Science.gov

Sample records for iv effects assessment

  1. HEaDS-UP Phase IV Assessment: Headgear Effects on Auditory Perception

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    ARL-TR-7203 ● FEB 2015 US Army Research Laboratory HEaDS-UP Phase IV Assessment: Headgear Effects on Auditory Perception ...Assessment: Headgear Effects on Auditory Perception by Angelique A Scharine Human Research and Engineering Directorate, ARL...Assessment: Headgear Effects on Auditory Perception 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Angelique A

  2. IV&V Project Assessment Process Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driskell, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) will launch NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). This launch vehicle will provide American launch capability for human exploration and travelling beyond Earth orbit. SLS is designed to be flexible for crew or cargo missions. The first test flight is scheduled for December 2017. The SLS SRR/SDR provided insight into the project development life cycle. NASA IV&V ran the standard Risk Based Assessment and Portfolio Based Risk Assessment to identify analysis tasking for the SLS program. This presentation examines the SLS System Requirements Review/System Definition Review (SRR/SDR), IV&V findings for IV&V process validation correlation to/from the selected IV&V tasking and capabilities. It also provides a reusable IEEE 1012 scorecard for programmatic completeness across the software development life cycle.

  3. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Leahy

    2010-06-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated “toolkit” consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  4. Projection models for health effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume IV. SPAHR user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume gives the more advanced user of the SPAHR computer package the information required to create tailor-made programs for addressing specific issues not covered by the three interactive packages. It assumes that the user is familiar with the concepts and terms relating to demography and health risk assessment.

  5. Phase IV Land Disposal Restrictions Rule - Clarification of Effective Dates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memo to clarify the effective dates for the major provisions of the Phase IV rule. It is supplemental to the final rule preamble at page 28556 (“Effective Dates”) and pages 28634-5 (“State Authority”).

  6. WISC-IV GAI and CPI in Psychoeducational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Dawn; McTaggart, Breanne; Saklofske, Donald H.; Janzen, Troy

    2011-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) are two index scores that can be calculated for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Canadian Edition (WISC-IV[superscript CDN]). The GAI comprises the verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning subtests and reflects reasoning abilities. The CPI includes the…

  7. Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed. PMID:17106464

  8. Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Harrison H; Myers, Kyle J; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

    2006-12-01

    The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed.

  9. Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

    2006-12-01

    The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed.

  10. WORKGROUP IV SYNOPSIS: REGULATORY ISSUES AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The discussions in this workgroup started with an identification and brief explanation of U.S. regulations pertaining to wetlands. The Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment Forum was then reviewed in relation to the unique aspects of conducting a wetland assessment. Assessment...

  11. Training in Structured Diagnostic Assessment Using DSM-IV Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponniah, Kathryn; Weissman, Myrna M.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Verdeli, Helen; Gameroff, Marc J.; Mufson, Laura; Fitterling, Heidi; Wickramaratne, Priya

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determining a patient's psychiatric diagnosis is an important first step for the selection of empirically supported treatments and a critical component of evidence-based practice. Structured diagnostic assessment covers the range of psychiatric diagnoses and is usually more complete and accurate than unstructured assessment. Method: We…

  12. Large excitonic effects in group-IV sulfide monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Blair R.; Alhassan, Saeed M.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2015-12-01

    Large exciton binding energies are a distinguishing feature of two-dimensional semiconductors because of reduced screening, potentially leading to unique optoelectronic applications. Here we use electronic structure methods to calculate the properties of a two-dimensional material class: group-IV monosulfides including SiS, GeS, and SnS. Bulk SiS is predicted to be a metastable layered material. Quasiparticle excitations are calculated with the G0W0 method and the Bethe-Salpeter equation is are used to include electron-hole interactions. For monolayers, strongly bound excitons are found below the quasiparticle absorption edge. The predicted excitonic binding energies are as high as 0.7 eV. Due to large excitonic effects, these group-IV sulfide monolayers have great potential for nanoscale optoelectronic applications.

  13. IV ATP potentiates midazolam sedation as assessed by bispectral index.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Satoru; Fukunaga, Atsuo; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    In this study, by measuring bispectral index (BIS), we tested the hypothesis that intravenous adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) infusion would deepen the level of midazolam-induced sedation. Ten healthy volunteers underwent 2 experiments with at least 2 weeks' interval: immediately after intravenous bolus administration of midazolam (0.04 mg/kg), they received continuous infusion of either ATP infusion (100 μg/kg/min) or placebo (saline) for 40 minutes in a double-blind, randomized, crossover manner. Changes in BIS values and responsiveness to verbal command as well as cardiorespiratory variables were observed throughout the study periods. Administration of midazolam alone reduced BIS value from control: 97 ± 1 to 68 ± 18 at 25 minutes, which was accompanied by significant cardiopulmonary depressant effects, while maintaining responsiveness to verbal command (consciousness) throughout the study period. Coadministration of ATP with midazolam further reduced BIS value to 51 ± 13, associated with complete loss of consciousness without adverse effect on the cardiorespiratory systems. We conclude that the addition of ATP infusion to midazolam significantly enhances midazolam sedation without disturbing cardiorespiratory functions.

  14. 78 FR 59710 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; Shiloh IV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...-megawatt (MW) commercial wind-energy facility, consisting of 50 wind turbines, each with a 2-MW generation... Kennetech wind turbines originally constructed in the late 1980s. The applicant submitted an ECP on August 3... Assessment; Shiloh IV Wind Project, Solano County, California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  15. Validity of DSM-IV axis V global assessment of relational functioning scale: a multimethod assessment.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michelle B; Hilsenroth, Mark; Pinsker-Aspen, Janet H; Primavera, Louis

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the convergent validity of the DSM-IV Axis V Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale (GARF; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). This study included 79 patients at a university-based outpatient treatment clinic. We examined clinician-rated GARF and the relationship to self-reported (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems; IIP-C; Horowitz et al. 2000) and free response themes [Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale: SCORS; Hilsenroth, Stein & Pinsker, 2004; Westen, 1995] of interpersonal functioning. Clinician ratings of the GARF scale and SCORS variables were highly reliable and internally consistent. Convergent Validity among the GARF, SCORS, and IIP scores was calculated using a Principal Components Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Results of the Principal Components Analysis revealed that the GARF, SCORS, and IIP scores converged on a single factor, although findings of the CFA did not fully confirm the 1 factor model originally proposed. Intercorrelations among the GARF, SCORS, and IIP variables were analyzed and a pattern of significant relationships was found between the GARF and SCORS variables. This study helps support the convergent validity GARF as a relational functioning measure and is one of the first investigations to examine this scale multidimensionally.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, R.; Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Kalenchuk, D.

    2004-10-06

    Enhanced proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) is one of the technology goals for advanced nuclear concepts, such as Generation IV systems. Under the auspices of the Generation IV International Forum, the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology of the U.S. DOE, the Office of Nonproliferation Policy of the National Nuclear Security Administration, and participating organizations from six other countries are sponsoring an international working group to develop an evaluation methodology for PR&PP. This methodology will permit an objective PR&PP comparison between alternative nuclear systems (e.g., different reactor types or fuel cycles) and support design optimization to enhance robustness against proliferation, theft and sabotage. The paper summarizes the proposed assessment methodology including the assessment framework, measures used to express the PR&PP characteristics of the system, threat definition, system element and target identification, pathway identification and analysis, and estimation of the measures.

  17. Gravitational effects from a series of IVS R&D VLBI-sessions with observations close to the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinkelmann, R.; Soja, B.; Schuh, H.

    2015-08-01

    In 2011 and 2012 the IVS observed twelve VLBI research and development (R&D) sessions that include successful observations as angularly close as 3.9° from the heliocenter. Among others, one purpose of these IVS-R&D sessions was to achieve an improvement in the determination of the PPN parameter γ . Besides, by analyzing this specific set of IVS sessions, it was for the first time possible to measure the dispersive effect of the Solar corona with VLBI (Soja et al., 2014). In this work we assess the formal error of the γ-parameter and the contributions of the various terms to the partial derivative of the γ-parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the size of the gravitational delays caused by: (i) Solar monopole field at rest and with approximately linear translation, (ii) rotation of the Solar monopole field, (iii) Solar gravitational field quadrupole expansion, and (iv) Solar higher order term.

  18. Effect of Supercoiling on the Mechanical and Permeability Properties of Model Collagen IV Networks.

    PubMed

    Gyoneva, Lazarina; Segal, Yoav; Dorfman, Kevin D; Barocas, Victor H

    2015-07-01

    Collagen IV networks in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) are essential for the maintenance and regulation of blood filtration in the kidneys. The GBM contains two different types of collagen IV networks: [α1(IV)]2α2(IV) and α3(IV)α4(IV)α5(IV), the latter of which has a higher number of supercoils (two or more collagens coiling around each other). To investigate the effects of supercoiling on the mechanical and permeability properties of collagen IV networks, we generated model collagen IV networks in the GBM and reconnected them to create different levels of supercoiling. We found that supercoiling greatly increases the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreases the permeability. Also, doubling the amount of supercoils in a network had a bigger effect than doubling the stiffness of the supercoils. Our results suggest that the formation of supercoils is a specialized mechanism by the GBM that provides with a network stiff and strong enough to withstand the high hydrostatic pressures of filtration, yet porous enough that filtration is not hindered. Clinically, understanding the effects of supercoiling gives us insight into the mechanisms of GBM failure in some disease states where the normal collagen IV structure is disrupted.

  19. Synthesis, immunomodulation and cytotoxic effects of vanadium (IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Ashiq, Uzma; Jamal, Rifat Ara; Mesaik, Mohammad Ahmed; Mahroof-Tahir, Muhammad; Shahid, Saba; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    Vanadium is known to exhibit several bioactivities and shows potential as a pharmaceutical drug. The current studies were conducted with the goal of synthesizing a new generation of oxovanadium(IV) complexes, investigating their effects on cancer cell proliferation and their immunomodulatory properties, and predicting possible structure activity relationships. The elucidation of the structures of the synthesized complexes was achieved using elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, magnetic property measurements, and IR and electronic spectroscopies. These studies suggest that the synthesized complexes have a binuclear structure. All of the complexes were evaluated on different cancer cell lines, including HeLa, PC-3, and C33A, and on the normal 3T3 fibroblast cells. Some of the compounds exhibited prominent inhibitory activities on the cervical cancer cell lines and the prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The immunomodulatory activity of the vanadium compounds was evaluated on human phagocytes for ROS (reactive oxygen species) production using luminol- and lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assays. No potent effect was exerted by the majority of the tested compounds on whole blood oxidative burst activity. A study of human T-cells proliferation in vitro on vanadium complexes was also conducted. The majority of the compounds were observed to exhibit potent inhibitory effects. The superoxide, nitric oxide and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging properties were also determined.

  20. Amidase activity in soils. IV. Effects of trace elements and pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenberger, W.T., Jr.; Tabatabai, M.A.

    1981-11-01

    Amidase was recently detected in soils, and this study was carried out to assess the effects of 21 trace elements, 12 herbicides, 2 fungicides, and 2 insecticides on the activity of this enzyme. Results showed that most of the trace elements and pesticides studied inhibited amidase activity in soils. The degree of inhibition varied among the soils used. When the trace elements were compared by using 5 ..mu..mol/g of soil, the average inhibition of amidase in three soils showed that Ag(I), Hg(I), As(III), and Se(IV) were the most effective inhibitors, but only Ag(I) and As(III) showed average inhibition > 50%. The least effective inhibitors (average inhibition < 3%) included Cu(I), Ba(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Al(III), Fe(III), Ti(IV), V(IV), As(V), Mo(VI), and W(VI). Other elements that inhibited amidase activity in soils were Cd(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Pb(II), Sn(II), Zn(II), B(III), and Cr(III). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that As(III) was a competitive inhibitor of amidase, whereas Ag(I), Hg(II), and Se(IV) were noncompetitive inhibitors. When the pesticides studied were compared by using 10 ..mu..g of active ingredient per gram of soil, the average inhibition of amidase in three soils ranged from 2% with dinitroamine, EPTC plus R-25788, and captan to 10% with butylate. Other pesticides that inhibited amidase activity in soils were atrazine, naptalam, chloramben, dicamba, cyanazine, 2,4-D, alachlor, paraquat, trifluralin, maneb, diazinon, and malathion. The inhibition of amidase by diazinon, alachlor, and butylate followed noncompetitive kinetics.

  1. Apolipoprotein A-IV polymorphism in Saami and Finns: frequency and effect on serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, S; Luoma, P; Näyhä, S; Hassi, J; Ehnholm, C; Nikkari, T; Peltonen, N; Jokela, H; Koivula, T; Lehtimäki, T

    1998-04-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a glycoprotein constituent of triglyceride-rich and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and may thus play an important role in lipid metabolism. In Finland two common isoforms (A-IV-1 and A-IV-2) of apoA-IV have been found. The isoforms are the result of the G to T substitution in the third base of the codon 360 in the apoA-IV-2 allele of the apoA-IV gene. The purpose of the study was to determine the apoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns, and to relate the apoA-IV phenotypes to serum lipids. The sample was drawn in connection with a Reindeer Herders' Health Survey performed in northern Finland in 1989. The study group included 248 men with known ethnic origin, Saami and Finns, who lived in the area of the nine northernmost municipalities of Finland. ApoA-IV phenotypes from 71 Saami (both parents Saami) and 177 Finns (both parents Finns) were determined by isoelectric focusing and Western blotting. Serum lipids were determined enzymatically. ApoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns were for A-IV-1 0.894 vs 0.944 and for A-IV-2 0.106 vs 0.056, respectively (chi2-test, P < 0.05). The effect of the apoA-IV phenotype on serum HDL-cholesterol levels differed significantly between the Saami and the Finns (two-way ANCOVA, interaction between ethnicity and apoA-IV phenotype, P < 0.02). In the Saami, HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the apoA-IV-2/1 than in the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes (ANCOVA, P < 0.05). Mean total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ statistically significantly between the Saami and the Finns. Yet, there was a trend in the Saami of having higher mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels than the Finns among the apoA-IV-2/1 phenotypes, while there was only a small difference in these parameters between the Saami and the Finns among the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes. In

  2. [Effect of cimetidine with chemotherapy on stage IV colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Hashimoto, Masahiko; Umehara, Arihiro; Yokomizo, Hajime; Yoshida, Kiyohito; Fujimoto, Takashi; Iwasaki, Kiyo; Ogawa, Kenji

    2003-10-01

    We herein report the result of a prospective study to investigate the efficacy of cimetidine administration in conjunction with chemotherapy for stage IV colorectal cancer. Sixty-two patients treated with Leucovorin/5-fluorouracil therapy were enrolled from 1996 to 2000. Both groups were well matched for pre-treatment characteristics. There was no difference in survival in cur B patients. However, the cimetidine group had significantly prolonged survival in the patients with cur C or non-resectable carcinoma. This study suggests that cimetidine treatment may improve the survival of patients with non-curative surgery for stage IV colorectal cancer.

  3. A Comparison of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and the Stanford-Binet IV for the Assessment of Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Davis C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Administered Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) and Stanford-Binet Fourth Edition (Binet IV) to 32 gifted third- and fourth-graders. Binet IV scores averaged eight points higher than K-ABC scores. Concurrent validity coefficient of .70 indicated high degree of association between test performance on two tests. Results support use of…

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of Standard Care With IV Thrombolysis Versus Without IV Thrombolysis for Mild Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jay Chol; Jang, Min Uk; Kang, Kyusik; Park, Jong‐Moo; Ko, Youngchai; Lee, Soo‐Joo; Cha, Jae‐Kwan; Kim, Dae‐Hyun; Park, Sang Soon; Park, Tai Hwan; Lee, Kyung Bok; Lee, Jun; Kim, Joon‐Tae; Cho, Ki‐Hyun; Yu, Kyung‐Ho; Oh, Mi‐Sun; Lee, Byung‐Chul; Cho, Yong‐Jin; Kim, Dong‐Eog; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Juneyoung; Gorelick, Philip B.; Bae, Hee‐Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background One third of patients presenting with initially mild strokes have unfavorable outcomes, and the efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in this population has not been proven. This study aimed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of standard care with IVT versus without IVT in mild stroke patients. Methods and Results Using a multicenter stroke registry database, we identified patients with acute ischemic stroke who presented within 4.5 hours of symptom onset and had initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores ≤5. Multivariable logistic analysis and propensity score matching were used to adjust for baseline imbalances between the patients who did and did not receive IVT. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs of IVT were estimated for 3‐month modified Rankin Scale scores of 0 to 1 and symptomatic. Of 13 117 patients with stroke who were hospitalized between April 2008 and May 2012, 1386 met the eligibility criteria, and 194 (14.0%) were treated with IVT. For a modified Rankin Scale of 0 to 1 at 3 months, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.96 (95% CI, 1.28 to 3.00; P=0.002) by multivariable logistic analysis and 1.68 (1.10 to 2.56; P=0.02) by propensity score matching analysis, respectively. There was a statistically nonsignificant excess of symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation (odds ratios=3.76 [0.95 to 16.42; P=0.06] and 4.81 [0.84 to 49.34; P=0.09]), respectively. Conclusions In this observational registry‐based study, standard care with IVT is more effective than not receiving IVT in mild ischemic stroke patients, and there is a statistically nonsignificant risk of symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation. PMID:25628404

  5. Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vierow, Karen; Aldemir, Tunc

    2009-09-10

    The project entitled, “Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors”, was conducted as a DOE NERI project collaboration between Texas A&M University and The Ohio State University between March 2006 and June 2009. The overall goal of the proposed project was to develop practical approaches and tools by which dynamic reliability and risk assessment techniques can be used to augment the uncertainty quantification process in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and PRA applications for Generation IV reactors. This report is the Final Scientific/Technical Report summarizing the project.

  6. Assessing Intellectual Functioning in Young Adolescents: How Do the WISC-IV and SB5 Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kimberley; Gilmore, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and the Stanford-Binet--Fifth Edition (SB5) are two of the most commonly used intelligence tests for children and adolescents. No comparative studies of the WISC-IV and SB5 have yet been published. In the current study the WISC-IV and SB5 were administered in counterbalanced…

  7. Modeling Grade IV Gas Emboli using a Limited Failure Population Model with Random Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Laura A.; Conkin, Johnny; Chhikara, Raj S.; Powell, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Venous gas emboli (VGE) (gas bubbles in venous blood) are associated with an increased risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in hypobaric environments. A high grade of VGE can be a precursor to serious DCS. In this paper, we model time to Grade IV VGE considering a subset of individuals assumed to be immune from experiencing VGE. Our data contain monitoring test results from subjects undergoing up to 13 denitrogenation test procedures prior to exposure to a hypobaric environment. The onset time of Grade IV VGE is recorded as contained within certain time intervals. We fit a parametric (lognormal) mixture survival model to the interval-and right-censored data to account for the possibility of a subset of "cured" individuals who are immune to the event. Our model contains random subject effects to account for correlations between repeated measurements on a single individual. Model assessments and cross-validation indicate that this limited failure population mixture model is an improvement over a model that does not account for the potential of a fraction of cured individuals. We also evaluated some alternative mixture models. Predictions from the best fitted mixture model indicate that the actual process is reasonably approximated by a limited failure population model.

  8. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, E.C. Jr.; Shannon, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  9. Safety assessment of Tin(IV) oxide as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    Tin(IV) oxide functions as an abrasive, bulking, and opacifying agent in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations up to 0.4% in rinse-off products and up to 1.3% in leave-on products. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) noted that tin(IV) oxide is a water-insoluble inorganic metal compound and should not be percutaneously absorbed; therefore, systemic exposure is not likely. Studies of dermal application of tin(IV) oxide were considered to determine toxicity at the site of application. The Panel concluded that tin(IV) oxide is safe in the present practices of use and concentration.

  10. Assessing Giftedness with the WISC-III and the SB-IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Michael; Carone, Dominic A., Jr.; Burns, William J.; Seidman, Traci; Montgomery, Doil; Sellers, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (SB-IV), were administered to 20 gifted children and 20 non-gifted children to examine the extent of the difference in IQ scores obtained on the two tests. Results show that the SB-IV Composite Score was significantly…

  11. Inhibitory effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists on collagen IV production in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjiao; Shen, Yachen; Li, Min; Su, Dongming; Xu, Weifeng; Liang, Xiubin; Li, Rongshan

    2015-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists have beneficial effects on the kidney diseases through preventing microalbuminuria and glomerulosclerosis. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be fully understood. In this study, we investigate the effects of PPAR-γ agonist, rosiglitazone (Rosi) and pioglitazone (Pio), on collagen IV production in mouse podocytes. The endogenous expression of PPAR-γ was found in the primary podocytes and can be upregulated by Rosi and Pio, respectively, detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. PPAR-γ agonist markedly blunted the increasing of collagen IV expression and extraction in podocytes induced by TGF-β. In contrast, adding PPAR-γ antagonist, GW9662, to podocytes largely prevented the inhibition of collagen IV expression from Pio treatment. Our data also showed that phosphorylation of Smad2/3 enhanced by TGF-β in a time-dependent manner was significantly attenuated by adding Pio. The promoter region of collagen IV gene contains one putative consensus sequence of Smad-binding element (SBE) by promoter analysis, Rosi and Pio significantly ameliorated TGF-β-induced SBE4-luciferase activity. In conclusion, PPAR-γ activation by its agonist, Rosi or Pio, in vitro directly inhibits collagen IV expression and synthesis in primary mouse podocytes. The suppression of collagen IV production was related to the inhibition of TGF-β-driven phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and decreased response activity of SBEs of collagen IV in PPAR-γ agonist-treated mouse podocytes. This represents a novel mechanistic support regarding PPAR-γ agonists as podocyte protective agents.

