approaches and tools by which dynamic reliability and risk assessment techniques can be used to augment the uncertainty quantification process in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and PRA applications for Generation IV reactors. This report is the Final Scientific/Technical Report summarizing the project.

  10. Modeling Grade IV Gas Emboli using a Limited Failure Population Model with Random Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Laura A.; Conkin, Johnny; Chhikara, Raj S.; Powell, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Venous gas emboli (VGE) (gas bubbles in venous blood) are associated with an increased risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in hypobaric environments. A high grade of VGE can be a precursor to serious DCS. In this paper, we model time to Grade IV VGE considering a subset of individuals assumed to be immune from experiencing VGE. Our data contain monitoring test results from subjects undergoing up to 13 denitrogenation test procedures prior to exposure to a hypobaric environment. The onset time of Grade IV VGE is recorded as contained within certain time intervals. We fit a parametric (lognormal) mixture survival model to the interval-and right-censored data to account for the possibility of a subset of "cured" individuals who are immune to the event. Our model contains random subject effects to account for correlations between repeated measurements on a single individual. Model assessments and cross-validation indicate that this limited failure population mixture model is an improvement over a model that does not account for the potential of a fraction of cured individuals. We also evaluated some alternative mixture models. Predictions from the best fitted mixture model indicate that the actual process is reasonably approximated by a limited failure population model.

  11. Modeling Grade IV Gas Emboli using a Limited Failure Population Model with Random Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Laura A.; Conkin, Johnny; Chhikara, Raj S.; Powell, Michael R.

    2002-05-01

    Venous gas emboli (VGE) (gas bubbles in venous blood) are associated with an increased risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in hypobaric environments. A high grade of VGE can be a precursor to serious DCS. In this paper, we model time to Grade IV VGE considering a subset of individuals assumed to be immune from experiencing VGE. Our data contain monitoring test results from subjects undergoing up to 13 denitrogenation test procedures prior to exposure to a hypobaric environment. The onset time of Grade IV VGE is recorded as contained within certain time intervals. We fit a parametric (lognormal) mixture survival model to the interval-and right-censored data to account for the possibility of a subset of "cured" individuals who are immune to the event. Our model contains random subject effects to account for correlations between repeated measurements on a single individual. Model assessments and cross-validation indicate that this limited failure population mixture model is an improvement over a model that does not account for the potential of a fraction of cured individuals. We also evaluated some alternative mixture models. Predictions from the best fitted mixture model indicate that the actual process is reasonably approximated by a limited failure population model.

  12. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, E.C. Jr.; Shannon, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  13. Effects of tibial intraosseous and IV administration of vasopressin on kinetics and survivability in cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Don; Giles, Kirk; Acuna, Alexis; Saenz, Crystal; Bentley, Michael; Budinich, Craig

    2016-03-01

    Purposes of this study were to compare tibial intraosseous (TIO) and intravenous (IV) administration of vasopressin relative to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and time to ROSC in an adult swine cardiac arrest model. In addition, the purposes were to compare the concentration maximum (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), and odds of ROSC. This was a between-subjects, prospective experimental study. Yorkshire swine (N = 21) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: TIO, IV, or control groups. The swine were anesthetized and instrumented, and then cardiac arrest was induced and sustained for 2 minutes. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated and continued for 2 minutes. Vasopressin was then administered via the TIO or IV route. Blood samples were collected for 4 minutes to determine the Cmax and Tmax of vasopressin. Concentration maximum and Tmax were calculated by use of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. There was no difference in ROSC between the TIO and IV groups (P = .63). The Cmax of vasopressin was significantly higher in the IV group compared to the TIO group (P = .017). However, there was no significant difference in ROSC, time to ROSC, or Tmax between groups (P > .05). All subjects had ROSC in both the IV and TIO groups, and none had ROSC in the control group. There was 225 times greater chance of survival for both the IV and TIO groups compared to the control group. The data support that the TIO is an effective route for vasopressin in a cardiac arrest model. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Safety assessment of Tin(IV) oxide as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    Tin(IV) oxide functions as an abrasive, bulking, and opacifying agent in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations up to 0.4% in rinse-off products and up to 1.3% in leave-on products. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) noted that tin(IV) oxide is a water-insoluble inorganic metal compound and should not be percutaneously absorbed; therefore, systemic exposure is not likely. Studies of dermal application of tin(IV) oxide were considered to determine toxicity at the site of application. The Panel concluded that tin(IV) oxide is safe in the present practices of use and concentration.

  15. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms in Chinese Urban Schoolchildren: Assessment With the Chinese ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Home Version.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi Esther; Wang, Hong; Geng, Yao-Guo; Sun, Ling; Du, Ya-Song; Fan, Fang; Su, Lin-Yan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD RS-IV): Home Version and to explore parent ratings of ADHD symptoms in a large sample of urban schoolchildren in China. Parents of a representative sample of 1,616 schoolchildren (aged 6-17) in 12 Chinese cities completed the ADHD RS-IV: Home Version. The Chinese ADHD RS-IV: Home Version demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, test-retest reliability, parent-teacher correlation, discriminant validity, and convergent validity. Factor analysis revealed the DSM-IV two-factor model with "inattention" and "hyperactivity-impulsivity" dimensions, accounting for equal variances. Parent ratings revealed lower/similar scores for Chinese schoolchildren compared with the U.S. The ADHD RS-IV: Home Version is a reliable and valid ADHD rating scale in China. The factor structure is similar but not identical to the U.S. Normative data reveal cultural differences in some aspects of the parent ratings of ADHD. © The Author(s) 2012.

  16. (+)-UH 232, a partial agonist of the D3 dopamine receptors, attenuates cognitive effects of angiotensin IV and des-Phe(6)-angiotensin IV in rats.

    PubMed

    Braszko, Jan J

    2010-04-01

    We have recently found that postsynaptic D3 dopamine (DA) receptors appear not to participate in the memory enhancing effects of the angiotensin AT4 receptor agonists angiotensin IV (Ang IV) and des-Phe(6)-Ang IV. In this study we evaluated role of the presynaptic DA D3 receptors in these effects. For that purpose effect of (+)-UH 232, a selective D3 DA receptors partial agonist preferring presynaptic sites, on the pro-cognitive action of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected Ang IV and des-Phe(6)-Ang IV was examined. Male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were used. Both peptides given at the dose of 1 nmol facilitated recall of a passive avoidance (PA) behaviour, improved object recognition (OR), and increased apomorphine-induced stereotype behaviour. In the auxiliary tests performed to control for the unspecific influence of motor (open field, OF) and emotional ('plus' maze, PM) effects of our treatments on the results of the memory tests they had either no (OF) or negligible (PM) effects. Intraperitoneal pre-treatment of the animals with an ineffective on its own dose (1 mg/kg) of (+)-UH 232 abolished or markedly diminished effects of both peptides on PA and OR but did not influence enhancement of stereotypy caused by the peptides. 2009 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. 78 FR 59710 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; Shiloh IV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... copies or more information by one of the following methods. Email: ShilohIV_comments@fws.gov . U.S. Mail...-6486, Attn: Shiloh IV Wind Project DEA Comments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Heather Beeler... INFORMATION: Introduction The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is considering an application under the Bald...

  18. Assessing Giftedness with the WISC-III and the SB-IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Michael; Carone, Dominic A., Jr.; Burns, William J.; Seidman, Traci; Montgomery, Doil; Sellers, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (SB-IV), were administered to 20 gifted children and 20 non-gifted children to examine the extent of the difference in IQ scores obtained on the two tests. Results show that the SB-IV Composite Score was significantly…

  19. Assessing Giftedness with the WISC-III and the SB-IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Michael; Carone, Dominic A., Jr.; Burns, William J.; Seidman, Traci; Montgomery, Doil; Sellers, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (SB-IV), were administered to 20 gifted children and 20 non-gifted children to examine the extent of the difference in IQ scores obtained on the two tests. Results show that the SB-IV Composite Score was significantly…

  20. Inhibitory effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists on collagen IV production in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjiao; Shen, Yachen; Li, Min; Su, Dongming; Xu, Weifeng; Liang, Xiubin; Li, Rongshan

    2015-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists have beneficial effects on the kidney diseases through preventing microalbuminuria and glomerulosclerosis. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be fully understood. In this study, we investigate the effects of PPAR-γ agonist, rosiglitazone (Rosi) and pioglitazone (Pio), on collagen IV production in mouse podocytes. The endogenous expression of PPAR-γ was found in the primary podocytes and can be upregulated by Rosi and Pio, respectively, detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. PPAR-γ agonist markedly blunted the increasing of collagen IV expression and extraction in podocytes induced by TGF-β. In contrast, adding PPAR-γ antagonist, GW9662, to podocytes largely prevented the inhibition of collagen IV expression from Pio treatment. Our data also showed that phosphorylation of Smad2/3 enhanced by TGF-β in a time-dependent manner was significantly attenuated by adding Pio. The promoter region of collagen IV gene contains one putative consensus sequence of Smad-binding element (SBE) by promoter analysis, Rosi and Pio significantly ameliorated TGF-β-induced SBE4-luciferase activity. In conclusion, PPAR-γ activation by its agonist, Rosi or Pio, in vitro directly inhibits collagen IV expression and synthesis in primary mouse podocytes. The suppression of collagen IV production was related to the inhibition of TGF-β-driven phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and decreased response activity of SBEs of collagen IV in PPAR-γ agonist-treated mouse podocytes. This represents a novel mechanistic support regarding PPAR-γ agonists as podocyte protective agents.

  1. Assessing DSM-IV symptoms of panic attack in the general population: an item response analysis.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Matthew; Hobbs, Megan J; Andrews, Gavin; Craske, Michelle G

    2012-12-20

    Unexpected panic attacks may represent a non-specific risk factor for future depression and anxiety disorders. The examination of panic symptoms and associated latent severity levels may lead to improvements in the identification, prevention, and treatment of panic attacks and subsequent psychopathology for 'at risk' individuals in the general population. The current study utilised item response theory to assess the DSM-IV symptoms of panic in relation to the latent severity level of the panic attack construct in a sample of 5913 respondents from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related conditions. Additionally, differential item functioning (DIF) was assessed to determine if each symptom of panic targets the same level of latent severity between different sociodemographic groups (male/female, young/old). Symptoms indexing 'choking', 'fear of dying', and 'tingling/numbness' are some of the more severe symptoms of panic whilst 'heart racing', 'short of breath', 'tremble/shake', 'dizzy/faint', and 'perspire' are some of the least severe symptoms. Significant levels of DIF were detected in the 'perspire' symptom between males and females and the 'fear of dying' symptom between young and old respondents. The current study was limited to examining cross-sectional data from respondents who had experienced at least one panic attack across their lifetime. The findings of the current study provide additional information regarding panic symptoms in the general population that may enable researchers and clinicians to further refine the detection of 'at-risk' individuals who experience threshold and sub-threshold levels of panic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analgesic effect of i.v. paracetamol: possible ceiling effect of paracetamol in postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, T W; Mogensen, T; Lund, C; Jacobsen, L S; Hjortsoe, N-C; Rasmussen, S N; Rasmussen, M

    2003-02-01

    Despite the widespread use of paracetamol for many years, the analgesic serum concentrations of paracetamol are unknown. Therefore the correlation between serum paracetamol concentrations and the analgesic effect was studied. Sixty-four women undergoing laparoscopic sterilization were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Patients were given i.v. propacetamol 40 mg kg(-1) (group H), 20 mg kg(-1) (group I), 10 mg kg(-1) (group L) or placebo after surgery. Alfentanil was available via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) during the 4-h postoperative study period. The patients' self-reported pain was registered on the visual analog scale (VAS). A pharmacokinetic model was fitted to the paracetamol data. One to 3 h after injection of propacetamol the alfentanil consumption was significantly (P = 0.01-0.04) higher in the placebo group compared with groups H, I, and L receiving propacetamol. There were no significant differences between the amounts of alfentanil consumed in groups H, I, and L. Initial VAS-scores were moderate (5.4-6.2), and declined significantly (P < 0.0001) over time, with no difference between groups. Paracetamol followed an open two-compartment model with i.v. administration and first order elimination. The estimated concentrations immediately (t = 0) after injection were 56 mg l(-1) (H), 28 mg l(-1) (I) and 14 mg l(-1) (L). We showed a significant opioid-sparing effect of paracetamol in the immediate postoperative period. Pharmacokinetic data were in accordance with other studies. Our results suggest that a ceiling effect of paracetamol may be present at i.v. doses of 5 mg kg(-1), i.e. a serum concentration of 14 mg l(-1), which is a lower dose than previously suggested. Copyright Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 47 (2003)

  3. I-V Characteristics of a Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    1999-01-01

    There are many possible uses for ferroelectric field effect transistors.To understand their application, a fundamental knowledge of their basic characteristics must first be found. In this research, the current and voltage characteristics of a field effect transistor are described. The effective gate capacitance and charge are derived from experimental data on an actual FFET. The general equation for a MOSFET is used to derive the internal characteristics of the transistor: This equation is modified slightly to describe the FFET characteristics. Experimental data derived from a Radiant Technologies FFET is used to calculate the internal transistor characteristics using fundamental MOSFET equations. The drain current was measured under several different gate and drain voltages and with different initial polarizations on the ferroelectric material in the transistor. Two different polarization conditions were used. One with the gate ferroelectric material polarized with a +9.0 volt write pulse and one with a -9.0 volt pulse.

  4. Effective Compensatory Education Sourcebook. Volume IV: Project Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Kathleen J.; And Others

    This directory is a compendium of 108 outstanding Education Consolidation Improvement Act Chapter 1 compensatory education projects selected for recognition by the United States Department of Education in 1987. It is the fourth volume in the "Effective Compensatory Education Sourcebook" series. Volume 1 consists of a review of the…

  5. A Comparison of the Safety Analysis Process and the Generation IV Proliferation Resistance/Physical Protection Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Bjornard; M. D. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a vehicle for the cooperative international development of future nuclear energy systems. The Generation IV program has established primary objectives in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP). In order to help meet the latter objective a program was launched in December 2002 to develop a rigorous means to assess nuclear energy systems with respect to PR&PP. The study of Physical Protection of a facility is a relatively well established methodology, but an approach to evaluate the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear fuel cycle is not. This paper will examine the Proliferation Resistance (PR) evaluation methodology being developed by the PR group, which is largely a new approach and compare it to generally accepted nuclear facility safety evaluation methodologies. Safety evaluation methods have been the subjects of decades of development and use. Further, safety design and analysis is fairly broadly understood, as well as being the subject of federally mandated procedures and requirements. It is therefore extremely instructive to compare and contrast the proposed new PR evaluation methodology process with that used in safety analysis. By so doing, instructive and useful conclusions can be derived from the comparison that will help to strengthen the PR methodological approach as it is developed further. From the comparison made in this paper it is evident that there are very strong parallels between the two processes. Most importantly, it is clear that the proliferation resistance aspects of nuclear energy systems are best considered beginning at the very outset of the design process. Only in this way can the designer identify and cost effectively incorporate intrinsic features that might be difficult to implement at some later stage. Also, just like safety, the process to implement proliferation resistance should be a dynamic

  6. Effect of the mobility on (I-V) characteristics of the MOSFET

    SciTech Connect

    Benzaoui, Ouassila; Azizi, Cherifa

    2013-12-16

    MOSFET Transistor was the subject of many studies and research works (electronics, data-processing, telecommunications...) in order to exploit its interesting and promising characteristics. The aim of this contribution is devoted to the effect of the mobility on the static characteristics I-V of the MOSFET. The study enables us to calculate the drain current as function of bias in both linear and saturated modes; this effect is evaluated using a numerical simulation program. The influence of mobility was studied. Obtained results allow us to determine the mobility law in the MOSFET which gives optimal (I-V) characteristics of the component.

  7. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume IV. Number 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    vertically and ± 0.05 C horizontally. Thus, heating through a triple -stub tuner to coaxial Transco uniformity to within 0.1 C may be achieved when...significant discomfort. The use of decimeter-wave therapy in combination The antitumor effects of a triple combination of with radiation therapy is currently...applied with cancer. an inductive Eddy current applicator (3.8-cm di- ameter) at 461 MHz with a Siemens generator. Mice receiving the triple combination

  8. Effects of aminoguanidine and vitamin C on collagen type IV in diabetic nephropathy rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiangxiang; Ao, Xiang; Du, Youhong; Li, Yang; Ou, Yangshi; Gong, Raofeng; Sun, Xuexiong; Yang, Yi Xiang; Wen, Gebo

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the effects of Aminoguanidine and vitamin C (VitC) on type IV collagen in diabetic nephropathy rats. Diabetic nephropathy rats were induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal control group (n = 10), diabetes group (n = 10), aminoguanidine group (n = 10), VitC group (n = 10), aminoguanidine and VitC group (n = 10). After 16 weeks, the general conditions, blood gloucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, serum type IV collagen, urinary albumin excretion rate, and creatinine clearance rate were detected, type IV collagen protein was determined by immunohistochemical analysis as well as the expression of collagen type IVα1 mRNA were determined by in situ hybridization analysis in the kidneys of each group. The results were (1) diabetes mellitus and renal lesions occurred in the diabetes group, aminoguanidine group, VitC group, VitC and aminoguanidine group; (2) aminoguanidine and VitC improved the general conditions of diabetic nephropathy rats, decreased blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and urinary albumin excretion rate as well as increased creatinine clearance rate. The expressions of collagen type IV were significantly down-regulated in treatment groups in contrast to the diabetes group. Aminoguanidine and VitC protect renal lesions in diabetic nephropathy, respectively, by inhibiting expression of type IV collagen, while aminoguanidine and VitC have a synergistic effect on them.

  9. Enantioselective autocatalysis. IV. Implications for parity violation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, William A.

    1996-02-01

    Historically, parity violation at the contemporary biomolecular level (i.e., only L-amino acids in proteins and D-sugars in DNA and RNA) has been postulated to be the inevitable result of parity violations at the elementary particle level, involving eitherβ-decay electrons or parity violating energy differences (PVEDs)between enantiomers. These two chiral biases have in turn allegedly impressed a small but persistent chirality onto prebiotic chemistry which, after appropriate amplification, has culminated in our contemporary homochiral biopolymers. Experiments and controversies pertaining to the efficacy of these two chiral biases are reviewed briefly, with the conclusions that: a) there is no experimental evidence supporting the capability ofβ-decay electrons or other spinpolarized chiral particles to generate chiral molecules, and b) only theoretical calculations, but no experimental evidence, support the allegation of a causal relation between PVEDs and biomolecular homochirality. We here attempt to examine the latter allegation experimentally. Spontaneous resolution under racemization conditions (SRURC) during the crystallization of the bromofluoro-1,4-benzodiazepinooxazole derivativeI is capable of affording products of high enantiomeric purity. This process, which involves very efficient stereoselective autocatalysis, has now been examined statistically. If PVED effects are operative, the SRURC of racemicI should provide, either exclusively or with a strong and consistent bias, only one enantiomer of crystallineI. However, crystallization experiments of racemicI showed no bias in its SRURC, leading to the conclusion that PVED effects are ineffective in dictating a preferred chirality in this system. Several earlier experiments in the literature leading to a similar conclusion as to the inefficacy of PVED effects in promoting a preferred chirality are noted.

  10. Gaussian Weighted Trajectory Method. IV. No Rainbow Effect in Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Gaussian weighted trajectory method (GWTM) is a practical implementation of classical S matrix theory (CSMT) in the random phase approximation, CSMT being the first and simplest semi-classical approach of molecular collisions, developped in the early seventies. Though very close in spirit to the purely classical description, GWTM accounts to some extent for the quantization of the different degrees-of-freedom involved in the processes. While CSMT may give diverging final state distributions, in relation to the rainbow effect of elastic scattering theory, GWTM has never led to such a mathematical catastrophe. The goal of the present note is to explain this finding.

  11. Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor delays tolerance to anxiolytic effect of ethanol and withdrawal-induced anxiety in rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajaykumar N; Pise, Ashish; Sharma, Jay N; Shukla, Praveen

    2015-06-01

    Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of endogenous gut-derived hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). DPP-IV is known for its role in energy homeostasis and pharmacological blockade of this enzyme is a recently approved clinical strategy for the management of type II diabetes. Accumulating evidences suggest that enzyme DPP-IV can affect spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) functions. However, little is known about the role of this enzyme in ethanol-mediated neurobehavioral complications. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of DPP-IV inhibitor, sitagliptin on the development of tolerance to anxiolytic effect of ethanol and anxiety associated with ethanol withdrawal in rats. A dose-response study revealed that sitaglitpin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) per se exhibit anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test in rats. Tolerance to anxiolytic effect of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.; 8 % w/v) was observed from 7(th) day of ethanol-diet (6 % v/v) consumption. In contrast, tolerance to anxiolytic effect of ethanol was delayed in rats that were treated daily with sitagliptin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) as tolerance was observed from 13(th)day since commencement of ethanol-diet consumption. Discontinuation of rats from ethanol-diet after 15-days of ethanol consumption resulted in withdrawal anxiety between 8 h and 12 h post-abstinence. However, rats on 15-day ethanol-diet with concomitant sitagliptin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment exhibited delay in appearance (24 h post-withdrawal) of withdrawal anxiety. In summary, DPP-IV inhibitors may prove as an attractive research strategy against ethanol tolerance and dependence.

  12. Rationale for the prevention of syncope trial IV: assessment of midodrine.

    PubMed

    Raj, Satish R; Faris, Peter D; McRae, Maureen; Sheldon, Robert S

    2012-12-01

    Vasovagal syncope is a common problem associated with a poor quality of life, which improves when the frequency of syncope is reduced. Effective pharmacological therapies for vasovagal syncope have been elusive. Midodrine is a pro-drug whose primary metabolite is an alpha-1 adrenoreceptor agonist. A few studies have suggested that it may be beneficial in syncope, but all have had significant methodological limitations. A placebo-controlled clinical trial of midodrine for the prevention of vasovagal syncope is needed. The prevention of syncope trial IV (POST 4) is a multicenter, international, randomized, placebo-controlled study of midodrine in the prevention of vasovagal syncope. The primary end point is the time to first recurrence of syncope. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receive midodrine 10-30 mg/day or matching placebo, and followed for 1 year. Secondary end points include syncope frequency, presyncope, and quality of life. Primary analysis will be performed with an intention-to-treat approach, with a secondary on-treatment analysis. A total sample size of 112, split equally between the two groups, achieves 85 % power to detect a 50 % relative risk reduction when the event rates are 55 and 27.5 % in the placebo and midodrine arms. Allowing for 20 % dropout, we propose to enroll 140 patients. POST 4 is registered with http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01456481). This study will be the first adequately powered trial to determine whether midodrine is effective in preventing vasovagal syncope. If it is effective, then midodrine may become the first-line pharmacological therapy for this condition.

  13. Rationale for the Prevention of Syncope Trial IV: Assessment of Midodrine

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Satish R; Faris, Peter D; McRae, Maureen; Sheldon, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Background Vasovagal syncope is a common problem associated with a poor quality of life, which improves when the frequency of syncope is reduced. Effective pharmacological therapies for vasovagal syncope have been elusive. Midodrine is a pro-drug whose primary metabolite is an alpha-1 adrenoreceptor agonist. Small studies have suggested that it may be beneficial in syncope, but all have had significant methodological limitations. A placebo-controlled clinical trial of midodrine for the prevention of vasovagal syncope is needed. Structure of study The Prevention of Syncope Trial IV (POST 4) is a multicenter, international, randomized, placebo-controlled study of midodrine in the prevention of vasovagal syncope. The primary endpoint is the time to first recurrence of syncope. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receive midodrine 10–30 mg/day or matching placebo, and followed for 1 year. Secondary endpoints include syncope frequency, presyncope, and quality of life. Primary analysis will be performed with an intention to treat approach, with a secondary on-treatment analysis. Power calculations A total sample size of 112, split equally between the two groups achieves 85% power to detect a 50% relative risk reduction when the event rates are 55% and 27.5% in the placebo and midodrine arms. Allowing for 20% dropout, we propose to enroll 140 patients. Registration POST 4 is registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01456481). Implications This study will be the first adequately powered trial to determine whether midodrine is effective in preventing vasovagal syncope. If it is effective, then midodrine may become the first line pharmacological therapy for this condition. PMID:22610268

  14. Dielectric influence on IV curve of graphene field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shostachenko, Stanislav A.; Zakharchenko, Roman V.; Zebrev, Gennady I.; Stanishevskiy, Yaroslav M.; Kargin, Nikolay I.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we have studied the influence of Si3N4 and SiO2 thin film gate dielectrics on the current-voltage characteristics of the graphene-based transistor. The test structure of graphene transistor was fabricated with the top and back gate. Graphene has been produced by chemical vapor deposition, and then transferred to the silicon dioxide on a silicon wafer. The channel of the transistor has been formed by etching in oxygen plasma through a photolithographic mask. Metals electrodes of the drain, source, and gate were deposited by resistive evaporation in a vacuum. It was used titanium / aluminum with a thickness of 50/200 nm. In the case of the back gate, silicon dioxide was used, obtained by thermal oxidation of the silicon substrate. For top gate was used silicon nitride deposited by plasma chemical deposition. It was demonstrated that field effect is more pronounced for the case of SiO2 back gate compare to the Si3N4 top gate. For the SiO2 back gate we have observed that the source- drain current decreases, from 2 mA to 3 mA, with increasing the gate voltage, from 0 to 40 V, at constant source-drain voltage, 2 V. In case of Si3N4 top gate the modulation of source-drain current was not significant for the comparable electric field strength. Based on the value of gate voltage for current minima in transfer function the poor quality of Si3N4 -graphene interface is concluded.

  15. Alterations in plasma dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme activity in depression and schizophrenia: effects of antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Maes, M; De Meester, I; Scharpe, S; Desnyder, R; Ranjan, R; Meltzer, H Y

    1996-01-01

    Recently, our laboratory reported that the activity of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV) was significantly lower in the peripheral blood of major depressed patients than in normal controls. The present study examines plasma DPP IV activity in 43 major depressed and 13 schizophrenic subjects versus 21 normal controls and the effects of antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs on plasma DPP IV activity. DPP IV activity was significantly lower in major depressed subjects than in normal controls and schizophrenic subjects. There was a trend towards higher DPP IV activity in schizophrenic patients than in normal controls. There were no significant effects of antidepressants or neuroleptics on plasma DPP IV activity in depressed and schizophrenic patients, respectively. There were no significant relationships between plasma DPP IV activity and plasma cortisol or immune-inflammatory markers, such as serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) or soluble IL-2 receptor. A significant and positive correlation was found between plasma DPP IV and prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) enzyme activity in the study group as a whole and in schizophrenic subjects. The results support the hypothesis that lower and higher plasma DPP IV activities are trait markers of major depression and schizophrenia, respectively. It is concluded that alterations in the enzyme activity of peptidases, such as DPP IV and PEP, play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression and schizophrenia.

  16. [Effects of fuel properties on the performance of a typical Euro IV diesel engine].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-miao; Wang, Jian-xin; Shuai, Shi-jin

    2008-09-01

    With the purpose of establishing diesel fuel standard for China National 4th Emission Standard, as one part of Beijing "Auto-Oil" programme, engine performance test has been done on a typical Euro IV diesel engine using eight diesel fuels with different fuel properties. Test results show that, fuel properties has little effect on power, fuel consumption, and in-cylinder combustion process of tested Euro IV diesel engine; sulfate in PM and gaseous SO2 emissions increase linearly with diesel sulfur content increase; cetane number increase cause BSFC and PM reduce and NOx increase; T90 decrease cause NOx reduce while PM shows trend of reduce. Prediction equations of tested Euro IV diesel engine's ESC cycle NOx and PM emissions before SCR response to diesel fuel sulfur content, cetane number, T90 and aromatics have been obtained using linear regression method on the base of test results.

  17. The Effect of Jigsaw IV on the Achievement of Course of Language Teaching Methods and Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maden, Sedat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare the effects of Jigsaw-IV and the conventional teaching on the academic achievement of Turkish pre-service teachers as for the language teaching methods and techniques. In this study "pretest-post test with the control group model" was used. The subjects of the study are 62 undergraduate students at…

  18. Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development Around the World. Annex IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, L.; Whiting, J.; Geerlofs, S.; Grear, M.; Blake, K.; Coffey, A.; Massaua, M.; Brown-Saracino, J.; Battey, H.

    2013-01-01

    This Annex IV report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment addressing the physical interactions between animals and tidal turbines, the acoustic impact of marine energy devices on marine animals, and the effects of energy removal on physical systems.

  19. The Effect of Jigsaw IV on the Achievement of Course of Language Teaching Methods and Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maden, Sedat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare the effects of Jigsaw-IV and the conventional teaching on the academic achievement of Turkish pre-service teachers as for the language teaching methods and techniques. In this study "pretest-post test with the control group model" was used. The subjects of the study are 62 undergraduate students at…

  20. Using failure mode and effects analysis to plan implementation of smart i.v. pump technology.

    PubMed

    Wetterneck, Tosha B; Skibinski, Kathleen A; Roberts, Tanita L; Kleppin, Susan M; Schroeder, Mark E; Enloe, Myra; Rough, Steven S; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Carayon, Pascale

    2006-08-15

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was used to evaluate a smart i.v. pump as it was implemented into a redesigned medication-use process. A multidisciplinary team conducted a FMEA to guide the implementation of a smart i.v. pump that was designed to prevent pump programming errors. The smart i.v. pump was equipped with a dose-error reduction system that included a pre-defined drug library in which dosage limits were set for each medication. Monitoring for potential failures and errors occurred for three months postimplementation of FMEA. Specific measures were used to determine the success of the actions that were implemented as a result of the FMEA. The FMEA process at the hospital identified key failure modes in the medication process with the use of the old and new pumps, and actions were taken to avoid errors and adverse events. I.V. pump software and hardware design changes were also recommended. Thirteen of the 18 failure modes reported in practice after pump implementation had been identified by the team. A beneficial outcome of FMEA was the development of a multidisciplinary team that provided the infrastructure for safe technology implementation and effective event investigation after implementation. With the continual updating of i.v. pump software and hardware after implementation, FMEA can be an important starting place for safe technology choice and implementation and can produce site experts to follow technology and process changes over time. FMEA was useful in identifying potential problems in the medication-use process with the implementation of new smart i.v. pumps. Monitoring for system failures and errors after implementation remains necessary.

  1. Gastroprotective Effects of Astragaloside IV against Acute Gastric Lesion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shuai; Yang, Guang; Li, Winny; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Hailong; Li, Jian; Zhang, Minzhou

    2016-01-01

    Background Protection of the gastric mucosa from acute lesions induced by various irritants is a pertinent issue in the field of critical care medicine. In this study, we investigated the gastroprotective effects of astragaloside IV on acute gastric lesions in rats under stressful conditions. Methods Rats were randomized into six groups. Group 1 and 2 received 10% Tween 80 (vehicle). Group 3 received 20 mg/kg of omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor. Groups 4, 5 and 6 received astragaloside IV at concentration of 1, 10, and 50 mg/kg, respectively. As a means to induce gastric lesions, Groups 2–6 were subjected to water immersion and restraint stress for 12 hours after treatment. Results Our present studies show that compared to rats in group 2, treatment with 1 to 50 mg/kg astragaloside IV significantly decreased the size of gastric lesions, MDA, TNFα and MCP1 levels, in addition to normalizing gastric pH, gastric mucus and SOD levels (P<0.05). Histomorphological examination confirmed that treatment with astragaloside IV elicited a dosage-dependent protective effect on the gastric mucosa. Furthermore, pretreatment with astragaloside IV resulted in significant elevations in HSP70 and reduction in Bax, along with over-expression of PLCγ response level, which was further confirmed via immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusions The acute gastric lesions induced are attenuated by pretreatment with astragaloside IV which is possibly due to the enhancing of the expression of HSP70 with concomitant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic capacity. PMID:26845156

  2. Effects of buspirone and gepirone on i.v. cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gold, L H; Balster, R L

    1992-01-01

    Buspirone and gepirone were evaluated as potential pharmacotherapies for cocaine abuse by studying the effects of acute and repeated treatment on IV cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys. Chlorpromazine was also evaluated as a positive control. Effects of IV drug pretreatments were tested during daily 60-min sessions with lever-pressing reinforced under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of 0.02 or 0.05 mg/kg cocaine infusions. Acute pretreatment with buspirone (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, IV) increased rates of cocaine self-administration without disrupting food pellet consumption. Some doses of buspirone also produced changes in rates of cocaine self-administration without altering the within-session pattern of responding. In contrast, acute doses of gepirone had little effect on rates of cocaine self-administration, while disruptions in food consumption and changes in the within-session pattern of cocaine self-administration were obtained at the highest dose of gepirone tested (1.0 mg/kg). When either buspirone (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, IV) or gepirone (0.1 mg/kg, IV) were administered daily for 10 days, consistent effects on cocaine self-administration were not observed. Thus, the effects of acute buspirone administration on cocaine-maintained behavior were similar to the effects produced by chlorpromazine and other dopaminergic antagonists, whereas, gepirone was ineffective. These results provide some support for further evaluation of buspirone as a potential pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse, although its lack of efficacy with repeated treatment is not encouraging. The negative results with gepirone provide less rationale for continued investigations with this drug, possibly because of its lesser involvement than buspirone with dopaminergic neurotransmission.

  3. Tin Whisker Risk Assessment of TDRSS IV Transponder Units 101 and 102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellitti, Ron; Royse, Jeff; Jackson, Steve

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the plating requirements for the electrical and mechanical parts used in the TDRSS IV transponder manufactured by MOTOROLA, INC., SSG, SSSD. The intent of this report is to identify any electrical, electromechanical or mechanical part that does not have adequate requirements to prevent the use of a pure tin finish.

  4. Critical assessment of fluorescence polarization measurements with a FACS IV cell sorter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Claude P.; Krabichler, Gert

    1988-09-01

    The usefulness and limitations of the Becton-Dickinson fluorescence-activated cell sorter FACS IV for fluorescence polarization measurements were examined. A set of tests to determine the characteristics of the detection geometry, the optical properties of the beam splitter, and the capability to process fluorescence polarization data is presented. Recommendations are provided for correcting instrumental deficiencies.

  5. Beneficial effects of Astragaloside IV for hair loss via inhibition of Fas/Fas L-mediated apoptotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Hye; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Woong Mo

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis with premature termination of hair follicle growth induces several types of hair loss and is one of the crucial factors of hair loss. Astragaloside IV, which is a major component of Astragalus membranaceus, is a cycloartane triterpene saponin. Although an anti-apoptotic effect of Astragaloside IV has been reported, its effects against hair loss have not been investigated. To explore the underlying mechanisms of Astragaloside IV on apoptotic signaling in hair follicle, the dorsal skin of depilated C57BL/6 mice was topically treated with 1 and 100 μM Astragaloside IV for 14 days. In Astragaloside IV-treated group, TUNEL-positive cells were reduced. We found that Astragaloside IV blocked the procaspase-8, resulting in the inhibition of caspase-3 and procaspase-9 activities. The changes were accompanied with down-regulation of Bax and p53, and up-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL by Astragaloside IV treatment. In addition, activation of NF-κB and phosphorylation of IκB-α were inhibited, along with decreases in three MAPKs: ERK, SAPK/JNK and p38 by Astragaloside IV. The expressions of KGF, p21, TNF-α and IL-1β, which are keratinocyte terminal differentiation markers associated with catagen, were modulated by treatment with Astragaloside IV. These results demonstrated that Astragaloside IV is concerned with blocking the Fas/Fas L-mediated apoptotic pathway, which would be an alternative therapy for hair loss.

  6. Effectiveness of IV Cannulation Skills Laboratory Training and Its Transfer into Clinical Practice: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Frederike; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Maatouk, Imad; Krautter, Markus; Möltner, Andreas; Werner, Anne; Weyrich, Peter; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of skills laboratory training is widely recognized. Yet, the transfer of procedural skills acquired in skills laboratories into clinical practice has rarely been investigated. We conducted a prospective, randomised, double-blind, controlled trial to evaluate, if students having trained intravenous (IV) cannulation in a skills laboratory are rated as more professional regarding technical and communication skills compared to students who underwent bedside teaching when assessed objectively by independent video assessors and subjectively by patients. Methodology and Principal Findings 84 volunteer first-year medical students were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Three drop-outs occurred. The intervention group (IG; n = 41) trained IV cannulation in a skills laboratory receiving instruction after Peyton's ‘Four-Step Approach’. The control group (CG; n = 40) received a bedside teaching session with volunteer students acting as patients. Afterwards, performance of IV cannulation of both groups in a clinical setting with students acting as patients was video-recorded. Two independent, blinded video assessors scored students' performance using binary checklists (BC) and the Integrated Procedural Protocol Instrument (IPPI). Patients assessed students' performance with the Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) and a modified IPPI. IG required significantly shorter time needed for the performance on a patient (IG: 595.4 SD(188.1)s; CG: 692.7 SD(247.8)s; 95%CI 23.5 s to 45.1 s; p = 0.049) and completed significantly more single steps of the procedure correctly (IG: 64% SD(14) for BC items; CG: 53% SD(18); 95%CI 10.25% to 11.75%; p = 0.004). IG also scored significantly better on IPPI ratings (median: IG: 3.1; CG: 3.6; p = 0.015;). Rated by patients, students' performance and patient-physician communication did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusions Transfer of IV cannulation-related skills acquired in a

  7. Mathematical Modelling of Allelopathy: IV. Assessment of Contributions of Competition and Allelopathy to Interference by Barley

    PubMed Central

    Liu, De Li; An, Min; Johnson, I.R.; Lovett, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main challenges to the research on allelopathy is technically the separation of allelopathic effect from competition, and quantitatively, the assessment of the contribution of each component to overall interference. A simple mathematical model is proposed to calculate the contribution of allelopathy and competition to interference. As an example of applying the quantitative model to interference by barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Triumph), the approach used was an addition of allelopathic effect, by an equivalent amount, to the environment of the test plant (white mustard, Sinapis alba), rather than elimination of competition. Experiments were conducted in glasshouse to determine the magnitude of the contributions of allelopathy and competition to interference by barley. The leachates of living barley roots significantly reduced the total dry weight of white mustard. The model involved the calculation of adjusted densities to an equivalent basis for modelling the contribution of allelopathy and competition to total interference. The results showed that allelopathy contributed 40%, 37% and 43% to interference by barley at 6, 12 and 18 white mustard pot−1. The consistency in magnitude of the calculated contribution of allelopathic effect by barley across various densities of receiver plant suggested that the adjusted equivalent density is effective and that the model is able to assess the contribution of each component of interference regardless of the density of receiver plant. PMID:19330162

  8. Mathematical Modelling of Allelopathy: IV. Assessment of Contributions of Competition and Allelopathy to Interference by Barley.

    PubMed

    Liu, De Li; An, Min; Johnson, I R; Lovett, J V

    2005-04-01

    One of the main challenges to the research on allelopathy is technically the separation of allelopathic effect from competition, and quantitatively, the assessment of the contribution of each component to overall interference. A simple mathematical model is proposed to calculate the contribution of allelopathy and competition to interference. As an example of applying the quantitative model to interference by barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Triumph), the approach used was an addition of allelopathic effect, by an equivalent amount, to the environment of the test plant (white mustard, Sinapis alba), rather than elimination of competition. Experiments were conducted in glasshouse to determine the magnitude of the contributions of allelopathy and competition to interference by barley. The leachates of living barley roots significantly reduced the total dry weight of white mustard. The model involved the calculation of adjusted densities to an equivalent basis for modelling the contribution of allelopathy and competition to total interference. The results showed that allelopathy contributed 40%, 37% and 43% to interference by barley at 6, 12 and 18 white mustard pot(-1). The consistency in magnitude of the calculated contribution of allelopathic effect by barley across various densities of receiver plant suggested that the adjusted equivalent density is effective and that the model is able to assess the contribution of each component of interference regardless of the density of receiver plant.

  9. Short form of Spanish version of the WISC-IV for intelligence assessment in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Dasi, Carmen; Soler, Maria J; Bellver, Vicente; Ruiz, Juan C

    2014-12-01

    In educational settings, quick assessments of intelligence are often required to screen children with potential special needs. The WISC-IV is administered individually and takes between one and two hours to complete. Given its widespread use in Spain, a short-form of the Spanish version is likely to be of use to professionals. The goal of this research was to develop a short form of the WISC-IV that can be performed in approximately half an hour. Data obtained in 100 elementary school children were analyzed following the criteria of Resnick and Entin (1971) . The results showed that the most accurate estimation of intelligence was achieved with a combination of the Vocabulary, Block Design, Letter-Number Sequencing, and Coding subtests.

  10. Assessment of the Technical Maturity of Generation IV Concepts for Test or Demonstration Reactor Applications, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gougar, Hans David

    2015-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a study the suitability of different advanced reactor concepts to support materials irradiations (i.e. a test reactor) or to demonstrate an advanced power plant/fuel cycle concept (demonstration reactor). As part of the study, an assessment of the technical maturity of the individual concepts was undertaken to see which, if any, can support near-term deployment. A Working Group composed of the authors of this document performed the maturity assessment using the Technical Readiness Levels as defined in DOE’s Technology Readiness Guide . One representative design was selected for assessment from of each of the six Generation-IV reactor types: gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR), lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR), molten salt reactor (MSR), supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), and very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Background information was obtained from previous detailed evaluations such as the Generation-IV Roadmap but other technical references were also used including consultations with concept proponents and subject matter experts. Outside of Generation IV activity in which the US is a party, non-U.S. experience or data sources were generally not factored into the evaluations as one cannot assume that this data is easily available or of sufficient quality to be used for licensing a US facility. The Working Group established the scope of the assessment (which systems and subsystems needed to be considered), adapted a specific technology readiness scale, and scored each system through discussions designed to achieve internal consistency across concepts. In general, the Working Group sought to determine which of the reactor options have sufficient maturity to serve either the test or demonstration reactor missions.

  11. Synergistic Inhibitory Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine Astragaloside IV and Curcumin on Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in an Orthotopic Nude-Mouse Model of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Tang, Decai; Zang, Wenhua; Yin, Gang; Dai, Jianguo; Sun, Y U; Yang, Zhijian; Hoffman, Robert M; Guo, Xiuxia

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), astragaloside IV (AS-IV) and curcumin on tumor growth and angiogenesis in an orthotopic nude-mouse model of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have previously shown the usefulness of orthotopic models of human cancer for evaluation of the efficacy of TCM. Nude mice with orthotopic HepG2 HCC were treated with vehicle control (0.01 ml/g normal saline), cisplatinum (2 mg/kg), AS-IV (20 mg/kg), curcumin (100 mg/kg) or AS-IV plus curcumin (20 mg/kg + 100 mg/kg). Tumor inhibition in each group was evaluated by tumor weight at autopsy. The effect of AS-IV and curcumin on tumor angiogenesis was assessed by CD34 staining and expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), thrombosis-related factor tissue factor (TF) and coagulation factor VII (FVII), as well as microRNAs miR-122 and miR-221. AS-IV and curcumin alone and in combination significantly reduced mean tumor weight compared to vehicle control (p<0.05). Tumor microvessel count was reduced by AS-IV and curcumin alone. Expression of FGF2, MMP2, VEGF, HGF, TF and FVII was reduced by AS-IV and curcumin alone. AS-IV and curcumin alone up-regulated expression of miR-122 and down-regulated that of miR-221. The combination of AS-IV and curcumin demonstrated significant synergistic effects on microvessel count as well as on expression of angiogenic and thrombosis-related factors and microRNAs. The present study indicates future clinical potential of combination therapy with AS-IV and curcumin for HCC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental effects of marine energy development around the world. Annex IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, Luke; Whiting, Johnathan; Geerlofs, Simon; Grear, Molly; Blake, Kara ); Coffey, Anna; Massaua, Meghan; Brown-Saracino, Jocelyn; Battey, Hoyt )

    2013-01-15

    Annex IV is an international collaborative project to examine the environmental effects of marine energy devices among countries through the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems Initiative (OES). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) serves as the Operating Agent for the Annex, in partnership with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly the Minerals Management Service), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Numerous ocean energy technologies and devices are being developed around the world, and the few data that exist about the environmental effects of these technologies are dispersed among countries and developers. The purpose of Annex IV is to facilitate efficient government oversight of the development of ocean energy systems by compiling and disseminating information about the potential environmental effects of marine energy technologies and to identify methods of monitoring for these effects. Beginning in 2010, this three-year effort produced a publicly available searchable online database of environmental effects information (Tethys). It houses scientific literature pertaining to the environmental effects of marine energy systems, as well as metadata on international ocean energy projects and research studies. Two experts’ workshops were held in Dublin, Ireland (September 2010 and October 2012) to engage with international researchers, developers, and regulators on the scope and outcomes of the Annex IV project. Metadata and information stored in the Tethys database and feedback obtained from the two experts’ workshops were used as resources in the development of this report. This Annex IV final report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment that survey, compile, and analyze the best available information in one coherent location. These case studies address 1) the physical interactions

  13. Assessing Effective Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1995-01-01

    Teacher effectiveness can be evaluated by traditional performance-based evaluation, though that method has some limitations. Alternative approaches to teacher evaluation include student evaluation of teacher performance and portfolio assessment. The Tuckman Teacher Feedback Form is presented as a more effective self-improvement system than a…

  14. Effect of shelf life on compressive strength of type iv gypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumastuti, K. S.; Irawan, B.; Damiyanti, M.

    2017-08-01

    Type IV gypsum, as a dental material for an indirect restoration’s working model, should have strength and abrasive-resistant properties. These properties depend on the product’s shelf life and its proper storage, which sometimes are easily missed by sellers. The aim of this research was to observe the effect of shelf life on the compressive strength of type IV gypsum with different production dates. Twenty cylindrical specimens were separated into two groups with different production dates and tested with a universal testing with the crosshead speed of 1 mm per minute and a load of 2,500 kgf. The data were analyzed with independent t-tests. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the compressive strength between the two groups with an increase in compressive strength seen in the gypsum that was stored longer.

  15. A Qualitative Assessment of Diversion Scenarios for an Example Sodium Fast Reactor Using the GEN IV PR&PP Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Therios, Ike

    2012-01-20

    FAST REACTORS;NUCLEAR ENERGY;NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT;PROLIFERATION;SAFEGUARDS;THEFT; A working group was created in 2002 by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for the purpose of developing an internationally accepted methodology for assessing the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear energy system (NES) and its individual elements. A two year case study is being performed by the experts group using this methodology to assess the proliferation resistance of a hypothetical NES called the Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR). This work demonstrates how the PR and PP methodology can be used to provide important information at various levels of details to NES designers, safeguard administrators and decision makers. The study analyzes the response of the complete ESFR nuclear energy system to different proliferation and theft strategies. The challenges considered include concealed diversion, concealed misuse and 'break out' strategies. This paper describes the work done in performing a qualitative assessment of concealed diversion scenarios from the ESFR.

  16. Valley-spin Seebeck effect in heavy group-IV monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Xuechao; Wang, Shengdong; Zhang, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Akin to electron spin, the valley has become another highly valued degree of freedom in modern electronics, specifically after tremendous studies on monolayers of group-IV materials, i.e. graphene, silicene, germanene and stanene. Except for graphene, the other heavy group-IV monolayers have observable intrinsic spin-orbit interactions due to their buckled structures. Distinct from the usual electric or optical control of valley and spin, we here employ a temperature difference to drive electron motion in ferromagnetic heavy group-IV monolayers via designing a caloritronic device locally modulated by an interlayer electric (E z ) field. A unique valley-spin Seebeck (VSS) effect is discovered, with the current contributed only by one (the other) valley and one (the other) spin moving along one (the opposite) direction. This effect is suggested to be detected below the critical temperature about 18 K for silicene, 200 K for germanene and 400 K for stanene, arising from the characteristic valley-spin nondegenerate band structures tuned by the E z field, but cannot be driven in graphene without spin-orbit interaction. Above the critical temperature, the VSS effect is broken by overlarge temperature broadening. Besides the temperature, it is also found that the E z field can drive a transition between the VSS effect and the normal spin Seebeck effect. Further calculations indicate that the VSS effect is robust against many realistic perturbations. Our research represents a conceptually but substantially major step towards the study of the Seebeck effect. These findings provide a platform for encoding information simultaneously by the valley and spin quantum numbers of electrons in future thermal-logic circuits and energy-saving devices.

  17. Evaluation of contrast injection site effectiveness: thoracic CT angiography in children with hand injection of IV contrast material.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Gary R; Zurakowski, David; Lee, Edward Y

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various contrast injection sites when performing thoracic CT angiography (CTA) using hand injection of IV contrast material in infants and young children with a small IV catheter. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We used our hospital information system to retrospectively identify consecutive pediatric patients who underwent thoracic CTA with hand injection of contrast material from August 2012 to July 2013. The study indication for thoracic CTA was to evaluate the thoracic systemic arterial vasculature and pulmonary venous vasculature. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of thoracic CTA image quality was performed by two reviewers independently. Qualitative evaluation of thoracic CTA image quality was performed by visual assessment of the degree of contrast enhancement in the ROI on a 4-point scale. Quantitative evaluation was performed by measuring attenuation obtained with the ROI placed within the aorta at two locations (the level of the aortic arch and at the level of the carina) to evaluate the thoracic systemic arterial vasculature. For evaluation of the pulmonary venous system, attenuation measurements were obtained at the center of the left atrium. Six individual injection sites were identified: head, jugular vein, arm vein, hand vein, leg vein, and foot vein. Injection sites were categorized into three regional groups: head-neck region (head vein and jugular veins), upper extremity region (arm and hand veins), and lower extremity region (leg and foot veins). Comparisons of attenuation values between individual and regionally grouped contrast injection sites were determined using the F-test in ANOVA. RESULTS. The study cohort included 50 pediatric patients (29 boys and 21 girls; mean age, 8 months ± 1 year; range, 1 week to 5 years) who underwent a total of 50 thoracic CTA studies for evaluating the thoracic systemic arterial vasculature (n = 38; 76%) or pulmonary venous vasculature

  18. Effect of stent surface-scattering properties on IV-OCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elahi, Sahar; Mancuso, J. Jacob; Feldman, Marc D.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Milner, Thomas E.

    2012-02-01

    Effect of stent surface-scattering properties on the appearance of stent struts in IV-OCT images was examined by simulation of light-stent interaction by an optical design software package. A phantom blood vessel was constructed from a mix of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and titanium dioxide to simulate the elastic and optical scattering properties of the arterial wall. A Cordis CYPHER® sirolimus-eluting stent was deployed within the phantom vessel and high resolution Micro-CT images of the stent strut were recorded to create a three-dimensional representation that was imported into software. A Gaussian surface-scattering model (bi-directional scattering distribution function) was assumed for the strut. Simulation of IV-OCT catheter and reflection of light from the stent strut was implemented for different surface scattering properties. A model of IV-OCT catheter was defined in the optical model and the rotation of the light beam over the stent strut was simulated. The measured parameters included: fraction of the reflected rays returning to the catheter and coordinate locations on the stent struts of returned rays. The results indicate that when the surface scattering of the strut increases, reflectivity is higher, while the angular spread of the light beam that is reflected back to the catheter is wider.

  19. Immediate Effect of Grade IV Inferior Hip Joint Mobilization on Hip Abductor Torque: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Makofsky, Howard; Panicker, Siji; Abbruzzese, Jeanine; Aridas, Cynthia; Camp, Michael; Drakes, Jonelle; Franco, Caroline; Sileo, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Joint mobilization and manipulation stimulate mechanoreceptors, which may influence the joint and surrounding muscles. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effect of grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization on hip abductor torque. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (grade I inferior hip joint mobilization) or an experimental group (grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization). Subjects performed a pre- and post-intervention test of five isometric repetitions on the Cybex Normö dynamometer; the average torque was determined for both pre- and post-intervention measurements. These data were analyzed using the independent samples t-test with the significance level set at P<0.05. The results showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups for an increase in hip abductor torque in the experimental group (P=0.03). The experimental group demonstrated a 17.35% increase in average torque whereas the control group demonstrated a 3.68% decrease in average torque. These findings are consistent with other studies demonstrating that the use of grade IV non-thrust mobilization improves strength immediately post-intervention in healthy individuals. The results of this pilot study provide physical therapists with further support for the utilization of manual therapy in conjunction with therapeutic exercise to enhance muscle strength. PMID:19066650

  20. Effects of type IV collagen on myogenic characteristics of IGF-I gene-engineered myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ikeda, Kazushi; Sato, Masanori; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration requires migration, proliferation and fusion of myoblasts to form multinucleated myotubes. In our previous study, we showed that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I gene delivery stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of mouse myoblast C2C12 cells and promotes the contractile force generated by tissue-engineered skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the extracellular matrix on IGF-I gene-engineered C2C12 cells in vitro. Retroviral vectors for doxycycline (Dox)-inducible expression of the IGF-I gene were transduced into C2C12 cells. When cultured on a type IV collagen-coated surface, we observed significant increases in the migration speed and number of IGF-I gene-engineered C2C12 cells with Dox addition, designated as C2C12/IGF (+) cells. Co-culture of C2C12/IGF (+) cells and parental C2C12 cells, which had been cultured in differentiation medium for 3 days, greatly enhanced myotube formation. Moreover, type IV collagen supplementation promoted the fusion of C2C12/IGF (+) cells with differentiated C2C12 cells and increased the number of myotubes with striations. Myotubes formed by C2C12/IGF (+) cells cultured on type IV collagen showed a dynamic contractile activity in response to electrical pulse stimulation. These findings indicate that type IV collagen promotes skeletal muscle regeneration mediated by IGF-I-expressing myoblasts, which may have important clinical implications in the design of myoblast-based therapies.

  1. Effects of monocyte-endothelium interactions on the expression of type IV collagenases in monocytes

    PubMed Central

    LI, YONG-QIN; LIU, RUI; XUE, JIA-HONG; ZHANG, YAN; GAO, DENG-FENG; WU, XIAO-SAN; WANG, CONG-XIA; YANG, YU-BAI

    2015-01-01

    The adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells is one of the early stages in the development of atherosclerosis. The expression of type IV collagenases, which include matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, in monocytes is hypothesized to play an important role in monocyte infiltration and transformation into foam cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of monocyte-endothelium interactions on the expression levels of type IV collagenases and their specific inhibitors in monocytes, and to investigate the roles of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in this process. Monocytes were single-cultured or co-cultured with endothelial cells. The expression of the type IV collagenases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their specific inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2, in monocytes was determined by immunohistochemistry followed by image analysis. The expression levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were found to be low in the single-culture monocytes, but increased significantly when the monocytes and endothelial cells were co-cultured. However, treatment with monoclonal TNF-α or IL-1β antibodies partially inhibited the upregulated expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the co-cultured monocytes. Expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was observed in the single monocyte culture, and a small increase in the expression levels was observed when the monocytes were co-cultured with endothelial cells. Therefore, monocyte-endothlium interactions were shown to increase the expression of type IV collagenases in monocytes, resulting in the loss of balance between MMP-2 and -9 with TIMP-1 and -2. In addition, TNF-α and IL-1β were demonstrated to play important roles in this process. PMID:25574228

  2. Environmental assessment for operations, upgrades, and modifications in SNL/NM Technical Area IV

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The proposed action for this EA for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Technical Area IV, includes continuing existing operations, modification of an existing accelerator (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II) to support defnese-related Z-pinch experiments, and construction of two transformer oil storage tanks to support the expansion of the Advanced Pulsed Power Research Module, a single pulse accelerator. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE believes that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA and CEQ NEPA implementing regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and a Finding of No Significant Impact is issued.

  3. Intravenous fluid therapy: a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of the IV(2) flow medical device.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Nesta; Snyman, Jacques R; Wessels, Francois; Nel, George

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the hypothetical benefits of the IV(2) flow medical device. Intravenous fluid administration is a standard hospital procedure with assumed inadequacies. The IV-Event Study [Fraser N, Nel G, Snyman J & Wessels F (2004) IV-EVENT Study: Intravenous Infusion Therapy--Management and Adverse Events. Data on File: Varori International (Pty) Ltd., Centurion, South Africa] quantified these inadequacies; The 'Stargait' intervention trial investigated the effectiveness and possible cost-benefit of the IV(2) flow. The IV(2) flow is intended for routine use with gravitational intravenous infusion sets. The IV(2) flow should reduce the incidence rate of adverse events and maintain a set flow rate. Nursing staff assisted by study assessors captured relevant data. Consented patients were enrolled for the period of their prescribed infusions. Intervention. The Stargait Trial compared the treatment group (standard gravitational sets with the IV(2) flow) with the control group (standard gravitational infusion sets without IV(2) flow). The difference in observed events and the cost benefit derived from this were measured. A total of 2387 drip hours were observed in 52 patients. The adverse event rates were: Control group (without IV(2) flow) 33.8%. The treatment group (IV(2) flow) 15.4%. This 55% reduction is statistically significant (p = 0.0069). Adverse event related monetary wastage (labour and consumables) is reduced by 76% for infusion bags in the intervention group (with IV(2) flow). There was a significant difference between the treatment group and control group as far as deviation in flow rate was concerned (p = 0.00818). The mean deviation of the IV(2) flow group was just more than 5 ml per hour. The standard line group had a mean deviation of more than 30 ml per hour. Gravitational intravenous therapy compromises quality of patient care. The Stargait Trial has proven the care-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the IV(2) flow. The IV(2) flow improves

  4. Preventive Effects of a Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agent, Astragaloside IV, on Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shufeng; Wang, Guofu; Guo, Yongping; Gui, Dingkun; Wang, Niansong

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of astragaloside IV(AS-IV) on ischemia/reperfusion (IR) induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. Experimental model of ischemic AKI was induced in rats by bilateral renal artery clamp for 45 min followed by reperfusion of 12 h and 24 h, respectively. AS-IV was orally administered once a day to rats at 10 and 20 mg·kg−1·d−1 for 7 days prior to ischemia. AS-IV pretreatment significantly decreased serum urea, creatinine, and cystatin C levels at 12 h and 24 h of reperfusion in AKI rats. AS-IV pretreatment also ameliorated tubular damage and suppressed the phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NF-κB in AKI rats. Moreover, NF-κB and MPO activity as well as serum and tissue levels of TNF-α, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 were elevated in AKI rats. All of these abnormalities were prevented by AS-IV. Furthermore, AS-IV downregulated the mRNA expression of NF-κB, TNF-α, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 in AKI rats. These results suggest that AS-IV might be developed as a novel therapeutic approach to prevent ischemic AKI through inhibition of NF-κB mediated inflammatory genes expression. PMID:23853656

  5. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SERVICE HISTORY AND CORROSION SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TYPE IV WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B

    2008-09-18

    Type IV waste tanks were designed and built to store waste that does not require auxiliary cooling. Each Type IV tank is a single-shell tank constructed of a steel-lined pre-stressed concrete tank in the form of a vertical cylinder with a concrete domed roof. There are four such tanks in F-area, Tanks 17-20F, and four in H-Area, Tanks 21-24H. Leak sites were discovered in the liners for Tanks 19 and 20F in the 1980's. Although these leaks were visually observed, the investigation to determine the mechanism by which the leaks had occurred was not completed at that time. Therefore, a concern was raised that the same mechanism which caused the leak sites in the Tanks in F-area may also be operable in the H-Area tanks. Data from the construction of the tanks (i.e., certified mill test reports for the steel, no stress-relief), the service history (i.e., waste sample data, temperature data), laboratory tests on actual wastes and simulants (i.e., electrochemical testing), and the results of the visual inspections were reviewed. The following observations and conclusions were made: (1) Comparison of the compositional and microstructural features indicate that the A212 material utilized for construction of the H-Area tanks are far more resistant to SCC than the A285 materials used for construction of the F-Area tanks. (2) A review of the materials of construction, temperature history, service histories concluded that F-Area tanks likely failed by caustic stress corrosion cracking. (3) The environment in the F-Area tanks was more aggressive than that experienced by the H-Area tanks. (4) Based on a review of the service history, the H-Area tanks have not been exposed to an environment that would render the tanks susceptible to either nitrate stress corrosion cracking (i.e., the cause of failures in the Type I and II tanks) or caustic stress corrosion cracking. (5) Due to the very dilute and uninhibited solutions that have been stored in Tank 23H, vapor space corrosion has

  6. Irradiation effects in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Ni-base alloys for Gen. IV nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oono, Naoko; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kondo, Sosuke; Hashitomi, Okinobu; Kimura, Akihiko

    2015-10-01

    Oxide particle dispersion strengthened (ODS) Ni-base alloys are irradiated by using simulation technique (Fe/He dual-ion irradiation) to investigate the reliability to Gen. IV high-temperature reactors. The fine oxide particles with less than 10 nm in average size and approximately 8.0 × 1022 m-3 in number density remained after 101 dpa irradiation. The tiny helium bubbles were inside grains, not at grain-boundaries; it is advantageous effect of oxide particles which trap the helium atoms at the particle-matrix interface. Ni-base ODS alloys demonstrated their great ability to overcome He embrittlement.