  12. A Comparison of the Safety Analysis Process and the Generation IV Proliferation Resistance/Physical Protection Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Bjornard; M. D. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a vehicle for the cooperative international development of future nuclear energy systems. The Generation IV program has established primary objectives in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP). In order to help meet the latter objective a program was launched in December 2002 to develop a rigorous means to assess nuclear energy systems with respect to PR&PP. The study of Physical Protection of a facility is a relatively well established methodology, but an approach to evaluate the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear fuel cycle is not. This paper will examine the Proliferation Resistance (PR) evaluation methodology being developed by the PR group, which is largely a new approach and compare it to generally accepted nuclear facility safety evaluation methodologies. Safety evaluation methods have been the subjects of decades of development and use. Further, safety design and analysis is fairly broadly understood, as well as being the subject of federally mandated procedures and requirements. It is therefore extremely instructive to compare and contrast the proposed new PR evaluation methodology process with that used in safety analysis. By so doing, instructive and useful conclusions can be derived from the comparison that will help to strengthen the PR methodological approach as it is developed further. From the comparison made in this paper it is evident that there are very strong parallels between the two processes. Most importantly, it is clear that the proliferation resistance aspects of nuclear energy systems are best considered beginning at the very outset of the design process. Only in this way can the designer identify and cost effectively incorporate intrinsic features that might be difficult to implement at some later stage. Also, just like safety, the process to implement proliferation resistance should be a dynamic

  13. I-V Characteristics of a Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    1999-01-01

    There are many possible uses for ferroelectric field effect transistors.To understand their application, a fundamental knowledge of their basic characteristics must first be found. In this research, the current and voltage characteristics of a field effect transistor are described. The effective gate capacitance and charge are derived from experimental data on an actual FFET. The general equation for a MOSFET is used to derive the internal characteristics of the transistor: This equation is modified slightly to describe the FFET characteristics. Experimental data derived from a Radiant Technologies FFET is used to calculate the internal transistor characteristics using fundamental MOSFET equations. The drain current was measured under several different gate and drain voltages and with different initial polarizations on the ferroelectric material in the transistor. Two different polarization conditions were used. One with the gate ferroelectric material polarized with a +9.0 volt write pulse and one with a -9.0 volt pulse.

  14. Effective Compensatory Education Sourcebook. Volume IV: Project Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Kathleen J.; And Others

    This directory is a compendium of 108 outstanding Education Consolidation Improvement Act Chapter 1 compensatory education projects selected for recognition by the United States Department of Education in 1987. It is the fourth volume in the "Effective Compensatory Education Sourcebook" series. Volume 1 consists of a review of the…

  15. Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor delays tolerance to anxiolytic effect of ethanol and withdrawal-induced anxiety in rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajaykumar N; Pise, Ashish; Sharma, Jay N; Shukla, Praveen

    2015-06-01

    Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of endogenous gut-derived hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). DPP-IV is known for its role in energy homeostasis and pharmacological blockade of this enzyme is a recently approved clinical strategy for the management of type II diabetes. Accumulating evidences suggest that enzyme DPP-IV can affect spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) functions. However, little is known about the role of this enzyme in ethanol-mediated neurobehavioral complications. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of DPP-IV inhibitor, sitagliptin on the development of tolerance to anxiolytic effect of ethanol and anxiety associated with ethanol withdrawal in rats. A dose-response study revealed that sitaglitpin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) per se exhibit anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test in rats. Tolerance to anxiolytic effect of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.; 8 % w/v) was observed from 7(th) day of ethanol-diet (6 % v/v) consumption. In contrast, tolerance to anxiolytic effect of ethanol was delayed in rats that were treated daily with sitagliptin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) as tolerance was observed from 13(th)day since commencement of ethanol-diet consumption. Discontinuation of rats from ethanol-diet after 15-days of ethanol consumption resulted in withdrawal anxiety between 8 h and 12 h post-abstinence. However, rats on 15-day ethanol-diet with concomitant sitagliptin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment exhibited delay in appearance (24 h post-withdrawal) of withdrawal anxiety. In summary, DPP-IV inhibitors may prove as an attractive research strategy against ethanol tolerance and dependence.

  16. Alterations in plasma dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme activity in depression and schizophrenia: effects of antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Maes, M; De Meester, I; Scharpe, S; Desnyder, R; Ranjan, R; Meltzer, H Y

    1996-01-01

    Recently, our laboratory reported that the activity of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV) was significantly lower in the peripheral blood of major depressed patients than in normal controls. The present study examines plasma DPP IV activity in 43 major depressed and 13 schizophrenic subjects versus 21 normal controls and the effects of antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs on plasma DPP IV activity. DPP IV activity was significantly lower in major depressed subjects than in normal controls and schizophrenic subjects. There was a trend towards higher DPP IV activity in schizophrenic patients than in normal controls. There were no significant effects of antidepressants or neuroleptics on plasma DPP IV activity in depressed and schizophrenic patients, respectively. There were no significant relationships between plasma DPP IV activity and plasma cortisol or immune-inflammatory markers, such as serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) or soluble IL-2 receptor. A significant and positive correlation was found between plasma DPP IV and prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) enzyme activity in the study group as a whole and in schizophrenic subjects. The results support the hypothesis that lower and higher plasma DPP IV activities are trait markers of major depression and schizophrenia, respectively. It is concluded that alterations in the enzyme activity of peptidases, such as DPP IV and PEP, play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression and schizophrenia.

  17. The Effect of Jigsaw IV on the Achievement of Course of Language Teaching Methods and Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maden, Sedat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare the effects of Jigsaw-IV and the conventional teaching on the academic achievement of Turkish pre-service teachers as for the language teaching methods and techniques. In this study "pretest-post test with the control group model" was used. The subjects of the study are 62 undergraduate students at…

  18. Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development Around the World. Annex IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, L.; Whiting, J.; Geerlofs, S.; Grear, M.; Blake, K.; Coffey, A.; Massaua, M.; Brown-Saracino, J.; Battey, H.

    2013-01-01

    This Annex IV report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment addressing the physical interactions between animals and tidal turbines, the acoustic impact of marine energy devices on marine animals, and the effects of energy removal on physical systems.

  19. Dielectric influence on IV curve of graphene field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shostachenko, Stanislav A.; Zakharchenko, Roman V.; Zebrev, Gennady I.; Stanishevskiy, Yaroslav M.; Kargin, Nikolay I.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we have studied the influence of Si3N4 and SiO2 thin film gate dielectrics on the current-voltage characteristics of the graphene-based transistor. The test structure of graphene transistor was fabricated with the top and back gate. Graphene has been produced by chemical vapor deposition, and then transferred to the silicon dioxide on a silicon wafer. The channel of the transistor has been formed by etching in oxygen plasma through a photolithographic mask. Metals electrodes of the drain, source, and gate were deposited by resistive evaporation in a vacuum. It was used titanium / aluminum with a thickness of 50/200 nm. In the case of the back gate, silicon dioxide was used, obtained by thermal oxidation of the silicon substrate. For top gate was used silicon nitride deposited by plasma chemical deposition. It was demonstrated that field effect is more pronounced for the case of SiO2 back gate compare to the Si3N4 top gate. For the SiO2 back gate we have observed that the source- drain current decreases, from 2 mA to 3 mA, with increasing the gate voltage, from 0 to 40 V, at constant source-drain voltage, 2 V. In case of Si3N4 top gate the modulation of source-drain current was not significant for the comparable electric field strength. Based on the value of gate voltage for current minima in transfer function the poor quality of Si3N4 -graphene interface is concluded.

  20. Gastroprotective Effects of Astragaloside IV against Acute Gastric Lesion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shuai; Yang, Guang; Li, Winny; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Hailong; Li, Jian; Zhang, Minzhou

    2016-01-01

    Background Protection of the gastric mucosa from acute lesions induced by various irritants is a pertinent issue in the field of critical care medicine. In this study, we investigated the gastroprotective effects of astragaloside IV on acute gastric lesions in rats under stressful conditions. Methods Rats were randomized into six groups. Group 1 and 2 received 10% Tween 80 (vehicle). Group 3 received 20 mg/kg of omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor. Groups 4, 5 and 6 received astragaloside IV at concentration of 1, 10, and 50 mg/kg, respectively. As a means to induce gastric lesions, Groups 2–6 were subjected to water immersion and restraint stress for 12 hours after treatment. Results Our present studies show that compared to rats in group 2, treatment with 1 to 50 mg/kg astragaloside IV significantly decreased the size of gastric lesions, MDA, TNFα and MCP1 levels, in addition to normalizing gastric pH, gastric mucus and SOD levels (P<0.05). Histomorphological examination confirmed that treatment with astragaloside IV elicited a dosage-dependent protective effect on the gastric mucosa. Furthermore, pretreatment with astragaloside IV resulted in significant elevations in HSP70 and reduction in Bax, along with over-expression of PLCγ response level, which was further confirmed via immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusions The acute gastric lesions induced are attenuated by pretreatment with astragaloside IV which is possibly due to the enhancing of the expression of HSP70 with concomitant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic capacity. PMID:26845156

  1. Effects of buspirone and gepirone on i.v. cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gold, L H; Balster, R L

    1992-01-01

    Buspirone and gepirone were evaluated as potential pharmacotherapies for cocaine abuse by studying the effects of acute and repeated treatment on IV cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys. Chlorpromazine was also evaluated as a positive control. Effects of IV drug pretreatments were tested during daily 60-min sessions with lever-pressing reinforced under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of 0.02 or 0.05 mg/kg cocaine infusions. Acute pretreatment with buspirone (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, IV) increased rates of cocaine self-administration without disrupting food pellet consumption. Some doses of buspirone also produced changes in rates of cocaine self-administration without altering the within-session pattern of responding. In contrast, acute doses of gepirone had little effect on rates of cocaine self-administration, while disruptions in food consumption and changes in the within-session pattern of cocaine self-administration were obtained at the highest dose of gepirone tested (1.0 mg/kg). When either buspirone (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, IV) or gepirone (0.1 mg/kg, IV) were administered daily for 10 days, consistent effects on cocaine self-administration were not observed. Thus, the effects of acute buspirone administration on cocaine-maintained behavior were similar to the effects produced by chlorpromazine and other dopaminergic antagonists, whereas, gepirone was ineffective. These results provide some support for further evaluation of buspirone as a potential pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse, although its lack of efficacy with repeated treatment is not encouraging. The negative results with gepirone provide less rationale for continued investigations with this drug, possibly because of its lesser involvement than buspirone with dopaminergic neurotransmission.

  2. Tin Whisker Risk Assessment of TDRSS IV Transponder Units 101 and 102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellitti, Ron; Royse, Jeff; Jackson, Steve

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the plating requirements for the electrical and mechanical parts used in the TDRSS IV transponder manufactured by MOTOROLA, INC., SSG, SSSD. The intent of this report is to identify any electrical, electromechanical or mechanical part that does not have adequate requirements to prevent the use of a pure tin finish.

  3. Critical assessment of fluorescence polarization measurements with a FACS IV cell sorter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Claude P.; Krabichler, Gert

    1988-09-01

    The usefulness and limitations of the Becton-Dickinson fluorescence-activated cell sorter FACS IV for fluorescence polarization measurements were examined. A set of tests to determine the characteristics of the detection geometry, the optical properties of the beam splitter, and the capability to process fluorescence polarization data is presented. Recommendations are provided for correcting instrumental deficiencies.

  4. Mathematical Modelling of Allelopathy: IV. Assessment of Contributions of Competition and Allelopathy to Interference by Barley.

    PubMed

    Liu, De Li; An, Min; Johnson, I R; Lovett, J V

    2005-04-01

    One of the main challenges to the research on allelopathy is technically the separation of allelopathic effect from competition, and quantitatively, the assessment of the contribution of each component to overall interference. A simple mathematical model is proposed to calculate the contribution of allelopathy and competition to interference. As an example of applying the quantitative model to interference by barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Triumph), the approach used was an addition of allelopathic effect, by an equivalent amount, to the environment of the test plant (white mustard, Sinapis alba), rather than elimination of competition. Experiments were conducted in glasshouse to determine the magnitude of the contributions of allelopathy and competition to interference by barley. The leachates of living barley roots significantly reduced the total dry weight of white mustard. The model involved the calculation of adjusted densities to an equivalent basis for modelling the contribution of allelopathy and competition to total interference. The results showed that allelopathy contributed 40%, 37% and 43% to interference by barley at 6, 12 and 18 white mustard pot(-1). The consistency in magnitude of the calculated contribution of allelopathic effect by barley across various densities of receiver plant suggested that the adjusted equivalent density is effective and that the model is able to assess the contribution of each component of interference regardless of the density of receiver plant.

  5. Mathematical Modelling of Allelopathy: IV. Assessment of Contributions of Competition and Allelopathy to Interference by Barley

    PubMed Central

    Liu, De Li; An, Min; Johnson, I.R.; Lovett, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main challenges to the research on allelopathy is technically the separation of allelopathic effect from competition, and quantitatively, the assessment of the contribution of each component to overall interference. A simple mathematical model is proposed to calculate the contribution of allelopathy and competition to interference. As an example of applying the quantitative model to interference by barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Triumph), the approach used was an addition of allelopathic effect, by an equivalent amount, to the environment of the test plant (white mustard, Sinapis alba), rather than elimination of competition. Experiments were conducted in glasshouse to determine the magnitude of the contributions of allelopathy and competition to interference by barley. The leachates of living barley roots significantly reduced the total dry weight of white mustard. The model involved the calculation of adjusted densities to an equivalent basis for modelling the contribution of allelopathy and competition to total interference. The results showed that allelopathy contributed 40%, 37% and 43% to interference by barley at 6, 12 and 18 white mustard pot−1. The consistency in magnitude of the calculated contribution of allelopathic effect by barley across various densities of receiver plant suggested that the adjusted equivalent density is effective and that the model is able to assess the contribution of each component of interference regardless of the density of receiver plant. PMID:19330162

  6. Short form of Spanish version of the WISC-IV for intelligence assessment in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Dasi, Carmen; Soler, Maria J; Bellver, Vicente; Ruiz, Juan C

    2014-12-01

    In educational settings, quick assessments of intelligence are often required to screen children with potential special needs. The WISC-IV is administered individually and takes between one and two hours to complete. Given its widespread use in Spain, a short-form of the Spanish version is likely to be of use to professionals. The goal of this research was to develop a short form of the WISC-IV that can be performed in approximately half an hour. Data obtained in 100 elementary school children were analyzed following the criteria of Resnick and Entin (1971) . The results showed that the most accurate estimation of intelligence was achieved with a combination of the Vocabulary, Block Design, Letter-Number Sequencing, and Coding subtests.

  7. Assessing Effective Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1995-01-01

    Teacher effectiveness can be evaluated by traditional performance-based evaluation, though that method has some limitations. Alternative approaches to teacher evaluation include student evaluation of teacher performance and portfolio assessment. The Tuckman Teacher Feedback Form is presented as a more effective self-improvement system than a…

  8. Assessment of the Technical Maturity of Generation IV Concepts for Test or Demonstration Reactor Applications, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gougar, Hans David

    2015-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a study the suitability of different advanced reactor concepts to support materials irradiations (i.e. a test reactor) or to demonstrate an advanced power plant/fuel cycle concept (demonstration reactor). As part of the study, an assessment of the technical maturity of the individual concepts was undertaken to see which, if any, can support near-term deployment. A Working Group composed of the authors of this document performed the maturity assessment using the Technical Readiness Levels as defined in DOE’s Technology Readiness Guide . One representative design was selected for assessment from of each of the six Generation-IV reactor types: gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR), lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR), molten salt reactor (MSR), supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), and very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Background information was obtained from previous detailed evaluations such as the Generation-IV Roadmap but other technical references were also used including consultations with concept proponents and subject matter experts. Outside of Generation IV activity in which the US is a party, non-U.S. experience or data sources were generally not factored into the evaluations as one cannot assume that this data is easily available or of sufficient quality to be used for licensing a US facility. The Working Group established the scope of the assessment (which systems and subsystems needed to be considered), adapted a specific technology readiness scale, and scored each system through discussions designed to achieve internal consistency across concepts. In general, the Working Group sought to determine which of the reactor options have sufficient maturity to serve either the test or demonstration reactor missions.

  9. Sleep and Alertness Management IV: Effects of Alertness Enhancers Caffeine and Modafinil on Performance in Marmosets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    IV: Effects of F +31 15 284 39 91 Info-DenV@tno.nl alertness enhancers caffeine and modafinil on performance in marmosets Date March 2007 Author(s...modafinil op taakverrichting in marmosets 4Wfysieke aspecten centraal staan. Het Resultaten en conclusies onderzoek is uitdrukkelijk wiet gericht op de Beide...modafinil op taakverrichting in marmosets Cotc en * *aprifrai vermnoeidheid en taakverrichting uit te Onvoldoende rust kan vermoeidheid, stellen of te

  10. Environmental effects of marine energy development around the world. Annex IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, Luke; Whiting, Johnathan; Geerlofs, Simon; Grear, Molly; Blake, Kara ); Coffey, Anna; Massaua, Meghan; Brown-Saracino, Jocelyn; Battey, Hoyt )

    2013-01-15

    Annex IV is an international collaborative project to examine the environmental effects of marine energy devices among countries through the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems Initiative (OES). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) serves as the Operating Agent for the Annex, in partnership with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly the Minerals Management Service), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Numerous ocean energy technologies and devices are being developed around the world, and the few data that exist about the environmental effects of these technologies are dispersed among countries and developers. The purpose of Annex IV is to facilitate efficient government oversight of the development of ocean energy systems by compiling and disseminating information about the potential environmental effects of marine energy technologies and to identify methods of monitoring for these effects. Beginning in 2010, this three-year effort produced a publicly available searchable online database of environmental effects information (Tethys). It houses scientific literature pertaining to the environmental effects of marine energy systems, as well as metadata on international ocean energy projects and research studies. Two experts’ workshops were held in Dublin, Ireland (September 2010 and October 2012) to engage with international researchers, developers, and regulators on the scope and outcomes of the Annex IV project. Metadata and information stored in the Tethys database and feedback obtained from the two experts’ workshops were used as resources in the development of this report. This Annex IV final report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment that survey, compile, and analyze the best available information in one coherent location. These case studies address 1) the physical interactions

  11. A Qualitative Assessment of Diversion Scenarios for an Example Sodium Fast Reactor Using the GEN IV PR&PP Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Therios, Ike

    2012-01-20

    FAST REACTORS;NUCLEAR ENERGY;NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT;PROLIFERATION;SAFEGUARDS;THEFT; A working group was created in 2002 by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for the purpose of developing an internationally accepted methodology for assessing the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear energy system (NES) and its individual elements. A two year case study is being performed by the experts group using this methodology to assess the proliferation resistance of a hypothetical NES called the Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR). This work demonstrates how the PR and PP methodology can be used to provide important information at various levels of details to NES designers, safeguard administrators and decision makers. The study analyzes the response of the complete ESFR nuclear energy system to different proliferation and theft strategies. The challenges considered include concealed diversion, concealed misuse and 'break out' strategies. This paper describes the work done in performing a qualitative assessment of concealed diversion scenarios from the ESFR.

  12. Evaluation of contrast injection site effectiveness: thoracic CT angiography in children with hand injection of IV contrast material.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Gary R; Zurakowski, David; Lee, Edward Y

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various contrast injection sites when performing thoracic CT angiography (CTA) using hand injection of IV contrast material in infants and young children with a small IV catheter. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We used our hospital information system to retrospectively identify consecutive pediatric patients who underwent thoracic CTA with hand injection of contrast material from August 2012 to July 2013. The study indication for thoracic CTA was to evaluate the thoracic systemic arterial vasculature and pulmonary venous vasculature. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of thoracic CTA image quality was performed by two reviewers independently. Qualitative evaluation of thoracic CTA image quality was performed by visual assessment of the degree of contrast enhancement in the ROI on a 4-point scale. Quantitative evaluation was performed by measuring attenuation obtained with the ROI placed within the aorta at two locations (the level of the aortic arch and at the level of the carina) to evaluate the thoracic systemic arterial vasculature. For evaluation of the pulmonary venous system, attenuation measurements were obtained at the center of the left atrium. Six individual injection sites were identified: head, jugular vein, arm vein, hand vein, leg vein, and foot vein. Injection sites were categorized into three regional groups: head-neck region (head vein and jugular veins), upper extremity region (arm and hand veins), and lower extremity region (leg and foot veins). Comparisons of attenuation values between individual and regionally grouped contrast injection sites were determined using the F-test in ANOVA. RESULTS. The study cohort included 50 pediatric patients (29 boys and 21 girls; mean age, 8 months ± 1 year; range, 1 week to 5 years) who underwent a total of 50 thoracic CTA studies for evaluating the thoracic systemic arterial vasculature (n = 38; 76%) or pulmonary venous vasculature

  13. Environmental assessment for operations, upgrades, and modifications in SNL/NM Technical Area IV

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The proposed action for this EA for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Technical Area IV, includes continuing existing operations, modification of an existing accelerator (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II) to support defnese-related Z-pinch experiments, and construction of two transformer oil storage tanks to support the expansion of the Advanced Pulsed Power Research Module, a single pulse accelerator. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE believes that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA and CEQ NEPA implementing regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and a Finding of No Significant Impact is issued.

  14. Effect of stent surface-scattering properties on IV-OCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elahi, Sahar; Mancuso, J. Jacob; Feldman, Marc D.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Milner, Thomas E.

    2012-02-01

    Effect of stent surface-scattering properties on the appearance of stent struts in IV-OCT images was examined by simulation of light-stent interaction by an optical design software package. A phantom blood vessel was constructed from a mix of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and titanium dioxide to simulate the elastic and optical scattering properties of the arterial wall. A Cordis CYPHER® sirolimus-eluting stent was deployed within the phantom vessel and high resolution Micro-CT images of the stent strut were recorded to create a three-dimensional representation that was imported into software. A Gaussian surface-scattering model (bi-directional scattering distribution function) was assumed for the strut. Simulation of IV-OCT catheter and reflection of light from the stent strut was implemented for different surface scattering properties. A model of IV-OCT catheter was defined in the optical model and the rotation of the light beam over the stent strut was simulated. The measured parameters included: fraction of the reflected rays returning to the catheter and coordinate locations on the stent struts of returned rays. The results indicate that when the surface scattering of the strut increases, reflectivity is higher, while the angular spread of the light beam that is reflected back to the catheter is wider.

  15. Immediate Effect of Grade IV Inferior Hip Joint Mobilization on Hip Abductor Torque: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Makofsky, Howard; Panicker, Siji; Abbruzzese, Jeanine; Aridas, Cynthia; Camp, Michael; Drakes, Jonelle; Franco, Caroline; Sileo, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Joint mobilization and manipulation stimulate mechanoreceptors, which may influence the joint and surrounding muscles. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effect of grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization on hip abductor torque. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (grade I inferior hip joint mobilization) or an experimental group (grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization). Subjects performed a pre- and post-intervention test of five isometric repetitions on the Cybex Normö dynamometer; the average torque was determined for both pre- and post-intervention measurements. These data were analyzed using the independent samples t-test with the significance level set at P<0.05. The results showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups for an increase in hip abductor torque in the experimental group (P=0.03). The experimental group demonstrated a 17.35% increase in average torque whereas the control group demonstrated a 3.68% decrease in average torque. These findings are consistent with other studies demonstrating that the use of grade IV non-thrust mobilization improves strength immediately post-intervention in healthy individuals. The results of this pilot study provide physical therapists with further support for the utilization of manual therapy in conjunction with therapeutic exercise to enhance muscle strength. PMID:19066650

  16. Effects of type IV collagen on myogenic characteristics of IGF-I gene-engineered myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ikeda, Kazushi; Sato, Masanori; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration requires migration, proliferation and fusion of myoblasts to form multinucleated myotubes. In our previous study, we showed that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I gene delivery stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of mouse myoblast C2C12 cells and promotes the contractile force generated by tissue-engineered skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the extracellular matrix on IGF-I gene-engineered C2C12 cells in vitro. Retroviral vectors for doxycycline (Dox)-inducible expression of the IGF-I gene were transduced into C2C12 cells. When cultured on a type IV collagen-coated surface, we observed significant increases in the migration speed and number of IGF-I gene-engineered C2C12 cells with Dox addition, designated as C2C12/IGF (+) cells. Co-culture of C2C12/IGF (+) cells and parental C2C12 cells, which had been cultured in differentiation medium for 3 days, greatly enhanced myotube formation. Moreover, type IV collagen supplementation promoted the fusion of C2C12/IGF (+) cells with differentiated C2C12 cells and increased the number of myotubes with striations. Myotubes formed by C2C12/IGF (+) cells cultured on type IV collagen showed a dynamic contractile activity in response to electrical pulse stimulation. These findings indicate that type IV collagen promotes skeletal muscle regeneration mediated by IGF-I-expressing myoblasts, which may have important clinical implications in the design of myoblast-based therapies.

  17. Effects of monocyte-endothelium interactions on the expression of type IV collagenases in monocytes

    PubMed Central

    LI, YONG-QIN; LIU, RUI; XUE, JIA-HONG; ZHANG, YAN; GAO, DENG-FENG; WU, XIAO-SAN; WANG, CONG-XIA; YANG, YU-BAI

    2015-01-01

    The adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells is one of the early stages in the development of atherosclerosis. The expression of type IV collagenases, which include matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, in monocytes is hypothesized to play an important role in monocyte infiltration and transformation into foam cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of monocyte-endothelium interactions on the expression levels of type IV collagenases and their specific inhibitors in monocytes, and to investigate the roles of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in this process. Monocytes were single-cultured or co-cultured with endothelial cells. The expression of the type IV collagenases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their specific inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2, in monocytes was determined by immunohistochemistry followed by image analysis. The expression levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were found to be low in the single-culture monocytes, but increased significantly when the monocytes and endothelial cells were co-cultured. However, treatment with monoclonal TNF-α or IL-1β antibodies partially inhibited the upregulated expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the co-cultured monocytes. Expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was observed in the single monocyte culture, and a small increase in the expression levels was observed when the monocytes were co-cultured with endothelial cells. Therefore, monocyte-endothlium interactions were shown to increase the expression of type IV collagenases in monocytes, resulting in the loss of balance between MMP-2 and -9 with TIMP-1 and -2. In addition, TNF-α and IL-1β were demonstrated to play important roles in this process. PMID:25574228

  18. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SERVICE HISTORY AND CORROSION SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TYPE IV WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B

    2008-09-18

    Type IV waste tanks were designed and built to store waste that does not require auxiliary cooling. Each Type IV tank is a single-shell tank constructed of a steel-lined pre-stressed concrete tank in the form of a vertical cylinder with a concrete domed roof. There are four such tanks in F-area, Tanks 17-20F, and four in H-Area, Tanks 21-24H. Leak sites were discovered in the liners for Tanks 19 and 20F in the 1980's. Although these leaks were visually observed, the investigation to determine the mechanism by which the leaks had occurred was not completed at that time. Therefore, a concern was raised that the same mechanism which caused the leak sites in the Tanks in F-area may also be operable in the H-Area tanks. Data from the construction of the tanks (i.e., certified mill test reports for the steel, no stress-relief), the service history (i.e., waste sample data, temperature data), laboratory tests on actual wastes and simulants (i.e., electrochemical testing), and the results of the visual inspections were reviewed. The following observations and conclusions were made: (1) Comparison of the compositional and microstructural features indicate that the A212 material utilized for construction of the H-Area tanks are far more resistant to SCC than the A285 materials used for construction of the F-Area tanks. (2) A review of the materials of construction, temperature history, service histories concluded that F-Area tanks likely failed by caustic stress corrosion cracking. (3) The environment in the F-Area tanks was more aggressive than that experienced by the H-Area tanks. (4) Based on a review of the service history, the H-Area tanks have not been exposed to an environment that would render the tanks susceptible to either nitrate stress corrosion cracking (i.e., the cause of failures in the Type I and II tanks) or caustic stress corrosion cracking. (5) Due to the very dilute and uninhibited solutions that have been stored in Tank 23H, vapor space corrosion has

  19. Irradiation effects in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Ni-base alloys for Gen. IV nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oono, Naoko; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kondo, Sosuke; Hashitomi, Okinobu; Kimura, Akihiko

    2015-10-01

    Oxide particle dispersion strengthened (ODS) Ni-base alloys are irradiated by using simulation technique (Fe/He dual-ion irradiation) to investigate the reliability to Gen. IV high-temperature reactors. The fine oxide particles with less than 10 nm in average size and approximately 8.0 × 1022 m-3 in number density remained after 101 dpa irradiation. The tiny helium bubbles were inside grains, not at grain-boundaries; it is advantageous effect of oxide particles which trap the helium atoms at the particle-matrix interface. Ni-base ODS alloys demonstrated their great ability to overcome He embrittlement.

  20. National Assessment of Clinical Education of Allied Health Manpower: Volume IV: Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booz Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The document is the last volume of a four-part report of a study conducted to evaluate and assess the national state of clinical education and training of allied health manpower. It presents a bibliography of all significant clinical education materials, documentary materials and ongoing studies, through August 30, 1973 but after 1965. The…

  1. Oxoiron(IV) Tetramethylcyclam Complexes with Axial Carboxylate Ligands: Effect of Tethering the Carboxylate on Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Jennifer O; England, Jason; Klein, Johannes E M N; Farquhar, Erik R; Frisch, Jonathan R; Martinho, Marlène; Mandal, Debasish; Münck, Eckard; Shaik, Sason; Que, Lawrence

    2017-03-20

    Oxoiron(IV) species are implicated as reactive intermediates in nonheme monoiron oxygenases, often acting as the agent for hydrogen-atom transfer from substrate. A histidine is the most likely ligand trans to the oxo unit in most enzymes characterized thus far but is replaced by a carboxylate in the case of isopenicillin N synthase. As the effect of a trans carboxylate ligand on the properties of the oxoiron(IV) unit has not been systematically studied, we have synthesized and characterized four oxoiron(IV) complexes supported by the tetramethylcyclam (TMC) macrocycle and having a carboxylate ligand trans to the oxo unit. Two complexes have acetate or propionate axial ligands, while the other two have the carboxylate functionality tethered to the macrocyclic ligand framework by one or two methylene units. Interestingly, these four complexes exhibit substrate oxidation rates that differ by more than 100-fold, despite having Ep,c values for the reduction of the Fe═O unit that span a range of only 130 mV. Eyring parameters for 1,4-cyclohexadiene oxidation show that reactivity differences originate from differences in activation enthalpy between complexes with tethered carboxylates and those with untethered carboxylates, in agreement with computational results. As noted previously for the initial subset of four complexes, the logarithms of the oxygen atom transfer rates of 11 complexes of the Fe(IV)(O)TMC(X) series increase linearly with the observed Ep,c values, reflecting the electrophilicity of the Fe═O unit. In contrast, no correlation with Ep,c values is observed for the corresponding hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reaction rates; instead, the HAT rates increase as the computed triplet-quintet spin state gap narrows, consistent with Shaik's two-state-reactivity model. In fact, the two complexes with untethered carboxylates are among the most reactive HAT agents in this series, demonstrating that the axial ligand can play a key role in tuning the HAT reactivity

  2. Temporal Lobe Reactions After Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy: Comparison of Relative Biological Effectiveness–Weighted Tolerance Doses Predicted by Local Effect Models I and IV

    SciTech Connect

    Gillmann, Clarissa; Jäkel, Oliver; Schlampp, Ingmar; Karger, Christian P.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To compare the relative biological effectiveness (RBE)–weighted tolerance doses for temporal lobe reactions after carbon ion radiation therapy using 2 different versions of the local effect model (LEM I vs LEM IV) for the same patient collective under identical conditions. Methods and Materials: In a previous study, 59 patients were investigated, of whom 10 experienced temporal lobe reactions (TLR) after carbon ion radiation therapy for low-grade skull-base chordoma and chondrosarcoma at Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany in 2002 and 2003. TLR were detected as visible contrast enhancements on T1-weighted MRI images within a median follow-up time of 2.5 years. Although the derived RBE-weighted temporal lobe doses were based on the clinically applied LEM I, we have now recalculated the RBE-weighted dose distributions using LEM IV and derived dose-response curves with Dmax,V-1 cm³ (the RBE-weighted maximum dose in the remaining temporal lobe volume, excluding the volume of 1 cm³ with the highest dose) as an independent dosimetric variable. The resulting RBE-weighted tolerance doses were compared with those of the previous study to assess the clinical impact of LEM IV relative to LEM I. Results: The dose-response curve of LEM IV is shifted toward higher values compared to that of LEM I. The RBE-weighted tolerance dose for a 5% complication probability (TD{sub 5}) increases from 68.8 ± 3.3 to 78.3 ± 4.3 Gy (RBE) for LEM IV as compared to LEM I. Conclusions: LEM IV predicts a clinically significant increase of the RBE-weighted tolerance doses for the temporal lobe as compared to the currently applied LEM I. The limited available photon data do not allow a final conclusion as to whether RBE predictions of LEM I or LEM IV better fit better clinical experience in photon therapy. The decision about a future clinical application of LEM IV therefore requires additional analysis of temporal lobe reactions in a

  3. The Transverse Effective Charge of the IV-VI Compound Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Shindo, Koichi

    1981-10-01

    Littlewood’s assumption in the calculation of the transverse effective charge (TEC) of IV-VI compound semiconductors is studied by the simple calculation at W-point on the Jones zone surfaces based on the Heine-Jones model. It is shown that the main peak of optical absorption spectrum cannot be assigned only to (111) component of the effective charge in contrast with Littlewood’s assumption. The TEC is directly calculated by executing the band calculation with the potential obtained by the EPM in the framework of Vogl’s expression. The calculated result gives better agreement with experiment than Littlewood’s. The acoustic sum rule is also studied by using the similar formulation given by Vogl.

  4. Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume IV. Babcock and Wilcox process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This volume of the report contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Babcock and Wilcox gasification process. The report includes process descriptions, flow diagrams and equipment lists for the various subsystems associated with the gasifiers along with descriptions of the overall facility. The facility is analyzed from both an economic and environmental standpoint. Problems of construction are addressed together with an overall design and construction schedule for the total facility. Resource requirements are summarized along with suggested development areas, both process and environmental.

  5. Assessment of water quality parameters of the Harike wetland in India, a Ramsar site, using IRS LISS IV satellite data.

    PubMed

    Mabwoga, Samson Okongo; Chawla, Amit; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar

    2010-11-01

    This study aims at the classification and water quality assessment of Harike wetland (Ramsar site) in India using satellite images from the Indian Remote Sensing satellite, Resourcesat (IRS P6). The Harike wetland is a converging zone of two rivers, Beas and Sutlej. The satellite images of IRS Linear Imaging Self Scanner (LISS) IV multispectral sensor with three bands (green, red, and near infrared (NIR)) and a spatial resolution of 5.8 m were classified using supervised image classification techniques. Field points for image classification and water sampling were recorded using a Garmin eTrex Global Positioning System. The water quality parameters assessed were dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, turbidity, total and suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand, and Secchi disk transparency (SDT). Correlations were established between turbidity and SS, SS and SDT, and total solids and turbidity. Using reflectance values from the green, red, and NIR bands, we then plotted the water quality parameters with the mean digital number values from the satellite imagery. The NIR band correlated significantly with the water quality parameters, whereas, using SDT values, it was observed that the green and the red reflectance bands were able to distinguish the waters from the two rivers, which have different water qualities.

  6. USTUR WHOLE BODY CASE 0269: DEMONSTRATING EFFECTIVENESS OF I.V. CA-DTPA FOR PU

    SciTech Connect

    James, Anthony C.; Sasser , Lyle B.; Stuit, Dorothy B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-01-28

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol ‘mist.’ Chelation treatment with i.v. Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2½ years with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation), and continuing for 37 years. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 years after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive dataset has been applied to derive ‘chelation-enhanced’ transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys, and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modeling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as

  7. Ustur whole body case 0269: demonstrating effectiveness of i.v. CA-DTPA for Pu.

    PubMed

    James, A C; Sasser, L B; Stuit, D B; Glover, S E; Carbaugh, E H

    2007-01-01

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol 'mist'. Chelation treatment with intravenously (i.v.) Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2.5 y with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation) and continuing for 37 y. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 y after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive data set has been applied to derive 'chelation-enhanced' transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially, all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modelling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as effective

  8. The effect of Paragraph IV decisions and generic entry before patent expiration on brand pharmaceutical firms.

    PubMed

    Panattoni, Laura E

    2011-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of Paragraph IV patent infringement decisions on brand drug pharmaceutical firms. Paragraph IV decisions determine whether a generic firm can enter before the period of exclusivity ends. I construct a novel dataset of all Paragraph IV decisions and find that they disproportionately involve the highest revenue drugs, significant periods of patent protection, and a non-trivial portion of all brand drugs facing generic entry. I also estimate the impact of Paragraph IV decisions on brand firm profitability and find they have large value consequences.

  9. Partial thioamide scan on the lipopeptaibiotic trichogin GA IV. Effects on folding and bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    De Zotti, Marta; Biondi, Barbara; Peggion, Cristina; De Poli, Matteo; Fathi, Haleh; Oancea, Simona; Toniolo, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Summary Backbone modification is a common chemical tool to control the conformation of linear peptides and to explore potentially useful effects on their biochemical and biophysical properties. The thioamide, ψ[CS-NH], group is a nearly isosteric structural mimic of the amide (peptide) functionality. In this paper, we describe the solution synthesis, chemical characterization, preferred conformation, and membrane and biological activities of three, carefully selected, peptide analogues of the lipopeptaibiotic [Leu11-OMe] trichogin GA IV. In each analogue, a single thioamide replacement was incorporated. Sequence positions near the N-terminus, at the center, and near the C-terminus were investigated. Our results indicate that (i) a thioamide linkage is well tolerated in the overall helical conformation of the [Leu11-OMe] lipopeptide analogue and (ii) this backbone modification is compatible with the preservation of its typical membrane leakage and antibiotic properties, although somewhat attenuated. PMID:23019444

  10. The effect of gradually constricted channel on the I-V characteristics of graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanella, Fernando; Nobrega, K. Z.; Dartora, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ideal graphene is a gapless semiconductor consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms regularly arranged in a honeycomb lattice having infinite spatial extent in the (x,y)-plane, in which electrons behave as Dirac massless fermions. Even neglecting interactions with the anchoring substrate, a graphene sheet in real world has finite extent, leading to distinctive features in the conductivity of a given sample. In this letter we study the effect of a gradual channel constriction in graphene nanoribbons on their I-V characteristics, using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The constriction width and the border cutting angle are the main parameters to be varied. We found that transmission through the channel is considerably affected by these parameters, presenting sharp peaks at specific energies, which can be attributed to a resonance due to the tuning of energy eigenvalues.

  11. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates: Neuroendocrine portion of Experiment IV

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-08-31

    This quarterly report covers the neuroendocrine Portion of Experiment IV. Serum melatonin concentration was measured in individual baboons, each implanted with a chronically indwelling venous cannula. As in Experiment III the system of six automatic blood samplers was used to achieve undisturbed, 24 hr per day, simultaneous blood sampling from six individual subjects. The objective of the neuroendocrine portion of Experiment IV was to determine if 30 kV/m electric and 1.0 G magnetic field (E/MF) exposure produced a 50% decline in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration. Other groups of subjects were tested concurrently during Experiment IV to assess E/MF effects on group social and individual operant behavior. The results of these experiments will be covered respectively in the next two quarterly reports. The results of Experiment IV, as was the case with the result of Experiments III and IIIA, provide little or no evidence that E/MF exposure, under the conditions of these experiments, affects nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations of nonhuman primates. Together the negative results of Experiments III, IIA and IV indicate that day-time exposure of primates to slow-onset/offset, regularly-scheduled E/MF does not produce melatonin suppression, strongly suggesting that such exposure would not affect human melatonin either. However, before concluding that E/MF exposure in general has no effect on primate melatonin, nightime exposure needs to be examined, and the possibility, suggested by the Pilot Experiment, that fast onset/offset, irregularly-scheduled E/MF can completely suppress melatonin needs to be investigated.

  12. Antihyperglycemic effects of gymnemic acid IV, a compound derived from Gymnema sylvestre leaves in streptozotocin-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Y; Nojima, H; Matsuda, H; Murakami, T; Yoshikawa, M; Kimura, I

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the antihyperglycemic action of a crude saponin fraction and five triterpene glycosides (gymnemic acids I-IV and gymnemasaponin V) derived from the methanol extract of leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R. BR. (Asclepiadaceae) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. The saponin fraction (60mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels 2 4h after the intraperitoneal administration. Gymnemic acid IV, not the other 4 glycosides at doses of 3.4-13.4mg/kg reduced the blood glucose levels by 13.5-60.0% 6h after the administration comparable to the potency of glibenclamide, and did not change the blood glucose levels of normal mice. Gymnemic acid IV at 13.4 mg/kg increased plasma insulin levels in STZ-diabetic mice. Gymnemic acid IV (1 mg/mL) did not inhibit alpha-glycosidase activity in the brush border membrane vesicles of normal rat small intestines. These results indicate that insulin-releasing action of gymnemic acid IV may contribute to the antihyperglycemic effect by the leaves of G. sylvestre. Gymnemic acid IV may be an anti-obese and antihyperglycemic pro-drug.