  7. Effects of bfp Mutations on Biogenesis of Functional Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Type IV Pili

    PubMed Central

    Anantha, Ravi P.; Stone, Kelly D.; Donnenberg, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli expresses a type IV fimbria known as the bundle-forming pilus (BFP) that is required for autoaggregation and localized adherence (LA) to host cells. A cluster of 14 genes is sufficient to reconstitute BFP biogenesis in a laboratory strain of E. coli. We have undertaken a systematic mutagenesis of the individual genes to determine the effect of each mutation on BFP biogenesis and LA. Here we report the construction and analysis of nonpolar mutations in six genes of the bfp cluster, bfpG, bfpB, bfpC, bfpD, bfpP, and bfpH, as well as the further analysis of a previously described bfpA mutant strain that is unable to express bundlin, the pilin protein. We found that mutations in bfpB, which encodes an outer membrane protein; bfpD, which encodes a putative nucleotide-binding protein; and bfpG and bfpC, which do not have sequence homologues in other type IV pilus systems, do not affect prebundlin expression or processing but block both BFP biogenesis and LA. The mutation in bfpP, the prepilin peptidase gene, does not affect prebundlin expression but blocks signal sequence cleavage of prebundlin, BFP biogenesis, and LA. The mutation in bfpH, which is predicted to encode a lytic transglycosylase, has no effect on prebundlin expression, prebundlin processing, BFP biogenesis, or LA. For each mutant for which altered phenotypes were detected, complementation with a plasmid containing the corresponding wild-type allele restored the wild-type phenotypes. We also found that association of prebundlin or bundlin with sucrose density flotation gradient fractions containing both inner and outer membrane proteins does not require any accessory proteins. These studies indicate that many bfp gene products are required for biogenesis of functional type IV pili but that mutations in the individual genes do not lead to the identification of new phases of pilus assembly. PMID:10762251

  8. Crystal field effect induced topological crystalline insulators in monolayer IV-VI semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junwei; Qian, Xiaofeng; Fu, Liang

    2015-04-08

    Two-dimensional (2D) topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) were recently predicted in thin films of the SnTe class of IV-VI semiconductors, which can host metallic edge states protected by mirror symmetry. As thickness decreases, quantum confinement effect will increase and surpass the inverted gap below a critical thickness, turning TCIs into normal insulators. Surprisingly, based on first-principles calculations, here we demonstrate that (001) monolayers of rocksalt IV-VI semiconductors XY (X = Ge, Sn, Pb and Y = S, Se, Te) are 2D TCIs with the fundamental band gap as large as 260 meV in monolayer PbTe. This unexpected nontrivial topological phase stems from the strong crystal field effect in the monolayer, which lifts the degeneracy between p(x,y) and p(z) orbitals and leads to band inversion between cation pz and anion px,y orbitals. This crystal field effect induced topological phase offers a new strategy to find and design other atomically thin 2D topological materials.

  9. Preliminary energy sector assessments of Jamaica. Volume IV: coal prefeasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The study assesses the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of diversification from oil to coal for generating electric power for the Jamaican Public Service Company (JPS) and the bauxite/alumina industry.

  10. Protective Effect of Astragaloside IV Against Paraquat-Induced Lung Injury in Mice by Suppressing Rho Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Wang, Ruoning; Jiang, Wenjiao; Wang, Huimin; Xu, Ang; Lu, Guo; Ren, Yi; Xu, Yangmei; Song, Yangyang; Yong, Shoulei; Ji, Hui; Ma, Zhanqiang

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of astragaloside IV (AS IV) against paraquat (PQ)-induced pulmonary injury in vivo. Fifty BALB/C mice were randomized into five groups: (1) control, (2) PQ, (3) PQ + dexamethasone (Dex, 5 mg/kg), (4) PQ + AS IV (50 mg/kg), and (5) PQ + AS IV (100 mg/kg). A single dose of PQ (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was intraperitoneally given to induced acute lung injury. Then, mice were treated with AS IV (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, orally) for 5 days. At the end of the experiment, animals were euthanized; then, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were collected for histological observation, biochemical assay, and Western blot analysis. Malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in lung tissues, and interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in BALF were determined. Histological examination indicated that AS IV attenuated lung damage caused by PQ. Biochemical results showed that AS IV treatment significantly reduced the levels of MDA, MPO, and inflammatory cytokines while increased the levels of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px compared with those in PQ group. Western blot results revealed that AS IV attenuated the Txnip/Trx expressions and inhibited Rho/ROCK/nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in PQ-challenged mice. These findings suggested the protective effect of AS IV as a natural product on PQ-induced pulmonary injury.

  11. National Assessment of Clinical Education of Allied Health Manpower: Volume IV: Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booz Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The document is the last volume of a four-part report of a study conducted to evaluate and assess the national state of clinical education and training of allied health manpower. It presents a bibliography of all significant clinical education materials, documentary materials and ongoing studies, through August 30, 1973 but after 1965. The…

  12. Oxoiron(IV) Tetramethylcyclam Complexes with Axial Carboxylate Ligands: Effect of Tethering the Carboxylate on Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Jennifer O; England, Jason; Klein, Johannes E M N; Farquhar, Erik R; Frisch, Jonathan R; Martinho, Marlène; Mandal, Debasish; Münck, Eckard; Shaik, Sason; Que, Lawrence

    2017-03-20

    Oxoiron(IV) species are implicated as reactive intermediates in nonheme monoiron oxygenases, often acting as the agent for hydrogen-atom transfer from substrate. A histidine is the most likely ligand trans to the oxo unit in most enzymes characterized thus far but is replaced by a carboxylate in the case of isopenicillin N synthase. As the effect of a trans carboxylate ligand on the properties of the oxoiron(IV) unit has not been systematically studied, we have synthesized and characterized four oxoiron(IV) complexes supported by the tetramethylcyclam (TMC) macrocycle and having a carboxylate ligand trans to the oxo unit. Two complexes have acetate or propionate axial ligands, while the other two have the carboxylate functionality tethered to the macrocyclic ligand framework by one or two methylene units. Interestingly, these four complexes exhibit substrate oxidation rates that differ by more than 100-fold, despite having Ep,c values for the reduction of the Fe═O unit that span a range of only 130 mV. Eyring parameters for 1,4-cyclohexadiene oxidation show that reactivity differences originate from differences in activation enthalpy between complexes with tethered carboxylates and those with untethered carboxylates, in agreement with computational results. As noted previously for the initial subset of four complexes, the logarithms of the oxygen atom transfer rates of 11 complexes of the Fe(IV)(O)TMC(X) series increase linearly with the observed Ep,c values, reflecting the electrophilicity of the Fe═O unit. In contrast, no correlation with Ep,c values is observed for the corresponding hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reaction rates; instead, the HAT rates increase as the computed triplet-quintet spin state gap narrows, consistent with Shaik's two-state-reactivity model. In fact, the two complexes with untethered carboxylates are among the most reactive HAT agents in this series, demonstrating that the axial ligand can play a key role in tuning the HAT reactivity

  13. Assessment of Rock Mass Stability in the Historic Area of Levels IV-V of the "Wieliczka" Salt Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Obyrn, Kajetan; Hydzik-Wiśniewska, Joanna

    2017-03-01

    As a result, of more than 700 years of exploitation in the Wieliczka Salt Mine, a network of underground workings spreading over eleven levels was created. All mine workings of significant historic and natural qualities and the majority of functional mine workings designated to be preserved are located on levels I to V. The most precious of them, available to tourists, are located in the central part of the Mine on levels I-III. The Mine is not anticipating to make levels IV, Kołobrzeg and V available for a wider range of visitors, even though there are historically and naturally precious workings in those areas as well. The most valuable of the mine workings come from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and were exploited mainly in a bed of fore-shaft salt, Spiza salt and the oldest ones. The characteristic feature of these excavations, distinguish them from the chambers located on the levels I-III, is the room-and-pillar system that had been used there. Mine workings exploited in this system measure up to 100 metres in length, and the unsupported pillars standing between the chambers measuring 4-10 metres in width were remained. The described above levels, including levels of VI-IX are to provide a stable support for the workings located higher up. The remaining part of the mine, with the exception of the function workings, is designated for liquidation by backfilling. The article presents an assessment of stability of the mine workings, located on levels IV-V, and their impact on the surrounding rock mass and the land surface. The analysis was based on geodetic measurements and numerical calculations for strain state of rock mass surrounding the mine workings, in actual conditions and after partial backfilling, and forecast of the rock stability factor after the end of backfilling. The assessment stability factor in the vicinity of excavations at levels IV-V was based on the results of spatial numerical analysis covering the entire central area of the mine

  14. The effect of a class IV hurricane on emergency department operations.

    PubMed

    Sheppa, C M; Stevens, J; Philbrick, J T; Canada, M

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact on emergency department (ED) operations of Hurricane Hugo, a class IV hurricane that struck Charleston, South Carolina, on September 21, 1989. The study design was a retrospective record-based descriptive study and mail survey of the ED of a 300-bed regional medical center directly in the path of the storm. During the 3 weeks after the storm, ED patient volume increased 19% over that of the 3 weeks before the storm. Increased visit volumes were evident for at least 3 months. Compared with a similar period of the previous year, there was an increase in the proportion of patients seen for lacerations of all types, puncture wounds, stings, and falls. Sixty-two percent of physician offices were still closed 7 days after the storm. The direct effects of a class IV hurricane on ED operations included major alterations in the volume and types of patient visits. Because of the evacuation of approximately 40% of the coastal population and storm damage hindering travel, the increase in visit volume was less in magnitude but of longer duration has been reported in class III hurricanes.

  15. The Transverse Effective Charge of the IV-VI Compound Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Shindo, Koichi

    1981-10-01

    Littlewood’s assumption in the calculation of the transverse effective charge (TEC) of IV-VI compound semiconductors is studied by the simple calculation at W-point on the Jones zone surfaces based on the Heine-Jones model. It is shown that the main peak of optical absorption spectrum cannot be assigned only to (111) component of the effective charge in contrast with Littlewood’s assumption. The TEC is directly calculated by executing the band calculation with the potential obtained by the EPM in the framework of Vogl’s expression. The calculated result gives better agreement with experiment than Littlewood’s. The acoustic sum rule is also studied by using the similar formulation given by Vogl.

  16. MLS Performance Assessment, Task IV. Volume I. Evaluation Procedures and Equipment Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    check procedures and data collection and processing capabilities for cost- effective measurement. This report describes results of a design study relating...minimize flight time while obtaining complete system examination, to maximize cost- effectiveness . The design for an MLS data-collection and recording package...processes involving the real world, compromise must be effected but only in such a way that the fundamental issues of safety and reliability a-e not

  17. Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume IV. Babcock and Wilcox process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This volume of the report contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Babcock and Wilcox gasification process. The report includes process descriptions, flow diagrams and equipment lists for the various subsystems associated with the gasifiers along with descriptions of the overall facility. The facility is analyzed from both an economic and environmental standpoint. Problems of construction are addressed together with an overall design and construction schedule for the total facility. Resource requirements are summarized along with suggested development areas, both process and environmental.

  18. Preliminary energy sector assessments of Jamaica. Volume III: renewable energy. Part IV: energy conversion from waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The study considers the feasibility of energy conversion from wastes. Specifically, the study analyzes the potential for energy recovery from urban wastes in Jamaica, with the Kingston area serving as a case study, and assesses the feasibility of building a prototype demonstration unit for energy recovery from solid wastes at the University of the West Indies (UWI)-Mona Campus. Steam-generating waterwall combustion, refuse-derived fuel systems, pyrolysis, anaerobic biological conversion (biogas), and gas recovery from landfills are discussed as alternative systems for energy recovery from urban wastes.

  19. Temporal Lobe Reactions After Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy: Comparison of Relative Biological Effectiveness–Weighted Tolerance Doses Predicted by Local Effect Models I and IV

    SciTech Connect

    Gillmann, Clarissa; Jäkel, Oliver; Schlampp, Ingmar; Karger, Christian P.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To compare the relative biological effectiveness (RBE)–weighted tolerance doses for temporal lobe reactions after carbon ion radiation therapy using 2 different versions of the local effect model (LEM I vs LEM IV) for the same patient collective under identical conditions. Methods and Materials: In a previous study, 59 patients were investigated, of whom 10 experienced temporal lobe reactions (TLR) after carbon ion radiation therapy for low-grade skull-base chordoma and chondrosarcoma at Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany in 2002 and 2003. TLR were detected as visible contrast enhancements on T1-weighted MRI images within a median follow-up time of 2.5 years. Although the derived RBE-weighted temporal lobe doses were based on the clinically applied LEM I, we have now recalculated the RBE-weighted dose distributions using LEM IV and derived dose-response curves with Dmax,V-1 cm³ (the RBE-weighted maximum dose in the remaining temporal lobe volume, excluding the volume of 1 cm³ with the highest dose) as an independent dosimetric variable. The resulting RBE-weighted tolerance doses were compared with those of the previous study to assess the clinical impact of LEM IV relative to LEM I. Results: The dose-response curve of LEM IV is shifted toward higher values compared to that of LEM I. The RBE-weighted tolerance dose for a 5% complication probability (TD{sub 5}) increases from 68.8 ± 3.3 to 78.3 ± 4.3 Gy (RBE) for LEM IV as compared to LEM I. Conclusions: LEM IV predicts a clinically significant increase of the RBE-weighted tolerance doses for the temporal lobe as compared to the currently applied LEM I. The limited available photon data do not allow a final conclusion as to whether RBE predictions of LEM I or LEM IV better fit better clinical experience in photon therapy. The decision about a future clinical application of LEM IV therefore requires additional analysis of temporal lobe reactions in a

  20. Comparison of the effects of the oral anticancer platinum(IV) complexes oxoplatin and metabolite cis-diammine-tetrachlorido-platinum(IV) on global gene expression of NCI-H526 cells

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Ulrike; Ulsperger, Ernst; Geissler, Klaus; Hamilton, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Platinum(IV) coordination complexes like oxoplatin (cis,cis,trans-diammine-dichlorido-dihydroxido-platinum[IV]) show high stability and therefore can be utilized orally for outpatient care. Although oxoplatin is capable of binding directly to DNA after prolonged incubation, platinum(IV) agents are considered to be largely inert prodrugs that are converted to highly cytotoxic platinum(II) compounds by reducing substances, enzymes, or microenviron-mental conditions. Reaction of oxoplatin with 0.1 M hydrogen chloride mimicking gastric acid yields cis-diammine-tetrachlorido-platinum(IV) (DATCP[IV]), which exhibits two-fold increased activity. The presence of chlorides as ligands in the axial position results in a high reduction potential that favors transformation to platinum(II) complexes. In this study, the intracellular effect of the highly reactive tetrachlorido derivative was investigated in comparison with an equipotent dose of cisplatin. Genome-wide expression profiling of NCI-H526 small cell lung cancer cells treated with these platinum species revealed clear differences in the expression pattern of affected genes and concerned cellular pathways between DATCP(IV) and cisplatin. Application of DATCP(IV) resulted in extensive downregulation of protein and ATP synthesis, cell cycle regulation, and glycolysis, in contrast to cisplatin, which preferentially targeted glutathione conjugation, pyruvate metabolism, citric acid cycle, and the metabolism of amino acids and a range of carbohydrates. Thus, the oxoplatin metabolite DATCP(IV) constitutes a potent cytotoxic derivative that may be produced by gastric acid or acidic areas prevailing in larger solid tumors, depending on the respective pharmaceutical formulation of oxoplatin. Furthermore, DATCP(IV) exhibits intracellular effects that are clearly different from the expected reduced product cisplatin(II). In conclusion, activation of the platinum(IV) complex oxoplatin seems to involve the generation of a cytotoxic

  1. Comparison of the effects of the oral anticancer platinum(IV) complexes oxoplatin and metabolite cis-diammine-tetrachlorido-platinum(IV) on global gene expression of NCI-H526 cells.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Ulrike; Ulsperger, Ernst; Geissler, Klaus; Hamilton, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Platinum(IV) coordination complexes like oxoplatin (cis,cis,trans-diammine-dichlorido-dihydroxido-platinum[IV]) show high stability and therefore can be utilized orally for outpatient care. Although oxoplatin is capable of binding directly to DNA after prolonged incubation, platinum(IV) agents are considered to be largely inert prodrugs that are converted to highly cytotoxic platinum(II) compounds by reducing substances, enzymes, or microenviron-mental conditions. Reaction of oxoplatin with 0.1 M hydrogen chloride mimicking gastric acid yields cis-diammine-tetrachlorido-platinum(IV) (DATCP[IV]), which exhibits two-fold increased activity. The presence of chlorides as ligands in the axial position results in a high reduction potential that favors transformation to platinum(II) complexes. In this study, the intracellular effect of the highly reactive tetrachlorido derivative was investigated in comparison with an equipotent dose of cisplatin. Genome-wide expression profiling of NCI-H526 small cell lung cancer cells treated with these platinum species revealed clear differences in the expression pattern of affected genes and concerned cellular pathways between DATCP(IV) and cisplatin. Application of DATCP(IV) resulted in extensive downregulation of protein and ATP synthesis, cell cycle regulation, and glycolysis, in contrast to cisplatin, which preferentially targeted glutathione conjugation, pyruvate metabolism, citric acid cycle, and the metabolism of amino acids and a range of carbohydrates. Thus, the oxoplatin metabolite DATCP(IV) constitutes a potent cytotoxic derivative that may be produced by gastric acid or acidic areas prevailing in larger solid tumors, depending on the respective pharmaceutical formulation of oxoplatin. Furthermore, DATCP(IV) exhibits intracellular effects that are clearly different from the expected reduced product cisplatin(II). In conclusion, activation of the platinum(IV) complex oxoplatin seems to involve the generation of a cytotoxic

  2. Effects of a Phase IV Home-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Program on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Noites, Andreia; Freitas, Carla Patrícia; Pinto, Joana; Melo, Cristina; Vieira, Ágata; Albuquerque, Aníbal; Teixeira, Madalena; Ribeiro, Fernando; Bastos, José Mesquita

    2017-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally and sedentary lifestyle is one of the main risk factors. Home-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs appear to be effective to improve exercise tolerance. The aim of the study, therefore, was to evaluate the effects of a phase IV (maintenance) home-based CR program on cardiorespiratory fitness and daily physical activity of patients recovering from an acute myocardial infarction. This pilot study, with a sub-group randomised controlled trial, included 32 individuals recovering from a myocardial infarction, randomly divided into the experimental group (EG, n=16) and the control group (CG, n=16). The EG performed an exercise program, three times per week, at home during eight weeks. The two groups received health education sessions. Baseline and final assessments included cardiorespiratory fitness, resting and peak heart rate, blood pressure and rate pressure, heart rate recovery and daily physical activity. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01887080). At baseline no significant differences were observed between groups. After eight weeks of exercise, the EG significantly increased peak oxygen uptake (p=0.02), test duration (p=0.019), peak rate pressure (p=0.003), peak heart rate (p=0.003) and heart rate recovery (0.025) when compared to the CG. No changes were observed on daily physical activity in both groups. This specific phase IV home-based exercise program seems to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, haemodynamics at peak exercise and heart rate recovery, an indicator of cardiac autonomic function. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prospective Effects of Adolescent Indicators of Behavioral Disinhibition on DSM-IV Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Dependence in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Rohan H. C.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Hopfer, Christian J.; Corley, Robin C.; Young, Susan E.; Stallings, Michael C.; Hewitt, John K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify robust predictors of drug dependence. Methods This longitudinal study included 2361 male and female twins from an ongoing longitudinal study at the Center for Antisocial Drug Dependence (CADD) at the University of Colorado Boulder and Denver campuses. Twins were recruited for the CADD project while they were between the ages of 12 and 18. Participants in the current study were on average approximately 15 years of age during the first wave of assessment and approximately 20 years of age at the second wave of assessment. The average time between assessments was five years. A structured interview was administered at each assessment to determine patterns of substance use and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; Fourth Edition) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and drug dependence symptoms. Cloninger’s Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire was also used to assess novelty seeking tendencies (NS). At the second wave of assessment, DSM-IV dependence symptoms were reassessed using the same interview. Path analyses were used to examine direct and indirect mechanisms linking psychopathology and drug outcomes. Results Adolescent substance use, CD, and NS predicted young adult substance dependence, whereas the predictive effects of ADHD were few and inconsistent. Furthermore, CD and NS effects were partially mediated by adolescent substance use. Conclusions Adolescent conduct problems, novelty seeking, and drug use are important indices of future drug problems. The strongest predictor was novelty seeking. PMID:23685327

  4. Ti(IV)-amino triphenolate complexes as effective catalysts for sulfoxidation.

    PubMed

    Mba, Miriam; Prins, Leonard J; Zonta, Cristiano; Cametti, Massimo; Valkonen, Arto; Rissanen, Kari; Licini, Giulia

    2010-08-21

    C(3)-symmetric Ti(IV) amino triphenolate complexes efficiently catalyze, without previous activation and in excellent yields, the oxidation of sulfides at room temperature, using both CHP and the more environment friendly aqueous hydrogen peroxide as terminal oxidants, with catalyst loadings down to 0.01%. The Ti(IV) catalysts and the intermediate Ti(IV)-peroxo complexes have been characterized in solution by (1)H NMR and ESI-MS techniques and via density functional studies.

  5. Ustur whole body case 0269: demonstrating effectiveness of i.v. CA-DTPA for Pu.

    PubMed

    James, A C; Sasser, L B; Stuit, D B; Glover, S E; Carbaugh, E H

    2007-01-01

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol 'mist'. Chelation treatment with intravenously (i.v.) Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2.5 y with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation) and continuing for 37 y. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 y after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive data set has been applied to derive 'chelation-enhanced' transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially, all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modelling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as effective

  6. The effectiveness of therapeutic class IV (10 W) laser treatment for epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Delia B; Kruse, Roger J; Stoll, Stephen F

    2013-07-01

    Photobiomodulation has been shown to modulate cellular protein production and stimulate tendon healing in a dose-dependent manner. Previous studies have used class IIIb lasers with power outputs of less than 0.5 W. Here we evaluate a dual wavelength (980/810 nm) class IV laser with a power output of 10 W for the purpose of determining the efficacy of class IV laser therapy in alleviating the pain and dysfunction associated with chronic epicondylitis. Sixteen subjects volunteered for laser therapy, or an identically appearing sham instrument in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. Subjects underwent clinical examination (pain, function, strength, and ultrasonic imaging) to confirm chronic tendinopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon, followed by eight treatments of 6.6 ± 1.3 J/cm(2) (laser), or sham over 18 days. Safety precautions to protect against retinal exposure to the laser were followed. The exam protocol was repeated at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months post-treatment. No initial differences were seen between the two groups. In the laser treated group handgrip strength improved by 17 ± 3%, 52 ± 7%, and 66 ± 6% at 3, 6, and 12 months respectively; function improved by 44 ± 1%, 71 ± 3%, and 82 ± 2%, and pain with resistance to extension of the middle finger was reduced by 50 ± 6%, 93 ± 4%, and 100 ± 1% at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. In contrast, no changes were seen until 12 months following sham treatment (12 months: strength improved by 13 ± 2%, function improved by 52 ± 3%, pain with resistance to extension of the middle finger reduced by 76 ± 2%). No adverse effects were reported at any time. These findings suggest that laser therapy using the 10 W class IV instrument is efficacious for the long-term relief of the symptoms associated with chronic epicondylitis. The potential for a rapidly administered, safe and effective treatment warrants further

  7. USTUR WHOLE BODY CASE 0269: DEMONSTRATING EFFECTIVENESS OF I.V. CA-DTPA FOR PU

    SciTech Connect

    James, Anthony C.; Sasser , Lyle B.; Stuit, Dorothy B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-01-28

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol ‘mist.’ Chelation treatment with i.v. Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2½ years with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation), and continuing for 37 years. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 years after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive dataset has been applied to derive ‘chelation-enhanced’ transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys, and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modeling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as

  8. The effect of gradually constricted channel on the I-V characteristics of graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanella, Fernando; Nobrega, K. Z.; Dartora, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ideal graphene is a gapless semiconductor consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms regularly arranged in a honeycomb lattice having infinite spatial extent in the (x,y)-plane, in which electrons behave as Dirac massless fermions. Even neglecting interactions with the anchoring substrate, a graphene sheet in real world has finite extent, leading to distinctive features in the conductivity of a given sample. In this letter we study the effect of a gradual channel constriction in graphene nanoribbons on their I-V characteristics, using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The constriction width and the border cutting angle are the main parameters to be varied. We found that transmission through the channel is considerably affected by these parameters, presenting sharp peaks at specific energies, which can be attributed to a resonance due to the tuning of energy eigenvalues.

  9. Partial thioamide scan on the lipopeptaibiotic trichogin GA IV. Effects on folding and bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    De Zotti, Marta; Biondi, Barbara; Peggion, Cristina; De Poli, Matteo; Fathi, Haleh; Oancea, Simona; Toniolo, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Summary Backbone modification is a common chemical tool to control the conformation of linear peptides and to explore potentially useful effects on their biochemical and biophysical properties. The thioamide, ψ[CS-NH], group is a nearly isosteric structural mimic of the amide (peptide) functionality. In this paper, we describe the solution synthesis, chemical characterization, preferred conformation, and membrane and biological activities of three, carefully selected, peptide analogues of the lipopeptaibiotic [Leu11-OMe] trichogin GA IV. In each analogue, a single thioamide replacement was incorporated. Sequence positions near the N-terminus, at the center, and near the C-terminus were investigated. Our results indicate that (i) a thioamide linkage is well tolerated in the overall helical conformation of the [Leu11-OMe] lipopeptide analogue and (ii) this backbone modification is compatible with the preservation of its typical membrane leakage and antibiotic properties, although somewhat attenuated. PMID:23019444

  10. The effect of Paragraph IV decisions and generic entry before patent expiration on brand pharmaceutical firms.

    PubMed

    Panattoni, Laura E

    2011-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of Paragraph IV patent infringement decisions on brand drug pharmaceutical firms. Paragraph IV decisions determine whether a generic firm can enter before the period of exclusivity ends. I construct a novel dataset of all Paragraph IV decisions and find that they disproportionately involve the highest revenue drugs, significant periods of patent protection, and a non-trivial portion of all brand drugs facing generic entry. I also estimate the impact of Paragraph IV decisions on brand firm profitability and find they have large value consequences.

  11. Antihyperglycemic effects of gymnemic acid IV, a compound derived from Gymnema sylvestre leaves in streptozotocin-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Y; Nojima, H; Matsuda, H; Murakami, T; Yoshikawa, M; Kimura, I

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the antihyperglycemic action of a crude saponin fraction and five triterpene glycosides (gymnemic acids I-IV and gymnemasaponin V) derived from the methanol extract of leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R. BR. (Asclepiadaceae) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. The saponin fraction (60mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels 2 4h after the intraperitoneal administration. Gymnemic acid IV, not the other 4 glycosides at doses of 3.4-13.4mg/kg reduced the blood glucose levels by 13.5-60.0% 6h after the administration comparable to the potency of glibenclamide, and did not change the blood glucose levels of normal mice. Gymnemic acid IV at 13.4 mg/kg increased plasma insulin levels in STZ-diabetic mice. Gymnemic acid IV (1 mg/mL) did not inhibit alpha-glycosidase activity in the brush border membrane vesicles of normal rat small intestines. These results indicate that insulin-releasing action of gymnemic acid IV may contribute to the antihyperglycemic effect by the leaves of G. sylvestre. Gymnemic acid IV may be an anti-obese and antihyperglycemic pro-drug.

  12. Assessment of water quality parameters of the Harike wetland in India, a Ramsar site, using IRS LISS IV satellite data.

    PubMed

    Mabwoga, Samson Okongo; Chawla, Amit; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar

    2010-11-01

    This study aims at the classification and water quality assessment of Harike wetland (Ramsar site) in India using satellite images from the Indian Remote Sensing satellite, Resourcesat (IRS P6). The Harike wetland is a converging zone of two rivers, Beas and Sutlej. The satellite images of IRS Linear Imaging Self Scanner (LISS) IV multispectral sensor with three bands (green, red, and near infrared (NIR)) and a spatial resolution of 5.8 m were classified using supervised image classification techniques. Field points for image classification and water sampling were recorded using a Garmin eTrex Global Positioning System. The water quality parameters assessed were dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, turbidity, total and suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand, and Secchi disk transparency (SDT). Correlations were established between turbidity and SS, SS and SDT, and total solids and turbidity. Using reflectance values from the green, red, and NIR bands, we then plotted the water quality parameters with the mean digital number values from the satellite imagery. The NIR band correlated significantly with the water quality parameters, whereas, using SDT values, it was observed that the green and the red reflectance bands were able to distinguish the waters from the two rivers, which have different water qualities.

  13. Effects of Ti(IV) substitution on protein adsorption behaviors of calcium hydroxyapatite particles.

    PubMed

    Kandori, Kazuhiko; Oketani, Makoto; Wakamura, Masato

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental experiments on the adsorption behaviors of proteins onto photocatalytic Ti(IV)-doped calcium hydroxyapatite (TiHap) particles with varied amounts of Ti(IV) ions doped (called as original particle) were examined comparing to those onto the calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHap) ones. The heat treated TiHaps and CaHap particles at 650°C for 1h were also examined (called as heat treated particle). The Ti/(Ca+Ti) atomic ratio (X(Ti)) of the TiHap particles was varied between 0 and 0.20. Since the surface acidity of the particles was increased by increase in X(Ti) value, the negative zeta potential (zp) of the particles was increased. All the adsorption isotherms of bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin (MGB) and lysozyme (LSZ) from 1×10(-4)mol/dm(3) KCl solution were the pseudo-Langmuirian type. The saturated amounts of adsorbed LSZ (n(S)(LSZ)) values onto the original particles were increased with increase in the negative zp of the particles. However, the saturated amounts of adsorbed BSA (n(S)(BSA)) values were decreased by increase in the negative zp except at X(Ti)=0.05 where n(S)(BSA) value exhibited a maximum. In the case of MGB, the saturated amounts of adsorbed MGB (n(s)(MGB)) values were less dependent on the zp of the particles. These results were explained by changing the electrostatic forces between protein molecules and TiHap particles by doping Ti(IV) ions. On the other hand, n(S)(BSA), n(S)(LSZ) and n(s)(MGB) values onto the heat treated particles were larger than the original particles in each particle system, though no relationship to the X(Ti) value was recognized in each protein system. This result was interpreted to the formation of β-TCP crystal phase in both the CaHap and TiHap particles by the heat treatment. The Ca(2+) ions produced by dissolution from β-TCP phase may exert as binders between BSA and surfaces of the heat treated particles. The weak binder effects of Ca(2+) and PO(4)(3-) ions were observed for the adsorptions of LSZ

  14. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates: Neuroendocrine portion of Experiment IV

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-08-31

    This quarterly report covers the neuroendocrine Portion of Experiment IV. Serum melatonin concentration was measured in individual baboons, each implanted with a chronically indwelling venous cannula. As in Experiment III the system of six automatic blood samplers was used to achieve undisturbed, 24 hr per day, simultaneous blood sampling from six individual subjects. The objective of the neuroendocrine portion of Experiment IV was to determine if 30 kV/m electric and 1.0 G magnetic field (E/MF) exposure produced a 50% decline in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration. Other groups of subjects were tested concurrently during Experiment IV to assess E/MF effects on group social and individual operant behavior. The results of these experiments will be covered respectively in the next two quarterly reports. The results of Experiment IV, as was the case with the result of Experiments III and IIIA, provide little or no evidence that E/MF exposure, under the conditions of these experiments, affects nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations of nonhuman primates. Together the negative results of Experiments III, IIA and IV indicate that day-time exposure of primates to slow-onset/offset, regularly-scheduled E/MF does not produce melatonin suppression, strongly suggesting that such exposure would not affect human melatonin either. However, before concluding that E/MF exposure in general has no effect on primate melatonin, nightime exposure needs to be examined, and the possibility, suggested by the Pilot Experiment, that fast onset/offset, irregularly-scheduled E/MF can completely suppress melatonin needs to be investigated.

  15. Toxicity Assessment of Titanium (IV) Oxide Nanoparticles Using Daphnia magna (Water Flea).

    PubMed

    Bang, Seung Hyuck; Le, Thai-Hoang; Lee, Sung Kyu; Kim, Pil; Kim, Jong Soo; Min, Jiho

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), a common nanoparticle widely used in industrial production, is one of nano-sized materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of TiO(2) using different size and various concentrations on Daphnia magna. In the acute toxicity test, four concentrations (0, 0.5, 4, and 8 mM) for TiO(2) with 250 or 500 nm and five concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mM) for TiO(2) with 21 nm were selected to analyze the toxic effect to three groups of ten daphnia neonates over 96 hours. In addition, to better understand their toxicity, chronic toxicity was examined over 21 days using 0, 1, and 10 mM for each type of TiO(2). Our results showed that all organisms died before the reproduction time at a concentration of 10 mM of TiO(2). In addition, the exposure of anatase (21 nm) particles were more toxic to D. magna, comparing with that of anatase (250 nm) and rutile (500 nm) particles. This study indicated that TiO(2) had adverse impacts on the survival, growth and reproduction of D. magna after the 21days exposure. In addition, the number of test organisms that were able to reproduce neonates gradually were reduced as the size of TiO(2) tested was decreased.

  16. Effect of an aldose reductase inhibitor on type IV collagen production by human endothelial cells cultured in high glucose.

    PubMed

    Bakillah, A; Grigorova-Borsos, A M; Guillot, R; Urios, P; Sternberg, M

    1996-06-01

    Diabetic microangiopathy is characterized by a thickening of capillary basement membranes associated with type IV collagen accumulation. An increase in type IV collagen content of the aortic wall is also observed in macroangiopathy. In order to analyse the importance of the polyol pathway in the development of the collagen metabolism alterations seen in diabetic angiopathy and their prevention by aldose reductase inhibitors, we have studied the effects of sorbinil on the high glucose-induced stimulation of type IV collagen biosynthesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Primary cultures were exposed to high glucose (16.7 mmol/l), with and without 0.11 mmol/l sorbinil, for 3 or 6 days after beginning of confluence. We measured the soluble type IV collagen secreted into the culture medium and the insoluble type IV collagen accumulated in the extracellular matrix and cells, by ELISA. We also studied [14C]proline incorporation into the newly synthesized collagenous and total proteins in the culture supernatant and in the extracellular matrix and cell fraction. High glucose decreased the number of cells and increased the amount of type IV collagen in the culture supernatant and in the extracellular matrix and cell fraction. It also increased proline incorporation into the newly synthesized collagenous and total proteins in the culture supernatant and in the extracellular matrix and cell fraction. Sorbinil corrected all these high glucose-induced alterations. The corrective effects of sorbinil on the proliferation and on type IV collagen metabolism of endothelial cells cultured in high glucose may be attributed to prevention of polyol pathway dysregulation.

  17. Planck early results. IV. First assessment of the High Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck HFI Core Team; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ansari, R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Banday, A. J.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bradshaw, T.; Bréelle, E.; Bucher, M.; Camus, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Charra, J.; Charra, M.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, C.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Cressiot, C.; Crill, B. P.; Crook, M.; de Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Efstathiou, G.; Eng, P.; Filliard, C.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Fourmond, J.-J.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gispert, R.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Griffin, M.; Guyot, G.; Haissinski, J.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hills, R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Kaplan, J.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lami, P.; Lange, A. E.; Lasenby, A.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leriche, B.; Leroy, C.; Longval, Y.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maciaszek, T.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Mansoux, B.; Masi, S.; Matsumura, T.; McGehee, P.; Melin, J.-B.; Mercier, C.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Mortlock, D.; Murphy, A.; Nati, F.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Osborne, S.; Paine, C.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peacocke, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pons, R.; Ponthieu, N.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Renault, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Shellard, P.; Spencer, L.; Starck, J.-L.; Stassi, P.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Thum, C.; Torre, J.-P.; Touze, F.; Tristram, M.; van Leeuwen, F.; Vibert, L.; Vibert, D.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Woodcraft, A.; Yurchenko, V.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is designed to measure the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic foregrounds in six ~30% bands centered at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz at an angular resolution of 10' (100 GHz), 7' (143 GHz), and 5' (217 GHz and higher). HFI has been operating flawlessly since launch on 14 May 2009, with the bolometers reaching 100 mK the first week of July. The settings of the readout electronics, including bolometer bias currents, that optimize HFI's noise performance on orbit are nearly the same as the ones chosen during ground testing. Observations of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn have confirmed that the optical beams and the time responses of the detection chains are in good agreement with the predictions of physical optics modeling and pre-launch measurements. The Detectors suffer from a high flux of cosmic rays due to historically low levels of solar activity. As a result of the redundancy of Planck's observation strategy, theremoval of a few percent of data contaminated by glitches does not significantly affect the instrumental sensitivity. The cosmic ray flux represents a significant and variable heat load on the sub-Kelvin stage. Temporal variation and the inhomogeneous distribution of the flux results in thermal fluctuations that are a probable source of low frequency noise. The removal of systematic effects in the time ordered data provides a signal with an average noise equivalent power that is 70% of the goal in the 0.6-2.5 Hz range. This is slightly higher than was achieved during the pre-launch characterization but better than predicted in the early phases of the project. The improvement over the goal is a result of the low level of instrumental background loading achieved by the optical and thermal design of the HFI. Corresponding author: J.-M. Lamarre, jean-michel.lamarre@obspm.fr

  18. Cytogenetic effects of pesticides. IV. Cytogenetic effects of the insecticides Gardona and Dursban.

    PubMed

    Amer, S M; Aly, F A

    1992-06-01

    The cytogenetic effects of the insecticides Gardona and Dursban were investigated. The toxicity and ability of both insecticides to induce chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchange in vitro was tested in a primary culture of mouse spleen cells, in order to assess the potential mutagenicity of both insecticides. The concentrations 10(-7)-10(-3) M were used for testing the toxic effects of the insecticides. Both Gardona and Dursban were toxic to spleen cell cultures and the percentage of viable cells decreased as the concentration of the insecticide was increased. It reached 76.8% and 77.8% of control after treatment with the highest concentration tested (10(-3) M) of Gardona and Dursban respectively. Gardona at 0.25, 0.50, 1.0 and 2.0 micrograms/ml, and Dursban at 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 micrograms/ml were tested for the induction of chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges. All of the tested concentrations of both insecticides induced a high percentage of metaphases with chromosomal aberrations in cultured mouse spleen cells after 4-h treatment. The frequency of SCEs/cell increased with increasing concentration of the insecticides. It reached 11.92 +/- 0.14/cell and 13.40 +/- 0.20/cell after treatment with Gardona (2 micrograms/ml) and Dursban (4 micrograms/ml), respectively, compared with 8.2 +/- 0.19/cell and 7.6 +/- 0.15/cell in the solvent control. The presented results indicate that both Gardona and Dursban in the tested concentrations are mutagenic in mouse spleen cell cultures.

  19. A Prospective Randomized Trial to Assess Oral Versus Intravenous Antibiotics for the Treatment of Postoperative Wound Infection After Extremity Fractures (POvIV Study).

    PubMed

    Obremskey, William T; Schmidt, Andrew H; OʼToole, Robert V; DeSanto, Jennifer; Morshed, Saam; Tornetta, Paul; Murray, Clinton K; Jones, Clifford B; Scharfstein, Daniel O; Taylor, Tara J; Carlini, Anthony R; Castillo, Renan C

    2017-04-01

    Patients surgically treated for infection after extremity fractures are typically discharged with a 6- to 12-week antibiotic regimen. Intravenous (IV) antibiotics are associated with significant cost and potential complications of deep vein thrombosis, line clotting, and sepsis. Many of the pathogens that cause musculoskeletal infection have both oral (PO) and IV antibiotic options with adequate bioavailability and antibacterial effect, yet IV antibiotics remain the standard of care absent evidence that PO options are clinically as efficacious. The POvIV study is a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial to compare PO with IV antibiotic therapy in patients with postoperative wound infections after extremity fractures. Patients between the ages of 18 and 84 who have a culture-positive surgical site infection after internal fixation for fracture repair or arthrodesis are approached for this study, and if they provide consent, are randomly assigned to receive either PO or IV antibiotics. Antibiotic selection is based on culture and sensitivity results. Randomization determines the route of administration. Patients are followed for 1 year after study enrollment. This study will be the largest prospective randomized trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of PO antibiotic use for treatment of postoperative wound infections. Results will inform clinician decisions on antibiotic delivery in patients with postoperative wound infections.

  20. Practitioner Expectations and Experiences with the Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (TAA40104). A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Berwyn; Meyers, Dave; Bateman, Andrea; Bluer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (TAA40104) is seen as the standard entry-level teaching qualification in the vocational education and training (VET) sector. The qualification is widely accepted and well supported as an essential requirement for VET practitioners. However, it has been criticised in relation to its ability to provide…

  1. Gestalt Effect of Self Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Defining self assessment as the involvement of students in identifying standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and making judgements about the extent to which they have met these criteria and standards, this paper seeks to highlight the gestalt effect of self assessment. The total effect of self assessment on the learner is greater than…

  2. Beneficial effects of astragaloside IV against angiotensin II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    LU, YAO; LI, SU; WU, HENGFANG; BIAN, ZHIPING; XU, JINDAN; GU, CHUNRONG; CHEN, XIANGJIAN; YANG, DI

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent characteristic of the majority of cardiovascular diseases. Astragaloside IV (As-IV), the major active ingredient of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. (a traditional Chinese herbal medicine), possesses antioxidant properties. The present study was carried out to examine whether As-IV can reverse Ang II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cultured rat aortic VSMCs treated with Ang II (1 µM) for 24 h exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, including a decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates (OCRs), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels, as well as the disruption of mitochondrial structural integrity. Following treatment with Ang II, As-IV (50 µg/ml) was added to the culture medium followed by incubation for a further 24 h. The administration of As-IV significantly increased the mitochondrial OCRs, ATP production and the mtDNA levels, and reversed the mitochondrial morphological changes which occurred in the VSMCs. Treatment with As-IV also reversed the Ang II-induced increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the increase in NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase activity, as well as the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. Furthermore, treatment with As-IV led to an increase in the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), and in the protein expression of PGC-1α, parkin and dynamin 1-like protein 1 (Drp1) in the VSMCs. These results indicate that As-IV exerts beneficial effects on Ang II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat VSMCs and that these effects are mediated through the inhibition of ROS overproduction, as well as the promotion of mitochondrial autophagy and

  3. Synergistic radiation protective effect of purified Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharide (AAP IV) with grape seed procyanidins.

    PubMed

    Bai, Haina; Wang, Zhenyu; Cui, Jie; Yun, Keli; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Rui Hai; Fan, Ziluan; Cheng, Cuilin

    2014-12-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic antioxidant potential and protective effect of grape seed procyanidins (GSP) in combination with Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharides (AAP IV) on radiation injury in splenocytes. Rat splenocyte irradiation resulted in significantly higher apoptosis rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) (p < 0.005), reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p < 0.01); cell viability, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) (p < 0.01), catalase (CAT) (p < 0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) (p < 0.05), activity and glutathione (GSH) (p < 0.01) levels were significantly reduced, compared with the control group. "GSP + AAP IV" treatment of rat splenocytes at doses of "GSP (0.3 μg/mL) + AAP IV (50 μg/mL)" displayed higher radioprotective and antioxidative effects than the administration of either GSP or AAP IV, as evident by lower levels of MDA (p < 0.001) concentration, as well as higher cell viability and T-SOD (p < 0.05), CAT (p < 0.005), GSH-PX (p < 0.01) and GSH content compared to the radiation group. In addition, in vivo studies have shown that "GSP + AAP IV" significantly ameliorated the decrease of spleen index (p < 0.005) and spleen GSH (p < 0.005) levels and significantly inhibited the increase of MDA (p < 0.005) levels of spleen with radiation-induced damage, compared with the non-treated group. The in vivo and in vitro results suggested that GSP and AAP IV have a synergistic protective effect against radiation-induced injury by improving the antioxidant and immunomodulation activities.

  4. Intravenous Ibuprofen (IV-ibuprofen) Controls Fever Effectively in Adults with Acute Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria but Prolongs Parasitemia

    PubMed Central

    Krudsood, Srivicha; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Wilairatana, Polrat; Pothipak, Nantaporn; Duangdee, Chatnapa; Warrell, David A.; Looareesuwan, Sornchai

    2010-01-01

    Because some febrile patients are unable to swallow or retain oral antipyretic drugs, we carried out a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which intravenous ibuprofen (IV-ibuprofen) was given to adults hospitalized with fever associated with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria treated with oral artesunate plus mefloquine. Thirty patients received IV-ibuprofen 400 mg and 30 received placebo every 6 hours for 72 hours. Reduction in the area above 37.0°C versus time curve was significantly greater for IV-ibuprofen than for placebo during the first 72 hours after first administration. No patients developed severe malaria; parasite clearance was delayed in the patients whose fevers were controlled by IV-ibuprofen (median 37.3 hours versus 23.7 hours in the placebo group [P = 0.0024]). This difference did not appear to be clinically important Adverse events, none considered severe, occurred equally in both groups. IV-ibuprofen was effective and well tolerated in reducing fever in febrile inpatients with malaria. PMID:20595477

  5. Inhibitory effect of collagen-derived tripeptides on dipeptidylpeptidase-IV activity.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Tadashi; Kawakami, Kayoko; Uraji, Misugi

    2014-12-01

    The collagen tripeptide fragments Gly-Ala-Hyp, Gly-Pro-Ala and Gly-Pro-Hyp were generated by hydrolyzing collagen from pig-skin, cattle-skin, fish-scales and chicken-feet, respectively, with Streptomyces collagenase. Collagenase treatment increased the concentration of tripeptides in the hydrolysates by 13-15% (w/w). Of the three peptides, Gly-Pro-Hyp was a true peptidic inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase-IV (DPP-IV), because DPP-IV could not hydrolyze the bond between Pro-Hyp. This tripeptide was a moderately competitive inhibitor (Ki=4.5 mM) of DPP-IV, and its level in the collagen hydrolysates could be greatly increased (4-9% [w/w]) using Streptomyces collagenase.

  6. Antidepressive and BDNF effects of enriched environment treatment across ages in mice lacking BDNF expression through promoter IV

    PubMed Central

    Jha, S; Dong, B E; Xue, Y; Delotterie, D F; Vail, M G; Sakata, K

    2016-01-01

    Reduced promoter IV-driven expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in stress and major depression. We previously reported that defective promoter IV (KIV) caused depression-like behavior in young adult mice, which was reversed more effectively by enriched environment treatment (EET) than antidepressants. The effects of promoter IV-BDNF deficiency and EET over the life stages remain unknown. Since early-life development (ED) involves dynamic epigenetic processes, we hypothesized that EET during ED would provide maximum antidepressive effects that would persist later in life due to enhanced, long-lasting BDNF induction. We tested this hypothesis by determining EET effects across three life stages: ED (0–2 months), young adult (2–4 months), and old adult (12–14 months). KIV mice at all life stages showed depression-like behavior in the open-field and tail-suspension tests compared with wild-type mice. Two months of EET reduced depression-like behavior in ED and young adult, but not old adult mice, with the largest effect in ED KIV mice. This effect lasted for 1 month after discontinuance of EET only in ED mice. BDNF protein induction by EET in the hippocampus and frontal cortex was also the largest in ED mice and persisted only in the hippocampus of ED KIV mice after discontinuance of EET. No gender-specific effects were observed. The results suggest that defective promoter IV causes depression-like behavior, regardless of age and gender, and that EET during ED is particularly beneficial to individuals with promoter IV-BDNF deficiency, while additional treatment may be needed for older adults. PMID:27648918

  7. The Effect of Self-Regulated Jigsaw IV on University Students' Academic Achievements and Attitudes towards English Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Esin; Arslan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of self-regulated jigsaw IV upon university students' learning a new grammar structure within EFL learning process and also their attitudes towards the English course. The research was carried out with 40 students studying in two different prep classes at Bulent Ecevit University Foreign Languages College in…

  8. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA:
    IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    Zhixiong Ning, B.S., Zhiyi Liu,B.S., Shiying Zhang, B.S., Chenglong Ma, B.S., Inner Mongolia Ba Men Anti-epidemic Station, Michael Ri...

  9. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA:
    IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    Zhixiong Ning, B.S., Zhiyi Liu,B.S., Shiying Zhang, B.S., Chenglong Ma, B.S., Inner Mongolia Ba Men Anti-epidemic Station, Michael Ri...

  10. Mucolipidosis type IV: the effect of increased lysosomal pH on the abnormal lysosomal storage.

    PubMed

    Kogot-Levin, Aviram; Zeigler, Marsha; Ornoy, Asher; Bach, Gideon

    2009-06-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a neurodegenerative channelopathy that is caused by the deficiency of TRPML1 activity, a nonselective cation channel. TRPML1 is a lysosomal membrane protein, and thus, MLIV is a lysosomal storage disorder. The basic, specific function of TRPML1 has not been yet clarified. A recent report (Soyombo AA, Tjon-Kon-Sang S, Rbaibi Y, Bashllari E, Bisceglia J, Muallem S, Kiselyov K: J Biol Chem 281:7294-7301, 2006) indicated that TRPML1 functions as an outwardly proton channel whose function is the prevention of overacidification of these organelles. Thus, in MLIV the lysosomal pH is lower than normal. Furthermore, attempts by these investigators to increase slightly the lysososmal pH with either Nigericin or Chloroquine suggested corrective effect of the abnormal storage in MLIV cells. We investigated this approach using these agents with cultured fibroblasts from severely affected and milder patients. Our data indicated that there was no reduction in the total number of storage vesicles by either agent, although Nigericin resulted in a change in the nature of the storage materials, reducing the presence of lamellated substances (lipids) so that the storage vesicles contained predominantly granulated substances. On the other hand, transfection with the normal MCOLN1 cDNA (the gene coding for TRPML1) resulted in the removal of almost all the storage materials.

  11. The effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibition on bone in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Emily Jane; Sun, Hui; Kornhauser, Caroline; Tobin-Hess, Aviva; Epstein, Sol; Yakar, Shoshana; LeRoith, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Background Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at greater risk of bone fractures than those without diabetes. Certain oral diabetic medications may further increase the risk of fracture. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors are incretin-based therapies that are being increasingly used for the management of T2D. It has been hypothesized that these agents may reduce fracture risk in those with T2D. In this study, we used a mouse model of T2D to examine the effects of the DPP-IV inhibitor, MK-0626, on bone. Methods Male wild type (WT) and diabetic muscle-lysine-arginine (MKR) mice were treated with MK-0626, pioglitazone, alendronate or vehicle. The effects of treatment with MK-0626 on bone microarchitecture and turnover were compared with treatment with pioglitazone, alendronate and vehicle. Osteoblast differentiation was determined by alkaline phosphatase staining of bone marrow cells from WT and MKR mice after treatment with pioglitazone, MK-0626 or phosphate buffered saline. Results We found that MK-0626 had neutral effects on cortical and trabecular bone in diabetic mice. Pioglitazone had detrimental effects on the trabecular bone of WT but not of diabetic mice. Alendronate caused improvements in cortical and trabecular bone architecture in diabetic and WT mice. MK-0626 did not alter osteoblast differentiation, but pioglitazone impaired osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Conclusions Overall, the DPP-IV inhibitor, MK-0626, had no adverse effects on bone in an animal model of T2D or directly on osteoblasts in culture. These findings are reassuring as DPP-IV inhibitors are being widely used to treat patients with T2D who are already at an increased risk of fractures. PMID:24023014

  12. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Phase II-IV Clinical Trials in China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Gaiyan; Liu, Xinchun; Huang, Lihua; Shu, Jingxian; Xu, Nana; Chen, Ruifang; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Guoping; Wang, Xiaomin; Xiang, Yuxia; Lu, Yao; Yuan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    To explore the readability and content integrity of informed consent forms (ICFs) used in China and to compare the quality of Chinese local ICFs with that of international ICFs. The length, readability and content of 155 consent documents from phase II-IV drug clinical trials from the Third Xiangya Hospital Ethics Committee from November 2009 to January 2015 were evaluated. Reading difficulty was tested using a readability formula adapted for the Chinese language. An ICF checklist containing 27 required elements was successfully constructed to evaluate content integrity. The description of alternatives to participation was assessed. The quality of ICFs from different sponsorships were also compared. Among the 155 evaluable trials, the ICFs had a median length of 5286 words, corresponding to 7 pages. The median readability score was 4.31 (4.02-4.41), with 63.9% at the 2nd level and 36.1% at the 3rd level. Five of the 27 elements were frequently neglected. The average score for the description of alternatives to participation was 1.06, and 27.7% of the ICFs did not mention any alternatives. Compared with Chinese local ICFs, international ICFs were longer, more readable and contained more of the required elements (P < 0.05). The ICFs used in China were difficult to read for most participants. These forms had poor description of alternatives to participation, and failed to provide a high degree of information disclosure, including an explanation of informed consent, follow-up processing of the data/sample, inclusion/exclusion criteria, double blinding, and unpredictable risks. International ICFs had better readability and content integrity than Chinese local ICFs. More efforts should thus be made to improve the quality of consent documents in China.