  13. Gestalt Effect of Self Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Defining self assessment as the involvement of students in identifying standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and making judgements about the extent to which they have met these criteria and standards, this paper seeks to highlight the gestalt effect of self assessment. The total effect of self assessment on the learner is greater than…

  14. Effects of Ti(IV) substitution on protein adsorption behaviors of calcium hydroxyapatite particles.

    PubMed

    Kandori, Kazuhiko; Oketani, Makoto; Wakamura, Masato

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental experiments on the adsorption behaviors of proteins onto photocatalytic Ti(IV)-doped calcium hydroxyapatite (TiHap) particles with varied amounts of Ti(IV) ions doped (called as original particle) were examined comparing to those onto the calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHap) ones. The heat treated TiHaps and CaHap particles at 650°C for 1h were also examined (called as heat treated particle). The Ti/(Ca+Ti) atomic ratio (X(Ti)) of the TiHap particles was varied between 0 and 0.20. Since the surface acidity of the particles was increased by increase in X(Ti) value, the negative zeta potential (zp) of the particles was increased. All the adsorption isotherms of bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin (MGB) and lysozyme (LSZ) from 1×10(-4)mol/dm(3) KCl solution were the pseudo-Langmuirian type. The saturated amounts of adsorbed LSZ (n(S)(LSZ)) values onto the original particles were increased with increase in the negative zp of the particles. However, the saturated amounts of adsorbed BSA (n(S)(BSA)) values were decreased by increase in the negative zp except at X(Ti)=0.05 where n(S)(BSA) value exhibited a maximum. In the case of MGB, the saturated amounts of adsorbed MGB (n(s)(MGB)) values were less dependent on the zp of the particles. These results were explained by changing the electrostatic forces between protein molecules and TiHap particles by doping Ti(IV) ions. On the other hand, n(S)(BSA), n(S)(LSZ) and n(s)(MGB) values onto the heat treated particles were larger than the original particles in each particle system, though no relationship to the X(Ti) value was recognized in each protein system. This result was interpreted to the formation of β-TCP crystal phase in both the CaHap and TiHap particles by the heat treatment. The Ca(2+) ions produced by dissolution from β-TCP phase may exert as binders between BSA and surfaces of the heat treated particles. The weak binder effects of Ca(2+) and PO(4)(3-) ions were observed for the adsorptions of LSZ

  15. Planck early results. IV. First assessment of the High Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck HFI Core Team; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ansari, R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Banday, A. J.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bradshaw, T.; Bréelle, E.; Bucher, M.; Camus, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Charra, J.; Charra, M.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, C.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Cressiot, C.; Crill, B. P.; Crook, M.; de Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Efstathiou, G.; Eng, P.; Filliard, C.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Fourmond, J.-J.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gispert, R.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Griffin, M.; Guyot, G.; Haissinski, J.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hills, R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Kaplan, J.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lami, P.; Lange, A. E.; Lasenby, A.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leriche, B.; Leroy, C.; Longval, Y.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maciaszek, T.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Mansoux, B.; Masi, S.; Matsumura, T.; McGehee, P.; Melin, J.-B.; Mercier, C.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Mortlock, D.; Murphy, A.; Nati, F.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Osborne, S.; Paine, C.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peacocke, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pons, R.; Ponthieu, N.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Renault, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Shellard, P.; Spencer, L.; Starck, J.-L.; Stassi, P.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Thum, C.; Torre, J.-P.; Touze, F.; Tristram, M.; van Leeuwen, F.; Vibert, L.; Vibert, D.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Woodcraft, A.; Yurchenko, V.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is designed to measure the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic foregrounds in six ~30% bands centered at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz at an angular resolution of 10' (100 GHz), 7' (143 GHz), and 5' (217 GHz and higher). HFI has been operating flawlessly since launch on 14 May 2009, with the bolometers reaching 100 mK the first week of July. The settings of the readout electronics, including bolometer bias currents, that optimize HFI's noise performance on orbit are nearly the same as the ones chosen during ground testing. Observations of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn have confirmed that the optical beams and the time responses of the detection chains are in good agreement with the predictions of physical optics modeling and pre-launch measurements. The Detectors suffer from a high flux of cosmic rays due to historically low levels of solar activity. As a result of the redundancy of Planck's observation strategy, theremoval of a few percent of data contaminated by glitches does not significantly affect the instrumental sensitivity. The cosmic ray flux represents a significant and variable heat load on the sub-Kelvin stage. Temporal variation and the inhomogeneous distribution of the flux results in thermal fluctuations that are a probable source of low frequency noise. The removal of systematic effects in the time ordered data provides a signal with an average noise equivalent power that is 70% of the goal in the 0.6-2.5 Hz range. This is slightly higher than was achieved during the pre-launch characterization but better than predicted in the early phases of the project. The improvement over the goal is a result of the low level of instrumental background loading achieved by the optical and thermal design of the HFI. Corresponding author: J.-M. Lamarre, jean-michel.lamarre@obspm.fr

  16. Cytogenetic effects of pesticides. IV. Cytogenetic effects of the insecticides Gardona and Dursban.

    PubMed

    Amer, S M; Aly, F A

    1992-06-01

    The cytogenetic effects of the insecticides Gardona and Dursban were investigated. The toxicity and ability of both insecticides to induce chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchange in vitro was tested in a primary culture of mouse spleen cells, in order to assess the potential mutagenicity of both insecticides. The concentrations 10(-7)-10(-3) M were used for testing the toxic effects of the insecticides. Both Gardona and Dursban were toxic to spleen cell cultures and the percentage of viable cells decreased as the concentration of the insecticide was increased. It reached 76.8% and 77.8% of control after treatment with the highest concentration tested (10(-3) M) of Gardona and Dursban respectively. Gardona at 0.25, 0.50, 1.0 and 2.0 micrograms/ml, and Dursban at 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 micrograms/ml were tested for the induction of chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges. All of the tested concentrations of both insecticides induced a high percentage of metaphases with chromosomal aberrations in cultured mouse spleen cells after 4-h treatment. The frequency of SCEs/cell increased with increasing concentration of the insecticides. It reached 11.92 +/- 0.14/cell and 13.40 +/- 0.20/cell after treatment with Gardona (2 micrograms/ml) and Dursban (4 micrograms/ml), respectively, compared with 8.2 +/- 0.19/cell and 7.6 +/- 0.15/cell in the solvent control. The presented results indicate that both Gardona and Dursban in the tested concentrations are mutagenic in mouse spleen cell cultures.

  17. Synergistic radiation protective effect of purified Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharide (AAP IV) with grape seed procyanidins.

    PubMed

    Bai, Haina; Wang, Zhenyu; Cui, Jie; Yun, Keli; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Rui Hai; Fan, Ziluan; Cheng, Cuilin

    2014-12-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic antioxidant potential and protective effect of grape seed procyanidins (GSP) in combination with Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharides (AAP IV) on radiation injury in splenocytes. Rat splenocyte irradiation resulted in significantly higher apoptosis rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) (p < 0.005), reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p < 0.01); cell viability, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) (p < 0.01), catalase (CAT) (p < 0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) (p < 0.05), activity and glutathione (GSH) (p < 0.01) levels were significantly reduced, compared with the control group. "GSP + AAP IV" treatment of rat splenocytes at doses of "GSP (0.3 μg/mL) + AAP IV (50 μg/mL)" displayed higher radioprotective and antioxidative effects than the administration of either GSP or AAP IV, as evident by lower levels of MDA (p < 0.001) concentration, as well as higher cell viability and T-SOD (p < 0.05), CAT (p < 0.005), GSH-PX (p < 0.01) and GSH content compared to the radiation group. In addition, in vivo studies have shown that "GSP + AAP IV" significantly ameliorated the decrease of spleen index (p < 0.005) and spleen GSH (p < 0.005) levels and significantly inhibited the increase of MDA (p < 0.005) levels of spleen with radiation-induced damage, compared with the non-treated group. The in vivo and in vitro results suggested that GSP and AAP IV have a synergistic protective effect against radiation-induced injury by improving the antioxidant and immunomodulation activities.

  18. Antidepressive and BDNF effects of enriched environment treatment across ages in mice lacking BDNF expression through promoter IV

    PubMed Central

    Jha, S; Dong, B E; Xue, Y; Delotterie, D F; Vail, M G; Sakata, K

    2016-01-01

    Reduced promoter IV-driven expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in stress and major depression. We previously reported that defective promoter IV (KIV) caused depression-like behavior in young adult mice, which was reversed more effectively by enriched environment treatment (EET) than antidepressants. The effects of promoter IV-BDNF deficiency and EET over the life stages remain unknown. Since early-life development (ED) involves dynamic epigenetic processes, we hypothesized that EET during ED would provide maximum antidepressive effects that would persist later in life due to enhanced, long-lasting BDNF induction. We tested this hypothesis by determining EET effects across three life stages: ED (0–2 months), young adult (2–4 months), and old adult (12–14 months). KIV mice at all life stages showed depression-like behavior in the open-field and tail-suspension tests compared with wild-type mice. Two months of EET reduced depression-like behavior in ED and young adult, but not old adult mice, with the largest effect in ED KIV mice. This effect lasted for 1 month after discontinuance of EET only in ED mice. BDNF protein induction by EET in the hippocampus and frontal cortex was also the largest in ED mice and persisted only in the hippocampus of ED KIV mice after discontinuance of EET. No gender-specific effects were observed. The results suggest that defective promoter IV causes depression-like behavior, regardless of age and gender, and that EET during ED is particularly beneficial to individuals with promoter IV-BDNF deficiency, while additional treatment may be needed for older adults. PMID:27648918

  19. Inhibitory effect of collagen-derived tripeptides on dipeptidylpeptidase-IV activity.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Tadashi; Kawakami, Kayoko; Uraji, Misugi

    2014-12-01

    The collagen tripeptide fragments Gly-Ala-Hyp, Gly-Pro-Ala and Gly-Pro-Hyp were generated by hydrolyzing collagen from pig-skin, cattle-skin, fish-scales and chicken-feet, respectively, with Streptomyces collagenase. Collagenase treatment increased the concentration of tripeptides in the hydrolysates by 13-15% (w/w). Of the three peptides, Gly-Pro-Hyp was a true peptidic inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase-IV (DPP-IV), because DPP-IV could not hydrolyze the bond between Pro-Hyp. This tripeptide was a moderately competitive inhibitor (Ki=4.5 mM) of DPP-IV, and its level in the collagen hydrolysates could be greatly increased (4-9% [w/w]) using Streptomyces collagenase.

  20. Assessing School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen; Freedman, David; Shavelson, Richard; Bolus, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) program measures value added in colleges and universities, by testing the ability of freshmen and seniors to think logically and write clearly. The program is popular enough that it has attracted critics. In this paper, we outline the methods used by the CLA to determine value added. We summarize the…

  1. Effective Campus Environmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Ann; Creighton, Sarah Hammond

    2003-01-01

    Examines environmental assessments as a decision-making tool, distinguishing broad-based, targeted, and goal-oriented efforts as the three types most commonly practiced on campuses. Discusses benefits and problems associated with these approaches and concludes that the goal-oriented approach is most likely to be successful. Describes Tufts…

  2. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA:
    IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    Zhixiong Ning, B.S., Zhiyi Liu,B.S., Shiying Zhang, B.S., Chenglong Ma, B.S., Inner Mongolia Ba Men Anti-epidemic Station, Michael Ri...

  3. Readability and Content Assessment of Informed Consent Forms for Phase II-IV Clinical Trials in China

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Gaiyan; Liu, Xinchun; Huang, Lihua; Shu, Jingxian; Xu, Nana; Chen, Ruifang; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Guoping; Wang, Xiaomin; Xiang, Yuxia; Lu, Yao; Yuan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the readability and content integrity of informed consent forms (ICFs) used in China and to compare the quality of Chinese local ICFs with that of international ICFs. Methods The length, readability and content of 155 consent documents from phase II-IV drug clinical trials from the Third Xiangya Hospital Ethics Committee from November 2009 to January 2015 were evaluated. Reading difficulty was tested using a readability formula adapted for the Chinese language. An ICF checklist containing 27 required elements was successfully constructed to evaluate content integrity. The description of alternatives to participation was assessed. The quality of ICFs from different sponsorships were also compared. Results Among the 155 evaluable trials, the ICFs had a median length of 5286 words, corresponding to 7 pages. The median readability score was 4.31 (4.02–4.41), with 63.9% at the 2nd level and 36.1% at the 3rd level. Five of the 27 elements were frequently neglected. The average score for the description of alternatives to participation was 1.06, and 27.7% of the ICFs did not mention any alternatives. Compared with Chinese local ICFs, international ICFs were longer, more readable and contained more of the required elements (P < 0.05). Conclusion The ICFs used in China were difficult to read for most participants. These forms had poor description of alternatives to participation, and failed to provide a high degree of information disclosure, including an explanation of informed consent, follow-up processing of the data/sample, inclusion/exclusion criteria, double blinding, and unpredictable risks. International ICFs had better readability and content integrity than Chinese local ICFs. More efforts should thus be made to improve the quality of consent documents in China. PMID:27701471

  4. Effect of pH on aqueous Se(IV) reduction by pyrite.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mingliang; Chen, Fanrong; Wu, Shijun; Yang, Yongqiang; Bruggeman, C; Charlet, L

    2011-04-01

    Interaction of aqueous Se(IV) with pyrite was investigated using persistently stirred batch reactors under O2-free (<1 ppm) conditions at pH ranging from 4.5 to 6.6. Thermodynamic calculations, an increase in pH during the experiments, and spectroscopic observation indicate that the reduction of aqueous Se(IV) by pyrite is dominated by the following reaction: FeS2+3.5HSeO3−+1.5H+=2SO4(2−)+Fe2++3.5Se(0)+2.5H2O. The released Fe(II) was partitioned between the bulk solution and pyrite surface at pH≈4.5 and 4.8, with the Fe2+ density at pyrite-solution interface about 4 orders of magnitude higher than that in the bulk solution, while iron oxyhydroxide precipitated at pH≈6.6, resulting in the decrease of dissolved iron. In the Se(IV) concentration range of the experiments, aqueous Se(IV) reduction rate follows the pseudofirst order which is in the form of ln mSe(IV)=−k′t+ln mSe(IV)0, where k′ is apparent rate constant combining the rate constant k and pyrite surface area to mass of solution ratio (A/M). And the aqueous Se(IV) reduction rate constant for a standard system (k) with 1 m2 pyrite surface area per 1 kg solution was obtained to be 1.65×10(−4) h(−1), 3.28×10(−4) h(−1), and 4.76×10(−4) h(−1) at pH around 4.5, 4.8, and 5.1, respectively. The positive correlation between reaction rate and pH disagrees with the theories that protons are consumed when HSeO3− is reduced to Se0, and negative charge density on pyrite surface increases as pH increases. Thus, a ferrous iron mediated electron transfer mechanism is proposed to operate during the reduction of aqueous Se(IV) by pyrite. pH and iron concentration affect significantly on Se(IV) reaction rate and reaction product.

  5. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, ...

  6. Developing Effective Affective Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, William; Hart, Aaron; Foley, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Physical educators generally understand the importance of the affective domain for student growth and development. However, many teachers struggle with assessing affective behaviors in a way that can be documented and reported. The five-step process outlined in this article can assist teachers in developing an effective way to assess the affective…

  7. [Forensic assessment of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder: a commentary on the transition from DSM-IV-TR (I)].

    PubMed

    Stevens, A; Fabra, M

    2013-12-01

    In May 2013 the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has released the latest and fifth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). Like its predecessor, the DSM-IV-TR, it will have considerable impact on the science of Psychiatry. The DSM-5 describes - actually available in English - the present medical knowledge about mental disorders. In the short run, German medical science and scientific medicolegal expertises will continue to rely on the German version of the DSM-IV-TR, however, they will be difficult to defend without bearing in mind the changes that DSM-5 brings about. This report discusses the transition from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 with regard to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and provides suggestions, how the criteria might be evaluated.

  8. Assessing and Improving Institutional Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.

    Information to promote assessment of organizational effectiveness in colleges and universities is presented, along with an exercise to rank the effectiveness of 10 institutions. The exercise uses three types of criteria to indicate effectiveness: subjective ratings, data about students and activities, and institutional capacity and financial…

  9. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibition Exerts Renoprotective Effects in Rats with Established Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Arruda-Junior, Daniel F.; Martins, Flavia L.; Dariolli, Rafael; Jensen, Leonardo; Antonio, Ednei L.; dos Santos, Leonardo; Tucci, Paulo J. F.; Girardi, Adriana C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Circulating dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) activity is associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes in humans and experimental heart failure (HF) models, suggesting that DPPIV may play a role in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Renal dysfunction is one of the key features of HF, but it remains to be determined whether DPPIV inhibitors are capable of improving cardiorenal function after the onset of HF. Therefore, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that DPPIV inhibition by vildagliptin improves renal water and salt handling and exerts anti-proteinuric effects in rats with established HF. To this end, male Wistar rats were subjected to left ventricle (LV) radiofrequency ablation or sham operation. Six weeks after surgery, radiofrequency-ablated rats who developed HF were randomly divided into two groups and treated for 4 weeks with vildagliptin (120 mg/kg/day) or vehicle by oral gavage. Echocardiography was performed before (pretreatment) and at the end of treatment (post-treatment) to evaluate cardiac function. The fractional area change (FAC) increased (34 ± 5 vs. 45 ± 3%, p < 0.05), and the isovolumic relaxation time decreased (33 ± 2 vs. 27 ± 1 ms; p < 0.05) in HF rats treated with vildagliptin (post-treatment vs. pretreatment). On the other hand, cardiac dysfunction deteriorated further in vehicle-treated HF rats. Renal function was impaired in vehicle-treated HF rats as evidenced by fluid retention, low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and high levels of urinary protein excretion. Vildagliptin treatment restored urinary flow, GFR, urinary sodium and urinary protein excretion to sham levels. Restoration of renal function in HF rats by DPPIV inhibition was associated with increased active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) serum concentration, reduced DPPIV activity and increased activity of protein kinase A in the renal cortex. Furthermore, the anti-proteinuric effect of vildagliptin treatment in rats with established HF was associated with

  10. Assessing Israeli Military Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    did during the 1967 Arab -Israeli War. If this is the case, is it due to a decline in IDF military effectiveness? If so, what are the factors that led...conflict, low-intensity conflict, hybrid conflict, Arab -Israeli War, Operation Accountability, Operation Grapes of Wrath, Operation Change of Direction...has not been able to consistently sustain the ability to achieve decisive military success as it did during the 1967 Arab -Israeli War. If this is

  11. Assessments of astronaut effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Robert M.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Fogg, Louis; Mcfadden, Terry J.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and convergent validity of three methods of peer and supervisory ratings of the effectiveness of individual NASA astronauts and their relationships with flight assignments. These two techniques were found to be reliable and relatively convergent. Seniority and a peer-rated Performance and Competence factor proved to be most closely associated with flight assignments, while supervisor ratings and a peer-rated Group Living and Personality factor were found to be unrelated. Results have implications for the selection and training of astronauts.

  12. A Population-Based Survival Assessment of Categorizing Level III and IV Rural Hospitals as Trauma Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Melanie; Newgard, Craig D.; Mullins, Richard J.; Diggs, Brian S.; Stone, Judith V.; Adams, Annette L.; Hedges, Jerris R.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients injured in rural areas are hypothesized to have improved outcomes if statewide trauma systems categorize rural hospitals as Level III and IV trauma centers, though evidence to support this belief is sparse. Purpose: To determine if there is improved survival among injured patients hospitalized in states that categorize rural…

  13. Welding IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding IV, a competency-based course in advanced arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with proficiency in: (1) single vee groove welding using code specifications established by the American Welding Society…

  14. Effects of calcium and phosphate on uranium(IV) oxidation: Comparison between nanoparticulate uraninite and amorphous UIV–phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Latta, Drew E.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2015-11-17

    The mobility of uranium in subsurface environments depends strongly on its redox state, with UIV phases being significantly less soluble than UVI minerals. This study compares the oxidation kinetics and mechanisms of two potential products of UVI reduction in natural systems, a nanoparticulate UO2 phase and an amorphous UIV–Ca–PO4 analog to ningyoite (CaUIV(PO4)2·1–2H2O). The valence of U was tracked by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), showing similar oxidation rate constants for UIVO2 and UIV–phosphate in solutions equilibrated with atmospheric O2 and CO2 at pH 7.0 (kobs,UO2 = 0.17 ± 0.075 h-1 vs. kobs,UIVPO4 = 0.30 ± 0.25 h-1). Addition of up to 400 μM Ca and PO4 decreased the oxidation rate constant by an order of magnitude for both UO2 and UIV–phosphate. The intermediates and products of oxidation were tracked by electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). In the absence of Ca or PO4, the product of UO2 oxidation is Na–uranyl oxyhydroxide (under environmentally relevant concentrations of sodium, 15 mM NaClO4 and low carbonate concentration), resulting in low concentrations of dissolved UVI (<2.5 × 10-7 M). Oxidation of UIV–phosphate produced a Na-autunite phase (Na2(UO2)PO4·xH2O), resulting in similarly low dissolved U concentrations (<7.3 × 10-8 M). When Ca and PO4 are present in the solution, the EXAFS data and the solubility of the UVI phase resulting from oxidation of UO2 and UIV–phosphate are consistent with the precipitation of Na

  15. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na(+ )and K(+ )gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were different. Na(+)/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V.

  16. Validity of the RIAS for assessing children with traumatic brain injury: sensitivity to TBI and comparability to the WISC-III and WISC-IV.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel N; Stolberg, Paul C; Thaler, Nicholas S; Sutton, Griffin; Mayfield, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence tests are commonly administered to children following moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) is a recently developed measure of intellectual ability that has a number of appealing features for assessing individuals with brain damage, but as yet has little validity information when applied to children with TBI or other forms of brain injury. It is therefore unclear whether RIAS scores are sensitive to brain injury and how they compare to older more well-established tests such as the Wechsler scales. The current article reports two studies that examine these matters in youth with TBI. The first study examined sensitivity of the RIAS to TBI in 110 children. Results indicated the TBI sample performed significantly worse compared with the standardization sample on all RIAS index scores. The second study included 102 children who were administered either the RIAS, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III), or WISC-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV; 34 children in each group). Comparisons among the RIAS, WISC-III, and WISC-IV groups indicated no significant differences among the measures on verbal, nonverbal, and Composite Index/Full-Scale IQs. Results provide support for the sensitivity of the RIAS to TBI in children and also suggest that IQs produced by the RIAS, WISC-III, and WISC-IV do not significantly vary from one test to the other, which is particularly true of the verbal and Composite Index/Full-Scale IQs.

  17. Simple, Fast and Effective Correction for Irradiance Spatial Nonuniformity in Measurement of IVs of Large Area Cells at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, Tom

    2016-11-21

    The NREL cell measurement lab measures the IV parameters of cells of multiple sizes and configurations. A large contributing factor to errors and uncertainty in Jsc, Imax, Pmax and efficiency can be the irradiance spatial nonuniformity. Correcting for this nonuniformity through its precise and frequent measurement can be very time consuming. This paper explains a simple, fast and effective method based on bicubic interpolation for determining and correcting for spatial nonuniformity and verification of the method's efficacy.

  18. d-orbital effects on stereochemical non-rigidity: twisted Ti(IV) intramolecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Davis, Anna V; Firman, Timothy K; Hay, Benjamin P; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2006-07-26

    The isomerization dynamics of tris-catecholate complexes have been investigated by variable-temperature NMR methods, demonstrating that the intramolecular racemization of Delta and Lambda enantiomers of d0 Ti(IV) is facile and faster than that of d10 Ga(III) and Ge(IV) analogues. Activation parameters for the racemization of K2[Ti2(3)] (H(2)2 = 2,3-dihydroxy-N,N'-diisopropylterephthalamide) were determined from line shape analysis of 1H NMR spectra [methanol-d4: deltaH++ = 47(1) kJ/mol; deltaS++ = -34(4) J/mol K; deltaG++(298) = 57(3) kJ/mol; DMF-d7: deltaH++ = 55(1) kJ/mol; deltaS++ = -16(4) J/mol K; deltaG++(298) = 59(3) kJ/mol; D2O (pD* = 8.6, 20% MeOD): deltaH++ = 48(3) kJ/mol; deltaS++ = -28(10) J/mol K; deltaG++(298) = 56(3) kJ/mol]. The study of K2[Ti4(3)] (H(2)4 = 2,3-dihydroxy-N-tert-butyl-N'-benzylterephthalamide) reveals two distinct isomerization processes: faster racemization of mer-[Ti4(3)]2- by way of a Bailar twist mechanism (D3h transition state) [T(c) approximately 242 K, methanol-d4], and a slower merright harpoon over left harpoonfac [Ti4(3)]2- isomerization by way of a Rây-Dutt mechanism (C2v transition state) [T(c) approximately 281 K, methanol-d4]. The solution behavior of the Ti(IV) complexes mirrors that reported previously for analogous Ga(III) complexes, while that of analogous Ge(IV) complexes was too inert to be detected by 1H NMR up to 400 K. These experimental findings are augmented by DFT calculations of the ML3 ground states and Bailar and Rây-Dutt transition states, which correctly predict the relative kinetic barriers of complexes of the three metal ions, in addition to faithfully reproducing the ground-state structures. Orbital calculations support the conclusion that participation of the Ti(IV) d orbitals in ligand bonding contributes to the greater stabilization of the prismatic Ti(IV) transition states.

  19. d-Orbital Effects on Stereochemical Non-Rigidity: Twisted Ti IV Intramolecular Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Anna V.; Firman, Timothy K.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2006-07-26

    The isomerization dynamics of tris-catecholate complexes have been investigated by variable temperature NMR methods, demonstrating that the intramolecular racemization of ? and ? enantiomers of d0 TiIV is facile and faster than that of d10 GaIII and GeIV analogs. Activation parameters for the racemization of K2[Ti23] (H22 = 2,3-dihydroxy-N,N?-diisopropylterephthalamide) were determined from lineshape analysis of 1H NMR spectra (methanol-d4: ?H? = 47(1) kJ/mol; ?S? = -34(4) J/molK; ?G?298 = 57(3) kJ/mol; DMF-d7: ?H? = 55(1) kJ/mol; ?S? = -16(4) J/molK; ?G?298 = 59(3) kJ/mol; D2O (pD* = 8.6, 20% MeOD): ?H? = 48(3) kJ/mol; ?S? = -28(10) J/molK; ?G?298 = 56(3) kJ/mol). The study of K2[Ti43] (H24 = 2,3-dihydroxy-N-tert-butyl-N?-benzylterephthalamide) reveals two distinct isomerization processes: faster racemization of mer-[Ti43]2- by way of a Bailar twist mechanism (D3h transition state) (Tc ? 242 K, methanol-d4), and a slower mer/fac-[Ti43]2- isomerization by way of a R?y-Dutt mechanism (C2v transition state) (Tc ? 281 K, methanol-d4). The solution behavior of the TiIV complexes mirrors that reported previously for analogous GaIII complexes, while that of analogous GeIV complexes was too inert to be detected by 1H NMR up to 400 K. These experimental findings are augmented by DFT calculations of the ML3 grounds states and Bailar and R?y-Dutt transition states, which correctly predict the relative kinetic barriers of the three metal ions, in addition to faithfully reproducing the ground state structures. Orbital calculations support the conclusion that participation of the TiIV d0 orbitals in ligand bonding contributes to the greater stabilization of the prismatic TiIV transition states. Battelle operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Effect of a laboratory surfactant on compatibility of type IV dental stones with addition-cured silicone impression materials.

    PubMed

    Tredwin, Christopher Jeremy; Nesbit, Michael; Butta, Rajeev; Moles, David R

    2008-06-01

    This study compared the effect of a surfactant on surface detail reproduction between combinations of addition-cured silicone impression materials and type IV stones. Six hundred impressions were made of a ruled test block using; Examix-NDS, Doric-Es Flo-Light, Panasil Contact Plus, Extrude Wash and President Plus Jet. Half of the impressions were treated with a surfactant (Aurofilm). Impressions were poured with type IV dental stones; Silky Rock, Fuji Rock, Suprastone and Vel-Mix and the 20 mu line was scored. A laboratory surfactant (Aurofilm) significantly reduced (P<0.01) compatibility with; (i) Examix-NDS and Suprastone, (ii) Examix-NDS and Velmix, (iii) Extrude Wash and Fuji Rock.

  1. IVS Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  2. Effects of sugar beet chitinase IV on root-associated fungal community of transgenic silver birch in a field trial.

    PubMed

    Pasonen, Hanna-Leena; Lu, Jinrong; Niskanen, Anna-Maija; Seppänen, Sanna-Kaisa; Rytkönen, Anna; Raunio, Janne; Pappinen, Ari; Kasanen, Risto; Timonen, Sari

    2009-10-01

    Heterogenous chitinases have been introduced in many plant species with the aim to increase the resistance of plants to fungal diseases. We studied the effects of the heterologous expression of sugar beet chitinase IV on the intensity of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and the structure of fungal communities in the field trial of 15 transgenic and 8 wild-type silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) genotypes. Fungal sequences were separated in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and identified by sequencing the ITS1 region to reveal the operational taxonomic units. ECM colonization was less intense in 7 out of 15 transgenic lines than in the corresponding non-transgenic control plants, but the slight decrease in overall ECM colonization in transgenic lines could not be related to sugar beet chitinase IV expression or total endochitinase activity. One transgenic line showing fairly weak sugar beet chitinase IV expression without significantly increased total endochitinase activity differed significantly from the non-transgenic controls in the structure of fungal community. Five sequences belonging to three different fungal genera (Hebeloma, Inocybe, Laccaria) were indicative of wild-type genotypes, and one sequence (Lactarius) indicated one transgenic line. In cluster analysis, the non-transgenic control grouped together with the transgenic lines indicating that genotype was a more important factor determining the structure of fungal communities than the transgenic status of the plants. With the tested birch lines, no clear evidence for the effect of the heterologous expression of sugar beet chitinase IV on ECM colonization or the structure of fungal community was found.

  3. Assessing the accuracy of the WISC-IV seven-subtest short form and the child and adolescent intellectual disability screening questionnaire in identifying intellectual disability in children.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen; Murray, Aja L; Murray, Kara R; Murray, George C

    2014-01-01

    Little research has been conducted into the accuracy of abbreviated assessments in identifying children and young people with an intellectual disability (ID). The present study compared two such methods in a clinical population of individuals with (n = 106) and without (n = 170) ID: a 7-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales for Children--fourth edition (WISC-IV) proposed by Crawford and colleagues and the Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire (CAIDS-Q). Both the CAIDS-Q and the WISC-IV short form had high and comparable levels of predicting group classification (88% and 91% correct classification, respectively). Both methods would appear to offer clinicians and researchers an efficient and accurate means of identifying those who are likely to have ID. The WISC-IV short form was slightly more accurate, but the CAIDS-Q may offer the advantages of being shorter to administer and having no requirement for the user to have a particular qualification or training.

  4. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of chemicals. IV. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): understanding a complex problem.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, M M; George, J D; Gold, K W; Cibulas, W; DeRosa, C T

    1996-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage, or other organic substances, such as tobacco and charbroiled meat. There are more than 100 PAHs. PAHs generally occur as complex mixtures (for example, as part of products such as soot), not as single compounds. PAHs are found throughout the environment in the air, water, and soil. As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals, including PAHs (ATSDR, 1995), found at facilities on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) and which pose the most significant potential threat to human health, as determined by ATSDR and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These profiles include information on health effects of chemicals from different routes and durations of exposure, their potential for exposure, regulations and advisories, and the adequacy of the existing database. Assessing the health effects of PAHs is a major challenge because environmental exposures to these chemicals are usually to complex mixtures of PAHs with other chemicals. The biological consequences of human exposure to mixtures of PAHs depend on the toxicity, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic, of the individual components of the mixture, the types of interactions among them, and confounding factors that are not thoroughly understood. Also identified are components of exposure and health effects research needed on PAHs that will allow estimation of realistic human health risks posed by exposures to PAHs. The exposure assessment component of research should focus on (1) development of reliable analytical methods for the determination of bioavailable PAHs following ingestion, (2) estimation of bioavailable PAHs from environmental media, particularly the determination of particle-bound PAHs, (3

  5. Instrumentation of Flow-Through USP IV Dissolution Apparatus to Assess Poorly Soluble Basic Drug Products: a Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Paprskářová, Alice; Možná, Petra; Oga, Enoche F; Elhissi, Abdelbary; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2016-10-01

    Supersaturation and precipitation are common limitations encountered especially with poorly soluble basic drugs. The aims of this work were to explore the pattern of dissolution and precipitation of poorly soluble basic drugs using a United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) IV dissolution apparatus and to compare it to the widely used USP II dissolution apparatus. In order to investigate the influence of gastric emptying time on bioavailability, tables of two model drugs (dipyridamole 100 mg and cinnarizine 15 mg) were investigated and pH change from 1.2 to 6.8 were achieved after 10, 20 or 30 min using USP II or USP IV dissolution apparatuses. Using USP II, dipyridamole and cinnarizine concentrations dropped instantly as a result of drug precipitation with drug crystals evident in the dissolution vessel. At pH change times of 10, 20 and 30 min, the total amount of dissolved drug was dependent on pH change time. Using USP IV, at a flow rate of 8 ml/min, it was possible to have comparable release to agitation at 50 rpm using USP II suggesting that comparable hydrodynamic forces are possible. No drop in drug percentage occurs as the dissolved fraction was readily emptied from the flow cell, preventing drug accumulation in the dissolution medium. However, a negligible percentage of drug release took place following pH change. In conclusion, the use of the flow-through cell dissolution provided laminar flow, use of realistic fluid volumes and avoided precipitation of dissolved drug fraction in the gastric phase as it is discharged before pH change.

  6. Steric and electrostatic effects in DNA synthesis by the SOS-induced DNA polymerases II and IV of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Adam P; Jiang, Qingfei; Goodman, Myron F; Kool, Eric T

    2007-12-04

    The SOS-induced DNA polymerases II and IV (pol II and pol IV, respectively) of Escherichia coli play important roles in processing lesions that occur in genomic DNA. Here we study how electrostatic and steric effects play different roles in influencing the efficiency and fidelity of DNA synthesis by these two enzymes. These effects were probed by the use of nonpolar shape analogues of thymidine, in which substituted toluenes replace the polar thymine base. We compared thymine with nonpolar analogues to evaluate the importance of hydrogen bonding in the polymerase active sites, while we used comparisons among a set of variably sized thymine analogues to measure the role of steric effects in the two enzymes. Steady-state kinetics measurements were carried out to evaluate activities for nucleotide insertion and extension. The results showed that both enzymes inserted nucleotides opposite nonpolar template bases with moderate to low efficiency, suggesting that both polymerases benefit from hydrogen bonding or other electrostatic effects involving the template base. Surprisingly, however, pol II inserted nonpolar nucleotide (dNTP) analogues into a primer strand with high (wild-type) efficiency, while pol IV handled them with an extremely low efficiency. Base pair extension studies showed that both enzymes bypass non-hydrogen-bonding template bases with moderately low efficiency, suggesting a possible beneficial role of minor groove hydrogen bonding interactions at the N-1 position. Measurement of the two polymerases' sensitivity to steric size changes showed that both enzymes were relatively flexible, yielding only small kinetic differences with increases or decreases in nucleotide size. Comparisons are made to recent data for DNA pol I (Klenow fragment), the archaeal polymerase Dpo4, and human pol kappa.

  7. Antioxidant and anticancer effects and bioavailability studies of the flavonoid baicalin and its oxidovanadium(IV) complex.

    PubMed

    Martínez Medina, Juan J; Naso, Luciana G; Pérez, Ana L; Rizzi, Alberto; Ferrer, Evelina G; Williams, Patricia A M

    2017-01-01

    Based on the known antioxidant effect of flavonoids, baicalin (baic) found in roots of Scutellaria has been selected. Its coordination complex with the oxidovanadium(IV) cation, Na4[VO(baic)2].6H2O (V(IV)O(baic)), was synthesized at pH9 in ethanol and characterized by physicochemical methods. Spectrophotometric studies at pH9 showed a ligand: metal stoichiometry of 2:1. By vibrational spectroscopy a coordination mode through the cis 5-OH and 6-OH deprotonated groups is inferred. EPR spectroscopy shows an environment of four aryloxide (ArO(-)) groups in the equatorial plane of the VO moiety, both in solution and in the solid complex. The antioxidant capacity against superoxide and peroxyl radicals of V(IV)O(baic) resulted greater than for baicalin and correlated with previous results obtained for other VOflavonoid complexes. The coordination mode produces delocalization of the electron density and the stabilization of the radical formed by interaction with external radicals. The complex and the ligand displayed no toxic (Artemia salina test) and no mutagenic (Ames test) effects. The complex improved the ability of the ligand to reduce cell viability of human lung cancer cell lines (A549) generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, being this effect reversed by pre-incubation of the cells with antioxidants such as vitamins C and E. The addition of NAC (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a sequestering agent of free radicals) suppresses the anticancer effect, confirming the oxidative stress mechanism. The complex interacted with bovine serum albumin (BSA) with stronger binding than baicalin and the mechanisms involved H bonding and van der Waals interactions.

  8. Valence effects on solubility and sorption: the solubility of Tc(IV) oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.

    1986-03-01

    The solubilities of technetium (IV) oxides have been determined in solutions of NaCl, HCl, and synthetic groundwaters in the pH range 0 to 10. Oxides were prepared either by electroreduction from Tc(VII) solutions onto platinum electrodes or by precipitation of Tc from Tc(VII) solutions using hydrazine. In some of the determinations, the oxide was precipitated onto purified sand by use of hydrazine. The oxide-covered sand was then placed into a column and the test solution continuously recirculated through the column. The oxide plated on platinum was placed into a small cell and the test solution stirred. Solubilities were determined by measuring the beta radiation of /sup 99/Tc in the stirred or circulated solution in contact with the oxide. In the pH range 4 to 10, solubilities were in the range 7.5 x 10/sup -9/ to 5 x 10/sup -8/ mol/L, and most of the determinations were in the range 1 x 10/sup -8/ to 2 x 10/sup -8/ mol/L. In acid solutions the solubilities were generally higher for hydrazine-precipitated oxide than for the electrodeposited oxide, and they increased as the pH was lowered. Solubilities of Tc(IV) oxides will be useful for calculation of transport rates of technetium for the case of solubility-limited transport in nuclear waste repository environments.

  9. Effect of immobilized collagen type IV on biological properties of endothelial cells for the enhanced endothelialization of synthetic vascular graft materials.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yunhoe; Shin, Young Min; Lee, Yu Bin; Lim, Youn Mook; Shin, Heungsoo

    2015-10-01

    Regeneration of healthy endothelium onto vascular graft materials is imperative for prevention of intimal hyperplasia and thrombogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effect of collagen type IV (COL-IV) immobilized onto electrospun nanofibers on modulation of endothelial cell (EC) function, as a potential signal to rapid endothelialization of vascular grafts. COL-IV is assembled in basement membrane underneath intimal layer and regulates morphogenesis of blood vessels. For immobilization of COL-IV, poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers (PL) were prepared as a model vascular graft substrate, onto which acrylic acid (AAc) was then grafted by using gamma-ray irradiation. AAc graft was dependent on irradiation doses and AAc concentrations, which allowed us to select the condition of 5% (v/v) AAc and 10 kGy for further conjugation of COL-IV. COL-IV immobilization was proportionally controlled as a function of its concentration. Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis qualitatively supported immobilization of COL-IV, demonstrating increase in root mean square roughness of the PL from 665.37 ± 13.20 nm to 1440.74 ± 33.24. However, the Young's modulus of nanofibers was retained as approximately 1 MPa, regardless of surface modification. The number of ECs attached on the nanofibers with immobilized COL-IV was significantly increased by 5 times (1052 ± 138 cells/mm(2)) from pristine PL (234 ± 41 cells/mm(2)). In addition, the effect of immobilized COL-IV was profound for enhancing proliferation and up-regulation of markers implicated in rapid endothelialization. Collectively, our results suggest that COL-IV immobilized onto electrospun PLLA nanofibers may serve as a promising instructive cue used in vascular graft materials.

  10. Sandia octahedral molecular sieves (SOMS): structural and property effects of charge-balancing the M(IV)-substituted (M = Ti, Zr) Niobate framework.

    PubMed

    Nyman, May; Tripathi, Akhilesh; Parise, John B; Maxwell, Robert S; Nenoff, Tina M

    2002-02-27

    Sandia octahedral molecular sieves (SOMS) is an isostructural, variable composition class of ion exchangers with the general formula Na(2)Nb(2-x)M(IV)(x)O (6-x)(OH)(x).H(2)O (M(IV) = Ti, Zr; x = 0.04-0.40) where up to 20% of the framework Nb(V) can be substituted with Ti(IV) or Zr(IV). This class of molecular sieves is easily converted to perovskite through low-temperature heat treatment (500-600 degrees C). This report provides a detailed account of how the charge imbalance of this Nb(V)-M(IV) substitution is compensated. X-ray powder diffraction with Rietveld refinement, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, (23)Na MAS NMR, and (1)H MAS NMR were used to determine how the framework anionic charge is cation-balanced over a range of framework compositions. All spectroscopic evidence indicated a proton addition for each M(IV) substitution. Evidences for variable proton content included (1) increasing OH observed by (1)H MAS NMR with increasing M(IV) substitution, (2) increased infrared band broadening indicating increased H-bonding with increasing M(IV) substitution, (3) increased TGA weight loss (due to increased OH content) with increasing M(IV) substitution, (4) no variance in population on the sodium sites (indicated by Rietveld refinement) with variable composition, and (5) no change in the (23)Na MAS NMR spectra with variable composition. Also observed by infrared spectroscopy and (23)Na MAS NMR was increased disorder on the Nb(V)/M(IV) framework sites with increasing M(IV) substitution, evidenced by broadening of these spectral features. These spectroscopic studies, along with ion exchange experiments, also revealed the effect of the Nb(V)/M(IV) framework substitution on materials properties. Namely, the temperature of conversion to NaNb(1-x)M(IV)(x)O(3) (M = Ti, Zr) perovskite increased with increasing Ti in the framework and decreased with increasing Zr in the framework. This suggested that Ti stabilizes the SOMS framework and Zr destabilizes

  11. WAIS-IV administration errors: effects of altered response requirements on Symbol Search and violation of standard surface-variety patterns on Block Design.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Swopes-Willhite, Nicole; Franklin, Cassi; Kreiner, David S

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized a sample of 50 college students to assess the possibility that responding to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Symbol Search subtest items with an "x" instead of a "single slash mark" would affect performance. A second sample of 50 college students was used to assess the impact on WAIS-IV Block Design performance of presenting all the items with only red surfaces facing up. The modified Symbol Search and Block Design administrations yielded mean scaled scores and raw scores that did not differ significantly from mean scores obtained with standard administrations. Findings should not be generalized beyond healthy, well-educated young adults.

  12. Comparison of in-person and digital photograph assessment of stage III and IV pressure ulcers among veterans with spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Terris, Darcey D; Woo, Christine; Jarczok, Marc N; Ho, Chester H

    2011-01-01

    Digital photographs are often used in treatment monitoring for home care of less advanced pressure ulcers. We investigated assessment agreement when stage III and IV pressure ulcers in individuals with spinal cord injury were evaluated in person and with the use of digital photographs. Two wound-care nurses assessed 31 wounds among 15 participants. One nurse assessed all wounds in person, while the other used digital photographs. Twenty-four wound description categories were applied in the nurses' assessments. Kappa statistics were calculated to investigate agreement beyond chance (p < or = 0.05). For 10 randomly selected "double-rated wounds," both nurses applied both assessment methods. Fewer categories were evaluated for the double-rated wounds, because some categories were chosen infrequently and agreement could not be measured. Interrater agreement with the two methods was observed for 12 of the 24 categories (50.0%). However, of the 12 categories with agreement beyond chance, agreement was only "slight" (kappa = 0-0.20) or "fair" (kappa = 0.21-0.40) for 6 categories. The highest agreement was found for the presence of undermining (kappa = 0.853, p < 0.001). Interrater agreement was similar to intramethod agreement (41.2% of the categories demonstrated agreement beyond chance) for the nurses' in-person assessment of the double-rated wounds. The moderate agreement observed may be attributed to variation in subjective perception of qualitative wound characteristics.

  13. dBASE IV basics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    This is a user`s manual for dBASE IV. dBASE IV is a popular software application that can be used on your personal computer to help organize and maintain your database files. It is actually a set of tools with which you can create, organize, select and manipulate data in a simple yet effective manner. dBASE IV offers three methods of working with the product: (1) control center: (2) command line; and (3) programming.