  13. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Phase II-IV Clinical Trials in China

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Gaiyan; Liu, Xinchun; Huang, Lihua; Shu, Jingxian; Xu, Nana; Chen, Ruifang; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Guoping; Wang, Xiaomin; Xiang, Yuxia; Lu, Yao; Yuan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the readability and content integrity of informed consent forms (ICFs) used in China and to compare the quality of Chinese local ICFs with that of international ICFs. Methods The length, readability and content of 155 consent documents from phase II-IV drug clinical trials from the Third Xiangya Hospital Ethics Committee from November 2009 to January 2015 were evaluated. Reading difficulty was tested using a readability formula adapted for the Chinese language. An ICF checklist containing 27 required elements was successfully constructed to evaluate content integrity. The description of alternatives to participation was assessed. The quality of ICFs from different sponsorships were also compared. Results Among the 155 evaluable trials, the ICFs had a median length of 5286 words, corresponding to 7 pages. The median readability score was 4.31 (4.02–4.41), with 63.9% at the 2nd level and 36.1% at the 3rd level. Five of the 27 elements were frequently neglected. The average score for the description of alternatives to participation was 1.06, and 27.7% of the ICFs did not mention any alternatives. Compared with Chinese local ICFs, international ICFs were longer, more readable and contained more of the required elements (P < 0.05). Conclusion The ICFs used in China were difficult to read for most participants. These forms had poor description of alternatives to participation, and failed to provide a high degree of information disclosure, including an explanation of informed consent, follow-up processing of the data/sample, inclusion/exclusion criteria, double blinding, and unpredictable risks. International ICFs had better readability and content integrity than Chinese local ICFs. More efforts should thus be made to improve the quality of consent documents in China. PMID:27701471

  14. Solution and surface chemistry of the Se(IV)-Fe(0) reactions: Effect of initial solution pH.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xuefen; Ling, Lan; Zhang, Wei-Xian

    2017-02-01

    Aspects of solution and solid-phase reactions between selenite (Se(IV)) and nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) were investigated. Experimental results on the effects of initial solution pH, formation and evolution of nZVI corrosion products, and speciation of selenium in nZVI were presented. In general, the rate of Se(IV) removal decreases with increasing initial pH. The observed rate constants of Se(IV) removal decreased from 0.3530 to 0.0364 min(-1) as pH increased from 4.0 to 10.0. Composition and morphology of nZVI corrosion products and selenium species were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results confirmed that Se(IV) was reduced to Se(0) and Se(-II) by nZVI. Lower solution pH favored further reduction of Se(0) to Se(-II). Amorphous FeOOH, magnetite/maghemite (Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3) and ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH)2) were identified as the main corrosion products. Under alkaline conditions, the corrosion products were mainly of Fe(OH)2 along with small amounts of Fe3O4, while nZVI in acidic solutions was oxidized to mostly Fe3O4 and amorphous FeOOH. Furthermore, these corrosion products acted as intermediates for electron transfer and reactive/sorptive sites for Se(IV) adsorption and reduction, thus played a crucial role in the removal of aqueous Se(IV). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effects of humic acid concentration on the microbially-mediated reductive solubilization of Pu(IV) polymers.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jinchuan; Han, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Weixian; Zhou, Xiaohua; Lin, Jianfeng

    2017-10-05

    The role of humic acid concentration in the microbially-mediated reductive solubilization of Pu(IV) polymers remains unclear until now. The effects of humic concentration (0-150.5mg/L) on the rate and extent of reduction of polymeric Pu(IV) were studied under anaerobic and pH 7.2 conditions. The results show that Shewanella putrefaciens, secreting flavins as endogenous electron shuttles, cannot notably stimulate the reduction of polymeric Pu(IV). In the presence of humic acids, the reduction rate of polymeric Pu(IV) increased with increasing humic concentrations (0-15.0mg/L): e.g., a 102-fold increase from 4.1×10(-15) (HA=0) to 4.2×10(-13)mol Pu(III)aq/h (HA=15.0mg/L). The bioreduced humic acids by S. putrefaciens facilitated the extracellular electron transfer to Pu(IV) polymers and thus the reduction of polymeric Pu(IV) to Pu(III)aq became thermodynamically favorable. However, the reduction rate did not increase but decrease with increasing humic concentrations from 15.0 to 150.5mg/L. Humic coatings formed on the polymer surfaces at relatively high humic concentrations limited the electron transfer to the polymers and thus decreased the reduction rate. The finding of the dynamic role of humic acids in the bioreductive solubilization may be helpful in evaluating Pu mobility in the geosphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of berberine on PPARα-NO signalling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by angiotensin IV.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hongmei; Wu, Yang; Wang, Quanhua; Liu, Changqing; Xue, Lai; Wang, Hong; Wu, Qin; Jiang, Qingsong

    2017-12-01

    The available treatments for the abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are still dismal. Berberine has been demonstrated to possess extensive medicine activity, yet relatively little is known about its effect on VSMCs proliferation. Many studies showed that PPARα and NO participated in the process of VSMCs proliferation. To evaluate the effect of berberine and its possible influence on PPARα-NO pathway in angiotensin IV-stimulated VSMCs. The primary VSMCs were cultured with the tissue explants method, and the proliferation was characterized by MTT and protein content. Protein and mRNA expression were measured by Western blot and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. NO synthase (NOS) activity was measured using a spectrophotometric assay, and NO concentration was measured using the Griess assay. Angiotensin IV (0.1 nmol/L)-induced VSMCs proliferation was evidenced by increasing the optical density at A490 and total protein content (p < 0.01), which was inhibited by berberine (10, 30 and 100 μmol/L) in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Angiotensin IV decreased the expression of PPARα at mRNA and protein level (p < 0.05), which occurred in parallel with declining eNOS mRNA expression, NOS activity and NO concentration (p < 0.01). Berberine at 30 μmol/L reversed the effects of angiotensin IV in VSMCs (p < 0.05), which were abolished by MK 886 (0.3 μmol/L) (p < 0.05). The results support the therapeutic effects of berberine on angiotensin IV-induced proliferation in cultured VSMCs at least partially through targeting the PPARα-NO signalling pathway.

  17. Effect of pH on aqueous Se(IV) reduction by pyrite.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mingliang; Chen, Fanrong; Wu, Shijun; Yang, Yongqiang; Bruggeman, C; Charlet, L

    2011-04-01

    Interaction of aqueous Se(IV) with pyrite was investigated using persistently stirred batch reactors under O2-free (<1 ppm) conditions at pH ranging from 4.5 to 6.6. Thermodynamic calculations, an increase in pH during the experiments, and spectroscopic observation indicate that the reduction of aqueous Se(IV) by pyrite is dominated by the following reaction: FeS2+3.5HSeO3−+1.5H+=2SO4(2−)+Fe2++3.5Se(0)+2.5H2O. The released Fe(II) was partitioned between the bulk solution and pyrite surface at pH≈4.5 and 4.8, with the Fe2+ density at pyrite-solution interface about 4 orders of magnitude higher than that in the bulk solution, while iron oxyhydroxide precipitated at pH≈6.6, resulting in the decrease of dissolved iron. In the Se(IV) concentration range of the experiments, aqueous Se(IV) reduction rate follows the pseudofirst order which is in the form of ln mSe(IV)=−k′t+ln mSe(IV)0, where k′ is apparent rate constant combining the rate constant k and pyrite surface area to mass of solution ratio (A/M). And the aqueous Se(IV) reduction rate constant for a standard system (k) with 1 m2 pyrite surface area per 1 kg solution was obtained to be 1.65×10(−4) h(−1), 3.28×10(−4) h(−1), and 4.76×10(−4) h(−1) at pH around 4.5, 4.8, and 5.1, respectively. The positive correlation between reaction rate and pH disagrees with the theories that protons are consumed when HSeO3− is reduced to Se0, and negative charge density on pyrite surface increases as pH increases. Thus, a ferrous iron mediated electron transfer mechanism is proposed to operate during the reduction of aqueous Se(IV) by pyrite. pH and iron concentration affect significantly on Se(IV) reaction rate and reaction product.

  18. Comparative effectiveness of primary tumor resection in patients with stage IV colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Alawadi, Zeinab; Phatak, Uma R; Hu, Chung-Yuan; Bailey, Christina E; You, Y Nancy; Kao, Lillian S; Massarweh, Nader N; Feig, Barry W; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A; Skibber, John M; Chang, George J

    2017-04-01

    Although the safety of combination chemotherapy without primary tumor resection (PTR) in patients with stage IV colon cancer has been established, questions remain regarding a potential survival benefit with PTR. The objective of this study was to compare mortality rates in patients who had colon cancer with unresectable metastases who did and did not undergo PTR. An observational cohort study was conducted among patients with unresectable metastatic colon cancer identified from the National Cancer Data Base (2003-2005). Multivariate Cox regression analyses with and without propensity score weighting (PSW) were performed to compare survival outcomes. Instrumental variable analysis, using the annual hospital-level PTR rate as the instrument, was used to account for treatment selection bias. To account for survivor treatment bias, in situations in which patients might die soon after diagnosis from different reasons, a landmark method was used. In the total cohort, 8641 of 15,154 patients (57%) underwent PTR, and 73.8% of those procedures (4972 of 6735) were at landmark. PTR was associated with a significant reduction in mortality using Cox regression (hazard ratio [HR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-0.47) or PSW (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0. 44-0.49). However, instrumental variable analysis revealed a much smaller effect (relative mortality rate, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87-0.96). Although a smaller benefit was observed with the landmark method using Cox regression (HR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.55-0.64) and PSW (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.54-0.64), instrumental variable analysis revealed no survival benefit (relative mortality rate, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.87-1.06). Among patients with unresectable metastatic colon cancer, after adjustment for confounder effects, PTR was not associated with improved survival compared with systemic chemotherapy; therefore, routine noncurative PTR is not recommended. Cancer 2017;123:1124-1133. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  19. Assessing Presidential Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrill, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Presidential evaluations--especially annual evaluations based on presidents' self-assessments--have become much more prevalent, as part of accreditors' expectations for institutional accountability and for many other reasons. More recently, some experts, including the Association of Governing Boards, have been making the case for a comprehensive…

  20. Effective Campus Environmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Ann; Creighton, Sarah Hammond

    2003-01-01

    Examines environmental assessments as a decision-making tool, distinguishing broad-based, targeted, and goal-oriented efforts as the three types most commonly practiced on campuses. Discusses benefits and problems associated with these approaches and concludes that the goal-oriented approach is most likely to be successful. Describes Tufts…

  1. Assessing School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen; Freedman, David; Shavelson, Richard; Bolus, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) program measures value added in colleges and universities, by testing the ability of freshmen and seniors to think logically and write clearly. The program is popular enough that it has attracted critics. In this paper, we outline the methods used by the CLA to determine value added. We summarize the…

  2. Effective Campus Environmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Ann; Creighton, Sarah Hammond

    2003-01-01

    Examines environmental assessments as a decision-making tool, distinguishing broad-based, targeted, and goal-oriented efforts as the three types most commonly practiced on campuses. Discusses benefits and problems associated with these approaches and concludes that the goal-oriented approach is most likely to be successful. Describes Tufts…

  3. [Effect of an intensive nutritional treatment in nutritional status of head and neck cancer patients in stages III and IV].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, V; Barbosa, V; Mendoza, J; Vargas, A; Amancio, O; Hernández-Cuéllar, A; Arana-Rivera, E

    2008-01-01

    Malnutrition and accelerated weight loss are frequent secondary diagnosis in patients with cancer. Head and neck cancer (H & N Cancer) affects nutritional status because of the tumor type and localization. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of an intensive nutritional treatment (INT) on nutritional status of H & N cancer patients, stages III and IV and to compare that with a historical control whose nutritional treatment was conventional (CT). All patients were nutritionally assessed before oncological treatment started (anthropometrical, biochemical, and dietetically). A nutritional feeding plan according to their nutritional personal need was calculated. In case it was impossible to cover all the nutritional requirements orally, a feeding tube was placed. Nutritional follow up was performed each 21 days, during their oncological treatment in four occasions. The results obtained were compared with those obtained from the patients who received the CT that consisted only in nutritional counseling by the attending physician; the statistical test used was Mann Whitney U test. The INT was associated with maintenance of the nutritional status along their oncological treatment. The statistical significant parameters were: weight 55 to 47 kg in the CT group vs 59 a 58 kg in the INT group (p < 0.0001), and hemoglobin: from 13 to 11 g/dl in the CT group vs 14 to 13 g/dl in the INT group (p < 0.002) as the most important ones. In the rest of the data we can observe a clear tendency of increasing the nutrition parameters in patients the INT group, while in the CT group, they showed a persistent decrease. We concluded that patients who received the INT as part of their oncological treatment deteriorated less their nutritional status than those who received a CT.

  4. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibition Exerts Renoprotective Effects in Rats with Established Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Arruda-Junior, Daniel F.; Martins, Flavia L.; Dariolli, Rafael; Jensen, Leonardo; Antonio, Ednei L.; dos Santos, Leonardo; Tucci, Paulo J. F.; Girardi, Adriana C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Circulating dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) activity is associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes in humans and experimental heart failure (HF) models, suggesting that DPPIV may play a role in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Renal dysfunction is one of the key features of HF, but it remains to be determined whether DPPIV inhibitors are capable of improving cardiorenal function after the onset of HF. Therefore, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that DPPIV inhibition by vildagliptin improves renal water and salt handling and exerts anti-proteinuric effects in rats with established HF. To this end, male Wistar rats were subjected to left ventricle (LV) radiofrequency ablation or sham operation. Six weeks after surgery, radiofrequency-ablated rats who developed HF were randomly divided into two groups and treated for 4 weeks with vildagliptin (120 mg/kg/day) or vehicle by oral gavage. Echocardiography was performed before (pretreatment) and at the end of treatment (post-treatment) to evaluate cardiac function. The fractional area change (FAC) increased (34 ± 5 vs. 45 ± 3%, p < 0.05), and the isovolumic relaxation time decreased (33 ± 2 vs. 27 ± 1 ms; p < 0.05) in HF rats treated with vildagliptin (post-treatment vs. pretreatment). On the other hand, cardiac dysfunction deteriorated further in vehicle-treated HF rats. Renal function was impaired in vehicle-treated HF rats as evidenced by fluid retention, low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and high levels of urinary protein excretion. Vildagliptin treatment restored urinary flow, GFR, urinary sodium and urinary protein excretion to sham levels. Restoration of renal function in HF rats by DPPIV inhibition was associated with increased active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) serum concentration, reduced DPPIV activity and increased activity of protein kinase A in the renal cortex. Furthermore, the anti-proteinuric effect of vildagliptin treatment in rats with established HF was associated with

  5. [Forensic assessment of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder: a commentary on the transition from DSM-IV-TR (I)].

    PubMed

    Stevens, A; Fabra, M

    2013-12-01

    In May 2013 the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has released the latest and fifth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). Like its predecessor, the DSM-IV-TR, it will have considerable impact on the science of Psychiatry. The DSM-5 describes - actually available in English - the present medical knowledge about mental disorders. In the short run, German medical science and scientific medicolegal expertises will continue to rely on the German version of the DSM-IV-TR, however, they will be difficult to defend without bearing in mind the changes that DSM-5 brings about. This report discusses the transition from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 with regard to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and provides suggestions, how the criteria might be evaluated.

  6. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, ...

  7. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, ...

  8. Welding IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding IV, a competency-based course in advanced arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with proficiency in: (1) single vee groove welding using code specifications established by the American Welding Society…

  9. Welding IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding IV, a competency-based course in advanced arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with proficiency in: (1) single vee groove welding using code specifications established by the American Welding Society…

  10. Effects of calcium and phosphate on uranium(IV) oxidation: Comparison between nanoparticulate uraninite and amorphous UIV–phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Latta, Drew E.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2015-11-17

    The mobility of uranium in subsurface environments depends strongly on its redox state, with UIV phases being significantly less soluble than UVI minerals. This study compares the oxidation kinetics and mechanisms of two potential products of UVI reduction in natural systems, a nanoparticulate UO2 phase and an amorphous UIV–Ca–PO4 analog to ningyoite (CaUIV(PO4)2·1–2H2O). The valence of U was tracked by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), showing similar oxidation rate constants for UIVO2 and UIV–phosphate in solutions equilibrated with atmospheric O2 and CO2 at pH 7.0 (kobs,UO2 = 0.17 ± 0.075 h-1 vs. kobs,UIVPO4 = 0.30 ± 0.25 h-1). Addition of up to 400 μM Ca and PO4 decreased the oxidation rate constant by an order of magnitude for both UO2 and UIV–phosphate. The intermediates and products of oxidation were tracked by electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). In the absence of Ca or PO4, the product of UO2 oxidation is Na–uranyl oxyhydroxide (under environmentally relevant concentrations of sodium, 15 mM NaClO4 and low carbonate concentration), resulting in low concentrations of dissolved UVI (<2.5 × 10-7 M). Oxidation of UIV–phosphate produced a Na-autunite phase (Na2(UO2)PO4·xH2O), resulting in similarly low dissolved U concentrations (<7.3 × 10-8 M). When Ca and PO4 are present in the solution, the EXAFS data and the solubility of the UVI phase resulting from oxidation of UO2 and UIV–phosphate are consistent with the precipitation of Na

  11. A Population-Based Survival Assessment of Categorizing Level III and IV Rural Hospitals as Trauma Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Melanie; Newgard, Craig D.; Mullins, Richard J.; Diggs, Brian S.; Stone, Judith V.; Adams, Annette L.; Hedges, Jerris R.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients injured in rural areas are hypothesized to have improved outcomes if statewide trauma systems categorize rural hospitals as Level III and IV trauma centers, though evidence to support this belief is sparse. Purpose: To determine if there is improved survival among injured patients hospitalized in states that categorize rural…

  12. A Population-Based Survival Assessment of Categorizing Level III and IV Rural Hospitals as Trauma Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Melanie; Newgard, Craig D.; Mullins, Richard J.; Diggs, Brian S.; Stone, Judith V.; Adams, Annette L.; Hedges, Jerris R.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients injured in rural areas are hypothesized to have improved outcomes if statewide trauma systems categorize rural hospitals as Level III and IV trauma centers, though evidence to support this belief is sparse. Purpose: To determine if there is improved survival among injured patients hospitalized in states that categorize rural…

  13. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na(+ )and K(+ )gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were different. Na(+)/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  14. Simple, Fast and Effective Correction for Irradiance Spatial Nonuniformity in Measurement of IVs of Large Area Cells at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, Tom

    2016-11-21

    The NREL cell measurement lab measures the IV parameters of cells of multiple sizes and configurations. A large contributing factor to errors and uncertainty in Jsc, Imax, Pmax and efficiency can be the irradiance spatial nonuniformity. Correcting for this nonuniformity through its precise and frequent measurement can be very time consuming. This paper explains a simple, fast and effective method based on bicubic interpolation for determining and correcting for spatial nonuniformity and verification of the method's efficacy.

  15. d-orbital effects on stereochemical non-rigidity: twisted Ti(IV) intramolecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Davis, Anna V; Firman, Timothy K; Hay, Benjamin P; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2006-07-26

    The isomerization dynamics of tris-catecholate complexes have been investigated by variable-temperature NMR methods, demonstrating that the intramolecular racemization of Delta and Lambda enantiomers of d0 Ti(IV) is facile and faster than that of d10 Ga(III) and Ge(IV) analogues. Activation parameters for the racemization of K2[Ti2(3)] (H(2)2 = 2,3-dihydroxy-N,N'-diisopropylterephthalamide) were determined from line shape analysis of 1H NMR spectra [methanol-d4: deltaH++ = 47(1) kJ/mol; deltaS++ = -34(4) J/mol K; deltaG++(298) = 57(3) kJ/mol; DMF-d7: deltaH++ = 55(1) kJ/mol; deltaS++ = -16(4) J/mol K; deltaG++(298) = 59(3) kJ/mol; D2O (pD* = 8.6, 20% MeOD): deltaH++ = 48(3) kJ/mol; deltaS++ = -28(10) J/mol K; deltaG++(298) = 56(3) kJ/mol]. The study of K2[Ti4(3)] (H(2)4 = 2,3-dihydroxy-N-tert-butyl-N'-benzylterephthalamide) reveals two distinct isomerization processes: faster racemization of mer-[Ti4(3)]2- by way of a Bailar twist mechanism (D3h transition state) [T(c) approximately 242 K, methanol-d4], and a slower merright harpoon over left harpoonfac [Ti4(3)]2- isomerization by way of a Rây-Dutt mechanism (C2v transition state) [T(c) approximately 281 K, methanol-d4]. The solution behavior of the Ti(IV) complexes mirrors that reported previously for analogous Ga(III) complexes, while that of analogous Ge(IV) complexes was too inert to be detected by 1H NMR up to 400 K. These experimental findings are augmented by DFT calculations of the ML3 ground states and Bailar and Rây-Dutt transition states, which correctly predict the relative kinetic barriers of complexes of the three metal ions, in addition to faithfully reproducing the ground-state structures. Orbital calculations support the conclusion that participation of the Ti(IV) d orbitals in ligand bonding contributes to the greater stabilization of the prismatic Ti(IV) transition states.

  16. d-Orbital Effects on Stereochemical Non-Rigidity: Twisted Ti IV Intramolecular Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Anna V.; Firman, Timothy K.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2006-07-26

    The isomerization dynamics of tris-catecholate complexes have been investigated by variable temperature NMR methods, demonstrating that the intramolecular racemization of ? and ? enantiomers of d0 TiIV is facile and faster than that of d10 GaIII and GeIV analogs. Activation parameters for the racemization of K2[Ti23] (H22 = 2,3-dihydroxy-N,N?-diisopropylterephthalamide) were determined from lineshape analysis of 1H NMR spectra (methanol-d4: ?H? = 47(1) kJ/mol; ?S? = -34(4) J/molK; ?G?298 = 57(3) kJ/mol; DMF-d7: ?H? = 55(1) kJ/mol; ?S? = -16(4) J/molK; ?G?298 = 59(3) kJ/mol; D2O (pD* = 8.6, 20% MeOD): ?H? = 48(3) kJ/mol; ?S? = -28(10) J/molK; ?G?298 = 56(3) kJ/mol). The study of K2[Ti43] (H24 = 2,3-dihydroxy-N-tert-butyl-N?-benzylterephthalamide) reveals two distinct isomerization processes: faster racemization of mer-[Ti43]2- by way of a Bailar twist mechanism (D3h transition state) (Tc ? 242 K, methanol-d4), and a slower mer/fac-[Ti43]2- isomerization by way of a R?y-Dutt mechanism (C2v transition state) (Tc ? 281 K, methanol-d4). The solution behavior of the TiIV complexes mirrors that reported previously for analogous GaIII complexes, while that of analogous GeIV complexes was too inert to be detected by 1H NMR up to 400 K. These experimental findings are augmented by DFT calculations of the ML3 grounds states and Bailar and R?y-Dutt transition states, which correctly predict the relative kinetic barriers of the three metal ions, in addition to faithfully reproducing the ground state structures. Orbital calculations support the conclusion that participation of the TiIV d0 orbitals in ligand bonding contributes to the greater stabilization of the prismatic TiIV transition states. Battelle operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Assessments of astronaut effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Robert M.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Fogg, Louis; Mcfadden, Terry J.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and convergent validity of three methods of peer and supervisory ratings of the effectiveness of individual NASA astronauts and their relationships with flight assignments. These two techniques were found to be reliable and relatively convergent. Seniority and a peer-rated Performance and Competence factor proved to be most closely associated with flight assignments, while supervisor ratings and a peer-rated Group Living and Personality factor were found to be unrelated. Results have implications for the selection and training of astronauts.

  18. Developing Effective Affective Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, William; Hart, Aaron; Foley, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Physical educators generally understand the importance of the affective domain for student growth and development. However, many teachers struggle with assessing affective behaviors in a way that can be documented and reported. The five-step process outlined in this article can assist teachers in developing an effective way to assess the affective…

  19. Developing Effective Affective Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, William; Hart, Aaron; Foley, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Physical educators generally understand the importance of the affective domain for student growth and development. However, many teachers struggle with assessing affective behaviors in a way that can be documented and reported. The five-step process outlined in this article can assist teachers in developing an effective way to assess the affective…

  20. Assessing and Improving Institutional Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.

    Information to promote assessment of organizational effectiveness in colleges and universities is presented, along with an exercise to rank the effectiveness of 10 institutions. The exercise uses three types of criteria to indicate effectiveness: subjective ratings, data about students and activities, and institutional capacity and financial…

  1. Public Utility Commission Regulation and Cost-Effectiveness of Title IV: Lessons for CAIR

    SciTech Connect

    Sotkiewicz, Paul M.; Holt, Lynne

    2005-10-01

    There is growing evidence that the cost savings potential of the Title IV SO{sub 2} cap-and-trade program is not being reached. PUC regulatory treatment of compliance options appears to provide one explanation for this finding. That suggests that PUCs and utility companies should work together to develop incentive plans that will encourage cost-minimizing behavior for compliance with the EPA's recently issued Clean Air Interstate Rule.

  2. IVS Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  3. Use of the Panic Attack Questionnaire-IV to assess non-clinical panic attacks and limited symptom panic attacks in student and community samples.

    PubMed

    Norton, Peter J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Cox, Brian J; Norton, G Ron

    2008-10-01

    Since its development in the mid-1980s, the Panic Attack Questionnaire (PAQ) has been one of the more, if not the most, commonly used self-report tools for assessing panic attacks. The usage of the instrument, however, has come amid potential concerns that instructions and descriptions may lead to an over-estimate of the prevalence of panic attacks. Furthermore, the instrument has not been revised since 1992, despite changes in DSM-IV criteria and more recent developments in the understanding of panic attacks. As a result, this paper describes a revision of the PAQ to improve the instruction and descriptive set, and to fully assess features of panic derived from recent conceptualizations. Students meeting DSM-IV panic attack criteria and those endorsing panic attacks, but not meeting criteria, showed few differences with the exception that those not meeting DSM-IV criteria typically reported a longer onset-to-peak intensity time than did Panickers. Results were cross-validated and extended using an independent Community Sample. A full descriptive phenomenology of panic attacks is described, and future directions for studying panic attacks using the PAQ are presented.

  4. Validity of the RIAS for assessing children with traumatic brain injury: sensitivity to TBI and comparability to the WISC-III and WISC-IV.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel N; Stolberg, Paul C; Thaler, Nicholas S; Sutton, Griffin; Mayfield, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence tests are commonly administered to children following moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) is a recently developed measure of intellectual ability that has a number of appealing features for assessing individuals with brain damage, but as yet has little validity information when applied to children with TBI or other forms of brain injury. It is therefore unclear whether RIAS scores are sensitive to brain injury and how they compare to older more well-established tests such as the Wechsler scales. The current article reports two studies that examine these matters in youth with TBI. The first study examined sensitivity of the RIAS to TBI in 110 children. Results indicated the TBI sample performed significantly worse compared with the standardization sample on all RIAS index scores. The second study included 102 children who were administered either the RIAS, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III), or WISC-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV; 34 children in each group). Comparisons among the RIAS, WISC-III, and WISC-IV groups indicated no significant differences among the measures on verbal, nonverbal, and Composite Index/Full-Scale IQs. Results provide support for the sensitivity of the RIAS to TBI in children and also suggest that IQs produced by the RIAS, WISC-III, and WISC-IV do not significantly vary from one test to the other, which is particularly true of the verbal and Composite Index/Full-Scale IQs.

  5. Effect of a laboratory surfactant on compatibility of type IV dental stones with addition-cured silicone impression materials.

    PubMed

    Tredwin, Christopher Jeremy; Nesbit, Michael; Butta, Rajeev; Moles, David R

    2008-06-01

    This study compared the effect of a surfactant on surface detail reproduction between combinations of addition-cured silicone impression materials and type IV stones. Six hundred impressions were made of a ruled test block using; Examix-NDS, Doric-Es Flo-Light, Panasil Contact Plus, Extrude Wash and President Plus Jet. Half of the impressions were treated with a surfactant (Aurofilm). Impressions were poured with type IV dental stones; Silky Rock, Fuji Rock, Suprastone and Vel-Mix and the 20 mu line was scored. A laboratory surfactant (Aurofilm) significantly reduced (P<0.01) compatibility with; (i) Examix-NDS and Suprastone, (ii) Examix-NDS and Velmix, (iii) Extrude Wash and Fuji Rock.

  6. Very low density lipoprotein triglyceride transport in type IV hyperlipoproteinemia and the effects of carbohydrate-rich diets

    PubMed Central

    Quarfordt, Steven H.; Frank, Arthur; Shames, David M.; Berman, Mones; Steinberg, Daniel

    1970-01-01

    -induced increase in VLDL-TGFA, both in controls and type IV patients, is at least in part due to an increased rate of production of VLDL-TGFA. The magnitude of the increase was approximately the same in controls and patients. Thus, metabolic adjustment to a high-carbohydrate regimen in these type IV patients may not be basically different from that in normal controls; the higher levels of VLDL-TGFA reached may simply be another reflection of a defective removal mechanism. An alternative interpretation, compatible with the data, would involve both a carbohydrate-induced increase in fractional rate of release of VLDL-TGFA from liver to plasma and a decrease in fractional removal of VLDL-TGFA from plasma without increase in net production rate. The simpler hypothesis of a single primary effect on net VLDL-TGFA production from FFA seems more likely. PMID:5480854

  7. A retrospective chart review to assess the safety of nonablative fractional laser resurfacing in Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte M; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Alexis, Andrew F

    2013-04-01

    Laser resurfacing in patients with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes (SPT) IV to VI is associated with a higher risk of pigmentary alteration. There is a paucity of studies evaluating optimum treatment parameters for fractional lasers in darkly pigmented skin types. This is a retrospective review of medical records for patients with SPT IV to VI who were treated with a 1,550 nm erbium-doped fractional nonablative laser (Fraxel Re:Store SR 1550; Solta Medical, Hayword, CA). Data were collected from patient charts and the clinic laser logbook from January 2008 to January 2012. The frequency of treatment-associated postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and treatment settings used were evaluated. A total of 115 total laser sessions (45 patients) were included in our analysis. Five of the sessions (4%) were accompanied by PIH, 2 of which occurred in a single patient. Only 1 episode of PIH lasted longer than 1 month (2 months). Two of the 5 cases had only transient PIH (≤7 days), one of which was reported by the patient and not clinically evident on examination. The 1,550 nm erbium-doped fractional laser is well tolerated in SPT IV to VI. Fractional laser resurfacing, with the settings used and pretreatment and posttreatment hydroquinone 4% cream, was associated with a low risk of PIH in darker skin types.

  8. Effects of sugar beet chitinase IV on root-associated fungal community of transgenic silver birch in a field trial.

    PubMed

    Pasonen, Hanna-Leena; Lu, Jinrong; Niskanen, Anna-Maija; Seppänen, Sanna-Kaisa; Rytkönen, Anna; Raunio, Janne; Pappinen, Ari; Kasanen, Risto; Timonen, Sari

    2009-10-01

    Heterogenous chitinases have been introduced in many plant species with the aim to increase the resistance of plants to fungal diseases. We studied the effects of the heterologous expression of sugar beet chitinase IV on the intensity of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and the structure of fungal communities in the field trial of 15 transgenic and 8 wild-type silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) genotypes. Fungal sequences were separated in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and identified by sequencing the ITS1 region to reveal the operational taxonomic units. ECM colonization was less intense in 7 out of 15 transgenic lines than in the corresponding non-transgenic control plants, but the slight decrease in overall ECM colonization in transgenic lines could not be related to sugar beet chitinase IV expression or total endochitinase activity. One transgenic line showing fairly weak sugar beet chitinase IV expression without significantly increased total endochitinase activity differed significantly from the non-transgenic controls in the structure of fungal community. Five sequences belonging to three different fungal genera (Hebeloma, Inocybe, Laccaria) were indicative of wild-type genotypes, and one sequence (Lactarius) indicated one transgenic line. In cluster analysis, the non-transgenic control grouped together with the transgenic lines indicating that genotype was a more important factor determining the structure of fungal communities than the transgenic status of the plants. With the tested birch lines, no clear evidence for the effect of the heterologous expression of sugar beet chitinase IV on ECM colonization or the structure of fungal community was found.

  9. Analgesia after Epidural Dexamethasone is Further Enhanced by IV Dipyrone, but Not IV Parecoxibe Following Minor Orthopedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Righeti, Claudia CF; Kitayama, Antonio T

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidural administration of dexamethasone has been suggested for pain control after minor orthopedic surgery. This study was conducted to assess its efficacy after such surgery, combined or not to IV dipyrone, IV parecoxibe or their combination. Methods 91 patients were randomly assigned to seven groups. Patients were submitted to spinal bupivacaine anesthesia combined to epidural administration of either 10 ml saline or 10 mg dexamethasone diluted to 10-ml volume. Patients also received 10 ml IV saline or 1 gr dipyrone and/or 40 mg parecoxibe diluted to 10 ml with saline. Control group (CG) received epidural and IV saline. Dexamethasone group (DexG) received epidural dexamethasone and IV saline. Dipyrone group (DipG) received epidural saline and IV dipyrone. Dex-Dip G received epidural dexamethasone and IV dipyrone. Parecoxibe group (ParG) received epidural saline and IV parecoxibe. Dex-ParG received epidural dexamethasone and IV parecoxibe. Finally, Dex-Dip-ParG received epidural dexamethasone and IV dipyrone plus IV parecoxibe. Results The CG expressed 4h of analgesia and sooner requested pain killer. DexG was similar to DipG or ParG or Dex-ParG (7-hours), and they requested less ketoprofen compared to the CG (P < 0.05). However, the Dex-DipG and the Dex-Dip-ParG resulted in longer time to demand pain killer (17-hours) and less ketoprofen consumption in 24-hours (P < 0.002). Adverse effects were similar among groups. Conclusions The analgesia secondary to epidural dexamethasone was enhanced by IV dipyrone, while no effects were observed by the addition of IV parecoxibe. PMID:25317284

  10. Longitudinal analysis of deciduous tooth emergence: IV. Covariate effects in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Holman, Darryl J; Yamaguchi, Kyoko

    2005-03-01

    Emergence of the deciduous teeth is generally considered to be robust to moderate environmental insults, malnutrition, and disease. Consequently, deciduous tooth emergence has been used to assess growth and development and for age estimation in children. In this paper, we examine the way in which nutritional status and other covariates affect deciduous tooth emergence in a sample of 114 Japanese children born in Tokyo in 1914 and 1924. Parametric survival analysis was used to quantify the effects of nutritional status, breastfeeding behavior, and sex on the hazard of deciduous tooth emergence. Children of poor nutritional status exhibited significantly delayed emergence of all deciduous teeth, with effects that ranged from 14-29% increases in mean emergence times. Children of medium nutritional status exhibited increases in mean emergence times of 5-9% for the canines and lower molars, and 13-17% for the incisors. Partial breastfeeding had no effect on tooth emergence, but children who were not breastfed at all showed delayed emergence of the upper incisors. No significant sex differences in emergence were found. The findings contradict the idea that moderate malnutrition has little effect on deciduous tooth emergence. Furthermore, nutritional differences may account for some of the observed differences among populations in the timing of tooth emergence. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Functional outcome after primary endovascular therapy or IV thrombolysis alone for stroke. An observational, comparative effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Abilleira, Sònia; Ribera, Aida; Dávalos, Antonio; Ribó, Marc; Chamorro, Angel; Cardona, Pere; Molina, Carlos A; Martínez-Yélamos, Antonio; Urra, Xabier; Dorado, Laura; Roquer, Jaume; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Aja, Lucía; Tomasello, Alejandro; Castaño, Carlos; Blasco, Jordi; Cánovas, David; Castellanos, Mar; Krupinski, Jerzy; Guimaraens, Leopoldo; Perendreu, Joan; Ustrell, Xavier; Purroy, Francisco; Gómez-Choco, Manuel; Baiges, Joan Josep; Cocho, Dolores; Saura, Júlia; Gallofré, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Among the acute ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusions and contraindications for the use of IV thrombolysis, mainly on oral anticoagulation or presenting too late, primary endovascular therapy is often performed as an alternative to the standard therapy even though evidence supporting the use of endovascular reperfusion therapies is not yet established. Using different statistical approaches, we compared the functional independence rates at 3 months among patients undergoing primary endovascular therapy and patients treated only with IV thrombolysis. We used data from a prospective, government-mandated and externally audited registry of reperfusion therapies for ischemic stroke (January 2011 to November 2012). Patients were selected if treated with either IV thrombolysis alone (n = 1,582) or primary endovascular thrombectomy (n = 250). A series of exclusions were made to homogenize the clinical characteristics among the two groups. We then carried out multivariate logistic regression and propensity score matching analyses on the final study sample (n = 1,179) to compare functional independence at 3 months, as measured by the modified Rankin scale scores 0-2, between the two groups. The unadjusted likelihood of good outcome was poorer among the endovascular group (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.47-1.0). After adjustment, no differences by treatment modality were seen (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 0.93-2.43 for primary endovascular therapy). Patients undergoing endovascular thrombectomy within 180-270 min (OR: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.17-7.15) and patients with severe strokes (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.02-3.35) did better than their intravenous thrombolysis counterparts. The propensity score-matched analyses with and without adjustment by additional covariates showed that endovascular thrombectomy was as effective as intravenous thrombolysis alone in achieving functional independence (OR for unadjusted propensity score matched: 1.35; 95% CI: 0.9-2.02, OR for adjusted propensity score

  12. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on platinum resistance in stage IIIC and IV epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yanlin; Lee, Maria; Kim, Hee Seung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It remains controversial whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking surgery (IDS) induces chemoresistance in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) compared with primary debulking surgery (PDS). The aim of this study was to compare platinum-resistant recurrence following treatment with NACT-IDS or PDS in patients with stage IIIC and IV EOC. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 341 patients who underwent PDS or NACT-IDS for Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIC or IV EOC between March 1990 and December 2010. Risk factors of platinum resistance, including NACT, postoperative residual tumor size, and various clinicopathological factors, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modeling to measure overall survival (OS). Of 341 patients, 58 (17.0%) underwent NACT-IDS and 283 (83.0%) were treated with PDS. Twenty-nine (50.0%) patients developed platinum-resistant disease at first relapse after NACT-IDS and 99 (35.0%) patients recurred after PDS (P = 0.033). In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, NACT-IDS and postoperative residual tumor mass >1 cm were risk factors for platinum-resistant recurrence (adjusted odds ratios 2.950 and 2.915; 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 1.572–5.537 and 1.780–4.771, P = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively). Postoperative residual tumor mass >1 cm and platinum-resistant disease were significantly correlated with shorter OS (adjusted hazard ratios 1.579 and 4.078; 95% CI 1.193–2.089 and 3.074–5.412, P = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively), whereas NACT-IDS did not extend OS. NACT-IDS increases the risk of platinum-resistant recurrence in patients with stage IIIC and IV EOC. PMID:27603388

  13. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on platinum resistance in stage IIIC and IV epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanlin; Lee, Maria; Kim, Hee Seung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-09-01

    It remains controversial whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking surgery (IDS) induces chemoresistance in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) compared with primary debulking surgery (PDS). The aim of this study was to compare platinum-resistant recurrence following treatment with NACT-IDS or PDS in patients with stage IIIC and IV EOC.We retrospectively reviewed the records of 341 patients who underwent PDS or NACT-IDS for Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIC or IV EOC between March 1990 and December 2010. Risk factors of platinum resistance, including NACT, postoperative residual tumor size, and various clinicopathological factors, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression modeling to measure overall survival (OS).Of 341 patients, 58 (17.0%) underwent NACT-IDS and 283 (83.0%) were treated with PDS. Twenty-nine (50.0%) patients developed platinum-resistant disease at first relapse after NACT-IDS and 99 (35.0%) patients recurred after PDS (P = 0.033). In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, NACT-IDS and postoperative residual tumor mass >1 cm were risk factors for platinum-resistant recurrence (adjusted odds ratios 2.950 and 2.915; 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 1.572-5.537 and 1.780-4.771, P = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively). Postoperative residual tumor mass >1 cm and platinum-resistant disease were significantly correlated with shorter OS (adjusted hazard ratios 1.579 and 4.078; 95% CI 1.193-2.089 and 3.074-5.412, P = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively), whereas NACT-IDS did not extend OS.NACT-IDS increases the risk of platinum-resistant recurrence in patients with stage IIIC and IV EOC.

  14. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of chemicals. IV. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): understanding a complex problem.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, M M; George, J D; Gold, K W; Cibulas, W; DeRosa, C T

    1996-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage, or other organic substances, such as tobacco and charbroiled meat. There are more than 100 PAHs. PAHs generally occur as complex mixtures (for example, as part of products such as soot), not as single compounds. PAHs are found throughout the environment in the air, water, and soil. As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals, including PAHs (ATSDR, 1995), found at facilities on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) and which pose the most significant potential threat to human health, as determined by ATSDR and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These profiles include information on health effects of chemicals from different routes and durations of exposure, their potential for exposure, regulations and advisories, and the adequacy of the existing database. Assessing the health effects of PAHs is a major challenge because environmental exposures to these chemicals are usually to complex mixtures of PAHs with other chemicals. The biological consequences of human exposure to mixtures of PAHs depend on the toxicity, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic, of the individual components of the mixture, the types of interactions among them, and confounding factors that are not thoroughly understood. Also identified are components of exposure and health effects research needed on PAHs that will allow estimation of realistic human health risks posed by exposures to PAHs. The exposure assessment component of research should focus on (1) development of reliable analytical methods for the determination of bioavailable PAHs following ingestion, (2) estimation of bioavailable PAHs from environmental media, particularly the determination of particle-bound PAHs, (3

  15. Effects of Ligand Environment in Zr(IV) Assisted Peptide Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Sharma, Gaurav; Paul, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Zachary; Prabhakar, Rajeev

    2017-05-22

    In this DFT study, activities of 11 different N2O4, N2O3, and NO2 core containing Zr(IV) complexes, 4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 (I'N2O4), 1,4,10-trioxa-7,13-diazacyclopentadecane (I'N2O3), and 2-(2-methoxy)ethanol (I'NO2), respectively, and their analogues in peptide hydrolysis have been investigated. Based on the experimental information, these molecules were created by altering protonation states (singly protonated, doubly protonated, or doubly deprotonated) and number of their ligands. The energetics of the I'N2O4, and I'NO2 and their analogues predicted that both stepwise and concerted mechanisms occurred either with similar barriers, or the latter was more favorable than the former. They also showed that the doubly deprotonated form hydrolyzed the peptide bond with substantially lower barriers than the barriers for other protonation states. For NO2 core possessing complexes, Zr-(NO2)(OH(H))(H2O/OH)n for n = 1-3, the hydroxyl group containing molecules were found to be more reactive than their water ligand possessing counterparts. The barriers for these complexes reduced with an increase in the coordination number (6-8) of the Zr(IV) ion. Among all 11 molecules, the NO2 core possessing and two hydroxyl group containing I'DNO2-2H complex was found to be the most reactive complex with a barrier of 28.9 kcal/mol. Furthermore, barriers of 27.5, 28.9, and 32.0 kcal/mol for hydrolysis of Gly-Glu (negative), Gly-Gly (neutral), and Gly-Lys (positive) substrates, respectively, by this complex were in agreement with experiments. The activities of these complexes were explained in terms of basicity of their ligand environment and nucleophilicity of the Zr(IV) center using metal-ligand distances, charge on the metal ion, and the metal-nucleophile distance as parameters. These results provide a deeper understanding of the functioning of these complexes and will help design Zr(IV)-based synthetic metallopeptidases.

  16. Assessment of proteolytic degradation of the basement membrane: a fragment of type IV collagen as a biochemical marker for liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Veidal, Sanne S; Karsdal, Morten A; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Martin R; Dai, Yueqin; Zheng, Qinlong; Hägglund, Per; Vainer, Ben; Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Leeming, Diana J

    2011-10-05

    Collagen deposition and an altered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression profile are hallmarks of fibrosis. Type IV collagen is the most abundant structural basement membrane component of tissue, which increases 14-fold during fibrogenesis in the liver. Proteolytic degradation of collagens by proteases produces small fragments, so-called neoepitopes, which are released systemically. Technologies investigating MMP-generated fragments of collagens may provide more useful information than traditional serological assays that crudely measure total protein. In the present study, we developed an ELISA for the quantification of a neoepitope generated by MMP degradation of type IV collagen and evaluated the association of this neoepitope with liver fibrosis in two animal models. Type IV collagen was degraded in vitro by a variety of proteases. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed more than 200 different degradation fragments. A specific peptide sequence, 1438'GTPSVDHGFL'1447 (CO4-MMP), in the α1 chain of type IV collagen generated by MMP-9 was selected for ELISA development. ELISA was used to determine serum levels of the CO4-MMP neoepitope in two rat models of liver fibrosis: inhalation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and bile duct ligation (BDL). The levels were correlated to histological findings using Sirius red staining. A technically robust assay was produced that is specific to the type IV degradation fragment, GTPSVDHGFL. CO4-MMP serum levels increased significantly in all BDL groups compared to baseline, with a maximum increase of 248% seen two weeks after BDL. There were no changes in CO4-MMP levels in sham-operated rats. In the CCl4 model, levels of CO4-MMP were significantly elevated at weeks 12, 16 and 20 compared to baseline levels, with a maximum increase of 88% after 20 weeks. CO4-MMP levels correlated to Sirius red staining results. This ELISA is the first assay developed for assessment of proteolytic degraded type IV collagen, which, by enabling

  17. Effectiveness of twin-block and Mandibular Protraction Appliance-IV in the improvement of pharyngeal airway passage dimensions in Class II malocclusion subjects with a retrognathic mandible.

    PubMed

    Jena, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satinder Pal; Utreja, Ashok Kumar

    2013-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that twin-block and Mandibular Protraction Appliance-IV (MPA-IV) are not effective in improving the pharyngeal airway passage (PAP) dimensions among Class II malocclusion subjects with a retrognathic mandible. Eighty-three subjects ranging in age from 8 to 14 years were divided into four groups. Group I included 30 Class I malocclusion subjects (healthy controls); group II consisted of 16 Class II malocclusion subjects (Class II controls); group III had 16 subjects in whom Class II malocclusion was treated by MPA-IV; and the remaining 21 subjects formed group IV, whose Class II malocclusions were corrected by twin-block appliance. Lateral cephalograms recorded at the beginning of orthodontic treatment in group I subjects and at the beginning and end of follow-up/treatment with functional appliance in group II, III, and IV subjects were analyzed to determine the PAP dimensions. Paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey tests were applied for statistical analysis, and a P-value .05 was considered statistically significant. Soft palate length was decreased significantly in group III (P < .05) and group IV (P < .001) subjects. Soft palate thickness in group IV subjects was increased significantly as compared to group II (P < .05) and group III (P < .01) subjects. The improvement in soft palate inclination in group III and group IV subjects was significant (P < .01). The oropharynx depth was increased significantly in group III (P < .05) and group IV (P < .001) subjects. The depth of the hypopharynx was increased significantly (P < .01) in group IV subjects. The twin-block appliance was more efficient than the MPA-IV in the improvement of PAP dimensions among Class II malocclusion subjects with retrognathic mandible.

  18. Instrumentation of Flow-Through USP IV Dissolution Apparatus to Assess Poorly Soluble Basic Drug Products: a Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Paprskářová, Alice; Možná, Petra; Oga, Enoche F; Elhissi, Abdelbary; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2016-10-01

    Supersaturation and precipitation are common limitations encountered especially with poorly soluble basic drugs. The aims of this work were to explore the pattern of dissolution and precipitation of poorly soluble basic drugs using a United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) IV dissolution apparatus and to compare it to the widely used USP II dissolution apparatus. In order to investigate the influence of gastric emptying time on bioavailability, tables of two model drugs (dipyridamole 100 mg and cinnarizine 15 mg) were investigated and pH change from 1.2 to 6.8 were achieved after 10, 20 or 30 min using USP II or USP IV dissolution apparatuses. Using USP II, dipyridamole and cinnarizine concentrations dropped instantly as a result of drug precipitation with drug crystals evident in the dissolution vessel. At pH change times of 10, 20 and 30 min, the total amount of dissolved drug was dependent on pH change time. Using USP IV, at a flow rate of 8 ml/min, it was possible to have comparable release to agitation at 50 rpm using USP II suggesting that comparable hydrodynamic forces are possible. No drop in drug percentage occurs as the dissolved fraction was readily emptied from the flow cell, preventing drug accumulation in the dissolution medium. However, a negligible percentage of drug release took place following pH change. In conclusion, the use of the flow-through cell dissolution provided laminar flow, use of realistic fluid volumes and avoided precipitation of dissolved drug fraction in the gastric phase as it is discharged before pH change.

  19. Assessing the accuracy of the WISC-IV seven-subtest short form and the child and adolescent intellectual disability screening questionnaire in identifying intellectual disability in children.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen; Murray, Aja L; Murray, Kara R; Murray, George C

    2014-01-01

    Little research has been conducted into the accuracy of abbreviated assessments in identifying children and young people with an intellectual disability (ID). The present study compared two such methods in a clinical population of individuals with (n = 106) and without (n = 170) ID: a 7-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales for Children--fourth edition (WISC-IV) proposed by Crawford and colleagues and the Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire (CAIDS-Q). Both the CAIDS-Q and the WISC-IV short form had high and comparable levels of predicting group classification (88% and 91% correct classification, respectively). Both methods would appear to offer clinicians and researchers an efficient and accurate means of identifying those who are likely to have ID. The WISC-IV short form was slightly more accurate, but the CAIDS-Q may offer the advantages of being shorter to administer and having no requirement for the user to have a particular qualification or training.

  20. Valence effects on solubility and sorption: the solubility of Tc(IV) oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.

    1986-03-01

    The solubilities of technetium (IV) oxides have been determined in solutions of NaCl, HCl, and synthetic groundwaters in the pH range 0 to 10. Oxides were prepared either by electroreduction from Tc(VII) solutions onto platinum electrodes or by precipitation of Tc from Tc(VII) solutions using hydrazine. In some of the determinations, the oxide was precipitated onto purified sand by use of hydrazine. The oxide-covered sand was then placed into a column and the test solution continuously recirculated through the column. The oxide plated on platinum was placed into a small cell and the test solution stirred. Solubilities were determined by measuring the beta radiation of /sup 99/Tc in the stirred or circulated solution in contact with the oxide. In the pH range 4 to 10, solubilities were in the range 7.5 x 10/sup -9/ to 5 x 10/sup -8/ mol/L, and most of the determinations were in the range 1 x 10/sup -8/ to 2 x 10/sup -8/ mol/L. In acid solutions the solubilities were generally higher for hydrazine-precipitated oxide than for the electrodeposited oxide, and they increased as the pH was lowered. Solubilities of Tc(IV) oxides will be useful for calculation of transport rates of technetium for the case of solubility-limited transport in nuclear waste repository environments.

  1. Antioxidant and anticancer effects and bioavailability studies of the flavonoid baicalin and its oxidovanadium(IV) complex.

    PubMed

    Martínez Medina, Juan J; Naso, Luciana G; Pérez, Ana L; Rizzi, Alberto; Ferrer, Evelina G; Williams, Patricia A M

    2017-01-01

    Based on the known antioxidant effect of flavonoids, baicalin (baic) found in roots of Scutellaria has been selected. Its coordination complex with the oxidovanadium(IV) cation, Na4[VO(baic)2].6H2O (V(IV)O(baic)), was synthesized at pH9 in ethanol and characterized by physicochemical methods. Spectrophotometric studies at pH9 showed a ligand: metal stoichiometry of 2:1. By vibrational spectroscopy a coordination mode through the cis 5-OH and 6-OH deprotonated groups is inferred. EPR spectroscopy shows an environment of four aryloxide (ArO(-)) groups in the equatorial plane of the VO moiety, both in solution and in the solid complex. The antioxidant capacity against superoxide and peroxyl radicals of V(IV)O(baic) resulted greater than for baicalin and correlated with previous results obtained for other VOflavonoid complexes. The coordination mode produces delocalization of the electron density and the stabilization of the radical formed by interaction with external radicals. The complex and the ligand displayed no toxic (Artemia salina test) and no mutagenic (Ames test) effects. The complex improved the ability of the ligand to reduce cell viability of human lung cancer cell lines (A549) generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, being this effect reversed by pre-incubation of the cells with antioxidants such as vitamins C and E. The addition of NAC (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a sequestering agent of free radicals) suppresses the anticancer effect, confirming the oxidative stress mechanism. The complex interacted with bovine serum albumin (BSA) with stronger binding than baicalin and the mechanisms involved H bonding and van der Waals interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Steric and electrostatic effects in DNA synthesis by the SOS-induced DNA polymerases II and IV of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Adam P; Jiang, Qingfei; Goodman, Myron F; Kool, Eric T

    2007-12-04

    The SOS-induced DNA polymerases II and IV (pol II and pol IV, respectively) of Escherichia coli play important roles in processing lesions that occur in genomic DNA. Here we study how electrostatic and steric effects play different roles in influencing the efficiency and fidelity of DNA synthesis by these two enzymes. These effects were probed by the use of nonpolar shape analogues of thymidine, in which substituted toluenes replace the polar thymine base. We compared thymine with nonpolar analogues to evaluate the importance of hydrogen bonding in the polymerase active sites, while we used comparisons among a set of variably sized thymine analogues to measure the role of steric effects in the two enzymes. Steady-state kinetics measurements were carried out to evaluate activities for nucleotide insertion and extension. The results showed that both enzymes inserted nucleotides opposite nonpolar template bases with moderate to low efficiency, suggesting that both polymerases benefit from hydrogen bonding or other electrostatic effects involving the template base. Surprisingly, however, pol II inserted nonpolar nucleotide (dNTP) analogues into a primer strand with high (wild-type) efficiency, while pol IV handled them with an extremely low efficiency. Base pair extension studies showed that both enzymes bypass non-hydrogen-bonding template bases with moderately low efficiency, suggesting a possible beneficial role of minor groove hydrogen bonding interactions at the N-1 position. Measurement of the two polymerases' sensitivity to steric size changes showed that both enzymes were relatively flexible, yielding only small kinetic differences with increases or decreases in nucleotide size. Comparisons are made to recent data for DNA pol I (Klenow fragment), the archaeal polymerase Dpo4, and human pol kappa.

  3. Effect of immobilized collagen type IV on biological properties of endothelial cells for the enhanced endothelialization of synthetic vascular graft materials.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yunhoe; Shin, Young Min; Lee, Yu Bin; Lim, Youn Mook; Shin, Heungsoo

    2015-10-01

    Regeneration of healthy endothelium onto vascular graft materials is imperative for prevention of intimal hyperplasia and thrombogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effect of collagen type IV (COL-IV) immobilized onto electrospun nanofibers on modulation of endothelial cell (EC) function, as a potential signal to rapid endothelialization of vascular grafts. COL-IV is assembled in basement membrane underneath intimal layer and regulates morphogenesis of blood vessels. For immobilization of COL-IV, poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers (PL) were prepared as a model vascular graft substrate, onto which acrylic acid (AAc) was then grafted by using gamma-ray irradiation. AAc graft was dependent on irradiation doses and AAc concentrations, which allowed us to select the condition of 5% (v/v) AAc and 10 kGy for further conjugation of COL-IV. COL-IV immobilization was proportionally controlled as a function of its concentration. Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis qualitatively supported immobilization of COL-IV, demonstrating increase in root mean square roughness of the PL from 665.37 ± 13.20 nm to 1440.74 ± 33.24. However, the Young's modulus of nanofibers was retained as approximately 1 MPa, regardless of surface modification. The number of ECs attached on the nanofibers with immobilized COL-IV was significantly increased by 5 times (1052 ± 138 cells/mm(2)) from pristine PL (234 ± 41 cells/mm(2)). In addition, the effect of immobilized COL-IV was profound for enhancing proliferation and up-regulation of markers implicated in rapid endothelialization. Collectively, our results suggest that COL-IV immobilized onto electrospun PLLA nanofibers may serve as a promising instructive cue used in vascular graft materials.

  4. Effective and Responsive Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Bob; Verrier, June

    Needs assessment in legislative libraries has three critical components: a well-thought out strategy to identify what should be understood about Members' research and information needs, expectations and preferences; a range of reliable, effective and appropriate methods to find this critical information; and ways of building what is learned into…

  5. Sandia octahedral molecular sieves (SOMS): structural and property effects of charge-balancing the M(IV)-substituted (M = Ti, Zr) Niobate framework.

    PubMed

    Nyman, May; Tripathi, Akhilesh; Parise, John B; Maxwell, Robert S; Nenoff, Tina M

    2002-02-27

    Sandia octahedral molecular sieves (SOMS) is an isostructural, variable composition class of ion exchangers with the general formula Na(2)Nb(2-x)M(IV)(x)O (6-x)(OH)(x).H(2)O (M(IV) = Ti, Zr; x = 0.04-0.40) where up to 20% of the framework Nb(V) can be substituted with Ti(IV) or Zr(IV). This class of molecular sieves is easily converted to perovskite through low-temperature heat treatment (500-600 degrees C). This report provides a detailed account of how the charge imbalance of this Nb(V)-M(IV) substitution is compensated. X-ray powder diffraction with Rietveld refinement, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, (23)Na MAS NMR, and (1)H MAS NMR were used to determine how the framework anionic charge is cation-balanced over a range of framework compositions. All spectroscopic evidence indicated a proton addition for each M(IV) substitution. Evidences for variable proton content included (1) increasing OH observed by (1)H MAS NMR with increasing M(IV) substitution, (2) increased infrared band broadening indicating increased H-bonding with increasing M(IV) substitution, (3) increased TGA weight loss (due to increased OH content) with increasing M(IV) substitution, (4) no variance in population on the sodium sites (indicated by Rietveld refinement) with variable composition, and (5) no change in the (23)Na MAS NMR spectra with variable composition. Also observed by infrared spectroscopy and (23)Na MAS NMR was increased disorder on the Nb(V)/M(IV) framework sites with increasing M(IV) substitution, evidenced by broadening of these spectral features. These spectroscopic studies, along with ion exchange experiments, also revealed the effect of the Nb(V)/M(IV) framework substitution on materials properties. Namely, the temperature of conversion to NaNb(1-x)M(IV)(x)O(3) (M = Ti, Zr) perovskite increased with increasing Ti in the framework and decreased with increasing Zr in the framework. This suggested that Ti stabilizes the SOMS framework and Zr destabilizes

  6. Effects of medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl IV bolus injections and its reversal by specific antagonists on cardiovascular function in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Christine; Bollerhey, Melanie; Ebner, Johanna; Schuster, Tibor; Henke, Julia; Erhardt, Wolf

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the short-term cardiovascular effects of intravenous (IV) medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF) injections in the rabbit using vascular ultrasonography and echocardiography.Anesthesia with MMF was induced intramuscularly (IM) in 8 female New Zealand White rabbits before 3 defined bolus injections of MMF were given IV. Before and for 10 min after each MMF injection the following vascular variables [at the left common carotid artery (ACC) after the first injection and at the abdominal aorta (AA) after the second injection]: vessel diameter (D), peak systolic, minimum diastolic, end-diastolic and average blood flow velocities (psBFV, mdBFV, edBFV, Vave), average volumetric flow (VFave), resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) and other clinical variables: mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), peripheral arterial oxygen saturation and end-tidal CO₂ were recorded. Echocardiography was used after the third injection to investigate changes in cardiac parameters. Additionally, hemodynamic effects were observed at the ACC after complete subcutaneous antagonism of anesthesia by atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone (AFN) until recovery of the animals.Medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl IV caused a significant decrease of blood flow velocity in both investigated vessels which was associated with a significant decrease of HR and cardiac performance indicated by the decrease of FS and average volumetric blood flow. Mean arterial pressure significantly increased after each MMF injection; whereas, it significantly decreased after AFN injection. Therefore, MMF and AFN should be carefully used in rabbits and may not be suitable in patients with ventricular dysfunction.

  7. A Proposal for a Dimensional Classification System Based on the Shared Features of the DSM-IV Anxiety and Mood Disorders: Implications for Assessment and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy A.; Barlow, David H.