  14. Characteristics of a cluster-randomized phase IV human papillomavirus vaccination effectiveness trial.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, Matti; Apter, Dan; Baussano, Iacopo; Eriksson, Tiina; Natunen, Kari; Paavonen, Jorma; Vänskä, Simopekka; Bi, Dan; David, Marie-Pierre; Datta, Sanjoy; Struyf, Frank; Jenkins, David; Pukkala, Eero; Garnett, Geoff; Dubin, Gary

    2015-03-03

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. HPV-16/18 virus-like particle vaccine formulated with an AS04 adjuvant is very efficacious against hrHPV associated precancers but the herd effects of different vaccination scenarios are not known. Our cluster randomized trial (NCT00534638) assesses the overall and herd effects of vaccinating girls vs. girls and boys. In two school-years (2007-2008 and 2008-2009) we invited 80,272 1992-1995 born early adolescents to a CRT in 33 communities a priori stratified by low, intermediate and high HPV-16/18 seroprevalence. In 11 Arm A communities 90% of participating girls and boys were assigned to receive HPV-16/18 vaccine, in 11 Arm B communities 90% of girls were assigned to receive HPV-16/18 vaccine - boys were assigned to receive hepatitis B-virus (HBV) vaccine, and in 11 Arm C communities all were assigned to receive HBV-vaccine. Prevalence of HPV in vaccinated and unvaccinated girls is studied at age 18.5 years. Recruitment resulted in equal enrolment of four birth cohorts (born 1992-1995) comprising altogether 32,175 (40% response) early adolescents: 20,514 girls (50.5-53.0% response by arm) and 11,661 boys (21.9-31.6%% response by arm). At the age of 15 years, 79.3% of the vaccinees completed a questionnaire. Among them >98% were living at, and during the week-ends 1.3-1.6% stayed outside, the study site communities. Smoking habit and alcohol consumption were similar in the different trial arms, also mean-age of menarche (12.4 years) and 1st ejaculation (12.6 years), and sexual behaviour (among those <25%, who had had sexual debut) did not differ by arm: mean-age at the sexual debut 14.3 and 14.4 in girls and boys, and proportions of those with multiple (≥5) life-time sexual partners (6.5-7.5%) at the age of 15 years. Uniform residential, life-style and sexual behaviour characteristics indicate successful randomization/enrolment of the CRT. Our CRT will verify modelled

  15. A Minimally Invasive Cox-Maze IV is as Effective as Sternotomy While Decreasing Major Morbidity and Hospital Stay

    PubMed Central

    Lawrance, Christopher P.; Henn, Matthew C.; Miller, Jacob; Sinn, Laurie A.; Schuessler, Richard B.; Maniar, Hersh S.; Damiano, Ralph J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Cox-Maze IV has the best results for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. It has been traditionally performed through sternotomy with excellent outcomes, but this has been felt to be too invasive. An alternative approach is to perform a less invasive right anterolateral minithoracotomy. This series compared these approaches at a single center in consecutive patients. Methods Patients receiving Cox-Maze IV (n=356) were retrospectively reviewed from January 2002 to February 2014. Patients were stratified into two groups: right mini-thoracotomy (RMT: n=104) and sternotomy (ST: n=252). Preoperative and perioperative variables were compared as well as long term outcomes. Patients were followed for up two years and rhythm was confirmed with electrocardiogram or prolonged monitoring. Results Freedom from atrial tachyarrhythmias off antiarrhythmic drugs was 81% and 74% at 1 and 2 year respectively using a RMT approach and was not significantly different from the ST group at these same time points. Overall complication rate was lower in the RMT group (6% vs. 13%, p=0.044) as was 30 day morality (0% vs. 4%, p=0.039). Median ICU length of stay was lower in the RMT group (2 days [range 0-21] vs. 3 days [range 1-61], p=0.004) as was median hospital length of stay (7 days [range 4-35] vs. 9 days [range 1-111], p<0.001). Conclusions The Cox-Maze IV performed through a right mini-thoracotomy is as effective as sternotomy in the treatment of atrial fibrillation. This approach was associated with fewer complications and decreased mortality and decreased ICU and hospital length of stays. PMID:25048635

  16. Central administration of angiotensin IV rapidly enhances novel object recognition among mice.

    PubMed

    Paris, Jason J; Eans, Shainnel O; Mizrachi, Elisa; Reilley, Kate J; Ganno, Michelle L; McLaughlin, Jay P

    2013-07-01

    Angiotensin IV (Val(1)-Tyr(2)-Ile(3)-His(4)-Pro(5)-Phe(6)) has demonstrated potential cognitive-enhancing effects. The present investigation assessed and characterized: (1) dose-dependency of angiotensin IV's cognitive enhancement in a C57BL/6J mouse model of novel object recognition, (2) the time-course for these effects, (3) the identity of residues in the hexapeptide important to these effects and (4) the necessity of actions at angiotensin IV receptors for procognitive activity. Assessment of C57BL/6J mice in a novel object recognition task demonstrated that prior administration of angiotensin IV (0.1, 1.0, or 10.0, but not 0.01 nmol, i.c.v.) significantly enhanced novel object recognition in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were time dependent, with improved novel object recognition observed when angiotensin IV (0.1 nmol, i.c.v.) was administered 10 or 20, but not 30 min prior to the onset of the novel object recognition testing. An alanine scan of the angiotensin IV peptide revealed that replacement of the Val(1), Ile(3), His(4), or Phe(6) residues with Ala attenuated peptide-induced improvements in novel object recognition, whereas Tyr(2) or Pro(5) replacement did not significantly affect performance. Administration of the angiotensin IV receptor antagonist, divalinal-Ang IV (20 nmol, i.c.v.), reduced (but did not abolish) novel object recognition; however, this antagonist completely blocked the procognitive effects of angiotensin IV (0.1 nmol, i.c.v.) in this task. Rotorod testing demonstrated no locomotor effects with any angiotensin IV or divalinal-Ang IV dose tested. These data demonstrate that angiotensin IV produces a rapid enhancement of associative learning and memory performance in a mouse model that was dependent on the angiotensin IV receptor.

  17. Improving IV-A/IV-D Interface. Trainer Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Child Support Enforcement, Chevy Chase, MD.

    Effective interface between the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (IV-A) and the Child Support Enforcement (IV-D) programs is a key factor in assisting families in becoming self-sufficient, reducing welfare expenditures, and enforcing parental responsibility to support their children. Consequently, overcoming the procedural, technological,…

  18. Improving IV-A/IV-D Interface. Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Child Support Enforcement, Chevy Chase, MD.

    Effective interface between the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (IV-A) and the Child Support Enforcement (IV-D) programs is a key factor in assisting families in becoming self-sufficient, reducing welfare expenditures, and enforcing parental responsibility to support their children. Consequently, overcoming the procedural, technological,…

  19. The effect of U(VI) bioreduction kinetics on subsequent reoxidation of biogenic U(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Senko, John M.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mcdonough, J. T.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Burgos, William D.

    2007-10-01

    Microbially mediated in situ reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) (as UO2) has been proposed as a means of preventing the migration of that radionuclide with groundwater, but preventing the oxidative resolubilization of U has proven difficult. We hypothesized that relatively slow rates of U(VI) bioreduction would yield larger UO2 precipitates that would be more resistant to oxidation than those produced by rapid U(VI) bioreduction. We manipulated U(VI) bioreduction rates by varying the density of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 added to U(VI) containing solutions with lactate as an electron donor. Characterization of biogenic UO2 particles by extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed that UO2 nanoparticles formed by relatively slow rates of U(VI) reduction were larger and more highly aggregated than those formed by relatively rapid U(VI) reduction. UO2 particles formed at various rates were incubated under a variety of abiotically and biologically oxidizing conditions. In all cases, UO2 that was formed by relatively slow U(VI) reduction was oxidized at a slower rate and to a lesser extent than UO2 formed by relatively rapid U(VI) bioreduction, suggesting that the stability of UO2 in situ may be enhanced by stimulation of relatively slow rates of U(VI) reduction.

  20. Therapy targeted to the metastatic niche is effective in a model of stage IV breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byunghee; Kavishwar, Amol; Wang, Ping; Ross, Alana; Pantazopoulos, Pamela; Dudley, Michael; Moore, Anna; Medarova, Zdravka

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of stage IV metastatic breast cancer patients is limited to palliative options and represents an unmet clinical need. Here, we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of miRNA-10b - a master regulator of metastatic cell viability – leads to elimination of distant metastases in a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer. This was achieved using the miRNA-10b inhibitory nanodrug, MN-anti-miR10b, which consists of magnetic nanoparticles, conjugated to LNA-based miR-10b antagomirs. Intravenous injection of MN-anti-miR10b into mice bearing lung, bone, and brain metastases from breast cancer resulted in selective accumulation of the nanodrug in metastatic tumor cells. Weekly treatments of mice with MN-anti-miR-10b and low-dose doxorubicin resulted in complete regression of pre-existing distant metastases in 65% of the animals and a significant reduction in cancer mortality. These observations were supported by dramatic reduction in proliferation and increase in apoptosis in metastatic sites. On a molecular level, we observed a significant increase in the expression of HOXD10, which is a known target of miRNA-10b. These results represent first steps into the uncharted territory of therapy targeted to the metastatic niche. PMID:28322342

  1. Organotin(IV) complexes of 2-pyridineformamide-derived thiosemicarbazones: antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Isolda C; Moreira, Juliana P; Ardisson, José D; Santos, Raquel Gouvea Dos; da Silva, Paulo Roberto O; Garcia, Isabel; Castiñeiras, Alfonso; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2008-07-01

    Reaction of n-butyltin trichloride [(n-Bu)SnCl(3)] with 2-pyridineformamide thiosemicarbazone (H2Am4DH) and its N(4)-methyl (H2Am4Me) and N(4)-ethyl (H2Am4Et) derivatives gave [(n-Bu)Sn(2Am4DH)Cl(2)] (1), [(n-Bu)Sn(2Am4Me)Cl(2)] (2), and [(n-Bu)Sn(2Am4Et)Cl(2)] (3). Thiosemicarbazones as well as their tin complexes are active as antimicrobials against the growth of Candida albicans and Salmonella typhimurium and were highly active against malignant glioblastoma. The cytotoxic activity of complexes 1-3 is similar. Among the studied compounds [(n-Bu)Sn(2Am4DH)Cl(2)] (1) was the most active as antiproliferative (cytostatic) agent. Thiosemicarbazones and their tin(IV) complexes proved to be more potent as cytotoxic agents than cisplatin. All the compounds were able to induce apoptosis.

  2. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.

  3. Asteroids IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  4. A GGA+U approach to effective electronic correlations in thiolate-ligated iron-oxo (IV) porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Elenewski, Justin E; Hackett, John C

    2012-09-28

    High-valent oxo-metal complexes exhibit correlated electronic behavior on dense, low-lying electronic state manifolds, presenting challenging systems for electronic structure methods. Among these species, the iron-oxo (IV) porphyrin denoted Compound I occupies a privileged position, serving a broad spectrum of catalytic roles. The most reactive members of this family bear a thiolate axial ligand, exhibiting high activity toward molecular oxygen activation and substrate oxidation. The default approach to such systems has entailed the use of hybrid density functionals or multi-configurational/multireference methods to treat electronic correlation. An alternative approach is presented based on the GGA+U approximation to density functional theory, in which a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional is supplemented with a localization correction to treat on-site correlation as inspired by the Hubbard model. The electronic structure of thiolate-ligated iron-oxo (IV) porphyrin and corresponding Coulomb repulsion U are determined both empirically and self-consistently, yielding spin-distributions, state level splittings, and electronic densities of states consistent with prior hybrid functional calculations. Comparison of this detailed electronic structure with model Hamiltonian calculations suggests that the localized 3d iron moments induce correlation in the surrounding electron gas, strengthening local moment formation. This behavior is analogous to strongly correlated electronic systems such as Mott insulators, in which the GGA+U scheme serves as an effective single-particle representation for the full, correlated many-body problem.

  5. The effects of a liquid dispersing agent and a microcrystalline additive on the physical properties of type IV gypsum.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, M R; Johnston, W M; Reisbick, M H; Campagni, W V

    1988-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a liquid dispersing agent (LDA) and a microcrystalline additive (MCA) on selected physical properties of type IV gypsum. Working consistency, setting time, setting expansion, and compressive strength (1 hour and 7 days) were determined, following ADA Specification No. 25, on a standard, LDA (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mL), MCA (21.1, 24.1, and 27.1 gm), and combination (LDA 0.75 mL + MCA 12.05 gm) mixes per 300 gm of gypsum. Results indicate that the additives affect the consistency of the mix, but consistency can be kept close to that of the standard by lowering the water/powder ratio. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that the additives significantly affected the setting time, setting expansion, and both the 1-hour and the 7-day compressive strengths. SEM examination of fractured surfaces of test mixes indicated improved crystal packing. The properties of type IV gypsum can be improved by optimizing the amount of LDA and MCA additives.

  6. Effects of practice on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV across 3- and 6-month intervals.

    PubMed

    Estevis, Eduardo; Basso, Michael R; Combs, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54 participants (age M = 20.9; education M = 14.9; initial Full Scale IQ M = 111.6) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) at baseline and again either 3 or 6 months later. Scores on the Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, and General Ability Indices improved approximately 7, 5, 4, 5, 9, and 6 points, respectively, and increases were similar regardless of whether the re-examination occurred over 3- or 6-month intervals. Reliable change indices (RCI) were computed using the simple difference and bivariate regression methods, providing estimated base rates of change across time. The regression method provided more accurate estimates of reliable change than did the simple difference between baseline and follow-up scores. These findings suggest that prior exposure to the WAIS-IV results in significant score increments. These gains reflect practice effects instead of genuine intellectual changes, which may lead to errors in clinical judgment.

  7. A GGA+U approach to effective electronic correlations in thiolate-ligated iron-oxo (IV) porphyrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elenewski, Justin E.; Hackett, John C.

    2012-09-01

    High-valent oxo-metal complexes exhibit correlated electronic behavior on dense, low-lying electronic state manifolds, presenting challenging systems for electronic structure methods. Among these species, the iron-oxo (IV) porphyrin denoted Compound I occupies a privileged position, serving a broad spectrum of catalytic roles. The most reactive members of this family bear a thiolate axial ligand, exhibiting high activity toward molecular oxygen activation and substrate oxidation. The default approach to such systems has entailed the use of hybrid density functionals or multi-configurational/multireference methods to treat electronic correlation. An alternative approach is presented based on the GGA+U approximation to density functional theory, in which a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional is supplemented with a localization correction to treat on-site correlation as inspired by the Hubbard model. The electronic structure of thiolate-ligated iron-oxo (IV) porphyrin and corresponding Coulomb repulsion U are determined both empirically and self-consistently, yielding spin-distributions, state level splittings, and electronic densities of states consistent with prior hybrid functional calculations. Comparison of this detailed electronic structure with model Hamiltonian calculations suggests that the localized 3d iron moments induce correlation in the surrounding electron gas, strengthening local moment formation. This behavior is analogous to strongly correlated electronic systems such as Mott insulators, in which the GGA+U scheme serves as an effective single-particle representation for the full, correlated many-body problem.

  8. Compounds of tin(IV) - catalysts of amide formation. Effect of temperature and nature of leaving group

    SciTech Connect

    Oleinik, N.M.; Garkusha-Bozhko, I.P.; Usanova, I.V.

    1988-09-20

    The effect of substitution of the ester oxygen atom by sulfur in p-nitrophenyl acetate on its aminolysis rate with benzylamine in beneze at 25/degree/C in the presence of dibutyltin dibenzoate as catalyst was studied. Such substitution leads to a decrease in the catalytic activity by approximately a half, and this is explained by the smaller capacity of the sulfur atom for the formation of hydrogen bonds. The effect of temperature on the rate of the reaction of N-benzyl-oxycarbonylglycine p-nitrophenyl ester with glycine tert-butyl ester in benzene in the presence of dibutyltin dibenzoate was also investigated in the range of 10-50/degree/C. The Arrhenius equation is not fulfilled in this case. The obtained facts demonstrate the multistage character of the catalytic reaction and do not contradict the authors previously proposed bifunctional mechanism of catalysis by tin(IV) compounds.

  9. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) as an effective biomarker for the diagnosis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaomei; Lin, Yingwei; Liu, Shuai; Aziz, Faisal; Yan, Qiu

    2015-03-01

    Specific enzymes are involved in altered glycosylation of cancer. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) is associated with the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer. The application of FUT4 assay in the serum has not been reported yet. Here, the expression level of FUT4 in the breast cancer patient's tissues (n=60) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the secreted FUT4 in blood serum samples (n=225) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using low metastatic MCF-7 and high metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, FUT4 expression was also detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. The conventional cancer biomarkers cancer antigen (CA15.3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was analyzed by Elecsys-electrochemical immune assay (ECLIA) to compare specificity and sensitivity with that of FUT4. We have observed a significant high expression of FUT4 in breast cancer tissues and serums as compared to the normal tissues (P<0.01) and control serums (P<0.05). FUT4 expression was increased in MDA-MB-231 cells vs. that in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was shown, area under curve of FUT4 (AUC=0.784) was higher than that of CA15.3 (AUC=0.468) and CEA (AUC=0.563). The relation analysis is indicated FUT4 is significantly correlated with CA15.3 (r=0.234, P<0.05) and there is no significant correlation with CEA. In conclusion, this study suggests that FUT4 can serve as novel biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer.

  10. The effect of the axial ligand on distinct reaction tunneling for methane hydroxylation by nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complexes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Guan, Jia; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Huiling; Huang, Xuri

    2012-10-05

    Comprehensive density functional theory computations on substrate hydroxylation by a range of nonheme iron(IV)-oxo model systems [Fe(IV)(O)(NH(3))(4)L](+) (where L = CF(3)CO(2)(-), F(-), Cl(-), N(3)(-), NCS(-), NC(-), OH(-)) have been investigated to establish the effects of axial ligands with different degrees of electron donor ability on the reactivity of the distinct reaction channels. The results show that the electron-pushing capability of the axial ligand can exert a considerable influence on the different reaction channels. The σ-pathway reactivity decreases as the electron-donating ability of the axial ligand strengthens, while the π-pathway reactivity follows an opposite trend. Moreover, the apparently antielectrophilic trend observed for the energy gap between the triplet π- and quintet σ-channel (ΔG(T-Q)) stems from the fact that the reaction reactivity can be fine-controlled by the interplay between the exchange-stabilization benefiting from the (5)TS(H) relative to the (3)TS(H) by most nonheme enzymes and the destabilization effect of the orbital by the anionic axial ligand. When the former counteracts the latter, the quintet σ-pathway will be more effective than the other alternatives. Nevertheless, when the dramatic destabilization effect of the orbital by a strong binding axial σ-donor ligand like OH(-) counteracts but does not override the exchange-stabilization, the barrier in the quintet σ-pathway will remain identical to the triplet π-pathway barrier. Indeed, the axial ligand does not change the intrinsic reaction mechanism in its respective pathway; however, it can affect the energy barriers of different reaction channels for C-H activation. As such, the tuning of the reactivity of the different reaction channels can be realised by increasing/decreasing the electron pushing ability.

  11. Effect of Mn(IV) on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under low-oxygen condition in mangrove sediment slurry.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Hua; Ye, Chun; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2011-06-15

    This study investigated the effect of manganese [Mn(IV)] amendment on the anaerobic biodegradation of four mixed PAHs, namely fluorene (Fl), phenanthrene (Phe), fluoranthene (Flua) and pyrene (Pyr) under low-oxygen condition, with and without the inoculation of enriched PAH-degrading bacterial consortia, in mangrove sediment slurries. The results revealed that the addition of Mn(IV) significantly inhibited PAH biodegradation, the rate of which was about 31-70% lower than the one of the groups without Mn(IV) addition. The amendment of Mn(IV) also showed adverse effect on the population size of enriched PAH-degrading bacteria and bacterial activity. The analysis results on the concentrations of Mn(II) and Mn(IV) indicated that Mn(IV) was converted to Mn(II) fast, the latter was the predominate manganese form in the mangrove sediment slurries through the whole experimental period. The Mn(II) toxicity to microorganisms was considered the main reason for inhibition of the PAH-biodegradation. On the other hand, the inoculation of the enriched PAH-degrading consortia significantly enhanced the biodegradation rates of all four PAHs, and the biodegradation rates of 3-rings (Fl, Phe) and 4-rings (Flua, Pyr) PAHs were enhanced by 14-15% and 21-34%, respectively.

  12. Development of Methodologies for IV and V of Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian; Darrah, Marjorie

    2003-01-01

    Non-deterministic systems often rely upon neural network (NN) technology to "lean" to manage flight systems under controlled conditions using carefully chosen training sets. How can these adaptive systems be certified to ensure that they will become increasingly efficient and behave appropriately in real-time situations? The bulk of Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) research of non-deterministic software control systems such as Adaptive Flight Controllers (AFC's) addresses NNs in well-behaved and constrained environments such as simulations and strict process control. However, neither substantive research, nor effective IV&V techniques have been found to address AFC's learning in real-time and adapting to live flight conditions. Adaptive flight control systems offer good extensibility into commercial aviation as well as military aviation and transportation. Consequently, this area of IV&V represents an area of growing interest and urgency. ISR proposes to further the current body of knowledge to meet two objectives: Research the current IV&V methods and assess where these methods may be applied toward a methodology for the V&V of Neural Network; and identify effective methods for IV&V of NNs that learn in real-time, including developing a prototype test bed for IV&V of AFC's. Currently. no practical method exists. lSR will meet these objectives through the tasks identified and described below. First, ISR will conduct a literature review of current IV&V technology. TO do this, ISR will collect the existing body of research on IV&V of non-deterministic systems and neural network. ISR will also develop the framework for disseminating this information through specialized training. This effort will focus on developing NASA's capability to conduct IV&V of neural network systems and to provide training to meet the increasing need for IV&V expertise in such systems.

  13. Assessing Traumatic Event Exposure: Comparing the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire to the Structured Clinical Interview for "DSM-IV"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Jessica M.; Burke, Christopher K.; Stoller, Kenneth B.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Brooner, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis requires first identifying a traumatic event, but very few studies have evaluated methods of potential traumatic event assessment and their impact on PTSD diagnosis. The authors compared a behaviorally specific comprehensive multiple-item traumatic event measure with a single-item measure to…

  14. A Model for Assessing Institutional Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the author proposes a model for assessing institutional effectiveness. The Volkwein model for assessing institutional effectiveness consists of five parts that summarize the steps for assessing institutions, programs, faculty, and students. The first step in the model distinguishes the dual purposes of institutional effectiveness:…

  15. Investigation of effects of 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields on operant and social behavior and on the neuroendocrine system of nonhuman primates: Neuroendocrine portion of Experiment IV. Quarterly report No. 38

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Rhodes, J.W.

    1992-08-31

    This quarterly report covers the neuroendocrine Portion of Experiment IV. Serum melatonin concentration was measured in individual baboons, each implanted with a chronically indwelling venous cannula. As in Experiment III the system of six automatic blood samplers was used to achieve undisturbed, 24 hr per day, simultaneous blood sampling from six individual subjects. The objective of the neuroendocrine portion of Experiment IV was to determine if 30 kV/m electric and 1.0 G magnetic field (E/MF) exposure produced a 50% decline in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration. Other groups of subjects were tested concurrently during Experiment IV to assess E/MF effects on group social and individual operant behavior. The results of these experiments will be covered respectively in the next two quarterly reports. The results of Experiment IV, as was the case with the result of Experiments III and IIIA, provide little or no evidence that E/MF exposure, under the conditions of these experiments, affects nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations of nonhuman primates. Together the negative results of Experiments III, IIA and IV indicate that day-time exposure of primates to slow-onset/offset, regularly-scheduled E/MF does not produce melatonin suppression, strongly suggesting that such exposure would not affect human melatonin either. However, before concluding that E/MF exposure in general has no effect on primate melatonin, nightime exposure needs to be examined, and the possibility, suggested by the Pilot Experiment, that fast onset/offset, irregularly-scheduled E/MF can completely suppress melatonin needs to be investigated.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of everolimus- versus paclitaxel-eluting stents for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization (from the SPIRIT-IV Trial).

    PubMed

    Amin, Amit P; Reynolds, Matthew R; Lei, Yang; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Vilain, Katherine; Durtschi, Amy J; Simonton, Charles A; Stone, Gregg W; Cohen, David J

    2012-09-15

    Although several drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been shown to be economically attractive compared to bare-metal stents in patients at moderate to high risk of restenosis, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of alternative DES designs, especially second-generation DESs. We therefore performed an economic substudy alongside the SPIRIT-IV trial, in which 3,687 patients undergoing single or multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention were randomized to receive second-generation everolimus-eluting stents (EESs; n = 2,458) or first-generation paclitaxel-eluting stents (PESs; n = 1,229). Costs through 2 years of follow-up were assessed from the perspective of the United States health care system. The primary cost-effectiveness end point was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio assessed as cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Over a 2-year period, use of EESs versus PESs led to a trend toward decreased overall repeat revascularization procedures (14.2 vs 16.2 per 100 subjects, p = 0.20) driven by a significant decrease in the number of target vessel revascularization procedures (8.2 vs 11.0 per 100 subjects, p = 0.02) but also a slight increase in the number of nontarget vessel revascularization procedures (6.0 vs 5.1 per 100 subjects, p = 0.37). Follow-up cardiovascular costs were decreased by $273/patient in the EES group (95% confidence interval for difference 1,048 less to 502 more, p = 0.49). Formal cost-effectiveness analysis based on these results demonstrated that the probability that EES was an economically attractive strategy (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio <$50,000/quality-adjusted life year gained) was 85.7%. These findings demonstrate that in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with DESs, use of EESs is economically attractive compared to PESs with improved clinical outcomes and lower overall medical care costs at 2 years.

  17. Reionization on large scales. IV. Predictions for the 21 cm signal incorporating the light cone effect

    SciTech Connect

    La Plante, P.; Battaglia, N.; Natarajan, A.; Peterson, J. B.; Trac, H.; Cen, R.; Loeb, A.

    2014-07-01

    We present predictions for the 21 cm brightness temperature power spectrum during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). We discuss the implications of the 'light cone' effect, which incorporates evolution of the neutral hydrogen fraction and 21 cm brightness temperature along the line of sight. Using a novel method calibrated against radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, we model the neutral hydrogen density field and 21 cm signal in large volumes (L = 2 Gpc h {sup –1}). The inclusion of the light cone effect leads to a relative decrease of about 50% in the 21 cm power spectrum on all scales. We also find that the effect is more prominent at the midpoint of reionization and later. The light cone effect can also introduce an anisotropy along the line of sight. By decomposing the 3D power spectrum into components perpendicular to and along the line of sight, we find that in our fiducial reionization model, there is no significant anisotropy. However, parallel modes can contribute up to 40% more power for shorter reionization scenarios. The scales on which the light cone effect is relevant are comparable to scales where one measures the baryon acoustic oscillation. We argue that due to its large comoving scale and introduction of anisotropy, the light cone effect is important when considering redshift space distortions and future application to the Alcock-Paczyński test for the determination of cosmological parameters.

  18. Effect of class IV laser therapy on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Giulia; Gobbo, Margherita; Sturnega, Mauro; Martinelli, Valentina; Mano, Miguel; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Bussani, Rossana; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Long, Carlin S; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Giacca, Mauro; Biasotto, Matteo; Zacchigna, Serena

    2013-12-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a serious and acute side effect in patients with cancer who receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, often leading to the suspension of therapy and a need for opioid analgesic and enteral/parenteral nutrition, with an effect on patient survival. Among the various interventions proposed in OM management, laser therapy is becoming a recommended treatment option but has limitations due to its heterogeneous laser parameters. Here, we report on our successful clinical experience on the use of class IV laser therapy to treat OM induced by different chemotherapy regimens. To shed light on the mechanisms of action of laser therapy in improving OM resolution, we have developed an animal model of chemotherapy-induced OM, in which we compare the efficacy of the standard low-power laser therapy protocol with an innovative protocol, defined as high-power laser therapy. We show that high-power laser therapy is more effective than low-power laser therapy in improving OM lesion healing, reducing the inflammatory burden, and preserving tissue integrity. In addition, high-power laser therapy has been particularly effective in promoting the formation of new arterioles within the granulation tissue. Our results provide important insights into the mechanism of action of biostimulating laser therapy on OM in vivo and pave a way for clinical experimentation with the use of high-power laser therapy.

  19. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space. IV - Effect of CO2 enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the response of potato to elevated carbon dioxide levels in life support farms for space colonies, Norland and Russet Burbank were grown in solid stands in separate controlled environment rooms at two CO2 levels, 365 micromol/mol and 1000 micromol/mol. It is found that potatoes show only marginal growth gains from elevated CO2: tuber dry weight increased by 2 percent for Norland, and 12 percent for Russet Burbank. CO2 assimilation rates of Norland leaves increased by about 24 percent, but assimilation rates of Russet Burbank leaves decreased by about 12 percent. It is concluded that the best productivity obtained in the study (21.9 g tuber dry weight/sq m/day from Norland at 1000 micromol/mol of CO2) indicates that the dietary energy needs of one human in space could be supplied from 34 sq m of potatoes.

  20. Reactions in glass-ionomer cements: IV. Effect of chelating comonomers on setting behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A D; Crisp, S; Ferner, A J

    1976-01-01

    The oscillating rheometer is a valuable instrument for studying the effects of additives on the setting behavior of a cement system. Using this instrument, it was found that certain chelating comonomers, the hydroxycarboxylic acids, could improve the setting characteristics of the glass-ionomer cement system when added to the PAA solution. The acid chelates probably assign the extraction of metal ions from the glass and also tend to hold them in solution, preventing premature ion binding of the polyanion chains. The effect is to increase the rate of hardening without reducing the working time, which may indeed by slightly increased. Tartaric acid, the most effective of the comonomers, can form a chelate bridge between aluminum atoms, and this metal complex probably acts as a flexible bridge structure linking polyanion chains. This mechanism offers some steric advantages over a simple salt bridge.

  1. Assessing Organizational Effectiveness: Considerations and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakower, Jack Y.

    The dimensions of effectiveness pertinent to postsecondary institutions are discussed, along with approaches for assessing effectiveness. A paradigm of effectiveness is presented, based on six concerns: whose perspective is taken; assessment criteria, the referent for judging effectiveness, level and unit of analysis, time frame, and types and…

  2. Using estimated factor scores from a bifactor analysis to examine the unique effects of the latent variables measured by the WAIS-IV on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kranzler, John H; Benson, Nicholas; Floyd, Randy G

    2015-12-01

    This study used estimated factor scores from a bifactor analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) to examine the unique effects of its latent variables on academic achievement. In doing so, we addressed the potential limitation of multicollinearity in previous studies of the incremental validity of the WAIS-IV. First, factor scores representing psychometric g and 4 group factors representing the WAIS-IV index scales were computed from a bifactor model. Subtest and composite scores for the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-II) were then predicted from these estimated factor scores in simultaneous multiple regression. Results of this study only partially replicated the findings of previous research on the incremental validity of scores that can be derived from performance on the WAIS-IV. Although we found that psychometric g is the most important underlying construct measured by the WAIS-IV for the prediction of academic achievement in general, results indicated that the unique effect of Verbal Comprehension is also important for predicting achievement in reading, spelling, and oral communication skills. Based on these results, measures of both psychometric g and Verbal Comprehension could be cautiously interpreted when considering high school students' performance in these areas of achievement.

  3. What Connecticut Teachers Need for Effective Schooling: Professional Issues in Public Education, IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, John C., Ed.

    In the spirit of education reform, this collection of 22 essays written by experienced teacher practitioners addresses the needs of Connecticut's teachers for effective schooling: (1) "Rediscovering Waldo: The Search for Meaning in Education Today"; (2) "Neglecting Children: Teaching Art from a Cart"; (3) "Tomorrow's…

  4. Effect of a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitor, Des-Fluoro-Sitagliptin, on Neointimal Formation after Balloon Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Shin, Hayley; Cho, Bong Jun; Park, Ho Seon; Ahn, Byung Yong; Kang, Seon Mee; Yoon, Ji Won; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Young-Bum; Park, Kyong Soo

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, it has been suggested that enhancement of incretin effect improves cardiac function. We investigated the effect of a DPP-IV inhibitor, des-fluoro-sitagliptin, in reducing occurrence of restenosis in carotid artery in response to balloon injury and the related mechanisms. Methods and Findings Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were grouped into four: control (normal saline) and sitagliptin 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg per day (n = 10 per group). Sitagliptin or normal saline were given orally from 1 week before to 2 weeks after carotid injury. After 3 weeks of treatment, sitagliptin treatment caused a significant and dose-dependent reduction in intima-media ratio (IMR) in obese diabetic rats. This effect was accompanied by improved glucose homeostasis, decreased circulating levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and increased adiponectin level. Moreover, decreased IMR was correlated significantly with reduced hsCRP, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity. In vitro evidence with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) demonstrated that proliferation and migration were decreased significantly after sitagliptin treatment. In addition, sitagliptin increased caspase-3 activity and decreased monocyte adhesion and NFκB activation in VSMCs. Conclusions Sitagliptin has protective properties against restenosis after carotid injury and therapeutic implications for treating macrovascular complications of diabetes. PMID:22493727

  5. Ameliorative effect of vanadyl(IV)-ascorbate complex on high-fat high-sucrose diet-induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Xu, Jie; Guo, Yongli; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2015-10-01

    There is mounting evidence demonstrating causative links between hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance, the core pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using a combinational approach, we synthesized a vanadium-antioxidant (i.e., l-ascorbic acid) complex and examined its effect on insulin resistance and oxidative stress. This study was designed to examine whether vanadyl(IV)-ascorbate complex (VOAsc) would reduce oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance in high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFSD)-induced type 2 diabetes in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFSD for 12 weeks to induce insulin resistance, rendering them diabetic. Diabetic mice were treated with rosiglitazone, sodium l-ascorbate, or VOAsc. At the end of treatment, fasting blood glucose, fasting serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index, and serum adipocytokine levels were measured. Serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) parameters were also determined. The liver was isolated and used for determination of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, and catalase levels, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. VOAsc groups exhibited significant reductions in serum adipocytokine and NO levels, and oxidative stress parameters compared to the corresponding values in the untreated diabetic mice. The results indicated that VOAsc is non-toxic. In conclusion, we identified VOAsc as a potentially effective adjunct therapy for the management of type 2 diabetes.

  6. The diffusion of radiation in moving media. IV. Flux vector, effective opacity, and expansion opacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrse, R.; Baschek, B.; von Waldenfels, W.

    2003-04-01

    For a given velocity and temperature field in a differentially moving 3D medium, the vector of the radiative flux is derived in the diffusion approximation. Due to the dependence of the velocity gradient on the direction, the associated effective opacity in general is a tensor. In the limit of small velocity gradients analytical expression are obtained which allow us to discuss the cases when the direction of the flux vector deviates from that of the temperature gradient. Furthermore the radiative flux is calculated for infinitely sharp, Poisson distributed spectral lines resulting in simple expressions that provide basic insight into the effect of the motions. In particular, it is shown how incomplete line lists affect the radiative flux as a function of the velocity gradient. Finally, the connection between our formalism and the concept of the expansion opacity introduced by Karp et al. (\\cite{karp}) is discussed.

  7. Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment IV: simulated effects of scintillation on communications links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suite, Michele; Rabinovich, W. S.; Mahon, Rita; Moore, Christopher; Ferraro, Mike; Burris, H. R., Jr.; Thomas, L. M.

    2011-09-01

    Optical scintillation is an effect that limits the performance of many optical systems including imagers and free space optical communication links. The Naval Research Laboratory is undertaking a series of measurement campaigns of optical scintillation in a variety of environments. In December of 2010 measurements were made over a one week period in the desert at China Lake, CA. The NRL TATS system was used to measure time resolved scintillation over a variety of different ranges and terrains. This data has been used to determine fade rate and duration as a function of weather and link margin. Temporal correlation of fades has also been calculated. This data allows simulation of a variety of communication protocols and the effects of those protocols on link throughput. In this paper we present a comparison of different protocols for both direct and retroreflector links.

  8. Dissolution of cerium(IV)-lanthanide(III) oxides: Comparative effect of chemical composition, temperature, and acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Horlait, D.; Clavier, N.; Szenknect, S.; Dacheux, N.; Dubois, V.

    2012-03-15

    The dissolution of Ce{sub 1-x}Ln{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} solid solutions was undertaken in various acid media in order to evaluate the effects of several physicochemical parameters such as chemical composition, temperature, and acidity on the reaction kinetics. The normalized dissolution rates (R{sub L,0}) were found to be strongly modified by the trivalent lanthanide incorporation rate, due to the presence of oxygen vacancies decreasing the samples cohesion. Conversely, the nature of the trivalent cation considered only weakly impacted the R{sub L,0} values. The dependence of the normalized dissolution rates on the temperature then appeared to be of the same order of magnitude than that of chemical composition. Moreover, it allowed determining the corresponding activation energy (E{sub A} ≅ 60-85 kJ.mol{sup -1}) which accounts for a dissolution driven by surface-controlled reactions. A similar conclusion was made regarding the acidity of the solution: the partial order related to (H{sub 3}O{sup +}) reaching about 0.7. Finally, the prevailing effect of the incorporation of aliovalent cations in the fluorite-type CeO{sub 2} matrix on the dissolution kinetics precluded the observation of slight effects such as those linked to the complexing agents or to the crystal structure of the samples. (authors)

  9. Different ortho and para electronic effects on hydrolysis and cytotoxicity of diamino bis(phenolato) "salan" Ti(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Peri, Dani; Meker, Sigalit; Manna, Cesar M; Tshuva, Edit Y

    2011-02-07

    Bis(isopropoxo) Ti(IV) complexes of diamino bis(phenolato) "salan" ligands were prepared, their hydrolysis in 1:9 water/THF solutions was investigated, and their cytotoxicity toward colon HT-29 and ovarian OVCAR-1 cells was measured. In particular, electronic effects at positions ortho and para to the binding phenolato unit were analyzed. We found that para substituents of different electronic features, including Me, Cl, OMe, and NO(2), have very little influence on hydrolysis rate, and all para-substituted ortho-H complexes hydrolyze slowly to give O-bridged clusters with a t(1/2) of 1-2 h for isopropoxo release. Consequently, no clear cytotoxicity pattern is observed as well, where the largest influence of para substituents appears to be of a steric nature. These complexes exhibit IC(50) values of 2-18 μM toward the cells analyzed, with activity which is mostly higher than those of Cp(2)TiCl(2), (bzac)(2)Ti(OiPr)(2) and cisplatin. On the contrary, major electronic effects are observed for substituents at the ortho position, with an influence that exceeds even that of steric hindrance. Ortho-chloro or -bromo substituted compounds possess extremely high hydrolytic stability where no major isopropoxo release as isopropanol occurs for days. In accordance, very high cytotoxicity toward colon and ovarian cells is observed for ortho-Cl and -Br complexes, with IC(50) values of 1-8 μM, where the most cytotoxic complexes are the ortho-Cl-para-Me and ortho-Br-para-Me derivatives. In this series of ortho-substituted complexes, the halogen radius is of lesser influence both on hydrolysis and on cytotoxicity, while OMe substituents do not impose similar effect of hydrolytic stability and cytotoxicity enhancement. Therefore, hydrolytic stability and cytotoxic activity are clearly intertwined, and thus this family of readily available Ti(IV) salan complexes exhibiting both features in an enhanced manner is highly attractive for further exploration.

  10. Feasibility and effectiveness of the implementation of a primary prevention programme for type 2 diabetes in routine primary care practice: a phase IV cluster randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to perform an independent evaluation of the feasibility and effectiveness of an educational programme for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in high risk populations in primary care settings, implanted within the Basque Health Service - Osakidetza. Methods/design This is a prospective phase IV cluster clinical trial conducted under routine conditions in 14 primary health care centres of Osakidetza, randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. We will recruit a total sample of 1089 individuals, aged between 45 and 70 years old, without diabetes but at high risk of developing the condition (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, FINDRISC ≥ 14) and follow them up for 2 years. Primary health care nursing teams of the intervention centres will implement DE-PLAN, a structured educational intervention program focused on changing healthy lifestyles (diet and physical activity); while the patients in the control centres will receive the usual care for the prevention and treatment of DM2 currently provided in Osakidetza. The effectiveness attributable to the programme will be assessed by comparing the changes observed in patients exposed to the intervention and those in the control group, with respect to the risk of developing DM2 and lifestyle habits. In terms of feasibility, we will assess indicators of population coverage and programme implementation. Discussion The aim of this study is to provide the scientific basis for disseminate the programme to the remaining primary health centres in Osakidetza, as a novel way of addressing prevention of DM2. The study design will enable us to gather information on the effectiveness of the intervention as well as the feasibility of implementing it in routine practice. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01365013 PMID:23158830

  11. Assessing preference and reinforcer effectiveness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Vicars, Sara M; Miguel, Caio F; Sobie, Jennifer L

    2014-03-01

    The paired-stimulus (PS) preference assessment has been shown to be effective in assessing preference with animal subjects, including dogs; however, evaluations on whether preferred stimuli would also function as reinforcers are lacking. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the use of the PS preference assessment as a predictor of reinforcer effectiveness in eight dogs. The assessment was followed by concurrent and progressive ratio schedules to evaluate the reinforcer efficacy of food items. Results showed that the preference assessment predicted reinforcer efficacy for all subjects. Benefits of using this assessment with dogs are discussed.

  12. IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. IV. THE EFFECT OF COSMIC RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, P. B.; Helling, Ch.

    2013-09-10

    Cosmic rays provide an important source for free electrons in Earth's atmosphere and also in dense interstellar regions where they produce a prevailing background ionization. We utilize a Monte Carlo cosmic ray transport model for particle energies of 10{sup 6} eV effective temperature T{sub eff} = 1500 K, and two example giant gas planets (T{sub eff} = 1000 K, 1500 K). For the model brown dwarf atmosphere, the electron fraction is enhanced significantly by cosmic rays when the pressure p{sub gas} < 10{sup -2} bar. Our example giant gas planet atmosphere suggests that the cosmic ray enhancement extends to 10{sup -4}-10{sup -2} bar, depending on the effective temperature. For the model atmosphere of the example giant gas planet considered here (T{sub eff} = 1000 K), cosmic rays bring the degree of ionization to f{sub e} {approx}> 10{sup -8} when p{sub gas} < 10{sup -8} bar, suggesting that this part of the atmosphere may behave as a weakly ionized plasma. Although cosmic rays enhance the degree of ionization by over three orders of magnitude in the upper atmosphere, the effect is not likely to be significant enough for sustained coupling of the magnetic field to the gas.