    2010-01-01

    A wealth of evidence attests to the extensive current and lifetime diagnostic comorbidity of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders. Research has shown that the considerable cross-sectional covariation of DSM-IV emotional disorders is accounted for by common higher-order dimensions such as neuroticism/behavioral inhibition (N/BI) and low positive affect/behavioral activation. Longitudinal studies have indicated that the temporal covariation of these disorders can be explained by changes in N/BI and in some cases, initial levels of N/BI are predictive of the temporal course of emotional disorders. Moreover, the marked phenotypal overlap of the DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorder constructs is a frequent source of diagnostic unreliability (e.g., temporal overlap in the shared features of generalized anxiety disorder and mood disorders, situation specificity of panic attacks in panic disorder and specific phobia). Although dimensional approaches have been considered as a method to address the drawbacks associated with the extant prototypical nosology (e.g., inadequate assessment of individual differences in disorder severity), these proposals do not reconcile key problems in current classification such as modest reliability and high comorbidity. The current paper considers an alternative approach that emphasizes empirically supported common dimensions of emotional disorders over disorder-specific criteria sets. The selection and assessment of these dimensions are discussed along with how these methods could be implemented to promote more reliable and valid diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. For instance, the advantages of this classification system are discussed in context of current transdiagnostic treatment protocols that are efficaciously applied to a variety of disorders by targeting their shared features. PMID:19719339

  8. Characteristics of a cluster-randomized phase IV human papillomavirus vaccination effectiveness trial.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, Matti; Apter, Dan; Baussano, Iacopo; Eriksson, Tiina; Natunen, Kari; Paavonen, Jorma; Vänskä, Simopekka; Bi, Dan; David, Marie-Pierre; Datta, Sanjoy; Struyf, Frank; Jenkins, David; Pukkala, Eero; Garnett, Geoff; Dubin, Gary

    2015-03-03

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. HPV-16/18 virus-like particle vaccine formulated with an AS04 adjuvant is very efficacious against hrHPV associated precancers but the herd effects of different vaccination scenarios are not known. Our cluster randomized trial (NCT00534638) assesses the overall and herd effects of vaccinating girls vs. girls and boys. In two school-years (2007-2008 and 2008-2009) we invited 80,272 1992-1995 born early adolescents to a CRT in 33 communities a priori stratified by low, intermediate and high HPV-16/18 seroprevalence. In 11 Arm A communities 90% of participating girls and boys were assigned to receive HPV-16/18 vaccine, in 11 Arm B communities 90% of girls were assigned to receive HPV-16/18 vaccine - boys were assigned to receive hepatitis B-virus (HBV) vaccine, and in 11 Arm C communities all were assigned to receive HBV-vaccine. Prevalence of HPV in vaccinated and unvaccinated girls is studied at age 18.5 years. Recruitment resulted in equal enrolment of four birth cohorts (born 1992-1995) comprising altogether 32,175 (40% response) early adolescents: 20,514 girls (50.5-53.0% response by arm) and 11,661 boys (21.9-31.6%% response by arm). At the age of 15 years, 79.3% of the vaccinees completed a questionnaire. Among them >98% were living at, and during the week-ends 1.3-1.6% stayed outside, the study site communities. Smoking habit and alcohol consumption were similar in the different trial arms, also mean-age of menarche (12.4 years) and 1st ejaculation (12.6 years), and sexual behaviour (among those <25%, who had had sexual debut) did not differ by arm: mean-age at the sexual debut 14.3 and 14.4 in girls and boys, and proportions of those with multiple (≥5) life-time sexual partners (6.5-7.5%) at the age of 15 years. Uniform residential, life-style and sexual behaviour characteristics indicate successful randomization/enrolment of the CRT. Our CRT will verify modelled

  9. dBASE IV basics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    This is a user`s manual for dBASE IV. dBASE IV is a popular software application that can be used on your personal computer to help organize and maintain your database files. It is actually a set of tools with which you can create, organize, select and manipulate data in a simple yet effective manner. dBASE IV offers three methods of working with the product: (1) control center: (2) command line; and (3) programming.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of the ventricular system in the brains of adult and juvenile beagle dogs treated with posaconazole IV Solution.

    PubMed

    Hines, C D G; Song, X; Kuruvilla, S; Farris, G; Markgraf, C G

    2015-01-01

    Noxafil® (posaconazole; POS) is a potent, selective triazole antifungal approved for use in adults as an oral suspension, oral tablet and intravenous (IV) Solution. In support of pediatric administration of POS IV Solution to childrentwo years of age, two studies were undertaken using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor brain ventricle size longitudinally during three months administration of POS IV in adult and juvenile dogs. Necropsy was performed on all animals at the end of the studies. From the baseline MRI images, great variability in ventricle size was noted in both the adult and juvenile dogs; these images were used to distribute differently sized ventricles between treatment and vehicle groups as to not skew group means during the course of the study. POS IV Solution had no effect on ventricle volume at any timepoint during dosing in either the adult or the juvenile dogs. Further, no gross or histomorphologic differences between groups were observed in either study. Compared to juvenile dogs, MRI analysis showed that adult dogs had larger ventricles, lower variability in all ventricle volumes, and a greater rate of increase in total ventricle volume. Information on growth and development of brains is one of the few areas in which more detailed information is available about humans than about the standard laboratory animals used to model disease and predict toxicities. The use of MRI helped elucidate large natural variabilities in the dog brain, which could have altered the interpretation of this de-risking study, and provided a valuable noninvasive means to monitor the brain ventricles longitudinally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. WAIS-IV administration errors: effects of altered response requirements on Symbol Search and violation of standard surface-variety patterns on Block Design.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Swopes-Willhite, Nicole; Franklin, Cassi; Kreiner, David S

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized a sample of 50 college students to assess the possibility that responding to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Symbol Search subtest items with an "x" instead of a "single slash mark" would affect performance. A second sample of 50 college students was used to assess the impact on WAIS-IV Block Design performance of presenting all the items with only red surfaces facing up. The modified Symbol Search and Block Design administrations yielded mean scaled scores and raw scores that did not differ significantly from mean scores obtained with standard administrations. Findings should not be generalized beyond healthy, well-educated young adults.

  12. Mechanistic PBPK Modeling of the Dissolution and Food Effect of a BCS IV Compound - the Venetoclax Story.

    PubMed

    Emami Riedmaier, Arian; Lindley, David J; Hall, Jeffrey A; Castleberry, Steven; Slade, Russell T; Stuart, Patricia; Carr, Robert A; Borchardt, Thomas B; Bow, Daniel A J; Nijsen, Marjoleen

    2017-10-06

    Venetoclax, a selective B-cell lymphoma-2 inhibitor, is a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class IV compound. The aim of this study was to develop a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to mechanistically describe absorption and disposition of an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation of venetoclax in humans. A mechanistic PBPK model was developed incorporating measured amorphous solubility, dissolution, metabolism and plasma protein binding. A middle-out approach was used to define permeability. Model predictions of oral venetoclax pharmacokinetics were verified against clinical studies of fed and fasted healthy volunteers, and clinical drug interaction studies with strong CYP3A inhibitor (ketoconazole) and inducer (rifampicin). Model verification demonstrated accurate prediction of the observed food effect following a low-fat diet. Ratios of predicted versus observed Cmax and AUC of venetoclax were within 0.8- to 1.25-fold of observed ratios for strong CYP3A inhibitor and inducer interactions, indicating that the venetoclax elimination pathway was correctly specified. The verified venetoclax PBPK model is one of the first examples mechanistically capturing absorption, food effect and exposure of an ASD formulated compound. This model allows evaluation of untested drug-drug interactions, especially those primarily occurring in the intestine, and paves the way for future modeling of BCS IV compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A Minimally Invasive Cox-Maze IV is as Effective as Sternotomy While Decreasing Major Morbidity and Hospital Stay

    PubMed Central

    Lawrance, Christopher P.; Henn, Matthew C.; Miller, Jacob; Sinn, Laurie A.; Schuessler, Richard B.; Maniar, Hersh S.; Damiano, Ralph J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Cox-Maze IV has the best results for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. It has been traditionally performed through sternotomy with excellent outcomes, but this has been felt to be too invasive. An alternative approach is to perform a less invasive right anterolateral minithoracotomy. This series compared these approaches at a single center in consecutive patients. Methods Patients receiving Cox-Maze IV (n=356) were retrospectively reviewed from January 2002 to February 2014. Patients were stratified into two groups: right mini-thoracotomy (RMT: n=104) and sternotomy (ST: n=252). Preoperative and perioperative variables were compared as well as long term outcomes. Patients were followed for up two years and rhythm was confirmed with electrocardiogram or prolonged monitoring. Results Freedom from atrial tachyarrhythmias off antiarrhythmic drugs was 81% and 74% at 1 and 2 year respectively using a RMT approach and was not significantly different from the ST group at these same time points. Overall complication rate was lower in the RMT group (6% vs. 13%, p=0.044) as was 30 day morality (0% vs. 4%, p=0.039). Median ICU length of stay was lower in the RMT group (2 days [range 0-21] vs. 3 days [range 1-61], p=0.004) as was median hospital length of stay (7 days [range 4-35] vs. 9 days [range 1-111], p<0.001). Conclusions The Cox-Maze IV performed through a right mini-thoracotomy is as effective as sternotomy in the treatment of atrial fibrillation. This approach was associated with fewer complications and decreased mortality and decreased ICU and hospital length of stays. PMID:25048635

  14. Therapy targeted to the metastatic niche is effective in a model of stage IV breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byunghee; Kavishwar, Amol; Wang, Ping; Ross, Alana; Pantazopoulos, Pamela; Dudley, Michael; Moore, Anna; Medarova, Zdravka

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of stage IV metastatic breast cancer patients is limited to palliative options and represents an unmet clinical need. Here, we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of miRNA-10b - a master regulator of metastatic cell viability – leads to elimination of distant metastases in a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer. This was achieved using the miRNA-10b inhibitory nanodrug, MN-anti-miR10b, which consists of magnetic nanoparticles, conjugated to LNA-based miR-10b antagomirs. Intravenous injection of MN-anti-miR10b into mice bearing lung, bone, and brain metastases from breast cancer resulted in selective accumulation of the nanodrug in metastatic tumor cells. Weekly treatments of mice with MN-anti-miR-10b and low-dose doxorubicin resulted in complete regression of pre-existing distant metastases in 65% of the animals and a significant reduction in cancer mortality. These observations were supported by dramatic reduction in proliferation and increase in apoptosis in metastatic sites. On a molecular level, we observed a significant increase in the expression of HOXD10, which is a known target of miRNA-10b. These results represent first steps into the uncharted territory of therapy targeted to the metastatic niche. PMID:28322342

  15. The effect of U(VI) bioreduction kinetics on subsequent reoxidation of biogenic U(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Senko, John M.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mcdonough, J. T.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Burgos, William D.

    2007-10-01

    Microbially mediated in situ reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) (as UO2) has been proposed as a means of preventing the migration of that radionuclide with groundwater, but preventing the oxidative resolubilization of U has proven difficult. We hypothesized that relatively slow rates of U(VI) bioreduction would yield larger UO2 precipitates that would be more resistant to oxidation than those produced by rapid U(VI) bioreduction. We manipulated U(VI) bioreduction rates by varying the density of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 added to U(VI) containing solutions with lactate as an electron donor. Characterization of biogenic UO2 particles by extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed that UO2 nanoparticles formed by relatively slow rates of U(VI) reduction were larger and more highly aggregated than those formed by relatively rapid U(VI) reduction. UO2 particles formed at various rates were incubated under a variety of abiotically and biologically oxidizing conditions. In all cases, UO2 that was formed by relatively slow U(VI) reduction was oxidized at a slower rate and to a lesser extent than UO2 formed by relatively rapid U(VI) bioreduction, suggesting that the stability of UO2 in situ may be enhanced by stimulation of relatively slow rates of U(VI) reduction.

  16. The effect of U(VI) bioreduction kinetics on subsequent reoxidation of biogenic U(IV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senko, John M.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; McDonough, Jeffrey T.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Burgos, William D.

    2007-10-01

    Microbially mediated in situ reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) (as UO 2) has been proposed as a means of preventing the migration of that radionuclide with groundwater, but preventing the oxidative resolubilization of U has proven difficult. We hypothesized that relatively slow rates of U(VI) bioreduction would yield larger UO 2 precipitates that would be more resistant to oxidation than those produced by rapid U(VI) bioreduction. We manipulated U(VI) bioreduction rates by varying the density of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 added to U(VI) containing solutions with lactate as an electron donor. Characterization of biogenic UO 2 particles by extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed that UO 2 nanoparticles formed by relatively slow rates of U(VI) reduction were larger and more highly aggregated than those formed by relatively rapid U(VI) reduction. UO 2 particles formed at various rates were incubated under a variety of abiotically and biologically oxidizing conditions. In all cases, UO 2 that was formed by relatively slow U(VI) reduction was oxidized at a slower rate and to a lesser extent than UO 2 formed by relatively rapid U(VI) bioreduction, suggesting that the stability of UO 2 in situ may be enhanced by stimulation of relatively slow rates of U(VI) reduction.

  17. Confinement effects in π-bonded chains at group IV semiconductor (111) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanni, B.; Bussetti, G.; Violante, A.; Chiaradia, P.; Goletti, C.

    2013-12-01

    The degree of 1D character of surface chains at group IV (111)-2 × 1 reconstructed surfaces is established by surface sensitive optical spectroscopy. Optical experiments on a diamond C(111)-2 × 1 surface show that the absorption peak related to dangling-bond transitions exhibits a marked blueshift upon oxygen exposure of the clean surface. Such behaviour is analogous to that observed on a clean Si(111)-2 × 1 surface. For both surfaces the experimental finding is interpreted in terms of quantum confinement of surface electrons in quasi-one-dimensional π-bonded chains, whose length decreases with oxygen uptake. A different behaviour is observed in Ge(111)-2 × 1, where only a very slight blueshift of the surface-state optical transition is detected upon oxidation. The almost negligible blueshift in Ge(111)-2 × 1 is consistent with a significant coupling between the π-bonded chains resulting in a much less pronounced one-dimensional character of Ge(111)-2 × 1 surface electrons compared to diamond and silicon reconstructed surfaces.

  18. Comparison of in-person and digital photograph assessment of stage III and IV pressure ulcers among veterans with spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Terris, Darcey D; Woo, Christine; Jarczok, Marc N; Ho, Chester H

    2011-01-01

    Digital photographs are often used in treatment monitoring for home care of less advanced pressure ulcers. We investigated assessment agreement when stage III and IV pressure ulcers in individuals with spinal cord injury were evaluated in person and with the use of digital photographs. Two wound-care nurses assessed 31 wounds among 15 participants. One nurse assessed all wounds in person, while the other used digital photographs. Twenty-four wound description categories were applied in the nurses' assessments. Kappa statistics were calculated to investigate agreement beyond chance (p < or = 0.05). For 10 randomly selected "double-rated wounds," both nurses applied both assessment methods. Fewer categories were evaluated for the double-rated wounds, because some categories were chosen infrequently and agreement could not be measured. Interrater agreement with the two methods was observed for 12 of the 24 categories (50.0%). However, of the 12 categories with agreement beyond chance, agreement was only "slight" (kappa = 0-0.20) or "fair" (kappa = 0.21-0.40) for 6 categories. The highest agreement was found for the presence of undermining (kappa = 0.853, p < 0.001). Interrater agreement was similar to intramethod agreement (41.2% of the categories demonstrated agreement beyond chance) for the nurses' in-person assessment of the double-rated wounds. The moderate agreement observed may be attributed to variation in subjective perception of qualitative wound characteristics.

  19. Cost effectiveness of personalized therapy for first-line treatment of stage IV and recurrent incurable adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Handorf, Elizabeth A; McElligott, Sean; Vachani, Anil; Langer, Corey J; Bristol Demeter, Mirar; Armstrong, Katrina; Asch, David A

    2012-09-01

    Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive stage IV adenocarcinoma have improved survival with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatments, but the cost effectiveness of personalized first-line therapy using EGFR mutation testing is unknown. We created a decision analytic model comparing the costs and effects of platinum combination chemotherapy with personalized therapy in which patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumors were treated with erlotinib. We used two testing strategies: testing only those with tissue available and performing a repeat biopsy if tissue was not available versus three nontargeted chemotherapy regimens (ie, carboplatin and paclitaxel; carboplatin and pemetrexed; and carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab). Compared with a carboplatin plus paclitaxel regimen, targeted therapy based on testing available tissue yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $110,644 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), and the rebiopsy strategy yielded an ICER of $122,219 per QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed substantial uncertainty around these point estimates. With a willingness to pay of $100,000 per QALY, the testing strategy was cost effective 58% of the time, and the rebiopsy strategy was cost effective 54% of the time. Personalized therapy with an EGFR TKI was more favorable when the nontargeted chemotherapy regimen was more expensive. Compared with carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab, ICERs were $25,547 per QALY for the testing strategy and $44,036 per QALY for the rebiopsy strategy. Although specific clinical circumstances should guide therapy, our cost-effectiveness analysis supports the strategy of testing for EGFR mutations in patients with stage IV or recurrent adenocarcinoma of the lung, rebiopsying patients if insufficient tissue is available for testing, and treating patients with EGFR mutations with erlotinib as first-line therapy.

  20. Asteroids IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  1. Improving IV-A/IV-D Interface. Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Child Support Enforcement, Chevy Chase, MD.

    Effective interface between the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (IV-A) and the Child Support Enforcement (IV-D) programs is a key factor in assisting families in becoming self-sufficient, reducing welfare expenditures, and enforcing parental responsibility to support their children. Consequently, overcoming the procedural, technological,…

  2. Improving IV-A/IV-D Interface. Trainer Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Child Support Enforcement, Chevy Chase, MD.

    Effective interface between the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (IV-A) and the Child Support Enforcement (IV-D) programs is a key factor in assisting families in becoming self-sufficient, reducing welfare expenditures, and enforcing parental responsibility to support their children. Consequently, overcoming the procedural, technological,…

  3. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) as an effective biomarker for the diagnosis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaomei; Lin, Yingwei; Liu, Shuai; Aziz, Faisal; Yan, Qiu

    2015-03-01

    Specific enzymes are involved in altered glycosylation of cancer. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) is associated with the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer. The application of FUT4 assay in the serum has not been reported yet. Here, the expression level of FUT4 in the breast cancer patient's tissues (n=60) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the secreted FUT4 in blood serum samples (n=225) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using low metastatic MCF-7 and high metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, FUT4 expression was also detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. The conventional cancer biomarkers cancer antigen (CA15.3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was analyzed by Elecsys-electrochemical immune assay (ECLIA) to compare specificity and sensitivity with that of FUT4. We have observed a significant high expression of FUT4 in breast cancer tissues and serums as compared to the normal tissues (P<0.01) and control serums (P<0.05). FUT4 expression was increased in MDA-MB-231 cells vs. that in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was shown, area under curve of FUT4 (AUC=0.784) was higher than that of CA15.3 (AUC=0.468) and CEA (AUC=0.563). The relation analysis is indicated FUT4 is significantly correlated with CA15.3 (r=0.234, P<0.05) and there is no significant correlation with CEA. In conclusion, this study suggests that FUT4 can serve as novel biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer.

  4. Effects of practice on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV across 3- and 6-month intervals.

    PubMed

    Estevis, Eduardo; Basso, Michael R; Combs, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54 participants (age M = 20.9; education M = 14.9; initial Full Scale IQ M = 111.6) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) at baseline and again either 3 or 6 months later. Scores on the Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, and General Ability Indices improved approximately 7, 5, 4, 5, 9, and 6 points, respectively, and increases were similar regardless of whether the re-examination occurred over 3- or 6-month intervals. Reliable change indices (RCI) were computed using the simple difference and bivariate regression methods, providing estimated base rates of change across time. The regression method provided more accurate estimates of reliable change than did the simple difference between baseline and follow-up scores. These findings suggest that prior exposure to the WAIS-IV results in significant score increments. These gains reflect practice effects instead of genuine intellectual changes, which may lead to errors in clinical judgment.

  5. A GGA+U approach to effective electronic correlations in thiolate-ligated iron-oxo (IV) porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Elenewski, Justin E; Hackett, John C

    2012-09-28

    High-valent oxo-metal complexes exhibit correlated electronic behavior on dense, low-lying electronic state manifolds, presenting challenging systems for electronic structure methods. Among these species, the iron-oxo (IV) porphyrin denoted Compound I occupies a privileged position, serving a broad spectrum of catalytic roles. The most reactive members of this family bear a thiolate axial ligand, exhibiting high activity toward molecular oxygen activation and substrate oxidation. The default approach to such systems has entailed the use of hybrid density functionals or multi-configurational/multireference methods to treat electronic correlation. An alternative approach is presented based on the GGA+U approximation to density functional theory, in which a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional is supplemented with a localization correction to treat on-site correlation as inspired by the Hubbard model. The electronic structure of thiolate-ligated iron-oxo (IV) porphyrin and corresponding Coulomb repulsion U are determined both empirically and self-consistently, yielding spin-distributions, state level splittings, and electronic densities of states consistent with prior hybrid functional calculations. Comparison of this detailed electronic structure with model Hamiltonian calculations suggests that the localized 3d iron moments induce correlation in the surrounding electron gas, strengthening local moment formation. This behavior is analogous to strongly correlated electronic systems such as Mott insulators, in which the GGA+U scheme serves as an effective single-particle representation for the full, correlated many-body problem.

  6. The effects of a liquid dispersing agent and a microcrystalline additive on the physical properties of type IV gypsum.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, M R; Johnston, W M; Reisbick, M H; Campagni, W V

    1988-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a liquid dispersing agent (LDA) and a microcrystalline additive (MCA) on selected physical properties of type IV gypsum. Working consistency, setting time, setting expansion, and compressive strength (1 hour and 7 days) were determined, following ADA Specification No. 25, on a standard, LDA (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mL), MCA (21.1, 24.1, and 27.1 gm), and combination (LDA 0.75 mL + MCA 12.05 gm) mixes per 300 gm of gypsum. Results indicate that the additives affect the consistency of the mix, but consistency can be kept close to that of the standard by lowering the water/powder ratio. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that the additives significantly affected the setting time, setting expansion, and both the 1-hour and the 7-day compressive strengths. SEM examination of fractured surfaces of test mixes indicated improved crystal packing. The properties of type IV gypsum can be improved by optimizing the amount of LDA and MCA additives.

  7. A GGA+U approach to effective electronic correlations in thiolate-ligated iron-oxo (IV) porphyrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elenewski, Justin E.; Hackett, John C.

    2012-09-01

    High-valent oxo-metal complexes exhibit correlated electronic behavior on dense, low-lying electronic state manifolds, presenting challenging systems for electronic structure methods. Among these species, the iron-oxo (IV) porphyrin denoted Compound I occupies a privileged position, serving a broad spectrum of catalytic roles. The most reactive members of this family bear a thiolate axial ligand, exhibiting high activity toward molecular oxygen activation and substrate oxidation. The default approach to such systems has entailed the use of hybrid density functionals or multi-configurational/multireference methods to treat electronic correlation. An alternative approach is presented based on the GGA+U approximation to density functional theory, in which a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional is supplemented with a localization correction to treat on-site correlation as inspired by the Hubbard model. The electronic structure of thiolate-ligated iron-oxo (IV) porphyrin and corresponding Coulomb repulsion U are determined both empirically and self-consistently, yielding spin-distributions, state level splittings, and electronic densities of states consistent with prior hybrid functional calculations. Comparison of this detailed electronic structure with model Hamiltonian calculations suggests that the localized 3d iron moments induce correlation in the surrounding electron gas, strengthening local moment formation. This behavior is analogous to strongly correlated electronic systems such as Mott insulators, in which the GGA+U scheme serves as an effective single-particle representation for the full, correlated many-body problem.

  8. Compounds of tin(IV) - catalysts of amide formation. Effect of temperature and nature of leaving group

    SciTech Connect

    Oleinik, N.M.; Garkusha-Bozhko, I.P.; Usanova, I.V.

    1988-09-20

    The effect of substitution of the ester oxygen atom by sulfur in p-nitrophenyl acetate on its aminolysis rate with benzylamine in beneze at 25/degree/C in the presence of dibutyltin dibenzoate as catalyst was studied. Such substitution leads to a decrease in the catalytic activity by approximately a half, and this is explained by the smaller capacity of the sulfur atom for the formation of hydrogen bonds. The effect of temperature on the rate of the reaction of N-benzyl-oxycarbonylglycine p-nitrophenyl ester with glycine tert-butyl ester in benzene in the presence of dibutyltin dibenzoate was also investigated in the range of 10-50/degree/C. The Arrhenius equation is not fulfilled in this case. The obtained facts demonstrate the multistage character of the catalytic reaction and do not contradict the authors previously proposed bifunctional mechanism of catalysis by tin(IV) compounds.

  9. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.

  10. Reliability and Validity of Three Instruments (DSM-IV, CPGI, and PPGM) in the Assessment of Problem Gambling in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Back, Ki-Joon; Williams, Robert J; Lee, Choong-Ki

    2015-09-01

    Most research on the assessment, epidemiology, and treatment of problem gambling has occurred in Western jurisdictions. This potentially limits the cross-cultural validity of problem gambling assessment instruments as well as etiological models of problem gambling. The primary objective of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of three problem gambling assessment instruments within a South Korean context. A total of 4,330 South Korean adults participated in a comprehensive assessment of their gambling behavior that included the administration of the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (NODS), the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI), and the Problem and Pathological Gambling Measure (PPGM). Cronbach alpha showed that all three instruments had good internal consistency. Concurrent validity was established by the significant associations observed between scores on the instruments and measures of gambling involvement (number of gambling formats engaged in; frequency of gambling; and gambling expenditure). Most importantly, kappa statistics showed that all instruments have satisfactory classification accuracy against clinical assessment of problem gambling conducted by South Korean clinicians (NODS κ = .66; PPGM κ = .62; CPGI κ = .51). These results confirm that Western-derived operationalizations of problem gambling have applicability in a South Korean setting.

  11. The effect of the axial ligand on distinct reaction tunneling for methane hydroxylation by nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complexes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Guan, Jia; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Huiling; Huang, Xuri

    2012-10-05

    Comprehensive density functional theory computations on substrate hydroxylation by a range of nonheme iron(IV)-oxo model systems [Fe(IV)(O)(NH(3))(4)L](+) (where L = CF(3)CO(2)(-), F(-), Cl(-), N(3)(-), NCS(-), NC(-), OH(-)) have been investigated to establish the effects of axial ligands with different degrees of electron donor ability on the reactivity of the distinct reaction channels. The results show that the electron-pushing capability of the axial ligand can exert a considerable influence on the different reaction channels. The σ-pathway reactivity decreases as the electron-donating ability of the axial ligand strengthens, while the π-pathway reactivity follows an opposite trend. Moreover, the apparently antielectrophilic trend observed for the energy gap between the triplet π- and quintet σ-channel (ΔG(T-Q)) stems from the fact that the reaction reactivity can be fine-controlled by the interplay between the exchange-stabilization benefiting from the (5)TS(H) relative to the (3)TS(H) by most nonheme enzymes and the destabilization effect of the orbital by the anionic axial ligand. When the former counteracts the latter, the quintet σ-pathway will be more effective than the other alternatives. Nevertheless, when the dramatic destabilization effect of the orbital by a strong binding axial σ-donor ligand like OH(-) counteracts but does not override the exchange-stabilization, the barrier in the quintet σ-pathway will remain identical to the triplet π-pathway barrier. Indeed, the axial ligand does not change the intrinsic reaction mechanism in its respective pathway; however, it can affect the energy barriers of different reaction channels for C-H activation. As such, the tuning of the reactivity of the different reaction channels can be realised by increasing/decreasing the electron pushing ability.

  12. Central administration of angiotensin IV rapidly enhances novel object recognition among mice.

    PubMed

    Paris, Jason J; Eans, Shainnel O; Mizrachi, Elisa; Reilley, Kate J; Ganno, Michelle L; McLaughlin, Jay P

    2013-07-01

    Angiotensin IV (Val(1)-Tyr(2)-Ile(3)-His(4)-Pro(5)-Phe(6)) has demonstrated potential cognitive-enhancing effects. The present investigation assessed and characterized: (1) dose-dependency of angiotensin IV's cognitive enhancement in a C57BL/6J mouse model of novel object recognition, (2) the time-course for these effects, (3) the identity of residues in the hexapeptide important to these effects and (4) the necessity of actions at angiotensin IV receptors for procognitive activity. Assessment of C57BL/6J mice in a novel object recognition task demonstrated that prior administration of angiotensin IV (0.1, 1.0, or 10.0, but not 0.01 nmol, i.c.v.) significantly enhanced novel object recognition in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were time dependent, with improved novel object recognition observed when angiotensin IV (0.1 nmol, i.c.v.) was administered 10 or 20, but not 30 min prior to the onset of the novel object recognition testing. An alanine scan of the angiotensin IV peptide revealed that replacement of the Val(1), Ile(3), His(4), or Phe(6) residues with Ala attenuated peptide-induced improvements in novel object recognition, whereas Tyr(2) or Pro(5) replacement did not significantly affect performance. Administration of the angiotensin IV receptor antagonist, divalinal-Ang IV (20 nmol, i.c.v.), reduced (but did not abolish) novel object recognition; however, this antagonist completely blocked the procognitive effects of angiotensin IV (0.1 nmol, i.c.v.) in this task. Rotorod testing demonstrated no locomotor effects with any angiotensin IV or divalinal-Ang IV dose tested. These data demonstrate that angiotensin IV produces a rapid enhancement of associative learning and memory performance in a mouse model that was dependent on the angiotensin IV receptor.

  13. Effect of Mn(IV) on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under low-oxygen condition in mangrove sediment slurry.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Hua; Ye, Chun; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2011-06-15

    This study investigated the effect of manganese [Mn(IV)] amendment on the anaerobic biodegradation of four mixed PAHs, namely fluorene (Fl), phenanthrene (Phe), fluoranthene (Flua) and pyrene (Pyr) under low-oxygen condition, with and without the inoculation of enriched PAH-degrading bacterial consortia, in mangrove sediment slurries. The results revealed that the addition of Mn(IV) significantly inhibited PAH biodegradation, the rate of which was about 31-70% lower than the one of the groups without Mn(IV) addition. The amendment of Mn(IV) also showed adverse effect on the population size of enriched PAH-degrading bacteria and bacterial activity. The analysis results on the concentrations of Mn(II) and Mn(IV) indicated that Mn(IV) was converted to Mn(II) fast, the latter was the predominate manganese form in the mangrove sediment slurries through the whole experimental period. The Mn(II) toxicity to microorganisms was considered the main reason for inhibition of the PAH-biodegradation. On the other hand, the inoculation of the enriched PAH-degrading consortia significantly enhanced the biodegradation rates of all four PAHs, and the biodegradation rates of 3-rings (Fl, Phe) and 4-rings (Flua, Pyr) PAHs were enhanced by 14-15% and 21-34%, respectively.

  14. Integration of the WJ IV, WISC-V, WISC-V Integrated, and WIAT-III into a School Neuropsychological Assessment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson-Fourth edition (WJ IV; Schrank, McGrew, & Mather, 2014a) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth edition (WISC-V; Wechsler, 2014) are two of the major tests of cognitive abilities used in school psychology. The complete WJ IV battery includes the Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (Schrank,…

  15. Assessing Traumatic Event Exposure: Comparing the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire to the Structured Clinical Interview for "DSM-IV"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Jessica M.; Burke, Christopher K.; Stoller, Kenneth B.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Brooner, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis requires first identifying a traumatic event, but very few studies have evaluated methods of potential traumatic event assessment and their impact on PTSD diagnosis. The authors compared a behaviorally specific comprehensive multiple-item traumatic event measure with a single-item measure to…

  16. Technical Manual for the Conceptual Learning and Development Assessment Series IV: Tree. Technical Report No. 437. Reprinted December 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLuzio, Geneva J.; And Others

    This document accompanies the Conceptual Learning and Development Assessment Series III: Tree, a test constructed to chart the conceptual development of individuals. As a technical manual, it contains information on the rationale, development, standardization, and reliability of the test, as well as essential information and statistical data for…

  17. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume IV: Social, Political and Economic Issues in Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Wornie L., Ed.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  18. Assessing Traumatic Event Exposure: Comparing the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire to the Structured Clinical Interview for "DSM-IV"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Jessica M.; Burke, Christopher K.; Stoller, Kenneth B.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Brooner, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis requires first identifying a traumatic event, but very few studies have evaluated methods of potential traumatic event assessment and their impact on PTSD diagnosis. The authors compared a behaviorally specific comprehensive multiple-item traumatic event measure with a single-item measure to…

  19. Comparison of Effectiveness of Betamethasone gel Applied to the Tracheal Tube and IV Dexamethasone on Postoperative Sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tabari, Masoomeh; Soltani, Ghasem; Zirak, Nahid; Alipour, Mohammad; Khazaeni, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Postoperative sore throat is a common complaint in patients with endotracheal intubation and has potentially dangerous complications. This randomized controlled trial study investigated the incidence of postoperative sore throat after general anesthesia when betamethasone gel is applied to a tracheal tube compared with when IV dexamethasone is prescribed. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty five American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA)-class I and II patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery with tracheal intubation were randomly divided into three groups: betamethasone gel, intravenous (IV) dexamethasone, and control groups. In the post-anesthesia care unit, a blinded anesthesiologist interviewed all patients regarding postoperative sore throat at 1,6, and 24 hours after surgery. Results: The incidence of sore throat was significantly lower in the betamethasone gel group compared with the IV dexamethasone and control groups, 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery. In the first day after surgery 10.7% of the betamethasone group had sore throat whereas 26.7% of the IV dexamethasone group and 30.7% of the control group had sore throat. Bucking before extubation was observed in 14(18.4%), 8(10.4%), and 9(12.2%) patients, in the IV dexamethasone, betamethasone gel, and control group, respectively. Conclusion: We concluded that wide spread application of betamethasone gel over tracheal tubes effectively mitigates postoperative sore throat, compared with IV dexamethasone application. PMID:24303443

  20. The importance of cell density in the interpretation of growth factor effects on collagenase IV activity release and extracellular matrix production from C6 astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, M; McDonald, W; Del Maestro, R F

    1998-09-01

    We have examined the influence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on the release of collagenase type IV activity and the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules using C6 astrocytoma cells in monolayer culture. Collagenase type IV activity was significantly increased in a dose dependent manner in the low cell density group by treatment with FGF-2 and VEGF but significantly decreased in a dose dependent fashion in the high cell density group. These results were corroborated using Western blot technique with an antibody to gelatinase A. Addition of exogenous laminin and fibronectin to the media decreased collagenase type IV activity in a dose dependent fashion with the minimum concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml. Laminin and fibronectin reached a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml in only the high cell density group after treatment with the growth factors tested. These findings indicate that C6 astrocytoma cells appear to have two regulatory mechanisms for collagenase type IV activity which are dependent on cell density. In a low cell density, C6 astrocytoma cells respond to the dominant effect of FGF-2 and VEGF by increasing the release of collagenase IV activity. In a high cell density collagenase type IV activity is decreased due to it's down regulation by released ECM molecules in response to FGF-2 and VEGF. These regulatory mechanisms may be crucial to the understanding of the coordination of tumor-associated angiogenesis by malignant glial cells.

  1. Development of Methodologies for IV and V of Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian; Darrah, Marjorie

    2003-01-01

    Non-deterministic systems often rely upon neural network (NN) technology to "lean" to manage flight systems under controlled conditions using carefully chosen training sets. How can these adaptive systems be certified to ensure that they will become increasingly efficient and behave appropriately in real-time situations? The bulk of Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) research of non-deterministic software control systems such as Adaptive Flight Controllers (AFC's) addresses NNs in well-behaved and constrained environments such as simulations and strict process control. However, neither substantive research, nor effective IV&V techniques have been found to address AFC's learning in real-time and adapting to live flight conditions. Adaptive flight control systems offer good extensibility into commercial aviation as well as military aviation and transportation. Consequently, this area of IV&V represents an area of growing interest and urgency. ISR proposes to further the current body of knowledge to meet two objectives: Research the current IV&V methods and assess where these methods may be applied toward a methodology for the V&V of Neural Network; and identify effective methods for IV&V of NNs that learn in real-time, including developing a prototype test bed for IV&V of AFC's. Currently. no practical method exists. lSR will meet these objectives through the tasks identified and described below. First, ISR will conduct a literature review of current IV&V technology. TO do this, ISR will collect the existing body of research on IV&V of non-deterministic systems and neural network. ISR will also develop the framework for disseminating this information through specialized training. This effort will focus on developing NASA's capability to conduct IV&V of neural network systems and to provide training to meet the increasing need for IV&V expertise in such systems.

  2. Development of Methodologies for IV and V of Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian; Darrah, Marjorie

    2003-01-01

    Non-deterministic systems often rely upon neural network (NN) technology to "lean" to manage flight systems under controlled conditions using carefully chosen training sets. How can these adaptive systems be certified to ensure that they will become increasingly efficient and behave appropriately in real-time situations? The bulk of Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) research of non-deterministic software control systems such as Adaptive Flight Controllers (AFC's) addresses NNs in well-behaved and constrained environments such as simulations and strict process control. However, neither substantive research, nor effective IV&V techniques have been found to address AFC's learning in real-time and adapting to live flight conditions. Adaptive flight control systems offer good extensibility into commercial aviation as well as military aviation and transportation. Consequently, this area of IV&V represents an area of growing interest and urgency. ISR proposes to further the current body of knowledge to meet two objectives: Research the current IV&V methods and assess where these methods may be applied toward a methodology for the V&V of Neural Network; and identify effective methods for IV&V of NNs that learn in real-time, including developing a prototype test bed for IV&V of AFC's. Currently. no practical method exists. lSR will meet these objectives through the tasks identified and described below. First, ISR will conduct a literature review of current IV&V technology. TO do this, ISR will collect the existing body of research on IV&V of non-deterministic systems and neural network. ISR will also develop the framework for disseminating this information through specialized training. This effort will focus on developing NASA's capability to conduct IV&V of neural network systems and to provide training to meet the increasing need for IV&V expertise in such systems.

  3. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates: Neuroendocrine portion of Experiment IV. Quarterly report No. 38

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-08-31

    This quarterly report covers the neuroendocrine Portion of Experiment IV. Serum melatonin concentration was measured in individual baboons, each implanted with a chronically indwelling venous cannula. As in Experiment III the system of six automatic blood samplers was used to achieve undisturbed, 24 hr per day, simultaneous blood sampling from six individual subjects. The objective of the neuroendocrine portion of Experiment IV was to determine if 30 kV/m electric and 1.0 G magnetic field (E/MF) exposure produced a 50% decline in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration. Other groups of subjects were tested concurrently during Experiment IV to assess E/MF effects on group social and individual operant behavior. The results of these experiments will be covered respectively in the next two quarterly reports. The results of Experiment IV, as was the case with the result of Experiments III and IIIA, provide little or no evidence that E/MF exposure, under the conditions of these experiments, affects nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations of nonhuman primates. Together the negative results of Experiments III, IIA and IV indicate that day-time exposure of primates to slow-onset/offset, regularly-scheduled E/MF does not produce melatonin suppression, strongly suggesting that such exposure would not affect human melatonin either. However, before concluding that E/MF exposure in general has no effect on primate melatonin, nightime exposure needs to be examined, and the possibility, suggested by the Pilot Experiment, that fast onset/offset, irregularly-scheduled E/MF can completely suppress melatonin needs to be investigated.

  4. Reionization on large scales. IV. Predictions for the 21 cm signal incorporating the light cone effect

    SciTech Connect

    La Plante, P.; Battaglia, N.; Natarajan, A.; Peterson, J. B.; Trac, H.; Cen, R.; Loeb, A.

    2014-07-01

    We present predictions for the 21 cm brightness temperature power spectrum during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). We discuss the implications of the 'light cone' effect, which incorporates evolution of the neutral hydrogen fraction and 21 cm brightness temperature along the line of sight. Using a novel method calibrated against radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, we model the neutral hydrogen density field and 21 cm signal in large volumes (L = 2 Gpc h {sup –1}). The inclusion of the light cone effect leads to a relative decrease of about 50% in the 21 cm power spectrum on all scales. We also find that the effect is more prominent at the midpoint of reionization and later. The light cone effect can also introduce an anisotropy along the line of sight. By decomposing the 3D power spectrum into components perpendicular to and along the line of sight, we find that in our fiducial reionization model, there is no significant anisotropy. However, parallel modes can contribute up to 40% more power for shorter reionization scenarios. The scales on which the light cone effect is relevant are comparable to scales where one measures the baryon acoustic oscillation. We argue that due to its large comoving scale and introduction of anisotropy, the light cone effect is important when considering redshift space distortions and future application to the Alcock-Paczyński test for the determination of cosmological parameters.

  5. Effects of IV Acetaminophen on Core Body Temperature and Hemodynamic Responses in Febrile Critically Ill Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Schell-Chaple, Hildy M; Liu, Kathleen D; Matthay, Michael A; Sessler, Daniel I; Puntillo, Kathleen A

    2017-07-01

    To determine the effects of IV acetaminophen on core body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate in febrile critically ill patients. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Three adult ICUs at a large, urban, academic medical center. Forty critically ill adults with fever (core temperature, ≥ 38.3°C). An infusion of acetaminophen 1 g or saline placebo over 15 minutes. Core temperature and vital signs were measured at baseline and at 5-15-minute intervals for 4 hours after infusion of study drug. The primary outcome was time-weighted average core temperature adjusted for baseline temperature. Secondary outcomes included adjusted time-weighted average heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate, along with changes-over-time for each. Baseline patient characteristics were similar in those given acetaminophen and placebo. Patients given acetaminophen had an adjusted time-weighted average temperature that was 0.47°C less than those given placebo (95% CI, -0.76 to -0.18; p = 0.002). The acetaminophen group had significantly lower adjusted time-weighted average systolic blood pressure (-17 mm Hg; 95% CI, -25 to -8; p < 0.001), mean arterial pressure (-7 mm Hg; 95% CI, -12 to -1; p = 0.02), and heart rate (-6 beats/min; 95% CI, -10 to -1; p = 0.03). Changes-over-time temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate outcomes were also significantly lower at 2 hours, but not at 4 hours. Among febrile critically ill adults, treatment with acetaminophen decreased temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. IV acetaminophen thus produces modest fever reduction in critical care patients, along with clinically important reductions in blood pressure.

  6. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space. IV - Effect of CO2 enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the response of potato to elevated carbon dioxide levels in life support farms for space colonies, Norland and Russet Burbank were grown in solid stands in separate controlled environment rooms at two CO2 levels, 365 micromol/mol and 1000 micromol/mol. It is found that potatoes show only marginal growth gains from elevated CO2: tuber dry weight increased by 2 percent for Norland, and 12 percent for Russet Burbank. CO2 assimilation rates of Norland leaves increased by about 24 percent, but assimilation rates of Russet Burbank leaves decreased by about 12 percent. It is concluded that the best productivity obtained in the study (21.9 g tuber dry weight/sq m/day from Norland at 1000 micromol/mol of CO2) indicates that the dietary energy needs of one human in space could be supplied from 34 sq m of potatoes.

  7. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space. IV - Effect of CO2 enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the response of potato to elevated carbon dioxide levels in life support farms for space colonies, Norland and Russet Burbank were grown in solid stands in separate controlled environment rooms at two CO2 levels, 365 micromol/mol and 1000 micromol/mol. It is found that potatoes show only marginal growth gains from elevated CO2: tuber dry weight increased by 2 percent for Norland, and 12 percent for Russet Burbank. CO2 assimilation rates of Norland leaves increased by about 24 percent, but assimilation rates of Russet Burbank leaves decreased by about 12 percent. It is concluded that the best productivity obtained in the study (21.9 g tuber dry weight/sq m/day from Norland at 1000 micromol/mol of CO2) indicates that the dietary energy needs of one human in space could be supplied from 34 sq m of potatoes.

  8. Effect of class IV laser therapy on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Giulia; Gobbo, Margherita; Sturnega, Mauro; Martinelli, Valentina; Mano, Miguel; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Bussani, Rossana; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Long, Carlin S; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Giacca, Mauro; Biasotto, Matteo; Zacchigna, Serena

    2013-12-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a serious and acute side effect in patients with cancer who receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, often leading to the suspension of therapy and a need for opioid analgesic and enteral/parenteral nutrition, with an effect on patient survival. Among the various interventions proposed in OM management, laser therapy is becoming a recommended treatment option but has limitations due to its heterogeneous laser parameters. Here, we report on our successful clinical experience on the use of class IV laser therapy to treat OM induced by different chemotherapy regimens. To shed light on the mechanisms of action of laser therapy in improving OM resolution, we have developed an animal model of chemotherapy-induced OM, in which we compare the efficacy of the standard low-power laser therapy protocol with an innovative protocol, defined as high-power laser therapy. We show that high-power laser therapy is more effective than low-power laser therapy in improving OM lesion healing, reducing the inflammatory burden, and preserving tissue integrity. In addition, high-power laser therapy has been particularly effective in promoting the formation of new arterioles within the granulation tissue. Our results provide important insights into the mechanism of action of biostimulating laser therapy on OM in vivo and pave a way for clinical experimentation with the use of high-power laser therapy.

  9. Reactions in glass-ionomer cements: IV. Effect of chelating comonomers on setting behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A D; Crisp, S; Ferner, A J

    1976-01-01

    The oscillating rheometer is a valuable instrument for studying the effects of additives on the setting behavior of a cement system. Using this instrument, it was found that certain chelating comonomers, the hydroxycarboxylic acids, could improve the setting characteristics of the glass-ionomer cement system when added to the PAA solution. The acid chelates probably assign the extraction of metal ions from the glass and also tend to hold them in solution, preventing premature ion binding of the polyanion chains. The effect is to increase the rate of hardening without reducing the working time, which may indeed by slightly increased. Tartaric acid, the most effective of the comonomers, can form a chelate bridge between aluminum atoms, and this metal complex probably acts as a flexible bridge structure linking polyanion chains. This mechanism offers some steric advantages over a simple salt bridge.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of everolimus- versus paclitaxel-eluting stents for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization (from the SPIRIT-IV Trial).

    PubMed

    Amin, Amit P; Reynolds, Matthew R; Lei, Yang; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Vilain, Katherine; Durtschi, Amy J; Simonton, Charles A; Stone, Gregg W; Cohen, David J

    2012-09-15

    Although several drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been shown to be economically attractive compared to bare-metal stents in patients at moderate to high risk of restenosis, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of alternative DES designs, especially second-generation DESs. We therefore performed an economic substudy alongside the SPIRIT-IV trial, in which 3,687 patients undergoing single or multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention were randomized to receive second-generation everolimus-eluting stents (EESs; n = 2,458) or first-generation paclitaxel-eluting stents (PESs; n = 1,229). Costs through 2 years of follow-up were assessed from the perspective of the United States health care system. The primary cost-effectiveness end point was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio assessed as cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Over a 2-year period, use of EESs versus PESs led to a trend toward decreased overall repeat revascularization procedures (14.2 vs 16.2 per 100 subjects, p = 0.20) driven by a significant decrease in the number of target vessel revascularization procedures (8.2 vs 11.0 per 100 subjects, p = 0.02) but also a slight increase in the number of nontarget vessel revascularization procedures (6.0 vs 5.1 per 100 subjects, p = 0.37). Follow-up cardiovascular costs were decreased by $273/patient in the EES group (95% confidence interval for difference 1,048 less to 502 more, p = 0.49). Formal cost-effectiveness analysis based on these results demonstrated that the probability that EES was an economically attractive strategy (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio <$50,000/quality-adjusted life year gained) was 85.7%. These findings demonstrate that in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with DESs, use of EESs is economically attractive compared to PESs with improved clinical outcomes and lower overall medical care costs at 2 years.

  11. What Connecticut Teachers Need for Effective Schooling: Professional Issues in Public Education, IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, John C., Ed.

    In the spirit of education reform, this collection of 22 essays written by experienced teacher practitioners addresses the needs of Connecticut's teachers for effective schooling: (1) "Rediscovering Waldo: The Search for Meaning in Education Today"; (2) "Neglecting Children: Teaching Art from a Cart"; (3) "Tomorrow's…

  12. [Pharmacological studies of FUT-175, nafamstat mesilate. IV. Effects on coagulation, platelets and fibrinolysis].

    PubMed

    Koshiyama, Y; Ozeki, M; Motoyoshi, A; Fujita, M; Iwaki, M; Aoyama, T

    1984-11-01

    Inhibitory effects of FUT-175 (nafamstat mesilate) on coagulation, platelets and fibrinolysis were examined. FUT-175 prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and prothrombin time in rabbit plasma. FUT-175 prolonged these coagulation times in human plasma at lower concentration than in rabbit plasma. FUT-175 inhibited platelet aggregation induced by a variety of aggregation agents in rabbit platelet-rich plasma (PRP). In human PRP, FUT-175 inhibited platelet aggregation induced by a variety of aggregation agents at lower concentration than in rabbit PRP. Lipopolysaccharide induced a dose-dependent platelet aggregation in dog PRP. FUT-175 showed an inhibitory effect on this aggregation. FUT-175 inhibited clot retraction in rabbit plasma. The fibrinolysis activity was measured on fibrinolysis of rabbit plasma activated by urokinase. FUT-175 prolonged this fibrinolysis time. Inhibitory effects on coagulation and fibrinolysis were also found ex vivo. FUT-175 prolonged bleeding time in mice. These results indicate that FUT-175 has potent inhibitory effects on coagulation, platelets and fibrinolysis.

  13. Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment IV: simulated effects of scintillation on communications links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suite, Michele; Rabinovich, W. S.; Mahon, Rita; Moore, Christopher; Ferraro, Mike; Burris, H. R., Jr.; Thomas, L. M.

    2011-09-01

    Optical scintillation is an effect that limits the performance of many optical systems including imagers and free space optical communication links. The Naval Research Laboratory is undertaking a series of measurement campaigns of optical scintillation in a variety of environments. In December of 2010 measurements were made over a one week period in the desert at China Lake, CA. The NRL TATS system was used to measure time resolved scintillation over a variety of different ranges and terrains. This data has been used to determine fade rate and duration as a function of weather and link margin. Temporal correlation of fades has also been calculated. This data allows simulation of a variety of communication protocols and the effects of those protocols on link throughput. In this paper we present a comparison of different protocols for both direct and retroreflector links.

  14. The diffusion of radiation in moving media. IV. Flux vector, effective opacity, and expansion opacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrse, R.; Baschek, B.; von Waldenfels, W.

    2003-04-01

    For a given velocity and temperature field in a differentially moving 3D medium, the vector of the radiative flux is derived in the diffusion approximation. Due to the dependence of the velocity gradient on the direction, the associated effective opacity in general is a tensor. In the limit of small velocity gradients analytical expression are obtained which allow us to discuss the cases when the direction of the flux vector deviates from that of the temperature gradient. Furthermore the radiative flux is calculated for infinitely sharp, Poisson distributed spectral lines resulting in simple expressions that provide basic insight into the effect of the motions. In particular, it is shown how incomplete line lists affect the radiative flux as a function of the velocity gradient. Finally, the connection between our formalism and the concept of the expansion opacity introduced by Karp et al. (\\cite{karp}) is discussed.

  15. Factors affecting the microbial and chemical composition of silage. IV. Effect of wilting on maize silage.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, S A; Abdel-Hafez, A; Zaki, M M; Saleh, E A

    1979-01-01

    The effect of wilting on the microbial and chemical composition of ensiled maize plants was studied. Wilting stimulated high densities of lactic acid bacteria, with the decrease in counts of undesirable flora, i.e., yeasts, moulds, proteolytic and saccharolytic anaerobes, causing spoilage of silage. Moreover, wilting decreased the losses of dry matter, total acidity, and butyric acid content of silage. Accordingly, wilting proved to be a favourable treatment for the production of good quality silage from maize plants.

  16. Dissolution of cerium(IV)-lanthanide(III) oxides: Comparative effect of chemical composition, temperature, and acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Horlait, D.; Clavier, N.; Szenknect, S.; Dacheux, N.; Dubois, V.

    2012-03-15

    The dissolution of Ce{sub 1-x}Ln{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} solid solutions was undertaken in various acid media in order to evaluate the effects of several physicochemical parameters such as chemical composition, temperature, and acidity on the reaction kinetics. The normalized dissolution rates (R{sub L,0}) were found to be strongly modified by the trivalent lanthanide incorporation rate, due to the presence of oxygen vacancies decreasing the samples cohesion. Conversely, the nature of the trivalent cation considered only weakly impacted the R{sub L,0} values. The dependence of the normalized dissolution rates on the temperature then appeared to be of the same order of magnitude than that of chemical composition. Moreover, it allowed determining the corresponding activation energy (E{sub A} ≅ 60-85 kJ.mol{sup -1}) which accounts for a dissolution driven by surface-controlled reactions. A similar conclusion was made regarding the acidity of the solution: the partial order related to (H{sub 3}O{sup +}) reaching about 0.7. Finally, the prevailing effect of the incorporation of aliovalent cations in the fluorite-type CeO{sub 2} matrix on the dissolution kinetics precluded the observation of slight effects such as those linked to the complexing agents or to the crystal structure of the samples. (authors)

  17. Effect of a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitor, Des-Fluoro-Sitagliptin, on Neointimal Formation after Balloon Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Shin, Hayley; Cho, Bong Jun; Park, Ho Seon; Ahn, Byung Yong; Kang, Seon Mee; Yoon, Ji Won; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Young-Bum; Park, Kyong Soo

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, it has been suggested that enhancement of incretin effect improves cardiac function. We investigated the effect of a DPP-IV inhibitor, des-fluoro-sitagliptin, in reducing occurrence of restenosis in carotid artery in response to balloon injury and the related mechanisms. Methods and Findings Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were grouped into four: control (normal saline) and sitagliptin 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg per day (n = 10 per group). Sitagliptin or normal saline were given orally from 1 week before to 2 weeks after carotid injury. After 3 weeks of treatment, sitagliptin treatment caused a significant and dose-dependent reduction in intima-media ratio (IMR) in obese diabetic rats. This effect was accompanied by improved glucose homeostasis, decreased circulating levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and increased adiponectin level. Moreover, decreased IMR was correlated significantly with reduced hsCRP, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity. In vitro evidence with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) demonstrated that proliferation and migration were decreased significantly after sitagliptin treatment. In addition, sitagliptin increased caspase-3 activity and decreased monocyte adhesion and NFκB activation in VSMCs. Conclusions Sitagliptin has protective properties against restenosis after carotid injury and therapeutic implications for treating macrovascular complications of diabetes. PMID:22493727

  18. Using estimated factor scores from a bifactor analysis to examine the unique effects of the latent variables measured by the WAIS-IV on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kranzler, John H; Benson, Nicholas; Floyd, Randy G

    2015-12-01

    This study used estimated factor scores from a bifactor analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) to examine the unique effects of its latent variables on academic achievement. In doing so, we addressed the potential limitation of multicollinearity in previous studies of the incremental validity of the WAIS-IV. First, factor scores representing psychometric g and 4 group factors representing the WAIS-IV index scales were computed from a bifactor model. Subtest and composite scores for the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-II) were then predicted from these estimated factor scores in simultaneous multiple regression. Results of this study only partially replicated the findings of previous research on the incremental validity of scores that can be derived from performance on the WAIS-IV. Although we found that psychometric g is the most important underlying construct measured by the WAIS-IV for the prediction of academic achievement in general, results indicated that the unique effect of Verbal Comprehension is also important for predicting achievement in reading, spelling, and oral communication skills. Based on these results, measures of both psychometric g and Verbal Comprehension could be cautiously interpreted when considering high school students' performance in these areas of achievement. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A Model for Assessing Institutional Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the author proposes a model for assessing institutional effectiveness. The Volkwein model for assessing institutional effectiveness consists of five parts that summarize the steps for assessing institutions, programs, faculty, and students. The first step in the model distinguishes the dual purposes of institutional effectiveness:…

  20. IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. IV. THE EFFECT OF COSMIC RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, P. B.; Helling, Ch.

    2013-09-10

    Cosmic rays provide an important source for free electrons in Earth's atmosphere and also in dense interstellar regions where they produce a prevailing background ionization. We utilize a Monte Carlo cosmic ray transport model for particle energies of 10{sup 6} eV effective temperature T{sub eff} = 1500 K, and two example giant gas planets (T{sub eff} = 1000 K, 1500 K). For the model brown dwarf atmosphere, the electron fraction is enhanced significantly by cosmic rays when the pressure p{sub gas} < 10{sup -2} bar. Our example giant gas planet atmosphere suggests that the cosmic ray enhancement extends to 10{sup -4}-10{sup -2} bar, depending on the effective temperature. For the model atmosphere of the example giant gas planet considered here (T{sub eff} = 1000 K), cosmic rays bring the degree of ionization to f{sub e} {approx}> 10{sup -8} when p{sub gas} < 10{sup -8} bar, suggesting that this part of the atmosphere may behave as a weakly ionized plasma. Although cosmic rays enhance the degree of ionization by over three orders of magnitude in the upper atmosphere, the effect is not likely to be significant enough for sustained coupling of the magnetic field to the gas.

  1. Different ortho and para electronic effects on hydrolysis and cytotoxicity of diamino bis(phenolato) "salan" Ti(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Peri, Dani; Meker, Sigalit; Manna, Cesar M; Tshuva, Edit Y

    2011-02-07

    Bis(isopropoxo) Ti(IV) complexes of diamino bis(phenolato) "salan" ligands were prepared, their hydrolysis in 1:9 water/THF solutions was investigated, and their cytotoxicity toward colon HT-29 and ovarian OVCAR-1 cells was measured. In particular, electronic effects at positions ortho and para to the binding phenolato unit were analyzed. We found that para substituents of different electronic features, including Me, Cl, OMe, and NO(2), have very little influence on hydrolysis rate, and all para-substituted ortho-H complexes hydrolyze slowly to give O-bridged clusters with a t(1/2) of 1-2 h for isopropoxo release. Consequently, no clear cytotoxicity pattern is observed as well, where the largest influence of para substituents appears to be of a steric nature. These complexes exhibit IC(50) values of 2-18 μM toward the cells analyzed, with activity which is mostly higher than those of Cp(2)TiCl(2), (bzac)(2)Ti(OiPr)(2) and cisplatin. On the contrary, major electronic effects are observed for substituents at the ortho position, with an influence that exceeds even that of steric hindrance. Ortho-chloro or -bromo substituted compounds possess extremely high hydrolytic stability where no major isopropoxo release as isopropanol occurs for days. In accordance, very high cytotoxicity toward colon and ovarian cells is observed for ortho-Cl and -Br complexes, with IC(50) values of 1-8 μM, where the most cytotoxic complexes are the ortho-Cl-para-Me and ortho-Br-para-Me derivatives. In this series of ortho-substituted complexes, the halogen radius is of lesser influence both on hydrolysis and on cytotoxicity, while OMe substituents do not impose similar effect of hydrolytic stability and cytotoxicity enhancement. Therefore, hydrolytic stability and cytotoxic activity are clearly intertwined, and thus this family of readily available Ti(IV) salan complexes exhibiting both features in an enhanced manner is highly attractive for further exploration.

  2. Bentonite modification with hexadecylpyridinium and aluminum polyoxy cations and its effectiveness in Se(IV) removal.

    PubMed

    Orucoglu, Esra; Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay

    2015-09-01

    Usage of bentonite as a buffer material is suggested in radioactive waste repositories. Although bentonites have higher sorption ability to cations, they cannot adsorp anions due to negative surface charge. Nowadays, ongoing researches focus on increasing anion adsorption ability of the bentonites with modification. Organic-pillared bentonite (OPBent) was produced by modification of sodium bentonite with aluminum polyoxy and hexadecylpyridinium cations in this study. Variation in structure after modification was demonstrated by using different characterization techniques. Se removal efficiency of OPBent is investigated by using (75)Se, since selenium (Se) is one of the important long lived fission products found in radioactive waste and has toxic anionic species in an aqueous environment. The effect of reaction time, solid/liquid ratio, pH and concentration on the adsorption performance were examined. Se speciation and its effect onto adsorption were also investigated by measuring Eh-pH values under certain experimental conditions. Additionally, importance of the amount of Al-polyoxy cations used in modification was investigated by comparing these results with the results of other organic-pillared bentonite produced in our previous research. Experimental results confirmed that both cations were successfully placed into the bentonite interlayer and significant change in the host structure leads to increase Se adsorption. Consequently, bentonite modification improves its Se adsorption ability and further investigations are needed related to the usage of this adsorbent in other remediation studies especially in sorption of other anionic pollutants.

  3. Effect of dibutyltin(IV) on the ultrastructure of African Trypanosoma spp.

    PubMed

    Shuaibu, M N; Kanbara, H; Yanagi, T; Ichinose, A; Ameh, D A; Bonire, J J; Nok, A J

    2004-01-01

    Diorganotins (R2SnX2) are compounds with a wide variety of biological properties. In an attempt to follow the morphological events and to characterize the toxic effects of diorganotins on in vitro cultured African Trypanosoma spp., the ultrastructural alterations induced on the parasites by dibutyltins (Bu2SnX2) were followed. The data obtained indicate that these compounds induced irreparable damage to the in vitro cultured bloodstream forms of the parasites. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy allowed observations on the perturbation of the kinetoplast, extensive cytoplasmic swellings, disconfiguration around the flagellar pocket and membrane disintegration. Fluorescence microscopy with 4,6-diamidine-2-phenylindole stain was also used to visualize the survival or degeneration of kDNA. Understanding the collateral cellular toxic effect of these compounds on the parasites may shed light on the possible mechanism by which they kill trypanosomes. Agarose gel electrophoresis resolution of isolated kDNAs revealed no fragmentation by these compounds following in vitro incubation at 37 degrees C. However, fragmentation was observed from the gel electrophoresis of kDNA isolated from in vitro cultured Bu2SnX2-exposed parasites. Transmission electron microscopy of the kDNAs revealed the same pattern as observed with gel electrophoresis. These results provide evidence for the possible involvement of the Bu2Sn moiety in the in vivo-induced fragmentation of trypanosomal kDNA and consequent trypanolysis. This observation also underlies the relevance of organometallics in the therapy of African trypanosomiasis.

  4. Behavioral effects of neuropeptide Y in F344 rat substrains with a reduced dipeptidyl-peptidase IV activity.

    PubMed

    Karl, Tim; Hoffmann, Torsten; Pabst, Reinhard; von Hörsten, Stephan

    2003-07-01

    Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26) is involved in several physiological functions by cleavage of dipeptides with a Xaa-Pro or Xaa-Ala sequence of regulatory peptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY). Cleavage of NPY by DPPIV results in NPY(3-36), which lacks affinity for the Y(1) but not for other NPY receptor subtypes. Among other effects, the NPY Y(1) receptor mediates anxiolytic-like effects of NPY. In previous studies with F344 rat substrains lacking endogenous DPPIV-like activity we found a reduced behavioral stress response, which might be due to a differential degradation of NPY. Here we tested this hypothesis and administered intracerebroventricularly two different doses of NPY (0.0, 0.2, 1.0 nmol) in mutant and wildtype-like F344 substrains. NPY dose-dependently stimulated food intake and feeding motivation, decreased motor activity in the plus maze and social interaction test, and exerted anxiolytic-like effects. More important for the present hypothesis, NPY administration was found to be more potent in the DPPIV-negative substrains in exerting anxiolytic-like effects (increased social interaction time in the social interaction test) and sedative-like effects (decreased motor activity in the elevated plus maze). These data demonstrate for the first time a differential potency of NPY in DPPIV-deficient rats and suggest a changed receptor-specificity of NPY, which may result from a differential degradation of NPY in this genetic model of DPPIV deficiency. Overall, these results provide direct evidence that NPY-mediated effects in the central nervous system are modulated by DPPIV-like enzymatic activity.

  5. Ab initio relativistic effective potentials with spin--orbit operators. IV. Cs through Rn

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, R.B.; Powers, J.M.; Atashroo, T.; Ermler, W.C. ); LaJohn, L.A.; Christiansen, P.A. )

    1990-11-01

    {ital Ab} {ital initio} averaged relativistic effective core potentials (AREP) and spin--orbit (SO) operators are reported for the elements Cs through Rn. Two sets have been calculated for certain elements to provide AREPs with varying core/valence space definitions thereby permitting the treatment of core--valence correlation interactions. The AREPs and SO operators are tabulated as expansions in Gaussian-type functions (GTF). GTF valence basis sets for the lowest energy state of each atom are tabulated. The reliability of the AREPs and SO operators is gauged by comparing calculated atomic excitation energies and SO splitting energies with all-electron relativistic values. Calculated atomic excitation energies are found to agree to 0.12 eV and SO energies to 3.4%.

  6. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, Hawaii, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa. The NCCR IV presents four main types of data: (1) coastal monitoring data, (2) coastal ocean/ offshore monitoring data, (3) offshore fisheries data, and (4) assessment and advisory data (new to NCCR IV). The NCCR IV relies heavily on coastal monitoring data from EPA’s National Coastal Assessment (NCA) to assess coastal condition by evaluating five indicators of condition—water quality, sediment quality, benthic community condition, coastal habitat loss, and fish tissue contaminants. To assess and report on the condition of the nation's coastal resources

  7. Ameliorative effect of vanadyl(IV)-ascorbate complex on high-fat high-sucrose diet-induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Xu, Jie; Guo, Yongli; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2015-10-01

    There is mounting evidence demonstrating causative links between hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance, the core pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using a combinational approach, we synthesized a vanadium-antioxidant (i.e., l-ascorbic acid) complex and examined its effect on insulin resistance and oxidative stress. This study was designed to examine whether vanadyl(IV)-ascorbate complex (VOAsc) would reduce oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance in high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFSD)-induced type 2 diabetes in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFSD for 12 weeks to induce insulin resistance, rendering them diabetic. Diabetic mice were treated with rosiglitazone, sodium l-ascorbate, or VOAsc. At the end of treatment, fasting blood glucose, fasting serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index, and serum adipocytokine levels were measured. Serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) parameters were also determined. The liver was isolated and used for determination of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, and catalase levels, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. VOAsc groups exhibited significant reductions in serum adipocytokine and NO levels, and oxidative stress parameters compared to the corresponding values in the untreated diabetic mice. The results indicated that VOAsc is non-toxic. In conclusion, we identified VOAsc as a potentially effective adjunct therapy for the management of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part IV. Beneficial effects.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-02

    Pantoea agglomerans, a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others) which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. Japanese researchers have demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide of P. agglomerans isolated by them and described as 'Immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1)' reveals the extremely wide spectrum of healing properties, mainly due to its ability for the maintenance of homeostasis by macrophage activation. IP-PA1 was proved to be effective in the prevention and treatment of a broad range of human and animal disorders, such as tumours, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ulcer, various infectious diseases, atopic allergy and stress-induced immunosuppression; it also showed a strong analgesic effect. It is important that most of these effects could be achieved by the safe oral administration of IP-PA1. Taking into account that P. agglomerans occurs commonly as a symbiont of many species of insects, including mosquitoes transmitting the Plasmodium parasites causing malaria, successful attempts were made to apply the strategy of paratransgenesis, in which bacterial symbionts are genetically engineered to express and secrete anti-Plasmodium effector proteins. This strategy shows prospects for a successful eradication of malaria, a deadly disease killing annually over one million people, as well as of other vector-borne diseases of humans, animals and plants. Pantoea agglomerans has been identified as an antagonist of many plant pathogens belonging to bacteria and fungi, as a result of antibiotic production, competition mechanisms or induction of plant resistance. Its use as

  9. Effects of implant neck design on primary stability and overload in a type IV mandibular bone.

    PubMed

    Chou, I-Chiang; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Jiang, Cho-Pei

    2014-11-01

    This study investigates the effect of implant neck design on primary stability and overload using 3D finite element analysis. Four commercial dental implants and mandibular segments are created. Various parameters including the osseointegration condition (non-osseointegration and full osseointegration), force direction (vertical and horizontal), and cortical bone thickness (Tc = 0.3, 0.5, and 1 mm) are considered. The vertical and horizontal forces, 500 N and 250 N, are statically applied at the top of the platform, respectively. Micromotion and von Mises stress are employed to evaluate the risk of osseointegration and bone fatigue before osseointegration condition. After osseointegration, the principal stress is used to analyze the bone overload. Maximal von Mises stress and micromotion of the peri-implant bone decreased as cortical bone thickness increased. Horizontal force induces stress concentration in the bone around the implant neck easier than that of vertical force, and it may result in crestal bone loss. Thinner cortical bone should avoid dental implantation because it causes a noteworthy larger micromotion and stress concentration in cortical bone in particular Tc less than 0.3 mm. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The structure of radiative shock waves. IV. Effects of electron thermal conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeyev, Yu. A.; Le Coroller, H.; Gillet, D.

    2002-09-01

    We consider the structure of steady-state radiative shock waves propagating in partially ionized hydrogen gas with density rho1 = 10-10 gm cm-3 and temperature 3000 Kle T1<=8000 K. The radiative shock wave models with electron thermal conduction in the vicinity of the viscous jump are compared with pure radiative models. The threshold shock wave velocity above which effects of electron thermal conduction become perceptible is found to be U1*~ 70 km s-1 and corresponds to the upstream Mach numbers from M1~ 6 at T1=8000 K to M1~ 11 at T1=3000 K. In shocks with efficient electron heat conduction more than a half of the hydrogen atoms are ionized in the radiative precursor, whereas behind the viscous jump the hydrogen gas undergoes the full ionization. The existence of the electron heat conduction precursor leads to the enhancement of the Lyman continuum flux trapped in the surroundings of the discontinuous jump. As a result, the partially ionized hydrogen gas of the radiative precursor undergoes an additional ionization (deltaxH <~ 5%), whereas the total radiave flux emerging from the shock wave increases by 10%le delta (FR) <=25% for 70 km s-1le U1 <=85 km s-1.

  11. Kinetics of dissolution of calcium hydroxyapatite. IV. The effect of some biologically important inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, Jørgen; Christoffersen, Margaret R.

    1981-05-01

    A model describing the kinetics of dissolution of calcium hydroxyapatite, Ca 10(PO 4) 6(OH) 2, microcrystals in aqueous solution is presented. In this model the rate-controlling step is formation of dissolution nuclei, the lateral growth rate of which depends on the concentration of hydrogen ions. This dependence on hydrogen ion concentration is explained by hydrogen ion catalysis of the exchange of phosphate between the crystal surface and the solution. According to this model, the rate of dissolution should be practically zero when the size of a critical dissolution nucleus is comparable to the ratio of the surface area to the number of inhibitor units adsorbed to the crystal surface. A simple model for Langmuir adsorption of inhibitors onto crystals, taking into account the protolytic forms of the inhibitor in the solution and on the crystal surface is presented. The effects of pyrophosphoric acid, 1-hydroxy-ethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid, methylene diphosphonic acid, 3-phosphoglyceric acid, 3-phosphoserine, 3-amino-1,1,3-propanetricarboxylic acid (γ-carboxyglutamic acid) and phosphoethanolamine on the rate of dissolution of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in aqueous syspension at pH = 6.8 and pH = 7.2 have been studied.

  12. The structure of a separating turbulent boundary layer. IV - Effects of periodic free-stream unsteadiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. L.; Shivaprasad, B. G.; Chew, Y.-T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements were obtained of the sinusoidal unsteadiness of the free stream velocity during the separation of the turbulent boundary layer. Data were gathered by single wire and cross-wire, anemometry upstream of flow detachment, by laser Doppler velocimetry to detect the movement of the flow in small increments, and by a laser anemometer in the detached zone to measure turbulence and velocities. The study was restricted to a sinusoidal instability frequency of 0.61 and a ratio of oscillation amplitude to mean velocity of 0.3. Large amplitude and phase variations were found after the detachment, with unsteady effects producing hysteresis in the relationships between flow parameters. The detached shear layer decreased in thickness with increasing free-stream velocity and increases in the Reynolds shear stress. Deceleration of the free stream velocity caused thickening in the shear layer and upstream movement of the flow reversal location. The results are useful for studies of compressor blade and helicopter rotors in transition.

  13. Potential immunotoxic effects of trichloroethylene-induced IV allergic reaction in renal impairment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jun-Feng; Feng, Yan-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is known to induce allergic contact dermatitis and subsequent occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis (OMLD) with multi-system injuries, including liver, kidney, and skin injuries. However, the mechanisms underlying immune system dysfunction that result in organ injury have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we measured the levels of secreted cytokines by effect or T cells in TCE-treated guinea pigs to better understand the contribution of allergic disorders in renal injuries. We immunized guinea pigs with trichloroethylene using the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and scored the inflammation on the guinea pigs’ skin. The kidney function and ultra-structural changes in the kidneys were detected using biochemical methods and electron microscopy. The deposition of cytokines was determined using immunohistochemistry. The sensitization rate was 63.16% in the TCE-sensitized groups. The electron microscopy results showed tubular epithelial cell mitochondrial swelling, vacuolar degeneration, and atrophy of the microvillus in the sensitized groups. A high degree of cytokine deposition was observed in the renal tubular proximal epithelial cells in the TCE-sensitized groups. As observed in this study, the variation in the level of immune system activation not only indicates that TCE can largely magnify the immune reaction but also suggests a potential role of immune dysfunction in renal impairment. PMID:28867961

  14. Assessment of the Predictive Value of the Modified Frailty Index for Clavien-Dindo Grade IV Critical Care Complications in Major Head and Neck Cancer Operations.

    PubMed

    Abt, Nicholas B; Richmon, Jeremy D; Koch, Wayne M; Eisele, David W; Agrawal, Nishant

    2016-07-01

    Functional status and physiologic deficits independent of age are being recognized for surgical risk stratification. Frailty is expressed as a combination of decreased physiologic reserve and multisystem impairments distinct from normal aging processes. To assess the predictive value of the Modified Frailty Index (mFI) for Clavien-Dindo grade IV (CDIV) (intensive care unit-level complications) and grade V (mortality) after major head and neck oncologic surgery. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data. All major head and neck cancer operations data were obtained from the January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2013, American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program databases. Fifteen variables composed a previously validated mFI, with higher mFIs identifying more frail patients. Clavien-Dindo grade IV and mortality were defined using a preexisting mapping scheme from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. The primary outcome measures were Clavien-Dindo Grade IV critical care complications and Grade V complications (mortality). Second outcomes included morbidity, readmission, and reoperation. There were 1193 major head and neck operations in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program databases, with 86 (7.2%) CDIV complications. The mean (SD) age of all patients was 63.4 (12.4) years, and 67.7% (807 of 1193) were male. Clavien-Dindo grade IV significantly increased from 4.6% (22 of 483) to 100% (1 of 1) from nonfrail to the frailest patients (R2 = 0.79, P < .001). Mortality increased with the mFI (but not significantly) from 0.8% (4 of 483) to 3.6% (2 of 55) (R2 = 0.46, P = .42). Overall morbidity was not significantly associated or correlated with the mFI. On cross tabulation, increases in the mFI led to more CDIV complications in patients undergoing

  15. Feasibility and effectiveness of the implementation of a primary prevention programme for type 2 diabetes in routine primary care practice: a phase IV cluster randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Silvestre, Carmen; Sauto, Regina; Martínez, Catalina; Grandes, Gonzalo

    2012-11-16

    The objective of this study is to perform an independent evaluation of the feasibility and effectiveness of an educational programme for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in high risk populations in primary care settings, implanted within the Basque Health Service - Osakidetza. This is a prospective phase IV cluster clinical trial conducted under routine conditions in 14 primary health care centres of Osakidetza, randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. We will recruit a total sample of 1089 individuals, aged between 45 and 70 years old, without diabetes but at high risk of developing the condition (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, FINDRISC ≥ 14) and follow them up for 2 years. Primary health care nursing teams of the intervention centres will implement DE-PLAN, a structured educational intervention program focused on changing healthy lifestyles (diet and physical activity); while the patients in the control centres will receive the usual care for the prevention and treatment of DM2 currently provided in Osakidetza. The effectiveness attributable to the programme will be assessed by comparing the changes observed in patients exposed to the intervention and those in the control group, with respect to the risk of developing DM2 and lifestyle habits. In terms of feasibility, we will assess indicators of population coverage and programme implementation. The aim of this study is to provide the scientific basis for disseminate the programme to the remaining primary health centres in Osakidetza, as a novel way of addressing prevention of DM2. The study design will enable us to gather information on the effectiveness of the intervention as well as the feasibility of implementing it in routine practice.

  16. Feasibility and effectiveness of the implementation of a primary prevention programme for type 2 diabetes in routine primary care practice: a phase IV cluster randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to perform an independent evaluation of the feasibility and effectiveness of an educational programme for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in high risk populations in primary care settings, implanted within the Basque Health Service - Osakidetza. Methods/design This is a prospective phase IV cluster clinical trial conducted under routine conditions in 14 primary health care centres of Osakidetza, randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. We will recruit a total sample of 1089 individuals, aged between 45 and 70 years old, without diabetes but at high risk of developing the condition (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, FINDRISC ≥ 14) and follow them up for 2 years. Primary health care nursing teams of the intervention centres will implement DE-PLAN, a structured educational intervention program focused on changing healthy lifestyles (diet and physical activity); while the patients in the control centres will receive the usual care for the prevention and treatment of DM2 currently provided in Osakidetza. The effectiveness attributable to the programme will be assessed by comparing the changes observed in patients exposed to the intervention and those in the control group, with respect to the risk of developing DM2 and lifestyle habits. In terms of feasibility, we will assess indicators of population coverage and programme implementation. Discussion The aim of this study is to provide the scientific basis for disseminate the programme to the remaining primary health centres in Osakidetza, as a novel way of addressing prevention of DM2. The study design will enable us to gather information on the effectiveness of the intervention as well as the feasibility of implementing it in routine practice. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01365013 PMID:23158830

  17. List effect in apraxia assessment.

    PubMed

    Cubelli, Roberto; Bartolo, Angela; Nichelli, Paolo; Della Sala, Sergio

    2006-10-23

    Imitation tests encompassing intermingled meaningful and meaningless items are normally used to assess ideomotor apraxia, implicitly assuming that they would test the lexical and the non-lexical route, respectively. However, these mixed lists might induce a "list composition" effect similar to that found in word recognition studies where familiar material can be processed via the non-lexical route. This hypothesis was put to test by examining praxis skills of 23 left-hemisphere damaged patients using the same gestures in two formats: pure and mixed lists (i.e., meaningless or meaningful gestures administered separately or intermingled, respectively). Results showed that patients performed better on the imitation task when pure lists were used. Moreover, asymmetries of performance were observed. Patient SL scored better in the imitation of meaningful gestures in the pure list than in the mixed list condition. Patient CA performed poorly in the imitation of meaningless gestures only in the mixed list condition. Dissociations observed in imitation tasks could be biased by the use of mixed lists. Also "pure" lists should be used for the diagnosis of imitation deficits in apraxia.

  18. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme IV: Developing Democratic and Nationalist Movements Have Had an Effect around the World. Student Worksheets. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The worksheets contained in this bulletin are designed for use in conjunction with the teaching strategies for Theme IV entitled, "Developing Democratic and Nationalist Movements Have Had an Effect Around the World." The worksheets correspond to specific strategies with accompanying questions on the appropriate strategy page. Included are…

  19. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme IV: Developing Democratic and Nationalist Movements Have Had an Effect around the World. Teacher Strategies. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Designed to assist teachers and supervisors in the implementation of the global history course, this bulletin presents learning activities which include the rationale, performance objectives, and teaching strategies related to Theme IV entitled, "Developing Democratic and Nationalist Movements Have Had an Effect around the World." There are four…

  20. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme IV: Developing Democratic and Nationalist Movements Have Had an Effect around the World. Student Worksheets. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The worksheets contained in this bulletin are designed for use in conjunction with the teaching strategies for Theme IV entitled, "Developing Democratic and Nationalist Movements Have Had an Effect Around the World." The worksheets correspond to specific strategies with accompanying questions on the appropriate strategy page. Included are…

  1. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme IV: Developing Democratic and Nationalist Movements Have Had an Effect around the World. Teacher Strategies. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Designed to assist teachers and supervisors in the implementation of the global history course, this bulletin presents learning activities which include the rationale, performance objectives, and teaching strategies related to Theme IV entitled, "Developing Democratic and Nationalist Movements Have Had an Effect around the World." There are four…

  2. HEaDS-UP Phase IV Assessment: Headgear Effects on Auditory Perception

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    amplification caused by the ear canal; therefore, with the microphones on the highest setting, the level under the EM at 110 dB (A) was 110 dB (A...the loudspeaker position. The values represent the attenuation measured from the right ear of the ATF relative to the bare-head condition. .........11...octave frequency band at 4 measurement angles. The schematic indicates the relative position of the loudspeaker with respect to the ATF ear and

  3. Assessing Organizational Effectiveness: Considerations and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakower, Jack Y.

    The dimensions of effectiveness pertinent to postsecondary institutions are discussed, along with approaches for assessing effectiveness. A paradigm of effectiveness is presented, based on six concerns: whose perspective is taken; assessment criteria, the referent for judging effectiveness, level and unit of analysis, time frame, and types and…

  4. A Proposal for a Dimensional Classification System Based on the Shared Features of the "DSM-IV" Anxiety and Mood Disorders: Implications for Assessment and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Timothy A.; Barlow, David H.

    2009-01-01

    A wealth of evidence attests to the extensive current and lifetime diagnostic comorbidity of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., "DSM-IV") anxiety and mood disorders. Research has shown that the considerable cross-sectional covariation of "DSM-IV" emotional disorders is accounted for by common higher order…

  5. A Proposal for a Dimensional Classification System Based on the Shared Features of the "DSM-IV" Anxiety and Mood Disorders: Implications for Assessment and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Timothy A.; Barlow, David H.

    2009-01-01

    A wealth of evidence attests to the extensive current and lifetime diagnostic comorbidity of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., "DSM-IV") anxiety and mood disorders. Research has shown that the considerable cross-sectional covariation of "DSM-IV" emotional disorders is accounted for by common higher order…

  6. Grand Theft Auto IV comes to Singapore: effects of repeated exposure to violent video games on aggression.

    PubMed

    Teng, Scott Kie Zin; Chong, Gabriel Yew Mun; Siew, Amy Sok Cheng; Skoric, Marko M

    2011-10-01

    Given the increasingly dominant role of video games in the mainstream entertainment industry, it is no surprise that the scholarly debate about their impact has been lively and well attended. Although >100 studies have been conducted to examine the impact of violent video games on aggression, no clear consensus has been reached, particularly in terms of their long-term impact on violent behavior and aggressive cognitions. This study employs a first-ever longitudinal laboratory-based experiment to examine longer-term effects of playing a violent video game. One hundred thirty-five participants were assigned either to the treatment condition where they played a violent video game in a controlled laboratory setting for a total of 12 hours or to the control group where they did not play a game. Participants in the treatment group played Grand Theft Auto IV over a period of 3 weeks and were compared with a control group on the posttest measures of trait aggression, attitudes toward violence, and empathy. The findings do not support the assertion that playing a violent video game for a period of 3 weeks increases aggression or reduces empathy, but they suggest a small increase in proviolence attitudes. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. Green Synthesis of Oxovanadium(IV)/chitosan Nanocomposites and Its Ameliorative Effect on Hyperglycemia, Insulin Resistance, and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Jie, Xu; Guo, Yongli; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the preparation, characterization, and ameliorative effect on high-fat high-sucrose diet-induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress in mice of novel oxovanadium(IV)/chitosan (OV/CS) nanocomposites were investigated. The nanobiocomposite was produced by chemical reduction by chitosan and L-ascorbic acid using microwave heating, under environment-friendly conditions, using aqueous solutions, and notably, by using both mediators as reducing and stabilizing agents. In addition, OV/CS nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle size, and zeta potential measurements. In vivo experiments were designed to examine whether the OV/CS nanocomposites would provide additional benefits on oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance in mice with type 2 diabetes. The results rendered insulin resistant by treating with OV/CS nanocomposites alleviate insulin resistance and improve oxidative stress. Such nanocomposite seem to be a valuable therapy to achieve and/or maintain glycemic control and therapeutic agents in the treatment arsenal for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  8. Technology and Effective Assessment Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, writing about technology (and more recently about its use in assessment systems) has been a joyful experience, in part because the author was usually right about how fast and how unexpected technology progress would be made. In this article, the author suggests to rethink assessment systems from design perspectives and the…

  9. Drug biokinetic and toxicity assessments in rat and human primary hepatocytes and HepaRG cells within the EU-funded Predict-IV project.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Stefan O; Guillouzo, André; Hewitt, Philip G; Richert, Lysiane

    2015-12-25

    The overall aim of Predict-IV (EU-funded collaborative project #202222) was to develop improved testing strategies for drug safety in the late discovery phase. One major focus was the prediction of hepatotoxicity as liver remains one of the major organ leading to failure in drug development, drug withdrawal and has a poor predictivity from animal experiments. In this overview we describe the use and applicability of the three cell models employed, i.e., primary rat hepatocytes, primary human hepatocytes and the human HepaRG cell line, using four model compounds, chlorpromazine, ibuprofen, cyclosporine A and amiodarone. This overview described the data generated on mode of action of liver toxicity after long-term repeat-dosing. Moreover we have quantified parent compound and its distribution in various in vitro compartments, which allowed us to develop biokinetic models where we could derive real exposure concentrations in vitro. In conclusion, the complex data set enables quantitative measurements that proved the concept that we can define human relevant free and toxic exposure levels in vitro. Further compounds have to be analyzed in a broader concentration range to fully exploit these promising results for improved prediction of hepatotoxicity and hazard assessment for humans.

  10. Assessing preference and reinforcer effectiveness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Vicars, Sara M; Miguel, Caio F; Sobie, Jennifer L

    2014-03-01

    The paired-stimulus (PS) preference assessment has been shown to be effective in assessing preference with animal subjects, including dogs; however, evaluations on whether preferred stimuli would also function as reinforcers are lacking. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the use of the PS preference assessment as a predictor of reinforcer effectiveness in eight dogs. The assessment was followed by concurrent and progressive ratio schedules to evaluate the reinforcer efficacy of food items. Results showed that the preference assessment predicted reinforcer efficacy for all subjects. Benefits of using this assessment with dogs are discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Diagnostic Instability of "DSM-IV" ADHD Subtypes: Effects of Informant Source, Instrumentation, and Methods for Combining Symptom Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valo, Shana; Tannock, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 123 children (aged 6-12 years) referred consecutively to a pediatric neuropsychiatry clinic by community physicians for assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and related problems, we investigated the effects of informant (parent, teacher), tool (interview, rating scale), and method for combining symptom…

  12. Cost effectiveness of adding clostridial collagenase ointment to selective debridement in individuals with stage IV pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Carter, Marissa J; Gilligan, Adrienne M; Waycaster, Curtis R; Schaum, Kathleen; Fife, Caroline E

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cost effectiveness (from a payer's perspective) of adding clostridial collagenase ointment (CCO) to selective debridement compared with selective debridement alone (non-CCO) in the treatment of stage IV pressure ulcers among patients identified from the US Wound Registry. A 3-state Markov model was developed to determine costs and outcomes between the CCO and non-CCO groups over a 2-year time horizon. Outcome data were derived from a retrospective clinical study and included the proportion of pressure ulcers that were closed (epithelialized) over 2 years and the time to wound closure. Transition probabilities for the Markov states were estimated from the clinical study. In the Markov model, the clinical outcome is presented as ulcer-free weeks, which represents the time the wound is in the epithelialized state. Costs for each 4-week cycle were based on frequencies of clinic visits, debridement, and CCO application rates from the clinical study. The final model outputs were cumulative costs (in US dollars), clinical outcome (ulcer-free weeks), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) at 2 years. Compared with the non-CCO group, the CCO group incurred lower costs ($11,151 vs $17,596) and greater benefits (33.9 vs 16.8 ulcer-free weeks), resulting in an economically dominant ICER of -$375 per ulcer. Thus, for each additional ulcer-free week that can be gained, there is a concurrent cost savings of $375 if CCO treatment is selected. Over a 2-year period, an additional 17.2 ulcer-free weeks can be gained with concurrent cost savings of $6,445 for each patient. In this Markov model based on real-world data from the US Wound Registry, the addition of CCO to selective debridement in the treatment of pressure ulcers was economically dominant over selective debridement alone, resulting in greater benefit to the patient at lower cost.

  13. Stormwater BMP Effectiveness Assessment Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA has identified stormwater BMP effectiveness as a priority research need. Effective protection of biotic integrity requires that processes maintaining the diversity of physical habitats be protected. Methods are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of existing Stormwater ...

  14. Stormwater BMP Effectiveness Assessment Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA has identified stormwater BMP effectiveness as a priority research need. Effective protection of biotic integrity requires that processes maintaining the diversity of physical habitats be protected. Methods are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of existing Stormwater ...

  15. Characterization of Caramel Colour IV.

    PubMed

    Licht, B H; Shaw, K; Smith, C; Mendoza, M; Orr, J; Myers, D V

    1992-05-01

    A large number of commercial Caramel Colour IV samples were characterized in order to assess the uniformity of the class and to provide data to be used in specifications development. Owing to the chemical and physical complexity of caramel colour it was not feasible to perform detailed analysis of all constituents for assessment of uniformity. Instead, selected parameters were evaluated and judgements were made with respect to compositional uniformity based on the similarities of these parameters among the various samples. As Caramel Colour IV is required by the food industry in a range of colour intensities, there must be a range of properties that differ from sample to sample, but that are sufficiently similar for the material to still be considered as part of the Caramel Colour IV class. Fractions as well as whole caramel were analysed using selected spectrophotometric, chromatographic and chemical techniques. Samples were fractionated based on molecular weight and polarity. The data presented here provide evidence for the uniformity in composition of Caramel Colour IV with respect to molecular weight distribution, to nitrogen and sulphur content and their distribution throughout the fractions, to absorbance properties and to specific low molecular weight compounds. Thus, it can be concluded that Caramel Colour IV exhibits compositional uniformity within the range of colour intensity required by the food industry worldwide.

  16. Sorption of selenium(IV) and selenium(VI) to mackinawite (FeS): effect of contact time, extent of removal, sorption envelopes.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong Suk; Batchelor, Bill; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed

    2011-02-15

    Higher concentrations (127, 253 μM) of Se(IV) at pH 8 were completely removed by 0.5 g/L FeS within 120 min. Removal of Se(VI) by FeS at pH 8 was less extensive than removal of Se(IV). Only 10% of the Se(VI) was removed by 1 g/L FeS within 1h. Removal patterns for Se by FeS depend on pH. Removal patterns of Se at pH 7 and pH 8 were best described by BET models for Se(IV) and Freundlich models for Se(VI), while removal patterns of both at pH 9 and 10 were best described by Langmuir models. Sulfate at 1 and 10 mM had negligible effect on removal of Se(IV) by FeS, while sulfate had little effect on removal of Se(VI) by FeS, but there was some indication that sulfate promoted removal of Se(VI) at intermediate concentrations. The test for the effect of pH on sorption of Se(IV) by FeS showed nearly complete removal at all but the high initial pH. When pH was raised back to initial value, greater removals were observed than initially. Mixtures of Se(VI) and FeS showed moderate removal at low pH, a minimum removal near pH 6 and nearly complete removal at high pH. Very high stability was observed with negligible release as pH decreased.

  17. Investigation on the coprecipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents. Study of the effects of waste components on decontamination from Np(IV) and Pu(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Bessonov, A.A.; Budantseva, N.A.; Gelis, A.V.; Nikonov, M.V.; Shilov, V.P.

    1997-09-01

    The third stage of the study on the homogeneous coprecipitation of neptunium and plutonium from alkaline high-level radioactive waste solutions by the Method of Appearing Reagents has been completed. Alkaline radioactive wastes exist at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The recent studies investigated the effects of neptunium chemical reductants, plutonium(IV) concentration, and the presence of bulk tank waste solution components on the decontamination from tetravalent neptunium and plutonium achieved by homogeneous coprecipitation. Data on neptunium reduction to its tetravalent state in alkaline solution of different NaOH concentrations are given. Eleven reductants were tested to find those most suited to remove neptunium, through chemical reduction, from alkaline solution by homogeneous coprecipitation. Hydrazine, VOSO{sub 4}, and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4} were found to be the most effective reductants. The rates of reduction with these reductants were comparable with the kinetics of carrier formation. Solution decontamination factors of about 400 were attained for 10{sup -6}M neptunium. Coprecipitation of plutonium(IV) with carriers obtained as products of thermal hydrolysis, redox transformations, and catalytic decomposition of [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+}, [Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]{sup 2-}, Cr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, KMnO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 4}UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2}){sub 3} was studied and results are described. Under optimum conditions, a 100-fold decrease of plutonium concentration was possible with each of these reagents.

  18. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit; Bond, Alan

    2013-11-15

    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systematic evaluation of practice. The criteria can be mapped within a cycle/or cycles of evaluation, based on the ‘logic model’, at the stages of input, process, output and outcome to enable the identification of connections between the criteria across the categories of effectiveness. This framework is considered to have potential application in measuring the effectiveness of many impact assessment processes, including strategic environmental assessment (SEA), environmental impact assessment (EIA), social impact assessment (SIA) and health impact assessment (HIA). -- Highlights: • Conceptualising effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Identification of factors influencing effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Development of criteria within a framework for evaluating IA effectiveness. • Applying the logic model to examine connections between effectiveness criteria.

  19. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  20. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  1. Effect of pH and uranium concentration on interaction of uranium(VI) and uranium(IV) with organic ligands in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.C.; Victor, D.M.; Chakrabarti, C.L.

    1980-03-01

    The effect of pH and uranium concentration on the interactions of uranium(VI) and uranium(IV) with organic ligands was studied by employing dialysis and ultrafiltration techniques. The interactions of U(VI) and U(IV) with organic ligands in nitrate or chloride aqueous solution have been found to be pH-dependent. The stability constants of uranium-organic complexes decrease in the order: fulvic acid>humic acid>tannic acid for U(VI) and humic acid>tannic acid>fulvic acid for U(IV). Scatchard plots for the uranium-organic acid systems indicate two types of binding sites with a difference in stability constants of about 10/sup 2/. Ultrafiltration of uranium-humic acid complexes indicates that U(VI) and U(IV) ions are concentrated in larger molecular size fractions (>5.1 nm) at pH less than or equal to 3 and in smaller molecular size fractions (in the range 5.1 to 3.1 nm and 2.4 to 1.9 nm) at pH greater than or equal to 5. 7 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  3. Evaluation and Comparison of the Inhibition Effect of Astragaloside IV and Aglycone Cycloastragenol on Various UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Ran, Ruixue; Zhang, Chunze; Li, Rongshan; Chen, Bowei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Zhenying; Fu, Zhiwei; Du, Zuo; Du, Xiaolang; Yang, Xiaolong; Fang, Zhongze

    2016-11-29

    As one of the main active ingredients from Radix Astragali (RA), orally dosed astragaloside IV (AST) is easily transformed to sapogenin-cycloastragenol (CAG) by deglycosylation in the gastrointestinal tract. Because the potential adverse effects of AST and CAG remain unclear, the present study in this article was carried out to investigate the inhibition effects of AST and CAG on UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) to explore potential clinical toxicity. An in vitro UGTs incubation mixture was employed to study the inhibition of AST and CAG towards UGT isoforms. Concentrations of 100 μM for each compound were used to initially screen the inhibitory efficiency. Deglycosylation of AST to CAG could strongly increase the inhibitory effects towards almost all of the tested UGT isoforms, with an IC50 of 0.84 μM and 11.28 μM for UGT1A8 and UGT2B7, respectively. Ulteriorly, the inhibition type and kinetics of CAG towards UGT1A8 and UGT2B7 were evaluated depending on the initial screening results. Data fitting using Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plots demonstrated that CAG competitively inhibited UGT1A8 and noncompetitively inhibited UGT2B7. From the second plot drawn with the slopes from the Lineweaver-Burk plot versus the concentrations of CAG, the inhibition constant (Ki) was calculated to be 0.034 μM and 20.98 μM for the inhibition of UGT1A8 and UGT2B7, respectively. Based on the [I]/Ki standard ([I]/Ki < 0.1, low possibility; 1 > [I]/Ki > 0.1, medium possibility; [I]/Ki > 1, high possibility), it was successfully predicted here that an in vivo herb-drug interaction between AST/CAG and drugs mainly undergoing UGT1A8- or UGT2B7-catalyzed metabolism might occur when the plasma concentration of CAG is above 0.034 μM and 20.98 μM, respectively.

  4. Developmental Trajectories of DSM-IV Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Genetic Effects, Family Risk and Associated Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Henrik; Dilshad, Rezin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Barker, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: DSM-IV specifies three ADHD subtypes; the combined, the hyperactive-impulsive and the inattentive. Little is known about the developmental relationships underlying these subtypes. The objective of this study was to describe the development of parent-reported hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptoms from childhood to…

  5. Interaction of a Monoclonal Antibody to Glycoprotein IV (CD36) with Human Platelets and its Effect on Platelet Function.

    PubMed

    Legrand, C; Pidard, D; Beiso, P; Tenza, D; Edelman, L

    1991-01-01

    FA6-152, a monoclonal antibody to platelet membrane glycoprotein IV (CP IV), was used to quantify the expression of this glycoprotein on platelets, as well as to evaluate its role in platelet aggregation. On resting platelets, 19 400 ± 7700 molecules of the (125)I-labelled IgC could bind per platelet (n = 20). Binding was not modified following stimulation of the platelets with ADP (10 µmol/l) or thrombin (0.1 U/ml). Fab fragments prepared from the antibody by papain digestion also bound to the platelet surface in a saturable manner. Both the intact IgC and its Fab fragments were found to inhibit platelet aggregation and secretion induced by ADP or collagen in platelet-rich plasma and by thrombin in platelet suspensions. Under nonstirred conditions, whereby the release reaction was only minimally affected, the antibody markedly inhibited thrombin-induced surface expression of α-granule thrombospondin (TSP), whereas it did not alter the concomitant expression of α-granule fibrinogen. In addition, electron microscopy revealed a predominant distribution of TSP and T;P IV on pseudopodia and between adherent cells on thrombin-stimulated platelets. These findings thus support the hypothesis that the interaction of TSP with GP IV on the platelet surface is required for an optimal platelet aggregation/secretion process to occur.

  6. Developmental Trajectories of DSM-IV Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Genetic Effects, Family Risk and Associated Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Henrik; Dilshad, Rezin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Barker, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: DSM-IV specifies three ADHD subtypes; the combined, the hyperactive-impulsive and the inattentive. Little is known about the developmental relationships underlying these subtypes. The objective of this study was to describe the development of parent-reported hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptoms from childhood to…

  7. Assessment of humeral length in dogs after repair of Salter-Harris type IV fracture of the lateral part of the humeral condyle.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Jean-Benoit G N G; Robertson, Thomas R A; Baines, Stephen J; Jeffery, Nicholas D; Langley-Hobbs, Sorrel J

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of fracture and subsequent repair on future bone growth of the humerus after Salter-Harris type IV fracture of the lateral part of the humeral condyle (LPHC). Prospective study. Dogs (n=11). Dogs that had LPHC fracture and an open distal humeral physis repaired (1992-2006) were re-examined and radiographed at >or=12 months of age and humeral length was measured. Measurements from 11 dogs showed a significant (P=.02) increase in length of the humeral diaphysis of the affected leg compared with that of the intact limb (median, 1.2%; range, 1.3-3.4%). Condylar deformity secondary to growth disturbance was not observed. Shortening or growth deformity was not observed after fracture and repair even if a transcondylar screw was placed through the distal humeral growth plate. A mild overgrowth of the humeral diaphysis was observed, although likely considered clinically unimportant. Fracture of the LPHC and subsequent repair in dogs >3 months of age do not impair growth of the humeral diaphysis. A transcondylar humeral screw placed through the humeral physis will not result in shortening of the humeral diaphysis. Implant removal to allow for further growth is therefore not indicated.

  8. Assessment of a model for achieving competency in administration and scoring of the WAIS-IV in post-graduate psychology students

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rachel M.; Davis, Melissa C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for an evidence-based approach to training professional psychologists in the administration and scoring of standardized tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) due to substantial evidence that these tasks are associated with numerous errors that have the potential to significantly impact clients’ lives. Twenty three post-graduate psychology students underwent training in using the WAIS-IV according to a best-practice teaching model that involved didactic teaching, independent study of the test manual, and in-class practice with teacher supervision and feedback. Video recordings and test protocols from a role-played test administration were analyzed for errors according to a comprehensive checklist with self, peer, and faculty member reviews. 91.3% of students were rated as having demonstrated competency in administration and scoring. All students were found to make errors, with substantially more errors being detected by the faculty member than by self or peers. Across all subtests, the most frequent errors related to failure to deliver standardized instructions verbatim from the manual. The failure of peer and self-reviews to detect the majority of the errors suggests that novice feedback (self or peers) may be ineffective to eliminate errors and the use of more senior peers may be preferable. It is suggested that involving senior trainees, recent graduates and/or experienced practitioners in the training of post-graduate students may have benefits for both parties, promoting a peer-learning and continuous professional development approach to the development and maintenance of skills in psychological assessment. PMID:26042071

  9. Assessment of a model for achieving competency in administration and scoring of the WAIS-IV in post-graduate psychology students.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rachel M; Davis, Melissa C

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for an evidence-based approach to training professional psychologists in the administration and scoring of standardized tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) due to substantial evidence that these tasks are associated with numerous errors that have the potential to significantly impact clients' lives. Twenty three post-graduate psychology students underwent training in using the WAIS-IV according to a best-practice teaching model that involved didactic teaching, independent study of the test manual, and in-class practice with teacher supervision and feedback. Video recordings and test protocols from a role-played test administration were analyzed for errors according to a comprehensive checklist with self, peer, and faculty member reviews. 91.3% of students were rated as having demonstrated competency in administration and scoring. All students were found to make errors, with substantially more errors being detected by the faculty member than by self or peers. Across all subtests, the most frequent errors related to failure to deliver standardized instructions verbatim from the manual. The failure of peer and self-reviews to detect the majority of the errors suggests that novice feedback (self or peers) may be ineffective to eliminate errors and the use of more senior peers may be preferable. It is suggested that involving senior trainees, recent graduates and/or experienced practitioners in the training of post-graduate students may have benefits for both parties, promoting a peer-learning and continuous professional development approach to the development and maintenance of skills in psychological assessment.

  10. Substrate-dependent H/D kinetic isotope effects and the role of the di(μ-oxo)diiron(IV) core in soluble methane monooxygenase: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Mai, Binh Khanh; Kim, Yongho

    2014-05-19

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) is an enzyme that converts alkanes to alcohols using a di(μ-oxo)diiron(IV) intermediate Q at the active site. Very large kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) indicative of significant tunneling are observed for the hydrogen transfer (H-transfer) of CH4 and CH3 CN; however, a relatively small KIE is observed for CH3NO2. The detailed mechanism of the enzymatic H-transfer responsible for the diverse range of KIEs is not yet fully understood. In this study, variational transition-state theory including the multidimensional tunneling approximation is used to calculate rate constants to predict KIEs based on the quantum-mechanically generated intrinsic reaction coordinates of the H-transfer by the di(μ-oxo)diiron(IV) complex. The results of our study reveal that the role of the di(μ-oxo)diiron(IV) core and the H-transfer mechanism are dependent on the substrate. For CH4 , substrate binding induces an electron transfer from the oxygen to one Fe(IV) center, which in turn makes the μ-O ligand more electrophilic and assists the H-transfer by abstracting an electron from the C-H σ orbital. For CH3CN, the reduction of Fe(IV) to Fe(III) occurs gradually with substrate binding and H-transfer. The charge density and electrophilicity of the μ-O ligand hardly change upon substrate binding; however, for CH3NO2, there seems to be no electron movement from μ-O to Fe(IV) during the H-transfer. Thus, the μ-O ligand appears to abstract a proton without an electron from the C-H σ orbital. The calculated KIEs for CH4, CH3CN, and CH3NO2 are 24.4, 49.0, and 8.27, respectively, at 293 K, in remarkably good agreement with the experimental values. This study reveals that diverse KIE values originate mainly from tunneling to the same di(μ-oxo)diiron(IV) core for all substrates, and demonstrate that the reaction dynamics are essential for reproducing experimental results and understanding the role of the diiron core for methane oxidation in sMMO. © 2014

  11. Comparison of the effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with class II versus class III and IV heart failure (from the InSync/InSync ICD Italian Registry).

    PubMed

    Landolina, Maurizio; Lunati, Maurizio; Gasparini, Maurizio; Santini, Massimo; Padeletti, Luigi; Achilli, Augusto; Bianchi, Stefano; Laurenzi, Francesco; Curnis, Antonio; Vincenti, Antonio; Valsecchi, Sergio; Denaro, Alessandra

    2007-09-15

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is recommended for patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV heart failure and wide QRS complexes. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of CRT in patients in NYHA class II with those in NYHA class III or IV. Nine hundred fifty-two patients (188 in NYHA class II) consecutively implanted with biventricular devices and enrolled in a national observational registry were studied. Clinical outcomes were estimated after 12 months of CRT, and long-term survival was assessed. At a median follow-up of 16 months, significantly fewer major cardiovascular events were reported in patients in NYHA class II compared with NYHA class III or IV (rate 13 vs 23 per 100 patient-years of follow-up, p<0.001). The percentage of patients who improved in NYHA class status after 12 months of CRT was lower in those in class II than in those in class III or IV (34% vs 69%, p<0.001), whereas the absolute increase in the ejection fraction was similar (8+/-9% vs 9+/-11%, p=NS), as well as the reductions in end-diastolic diameter (-3+/-8 vs -3+/-8 mm, p=NS) and end-systolic diameter (-4+/-10 vs -6+/-10 mm, p=NS). The NYHA class II group experienced lower all-cause mortality (log-rank test p=0.018). In the 2 groups, patients with major cardiovascular events during follow-up exhibited less or no reverse remodeling compared with those with better long-term clinical outcomes. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that CRT induced similar improvements in ventricular function in the 2 groups, whereas the improvement in functional status was significantly lower for patients in NYHA class II than for those in class III or IV. A positive effect of CRT on cardiac dimensions was associated with a long-term beneficial effect on disease progression in patients in NYHA class II.

  12. Novel octahedral Pt(IV) complex with di-n-propyl-(S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(3-cyclohexyl)propanoato ligand exerts potent immunomodulatory effects.

    PubMed

    Miljković, Djordje; Poljarević, Jelena M; Petković, Filip; Blaževski, Jana; Momčilović, Miljana; Nikolić, Ivana; Saksida, Tamara; Stošić-Grujičić, Stanislava; Grgurić-Šipka, Sanja; Sabo, Tibor J

    2012-01-01

    We have recently reported that a novel octahedral Pt(IV) complex with di-n-propyl-(S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(3-cyclohexyl)propanoato ligand has a potent cytotoxic effect on glioma, melanoma and fibrosarcoma cell lines. In this work, we investigated the influence of the Pt(IV) compound on immune cells. We determined its effect on the viability of spleen cells and lymph node cells and on their capability to produce interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17. Also, we researched the compound's impact on peritoneal macrophages and generation of NO in these cells. Our results show that the complex has limited influence on cell viability of immune cells, but profound inhibitory effect on the production of examined immune mediators. These results are valuable as they show that the novel Pt(IV) complex applied in concentrations which are effective against tumor cells do not affect immune cell viability. Moreover, they also imply that the complex has immunomodulatory properties.

  13. OES-IA Annex IV: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices - Report from the Experts’ Workshop September 27th – 28th 2010 Clontarf Castle, Dublin Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; O'Toole, Michael J.

    2010-12-02

    An experts' workshop was convened in Dublin Ireland September 27th – 28th 2010 in support of IEA Ocean Energy Systems Implementing Agreement Annex IV. PNNL was responsible for organizing the content of the workshop, overseeing the contractors (Irish Marine Institute) hosting the event, presenting material on Annex IV and materials applicable to the workshop intent. PNNL is also overseeing a contractor (Wave Energy Center/University of Plymouth – WEC/UP) in the collection and analysis of the Annex IV data. Fifty-eight experts from 8 countries attended the workshop by invitation, spending two days discussing the needs of Annex IV. Presentations by DOE (background on Annex IV), PNNL (process for developing Annex IV; presentation of the draft database for PNNL project, plans for incorporating Annex IV data), WEC/UP on the environmental effect matrix, and four MHK developers (two from the UK, one from Ireland and one from Sweden; each discussing their own projects and lessons learned for measuring and mitigating environmental effects, as well as interactions with consenting [permitting] processes) helped provide background. The workshop participants worked part of the time in the large group and most of the time in four smaller breakout groups. Participants engaged in the process and provided a wealth of examples of MHK environmental work, particularly in the European nations. They provided practical and actionable advice on the following: • Developing the Annex IV database, with specific uses and audiences • Strong consensus that we should collect detailed metadata on available data sets, rather than attempting to draw in copious datasets. The participants felt there would then be an opportunity to then ask for specific set of data as needed, with specific uses and ownership of the data specified. This is particularly important as many data collected, particularly in Europe but also in Canada, are proprietary; developers were not comfortable with the idea of

  14. Effect of lone-pair stereoactivity on polyhedral volume and structural flexibility: application to Te(IV)O6 octahedra.

    PubMed

    Christy, Andrew G; Mills, Stuart J

    2013-10-01

    The Distortion Theorem implies that the irregularity of bond distances in a distorted coordination polyhedron causes an increase of mean bond distance. Examination of 40 polyhedra containing the lone-pair cation Te(IV) shows that this does not imply an increase in polyhedral volume. Volumes of these polyhedra are 10.3-23.7 Å(3), compared with the 12.83 Å(3) expected for a hypothetical regular octahedron. There is little correlation between volume and measures of polyhedral distortion such as quadratic elongation, bond-angle variance or vector bond valence. However, the oxygens of our polyhedra lie very close to a sphere of best fit, centred at ~ 1 Å from the Te(IV) atom. The Te(IV)-centre distance is an index of lone-pair stereoactivity and is linearly related to the radius Rsph of the sphere; this is explained by a more localized lone pair repelling the anions more strongly, leading to a longer non-bonded distance between the lone pair and anions. Polyhedral volume still varies considerably for a given Rsph, because the oxygen ligands may be distributed over the whole sphere surface, or confined to a small portion of it. The uniformity of this distribution can be estimated from the distance between the sphere centre and the centroid of the O6 polyhedron. Te(IV)-centre and centroid-centre distances alone then account for 95% of the variation observed in volume for polyhedra which are topologically octahedral. Six of the polyhedra studied that are outliers are closer in shape to pentagonal pyramids than octahedra. These have short distances from the central Te(IV) cation to other Te(IV) and/or to large, polarizable cations, suggesting additional weak bonding interactions between these species and the central lone pair. The flexibility of lone-pair polyhedra is further enhanced by the ability of a single polyhedron to accommodate different cations with different degrees of lone-pair activity, which facilitates more diverse solid solution behaviour than would

  15. The binding assessment with human serum albumin of novel six-coordinate Pt(IV) complexes, containing bidentate nitrogen donor/methyl ligands.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Reza; Taheri-Kafrani, Asghar; Nabavizadeh, Sayed Masoud; Pouryasin, Zahra; Shahsavani, Mohammad Bagher; Khoshaman, Kazem; Rashidi, Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    The interactions between platinum complexes and human serum albumin (HSA) play crucial roles in the distribution, metabolism, and activity of platinum-based anticancer drugs. Octahedral platinum (IV) complexes represent a significant class of anticancer agents that display molecular pharmacological properties different from cisplatin. In this study, the interaction between two Pt(IV) complexes with the general formula [Pt(X)2Me2 (tbu2bpy)], where tbu2bpy = 4,4'-ditert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine, with two leaving groups of X = Cl (Com1) or Br (Com2), and HSA were investigated, using Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking simulation. The spectroscopic and thermodynamic data revealed that the HSA/Pt(IV) complexes interactions were spontaneous process and Com2 demonstrated stronger interaction and binding constant in comparison with Com1. Also, the results suggest approximately similar structural alteration of HSA in the presence of these Pt complexes. Molecular docking revealed that both Pt(IV) complexes bind with HSA in subdomain IB, literally the same as each other. This study suggests that variation in the leaving group, displaying differing departure rate, has no significant contribution in denaturing prosperities of the Pt(IV) complexes against HSA.

  16. Division Iv: Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbally, Christopher; D'Antona, Francesca; Spite, Monique; Asplund, Martin; Charbonnel, Corinne; Docobo, Jose Angel; Gray, Richard O.; Piskunov, Nikolai E.

    2012-04-01

    This Division IV was started on a trial basis at the General Assembly in The Hague 1994 and was formally accepted at the Kyoto General Assembly in 1997. Its broad coverage of ``Stars'' is reflected in its relatively large number of Commissions and so of members (1266 in late 2011). Its kindred Division V, ``Variable Stars'', has the same history of its beginning. The thinking at the time was to achieve some kind of balance between the number of members in each of the 12 Divisions. Amid the current discussion of reorganizing the number of Divisions into a more compact form it seems advisable to make this numerical balance less of an issue than the rationalization of the scientific coverage of each Division, so providing more effective interaction within a particular field of astronomy. After all, every star is variable to a certain degree and such variability is becoming an ever more powerful tool to understand the characteristics of every kind of normal and peculiar star. So we may expect, after hearing the reactions of members, that in the restructuring a single Division will result from the current Divisions IV and V.

  17. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  18. Dietary supplement use and its effect on nutrient intake in Korean adult population in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009) data.

    PubMed

    Kang, M; Kim, D W; Baek, Y J; Moon, S-H; Jung, H J; Song, Y J; Paik, H-Y

    2014-07-01

    Although there is an increasing trend of dietary supplement (DS) use, few researches have evaluated nutrient intake from DS. This study aimed to establish a nutrient database (NDB) for DS and estimate the effect of DS on total nutrient intake by Korean adults. The NDB for DS was established using the label information of products reported in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV. Of the 16,031 participants who were ≥20 years old, 2053 products were reported as being taken by 5606 subjects. But nutrient composition could be identified by searching product name only in 1158 products consumed by 3844 subjects (DS users). Total nutrient intake of DS users was obtained by combining intakes from diet and DS. Dietary supplement use was higher in women, in middle-aged people and in those with higher education and low smoking and drinking preferences. Nutrients obtained from food were higher in DS users than in nonusers for most nutrients, particularly in women. When total nutrient intake was evaluated in DS users, the percentage of subjects whose intake was below the estimated average requirement for Koreans decreased for several vitamins and minerals, but the percentage of subjects whose intake was above the tolerable upper intake levels increased for vitamin A, vitamin C and iron. The newly developed NDB for DS will be an important resource for more accurate assessment of nutrient intake as well as evaluation of the relationship between nutrition and health. Further research is needed to update a more comprehensive NDB applicable to diverse populations.

  19. Subclinical effects of chronic increased lead absorption--a prospective study. Part IV. Evaluation of heme synthesis effects

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.L.; Baloh, R.W.; Browdy, B.L.; Gonick, H.C.; Brown, C.P.; Spivey, G.H.; Culver, B.D.

    1982-02-01

    The effects of lead exposure on heme synthesis in workers with subclinical responses and in controls were evaluated. delta-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-d) correlated significantly with blood lead levels in the control group but not with those in the exposed group. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin correlated significantly with blood lead levels in the exposed group but not with those in the controls and was found to be a good indicator of blood lead history among exposed persons. Hemoglobin values determined at initial employment were not statistically different from those determined during the baseline test for a group of 12 workers with a maximum blood lead level of 86 micrograms/100 ml during their exposure history. The effect such heme inhibition may have on other body functions is uncertain.

  20. Subclinical effects of chronic increased lead absorption--a prospective study. Part IV. Evaluation of heme synthesis effects

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.L.; Baloh, R.W.; Browdy, B.L.; Gronick, H.C.; Brown, C.P.; Spivey, G.H.; Culver, B.D.

    1982-02-01

    The effects of lead exposure on heme synthesis in workers with subclinical responses and in controls were evaluated. delta-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-d) correlated significantly with blood lead levels in the control group but not with those in the exposed group. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin correlated significantly with blood lead levels in the exposed group but not with those in the controls and was found to be a good indicator of blood lead history among exposed persons. Hemoglobin values determined at initial employment were not statistically different from those determined during the baseline test for a group of 12 workers with a maximum blood lead level of 85 ..mu..g/100 ml during their exposure history. The effect such heme inhibition may have on other body functions is uncertain.

  1. The effect of chelating agent on the separation of Fe(III) and Ti(IV) from binary mixture solution by cation-exchange membrane.

    PubMed

    Kir, Esengül; Cengeloğlu, Yunus; Ersöz, Mustafa

    2005-12-15

    The competitive transport of Fe(III) and Ti(IV) ions and the effect of chelating agents on separation from binary mixture solutions through charged polysulfone cation-exchange membrane (SA3S) has been studied under Donnan dialysis conditions. The amount of chelating agent was taken as an equimolar of Fe(III) ion in the feed phase. In this process, the membrane separated two electrolyte solutions: the feed solution, initially containing metal salts (Fe, Ti), or metal salts solution, containing a chelating agent, and the other side (receiver solution) being HCl solution. An external potential field is not applied. It was observed that the chelating agents affect the metal transport; the transport of Fe(III) is decreased and the transport of Ti(IV) is increased.

  2. Apolipoprotein A-IV protein polymorphism: frequency and effects on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins among Mexican-Americans in Starr County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Hanis, C L; Douglas, T C; Hewett-Emmett, D

    1991-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV phenotypes were determined by reprobing immunoblots initially typed for the apolipoprotein E polymorphism on a representative sample of Mexican-Americans from South Texas. Typings on 331 individuals gave frequency estimates of 0.928, 0.066, 0.003, and 0.003 for alleles 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. To evaluate the effects of this polymorphic variability on lipid-related measures, mean levels between phenotypes were tested for equality following adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. Analyses of levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, total high density lipoprotein, and its subfractions, low density lipoprotein, alpha and beta lipoproteins and apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, B, C-II, C-III, and E demonstrate that the A-IV genetic variability contributes minimally to normal variation of these quantitative factors in the population. Examination of the rare types, however, indicates the possibility of large metabolic effects whose follow-up may be useful for elucidating the metabolic roles of apolipoprotein A-IV.

  3. Astragaloside IV ameliorates allergic inflammation by inhibiting key initiating factors in the initial stage of sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Kai-fan; Yu, Xi; Wei, Xiao; Gui, Li-li; Liu, Hai-liang; Wang, Xiao-yu; Tao, Yu; Jiang, Guo-rong; Hong, Min

    2016-01-01

    To illuminate the anti-allergy mechanism of astragaloside IV (AS-IV), we assessed its effects in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). AS-IV administered in the sensitization phase, rather than in the elicitation phase, dramatically alleviated the symptoms of allergic inflammation. We hypothesized that AS-IV exerts its anti-allergy effects by regulating the production of key pro-allergic cytokines based on the fact that interleukin (IL)-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) levels increase significantly in the initial stage of the sensitization phase. AS-IV administered in the initial stage of ACD inhibited TSLP and IL-33 expression and reduced the proportion of type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). An in vitro study showed that the production of pro-allergic cytokines was significantly inhibited in AS-IV presenting HaCaT cells. We also verified that AS-IV administered only in the initial stage markedly alleviated inflammation, including ear swelling, Th2 cytokine expression, and histological changes. Taken together, these results suggest that AS-IV effectively ameliorates the progression of allergic inflammation by inhibiting key initiating factors, including TSLP and IL-33, and can be used to prevent and/or treat patients with ACD. Our data also suggest that these key pro-allergic cytokines are potential therapeutic targets for allergic diseases. PMID:27917896

  4. Differential effect of dark rearing on long-term potentiation induced by layer IV and white matter stimulation in rat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Salami, M; Fathollahi, Y; Semnanian, S; Atapour, N

    2000-12-01

    In the earlier work, we showed that primed-burst stimulation (PBs) is an effective protocol to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) in layer II/III of adult rat visual cortex in vitro. In the present study, we investigated effects of dark rearing on potentiation of layer II/III responses to stimulation of layer IV or the underlying white matter in the visual cortex in vitro. Long-term potentiation was induced by PBs applied to white matter or layer IV of the cortex in light and dark reared rats. Regardless of the stimulation site, layer II/III field potentials consisted of two components. In general, the latency of responses in dark reared rats was shorter than that in light reared ones. Whereas PBs of layer IV produced LTP of two components in both the groups, that of white matter induced an appreciable potentiation of the second component in both groups and the first component only in dark reared rats. These results indicate that PBs of either white matter or layer IV can gain access to the modifiable synapses that are related to the second component of layer II/III responses in light and dark reared visual cortex, but accessibility of the modifiable synapses that are related to first component depends on the tetanization site. The dark rearing enhances accessibility of the modifiable synapses that are related to the first component following PBs of the white matter. It is suggested that the immaturity of inhibitory circuits and/or better function of excitatory ones in the visual cortex of dark reared rats may contribute to the enhanced accessibility of the first component.

  5. Increasing Institutional Effectiveness through Outcomes Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Donna; Green, Peggy

    In 1987, under pressure from its accreditation agency and the state, Broward Community College (BCC) initiated the Institutional Effectiveness and Assessment Project to improve the college through outcomes assessment. The project had four interrelated components: (1) a revision of BCC's mission statement to incorporate a new section on…

  6. A Comparison Study: Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) with Referred Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Danielle M.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted based on the limited availability of research comparing the KABC-II and WISC-IV. The study included 30 Caucasian students between the ages of 6 years, 7 months to 16 years 11 months who attend rural school districts in Ohio and West Virginia and were referred due to academic concerns; the sample consisted of 19 females and…

  7. A Comparison Study: Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) with Referred Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Danielle M.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted based on the limited availability of research comparing the KABC-II and WISC-IV. The study included 30 Caucasian students between the ages of 6 years, 7 months to 16 years 11 months who attend rural school districts in Ohio and West Virginia and were referred due to academic concerns; the sample consisted of 19 females and…

  8. A Taxometric Investigation of "DSM-IV" Major Depression in a Large Outpatient Sample: Interpretable Structural Results Depend on the Mode of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, John; Brown, Timothy A.; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron

    2009-01-01

    Most taxometric studies of depressive constructs have drawn indicators from self-report instruments that do not bear directly on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV)" diagnostic construct of major depressive disorder (MDD). The present study examined the latent structure of MDD using indicator sets…

  9. Energy levels and lifetimes of Nd IV, Pm IV, Sm IV, and Eu IV

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Safronova, U. I.; Johnson, W. R.

    2003-09-01

    To address the shortage of experimental data for electron spectra of triply ionized rare-earth elements we have calculated energy levels and lifetimes of 4f{sup n+1} and 4f{sup n}5d configurations of Nd IV (n=2), Pm IV (n=3), Sm IV (n=4), and Eu IV (n=5) using Hartree-Fock and configuration-interaction methods. To control the accuracy of our calculations we also performed similar calculations for Pr III, Nd III, and Sm III, for which experimental data are available. The results are important, in particular, for physics of magnetic garnets.

  10. Effect of 360His mutation in apolipoprotein A-IV on plasma HDL-cholesterol response to dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Jansen, S; Lopez-Miranda, J; Ordovas, J M; Zambrana, J L; Marin, C; Ostos, M A; Castro, P; McPherson, R; Lopez Segura, F; Blanco, A; Jimenez Pereperez, J A; Perez-Jimenez, F

    1997-10-01

    In order to determine whether genetic variability of apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV is responsible for the improvement in lipid profile when dietary saturated fats are replaced by carbohydrates or monounsaturated fats, 41 healthy male subjects were studied: 33 were homozygous for the 360Gln allele and 8 were heterozygote carriers of the 360His allele. These were administered three consecutive 4-week diets. The first was a diet rich in saturated fat (SAT diet, with 38% fat, 20% saturated. This was followed by a low fat diet (NCEP-I, with < 30% fat, < 10% saturated). The final diet was rich in monounsaturated fat (MUFA diet, with 38% fat, 22% monounsaturated). There was no difference in plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels of both groups of individuals after consuming the SAT diet. Switching from this diet to the NCEP-I diet, carriers of the 360His allele presented a greater decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (-10 vs. -1 mg/dL, P < 0.004) and apoA-I levels (-19 vs. -8 mg/dL, P < 0.037). Similarly, replacement of carbohydrates by monounsaturated fats produced a greater increase in HDL-C (9 vs. 1 mg/dL, P < 0.003) and apoA-I levels (9 vs. 2 mg/dL, P < 0.036) in carriers of the 360His mutation. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activities and apoA-IV levels were also measured. However, no genotype-related differences were observed for these parameters. Our results suggest that variability in HDL-C and apoA-I response to diet is, at least partially, determined by the 360His mutation of apoA-IV.

  11. A Spectrum of IV and V Modeling Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimdahl, Mats; Owen, David

    2004-01-01

    The aerospace industry in general and NASA in particular is using more (semi-formal) model-based software development. Model-based development produces a collection of artifacts, for example, state diagrams, module diagrams (such as class diagrams), control-block diagrams, etc. These artifacts may than be used as a basis for auto code generation for production use. Therefore, these models must be properly evaluated in the IV and V process. IV and V practitioners know how assess standard procedural systems. But what can we du about IV and V of model-based systems? The goal of the work outlined in this proposal is to use cost effective automated techniques to the largest extent possible during the IV and V process. Our working hypotheses are: 1. There exists a range of validation techniques that can assess models built using a range of modeling techniques of increasing cost and complexity. Specifically, we hypotesize that the "cheaper" techniques can find faults cheaply and early in a project. These early results are then used to predict if this is a problem system and if a more elaborate and expensive IV and V effort is justified. 2. There exists a set of migration procedures that let us seamlessly move from simple models using cheaper techniques into more elaborate models suitable for a more expensive and detailed analysis. 3. We further hypothesize that this migration process is much cheaper than simply remodeling the system under investigation from scratch when moving to models needed for the more detailed and expensive IV and V assessments.

  12. Influence of Source/Drain Residual Implant Lattice Damage Traps on Silicon Carbide Metal Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Drain I-V Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjaye, J.; Mazzola, M. S.

    4H-SiC n-channel power metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) with nitrogen n+-implanted source/drain ohmic contact regions, with and without p-buffer layer fabricated on semi-insulating substrates exhibited hysteresis in the drain I-V characteristics of both types of devices at 300 K and 480 K due to traps. However, thermal spectroscopic measurements could detect the traps only in the devices without p-buffer. Device simulation and optical admittance spectroscopy (OAS) are used to resolve the discrepancy in the initial experimental characterization results. Device simulations and OAS suggest that, in addition to the semi-insulating (SI) substrate traps, acceptor traps due to source/drain residual implant lattice damage contribute to the hysteresis observed in the drain I-V characteristics of the devices. Simulations suggest these traps are contained in the lateral straggle of the implanted source and drain regions since the drain current largely flows between the un-gated edges of the source and drain through the volume of lateral straggle traps. Since hysteresis in I-V curves is a manifestation of the presence of defects in devices and since defects degrade carrier mobility and hence device performance, efforts should be made to minimize the source/drain lateral straggle implant damage.

  13. The effect of twisting motion dependent diagonal hopping on the I-V characteristics of poly(dG)-poly(dC) DNA molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudiarsah, Efta

    2017-04-01

    The effect of twisting motion dependent diagonal hopping on the I-V characteristic of Poly(dG)-Poly(dC) DNA molecule has been studied. Twisting angle dependent hopping constant is model using semi-empirical Slater-Koster theory. The I-V characteristic of DNA molecule is calculated from transmission probability using Landauer-Buttiker formalism by assuming symmetric voltage drop at the contacts. The transmission probability of charge on the molecule is calculated using transfer and scattering matrix methods, simultaneously. The calculation is carried out on 32 base pairs doubled-stranded DNA molecule model sandwiched in between two metallic electrodes. The results show that at low voltage the magnitude of current is not influenced much by the change of diagonal hopping term caused by base pair twisting motion. Larger influenced is observed at higher voltages, after decreases by increasing the coupling parameter of vibration and diagonal hopping constant up to some value, current increases. This trend is observed in the I-V characteristic of DNA molecule for all frequencies and temperatures used. Lower twisting motion frequency shows larger influences of diagonal hopping term on the current than the one at higher frequencies.

  14. Prospective ex-vivo study on thermal effects in human skin phototypes II, IV and VI: a comparison between the 808, 1064, 1210 and 1320-nm diode laser.

    PubMed

    Leclère, Franck Marie P; Magalon, Guy; Philandrianos, Cécile; Unglaub, Frank; Servell, Pascal; Mordon, Serge

    2012-02-01

    Laser Assisted Skin Healing (LASH) was first introduced in 2001 by Capon and Mordon to prevent keloids and hypertrophic scars. LASH requires homogenous heating throughout the full thickness of the skin around the wound. However, LASH therapy with 808-nm diode laser is deemed to be only applicable for phototype I-IV due to melanin absorption. This prospective ex-vivo study aims to evaluate the thermal effects of different wavelengths (808, 1064, 1210 and 1320 nm) on human skin phototype II, IV and VI. Laser shots were applied on skin explants phototypes II, IV and VI. The following laser settings were used: 808, 1064, 1210 and 1320-nm diode laser, Spot size 20 × 3.7 mm, Power 3 W, Irradiance 4 W/cm², 50 shots for each phototype and wavelength. The surface temperature at 2 and 4-mm depth respectively was evaluated by an infrared camera and a low inertia micro thermocouple. For the 1064, 1210 and 1320-nm wavelengths, the temperature gradient between the surface and 2-mm depth after an irradiation time of 15 s was less than 4.0°C for each phototype. For the 808 nm, the gradient was 0.8°C and 4.4°C in phototype II and IV respectively, but reached 17.2°C in phototype VI. Strong absorption by melanin of skin phototype VI induced unwanted temperature increases at the dermis-epidermis junction, making this wavelength unsuitable for LASH therapy for this phototype. Among the three other wavelengths, the discussion section indicates strong blood absorption at 1064 nm and presents both 1210 and 1320 nm as excellent compromises for LASH therapy across the whole range of phototypes. Being poorly absorbed by melanin, both 1210 and 1320-nm wavelengths ensure homogeneity of temperature throughout the full skin explant thickness. Their possible utilization for efficient LASH therapy should now be confirmed by prospective in vivo studies.

  15. Use of conjoint analysis to assess breast cancer patient preferences for chemotherapy side effects.

    PubMed

    Beusterien, Kathleen; Grinspan, Jessica; Kuchuk, Iryna; Mazzarello, Sasha; Dent, Susan; Gertler, Stan; Bouganim, Nathaniel; Vandermeer, Lisa; Clemons, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate preferences associated with grade I/II and grade III/IV chemotherapy side effects among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. We also assessed trade-offs that patients are willing to make between treatment side effects and the route and schedule of treatment administration. In this cross-sectional study, patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer completed a one-time Web survey. Conjoint analysis was used to elicit preferences for 17 grade I/II and III/IV side effects associated with available chemotherapies and regimens. In the analysis, the risk of each side effect was increased by 5%, holding all others constant, and the respective impact on patient preferences was identified. A total of 102 women participated (mean age 54 ± 11). Among the grade I/II side effects, a 5% reduction in the risk of sensory neuropathy, nausea, and motor neuropathy had the highest impact on preferences. Among grade III/IV side effects, motor neuropathy, nausea/vomiting, and myalgia made the most difference. An oral twice-daily regimen was most preferred; however, patients were willing to receive an intravenous regimen relative to oral to avoid an increased risk of 5% in the majority of side effects. Avoiding an increased chance of grade III/IV motor neuropathy was associated with willingness to tolerate one of the least preferred administration schedules. This study identified relative preferences among both mild/moderate to severe side effects from the patient perspective. Patients appear to be willing to make trade-offs between side effects and different regimens. These findings may help to inform medical decision-making processes.

  16. Analysis of Phoenix Anomalies and IV & V Findings Applied to the GRAIL Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    NASA IV&V was established in 1993 to improve safety and cost-effectiveness of mission critical software. Since its inception the tools and strategies employed by IV&V have evolved. This paper examines how lessons learned from the Phoenix project were developed and applied to the GRAIL project. Shortly after selection, the GRAIL project initiated a review of the issues documented by IV&V for Phoenix. The motivation was twofold: the learn as much as possible about the types of issues that arose from the flight software product line slated for use on GRAIL, and to identify opportunities for improving the effectiveness of IV&V on GRAIL. The IV&V Facility provided a database dump containing 893 issues. These were categorized into 16 bins, and then analyzed according to whether the project responded by changing the affected artifacts or using as-is. The results of this analysis were compared to a similar assessment of post-launch anomalies documented by the project. Results of the analysis were discussed with the IV&V team assigned to GRAIL. These discussions led to changes in the way both the project and IV&V approached the IV&V task, and improved the efficiency of the activity.

  17. Distraction Using the BUZZY for Children During an IV Insertion.

    PubMed

    Moadad, Nemat; Kozman, Katia; Shahine, Randa; Ohanian, Shake; Badr, Lina Kurdahi

    2016-01-01

    Needle pricks are rated by children as their most feared medical event resulting in acute pain, anxiety and distress, which negatively affects both the child and his/her parents. To investigate the effects of external cold and vibration via the "BUZZY" on pain ratings of children, their parents and nurses during peripheral IV insertion, to measure the time to a successful IV insertion and to assess the factors that are associated with pain perception of children. In this randomized control trial (RCT), children between the ages of 4 to 12years were assigned to either an intervention or a control group. The intervention group (n=25) had the "BUZZY" applied during IV insertion while the control group (n=23) did not have the "BUZZY". Children were asked to rate their pain along with their parents and nurses on the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale. Time to successful IV insertion and background characteristic of children were assessed and compared. Pain scores were significantly lower in the "BUZZY" group for children and the nurses. Time to a successful IV insertion did not differ between groups. Gender, age, previous hospitalization, diagnoses and analgesics were all factors associated with the children's pain scores. However, a multiple regression analysis found that only the "BUZZY" remained a significant predictor of pain scores in children. The "BUZZY" may be an easily accessed, inexpensive ($39.95 each at $0.09 per 3 minute stick), and effective technique to control or reduce pain in young children undergoing IV insertion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Using PLATO IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meller, David V.

    This beginning reference manual describes PLATO IV hardware for prospective users and provides an introduction to PLATO for new authors. The PLATO terminal is described in detail in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 provides a block diagram of the PLATO IV system. Procedures for getting on line are described in Chapter 3, and Chapter 4 provides references to…

  19. EffectiveDB—updates and novel features for a better annotation of bacterial secreted proteins and Type III, IV, VI secretion systems

    PubMed Central

    Eichinger, Valerie; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Platzer, Alexander; Jehl, Marc-André; Arnold, Roland; Rattei, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Protein secretion systems play a key role in the interaction of bacteria and hosts. EffectiveDB (http://effectivedb.org) contains pre-calculated predictions of bacterial secreted proteins and of intact secretion systems. Here we describe a major update of the database, which was previously featured in the NAR Database Issue. EffectiveDB bundles various tools to recognize Type III secretion signals, conserved binding sites of Type III chaperones, Type IV secretion peptides, eukaryotic-like domains and subcellular targeting signals in the host. Beyond the analysis of arbitrary protein sequence collections, the new release of EffectiveDB also provides a ‘genome-mode’, in which protein sequences from nearly complete genomes or metagenomic bins can be screened for the presence of three important secretion systems (Type III, IV, VI). EffectiveDB contains pre-calculated predictions for currently 1677 bacterial genomes from the EggNOG 4.0 database and for additional bacterial genomes from NCBI RefSeq. The new, user-friendly and informative web portal offers a submission tool for running the EffectiveDB prediction tools on user-provided data. PMID:26590402

  20. [Health technology assessment: II. Cost effectiveness analysis].

    PubMed

    Secoli, Silvia Regina; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Ono-Nita, Suzane Kioko; Nobre, Moacyr

    2010-01-01

    New health technologies have made an impact in clinical and economic outcomes. Therefore, research methodologies that allow to evaluate the efficiency of these new technologies such as cost-effectiveness analysis are necessary. Cost-effectiveness analysis assess the value of health care interventions or drugs, the technology. Cost-effectiveness analysis is also deemed a determinant of modern health care practice, because the therapeutic options available at public (SUS) or private health care system must go through a formal health technology assessment in Brazil; thus, both the health care system and the health care professionals have to reevaluate the clinical consequences and costs of their actions to assure that the most efficient technologies are the one used in the practice. In this second article about health technology assessment we review the concepts of cost-effectiveness analysis, the steps involved in performing such analysis, and the criteria most frequently used to critically review the results.

  1. X-Band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Comparison of Mononuclear Mn(IV)-oxo and Mn(IV)-hydroxo Complexes and Quantum Chemical Investigation of Mn(IV) Zero-Field Splitting.

    PubMed

    Leto, Domenick F; Massie, Allyssa A; Colmer, Hannah E; Jackson, Timothy A

    2016-04-04

    X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to probe the ground-state electronic structures of mononuclear Mn(IV) complexes [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) and [Mn(IV)(O)(OH)(Me2EBC)](+). These compounds are known to effect C-H bond oxidation reactions by a hydrogen-atom transfer mechanism. They provide an ideal system for comparing Mn(IV)-hydroxo versus Mn(IV)-oxo motifs, as they differ by only a proton. Simulations of 5 K EPR data, along with analysis of variable-temperature EPR signal intensities, allowed for the estimation of ground-state zero-field splitting (ZFS) and (55)Mn hyperfine parameters for both complexes. From this analysis, it was concluded that the Mn(IV)-oxo complex [Mn(IV)(O)(OH)(Me2EBC)](+) has an axial ZFS parameter D (D = +1.2(0.4) cm(-1)) and rhombicity (E/D = 0.22(1)) perturbed relative to the Mn(IV)-hydroxo analogue [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) (|D| = 0.75(0.25) cm(-1); E/D = 0.15(2)), although the complexes have similar (55)Mn values (a = 7.7 and 7.5 mT, respectively). The ZFS parameters for [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) were compared with values obtained previously through variable-temperature, variable-field magnetic circular dichroism (VTVH MCD) experiments. While the VTVH MCD analysis can provide a reasonable estimate of the magnitude of D, the E/D values were poorly defined. Using the ZFS parameters reported for these complexes and five other mononuclear Mn(IV) complexes, we employed coupled-perturbed density functional theory (CP-DFT) and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations with second-order n-electron valence-state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) correction, to compare the ability of these two quantum chemical methods for reproducing experimental ZFS parameters for Mn(IV) centers. The CP-DFT approach was found to provide reasonably acceptable values for D, whereas the CASSCF/NEVPT2 method fared worse, considerably overestimating the magnitude of D in several cases. Both methods were poor in

  2. Equivalent dynamic human brain NK1-receptor occupancy following single-dose i.v. fosaprepitant vs. oral aprepitant as assessed by PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Van Laere, K; De Hoon, J; Bormans, G; Koole, M; Derdelinckx, I; De Lepeleire, I; Declercq, R; Sanabria Bohorquez, S M; Hamill, T; Mozley, P D; Tatosian, D; Xie, W; Liu, Y; Liu, F; Zappacosta, P; Mahon, C; Butterfield, K L; Rosen, L B; Murphy, M G; Hargreaves, R J; Wagner, J A; Shadle, C R

    2012-08-01

    The type 1 neurokinin receptor (NK1R) antagonist aprepitant and its i.v. prodrug fosaprepitant have been approved for prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy. This study evaluated the magnitude and duration of brain NK1R occupancy over a period of 5 days after single-dose i.v. infusion of 150-mg fosaprepitant and single-dose oral administration of 165-mg aprepitant, using serial [(18)F]MK-0999 positron emission tomography (PET) in 16 healthy subjects. Each subject underwent three scans. Brain NK1R occupancy rates after i.v. fosaprepitant at time to peak concentration (T(max); ~30 min), 24, 48, and 120 h after the dose were 100, 100, ≥97, and 41-75%, respectively. After aprepitant, NK1R occupancy rates at these time points (T(max) ~4 h) were ≥99, ≥99, ≥97, and 37-76%, respectively. Aprepitant plasma concentration profiles were comparable for the two dosage forms. The study illustrates the utility of PET imaging in determining central bioequivalence in a limited number of subjects.

  3. Risk assessment and toxicology databases for health effects assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S.

    1990-12-31

    Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Interplay of Tunneling, Two-State Reactivity, and Bell-Evans-Polanyi Effects in C-H Activation by Nonheme Fe(IV)O Oxidants.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Debasish; Shaik, Sason

    2016-02-24

    The study of C-H bond activation reactions by nonheme Fe(IV)O species with nine hydrocarbons shows that the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) involves strong tunneling and is a signature of the reactive spin states. Theory reproduces the observed spike-like appearance of plots of KIE(exp) against the C-H bond dissociation energy, and its origins are discussed. The experimentally observed Bell-Evans-Polanyi correlations, in the presence of strong tunneling, are reproduced, and the pattern is rationalized.

  5. Fractional CO2 laser as an effective modality in treatment of striae alba in skin types III and IV

    PubMed Central

    Naein, Farahnaz Fatemi; Soghrati, Mehrnaz

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rapid stretching of the skin over the weak connective tissue leads to development of striae distensae. Recently, researchers have shown special interest towards use of fractional photothermolysis in treatment of striae and several studies have shown its usefulness. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of Fractional CO2 laser in treatment of striae alba. Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was carried out in female patients with striae alba. Ninety two striae were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Five sessions of laser resurfacing, were performed in Group 1, every 2–4 weeks. Group 2 was treated with 10% glycolic acid+0.05% tretinoin cream nightly during the study. Photographs were taken from the striae before and two weeks after the end of treatment. Mean surface area of striae compared between two groups. Patients’ views regarding the degree of improvement were assessed via visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: Forty six striae in Group 1 underwent laser resurfacing and 46 matched striae in Group 2, were treated with topical cream. Mean difference of striae surface area, was significantly decreased after treatment in Group 1 (-37.1±15.6 cm2) in comparison with Group 2(-7.9±9 cm2) (P value >0.001). Mean VAS was significantly higher in Group 1 (3.05±0.74) compared to Group 2 (0.63±0.66) (P value >0.001). Conclusions: Fractional photothermolysis via Fractional CO2 laser seems to be an effective method for treatment of striae alba. PMID:23825991

  6. Placebo effect and efficacy of nebivolol in patients with hypertension not controlled with lisinopril or losartan: a phase IV, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Robert J; Stapff, Manfred; Lin, Yuhua

    2013-04-01

    Most patients with hypertension require more than one antihypertensive to achieve blood pressure (BP) control. The purpose of this trial was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of add-on nebivolol, a vasodilatory β-blocker, in patients with untreated or poorly controlled hypertension, receiving stable therapy with lisinopril (an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) or losartan (an angiotensin II receptor blocker). This was a phase IV double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from August 2008 to March 2010 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00734630). Patients entered a 2-week, single-blind, placebo-only washout phase, followed by a 3- to 4-week open-label lead-in phase (lisinopril, 10-20 mg/day, or losartan, 50-100 mg/day), and a 12-week randomized, double-blind add-on treatment phase with placebo or nebivolol (5-40 mg/day). This study was conducted at 76 outpatient centers in the United States. Participants were men and women aged 18-85 years with a diagnosis of primary hypertension and seated trough systolic BP (SBP) at screening in the range of 170-200 mmHg if untreated, 155-180 mmHg if taking 1 antihypertensive medication, or 140-170 mmHg if taking 2 antihypertensive medications. The intervention was 12 weeks' treatment with nebivolol 5-40 mg/day added to a background therapy of lisinopril 10-20 mg/day or losartan 50-100 mg/day. Primary and secondary efficacy parameters were changes from baseline in seated trough cuff SBP and diastolic BP (DBP) at Week 12, respectively. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). A total of 491 patients were randomized to receive nebivolol (n=258) or placebo (n=233). Efficacy analyses were conducted for 256 nebivolol and 232 placebo patients (intent-to-treat population); completion rates were 88.8% and 85.8%, respectively. Mean baseline SBP/DBP values were 163.1/98.2 mmHg (nebivolol) and 162.4/96.8 mmHg (placebo). Nebivolol was associated with a non-significant mean

  7. The Interview for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders--IV: Application to DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutlesic, Vesna; Williamson, Donald A.; Gleaves, David H.; Barbin, Jane M.; Murphy-Eberenz, Kathleen P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes psychometric development of the fourth revision of the Interview for Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (IDED-IV). IDED-IV internal consistency and item-total correlations were assessed. IDED-IV yields sufficiently reliable and valid data for determining diagnoses in research studies and clinics specializing in the treatment of eating…

  8. Antipsychotic-like effect of GLP-1 agonist liraglutide but not DPP-IV inhibitor sitagliptin in mouse model for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Tejashree S; Sharma, Ajaykumar N; Lucot, James B; Elased, Khalid M

    2013-04-10

    Recent studies indicate a high comorbidity between type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and neurological disorders. Many are associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission such as schizophrenia. Because most of the antipsychotic drugs aggravate pre-existing insulin resistance in type-2 diabetics, there is a need to search for alternative antipsychotics. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone primarily involved in glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 agonist (liraglutide) and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor (sitagliptin) are the US-FDA approved medications for the management of T2DM. However, little is known about their role in dopamine mediated neurological disorders like schizophrenia. To address this, we used apomorphine-induced cage climbing behavior as a murine model for psychosis and examined for potential antipsychotic-like effect of liraglutide and sitagliptin. While acute liraglutide treatment (50 μg/kg; i.p.) significantly attenuated apomorphine (3 mg/kg, s.c.) induced cage climbing, sitagliptin (50mg/kg; i.p.) failed to elicit such effect. This is the first preclinical evidence for antipsychotic-like effect of GLP-1 receptor agonist. These results open an opportunity to explore GLP-1 analogs for their potential to modulate spectrum of dopamine-mediated neurological disorders.

  9. Training effectiveness assessment: Methodological problems and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Kenneth D.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. military uses a large number of simulators to train and sustain the flying skills of helicopter pilots. Despite the enormous resources required to purchase, maintain, and use those simulators, little effort has been expended in assessing their training effectiveness. One reason for this is the lack of an evaluation methodology that yields comprehensive and valid data at a practical cost. Some of these methodological problems and issues that arise in assessing simulator training effectiveness, as well as problems with the classical transfer-of-learning paradigm were discussed.

  10. Acute pain: effective management requires comprehensive assessment.

    PubMed

    Radnovich, Richard; Chapman, C Richard; Gudin, Jeffrey A; Panchal, Sunil J; Webster, Lynn R; Pergolizzi, Joseph V

    2014-07-01

    Pain is among the most common reasons that patients seek medical care, and inadequate assessment may result in suboptimal management. Acute pain in response to trauma or surgery can be complex, variable, and dynamic, but its assessment is often simplistic and brief. One-dimensional rating scale measures of pain severity facilitate rapid evaluation and often form the basis of treatment algorithms. However, additional features of pain should inform the selection of a treatment regimen, and can include pain qualities, duration, impact on functional capabilities, and underlying cause. Patient age, sex, psychosocial features, and comorbid conditions are also important features to consider. Use of a multidimensional tool is recommended for assessing many of these features if time permits. Additionally, clinicians often fail to recognize or consider the potentially detrimental long-term effects of acute pain. As the United States continues to experience a prescription drug crisis, a "universal precautions" approach including abuse risk assessment and abuse deterrence strategies should be implemented for patients receiving opioids. Increased efforts and research are necessary to enhance the utility of available acute pain assessment tools. Developing more comprehensive tools for patient assessment is the first step in achieving the ultimate goal of effective acute pain management. The objectives of this review are to summarize issues regarding the complexity of acute pain and to provide suggestions for its evaluation.

  11. A comparison between IV paracetamol and IV metamizol for postoperative analgesia after retinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Landwehr, Susanne; Kiencke, Peter; Giesecke, Thorsten; Eggert, Dirk; Thumann, Gabriele; Kampe, Sandra

    2005-10-01

    To assess clinical efficacy of IV paracetamol 1 g and IV metamizol 1 IV metamizol 1 g on a 24-h dosing schedule in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of 38 ASA physical status I-III patients undergoing retinal surgery. General anaesthesia using remifentanil, propofol, and desflurane was performed for surgery. The patients were randomly allocated to three groups, receiving infusions of paracetamol 1 g/100 mL (Para Group), of metamizol 1 g/100 mL (Meta Group), or of 100 mL of saline solution as placebo control (Plac Group) 30 min before arrival in the recovery area and every 6 h up to 24 h postoperatively. All patients had unrestricted access to intravenous opioid rescue medication. The primary efficacy variables were pain scores at rest over 30 h postoperatively analysed by using repeated ANOVA measurement. Secondary efficacy variables were pain scores on coughing, also analysed by repeated ANOVA measurement. Five patients in the Plac Group and one patient in the Meta Group interrupted the study protocol. Regarding pain scores at rest, Mauchly-test of sphericity was significant (p = 0.03). For the p time effects a significant result was detected (p < 0.001). The main effect between the three treatment groups was significantly different (p = 0.01). The Bonferroni adjusted pair wise comparisons between p the Plac Group and the Para Group showed a significant difference in favour of IV paracetamol (p = 0.024; mean difference 14.8; p 95% CI 1.6-28.0), between the Plac Group and the Meta Group in favour of IV metamizol (p = 0.025; mean difference 14.4; 95% CI p 1.5-27.4), and no significant difference between the Para Group and the Meta Group (p = 1.0; mean difference 0.4; 95% CI-12.8 to 13.6). Pain scores on coughing showed a significant different main effect between the three treatment groups (p = 0.022). The Bonferroni adjusted pair wise comparisons between the Plac Group and the Para Group showed a significant difference in favour of IV

  12. Astragaloside IV for Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia: Preclinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui-Lin; Zhou, Qi-Hui; Xu, Meng-Bei; Zhou, Xiao-Li

    2017-01-01

    Astragaloside IV (AST-IV) is a principal component of Radix Astragali seu Hedysari (Huangqi) and exerts potential neuroprotection in experimental ischemic stroke. Here, we systematically assessed the effectiveness and possible mechanisms of AST-IV for experimental acute ischemic stroke. An electronic search in eight databases was conducted from inception to March 2016. The study quality score was evaluated using the CAMARADES. Rev Man 5.0 software was used for data analyses. Thirteen studies with 244 animals were identified. The study quality score of included studies ranged from 3/10 to 8/10. Eleven studies showed significant effects of AST-IV for ameliorating the neurological function score (P < 0.05); seven studies for reducing the infarct volume (P < 0.05); and three or two studies for reducing the brain water content and Evans blue leakage (P < 0.05), respectively, compared with the control. The mechanisms of AST-IV for ischemic stroke are multiple such as antioxidative/nitration stress reaction, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptosis. In conclusion, the findings of present study indicated that AST-IV could improve neurological deficits and infarct volume and reduce the blood-brain barrier permeability in experimental cerebral ischemia despite some methodological flaws. Thus, AST-IV exerted a possible neuroprotective effect during the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury largely through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptosis properties. PMID:28303172

  13. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... venous catheter - home; Port - home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment ... is given quickly, all at once. A slow infusion, which means the medicine is given slowly over ...

  14. Hysteresis effects on I-V relations in a single crystal of the Cu-In-Te system with two mobile ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R.; Arranz, A.

    2013-02-01

    Three slices of the same In-rich chalcopyrite single crystal ingot of the Cu-In-Te system with different compositions and stoichiometric deviations are studied by means of electrical measurements. The slices are mixed electronic and ionic conductors, and under a constant applied voltage and under dark conditions, variations of the current intensity with time are observed due to ionic motion. The measuring time was 25, or 300 s, in measurements carried out subsequently two months later. Symmetric electrodes formed by graphite paint are used on both sides of the samples. The electrode/semiconductor/electrode solid-state device does not block the electrons, while it blocks the ions at the semiconductor/electrode interface. Nonlinear I-V relations and different hysteresis effects are obtained, relating the different ionic mobilities to the measuring time. To understand the different I-V relations and hysteresis cycles, a two-mobile-ion framework is applied. The effect of ion motion in the electronic current and the voltage drop at the semiconductor/electrode interface, due to ionic accumulation, are studied. The different results in each sample can only be explained by taking into account the motion of two different ions, and the different compositions and stoichiometric deviations of the slices. The understanding and, above all, the control of the ionic motion in In-rich chalcopyrites could be the key to improve the reproducibility of solar cell efficiency.

  15. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  16. Professional Learning Communities: Assessment--Development--Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipp, Kristine Kiefer; Huffman, Jane Bumpers

    This presentation addresses three topics: (1) the assessment of professional learning communities in schools; (2) the design and development of professional learning communities in schools; and (3) the effects of professional learning communities in schools. The purpose of this brief document is to share descriptions, processes, and materials…

  17. Health Effects Assessment for Carbon Tetrachloride (1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  18. Accelerated School Programmes: Assessing Their Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaziel, Haim

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of Accelerated School Programs (ASPs) on the basis of a study of four comprehensive schools in Israel. Assesses the influence of ASPs upon internal school processes, such as school goals, structures, and cultures, as perceived by school staff. Determines the project's impact on staff and parents' attitudes, and examines…

  19. Maximizing the Effective Use of Formative Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Nancy B.

    2016-01-01

    In the current age of accountability, teachers must be able to produce tangible evidence of students' concept mastery. This article focuses on implementation of formative assessments before, during, and after instruction in order to maximize teachers' ability to effectively monitor student achievement. Suggested strategies are included to help…

  20. Effective Online Instructional and Assessment Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaytan, Jorge; McEwen, Beryl C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the instructional and assessment strategies that are most effective in the online learning environment. Faculty and students identified several strategies for maintaining instructional quality in the online environment, including the importance of using a variety of instructional methods to appeal…

  1. Health Effects Assessment for Carbon Tetrachloride (1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  2. A Mutation in the Intracellular Loop III/IV of Mosquito Sodium Channel Synergizes the Effect of Mutations in Helix IIS6 on Pyrethroid Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingxin; Nomura, Yoshiko; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Nannan; Zhorov, Boris S.

    2015-01-01

    Activation and inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels are critical for proper electrical signaling in excitable cells. Pyrethroid insecticides promote activation and inhibit inactivation of sodium channels, resulting in prolonged opening of sodium channels. They preferably bind to the open state of the sodium channel by interacting with two distinct receptor sites, pyrethroid receptor sites PyR1 and PyR2, formed by the interfaces of domains II/III and I/II, respectively. Specific mutations in PyR1 or PyR2 confer pyrethroid resistance in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Recently, a unique mutation, N1575Y, in the cytoplasmic loop linking domains III and IV (LIII/IV) was found to coexist with a PyR2 mutation, L1014F in IIS6, in pyrethroid-resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae. To examine the role of this mutation in pyrethroid resistance, N1575Y alone or N1575Y + L1014F were introduced into an Aedes aegypti sodium channel, AaNav1-1, and the mutants were functionally examined in Xenopus oocytes. N1575Y did not alter AaNav1-1 sensitivity to pyrethroids. However, the N1575Y + L1014F double mutant was more resistant to pyrethroids than the L1014F mutant channel. Further mutational analysis showed that N1575Y could also synergize the effect of L1014S/W, but not L1014G or other pyrethroid-resistant mutations in IS6 or IIS6. Computer modeling predicts that N1575Y allosterically alters PyR2 via a small shift of IIS6. Our findings provide the molecular basis for the coexistence of N1575Y with L1014F in pyrethroid resistance, and suggest an allosteric interaction between IIS6 and LIII/IV in the sodium channel. PMID:25523031

  3. Promotion of Astragaloside IV for EA-hy926 Cell Proliferation and Angiogenic Activity via ERK1/2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi; Chen, Jiandong; Fu, Yuxuan; Chen, Xiaohu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pro-angiogenic effects of Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) in vitro and reveal the potential mechanisms. A kind of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), named EA-hy926 cells, were treated with various dosages of AS-IV. We then utilized Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), real-time PCR and Western blot to detect EA-hy926 cells' proliferation and proangiogenic effect from AS-IV. Data showed that AS-IV promoted EA-hy926 cells proliferation, as assessed by CCK-8. The AS-IV was also associated with an increased tube formation and upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the influence of AS-IV on cell proliferation and angiogenisis could be abolished by inhibitor PD98059 through suppressed extracellular signal regulated protein kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. These data demonstrated that the AS-IV activated the ERK1/2 pathway to control VEGF synthesis. Our findings conclude that the AS-IV promotes EA-hy926 cells proliferation and angiogenesis through ERK1/2 pathway, and it is also a regulator of VEGF.

  4. The Effect of Crystal Packing and ReIV Ions on the Magnetisation Relaxation of [Mn6]-Based Molecular Magnets

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Lillo, José; Cano, Joan; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Brechin, Euan K

    2015-01-01

    The energy barrier to magnetisation relaxation in single-molecule magnets (SMMs) proffers potential technological applications in high-density information storage and quantum computation. Leading candidates amongst complexes of 3d metals ions are the hexametallic family of complexes of formula [Mn6O2(R-sao)6(X)2(solvent)y] (saoH2=salicylaldoxime; X=mono-anion; y=4–6; R=H, Me, Et, and Ph). The recent synthesis of cationic [Mn6][ClO4]2 family members, in which the coordinating X ions were replaced with non-coordinating anions, opened the gateway to constructing families of novel [Mn6] salts in which the identity and nature of the charge balancing anions could be employed to alter the physical properties of the complex. Herein we demonstrate initial experiments to show that this is indeed possible. By replacing the diamagnetic ClO4− anions with the highly anisotropic ReIV ion in the form of [ReIVCl6]2−, the energy barrier to magnetisation relaxation is increased by up to 30 %. PMID:25951415

  5. Monitoring of the effects of transfection with baculovirus on Sf9 cell line and expression of human dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    PubMed

    Ustün-Aytekin, Ozlem; Gürhan, Ismet Deliloğlu; Ohura, Kayoko; Imai, Teruko; Ongen, Gaye

    2014-01-01

    Human dipeptidylpeptidase IV (hDPPIV) is an enzyme that is in hydrolase class and has various roles in different parts of human body. Its deficiency may cause some disorders in the gastrointestinal, neurologic, endocrinological and immunological systems of humans. In the present study, hDPPIV enzyme was expressed on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell lines as a host cell, and the expression of hDPPIV was obtained by a baculoviral expression system. The enzyme production, optimum multiplicity of infection, optimum transfection time, infected and uninfected cell size and cell behavior during transfection were also determined. For maximum hDPPIV (269 mU mL(-1)) enzyme, optimum multiplicity of infection (MOI) and time were 0.1 and 72 h, respectively. The size of infected cells increased significantly (P < 0.001) after 24 h post infection. The results indicated that Sf9 cell line was applicable to the large scale for hDPPIV expression by using optimized parameters (infection time and MOI) because of its high productivity (4.03 mU m L(-1) h(-1)).

  6. Lifetime Prevalence of DSM-IV Mental Disorders Among New Soldiers in the U.S. Army: Results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    or drug abuse or de- pendence), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ). The SUD assessment included not only illicit drugs but also...two externalizing disorders (IED, ADHD ; 7.0–15.1% vs. 5.9–14.2%; χ21 = 4.5–9.3, P = .002–.034; Table 2). Lifetime prevalence differences between all...5.5% vs. 3.6%; χ21 = 1.6, P = .21). PERSISTENCE OF LIFETIME DSM-IV/CIDI-PCL DISORDERS Mean years of disorder persistence (exclusive of ADHD , for

  7. Effectiveness and safety of generic version of abacavir/lamivudine and efavirenz in treatment naïve HIV-infected patients: a nonrandomized, open-label, phase IV study in Cali-Colombia, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Jaime; Amariles, Pedro; Mueses-Marín, Héctor F; Hincapié, Jaime A; González-Avendaño, Sebastián; Galindo-Orrego, Ximena

    2016-10-03

    Generic drug policies are often associated with concerns about the quality and effectiveness of these products. Phase IV clinical trials may be a suitable design to assess the effectiveness and safety of generic drugs. The objective of this study was to describe the effectiveness and the safety of the generic abacavir/lamivudine and efavirenz in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. A monocentric, nonrandomized, open-label, phase IV study in treatment naïve HIV-infected patients 18 years or older with indication to receive abacavir/lamivudine and efavirenz were recruited from a program that provides comprehensive outpatient consultation and continuing care. The primary end-point was to achieve viral load <40 copies/mL at 12 months after baseline to assess effectiveness. Secondary end-point of the study were 1) to asses increasing in T-CD4 lymphocytes levels as accompaniment to asses effectiveness, and 2) to assess both gastrointestinal, skin, and central nervous system symptoms, and lipid profile, cardiovascular risk, renal, and hepatic function as safety profile. Data were determined at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Close clinical monitoring and pharmaceutical care were used for data collection. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test was used to compare proportions or medians. Sixty patients were invited to participate in the study; 42 were enrolled and 33 completed the follow-up. Of the nine patients excluded from the study, only one was withdrawn due to adverse events. At 12 months, 31 of 42 patients (73.8 % in intention-to-treat analysis) achieved a viral load of HIV1 RNA <40 copies/mL. There was a significant increase (172 cells/mm(3)) in the median for CD4 T lymphocyte count. The adverse events were mild and met the safety profile for this antiretroviral regimen, mainly of central nervous system symptoms, skin rash, lipid abnormalities, and an increase of 2 % in the median of the percentage of cardiovascular risk. The clinical outcomes of generic

  8. The DPP-IV inhibitor linagliptin and GLP-1 induce synergistic effects on body weight loss and appetite suppression in the diet-induced obese rat.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Paulsen, Sarah; Vrang, Niels; Mark, Michael; Jelsing, Jacob; Klein, Thomas

    2014-10-15

    Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DPP-IV inhibitors are considered weight neutral, suggesting that elevation of endogenous incretin levels is not sufficient to promote weight loss per se. Here we evaluated the effect of linagliptin in combination with subcutaneous treatment of GLP-1(7-36) on body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Linagliptin administered perorally (1.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), but not subcutaneously (0.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), evoked a very modest body weight loss (2.2%) after 28 days of treatment. GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) treatment alone induced a body weight loss of 4.1%. In contrast, combined linagliptin (1.5mg/kg, p.o., or 0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg) treatment evoked a marked anorectic response with both routes of linagliptin administration being equally effective on final body weight loss (7.5-8.0%). In comparison, liraglutide monotherapy (0.2mg/kg, s.c., b.i.d.) reduced body weight by 10.1%. Interestingly, the weight lowering effect of combined linagliptin and GLP-1 treatment was associated with a marked increase in chow preference, being more pronounced as compared to liraglutide treatment. In addition, linagliptin and GLP-1 co-treatment, but not liraglutide, specifically increased prepro-dynorphin mRNA levels in the caudate-putamen, an effect not obtained with administration of the compounds individually. In conclusion, co-treatment with linagliptin and GLP-1 synergistically reduces body weight in obese rats. The anti-obesity effect was caused by appetite suppression with a concomitant change in diet preference, which may potentially be associated with increased dynorphin activity in forebrain regions involved in reward anticipation and habit learning.

  9. Effects of DNA end configuration on XRCC4-DNA ligase IV and its stimulation of Artemis activity.

    PubMed

    Gerodimos, Christina A; Chang, Howard H Y; Watanabe, Go; Lieber, Michael R

    2017-08-25

    In humans, nonhomologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ) is the major pathway by which DNA double-strand breaks are repaired. Recognition of each broken DNA end by the DNA repair protein Ku is the first step in NHEJ, followed by the iterative binding of nucleases, DNA polymerases, and the XRCC4-DNA ligase IV (X4-LIV) complex in an order influenced by the configuration of the two DNA ends at the break site. The endonuclease Artemis improves joining efficiency by functioning in a complex with DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) that carries out endonucleolytic cleavage of 5' and 3' overhangs. Previously, we observed that X4-LIV alone can stimulate Artemis activity on 3' overhangs, but this DNA-PKcs-independent endonuclease activity of Artemis awaited confirmation. Here, using in vitro nuclease and ligation assays, we find that stimulation of Artemis nuclease activity by X4-LIV and the efficiency of blunt-end ligation are determined by structural configurations at the DNA end. Specifically, X4-LIV stimulated Artemis to cut near the end of 3' overhangs without the involvement of other NHEJ proteins. Of note, this ligase complex is not able to stimulate Artemis activity at hairpins or at 5' overhangs. We also found that X4-LIV and DNA-PKcs interfere with one another with respect to stimulating Artemis activity at 3' overhangs, favoring the view that these NHEJ proteins are sequentially rather than concurrently recruited to DNA ends. These data suggest specific functional and positional relationships among these components that explain genetic and molecular features of NHEJ and V(D)J recombination within cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. The effects of MucR on expression of type IV secretion system, quorum sensing system and stress responses in Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Liu, Wenxiao; Peng, Xiaowei; Jing, Zhigang; Wu, Qingmin

    2013-10-25

    MucR is a transcriptional regulator in many bacterial pathogens and is required for virulence in mice and macrophages, resistance to stress responses, and modification of the cell envelope in Brucella spp. To determine why the mucR deleted mutant is attenuated in vivo and in vitro, we performed RNA-seq analysis using Brucella melitensis RNA obtained from B. melitensis 16M and 16MΔmucR grown under the same conditions. We found 442 differentially expressed genes; 310 were over expressed, and 132 were less expressed in 16MΔmucR. Many genes identified are involved in metabolism, cell wall/envelope biogenesis, replication, and translation. Notably, genes involved in type IV secretion system and quorum sensing system were down-regulated in 16MΔmucR. In addition, genes involved in tolerance to acid and iron-limitation were also affected and experimentally verified in this study. The effects of MucR on Brucella survival and persistence in mice and macrophages were related to type IV secretion system, quorum sensing system, and stress tolerance, which also provide added insight to the MucR regulon.

  11. Statistical analysis of solar wind stream interface induced temperature effects on the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere over SANAE IV, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunjobi, Olakunle; Sivakumar, Venkataraman; William; Sivla, T.

    Using superposed epoch techniques, the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetic and Dynamics) and NOAA 15-18 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) satellites measurements are used to examine the response of the polar MLT (Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere) temperature to energetic electron precipitation during solar wind stream interfaces (SI). We first investigate the relationship between the ionospheric absorption from the ground based riometer and degree of energetic electron precipitation from the MEPED (Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detectors) on board the NOAA satellites. By interpolating the energetic electron measurements from MEPED instruments, we can obtain the electron precipitation rates close in time to the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) temperature retrieval. Using measurements sorted over the vicinity of SANAE IV (South Africa National Antarctic Expedition IV), we investigate if there are significant temperature effects in the MLT altitude on SI arrival at Earth. The preliminary analysis indicate that there are no temperature increase below 100 km prior to the SI triggered precipitation; whereas a clear temperature increase is observed at 95 km immediately after the SI impact. The analysis on the SI geophysical properties indicates that an enhanced magnetospheric convection resulting to heating could be responsible for the temperature modification on SI arrival.

  12. Thermodynamic effects after Diode and Er:YAG laser irradiation of grade IV and V titanium implants placed in bone - an ex vivo study. Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Matys, Jacek; Botzenhart, Ute; Gedrange, Tomasz; Dominiak, Marzena

    2016-10-01

    Many inserted implants are affected by peri-implantitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate increases in implant temperature, depending on the diameter and chemical composition of implants. In particular we measured the time it takes for the temperature of an implant to rise by 10°C and evaluated laser power settings required to prevent thermal injury when an implant surface is decontaminated during the treatment of peri-implantitis. The study analysed six implants placed in porcine ribs and divided into two groups according to their diameter and chemical composition (grade IV and grade V titanium). The implants were irradiated with Diode and Er:YAG lasers using different laser parameters. The temperature was measured with a K-type thermocouple. The temperature on the implant surface rose as the laser power increased and the implant diameter decreased. The time required to increase the temperature of an implant by 10°C was less than it was for titanium grade IV. The temperature gradient was below 10°C for all implants treated using a laser power up to 1 W. It is important to choose the correct laser parameters, depending on the chemical composition and diameter of the implant, so that decontamination of the implant surface is thorough, effective and safe.

  13. Impact of TBI on late effects in children treated by megatherapy for Stage IV neuroblastoma. A study of the French Society of Pediatric oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Flandin, Isabelle; Michon, Jean; Pinkerton, Ross; Coze, Carole; Stephan, Jean Louis; Fourquet, Bernard; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Bergeron, Christophe; Philip, Thierry; Carrie, Christian . E-mail: carrie@lyon.fnclcc.fr

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the contribution of total body irradiation (TBI) to late sequelae in children treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for Stage IV neuroblastoma. Patients and Methods: We compared two populations that were similar with regard to age, stage, pre-autologous bone marrow transplantation chemotherapy (CT) regimen, period of treatment, and follow-up (12 years). The TBI group (n = 32) received TBI as part of the megatherapy procedure (1982-1993), whereas the CT group (n 30) received conditioning without TBI (1985-1992). Analysis 12 years later focused on growth, weight and corpulence (body mass index) delay; hormonal deficiencies; liver, kidney, heart, ear, eye, and dental sequelae; school performance; and the incidence of secondary tumors. Results: Impact of TBI was most marked in relation to growth and weight delay, although the mean delay was not severe, probably because of treatment with growth hormones. Other consequences of TBI were thyroid insufficiency, cataracts, and a high incidence of secondary tumors. Hearing loss and dental agenesis were more prominent in the group treated with CT alone. No differences were observed in school performance. Conclusion: The most frequent side effects of TBI were cataracts, thyroid insufficiency, and growth delay, but more worrying is the risk of secondary tumors. Because of the young mean age of patients and the toxicity of TBI regimens without any survival advantage, regimens without TBI are preferable in the management of Stage IV neuroblastoma.

  14. Epilepsy & IQ: the clinical utility of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) indices in the neuropsychological assessment of people with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie; McGrath, Katherine; Thompson, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    We examined Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) General Ability Index (GAI) and Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) discrepancies in 100 epilepsy patients; 44% had a significant GAI > FSIQ discrepancy. GAI-FSIQ discrepancies were correlated with the number of antiepileptic drugs taken and duration of epilepsy. Individual antiepileptic drugs differentially interfere with the expression of underlying intellectual ability in this group. FSIQ may significantly underestimate levels of general intellectual ability in people with epilepsy. Inaccurate representations of FSIQ due to selective impairments in working memory and reduced processing speed obscure the contextual interpretation of performance on other neuropsychological tests, and subtle localizing and lateralizing signs may be missed as a result.

  15. A cluster analytic study of the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children-IV in children referred for psychoeducational assessment due to persistent academic difficulties.

    PubMed

    Hale, Corinne R; Casey, Joseph E; Ricciardi, Philip W R

    2014-02-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children-IV core subtest scores of 472 children were cluster analyzed to determine if reliable and valid subgroups would emerge. Three subgroups were identified. Clusters were reliable across different stages of the analysis as well as across algorithms and samples. With respect to external validity, the Globally Low cluster differed from the other two clusters on Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II Word Reading, Numerical Operations, and Spelling subtests, whereas the latter two clusters did not differ from one another. The clusters derived have been identified in studies using previous WISC editions. Clusters characterized by poor performance on subtests historically associated with the VIQ (i.e., VCI + WMI) and PIQ (i.e., POI + PSI) did not emerge, nor did a cluster characterized by low scores on PRI subtests. Picture Concepts represented the highest subtest score in every cluster, failing to vary in a predictable manner with the other PRI subtests.

  16. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  17. Thyroid toxicants: assessing reproductive health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Gloria D; Choksi, Neepa Y; Moore, John A; Shelby, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    A thyroid toxicant workshop sponsored by the National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction convened on 28-29 April 2003 in Alexandria, Virginia. The purpose of this workshop was to examine and discuss chemical-induced thyroid dysfunction in experimental animals and the relevance of reproductive and developmental effects observed for prediction of adverse effects in humans. Presentations highlighted and compared reproductive and developmental effects of thyroid hormones in humans and rodents. Rodent models of thyroid system dysfunction were presented. Animal testing protocols were reviewed, taking into account protocol designs that allow extrapolation to possible human health effects. Potential screening methods to assess toxicant-induced thyroid dysfunction were outlined, and postnatal bioassays of thyroid-related effects were discussed. PMID:14998754

  18. Informal caregivers and detection of delirium in postacute care: a correlational study of the confusion assessment method (CAM), confusion assessment method-family assessment method (CAM-FAM) and DSM-IV criteria.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Nina M; Spencer, Gale

    2016-09-01

    Delirium is a common, serious and potentially life-threatening syndrome affecting older adults. This syndrome continues to be under-recognised and under treated by healthcare professionals across all care settings. Older adults who develop delirium have poorer outcomes, higher mortality and higher care costs. The purposes of this study were to correlate the confusion assessment method-family assessment method and confusion assessment method in the detection of delirium in postacute care, to correlate the confusion assessment method-family assessment method and diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders text revision criteria in detection of delirium in postacute care, to determine the prevalence of delirium in postacute care elders and to describe the relationship of level of cognitive impairment and delirium in the postacute care setting. Implications for Practice Delirium is disturbing for patients and caregivers. Frequently . family members want to provide information about their loved one. The use of the CAM-FAM and CAM can give a more definitive determination of baseline status. Frequent observations using both instruments may lead to better recognition of delirium and implementation of interventions to prevent lasting sequelae. Descriptive studies determined the strengths of relationship between the confusion assessment method, confusion assessment method-family assessment method, Mini-Cog and diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders text revision criteria in detection of delirium in the postacute care setting. Prevalence of delirium in this study was 35%. The confusion assessment method-family assessment method highly correlates with the confusion assessment method and diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders text revision criteria for detecting delirium in older adults in the postacute care setting. Persons with cognitive impairment are more likely to develop delirium. Family members recognise symptoms of delirium when

  19. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized when discussing the physiology, assessment, and performance effects of dehydration. The underappreciated physiologic distinction between a loss of hypo-osmotic body water (intracellular dehydration) and an iso-osmotic loss of body water (extracellular dehydration) is presented and argued as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. The importance of diagnostic and biological variation analyses to dehydration assessment methods is reviewed and their use in gauging the true potential of any dehydration assessment method highlighted. The necessity for establishing proper baselines is discussed, as is the magnitude of dehydration required to elicit reliable and detectable osmotic or volume-mediated compensatory physiologic responses. The discussion of physiologic responses further helps inform and explain our analysis of the literature suggesting a ≥ 2% dehydration threshold for impaired endurance exercise performance mediated by volume loss. In contrast, no clear threshold or plausible mechanism(s) support the marginal, but potentially important, impairment in strength, and power observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small and related primarily to distraction or discomfort. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (e.g., endurance, strength, cognitive, and motor skill).

  20. Effects of enhancing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with reducing equivalents and ubiquinone on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium toxicity and complex I-IV damage in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2004-03-15

    The effects of increasing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), by enhancing electron transport chain components, were evaluated on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) toxicity in brain neuroblastoma cells. Although glucose is a direct energy source, ultimately nicotinamide and flavin reducing equivalents fuel ATP produced through OXPHOS. The findings indicate that cell respiration/mitochondrial O(2) consumption (MOC) (in cells not treated with MPP+) is not controlled by the supply of glucose, coenzyme Q(10) (Co-Q(10)), NADH+, NAD or nicotinic acid. In contrast, MOC in whole cells is highly regulated by the supply of flavins: riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN), where cell respiration reached up to 410% of controls. In isolated mitochondria, FAD and FMN drastically increased complex I rate of reaction (1300%) and (450%), respectively, having no effects on complex II or III. MPP+ reduced MOC in whole cells in a dose-dependent manner. In isolated mitochondria, MPP+ exerted mild inhibition at complex I, negligible effects on complexes II-III, and extensive inhibition of complex IV. Kinetic analysis of complex I revealed that MPP+ was competitive with NADH, and partially reversible by FAD and FMN. Co-Q(10) potentiated complex II ( approximately 200%), but not complex I or III. Despite positive influence of flavins and Co-Q(10) on complexes I-II function, neither protected against MPP+ toxicity, indicating inhibition of complex IV as the predominant target. The nicotinamides and glucose prevented MPP+ toxicity by fueling anaerobic glycolysis, evident by accumulation of lactate in the absence of MOC. The data also define a clear anomaly of neuroblastoma, indicating a preference for anaerobic conditions, and an adverse response to aerobic. An increase in CO(2), CO(2)/O(2) ratio, mitochondrial inhibition or O(2) deprivation was not directly toxic, but activated metabolism through glycolysis prompting depletion of glucose

  1. Expanding the Ecological Validity of WAIS-IV and WMS-IV With the Texas Functional Living Scale

    PubMed Central

    Drozdick, Lisa Whipple; Cullum, C. Munro

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of functional status is an important aspect of clinical evaluation. As part of the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale–Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), participants completed the Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), a measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The relationships between TFLS and WAIS-IV and WMS-IV were examined in both normally developing and clinical samples. In general, the highest correlations were between TFLS and measures of general cognitive ability (WAIS-IV FSIQ [Full Scale IQ] and GAI [General Ability Index]) and working memory (WAIS-IV WMI [Working Memory Index] and WMS-IV VWMI [Visual Working Memory Index]). Across the clinical populations, working memory subtests were generally strongly related to TFLS performance, although this relationship was more consistent with WAIS-IV than WMS-IV. Contrast scaled scores are presented for the TFLS based on WAIS-IV or WMS-IV performance. These scores allow the evaluation of functional abilities within the context of cognitive and memory ability, enhancing and expanding the utility of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV. PMID:20921288

  2. Expanding the ecological validity of WAIS-IV and WMS-IV with the Texas functional living scale.

    PubMed

    Whipple Drozdick, Lisa; Munro Cullum, C

    2011-06-01

    Assessment of functional status is an important aspect of clinical evaluation. As part of the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), participants completed the Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), a measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The relationships between TFLS and WAIS-IV and WMS-IV were examined in both normally developing and clinical samples. In general, the highest correlations were between TFLS and measures of general cognitive ability (WAIS-IV FSIQ [Full Scale IQ] and GAI [General Ability Index]) and working memory (WAIS-IV WMI [Working Memory Index] and WMS-IV VWMI [Visual Working Memory Index]). Across the clinical populations, working memory subtests were generally strongly related to TFLS performance, although this relationship was more consistent with WAIS-IV than WMS-IV. Contrast scaled scores are presented for the TFLS based on WAIS-IV or WMS-IV performance. These scores allow the evaluation of functional abilities within the context of cognitive and memory ability, enhancing and expanding the utility of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV.

  3. Developmental trajectories of DSM-IV symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: genetic effects, family risk and associated psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Henrik; Dilshad, Rezin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Barker, Edward D

    2011-09-01

    DSM-IV specifies three ADHD subtypes; the combined, the hyperactive-impulsive and the inattentive. Little is known about the developmental relationships underlying these subtypes. The objective of this study was to describe the development of parent-reported hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptoms from childhood to adolescence and to study their associations with genetic factors, family risk, and later adjustment problems in early adulthood. Data in this study comes from 1,450 twin pairs participating in a population-based, longitudinal twin study. Developmental trajectories were defined using parent-ratings of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptoms at age 8-9, 13-14, and 16-17. Twin methods were used to explore genetic influences on trajectories. Family risk measures included low socioeconomic status, large family size and divorce. Self-ratings of externalizing and internalizing problems in early adulthood were used to examine adjustment problems related to the different trajectory combinations. We found two hyperactivity-impulsivity trajectories (low, high/decreasing) and two inattention trajectories (low, high/increasing). Twin modeling revealed a substantial genetic component underlying both the hyperactivity-impulsivity and the inattention trajectory. Joint trajectory analyses identified four groups of adolescents with distinct developmental patterns of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention: a low/low group, a primarily hyperactive, a primarily inattentive and a combined (high/high) trajectory type. These trajectory combinations showed discriminant relations to adjustment problems in early adulthood. The hyperactive, inattentive and combined trajectory subtypes were associated with higher rates of family risk environments compared to the low/low group. Study results showed that for those on a high trajectory, hyperactivity decreased whereas inattention increased. The combinations of these trajectories lend developmental insight into

  4. [Effect of the supplementation of vitamins B12, B6 and folic acid on homocysteine and plasmatic lipids in patients with hyperlipoproteinemic secondary type IV].

    PubMed

    Morón de Salim, Alba Rosa; Garcés Pasamontes, Antonio

    2005-03-01

    The cases of hyperlipoproteinemic secondary type IV are manifested by elevation of triglycerides, with normal or high cholesterol and lightly high homocysteine. The effect of vitamins B12, B6 and folic acid, on homocysteine and lipids, in 24 male patients, 35-68 years, with hiperlipoproteinemia secondary type IV with myocardial isquemic, and without previous treatment of hipolipemiant, was investigated. The patients were supplemented with therapeutic doses tablets of vitamin B12, 500 (microg/day); B6, (600 mg/day) and folic acid (20 mg/ day), during 120 days. Homocysteine, triglycerides, total and fractional cholesterol, at (basal), 30, 60, 90 and 120 days, were determined. Descriptive statistical analyses were applied, coefficient of correlation of Pearson and proves of "t", with a p < 0.005; the data were processed by statistical program SPSS version 8.0. The results showed a decrease in the levels of homocysteine from basal 17.1 +/- 0.7 micromol/L to 13.18 +/- 0.83 micromol/L, at the end of experimental period. The triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) showed a reduction of (21.8 mg/dl; 8.5 mg/dl; 5.87 mg/dl; respectively) for every pmol/L of reduced homocysteine, with (p < 0.001) for triglycerides. High density lipoprotein (HDL) increased 1.1 mg/dl and coronary risk descent in 24%. We concluded that therapeutic doses of vitamins B12, B6 and folic acid, may is effective in decreased plasmatic homocysteine levels and lipids, mainly triglycerides, with a reduction of coronary risk, to these type of patients, with not collateral effects of neuropathy

  5. Effects of dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition on glycemic, gut hormone, triglyceride, energy expenditure, and energy intake responses to fat in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Heruc, Gabriella A; Horowitz, Michael; Deacon, Carolyn F; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Rayner, Christopher K; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Little, Tanya J

    2014-11-01

    Fat is the most potent stimulus for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. The aims of this study were to determine whether dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibition would enhance plasma active incretin [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), GLP-1] concentrations and modulate the glycemic, gut hormone, triglyceride, energy expenditure, and energy intake responses to intraduodenal fat infusion. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design, 16 healthy lean males received 50 mg vildagliptin (V), or matched placebo (P), before intraduodenal fat infusion (2 kcal/min, 120 min). Blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucagon, active GLP-1, and GIP and peptide YY (PYY)-(3-36) concentrations; resting energy expenditure; and energy intake at a subsequent buffet meal (time = 120-150 min) were quantified. Data are presented as areas under the curve (0-120 min, means ± SE). Vildagliptin decreased glycemia (P: 598 ± 8 vs. V: 573 ± 9 mmol·l⁻¹·min⁻¹, P < 0.05) during intraduodenal lipid. This was associated with increased insulin (P: 15,964 ± 1,193 vs. V: 18,243 ± 1,257 pmol·l⁻¹·min⁻¹, P < 0.05), reduced glucagon (P: 1,008 ± 52 vs. V: 902 ± 46 pmol·l⁻¹·min⁻¹, P < 0.05), enhanced active GLP-1 (P: 294 ± 40 vs. V: 694 ± 78 pmol·l⁻¹·min⁻¹) and GIP (P: 2,748 ± 77 vs. V: 4,256 ± 157 pmol·l⁻¹·min⁻¹), and reduced PYY-(3-36) (P: 9,527 ± 754 vs. V: 4,469 ± 431 pM/min) concentrations compared with placebo (P < 0.05, for all). Vildagliptin increased resting energy expenditure (P: 1,821 ± 54 vs. V: 1,896 ± 65 kcal/day, P < 0.05) without effecting energy intake. Vildagliptin 1) modulates the effects of intraduodenal fat to enhance active GLP-1 and GIP, stimulate insulin, and suppress glucagon, thereby reducing glycemia and 2) increases energy expenditure. These observations suggest that the fat content of a meal, by enhancing GLP-1 and GIP secretion, may contribute to the response to DPP-IV inhibition

  6. Validation of the Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory-IV with the SCID-II.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey L; Klein, Marjorie H; Benjamin, Lorna S

    2003-06-01

    The Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory (WISPI-IV; Klein & Benjamin, 1996) is the latest version of a self-report measure of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) derived from an interpersonal perspective. When categorical diagnoses derived from the WISPI-IV were compared with independent SCID-II diagnoses, the majority of the kappas were poor (>.40). However, all but one of the effect sizes for the differences in WISPI-IV means between groups with and without SCID-II diagnoses were large (>.80). When SCID-II and WISPI-IV dimensional scores were considered, the average r between profiles was .61 (median = .58) and correlations between corresponding PD scales (mean diagonal r = .48; mean off-diagonal r = .18) indicated good convergent and discriminant validity for five of the WISPI-IV scales. These results add to the cumulating evidence suggesting greater reliability and validity of dimensional over categorical scores for PDs. Researchers and clinicians interested in having an efficient method of assessing PDs may consider using a dimensional approach such as the WISPI-IV as an alternative to diagnostic interview.

  7. Dust in brown dwarfs and extra-solar planets. IV. Assessing TiO2 and SiO nucleation for cloud formation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G.; Helling, Ch.; Giles, H.; Bromley, S. T.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Clouds form in atmospheres of brown dwarfs and planets. The cloud particle formation processes, seed formation and growth/evaporation are very similar to the dust formation process studied in circumstellar shells of AGB stars and in supernovae. Cloud formation modelling in substellar objects requires gravitational settling and element replenishment in addition to element depletion. All processes depend on the local conditions, and a simultaneous treatment is required. Aims: We apply new material data in order to assess our cloud formation model results regarding the treatment of the formation of condensation seeds. We look again at the question of the primary nucleation species in view of new (TiO2)N-cluster data and new SiO vapour pressure data. Methods: We applied the density functional theory (B3LYP, 6-311G(d)) using the computational chemistry package Gaussian 09 to derive updated thermodynamical data for (TiO2)N clusters as input for our TiO2 seed formation model. We tested different nucleation treatments and their effect on the overall cloud structure by solving a system of dust moment equations and element conservation for a prescribed Drift-Phoenixatmosphere structure. Results: Updated Gibbs free energies for the (TiO2)N clusters are presented, as well as a slightly temperature dependent surface tension for T = 500 ... 2000 K with an average value of σ∞ = 480.6 erg cm-2. The TiO2 seed formation rate changes only slightly with the updated cluster data. A considerably larger effect on the rate of seed formation, and hence on grain size and dust number density, results from a switch to SiO nucleation. The question about the most efficient nucleation species can only be answered if all dust/cloud formation processes and their feedback are taken into account. Despite the higher abundance of SiO over TiO2 in the gas phase, TiO2 remains considerably more efficient at forming condensation seeds by homogeneous nucleation. The paper discusses the effect

  8. Effect of Vanadium(IV)-Doping on the Visible Light-Induced Catalytic Activity of Titanium Dioxide Catalysts for Methylene Blue Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen-Churng; Lin, Yo-Jane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vanadium(IV)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst powders were prepared by the sol–gel method and characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller–specific surface area, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. V-doping in the TiO2 increases the crystal grain size, which decreases the specific surface areas of powders. This V-doping changes the band gap of TiO2, leading to extend the absorption to visible light regions (400–800 nm). Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water was investigated as a function of the vanadium content in TiO2 and was found to follow pseudo first-order rate kinetics. Appropriate content of V-doping is an effective means to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 for MB degradation under visible light irradiation. PMID:22693413

  9. Chronic effects of myocardial infarction on right ventricular function: a noninvasive assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, S.; Hopkins, J.M.; Shah, P.M.

    1983-10-01

    To assess the chronic effects of myocardial infarction on right ventricular function, 48 subjects were studied utilizing radionuclide angiography and two-dimensional echocardiography. Ten were normal subjects (group I), 11 had previous inferior wall myocardial infarction (group II), 10 had previous anteroseptal infarction (group III), 11 had combined anteroseptal and inferior infarction (group IV) and 6 had extensive anterolateral infarction (group V). The mean (+/- standard deviation) left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.66 +/- 0.03 in group I, 0.58 +/- 0.02 in group II, 0.52 +/- 0.02 in group III, 0.33 +/- 0.03 in group IV and 0.33 +/- 0.01 in group V. No systematic correlation between left and right ventricular ejection fraction was observed among the groups. The mean right ventricular ejection fraction was significantly reduced in the presence of inferior myocardial infarction (0.30 +/- 0.03 in group II and 0.29 +/- 0.03 in group IV compared with 0.43 +/- 0.02 in group I (p less than 0.001)). The group II and IV patients also had increased (p less than 0.001) right ventricular end-diastolic area and decreased (p less than 0.001) right ventricular free wall motion by two-dimensional echocardiography. In the presence of anteroseptal infarction (group III), right ventricular free wall motion was increased (p less than 0.05) compared with normal subjects (group I). Thus, the effects of prior myocardial infarction on right ventricular function depend more on the location of infarction than on the extent of left ventricular dysfunction. Inferior infarction was commonly associated with reduced right ventricular ejection fraction and increased right ventricular end-diastolic area. The right ventricular free wall excursion was increased in the presence of anteroseptal infarction, suggested loss of contribution of interventricular septal contraction to right ventricular ejection.

  10. Low and fixed dose of hydroxyurea is effective and safe in patients with HbSβ(+) thalassemia with IVS1-5(G→C) mutation.

    PubMed

    Dehury, Snehadhini; Purohit, Prasanta; Patel, Siris; Meher, Satyabrata; Kullu, Bipin Kishore; Sahoo, Lulup Kumar; Patel, Nayan Kumar; Mohapatra, Alok Kumar; Das, Kishalaya; Patel, Dilip Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Despite compelling evidence that hydroxyurea is safe and effective in sickle cell disease, it is prescribed sparingly due to several barriers like knowledge gaps in certain genotypes, apprehension about its safety and toxicity, and limited resources. We undertook this study to find out the efficacy and safety of HU in patients with HbSβ(+) -thalassemia with IVS1-5(G→C) mutation. We registered 318 patients with HbSβ(+) -thalassemia with IVS1-5(G→C) mutation. Of these, 203 were enrolled for hydroxyurea treatment at a low and fixed dose of 10 mg/kg/day. One hundred four patients (Group-I: 37 children and Group-II: 67 adults) with ≥2 years of hydroxyurea treatment were studied. The rate of vaso-occlusive crises, requirement of blood transfusion and rate of hospitalization reduced from 3 to 0.5, 1 to 0 and 1 to 0 in Group-I and 3 to 0, 1 to 0 and 0.5 to 0 in Group-II respectively after HU therapy (P < 0.0001). %HbF level, hemoglobin, MCV and MCH increased significantly, whereas HbS, WBC, platelet count, serum-bilirubin and LDH levels decreased significantly after HU therapy. It has been observed that along with fairly subtle hematological changes following HU therapy, there was a substantial clinical improvement occurred in these patients. Transient myelotoxicity was observed in 4.8%. There was minimal gonadal toxicity without affecting reproductive function. In view of easy affordability, better acceptability, minimal toxicity, the need of infrequent monitoring and its potential effectiveness, low and fixed dose of hydroxyurea is suitable for treatment of patients with HbSβ(+) -thalassemia in resource poor setting. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. New technologies - How to assess environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, P. J.; Lavin, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for assessing the environmental effects of a room-and-pillar mining system (RP) and a new hydraulic borehole mining system (HBM). Before environmental assessment can begin, each technology is defined in terms of its engineering characteristics at both the conceptual and preliminary design stages. The mining sites are also described in order to identify the significant advantages and constraints for each system. This can be a basic physical and biological survey of the region at the conceptual stage, but a more specific representation of site characteristics is required at the preliminary stage. Assessment of potential environmental effects of each system at the conceptual design is critical to its hardware development and application. A checklist can be used to compare and identify the negative impacts of each method, outlining the resource affected, the type of impact involved, and the exact activity causing that impact. At the preliminary design stage, these impacts should be evaluated as a result of either utilization or alteration. Underground coal mining systems have three major utilization impacts - the total area disturbed, the total water resources withdrawn from other uses, and the overall energy efficiency of the process - and one major alteration impact - the degradation of water quality by sedimentation and acid contamination. A comparison of the RP and HBM systems shows the HBM to be an environmentally less desirable system for the Central Appalachia region.

  12. New technologies - How to assess environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, P. J.; Lavin, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for assessing the environmental effects of a room-and-pillar mining system (RP) and a new hydraulic borehole mining system (HBM). Before environmental assessment can begin, each technology is defined in terms of its engineering characteristics at both the conceptual and preliminary design stages. The mining sites are also described in order to identify the significant advantages and constraints for each system. This can be a basic physical and biological survey of the region at the conceptual stage, but a more specific representation of site characteristics is required at the preliminary stage. Assessment of potential environmental effects of each system at the conceptual design is critical to its hardware development and application. A checklist can be used to compare and identify the negative impacts of each method, outlining the resource affected, the type of impact involved, and the exact activity causing that impact. At the preliminary design stage, these impacts should be evaluated as a result of either utilization or alteration. Underground coal mining systems have three major utilization impacts - the total area disturbed, the total water resources withdrawn from other uses, and the overall energy efficiency of the process - and one major alteration impact - the degradation of water quality by sedimentation and acid contamination. A comparison of the RP and HBM systems shows the HBM to be an environmentally less desirable system for the Central Appalachia region.

  13. Effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on Electric Utilities: An Update, The

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on SO2 emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. It updates and expands the EIA report, Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  14. The PLATO IV Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, Jack

    The PLATO IV computer-based instructional system consists of a large scale centrally located CDC 6400 computer and a large number of remote student terminals. This is a brief and general description of the proposed input/output hardware necessary to interface the student terminals with the computer's central processing unit (CPU) using available…

  15. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  16. Little Jiffy, Mark IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Rice, John

    1974-01-01

    In this paper three changes and one new development for the method of exploratory factor analysis (a second generation Little Jiffy) developed by Kaiser are described. Following this short description a step-by-step computer algorithm of the revised method, dubbed Little Jiffy, Mark IV is presented. (MP)

  17. IVS Technology Coordinator Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report of the Technology Coordinator includes the following: 1) continued work to implement the new VLBI2010 system, 2) the 1st International VLBI Technology Workshop, 3) a VLBI Digital- Backend Intercomparison Workshop, 4) DiFX software correlator development for geodetic VLBI, 5) a review of progress towards global VLBI standards, and 6) a welcome to new IVS Technology Coordinator Bill Petrachenko.

  18. A Comprehensive Functional Analysis of NTRK1 Missense Mutations Causing Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type IV (HSAN IV).

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Samiha S; Chen, Ya-Chun; Halsall, Sally-Anne; Nahorski, Michael S; Omoto, Kiyoyuki; Young, Gareth T; Phelan, Anne; Woods, Christopher Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a complete lack of pain perception and anhidrosis. Here, we studied a cohort of seven patients with HSAN IV and describe a comprehensive functional analysis of seven novel NTRK1 missense mutations, c.1550G >A, c.1565G >A, c.1970T >C, c.2096T >C, c.2254T >A, c.2288G >C, and c.2311C >T, corresponding to p.G517E, p.G522E, p.L657P, p.I699T, p.C752S, p.C763S, and p.R771C, all of which were predicted pathogenic by in silico analysis. The results allowed us to assess the pathogenicity of each mutation and to gain novel insights into tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TRKA) downstream signaling. Each mutation was systematically analyzed for TRKA glycosylation states, intracellular and cell membrane expression patterns, nerve growth factor stimulated TRKA autophosphorylation, TRKA-Y496 phosphorylation, PLCγ activity, and neurite outgrowth. We showed a diverse range of functional effects: one mutation appeared fully functional, another had partial activity in all assays, one mutation affected only the PLCγ pathway and four mutations were proved null in all assays. Thus, we conclude that complete abolition of TRKA kinase activity is not the only pathogenic mechanism underlying HSAN IV. By corollary, the assessment of the clinical pathogenicity of HSAN IV mutations is more complex than initially predicted and requires a multifaceted approach.

  19. A Comprehensive Functional Analysis of NTRK1 Missense Mutations Causing Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type IV (HSAN IV)

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Samiha S.; Chen, Ya‐Chun; Halsall, Sally‐Anne; Nahorski, Michael S.; Omoto, Kiyoyuki; Young, Gareth T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a complete lack of pain perception and anhidrosis. Here, we studied a cohort of seven patients with HSAN IV and describe a comprehensive functional analysis of seven novel NTRK1 missense mutations, c.1550G >A, c.1565G >A, c.1970T >C, c.2096T >C, c.2254T >A, c.2288G >C, and c.2311C >T, corresponding to p.G517E, p.G522E, p.L657P, p.I699T, p.C752S, p.C763S, and p.R771C, all of which were predicted pathogenic by in silico analysis. The results allowed us to assess the pathogenicity of each mutation and to gain novel insights into tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TRKA) downstream signaling. Each mutation was systematically analyzed for TRKA glycosylation states, intracellular and cell membrane expression patterns, nerve growth factor stimulated TRKA autophosphorylation, TRKA‐Y496 phosphorylation, PLCγ activity, and neurite outgrowth. We showed a diverse range of functional effects: one mutation appeared fully functional, another had partial activity in all assays, one mutation affected only the PLCγ pathway and four mutations were proved null in all assays. Thus, we conclude that complete abolition of TRKA kinase activity is not the only pathogenic mechanism underlying HSAN IV. By corollary, the assessment of the clinical pathogenicity of HSAN IV mutations is more complex than initially predicted and requires a multifaceted approach. PMID:27676246

  20. Prospective study on cost-effectiveness of home-based motor assessment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cubo, E; Mariscal, N; Solano, B; Becerra, V; Armesto, D; Calvo, S; Arribas, J; Seco, J; Martinez, A; Zorrilla, L; Heldman, D

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Treatment adjustments in Parkinson's disease (PD) are in part dependent on motor assessments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of home-based motor monitoring plus standard in-office visits versus in-office visits alone in patients with advanced PD. Methods The procedures consisted of a prospective, one-year follow-up, randomized, case-control study. A total of 40 patients with advanced PD were randomized into two groups: 20 patients underwent home-based motor monitoring by using wireless motion sensor technology, while the other 20 patients had in-office visits. Motor and non-motor symptom severities, quality of life, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and comorbidities were assessed every four months. Direct costs were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Cost-effectiveness was assessed using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results Both groups of PD patients were largely comparable in their clinical and demographic variables at baseline; however, there were more participants using levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel in the home-based motor monitoring group. There was a trend for lower Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale functional status (UPDRS II) scores in the patients monitored at home compared to the standard clinical follow-up ( p = 0.06). However, UPDRS parts I, III, IV and quality-adjusted life-years scores were similar between both groups. Home-based motor monitoring was cost-effective in terms of improvement of functional status, motor severity, and motor complications (UPDRS II, III; IV subscales), with an ICER/UPDRS ranging from €126.72 to €701.31, respectively. Discussion Home-based motor monitoring is a tool which collects cost-effective clinical information and helps augment health care for patients with advanced PD.

  1. Effects of brining on the corrosion of ZVI and its subsequent As(III/V) and Se(IV/VI) removal from water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Xu, Hui; Shan, Chao; Jiang, Zhao; Pan, Bingcai

    2017-03-01

    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) has been extensively applied in water remediation, and most of the ZVI materials employed in practical applications are iron scraps, which have usually been corroded to certain extent under different conditions. In this study, the effects of brining with six solutions (NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3, Na2SiO3, NH4Cl, and NaH2PO4) on the corrosion of ZVI and its performance in the removal of As(III/V)/Se(IV/VI) were systematically investigated. All the studied solutions enhanced the corrosion of ZVI except for Na2SiO3, and the degrees of corrosion followed the order of NH4Cl > NaH2PO4 > Na2SO4 > NaCl > NaHCO3 > H2O > Na2SiO3. The corrosion products derived from ZVI were identified by SEM and XRD, and the dominant corrosion products varied with the type of brine solution. The positive correlation between the degree of ZVI corrosion and As(III/V)/Se(IV/VI) removal by the pre-corroded ZVI (pcZVI) was verified. In addition, As and Se removal by pcZVI was realized via a comprehensive process including adsorption and reduction, as further supported by the XPS analysis. We believe this study will shed new light upon the selection of iron materials pre-corroded under different saline conditions for practical water remediation.

  2. Solvent Effect on the Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of α- and β-Tertbutyl Phenoxy-Substituted Tin(IV) Chloride Phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Louzada, Marcel; Britton, Jonathan; Nyokong, Tebello; Khene, Samson

    2017-09-19

    This paper investigates the third-order nonlinear optical properties of 4α-(4-tert-butylphenoxy) phthalocyaninato dichlorotin(IV) (α-SnOtBpPc) and 4β-(4-tert-butylphenoxy) phthalocyaninato dichlorotin(IV) (β-SnOtBpPc) in different organic solvents. The third-order susceptibilities of α-SnOtBpPc and β-SnOtBpPc are reported in different solvents, using Z-scan techniques with 10 ns laser pulses at 532 nm. Their nonlinear absorption coefficient and absorption cross sections were also determined. The molecular imaginary components of the second-order hyperpolarizability Im[γ] of α-SnOtBpPc and β-SnOtBpPc were found to be 2.60 × 10(-31) and 2.94 × 10(-31) esu (tetrahydrofuran), 2.12 × 10(-31) and 2.54 × 10(-31) esu (chloroform), 3.06 × 10(-31) and 2.54 × 10(-31) esu (dichloromethane), and 1.27 × 10(-31) and 1.50 × 10(-31) esu (toluene), respectively. This study found that substitution at the α position has an effect of lowering the two-photon (2PA) cross section value for α-SnOtBpPc compared to that for β-SnOtBpPc, with values of 64.30 and 456.65 GM, respectively. The large 2PA cross section observed in β-SnOtBpPc is attributed to the decreased energy difference between the virtual state and the LUMO.

  3. Moving beyond average values: assessing the night-to-night instability of sleep and arousal in DSM-IV-TR insomnia subtypes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ortuño, M Montserrat; Carney, Colleen E; Edinger, Jack D; Wyatt, James K; Harris, Andrea

    2011-04-01

    We explored differences between individuals with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of primary insomnia (PI) and insomnia related to a mental disorder (IMD) by using serial measurements of self-reported sleep variables (sleep onset latency, SOL; wake after sleep onset, WASO; total sleep time, TST; sleep efficiency, SE), and visual analogue scale ratings of 2 forms of bedtime arousal (cognitive and emotional). Furthermore, we sought to examine the relationship between sleep and arousal within each diagnostic subgroup. Between-group and within-group comparisons. Duke and Rush University Medical Centers, USA. One hundred eighty-seven insomnia sufferers (126 women, average age 47.15 years) diagnosed by sleep specialists at 2 sleep centers as PI patients (n=126) and IMD patients (n=61). N/A. Multilevel models for sleep measures indicated that IMD displayed significantly more instability across nights in their TST (i.e., larger changes) than did PI patients. With respect to pre-sleep arousal, IMD patients exhibited higher mean levels of emotional arousal, as well as more instability on the nightly ratings of this measure. Within the PI group, correlational analyses revealed a moderate relationship between the 2 arousal variables and SOL (r values 0.29 and 0.26), whereas the corresponding correlations were negligible and statistically nonsignificant in the IMD group. We found a number of differences on nighttime variables between those diagnosed with primary insomnia and those diagnosed with insomnia related to a mental disorder. These differences imply different perpetuating mechanisms involved in their ongoing sleep difficulties. Additionally, they support the categorical distinctiveness and the concurrent validity of these insomnia subtypes.

  4. The control of steroidogenesis by human fetal adrenal cells in tissue culture. IV. The effect of exposure to placental steroids.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, K; Faiman, C; Feyes, F I; Winter, J S

    1982-01-01

    The effect upon steroidogenesis of adding various steroids produced by the placenta was studied in short term cultures of human fetal adrenal cells. The addition of high concentrations (10(3) ng/ml) of estrone or estriol inhibited the production of cortisol, but only the former elicited a parallel increase in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) production. Estradiol was effective in inhibiting delta-4-3-ketosteroid production at concentrations of 10-100 ng/ml, levels which approach those found in the fetal circulation, while DHA production was increased at concentrations of 1 microgram/ml. The addition of progesterone (4 microgram/ml) to the medium caused increased production of cortisol and corticosterone, but had no effect on DHA production. Pregnenolone (4 microgram/ml) increased the basal production of DHA and slightly impaired both basal and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone production, but had no effect on cortisol production. The data demonstrate that the many fetal and placental factors which have been studied to date, only ACTH and estrogens can interact to produce the characteristic fetal pattern of steroidogenesis. Preliminary studies indicate that this effect-stimulated aldosterone production, but had no effect on cortisol production. The data demonstrate that the many fetal and placental factors which have been studied to date, only ACTH and estrogens can interact to produce the characteristic fetal pattern of steroidogenesis. Preliminary studies indicate that this effect-stimulated aldosterone production, but had no effect on cortisol production. The data demonstrate that the many fetal and placental factors which have been studied to date, only ACTH and estrogens can interact to produce the characteristic fetal pattern of steroidogenesis. Preliminary studies indicate that this effect of estrogen is not influenced by other peptide hormones such as hCG, human prl, beta-lipotropin, corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide, or beta-endorphin. A revised model of

  5. Model-Based Evaluation of Exenatide Effects on the QT Interval in Healthy Subjects Following Continuous IV Infusion.

    PubMed

    Cirincione, Brenda; LaCreta, Frank; Sager, Philip; Mager, Donald E

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of the cardiovascular proarrhythmic potential of a new chemical entity is now an integral part of drug development. Studies suggest that meals and glycemic changes can influence QT intervals, and a semimechanistic model has been developed that incorporates the effects of changes in glucose concentrations on heart rate (HR) and QT intervals. This analysis aimed to adapt the glucose-HR-QT model to incorporate the effects of exenatide, a drug that reduces postprandial increases in glucose concentrations. The final model includes stimulatory drug effects on glucose elimination and HR perturbations. The targeted and constant exenatide plasma concentrations (>200 pg/mL), via intravenous infusions at multiple dose levels, resulted in significant inhibition of glucose concentrations. The exenatide concentration associated with 50% of the stimulation of HR production was 584 pg/mL. After accounting for exenatide effects on glucose and HR, no additional drug effects were required to explain observed changes in the QT interval. Resulting glucose, HR, and QT profiles at all exenatide concentrations were adequately described. For therapeutic agents that alter glycemic conditions, particularly those that alter postprandial glucose, the QT interval cannot be directly compared to that with placebo without first accounting for confounding factors (eg, glucose) either through mathematical modeling or careful consideration of mealtime placement in the study design. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  6. Model‐Based Evaluation of Exenatide Effects on the QT Interval in Healthy Subjects Following Continuous IV Infusion

    PubMed Central

    LaCreta, Frank; Sager, Philip; Mager, Donald E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Investigation of the cardiovascular proarrhythmic potential of a new chemical entity is now an integral part of drug development. Studies suggest that meals and glycemic changes can influence QT intervals, and a semimechanistic model has been developed that incorporates the effects of changes in glucose concentrations on heart rate (HR) and QT intervals. This analysis aimed to adapt the glucose‐HR‐QT model to incorporate the effects of exenatide, a drug that reduces postprandial increases in glucose concentrations. The final model includes stimulatory drug effects on glucose elimination and HR perturbations. The targeted and constant exenatide plasma concentrations (>200 pg/mL), via intravenous infusions at multiple dose levels, resulted in significant inhibition of glucose concentrations. The exenatide concentration associated with 50% of the stimulation of HR production was 584 pg/mL. After accounting for exenatide effects on glucose and HR, no additional drug effects were required to explain observed changes in the QT interval. Resulting glucose, HR, and QT profiles at all exenatide concentrations were adequately described. For therapeutic agents that alter glycemic conditions, particularly those that alter postprandial glucose, the QT interval cannot be directly compared to that with placebo without first accounting for confounding factors (eg, glucose) either through mathematical modeling or careful consideration of mealtime placement in the study design. PMID:28543393

  7. Limitations to effect of alpha-MSH on permeability of blood-brain barrier to IV /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Kastin, A.J.; Fabre, L.A.

    1982-12-01

    The effects of several variables on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to /sup 99m/Tc-labeled sodium pertechnetate after IV administration of alpha-MSH were investigated. Doses of alpha-MSH of about 200 micrograms/kg were generally more effective in increasing the brain:blood ratio of radioactivity than the smaller doses that had previously been shown to affect behavior and the EEG. Pulsatile administration of a total of 200 micrograms/kg alpha-MSH over 90 min did not change the permeability of the BBB to the pertechnetate anion. Infusion of the same dose over 90 min significantly increased the brain:blood ratio of radioactivity in one of two experiments: no significant effects were seen with infusion for shorter times, lower concentrations, or with a 4-9 analog (Org 2766). In another experiment, bolus injection of 200 micrograms/kg alpha-MSH resulted in a significantly increased ratio 90 min later as compared with controls. Although the effects of a peptide on the permeability of the BBB to other compounds remains intriguing, limitations appear to exist in experiments with /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate.

  8. WISC-IV and Low IQ: Review and Comparison with the WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The WISC-IV is likely to be in common use for the assessment of children with low intellectual ability for the next 10-12 years. There are several concerns about its uses with these children. Some children may not understand the instructions on some subtests, notably for letter-number sequencing. There may be an unacknowledged floor effect that…

  9. WISC-IV and Low IQ: Review and Comparison with the WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The WISC-IV is likely to be in common use for the assessment of children with low intellectual ability for the next 10-12 years. There are several concerns about its uses with these children. Some children may not understand the instructions on some subtests, notably for letter-number sequencing. There may be an unacknowledged floor effect that…

  10. Clinical and CNS effects of oral and I.V. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Patterson, C D; Polvan, N; Bigelow, A; Bergey, B

    1975-09-01

    Both oral and intravenous TRH produce systematic alterations in brain function of depressive patients as determined by scalp-recorded computerized cerebral biopotentials (computer EEG). The computer EEG (CEEG) profiles of both formulations are not only very similar to each other, but also resemble the CEEG profiles of psychostimulant compounds (Bio-availability). As in CEEG findings, TSH plasma levels also indicate that oral TRH is indeed an active compound. Although some "antidepressive" effects were observed after both formulations, they were not present in every patient, and it was not always the case after repetitive TRH administration, nor were the effects on depressed mood too impressive. On the other hand, in almost all patients certain behavioral effects of TRH were seen which related to "life instincts" and "life performance". The increase of interest, desire and drive for work, food and sex was one of the most striking findings, particularly after intravenous TRH. This may be responsible for the "antidepressive" effects of TRH in patients in whom depression may be the result of an inhibition of "instinctive" functions.

  11. AN EXPERIMENT IN BASIC AIRBORNE ELECTRONICS TRAINING, PART IV-- EFFECT OF REDUCTION IN TRAINING TIME ON FLEET PERFORMANCE. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BALDWIN, ROBERT O.; AND OTHERS

    THREE PRECEDING REPORTS PRESENTED THE EFFECTS OF SHORTENING TRAINING TIME IN AVIONICS FUNDAMENTALS AND AVIATION ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN (RADAR) TRAINING UPON THE FINAL COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION IN THESE COURSES AND UPON PERFORMANCE IN A SUBSEQUENT EQUIPMENT COURSE. THIS REPORT COMPARES THE ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF GRADUATES FROM FOUR GROUPS…

  12. New Perspectives on Assessing Amplification Effects

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Pamela E.; Tremblay, Kelly L.

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians have long been aware of the range of performance variability with hearing aids. Despite improvements in technology, there remain many instances of well-selected and appropriately fitted hearing aids whereby the user reports minimal improvement in speech understanding. This review presents a multistage framework for understanding how a hearing aid affects performance. Six stages are considered: (1) acoustic content of the signal, (2) modification of the signal by the hearing aid, (3) interaction between sound at the output of the hearing aid and the listener's ear, (4) integrity of the auditory system, (5) coding of available acoustic cues by the listener's auditory system, and (6) correct identification of the speech sound. Within this framework, this review describes methodology and research on 2 new assessment techniques: acoustic analysis of speech measured at the output of the hearing aid and auditory evoked potentials recorded while the listener wears hearing aids. Acoustic analysis topics include the relationship between conventional probe microphone tests and probe microphone measurements using speech, appropriate procedures for such tests, and assessment of signal-processing effects on speech acoustics and recognition. Auditory evoked potential topics include an overview of physiologic measures of speech processing and the effect of hearing loss and hearing aids on cortical auditory evoked potential measurements in response to speech. Finally, the clinical utility of these procedures is discussed. PMID:16959734

  13. Effect of sublingual nitrate on respiratory reflexes arising from stimulation of juxta-pulmonary capillary (J) receptors by i.v. lobeline and short duration exercise.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ashima; Srivastava, Niraj; Raj, Hans

    2012-05-31

    Juxta-pulmonary capillary (J or pulmonary C fiber) receptors are stimulated by an increase in pulmonary blood flow and give rise to respiratory acceleration and related sensations and inhibit exercise. However, the reverse, i.e., the effect of reducing pulmonary blood flow on their reflexes, is as yet not known. This was investigated by carrying out a placebo-controlled study on the acute effects of a single dose (0.4 mg) of sublingual glyceryl nitrate (GTN), known to shift blood from the central to the peripheral circulation, on the respiratory parameters of exercising healthy subjects and on their responses to i.v. lobeline. In 10 subjects, GTN use delayed the first appearance of respiratory sensations from 9.08 ± 0.9 min to 11 min (P=0.002), reduced the increase in minute ventilation by the end of 10 min of exercise (P=0.003) and increased its duration by 1-4s and doubled it in the remaining one subject. In a majority of 8 of them, the effect of GTN on i.v. lobeline-induced respiratory reflexes and sensations was a significant increase in the dose required (P=0.006) for producing threshold effects and in the latency of their appearance (P=0.003). The latter feature points to a reduction in blood flow in the lung parenchyma where these receptors are located and to which they are sensitive. As this would have led to a reduced stimulation of these receptors, it would account for the delayed appearance of respiratory symptoms, a reduction in ventilatory increase and prolongation of exercise duration. We demonstrated a mechanism of reducing the stimulus level of J receptors by reducing pulmonary blood flow by means of pharmacological sequestration with GTN use, which then led to a reduction in the magnitude of respiratory and viscerosomatic reflexes, while noting at the same time that changes in blood flow in the pulmonary bed do not directly influence limb muscles, tendons and joints which also determine exercise output.

  14. The discriminative stimulus effects of i.v. nicotine in rhesus monkeys: Pharmacokinetics and apparent pA2 analysis with dihydro-β-erythroidine.

    PubMed

    Moerke, Megan J; Zhu, Andy Z X; Tyndale, Rachel F; Javors, Martin A; McMahon, Lance R

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative analysis of antagonism is infrequently used to identify nAChRs mediating behavioral effects. Here, nicotine (0.032 mg/kg i.v.) was established as a discriminative stimulus in rhesus monkeys responding under a fixed ratio 5 schedule; pharmacokinetics and underlying nAChR mechanism(s) were examined. When measured up to 4 h in venous blood, the training dose resulted in the following mean pharmacokinetic parameters: nicotine Cmax = 71.7 ng/ml, t1/2 = 116 min, and clearance = 6.25 ml/min/kg; cotinine Cmax = 191 ng/ml; and 3OH-cotinine Cmax = 63 ng/ml. The ED50 value of nicotine to produce discriminative stimulus effects was 0.013 mg/kg. Epibatidine and varenicline increased drug-lever responding to 97% and 95%, respectively (ED50 values = 0.00015 and 0.031 mg/kg, respectively), whereas cocaine, midazolam, and morphine produced no more than 28% drug-appropriate responding. Mecamylamine and dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) dose-dependently attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of the nicotine training dose, whereas methyllycaconitine (MLA) did not. DHβE (0.1 and 0.32) produced rightward shifts of the nicotine and varenicline dose-response functions; Schild plots fitted through individual data resulted in slopes that were not different from unity; the apparent pA2 calculated for DHβE did not significantly differ in the presence of nicotine (6.58) or varenicline (6.45). Compared to human cigarette smoking, nicotine blood levels after 0.032 mg/kg nicotine i.v. took a similar time to reach maximal concentration, levels at Cmax were similar to smoking 2-3 cigarettes, while average nicotine levels were comparable to smoking 5-6 cigarettes. Apparent pA2 analysis with DHβE under these conditions is consistent with nicotine and varenicline acting through the same nAChRs to produce discriminative stimulus effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Agreement for depression diagnosis between DSM-IV-TR criteria, three validated scales, oncologist assessment, and psychiatric clinical interview in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rhondali, Wadih; Freyer, Gilles; Adam, Virginie; Filbet, Marilène; Derzelle, Martine; Abgrall-Barbry, Gaelle; Bourcelot, Sophie; Machavoine, Jean-Louis; Chomat-Neyraud, Muriel; Gisserot, Olivier; Largillier, Rémi; Le Rol, Annick; Priou, Frank; Saltel, Pierre; Falandry, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression, a major outcome in cancer patients, is often evaluated by physicians relying on their clinical impressions rather than patient self-report. Our aim was to assess agreement between patient self-reported depression, oncologist assessment (OA), and psychiatric clinical interview (PCI) in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC). Methods This analysis was a secondary endpoint of the Elderly Women AOC Trial 3 (EWOT3), designed to assess the impact of geriatric covariates, notably depression, on survival in patients older than 70 years of age. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (GDS), the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, the distress thermometer, the mood thermometer, and OA. The interview guide for PCI was constructed from three validated scales: the GDS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, revised (DSM) criteria for depression were used as a gold standard. Results Out of 109 patients enrolled at 21 centers, 99 (91%) completed all the assessments. Patient characteristics were: mean age 78, performance status ≥2: 47 (47%). Thirty six patients (36%) were identified as depressed by the PCI versus 15 (15%) identified by DSM. We found moderate agreement for depression identification between DSM and GDS (κ=0.508) and PCI (κ=0.431) and high agreement with MADRS (κ=0.663). We found low or no agreement between DSM with the other assessment strategies, including OA (κ=−0.043). Identification according to OA (yes/no) resulted in a false-negative rate of 87%. As a screening tool, GDS had the best sensitivity and specificity (94% and 80%, respectively). Conclusion The use of validated tools, such as GDS, and collaboration between psychologists and oncologists are warranted to better identify emotional disorders in elderly women with AOC. PMID:26203235

  16. Agreement for depression diagnosis between DSM-IV-TR criteria, three validated scales, oncologist assessment, and psychiatric clinical interview in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Rhondali, Wadih; Freyer, Gilles; Adam, Virginie; Filbet, Marilène; Derzelle, Martine; Abgrall-Barbry, Gaelle; Bourcelot, Sophie; Machavoine, Jean-Louis; Chomat-Neyraud, Muriel; Gisserot, Olivier; Largillier, Rémi; Le Rol, Annick; Priou, Frank; Saltel, Pierre; Falandry, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Depression, a major outcome in cancer patients, is often evaluated by physicians relying on their clinical impressions rather than patient self-report. Our aim was to assess agreement between patient self-reported depression, oncologist assessment (OA), and psychiatric clinical interview (PCI) in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC). This analysis was a secondary endpoint of the Elderly Women AOC Trial 3 (EWOT3), designed to assess the impact of geriatric covariates, notably depression, on survival in patients older than 70 years of age. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (GDS), the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, the distress thermometer, the mood thermometer, and OA. The interview guide for PCI was constructed from three validated scales: the GDS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, revised (DSM) criteria for depression were used as a gold standard. Out of 109 patients enrolled at 21 centers, 99 (91%) completed all the assessments. Patient characteristics were: mean age 78, performance status ≥2: 47 (47%). Thirty six patients (36%) were identified as depressed by the PCI versus 15 (15%) identified by DSM. We found moderate agreement for depression identification between DSM and GDS (κ=0.508) and PCI (κ=0.431) and high agreement with MADRS (κ=0.663). We found low or no agreement between DSM with the other assessment strategies, including OA (κ=-0.043). Identification according to OA (yes/no) resulted in a false-negative rate of 87%. As a screening tool, GDS had the best sensitivity and specificity (94% and 80%, respectively). The use of validated tools, such as GDS, and collaboration between psychologists and oncologists are warranted to better identify emotional disorders in elderly women with AOC.

  17. The effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 on electric utilities: An update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report presents data and analyses related to Phase I implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment by electric utilities. It describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on sulfur dioxide emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. The first year of Phase I demonstrated that the market-based sulfur dioxide emissions control system could achieve significant reductions in emissions at lower than expected costs. Some utilities reduced aggregate emissions below legal requirements due to economic incentives; other utilities purchased additional allowances to avoid noncompliance. More than half of the utilities switched to or blended with lower sulfur coal, due to price reductions in the coal market which were partially due to the allowance trading program. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  18. EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND SULFATE CONCENTRATION ON PROBABLITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR LIQUID WASTE TANKS- PART IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.

    2012-08-23

    A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion susceptibility. Testing solutions were chosen to build off previous experimental results from FY07, FY08, FY09 and FY10 to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate. The FY11 results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits as well.

  19. A comparison of the revised Delirium Rating Scale (DRS-R98) and the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) in a palliative care cohort with DSM-IV delirium.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Roisin; Meagher, David; Leonard, Maeve; Watne, Leiv Otto; Hall, Roanna J; Maclullich, Alasdair M J; Trzepacz, Paula; Adamis, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    Assessment of delirium is performed with a variety of instruments, making comparisons between studies difficult. A conversion rule between commonly used instruments would aid such comparisons. The present study aimed to compare the revised Delirium Rating Scale (DRS-R98) and Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) in a palliative care population and derive conversion rules between the two scales. Both instruments were employed to assess 77 consecutive patients with DSM-IV delirium, and the measures were repeated at three-day intervals. Conversion rules were derived from the data at initial assessment and tested on subsequent data. There was substantial overall agreement between the two scales [concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) = 0.70 (CI 95 = 0.60-0.78)] and between most common items (weighted κ ranging from 0.63 to 0.86). Although the two scales overlap considerably, there were some subtle differences with only modest agreement between the attention (weighted κ = 0.42) and thought process (weighted κ = 0.61) items. The conversion rule from total MDAS score to DRS-R98 severity scores demonstrated an almost perfect level of agreement (r = 0.86, CCC = 0.86; CI 95 = 0.79-0.91), similar to the conversion rule from DRS-R98 to MDAS. Overall, the derived conversion rules demonstrated promising accuracy in this palliative care population, but further testing in other populations is certainly needed.

  20. Assessment of electronic structure methods for the determination of the ground spin states of Fe(ii), Fe(iii) and Fe(iv) complexes.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pragya; Varga, Zoltan; Klein, Johannes E M N; Cramer, Christopher J; Que, Lawrence; Truhlar, Donald G

    2017-05-24

    Our ability to understand and simulate the reactions catalyzed by iron depends strongly on our ability to predict the relative energetics of spin states. In this work, we studied the electronic structures of Fe(2+) ion, gaseous FeO and 14 iron complexes using Kohn-Sham density functional theory with particular focus on determining the ground spin state of these species as well as the magnitudes of relevant spin-state energy splittings. The 14 iron complexes investigated in this work have hexacoordinate geometries of which seven are Fe(ii), five are Fe(iii) and two are Fe(iv) complexes. These are calculated using 20 exchange-correlation functionals. In particular, we use a local spin density approximation (LSDA) - GVWN5, four generalized gradient approximations (GGAs) - BLYP, PBE, OPBE and OLYP, two non-separable gradient approximations (NGAs) - GAM and N12, two meta-GGAs - M06-L and M11-L, a meta-NGA - MN15-L, five hybrid GGAs - B3LYP, B3LYP*, PBE0, B97-3 and SOGGA11-X, four hybrid meta-GGAs - M06, PW6B95, MPW1B95 and M08-SO and a hybrid meta-NGA - MN15. The density functional results are compared to reference data, which include experimental results as well as the results of diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations and ligand field theory estimates from the literature. For the Fe(2+) ion, all functionals except M11-L correctly predict the ground spin state to be quintet. However, quantitatively, most of the functionals are not close to the experimentally determined spin-state splitting energies. For FeO all functionals predict quintet to be the ground spin state. For the 14 iron complexes, the hybrid functionals B3LYP, MPW1B95 and MN15 correctly predict the ground spin state of 13 out of 14 complexes and PW6B95 gets all the 14 complexes right. The local functionals, OPBE, OLYP and M06-L, predict the correct ground spin state for 12 out of 14 complexes. Two of the tested functionals are not recommended to be used for this type of study, in particular M08-SO and M11

  1. TURN Score Predicts 24-Hour Cerebral Edema After IV Thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Asuzu, David; Nyström, Karin; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Schindler, Joseph; Wira, Charles; Greer, David; Halliday, Janet; Kimberly, W Taylor; Sheth, Kevin N

    2016-06-01

    Cerebral edema is associated with poor outcome after IV thrombolysis. We recently described the TURN score (Thrombolysis risk Using mRS and NIHSS), a predictor of severe outcome after IV thrombolysis. Our purpose was to evaluate its ability to predict 24-h cerebral edema. We retrospectively analyzed data from 303 patients who received IV rt-PA during the NINDS rt-PA trial. Measures of brain swelling included edema, mass effect and midline shift assessed at baseline, at 24 h and new onset at 24 h. Outcome was assessed using intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), 90-day severe outcome, and 90-day mortality. Statistical associations were assessed by logistic regression reporting odds ratios (OR) and by areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Baseline brain swelling did not predict poor outcome; however, 24-h brain swelling predicted ICH (OR 5.69, P < 0.001), sICH (OR 9.50, P = 0.01), 90-day severe outcome (OR 7.10, P < 0.001), and 90-day mortality (OR 5.65, P = 0.01). Similar results were seen for new brain swelling at 24 h. TURN predicted 24-hour brain swelling (OR 2.5, P < 0.001; AUROC 0.69, 95 % CI 0.63-0.75) and new brain swelling at 24 h (OR 2.1, P < 0.001; AUROC 0.67, 95 % CI 0.61-0.73). Cerebral edema at 24 h is associated with poor outcome and 90-day mortality. TURN predicts ischemic stroke patients who will develop 24-h cerebral edema after IV thrombolysis.

  2. Quantitative Assessment of Motor and Sensory/Motor Acquisition in Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Infants and Young Children. Volume IV: Application of the Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guess, Doug; And Others

    Three studies that applied quantitative procedures to measure motor and sensory/motor acquisition among handicapped and nonhandicapped infants and children are presented. In addition, a study concerning the replication of the quantitative procedures for assessing rolling behavior is described in a fourth article. The first study, by C. Janssen,…

  3. Improving study design for antidepressant effectiveness assessment.

    PubMed

    Naudet, Florian; Millet, Bruno; Reymann, Jean Michel; Falissard, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Antidepressants effectiveness in major depressive disorder (MDD) is still questioned because the extrapolation of randomized controlled trial (RCT) results to "real life" settings is problematic. The application of the RCT paradigm in a disorder of this type, where global care plays a central role, raises questions regarding the internal and external validity of this type of study. Outcome measurement, attrition rates, the ability of the double-blind design to control for expectations, placebo response, the representativeness of trial participants and publication bias are major methodological pitfalls. This review discusses these issues. It is illustrated using original data and proposes some alternatives for assessing antidepressant effectiveness via different approaches. Some are easy to implement, such as ecological measures, qualitative approaches, improvement of analytical strategy and improvement of blinding procedures. Some are sophisticated, involving temporary deception to deal with the confounding effect of expectations, and they raise ethical issues. Others resort to external validity, this being the case in observational studies. But all are necessary to explore antidepressant effectiveness.

  4. CDP-choline at high doses is as effective as i.v. thrombolysis in experimental animal stroke.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, María; Leciñana, María Alonso de; Rodríguez-Frutos, Berta; Ramos-Cejudo, Jaime; Roda, José María; Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2012-09-01

    Use of thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke may be limited by a narrow benefit/risk ratio. Pharmacological inhibition of the ischaemic cascade may constitute an effective and safer approach to stroke treatment. This study compared the effects of high doses of cytidine diphosphate-choline (CDP-choline; 1000 mg/kg) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; 5 mg/kg) in an experimental animal model of embolic stroke. Fifteen rats were embolized in the right internal carotid artery with an autologous clot and were divided into three groups: (1) infarct; (2) intravenous rt-PA 5 mg/kg 30 minutes post-embolization; and (3) CDP-choline 1000 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, three doses, 30 minutes, 24 hours, and 48 hours post-embolization. Functional evaluation scores were evaluated using Rogers test, lesion volume by haematoxylin and eosin staining, cell death with transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling, and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In this study, CDP-choline and rt-PA produced a significant reduction in brain damage considering infarct volume, cell death, and inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6) compared with the infarct group. Additionally, CDP-choline significantly decreased infarct volume, cell death, and IL-6 levels with respect to the rt-PA group. From these results, we conclude that high-dose CDP-choline may be an effective treatment for acute ischaemic stroke even in absence of thrombolysis.

  5. Optimizing IV and V for Mature Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhman, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    NASA is intending for its future software development agencies to have at least a Level 3 rating in the Carnegie Mellon University Capability Maturity Model (CMM). The CMM has built-in Verification and Validation (V&V) processes that support higher software quality. Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of software developed by mature agencies can be therefore more effective than for software developed by less mature organizations. How is Independent V&V different with respect to the maturity of an organization? Knowing a priori the maturity of an organization's processes, how can IV&V planners better identify areas of need choose IV&V activities, etc? The objective of this research is to provide a complementary set of guidelines and criteria to assist the planning of IV&V activities on a project using a priori knowledge of the measurable levels of maturity of the organization developing the software.

  6. Optimizing IV and V for Mature Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhman, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    NASA is intending for its future software development agencies to have at least a Level 3 rating in the Carnegie Mellon University Capability Maturity Model (CMM). The CMM has built-in Verification and Validation (V&V) processes that support higher software quality. Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of software developed by mature agencies can be therefore more effective than for software developed by less mature organizations. How is Independent V&V different with respect to the maturity of an organization? Knowing a priori the maturity of an organization's processes, how can IV&V planners better identify areas of need choose IV&V activities, etc? The objective of this research is to provide a complementary set of guidelines and criteria to assist the planning of IV&V activities on a project using a priori knowledge of the measurable levels of maturity of the organization developing the software.

  7. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  8. Sorption properties of Th(IV) on the raw diatomite--effects of contact time, pH, ionic strength and temperature.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guodong; Hu, Jun; Wang, Xiangke

    2008-10-01

    Diatomite has a number of unique physicochemical properties and has diversified industrial uses. Natural diatomite has been tested as a potential sorbent for the removal of Th(IV) from aqueous solutions. The results indicate that sorption of Th(IV) is strongly dependent on ionic strength at pH<3, and is independent of ionic strength at pH>3. Outer-sphere complexation or ion exchange may be the main sorption mechanism of Th(IV) to diatomite at low pH values, whereas the sorption of Th(IV) at pH>3 is mainly dominated by inner-sphere complexation or precipitation. The competition for Th(IV) between aqueous or surface adsorbed anions (e.g., herein ClO(4)(-), NO(3)(-) and Cl(-)) and surface functional groups of diatomite is important for Th(IV) sorption. The thermodynamic data (DeltaH(0), DeltaS(0), DeltaG(0)) are calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms. The results suggest that sorption process of Th(IV) on diatomite is spontaneous and endothermic.

  9. Size effects on cation heats of formation. IV. Methyl and ethyl substitutions in methyl, methylene, acetylene and ethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Sydney

    2015-08-01

    An empirical relation between the heat of formation of molecular ions and cation size is used to study the effects of methyl and ethyl substitution of hydrogen atoms on the cations of the CnHm hydrocarbons methyl, methylene, acetylene and ethene. The results provide tests of the graphical method, revealing regularities and irregularities in the empirical size relation used, as well as its value as a predictive tool for determining cation and neutral heats of formation. Of the 36 CnHm cations studied, only 5 have heats of formation listed in the renowned ATcT tables. Some CnHm cation heats of formation are questioned or eliminated, mainly in cases where multiple choices are available in the literature. Proposals are made for investigating or re-investigating the ionisation energies and the heats of formation of several of the molecules studied where no data previously exist or where our analysis suggests that more reliable values are needed. The relative effects of methyl and ethyl substitution on the thermodynamic stability of the series of alkyl-substituted CnHm cations are discussed.

  10. Understanding the Effectiveness of Online Peer Assessment: A Path Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jingyan; Zhang, Zhidong

    2012-01-01

    Peer assessment has been implemented in schools as both a learning tool and an assessment tool. Earlier studies have explored the effectiveness of peer assessment from different perspectives, such as domain knowledge and skills, peer assessment skills, and attitude changes. However, there is no holistic model describing the effects of cognitive…

  11. Understanding the Effectiveness of Online Peer Assessment: A Path Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jingyan; Zhang, Zhidong

    2012-01-01

    Peer assessment has been implemented in schools as both a learning tool and an assessment tool. Earlier studies have explored the effectiveness of peer assessment from different perspectives, such as domain knowledge and skills, peer assessment skills, and attitude changes. However, there is no holistic model describing the effects of cognitive…

  12. Immunoregulatory effects of covalent antigen-antibody complexes. IV. Priming and tolerance in T-dependent responses.

    PubMed Central

    Tite, J P; Morrison, C A; Taylor, R B

    1982-01-01

    Stable, covalently bonded, monomeric complexes of rabbit anti-NAP (4-azido-2-nitrophenyl) antibodies and NAP-bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase), when injected into mice, prime the subsequent response to a soluble challenge of RNase. This effect is shown to be dependent on an intact Fc portion of the rabbit antibody and not simply due to foreign determinants recognized on the latter. A study of the kinetics of elimination of radioiodinated complexes from the serum indicates that the generation of a primary anti-rabbit IgG response and subsequent clearance of the complex leads to priming of the anti-RNase response. If mice are previously rendered tolerant to rabbit IgG or the complexes are ultracentrifuged, the priming to RNase is often abolished and tolerance may be induced. PMID:6179858

  13. KOH concentration effect on the cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells. IV - Results of failure analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    Potassium hydroxide concentration effects on the cycle life of a Ni/H2 cell have been studied by carrying out a cycle life test on ten Ni/H2 boiler plate cells which contain electrolytes of various KOH concentrations. Failure analyses of these cells were carried out after completion of the life test, which accumulated up to 40,000 cycles at an 80-percent depth of discharge over a period of 3.7 years. These failure analyses included studies on changes of electrical characteristics of test cells, and component analyses after disassembly of the cell. The component analyses included visual inspections, dimensional changes, capacity measurements of nickel electrodes, scanning electron microscopy, surface area measurements, and chemical analyses. Results have indicated that failure mode and change in the nickel electrode varied as the concentration was varied, especially when the concentration was changed from 31 percent or higher to 26 percent or lower.

  14. Complements to nonperturbative treatment of radiative damping effect in dielectronic recombination: {delta}n=2 transition in C IV

    SciTech Connect

    Stancalie, V.

    2005-10-01

    The primary purpose of the present work is to provide new refined results from nonperturbative treatment of the radiative damping effect in dielectronic recombination. The present results are used to test and confirm previously reported method [V. Stancalie, Phys. Plasmas 12, 043301 (2005)] taking full account of the electron collision and radiative processes in a consistent way, when radiation field is considered to all orders. This work refers to the 1s{sup 2}2s5s({sup 1}S) and 1s{sup 2}2p7s({sup 1}P{sup 0}) configurations, embedded in the electric dipole field of the 2s-2p core transition in Li-like C ion. Comparisons with previously reported results are shown. This data are believed to be the first demonstration of {delta}n=2 channel in dielectronic recombination of Li-like into Be-like C and are important in plasma diagnostics.

  15. Behavioral studies with anxiolytic drugs. IV. Serotonergic involvement in the effects of buspirone on punished behavior of pigeons

    SciTech Connect

    Witkin, J.M.; Mansbach, R.S.; Barrett, J.E.; Bolger, G.T.; Skolnick, P.; Weissman, B.

    1987-12-01

    Interactions of the nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic, buspirone, with serotonin (5-HT) were studied using behavioral and neurochemical procedures. Punished responding was studied in pigeons as this behavior is a generally acknowledged preclinical predictor of anxiolytic activity and because buspirone increases punished responding of pigeons with greater potency and efficacy than in other species. Keypeck responses were maintained under either fixed-interval or fixed-ratio schedules of food presentation; every 30th response produced a brief electric shock and suppressed responding (punishment). Buspirone (0.1-5.6 mg/kg i.m.) produced dose-related increases in punished responding which reached a maximum at 1 mg/kg. A serotonin agonist, MK-212 (0.01 mg/kg), antagonized whereas the 5-HT antagonist, cyproheptadine (0.01 mg/kg), potentiated the effects of buspirone without having behavioral effects of their own. The characteristics of (/sup 3/H)-5-HT binding in pigeon brain membranes were similar to results reported in mammalian brain. Neither buspirone, MJ-13805 (gepirone, a related analog), nor MJ-13653 (a buspirone metabolite), significantly affected (/sup 3/H)-5-HT binding and none of the compounds appreciably inhibited uptake of (/sup 3/H)-5-HT into pigeon cerebral synaptosomes. Hill coefficients significantly less than unity for all drugs except 5-HT suggested multiple serotonergic binding sites for buspirone and analogs. Buspirone and MJ-13805 (1 nM) inhibited (/sup 3/H)ketanserin binding (a measure of 5-HT2 binding sites) in pigeon cerebrum with Ki values above 10(-6) M. The number of (/sup 3/H)ketanserin binding sites was estimated to be 109 fmol/mg of protein in pigeon cerebrum compared to 400 fmol/mg of protein in rat cerebrum.

  16. A sputnik IV saga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Charles A.

    2009-12-01

    The Sputnik IV launch occurred on May 15, 1960. On May 19, an attempt to deorbit a 'space cabin' failed and the cabin went into a higher orbit. The orbit of the cabin was monitored and Moonwatch volunteer satellite tracking teams were alerted to watch for the vehicle demise. On September 5, 1962, several team members from Milwaukee, Wisconsin made observations starting at 4:49 a.m. of a fireball following the predicted orbit of Sputnik IV. Requests went out to report any objects found under the fireball path. An early morning police patrol in Manitowoc had noticed a metal object on a street and had moved it to the curb. Later the officers recovered the object and had it dropped off at the Milwaukee Journal. The Moonwarch team got the object and reported the situation to Moonwatch Headquarters at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. A team member flew to Cambridge with the object. It was a solid, 9.49 kg piece of steel with a slag-like layer attached to it. Subsequent analyses showed that it contained radioactive nuclei produced by cosmic ray exposure in space. The scientists at the Observatory quickly recognized that measurements of its induced radioactivity could serve as a calibration for similar measurements of recently fallen nickel-iron meteorites. Concurrently, the Observatory directorate informed government agencies that a fragment from Sputnik IV had been recovered. Coincidently, a debate in the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space involved the issue of liability for damage caused by falling satellite fragments. On September 12, the Observatory delivered the bulk of the fragment to the US Delegation to the UN. Two days later, the fragment was used by US Ambassador Francis Plimpton as an exhibit that the time had come to agree on liability for damage from satellite debris. He offered the Sputnik IV fragment to USSR Ambassador P.D. Morozov, who refused the offer. On October 23, Drs. Alla Massevitch and E.K. Federov of the USSR visited the

  17. Silk fibroin/gelatin electrospun nanofibrous dressing functionalized with astragaloside IV induces healing and anti-scar effects on burn wound.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ying-Hui; Peng, Li-Hua; Liu, Xin; Chen, Xi; Xiong, Jie; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2015-02-20

    Functional wound dressing has provided new challenges for researchers who focus on burn to improve skin graft quality, reduce scarring, and develop a pluristratified dermal or epidermal construct of a burn wound. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a silk fibroin/gelatin (SF/GT) electrospun nanofibrous dressing loaded with astragaloside IV (AS) on deep partial-thickness burn wound. AS-loaded SF/GT-blended nanofibrous dressing was prepared by electrospinning nanotechnology. The optimal ratio (25:75) of silk fibroin to gelatin was further optimized by evaluating ATR-FTIR characteristics, mechanical properties, porosity, swelling rate, degradation, and release profile of the AS-loaded SF/GT nanofibrous dressing. In contrast to the blank control, the AS-loaded SF/GT nanofibrous dressing promoted cell adhesion and proliferation with good biocompatibility in vitro (p<0.01). This dressing also accelerated wound healing and inhibited scar formation in vivo by stimulating wound closure (p<0.05), increasing angiogenesis, regulating newly formed types of collagen, and improving collagen organization. These results showed that SF/GT nanofibrous dressing is a promising topical drug delivery system. Furthermore, AS-functionalized SF/GT nanofibrous dressing is an excellent topical therapeutic that could be applied to promote healing and elicit anti-scar effects on partial-thickness burn wound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Children with chronic lung diseases have cognitive dysfunction as assessed by event-related potential (auditory P300) and Stanford-Binet IQ (SB-IV) test.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Abd Elmonaem, Mahmoud Tarek; Khalil, Lobna Hamed; Goda, Mona Hamdy; Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Ramzy, Mourad Alfy

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) in children represents a heterogeneous group of many clinico-pathological entities with risk of adverse impact of chronic or intermittent hypoxia. So far, few researchers have investigated the cognitive function in these children, and the role of auditory P300 in the assessment of their cognitive function has not been investigated yet. This study was designed to assess the cognitive functions among schoolchildren with different chronic pulmonary diseases using both auditory P300 and Stanford-Binet test. This cross-sectional study included 40 school-aged children who were suffering from chronic chest troubles other than asthma and 30 healthy children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic state as a control group. All subjects were evaluated through clinical examination, radiological evaluation and spirometry. Audiological evaluation included (basic otological examination, pure-tone, speech audiometry and immittancemetry). Cognitive function was assessed by auditory P300 and psychological evaluation using Stanford-Binet test (4th edition). Children with chronic lung diseases had significantly lower anthropometric measures compared to healthy controls. They had statistically significant lower IQ scores and delayed P300 latencies denoting lower cognitive abilities. Cognitive dysfunction correlated to severity of disease. P300 latencies were prolonged among hypoxic patients. Cognitive deficits in children with different chronic lung diseases were best detected using both Stanford-Binet test and auditory P300. P300 is an easy objective tool. P300 is affected early with hypoxia and could alarm subtle cognitive dysfunction.

  19. Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/ and /l/: IV. Some effects of perceptual learning on speech production

    PubMed Central

    Bradlow, Ann R.; Pisoni, David B.; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Tohkura, Yoh’ichi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of training in /r/–/l/ perceptual identification on /r/–/l/ production by adult Japanese speakers. Subjects were recorded producing English words that contrast /r/ and /l/ before and after participating in an extended period of /r/–/l/ identification training using a high-variability presentation format. All subjects showed significant perceptual learning as a result of the training program, and this perceptual learning generalized to novel items spoken by new talkers. Improvement in the Japanese trainees’ /r/–/l/ spoken utterances as a consequence of perceptual training was evaluated using two separate tests with native English listeners. First, a direct comparison of the pretest and post-test tokens showed significant improvement in the perceived rating of /r/ and /l/ productions as a consequence of perceptual learning. Second, the post-test productions were more accurately identified by English listeners than the pretest productions in a two-alternative minimal-pair identification procedure. These results indicate that the knowledge gained during perceptual learning of /r/ and /l/ transferred to the production domain, and thus provides novel information regarding the relationship between speech perception and production. PMID:9104031

  20. Pharmacology of Casimiroa edulis IV. Hypotensive effects of compounds isolated from methanolic extracts in rats and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Magos, G A; Vidrio, H; Reynolds, W F; Enríquez, R G

    1999-01-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of the methanolic extract of seeds of Casimiroa edulis led to the isolation of seven constituents with cardiovascular activity, namely the new compound synephrine acetonide and the known compounds N-monomethylhistamine, N,N-dimethylhistamine, proline, N-methylproline, gamma-aminobutyric acid and casimiroedine. In anesthetized rats, both histamine derivatives produced transient hypotension mediated via H1-histaminergic receptors and in the case of N,N-dimethylhistamine, via nitric oxide release. Synephrine acetonide produced transient hypertension and tachycardia, mediated via alpha- and alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptores, respectively. The chromatographic zone containing N-methyproline, proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid elicited marked and prolonged hypotension. Finally, casimiroedine did not modify the blood pressure of anesthetized rats, but lowered it persistently in anesthetized guinea pigs. It was concluded that hypotension produced by C. edulis is due to several active components. The immediate effect can be attributed to the histamine derivatives acting on H1-receptors. More prolonged hypotension would be produced by the mixture of amino acids through an unknown mechanism, as well as by casimiroedine, possibly by activation of H3-receptors. Hypotension is partially offset by synephrine acetonide through adrenergic mechanisms.

  1. Scale Effects in Moral Relevance Assessment.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jonas; Rybak, Andrej

    2017-03-01

    Research on moral judgment often employs bipolar rating scales to assess whether the difference between two contrasted options is judged to be morally relevant. We give an account of how different numbers of response options provided on such scales (odd vs. even) change the meaning of the test question by communicating different implicit presuppositions. We demonstrate experimentally that these changes can qualitatively affect the moral relevance judgments that subjects express in response to a given judgment problem. Several alternative explanations in terms of trivial measurement distortion are tested and refuted, and we present suggestive evidence as to what kind of factors might be prone to scale effects. The findings underscore that expressed moral judgments are constructed ad hoc and do not necessarily reflect the content of underlying stable moral commitments. We discuss implications for theories and methodology in moral psychology and in judgment and decision-making research more generally.

  2. Survey to assess Persian Gulf spill effects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-10

    This paper reports that an international group is poised for an extensive survey of the Persian Gulf, including an assessment of the long term effects of last year's oil spill, a legacy of the Persian Gulf war. Saudi Arabia plans a $450 million cleanup program on beaches fouled by the massive spill. Plans for the survey were disclosed by the United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). It is to be carried out under the auspices of the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (Ropme), Unesco's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Ropme member countries are Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

  3. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illness in children. Part IV: Effects of housing and meteorologic factors on indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Spengler, J D; Schwab, M; McDermott, A; Lambert, W E; Samet, J M

    1996-12-01

    In a prospective study of infants' exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2)* and respiratory illness, NO2 concentrations were measured in more than 1,400 homes in Albequerque, NM, From January 1988 through June 1991 (Health Effects Institute Research Report Number 58, Parts I, II and III). This report characterizes the variability in indoor NO2 concentrations across seasons and years, and identifies factors associated with variation in concentrations between homes and across seasons. In regression analyses of winter data, NO2 levels in the infants' bedrooms were predominately determined by the presence of gas cooking ranges with continuously burning pilot lights, the presence of wall or floor furnaces, the use of the stove for space heating, and the square footage of the living space. These findings are consistent with previously published analysis of data from homes in other U.S. cities. Relatively small differences in seasonal NO2 levels were observed across years. The correlation coefficient (r) of bedroom NO2 levels obtained in the same homes was 0.66 over two winters and 0.48 over two summers. For homes that had gas cooking ranges with continuously burning pilot lights, the NO2 bedroom concentrations differed, on average, less than 5 parts per billion (ppb) across winters. These differences were hypothesized to be caused by differences in the use of indoor NO2 sources, ventilation, and ambient (outdoor) NO2 levels. We were, however, unable to demonstrate an association between year-to-year differences in seasonal indoor NO2 concentrations and reported use of cooking range, furnace, or heater, or ambient NO2 levels, or temperature.

  4. Effects of thermal annealing on the deep-level defects and I-V characteristics of 200 keV proton irradiated AlGaAs-GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, S. S.; Schoenfeld, D. W.; Chiu, T. T.; Loo, R. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed characterization of deep-level defects and analysis of dark I-V data in 200 keV proton irradiated AlGaAs-GaAs solar cells have been carried out for several proton fluences (5 x 10 to the 11th, 10 to the 12th, and 10 to the 13th P/sq cm), using DLTS, C-V, and I-V measurement techniques. To study the effect of low temperature thermal annealing on the deep-level defect properties, these irradiated samples were annealed in vacuum at 300 C for one hour. Comparison was then made on the measured defect parameters (i.e., defect energy levels and densities) and the dark I-V characteristics for both the annealed and unannealed samples.

  5. Predicting DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jie; Li, Chanjuan; Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Ye, Jiming; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a promising Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug target. DPP-IV inhibitors prolong the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), improve glucose homeostasis without weight gain, edema, and hypoglycemia. However, the marketed DPP-IV inhibitors have adverse effects such as nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity, skin reactions and pancreatitis. Therefore, it is still expected for novel DPP-IV inhibitors with minimal adverse effects. The scaffolds of existing DPP-IV inhibitors are structurally diversified. This makes it difficult to build virtual screening models based upon the known DPP-IV inhibitor libraries using conventional QSAR approaches. In this paper, we report a new strategy to predict DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches involving naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods. We built 247 machine learning models based on 1307 known DPP-IV inhibitors with optimized molecular properties and topological fingerprints as descriptors. The overall predictive accuracies of the optimized models were greater than 80%. An external test set, composed of 65 recently reported compounds, was employed to validate the optimized models. The results demonstrated that both NB and RP models have a good predictive ability based on different combinations of descriptors. Twenty "good" and twenty "bad" structural fragments for DPP-IV inhibitors can also be derived from these models for inspiring the new DPP-IV inhibitor scaffold design.

  6. Predicting DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jie; Li, Chanjuan; Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Ye, Jiming; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a promising Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug target. DPP-IV inhibitors prolong the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), improve glucose homeostasis without weight gain, edema, and hypoglycemia. However, the marketed DPP-IV inhibitors have adverse effects such as nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity, skin reactions and pancreatitis. Therefore, it is still expected for novel DPP-IV inhibitors with minimal adverse effects. The scaffolds of existing DPP-IV inhibitors are structurally diversified. This makes it difficult to build virtual screening models based upon the known DPP-IV inhibitor libraries using conventional QSAR approaches. In this paper, we report a new strategy to predict DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches involving naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods. We built 247 machine learning models based on 1307 known DPP-IV inhibitors with optimized molecular properties and topological fingerprints as descriptors. The overall predictive accuracies of the optimized models were greater than 80%. An external test set, composed of 65 recently reported compounds, was employed to validate the optimized models. The results demonstrated that both NB and RP models have a good predictive ability based on different combinations of descriptors. Twenty "good" and twenty "bad" structural fragments for DPP-IV inhibitors can also be derived from these models for inspiring the new DPP-IV inhibitor scaffold design.

  7. Predicting DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jie; Li, Chanjuan; Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Ye, Jiming; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2017-02-02

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a promising Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug target. DPP-IV inhibitors prolong the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), improve glucose homeostasis without weight gain, edema, and hypoglycemia. However, the marketed DPP-IV inhibitors have adverse effects such as nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity, skin reactions and pancreatitis. Therefore, it is still expected for novel DPP-IV inhibitors with minimal adverse effects. The scaffolds of existing DPP-IV inhibitors are structurally diversified. This makes it difficult to build virtual screening models based upon the known DPP-IV inhibitor libraries using conventional QSAR approaches. In this paper, we report a new strategy to predict DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches involving naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods. We built 247 machine learning models based on 1307 known DPP-IV inhibitors with optimized molecular properties and topological fingerprints as descriptors. The overall predictive accuracies of the optimized models were greater than 80%. An external test set, composed of 65 recently reported compounds, was employed to validate the optimized models. The results demonstrated that both NB and RP models have a good predictive ability based on different combinations of descriptors. Twenty "good" and twenty "bad" structural fragments for DPP-IV inhibitors can also be derived from these models for inspiring the new DPP-IV inhibitor scaffold design.

  8. Analysis of the effects of vertical grid resolution on the performance of the UAM-IV vs. UAM-V in the Lake Michigan region

    SciTech Connect

    Fernau, M.E.; Moore, G.E.

    1996-12-31

    As part of the Cooperative Regional Model Evaluation (CReME) study, it was found that there was little difference in the abilities of the UAM-IV and UAM-V photochemical models to simulate the observed ozone concentrations during two 1991 ozone episodes in the Lake Michigan region. However, it was noted that UAM-V underpredicts the ozone precursors such as volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides (VOC and NO{sub x}) by less than does UAM-IV when compared to the extensive three-dimensional observations made during the Lake Michigan Ozone Study. UAM-IV was implemented using five vertical layers that can vary in thickness with space and time, depending on the local mixing depth. UAM-V was run using eight fixed layers with high resolution near the ground. It was hypothesized that UAM-IV`s relative inability to capture detailed spatial variability in the precursor fields could be due in large part to the diminished resolution of the model compared to UAM-V. In this paper, results from a ten-layer version of UAM-IV are compared to both UAM-V and the five-layer version of UAM-IV, using detailed ozone and ozone precursor measurements from both the surface and aircraft.

  9. [Effect of predosing with Y-12,141 on its antiallergic activity. --Studies on anti-allergic agents(IV)-- (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Goto, K; Terasawa, M; Komori, A; Maruyama, Y

    1981-02-01

    Y-12, 141 (0.1 approximately 0.3 mg/kg) given i.v. 1 min before the antigen challenge inhibited both the 48-hour passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and active anaphylactic bronchoconstriction of rats mediated by IgE-like antibody. The anti-PCA activity of Y-12, 141 (0.3 mg/kg i.v.) given 1 min before the antigen challenge decreased significantly by predosing with Y-12, 141 (1 approximately 3 mg/kg i.v.) 60 min before the antigen challenge. The induction of tachyphylaxis in the PCA test appeared to depend on the doses in internal between predosing and second dosing. The anti-PCA activity of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) at a dose of 1 mg/kg i.v. decreased significantly by predosing with DSCG (10 mg/kg i.v.) 30 min before the antigen challenge. Cross-tachyphylaxis between Y-12, 141 and DSCG was observed in the PCA test. The tachyphylaxis to Y-12, 141 was more readily induced in the PCA than in the bronchoconstriction. The inhibitory activity of Y-12, 141 (0.3 mg/kg i.v.) given 1 min before the antigen challenge in the PCA and bronchoconstriction was not affected by predosing with Y-12, 141 (1 mg/kg p.o. or s.c.) for 7 days.

  10. Beyond the floor effect on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--4th Ed. (WISC-IV): calculating IQ and Indexes of subjects presenting a floored pattern of results.

    PubMed

    Orsini, A; Pezzuti, L; Hulbert, S

    2015-05-01

    It is now widely known that children with severe intellectual disability show a 'floor effect' on the Wechsler scales. This effect emerges because the practice of transforming raw scores into scaled scores eliminates any variability present in participants with low intellectual ability and because intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are limited insofar as they do not measure scores lower than 40. Following Hessl et al.'s results, the present authors propose a method for the computation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--4th Ed. (WISC-IV)'s IQ and Indexes in intellectually disabled participants affected by a floored pattern of results. The Italian standardization sample (n = 2200) for the WISC-IV was used. The method presented in this study highlights the limits of the 'floor effect' of the WISC-IV in children with serious intellectual disability who present a profile with weighted scores of 1 in all the subtests despite some variability in the raw scores. Such method eliminates the floor effect of the scale and therefore makes it possible to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the WISC-IV's Indexes in these participants. The Authors reflect on clinical utility of this method and on the meaning of raw score of 0 on subtest. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Biochemical characterization of ketosis-resistant young diabetics of northern India. In vivo effects of i.v. glucose, s.c. epinephrine and i.v. glucagon and in vitro effects of anti-insulin serum on adipose tissue lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Krishna Ram, B; Sachdev, G; Chopra, A; Karmarkar, M G

    1984-01-01

    Epinephrine (10 micrograms/kg body weight) s.c., glucagon (1 microgram/kg body weight) i.v. and glucose (0.5 g/kg body weight) i.v. were injected in groups of ketosis-prone young diabetics, ketosis-resistant young diabetics, maturity-onset diabetics, young and mature controls, each group comprising 8 subjects. Samples were drawn at timed intervals and analyzed for glucose, FFA, acetone, citrate and plasma free insulin. FFA and glycerol release by the adipose tissue in vitro was studied in 6 of each of the following groups: young diabetics and young controls in the presence of norepinephrine, anti-insulin serum or both. Failure of the adipose tissue of ketosis-resistant young diabetics to respond to lipolytic and ketogenic hormones has been suggested by others as the basis for the clinically observed resistance to ketoacidosis. The present data do not confirm any failure of the liver or adipose tissue to respond to glucagon, epinephrine or norepinephrine in these diabetics. The ketosis-resistant young diabetics have some endogenous insulin secretory capacity still preserved as evident from their basal and post-glucose free insulin levels and effects of anti-insulin serum on in vitro lipolysis by their adipose tissues. The available endogenous insulin though adequate in preventing excessive lipolysis and ketogenesis, appears insufficient to check hyperglycemia.

  12. New therapeutic approach to Tourette Syndrome in children based on a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase IV study of the effectiveness and safety of magnesium and vitamin B6

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lopez, Rafael; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Garcia, Cesar Ruiz; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Romero-Gonzalez, Julio; Moreno, Jose L; Faus, Vicente; Aguas, Guadalupe del Castillo; Diaz, Juan C Ramos

    2009-01-01

    Background Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurological condition presenting chronic motor and phonic tics, and important degree of comorbidity. Considered an uncommon illness, it first becomes apparent during childhood. Current standard treatment only achieves partial control of the condition, and provokes frequent, and sometimes severe, side effects. Methods and design Main aim: To show that, with respect to placebo treatment, the combination of 0.5 mEq/Kg magnesium and 2 mg/Kg vitamin B6 reduces motor and phonic tics and incapacity in cases of exacerbated TS among children aged 7–14 years, as measured on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Secondary aims: Assess the safety of the treatment. Describe metabolic changes revealed by PET. Measure the impact of the experimental treatment on family life. Methodology Randomized, blinded clinical trials. Phase IV study (new proposal for treatment with magnesium and vitamin B6). Scope: children in the geographic area of the study group. Recruitment of subjects: to include patients diagnosed with TS, in accordance with DSM-IV criteria (307.23), during a period of exacerbation, and provided none of the exclusion criteria are met. Instrumentation: clinical data and the YGTSS score will be obtained at the outset of a period of exacerbation (t0). The examinations will be made after 15 (t1), 30 (t2), 60 (t3) and 90 days (t4). PET will be performed at the t0 and t4. We evaluated decrease in the overall score (t0, t1, t2, t3, t4), PET variations, and impact made by the treatment on the patient's life (Psychological General Well-Being Index). Discussion Few clinical trials have been carried out on children with TS, but they are necessary, as current treatment possibilities are insufficient and often provoke side effects. The difficulty of dealing with an uncommon illness makes designing such a study all the more complicated. The present study seeks to overcome possible methodological problems by implementing a prior, phase

  13. New therapeutic approach to Tourette Syndrome in children based on a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase IV study of the effectiveness and safety of magnesium and vitamin B6.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Rafael; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Garcia, Cesar Ruiz; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Romero-Gonzalez, Julio; Moreno, Jose L; Faus, Vicente; Aguas, Guadalupe del Castillo; Diaz, Juan C Ramos

    2009-03-10

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurological condition presenting chronic motor and phonic tics, and important degree of comorbidity. Considered an uncommon illness, it first becomes apparent during childhood. Current standard treatment only achieves partial control of the condition, and provokes frequent, and sometimes severe, side effects. Main aim: To show that, with respect to placebo treatment, the combination of 0.5 mEq/Kg magnesium and 2 mg/Kg vitamin B6 reduces motor and phonic tics and incapacity in cases of exacerbated TS among children aged 7-14 years, as measured on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Secondary aims: Assess the safety of the treatment. Describe metabolic changes revealed by PET. Measure the impact of the experimental treatment on family life. Randomized, blinded clinical trials. Phase IV study (new proposal for treatment with magnesium and vitamin B6). children in the geographic area of the study group. Recruitment of subjects: to include patients diagnosed with TS, in accordance with DSM-IV criteria (307.23), during a period of exacerbation, and provided none of the exclusion criteria are met. clinical data and the YGTSS score will be obtained at the outset of a period of exacerbation (t0). The examinations will be made after 15 (t1), 30 (t2), 60 (t3) and 90 days (t4). PET will be performed at the t0 and t4. We evaluated decrease in the overall score (t0, t1, t2, t3, t4), PET variations, and impact made by the treatment on the patient's life (Psychological General Well-Being Index). Few clinical trials have been carried out on children with TS, but they are necessary, as current treatment possibilities are insufficient and often provoke side effects. The difficulty of dealing with an uncommon illness makes designing such a study all the more complicated. The present study seeks to overcome possible methodological problems by implementing a prior, phase II study, in order to calculate the relevant statistical parameters and to

  14. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Effects - References

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  15. PMD IVS Analysis Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornatore, Vincenza

    2013-01-01

    The main activities carried out at the PMD (Politecnico di Milano DIIAR) IVS Analysis Center during 2012 are briefly higlighted, and future plans for 2013 are sketched out. We principally continued to process European VLBI sessions using different approaches to evaluate possible differences due to various processing choices. Then VLBI solutions were also compared to the GPS ones as well as the ones calculated at co-located sites. Concerning the observational aspect, several tests were performed to identify the most suitable method to achieve the highest possible accuracy in the determination of GNSS (GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM) satellite positions using the VLBI technique.

  16. Fabrication of a Core-Shell-Type Photocatalyst via Photodeposition of Group IV and V Transition Metal Oxyhydroxides: An Effective Surface Modification Method for Overall Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Takata, Tsuyoshi; Pan, Chengsi; Nakabayashi, Mamiko; Shibata, Naoya; Domen, Kazunari

    2015-08-05

    The design of optimal surface structures for photocatalysts is a key to efficient overall water splitting into H2 and O2. A unique surface modification method was devised for a photocatalyst to effectively promote overall water splitting. Photodeposition of amorphous oxyhydroxides of group IV and V transition metals (Ti, Nb, Ta) over a semiconductor photocatalyst from corresponding water-soluble metal peroxide complexes was examined. In this method, amorphous oxyhydroxide covered the whole surface of the photocatalyst particles, creating a core-shell structure. The water splitting behavior of the novel core-shell-type photocatalyst in relation to the permeation behavior of the coating layer was investigated in detail. Overall water splitting proceeded successfully after the photodeposition, owing to the prevention of the reverse reaction. The photodeposited oxyhydroxide layers were found to function as molecular sieves, selectively filtering reactant and product molecules. By exploiting the selective permeability of the coating layer, redox reactions on the photocatalyst surface could be suitably controlled, which resulted in successful overall water splitting.

  17. Chelate vs monodentate amine effects. Direct comparison of bis(acetato)amminedichloro(cyclohexylamine)platinum(IV) (JM216) with its N-cyclohexyl-1,3-propanediamine analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-A.; Kang, Shin Won; Park, Jong Yul; Jung, Ok-Sang

    2003-10-01

    In order to investigate the chelate effects on physicochemical properties including antitumor activity, new cis, trans, cis,-[Pt IVCl 2L 2(chpda)] complexes (L=OH, OCOCH 3; chpda= N-cyclohexyl-1,3-propanediamine) have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of cis, trans, cis-[Pt IVCl 2(OCOCH 3) 2(chpda)] (monoclinic P2 1/ a, a=7.947(1), b=22.753(11), and c=10.581(3) Å, β=110.70(2)°, V=1790(1) Å 3, Z=4, R=0.0534) shows that the platinum(IV) center adopts a typical octahedral arrangement with two acetate groups in a trans position. The pattern and strength of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds are delicately different from those of JM216. Both in vitro and in vivo (oral) cytotoxicities on mouse leukemia L1210 cell line indicate that the activity of chpda chelate analogue is not better than that of the corresponding compound with two monodentate amines (JM216).

  18. Effect of pH on the structure, function, and stability of human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV: combined spectroscopic and MD simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Naz, Huma; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Bisetty, Krishna; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-06-01

    Human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CAMKIV) is a member of Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is regulated by the calcium-calmodulin dependent signal through a secondary messenger, Ca(2+), which leads to the activation of its autoinhibited form. The over-expression and mutation in CAMKIV as well as change in Ca(2+) concentration is often associated with numerous neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. We have successfully cloned, expressed, and purified a functionally active kinase domain of human CAMKIV. To observe the effect of different pH conditions on the structural and functional properties of CAMKIV, we have used spectroscopic techniques such as circular diachroism (CD) absorbance and fluorescence. We have observed that within the pH range 5.0-11.5, CAMKIV maintained both its secondary and tertiary structures, along with its function, whereas significant aggregation was observed at acidic pH (2.0-4.5). We have also performed ATPase activity assays under different pH conditions and found a significant correlation between the structure and enzymatic activities of CAMKIV. In-silico validations were further carried out by modeling the 3-dimensional structure of CAMKIV and then subjecting it to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to understand its conformational behavior in explicit water conditions. A strong correlation between spectroscopic observations and the output of molecular dynamics simulation was observed for CAMKIV.

  19. Game Assessment: Fun as Well as Effective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrochers, Marcie N.; Pusateri, Michael J., Jr.; Fink, Herbert C.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative methods of assessing student knowledge are useful since assessment is increasingly being emphasized by administrators, accrediting agencies and legislators. A game (team) format to assess students' knowledge of course material was experimentally compared with the traditional format of testing a student who answers individually.…

  20. [18F]FDG PET/CT-based response assessment of stage IV non-small cell lung cancer treated with paclitaxel-carboplatin-bevacizumab with or without nitroglycerin patches.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Evelyn E C; van Elmpt, Wouter; Leijenaar, Ralph T H; Hoekstra, Otto S; Groen, Harry J M; Smit, Egbert F; Boellaard, Ronald; van der Noort, Vincent; Troost, Esther G C; Lambin, Philippe; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C

    2017-01-01

    Nitroglycerin (NTG) is a vasodilating drug, which increases tumor blood flow and consequently decreases hypoxia. Therefore, changes in [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG PET) uptake pattern may occur. In this analysis, we investigated the feasibility of [18F]FDG PET for response assessment to paclitaxel-carboplatin-bevacizumab (PCB) treatment with and without NTG patches. And we compared the [18F]FDG PET response assessment to RECIST response assessment and survival. A total of 223 stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were included in a phase II study (NCT01171170) randomizing between PCB treatment with or without NTG patches. For 60 participating patients, a baseline and a second [18F]FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) scan, performed between day 22 and 24 after the start of treatment, were available. Tumor response was defined as a 30 % decrease in CT and PET parameters, and was compared to RECIST response at week 6. The predictive value of these assessments for progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed with and without NTG. A 30 % decrease in SUVpeak assessment identified more patients as responders compared to a 30 % decrease in CT diameter assessment (73 % vs. 18 %), however, this was not correlated to OS (SUVpeak30 p = 0.833; CTdiameter30 p = 0.557). Changes in PET parameters between the baseline and the second scan were not significantly different for the NTG group compared to the control group (p value range 0.159-0.634). The CT-based (part of the [18F]FDG PET/CT) parameters showed a significant difference between the baseline and the second scan for the NTG group compared to the control group (CT diameter decrease of 7 ± 23 % vs. 19 ± 14 %, p = 0.016, respectively). The decrease in tumoral FDG uptake in advanced NSCLC patients treated with chemotherapy with and without NTG did not differ between both treatment arms. Early PET-based response assessment

  1. The effects of a TGR5 agonist and a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakanaka, Taisuke; Inoue, Takuya; Yorifuji, Naoki; Iguchi, Munetaka; Fujiwara, Kaori; Narabayashi, Ken; Kakimoto, Kazuki; Nouda, Sadaharu; Okada, Toshihiko; Kuramoto, Takanori; Ishida, Kumi; Abe, Yosuke; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Umegaki, Eiji; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Luminal nutrients stimulate enteroendocrine L cells to release gut hormones, including intestinotrophic glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). Because L cells express the bile acid receptor TGR5 and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) rapidly degrades GLPs, we hypothesized that luminal TGR5 activation may attenuate intestinal injury via GLP-2 release, which is enhanced by DPPIV inhibition. Methods Intestinal injury was induced in mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water (free access to water containing 5% DSS for 7 days). The selective TGR5 agonist betulinic acid (BTA) and the DPPIV inhibitor sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate (STG) were administered orally for 7 days. Male C57BL/6 mice (6–7 weeks old) were divided into five groups: normal control group, disease control group, BTA low group (drinking water containing 15 mg/L BTA), BTA high group (50 mg/L BTA), and BTA high + STG (3 mg/kg, i.g.) group. Results The selective TGR5 agonist BTA dose-dependently suppressed disease activity index and mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the colon. Nevertheless, STG administration had little additive effect on BTA-induced protection. Fibroblast activation protein mRNA expression, but not expression of other DPP family members, was increased in the colon of DSS-treated mice with increased mucosal DPPIV. Co-administration of the selective GLP-2 antagonist GLP-2 (3–33) reversed the effect of BTA. Conclusion The selective TGR5 agonist BTA ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in mice via the GLP-2 pathway with no effect of DPPIV inhibition, suggesting that other DPP enzymatic activity is involved in GLP-2 degradation. PMID:25827806

  2. Cocaine self-administration punished by i.v. histamine in rat models of high and low drug abuse vulnerability: effects of saccharin preference, impulsivity, and sex.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Nathan A; Anker, Justin J; Regier, Paul S; Claxton, Alex; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2013-10-02

    A key feature of substance use disorders is continued drug consumption despite aversive consequences. This has been modeled in the animal laboratory by pairing drug self-administration with electric shock, thereby punishing drug intake (Deroche-Gamonet et al. 2004). In the present experiments, we examined the effects of punishment on i.v. cocaine self-administration by adding histamine to the cocaine solution with three different animal models of high and low vulnerability to drug abuse: rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin consumption, rats selected for high (HiI) and low (LoI) impulsivity, and sex differences. Animals were allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/infusion) to establish a baseline of operant responding. Histamine (4.0mg/kg/infusion) was then added directly into the cocaine solution and its consequent effects on self-administration were compared to baseline. The histamine+cocaine solution was then replaced with a cocaine-only solution, and the rats' operant responding was again compared to baseline. Concurrent histamine exposure was effective in reducing cocaine consumption in all groups of rats; however, LoS and female rats took longer to return to baseline levels of cocaine consumption after histamine was removed compared to HiS and male rats. These data suggest that the reduction of drug self-administration by aversive consequences may differ in groups that vary in drug use vulnerability . Such results may inform pharmacological strategies that enhance the negative aspects of drug consumption. © 2013.

  3. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor vildagliptin suppresses development of neuropathy in diabetic rodents: Effects on peripheral sensory nerve function, structure and molecular changes.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Kentaro; Mizukami, Hiroki; Inaba, Wataru; Baba, Masayuki; Yagihashi, Soroku

    2015-11-25

    Incretin-related therapy was found to be beneficial for experimental diabetic neuropathy, but its mechanism is obscure. The purpose of this study is to explore the mechanism through which dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, vildagliptin (VG), influences neuropathy in diabetic rodents. To this end, non-obese type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats (GK) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were treated with VG orally. Neuropathy was evaluated by nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in both GK and STZ-diabetic mice, whereas calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) expressions, neuronal cell size of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) were examined in GK. DRG from GK and STZ-diabetic mice served for analyses of GLP-1 and insulin signaling. As results, VG-treatment improved glucose intolerance and increased serum insulin and GLP-1 in GK accompanied by the amelioration of delayed NCV and neuronal atrophy, reduced CGRP expressions and IENFD. Diet restriction alone did not significantly influence these measures. Impaired GLP-1 signals such as CREB, PKB/Akt and S6RP in DRG of GK were restored in VG-treated group, but the effect was equivocal in diet-treated GK. Concurrently, decreased phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2) in GK was corrected by VG-treatment. Consistent with the effect on GK, VG-treatment improved NCV in diabetic mice without influence on hyperglycemia. DRG of VG-treated diabetic mice were characterized by correction of GLP-1 signals and IRS2 phosphorylation without effects on insulin receptor-β expression. The results suggest close association of neuropathy development with impaired signaling of insulin and GLP-1 in diabetic rodents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Assessment of Process after Receiving Teacher Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruegg, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the effect of assessing both process and product compared to assessing written products alone. Two groups of students received teacher feedback over a one-year period. One group was assessed on their revisions in addition to the quality of final drafts, while a second group was assessed on the quality of final…

  5. Alternate Assessments as One Measure of Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Jacqueline F.; Kleinert, Harold L.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Gong, Brian; Quenemoen, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) flexibility requires states to develop and implement teacher effectiveness measures that consider student assessment results, including assessment results for students with disabilities participating in general and alternate assessments. We describe how alternate assessment results for students with…

  6. Alternate Assessments as One Measure of Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Jacqueline F.; Kleinert, Harold L.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Gong, Brian; Quenemoen, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) flexibility requires states to develop and implement teacher effectiveness measures that consider student assessment results, including assessment results for students with disabilities participating in general and alternate assessments. We describe how alternate assessment results for students with…

  7. The Effect of Assessment of Process after Receiving Teacher Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruegg, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the effect of assessing both process and product compared to assessing written products alone. Two groups of students received teacher feedback over a one-year period. One group was assessed on their revisions in addition to the quality of final drafts, while a second group was assessed on the quality of final…

  8. Comprehensive summary--Predict-IV: A systems toxicology approach to improve pharmaceutical drug safety testing.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Stefan O; Dekant, Wolfgang; Jennings, Paul; Testai, Emanuela; Bois, Frederic

    2015-12-25

    This special issue of Toxicology in Vitro is dedicated to disseminating the results of the EU-funded collaborative project "Profiling the toxicity of new drugs: a non animal-based approach integrating toxicodynamics and biokinetics" (Predict-IV; Grant 202222). The project's overall aim was to develop strategies to improve the assessment of drug safety in the early stage of development and late discovery phase, by an intelligent combination of non animal-based test systems, cell biology, mechanistic toxicology and in silico modeling, in a rapid and cost effective manner. This overview introduces the scope and overall achievements of Predict-IV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Expanding the Ecological Validity of WAIS-IV and WMS-IV with the Texas Functional Living Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdick, Lisa Whipple; Cullum, C. Munro

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of functional status is an important aspect of clinical evaluation. As part of the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), participants completed the Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), a measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The…

  10. Expanding the Ecological Validity of WAIS-IV and WMS-IV with the Texas Functional Living Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdick, Lisa Whipple; Cullum, C. Munro

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of functional status is an important aspect of clinical evaluation. As part of the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), participants completed the Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), a measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The…

  11. Deciphering the effect of an oxovanadium(iv) complex with the flavonoid chrysin (VOChrys) on intracellular cell signalling pathways in an osteosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    León, Ignacio E; Díez, Paula; Etcheverry, Susana B; Fuentes, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Vanadium complexes were studied during recent years and considered as a representative of a new class of non-platinum metal antitumor agents in combination with their low toxicity. However, a few challenges still remain in the discovery of new molecular targets for these novel metal-based drugs. The study of cell signaling pathways related to vanadium drugs, which is highly critical for identifying specific targets that play an important role in the antitumor activity of vanadium compounds, is scarce. This research deals with the alterations in intracellular signaling pathways promoted by an oxovanadium(iv) complex with the flavonoid chrysin [VO(chrysin)2EtOH]2 (VOChrys) in a human osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63). Herein we report for the first time the effect of [VO(chrysin)2EtOH]2 on the relative abundance of 224 proteins, which are involved in the most common intracellular pathways. Besides, full-length human recombinant (FAK and AKT1) kinases are produced using an in situ IVTT system and then we have evaluated the variation of relative tyrosine-phosphorylation levels caused by the [VO(chrysin)2EtOH]2 compound. The results of the differential protein expression levels reveal that several proteins such as PKB/AKT, PAK, DAPK, Cdk 4, 6 and 7, FADD, AP2, NAK, and JNK, among others, were altered. Moreover, cell signaling pathways related to the PTK2B, FAK, PKC families suggests an important role associated with the antitumor activity of [VO(chrysin)2EtOH]2 was demonstrated. Finally, the effect of this compound on in situ expressed FAK and AKT1 is validated by determining the phosphorylation level, which decreased in the former and increased in the latter.

  12. [Lowering plasma homocysteine with vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid. Effect on lipids concentration in patients with secondary hyperlipoproteinemia type IV, with and without Lovastatina treatment].

    PubMed

    Garcés P, Antonio; Morón de Salim, Alba; Garcés, Anthony; Garcés, Albert

    2006-03-01

    The concentration of plasma homocysteine was diminished by the oral use of vitamins B6 (300 mg/day), B12 (250 microg/day) and folic acid (10 mg/day), and the effect was studied in the lipids of patient with hiperlipoproteinemia secondary type IV, during 120 days, in 30 patients, 45 to 70 years old, with myocardial heart attack. They were divided in group A (n=15) without treatment with Lovastatin and group B (n=15) with Lovastatin. Basal homocysteine concentration was 17.4 +/- 1.0 micromol/L and 16.7 +/- 1.0 micromol/L for the groups A and B respectively, diminishing 24% at the end of the experimental time, in both groups. Total cholesterol decreased below 220 mg/dl, while the triglycerides diminished 25.4 mg/dl and 27.0 mg/dl in groups A and B respectively, by each micromol/L of homocysteine catabolissed. Low density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density (VLDL) diminished significantly (p < 0.005), while the high-density (HDL) increased 1.0 mg/dl in group A and 1.15 mg/dl in group B, for each micromol/L of homocysteine metabolized, lowering the coronary risk factor in 28.5% group A and 35.9% group B. We concluded that these vitamins decreased plasma homocysteine concentration, promoting the lowering of lipids and lipoprotein concentratation in this type of patients; while Lovastatin doesn't reduce homocysteine, but it had a synergic effect with the vitamins, dicreasing the lipid concentration, in group B.

  13. Anti-obesity effects of KR-66195, a synthetic DPP-IV inhibitor, in diet-induced obese mice and obese-diabetic ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Yeon Wook; Oh, Hyunhee; Choi, Cheol Soo; Ahn, Jin Hee; Lee, Byung-Wan; Kang, Eun Seok; Cha, Bong Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2014-06-01

    We investigated whether KR-66195, a new synthetic dipeptidyl dipeptidase IV inhibitor, could prevent weight gain, as well as improving glycemic control in diet-induced obese (DIO) and ob/ob mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the following groups: chow diet, high-fat diet, and high-fat diet with KR-66195. After KR-66195 treatment for eight weeks, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests were performed. A pair-feeding study was performed to investigate the mechanisms of the anti-obesity effects of KR-66195 in DIO mice. Female ob/ob mice were treated with KR-66195 for three weeks and compared to the vehicle-treated group. In DIO mice, KR-66195 treatment increased the plasma glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 levels and improved glucose tolerance. This treatment also reduced body weight gain (5.38±0.94 g vs. 12.08±0.55 g, P<0.01) and food intake (2.41±0.09 g vs. 2.79±0.11 g, P<0.05). In ob/ob mice, KR-66195 treatment for three weeks resulted in comparable effects in DIO mice. In the pair-feeding study, KR-66195-treated mice exhibited a 16% increase in energy expenditure (kcal/h/kg lean body mass) without significant differences in body weight or activities compared with pair-fed mice. These results suggest that KR-66195 prevented weight gain in DIO mice by decreasing food intake, as well as increasing energy expenditure. KR-66195 markedly increased plasma levels of GLP-1, resulting in the probable improvement in glucose tolerance and reduced body weight and food intake. Thus, KR-66195 might be further developed as a therapeutic drug to treat obesity, as well as diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Open, multi-center, phase IV study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of triptorelin in Taiwanese patients with advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chien-Chang; Chang, Yen-Hwa; Wu, Tony; Sun, Guang-Huan; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Chang, Sun-Yran; Cha, Tai-Lung

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of administering a 3-month formulation of triptorelin as part of disease management of Taiwanese men with advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Patients with newly diagnosed, locally advanced, or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate were enrolled in our study, after informed consent was obtained. All patients received bicalutamide 50 mg daily for 28 days, starting 7 days before the first injection of triptorelin. A dosage of 11.25 mg triptorelin was injected on Day 0 (baseline) and repeated on Day 90. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and testosterone concentrations were measured on Days 90 and 180. A total of 41 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 78 (57-92) years, and a baseline median PSA of 122.69 ng/mL. One patient dropped out of the study, one was excluded in the fourth month due to a protocol violation, and one died 4 months after initiation of treatment as a result of disease progression. In total, 40 men were eligible for Day 90 and 38 men for Day 180 analysis. On Day 90, 97.5% of men had reached castration testosterone concentration ≤0.5 ng/mL, and all men had reached this concentration on Day 180. Serum PSA concentration declined to 10.40 ± 23.42 ng/mL on Day 90 (p = 0.0126) and 11.61 ± 23.93 ng/mL on Day 180 (p = 0.0172). The most frequently seen adverse event was gastrointestinal disturbance, including abdominal pain, diarrhea and constipation. Generally, adverse events were mild and patient manageable. Triptorelin 11.25 mg is effective in achieving medical castration and lowering PSA concentrations and can maintain its medicinal effect for at least 90 days in Taiwanese men with advanced prostate cancer. This suggests that it can be an effective treatment for advanced prostatic cancer. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Valuing a More Rigorous Review of Formative Assessment's Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apthorp, Helen; Klute, Mary; Petrites, Tony; Harlacher, Jason; Real, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Prior reviews of evidence for the impact of formative assessment on student achievement suggest widely different estimates of formative assessment's effectiveness, ranging from 0.40 and 0.70 standard deviations in one review. The purpose of this study is to describe variability in the effectiveness of formative assessment for promoting student…

  16. Current Knowledge and Projection on Assessing the Effectiveness of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlansky, Jesse

    This discussion of methods used to assess the effectiveness of training for U.S. Army personnel identifies various types of training, describes methods currently used, and suggests ways of improving the assessment process. The methodology and results of assessments of effectiveness, including the costs associated with the level of performance, are…

  17. Current Knowledge and Projection on Assessing the Effectiveness of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlansky, Jesse

    This discussion of methods used to assess the effectiveness of training for U.S. Army personnel identifies various types of training, describes methods currently used, and suggests ways of improving the assessment process. The methodology and results of assessments of effectiveness, including the costs associated with the level of performance, are…

  18. 78 FR 2390 - CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v. California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Complaint Take notice... IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC and CSOLAR IV North, LLC (collectively...

  19. Assessment for Learning: Effects and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flórez, María Teresa; Sammons, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The idea that schools can impact positively on student outcomes is a crucial driver in the rise of interest in school improvement research and practice. This review focuses on assessment for learning. Assessment for learning (AfL)--where the first priority is to promote learning--is a key means of initiating improvement. This review proposes that…

  20. Study of chemical bonding, physical and biological effect of metformin drug as an organized medicine for diabetes patients with chromium(III) and vanadium(IV) ions.

    PubMed

    Adam, Abdel Majid A; Sharshar, T; Mohamed, Mahmoud A; Ibrahim, Omar B; Refat, Moamen S

    2015-01-01

    New vanadium(IV) and chromium(III) complexes of metformin (MFN) were synthesized upon the chemical interaction between vanadyl(II) sulfate monohydrate or chromium(III) chloride hexahydrate with metformin diabetic drug in the media of a pure grade of methanol solvent. The [(VO)2(MFN)2(SO4)2]2H2O and [Cr(MFN)3]·Cl3·6H2O complexes were discussed using microanalytical measurements, molar conductance, spectroscopic (infrared, ESR, XRD, and UV-vis), effective magnetic moment, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal analyses (TG/DTG). The elemental analysis shows that VO(II) and Cr(III) complexes were associated with 1:1 and 1:3M ratios, respectively. The infrared spectroscopic results data received from the comparison between free MFN free ligand and their vanadyl(II) and chromium(III) complexes were proven that metformin reacted with respected metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its two imino groups. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters were estimated from the DTG curves. The microstructure changes of the VO(II) and Cr(III) complexes have been probed using positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) and positron annihilation Doppler broadening (PADB) techniques. The PAL and PADB line-shape parameters were found to be dependent on the structure, electronic configuration and molecular weight of metal complexes. Antimicrobial activity of the metformin free ligand and its vanadyl(II) and chromium(III) complexes were evaluated against the gram negative and gram positive bacteria strains and different fungal strains. Moderate antimicrobial activity recorded by disk diffusion inhibition growth zone method in vanadyl(II) and chromium(III) complexes compared to metformin free ligand.

  1. The Design of the IGE Evaluation Project Phase IV Comparative Studies. Comparative Study of Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV, Project Paper 80-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This paper outlines the design of two Comparative Studies of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IGE) Evaluation Project. More than 2,000 elementary schools in 25 states use the IGE system. The Evaluation Project was designed to gain a comprehensive view of the system's operation and effectiveness. Phase IV investigated pupil outcomes,…

  2. Natural organic matter influences the dissolution and stability of reduced technetium(IV) and uranium(IV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, B.; Dong, W.; Liang, L.; Wall, N.

    2010-12-01

    Reductive precipitation and immobilization of soluble technetium (as pertechnetate, Tc(VII)O4-) and uranium (as uranyl, U(VI)O22+) to sparingly soluble Tc(IV) and U(IV) species have been proposed as one of the promising remediation technologies to immobilize uranium and technetium in situ in the subsurface. However, the dissolution and long-term stability of reduced Tc(IV) and U(IV) species are poorly understood, particularly in the presence of natural and synthetic organic ligands, which are known to form complexes with these metals or radionuclides and thus cause their mobilization. In this study, the kinetics of both ligand-promoted and oxidative dissolution of Tc(IV) and U(IV) solids are determined, and their mobility is evaluated in the presence of natural organic matter (e.g.,humic acid and fulvic acid) and synthetic ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA). We found that EDTA and the humic acid are among the most effective in promoting the ligand-induced dissolution of Tc(IV) and U(IV) by complexation. However, EDTA is found to suppress the oxidative dissoltuion of Tc(IV) and U(IV), whereas the humic acid enhances the oxidative dissolution due to its redox reactive functional properties. Furthermore, the oxidative dissolution is found to be much quicker than the ligand-promoted dissolution by humic substances. Studies of the dissolution and stability of reduced U(IV) in a contaminated sediment column confirms that both the synthetic and natural organic ligands can cause the mobilization of U(IV) although the dissolution rate is relatively slow. Because these organic ligands commonly co-exit at comtaminated sites, our results suggest that their presence can potentially impact the long-term stability and mobility of reduced Tc(IV) or U(IV) and should be considered in designing remediation strategies using the reductive precipitation approach.

  3. Reactivity of [{l{underscore}brace}Mn{sup 4}(salpn){r{underscore}brace}{sub 2}({micro}-O,{micro}-OCH{sub 3})]{sup +} and [{l{underscore}brace}Mn{sup IV}(salpn){r{underscore}brace}{sub 2}({micro}-O,{micro}-OH)]{sup +}: Effects of proton liability and hydrogen bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, M.J.; Law, N.A.; Stemmler, T.L.; Kampf, J.W.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.; Pecoraro, V.L.

    1999-10-18

    It was previously shown that the addition of 1 equiv of a strong acid to [Mn{sup IV}(salpn)({micro}-O)]{sub 2}, 1, generates the oxo/hydroxo complex [{l{underscore}brace}Mn{sup IV}(salpn){r{underscore}brace}{sub 2}({micro}-O,{micro}-OH)](CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}), 2, which emphasized the basicity of the {micro}{sub 2}-O{sup 2{minus}} units in the [Mn{sup IV}({micro}-O)]{sub 2} dimers. The authors now demonstrate the inherent nucleophilicity of those {micro}{sub 2}-O{sup 2{minus}} units by showing that the addition of methyl triflate to 1 results in formation of the oxo/methoxo-bridged Mn{sup IV} dimer [{l{underscore}brace}Mn{sup IV}(salph){r{underscore}brace}{sub 2}({micro}-O,{micro}-OCH{sub 3})](CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}), 3. EXAFS analysis of 3 demonstrates that alkylation of an oxo bridge results in the same structural modification of the [Mn{sup IV}({micro}-O)]{sub 2} core as an oxo bridge protonation. Electrochemical and spectroscopic comparisons of 3 to 2 indicate that 3 is a good electronic structure analogue for 2 without the complication of proton lability and hydrogen bonding. Indeed, 2 and 3 react nearly identically with hydrogen peroxide and with strong acids. In contrast, the products of their reactions with amines, acetate, and triphenylphosphine are dramatically different. The proton lability of 2 results in simple proton transfer, circumventing the slower redox reactions of these substrates with 3. Isotopic labeling, kinetic, and EPR-monitored radical trap studies lead to a proposed reduction-oxidation mechanistic scheme for the reactions of 3 with amines and triphenylphosphine. The Mn{sup III} product of this reaction, [Mn{sup III}(salpn)(Ph{sub 3}PO)](CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}), was isolated and crystallographically characterized as a dimerized complex. The redox nature of the reactions is confirmed by trapping of a reduced Mn intermediate which is identified by EPR spectroscopy. Comparison of the reactions of 2 and 3 demonstrates the dramatic effect of proton

  4. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  5. Comparison of the effects of IV administration of meloxicam, carprofen, and flunixin meglumine on prostaglandin E(2) concentration in aqueous humor of dogs with aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Margi A; Payton, Mark E

    2012-05-01

    To compare the effects of meloxicam, carprofen, and flunixin meglumine administered IV on the concentration of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the aqueous humor of dogs with aqueocentesis-induced anterior uveitis. 15 adult dogs with ophthalmically normal eyes. Each dog was assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. Treatment groups were saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL, IV), meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, IV), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg, IV), and flunixin meglumine (0.5 mg/kg, IV). Each dog was anesthetized, treatment was administered, and aqueocentesis was performed on each eye at 30 and 60 minutes after treatment. Aqueous humor samples were frozen at -80°C until assayed for PGE(2) concentration with an enzyme immunoassay kit. For all 4 treatment groups, PGE(2) concentration was significantly higher in samples obtained 60 minutes after treatment, compared with that in samples obtained 30 minutes after treatment, which indicated aqueocentesis-induced PGE(2) synthesis. For aqueous humor samples obtained 60 minutes after treatment, PGE(2) concentration did not differ significantly among groups treated with saline solution, meloxicam, and carprofen; however, the PGE(2) concentration for the group treated with flunixin meglumine was significantly lower than that for each of the other 3 treatment groups. Flunixin meglumine was more effective than meloxicam or carprofen for minimizing the PGE(2) concentration in the aqueous humor of dogs with experimentally induced uveitis. Flunixin meglumine may be an appropriate pre-medication for use prior to intraocular surgery in dogs.

  6. 36 CFR 800.5 - Assessment of adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assessment of adverse effects... PROTECTION OF HISTORIC PROPERTIES The section 106 Process § 800.5 Assessment of adverse effects. (a) Apply criteria of adverse effect. In consultation with the SHPO/THPO and any Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian...

  7. Measuring Working Memory With Digit Span and the Letter-Number Sequencing Subtests From the WAIS-IV: Too Low Manipulation Load and Risk for Underestimating Modality Effects.

    PubMed

    Egeland, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is one of the most frequently used tests among psychologists. In the fourth edition of the test (WAIS-IV), the subtests Digit Span and Letter-Number Sequencing are expanded for better measurement of working memory (WM). However, it is not clear whether the new extended tasks contribute sufficient complexity to be sensitive measures of manipulation WM, nor do we know to what degree WM capacity differs between the visual and the auditory modality because the WAIS-IV only tests the auditory modality. Performance by a mixed sample of 226 patients referred for neuropsychological examination on the Digit Span and Letter-Number Sequencing subtests from the WAIS-IV and on Spatial Span from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition was analyzed in two confirmatory factor analyses to investigate whether a unitary WM model or divisions based on modality or level/complexity best fit the data. The modality model showed the best fit when analyzing summed scores for each task as well as scores for the longest span. The clinician is advised to apply tests with higher manipulation load and to consider testing visual span as well before drawing conclusions about impaired WM from the WAIS-IV.

  8. The Effects of Performance-Based Assessment Criteria on Student Performance and Self-Assessment Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…

  9. A Model of the Pre-Assessment Learning Effects of Summative Assessment in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilliers, Francois J.; Schuwirth, Lambert W. T.; Herman, Nicoline; Adendorff, Hanelie J.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2012-01-01

    It has become axiomatic that assessment impacts powerfully on student learning. However, surprisingly little research has been published emanating from authentic higher education settings about the nature and mechanism of the pre-assessment learning effects of summative assessment. Less still emanates from health sciences education settings. This…

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  11. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  12. Modified cervicopexy: a novel, less-invasive technique for Stages III and IV uterine prolapse.

    PubMed

    Elsaman, Ali M; Salem, Hosam T; Amin, Magdy; Fetih, Ahmed N; Othman, Essam-Edin R; Zahran, Kamal M

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate modified anterior abdominal wall cervicopexy (AWC) as a less invasive (via 3-cm minilaparotomy) and more augmented (via securing posterior vaginal wall to uterosacral ligaments) technique. Case series of 30 women with Stages III and IV apical uterine prolapse assessed by the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system. The modified AWC procedure was performed successfully for 17 cases with Stage III uterovaginal prolapse and 13 cases with Stage IV uterovaginal prolapse. The procedure was conducted safely with no operative o