  13. Behavioral effects of neuropeptide Y in F344 rat substrains with a reduced dipeptidyl-peptidase IV activity.

    PubMed

    Karl, Tim; Hoffmann, Torsten; Pabst, Reinhard; von Hörsten, Stephan

    2003-07-01

    Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26) is involved in several physiological functions by cleavage of dipeptides with a Xaa-Pro or Xaa-Ala sequence of regulatory peptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY). Cleavage of NPY by DPPIV results in NPY(3-36), which lacks affinity for the Y(1) but not for other NPY receptor subtypes. Among other effects, the NPY Y(1) receptor mediates anxiolytic-like effects of NPY. In previous studies with F344 rat substrains lacking endogenous DPPIV-like activity we found a reduced behavioral stress response, which might be due to a differential degradation of NPY. Here we tested this hypothesis and administered intracerebroventricularly two different doses of NPY (0.0, 0.2, 1.0 nmol) in mutant and wildtype-like F344 substrains. NPY dose-dependently stimulated food intake and feeding motivation, decreased motor activity in the plus maze and social interaction test, and exerted anxiolytic-like effects. More important for the present hypothesis, NPY administration was found to be more potent in the DPPIV-negative substrains in exerting anxiolytic-like effects (increased social interaction time in the social interaction test) and sedative-like effects (decreased motor activity in the elevated plus maze). These data demonstrate for the first time a differential potency of NPY in DPPIV-deficient rats and suggest a changed receptor-specificity of NPY, which may result from a differential degradation of NPY in this genetic model of DPPIV deficiency. Overall, these results provide direct evidence that NPY-mediated effects in the central nervous system are modulated by DPPIV-like enzymatic activity.

  14. Effect of dibutyltin(IV) on the ultrastructure of African Trypanosoma spp.

    PubMed

    Shuaibu, M N; Kanbara, H; Yanagi, T; Ichinose, A; Ameh, D A; Bonire, J J; Nok, A J

    2004-01-01

    Diorganotins (R2SnX2) are compounds with a wide variety of biological properties. In an attempt to follow the morphological events and to characterize the toxic effects of diorganotins on in vitro cultured African Trypanosoma spp., the ultrastructural alterations induced on the parasites by dibutyltins (Bu2SnX2) were followed. The data obtained indicate that these compounds induced irreparable damage to the in vitro cultured bloodstream forms of the parasites. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy allowed observations on the perturbation of the kinetoplast, extensive cytoplasmic swellings, disconfiguration around the flagellar pocket and membrane disintegration. Fluorescence microscopy with 4,6-diamidine-2-phenylindole stain was also used to visualize the survival or degeneration of kDNA. Understanding the collateral cellular toxic effect of these compounds on the parasites may shed light on the possible mechanism by which they kill trypanosomes. Agarose gel electrophoresis resolution of isolated kDNAs revealed no fragmentation by these compounds following in vitro incubation at 37 degrees C. However, fragmentation was observed from the gel electrophoresis of kDNA isolated from in vitro cultured Bu2SnX2-exposed parasites. Transmission electron microscopy of the kDNAs revealed the same pattern as observed with gel electrophoresis. These results provide evidence for the possible involvement of the Bu2Sn moiety in the in vivo-induced fragmentation of trypanosomal kDNA and consequent trypanolysis. This observation also underlies the relevance of organometallics in the therapy of African trypanosomiasis.

  15. Bentonite modification with hexadecylpyridinium and aluminum polyoxy cations and its effectiveness in Se(IV) removal.

    PubMed

    Orucoglu, Esra; Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay

    2015-09-01

    Usage of bentonite as a buffer material is suggested in radioactive waste repositories. Although bentonites have higher sorption ability to cations, they cannot adsorp anions due to negative surface charge. Nowadays, ongoing researches focus on increasing anion adsorption ability of the bentonites with modification. Organic-pillared bentonite (OPBent) was produced by modification of sodium bentonite with aluminum polyoxy and hexadecylpyridinium cations in this study. Variation in structure after modification was demonstrated by using different characterization techniques. Se removal efficiency of OPBent is investigated by using (75)Se, since selenium (Se) is one of the important long lived fission products found in radioactive waste and has toxic anionic species in an aqueous environment. The effect of reaction time, solid/liquid ratio, pH and concentration on the adsorption performance were examined. Se speciation and its effect onto adsorption were also investigated by measuring Eh-pH values under certain experimental conditions. Additionally, importance of the amount of Al-polyoxy cations used in modification was investigated by comparing these results with the results of other organic-pillared bentonite produced in our previous research. Experimental results confirmed that both cations were successfully placed into the bentonite interlayer and significant change in the host structure leads to increase Se adsorption. Consequently, bentonite modification improves its Se adsorption ability and further investigations are needed related to the usage of this adsorbent in other remediation studies especially in sorption of other anionic pollutants.

  16. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part IV. Beneficial effects.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-02

    Pantoea agglomerans, a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others) which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. Japanese researchers have demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide of P. agglomerans isolated by them and described as 'Immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1)' reveals the extremely wide spectrum of healing properties, mainly due to its ability for the maintenance of homeostasis by macrophage activation. IP-PA1 was proved to be effective in the prevention and treatment of a broad range of human and animal disorders, such as tumours, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ulcer, various infectious diseases, atopic allergy and stress-induced immunosuppression; it also showed a strong analgesic effect. It is important that most of these effects could be achieved by the safe oral administration of IP-PA1. Taking into account that P. agglomerans occurs commonly as a symbiont of many species of insects, including mosquitoes transmitting the Plasmodium parasites causing malaria, successful attempts were made to apply the strategy of paratransgenesis, in which bacterial symbionts are genetically engineered to express and secrete anti-Plasmodium effector proteins. This strategy shows prospects for a successful eradication of malaria, a deadly disease killing annually over one million people, as well as of other vector-borne diseases of humans, animals and plants. Pantoea agglomerans has been identified as an antagonist of many plant pathogens belonging to bacteria and fungi, as a result of antibiotic production, competition mechanisms or induction of plant resistance. Its use as

  17. The structure of a separating turbulent boundary layer. IV - Effects of periodic free-stream unsteadiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. L.; Shivaprasad, B. G.; Chew, Y.-T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements were obtained of the sinusoidal unsteadiness of the free stream velocity during the separation of the turbulent boundary layer. Data were gathered by single wire and cross-wire, anemometry upstream of flow detachment, by laser Doppler velocimetry to detect the movement of the flow in small increments, and by a laser anemometer in the detached zone to measure turbulence and velocities. The study was restricted to a sinusoidal instability frequency of 0.61 and a ratio of oscillation amplitude to mean velocity of 0.3. Large amplitude and phase variations were found after the detachment, with unsteady effects producing hysteresis in the relationships between flow parameters. The detached shear layer decreased in thickness with increasing free-stream velocity and increases in the Reynolds shear stress. Deceleration of the free stream velocity caused thickening in the shear layer and upstream movement of the flow reversal location. The results are useful for studies of compressor blade and helicopter rotors in transition.

  18. A Proposal for a Dimensional Classification System Based on the Shared Features of the "DSM-IV" Anxiety and Mood Disorders: Implications for Assessment and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Timothy A.; Barlow, David H.

    2009-01-01

    A wealth of evidence attests to the extensive current and lifetime diagnostic comorbidity of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., "DSM-IV") anxiety and mood disorders. Research has shown that the considerable cross-sectional covariation of "DSM-IV" emotional disorders is accounted for by common higher order…

  19. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme IV: Developing Democratic and Nationalist Movements Have Had an Effect around the World. Student Worksheets. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The worksheets contained in this bulletin are designed for use in conjunction with the teaching strategies for Theme IV entitled, "Developing Democratic and Nationalist Movements Have Had an Effect Around the World." The worksheets correspond to specific strategies with accompanying questions on the appropriate strategy page. Included are…

  20. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme IV: Developing Democratic and Nationalist Movements Have Had an Effect around the World. Teacher Strategies. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Designed to assist teachers and supervisors in the implementation of the global history course, this bulletin presents learning activities which include the rationale, performance objectives, and teaching strategies related to Theme IV entitled, "Developing Democratic and Nationalist Movements Have Had an Effect around the World." There are four…

  1. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit; Bond, Alan

    2013-11-15

    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systematic evaluation of practice. The criteria can be mapped within a cycle/or cycles of evaluation, based on the ‘logic model’, at the stages of input, process, output and outcome to enable the identification of connections between the criteria across the categories of effectiveness. This framework is considered to have potential application in measuring the effectiveness of many impact assessment processes, including strategic environmental assessment (SEA), environmental impact assessment (EIA), social impact assessment (SIA) and health impact assessment (HIA). -- Highlights: • Conceptualising effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Identification of factors influencing effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Development of criteria within a framework for evaluating IA effectiveness. • Applying the logic model to examine connections between effectiveness criteria.

  2. Drug biokinetic and toxicity assessments in rat and human primary hepatocytes and HepaRG cells within the EU-funded Predict-IV project.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Stefan O; Guillouzo, André; Hewitt, Philip G; Richert, Lysiane

    2015-12-25

    The overall aim of Predict-IV (EU-funded collaborative project #202222) was to develop improved testing strategies for drug safety in the late discovery phase. One major focus was the prediction of hepatotoxicity as liver remains one of the major organ leading to failure in drug development, drug withdrawal and has a poor predictivity from animal experiments. In this overview we describe the use and applicability of the three cell models employed, i.e., primary rat hepatocytes, primary human hepatocytes and the human HepaRG cell line, using four model compounds, chlorpromazine, ibuprofen, cyclosporine A and amiodarone. This overview described the data generated on mode of action of liver toxicity after long-term repeat-dosing. Moreover we have quantified parent compound and its distribution in various in vitro compartments, which allowed us to develop biokinetic models where we could derive real exposure concentrations in vitro. In conclusion, the complex data set enables quantitative measurements that proved the concept that we can define human relevant free and toxic exposure levels in vitro. Further compounds have to be analyzed in a broader concentration range to fully exploit these promising results for improved prediction of hepatotoxicity and hazard assessment for humans.

  3. Grand Theft Auto IV comes to Singapore: effects of repeated exposure to violent video games on aggression.

    PubMed

    Teng, Scott Kie Zin; Chong, Gabriel Yew Mun; Siew, Amy Sok Cheng; Skoric, Marko M

    2011-10-01

    Given the increasingly dominant role of video games in the mainstream entertainment industry, it is no surprise that the scholarly debate about their impact has been lively and well attended. Although >100 studies have been conducted to examine the impact of violent video games on aggression, no clear consensus has been reached, particularly in terms of their long-term impact on violent behavior and aggressive cognitions. This study employs a first-ever longitudinal laboratory-based experiment to examine longer-term effects of playing a violent video game. One hundred thirty-five participants were assigned either to the treatment condition where they played a violent video game in a controlled laboratory setting for a total of 12 hours or to the control group where they did not play a game. Participants in the treatment group played Grand Theft Auto IV over a period of 3 weeks and were compared with a control group on the posttest measures of trait aggression, attitudes toward violence, and empathy. The findings do not support the assertion that playing a violent video game for a period of 3 weeks increases aggression or reduces empathy, but they suggest a small increase in proviolence attitudes. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Green Synthesis of Oxovanadium(IV)/chitosan Nanocomposites and Its Ameliorative Effect on Hyperglycemia, Insulin Resistance, and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Jie, Xu; Guo, Yongli; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the preparation, characterization, and ameliorative effect on high-fat high-sucrose diet-induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress in mice of novel oxovanadium(IV)/chitosan (OV/CS) nanocomposites were investigated. The nanobiocomposite was produced by chemical reduction by chitosan and L-ascorbic acid using microwave heating, under environment-friendly conditions, using aqueous solutions, and notably, by using both mediators as reducing and stabilizing agents. In addition, OV/CS nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle size, and zeta potential measurements. In vivo experiments were designed to examine whether the OV/CS nanocomposites would provide additional benefits on oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance in mice with type 2 diabetes. The results rendered insulin resistant by treating with OV/CS nanocomposites alleviate insulin resistance and improve oxidative stress. Such nanocomposite seem to be a valuable therapy to achieve and/or maintain glycemic control and therapeutic agents in the treatment arsenal for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  5. Stormwater BMP Effectiveness Assessment Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA has identified stormwater BMP effectiveness as a priority research need. Effective protection of biotic integrity requires that processes maintaining the diversity of physical habitats be protected. Methods are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of existing Stormwater ...

  6. Sorption of selenium(IV) and selenium(VI) to mackinawite (FeS): effect of contact time, extent of removal, sorption envelopes.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong Suk; Batchelor, Bill; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed

    2011-02-15

    Higher concentrations (127, 253 μM) of Se(IV) at pH 8 were completely removed by 0.5 g/L FeS within 120 min. Removal of Se(VI) by FeS at pH 8 was less extensive than removal of Se(IV). Only 10% of the Se(VI) was removed by 1 g/L FeS within 1h. Removal patterns for Se by FeS depend on pH. Removal patterns of Se at pH 7 and pH 8 were best described by BET models for Se(IV) and Freundlich models for Se(VI), while removal patterns of both at pH 9 and 10 were best described by Langmuir models. Sulfate at 1 and 10 mM had negligible effect on removal of Se(IV) by FeS, while sulfate had little effect on removal of Se(VI) by FeS, but there was some indication that sulfate promoted removal of Se(VI) at intermediate concentrations. The test for the effect of pH on sorption of Se(IV) by FeS showed nearly complete removal at all but the high initial pH. When pH was raised back to initial value, greater removals were observed than initially. Mixtures of Se(VI) and FeS showed moderate removal at low pH, a minimum removal near pH 6 and nearly complete removal at high pH. Very high stability was observed with negligible release as pH decreased.

  7. Investigation on the coprecipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents. Study of the effects of waste components on decontamination from Np(IV) and Pu(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Bessonov, A.A.; Budantseva, N.A.; Gelis, A.V.; Nikonov, M.V.; Shilov, V.P.

    1997-09-01

    The third stage of the study on the homogeneous coprecipitation of neptunium and plutonium from alkaline high-level radioactive waste solutions by the Method of Appearing Reagents has been completed. Alkaline radioactive wastes exist at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The recent studies investigated the effects of neptunium chemical reductants, plutonium(IV) concentration, and the presence of bulk tank waste solution components on the decontamination from tetravalent neptunium and plutonium achieved by homogeneous coprecipitation. Data on neptunium reduction to its tetravalent state in alkaline solution of different NaOH concentrations are given. Eleven reductants were tested to find those most suited to remove neptunium, through chemical reduction, from alkaline solution by homogeneous coprecipitation. Hydrazine, VOSO{sub 4}, and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4} were found to be the most effective reductants. The rates of reduction with these reductants were comparable with the kinetics of carrier formation. Solution decontamination factors of about 400 were attained for 10{sup -6}M neptunium. Coprecipitation of plutonium(IV) with carriers obtained as products of thermal hydrolysis, redox transformations, and catalytic decomposition of [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+}, [Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]{sup 2-}, Cr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, KMnO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 4}UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2}){sub 3} was studied and results are described. Under optimum conditions, a 100-fold decrease of plutonium concentration was possible with each of these reagents.

  8. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  9. Effect of pH and uranium concentration on interaction of uranium(VI) and uranium(IV) with organic ligands in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.C.; Victor, D.M.; Chakrabarti, C.L.

    1980-03-01

    The effect of pH and uranium concentration on the interactions of uranium(VI) and uranium(IV) with organic ligands was studied by employing dialysis and ultrafiltration techniques. The interactions of U(VI) and U(IV) with organic ligands in nitrate or chloride aqueous solution have been found to be pH-dependent. The stability constants of uranium-organic complexes decrease in the order: fulvic acid>humic acid>tannic acid for U(VI) and humic acid>tannic acid>fulvic acid for U(IV). Scatchard plots for the uranium-organic acid systems indicate two types of binding sites with a difference in stability constants of about 10/sup 2/. Ultrafiltration of uranium-humic acid complexes indicates that U(VI) and U(IV) ions are concentrated in larger molecular size fractions (>5.1 nm) at pH less than or equal to 3 and in smaller molecular size fractions (in the range 5.1 to 3.1 nm and 2.4 to 1.9 nm) at pH greater than or equal to 5. 7 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  11. Assessment of a model for achieving competency in administration and scoring of the WAIS-IV in post-graduate psychology students.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rachel M; Davis, Melissa C

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for an evidence-based approach to training professional psychologists in the administration and scoring of standardized tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) due to substantial evidence that these tasks are associated with numerous errors that have the potential to significantly impact clients' lives. Twenty three post-graduate psychology students underwent training in using the WAIS-IV according to a best-practice teaching model that involved didactic teaching, independent study of the test manual, and in-class practice with teacher supervision and feedback. Video recordings and test protocols from a role-played test administration were analyzed for errors according to a comprehensive checklist with self, peer, and faculty member reviews. 91.3% of students were rated as having demonstrated competency in administration and scoring. All students were found to make errors, with substantially more errors being detected by the faculty member than by self or peers. Across all subtests, the most frequent errors related to failure to deliver standardized instructions verbatim from the manual. The failure of peer and self-reviews to detect the majority of the errors suggests that novice feedback (self or peers) may be ineffective to eliminate errors and the use of more senior peers may be preferable. It is suggested that involving senior trainees, recent graduates and/or experienced practitioners in the training of post-graduate students may have benefits for both parties, promoting a peer-learning and continuous professional development approach to the development and maintenance of skills in psychological assessment.

  12. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  13. Evaluation and Comparison of the Inhibition Effect of Astragaloside IV and Aglycone Cycloastragenol on Various UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Ran, Ruixue; Zhang, Chunze; Li, Rongshan; Chen, Bowei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Zhenying; Fu, Zhiwei; Du, Zuo; Du, Xiaolang; Yang, Xiaolong; Fang, Zhongze

    2016-11-29

    As one of the main active ingredients from Radix Astragali (RA), orally dosed astragaloside IV (AST) is easily transformed to sapogenin-cycloastragenol (CAG) by deglycosylation in the gastrointestinal tract. Because the potential adverse effects of AST and CAG remain unclear, the present study in this article was carried out to investigate the inhibition effects of AST and CAG on UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) to explore potential clinical toxicity. An in vitro UGTs incubation mixture was employed to study the inhibition of AST and CAG towards UGT isoforms. Concentrations of 100 μM for each compound were used to initially screen the inhibitory efficiency. Deglycosylation of AST to CAG could strongly increase the inhibitory effects towards almost all of the tested UGT isoforms, with an IC50 of 0.84 μM and 11.28 μM for UGT1A8 and UGT2B7, respectively. Ulteriorly, the inhibition type and kinetics of CAG towards UGT1A8 and UGT2B7 were evaluated depending on the initial screening results. Data fitting using Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plots demonstrated that CAG competitively inhibited UGT1A8 and noncompetitively inhibited UGT2B7. From the second plot drawn with the slopes from the Lineweaver-Burk plot versus the concentrations of CAG, the inhibition constant (Ki) was calculated to be 0.034 μM and 20.98 μM for the inhibition of UGT1A8 and UGT2B7, respectively. Based on the [I]/Ki standard ([I]/Ki < 0.1, low possibility; 1 > [I]/Ki > 0.1, medium possibility; [I]/Ki > 1, high possibility), it was successfully predicted here that an in vivo herb-drug interaction between AST/CAG and drugs mainly undergoing UGT1A8- or UGT2B7-catalyzed metabolism might occur when the plasma concentration of CAG is above 0.034 μM and 20.98 μM, respectively.

  14. Interaction of a Monoclonal Antibody to Glycoprotein IV (CD36) with Human Platelets and its Effect on Platelet Function.

    PubMed

    Legrand, C; Pidard, D; Beiso, P; Tenza, D; Edelman, L

    1991-01-01

    FA6-152, a monoclonal antibody to platelet membrane glycoprotein IV (CP IV), was used to quantify the expression of this glycoprotein on platelets, as well as to evaluate its role in platelet aggregation. On resting platelets, 19 400 ± 7700 molecules of the (125)I-labelled IgC could bind per platelet (n = 20). Binding was not modified following stimulation of the platelets with ADP (10 µmol/l) or thrombin (0.1 U/ml). Fab fragments prepared from the antibody by papain digestion also bound to the platelet surface in a saturable manner. Both the intact IgC and its Fab fragments were found to inhibit platelet aggregation and secretion induced by ADP or collagen in platelet-rich plasma and by thrombin in platelet suspensions. Under nonstirred conditions, whereby the release reaction was only minimally affected, the antibody markedly inhibited thrombin-induced surface expression of α-granule thrombospondin (TSP), whereas it did not alter the concomitant expression of α-granule fibrinogen. In addition, electron microscopy revealed a predominant distribution of TSP and T;P IV on pseudopodia and between adherent cells on thrombin-stimulated platelets. These findings thus support the hypothesis that the interaction of TSP with GP IV on the platelet surface is required for an optimal platelet aggregation/secretion process to occur.

  15. Developmental Trajectories of DSM-IV Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Genetic Effects, Family Risk and Associated Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Henrik; Dilshad, Rezin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Barker, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: DSM-IV specifies three ADHD subtypes; the combined, the hyperactive-impulsive and the inattentive. Little is known about the developmental relationships underlying these subtypes. The objective of this study was to describe the development of parent-reported hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptoms from childhood to…

  16. Novel octahedral Pt(IV) complex with di-n-propyl-(S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(3-cyclohexyl)propanoato ligand exerts potent immunomodulatory effects.

    PubMed

    Miljković, Djordje; Poljarević, Jelena M; Petković, Filip; Blaževski, Jana; Momčilović, Miljana; Nikolić, Ivana; Saksida, Tamara; Stošić-Grujičić, Stanislava; Grgurić-Šipka, Sanja; Sabo, Tibor J

    2012-01-01

    We have recently reported that a novel octahedral Pt(IV) complex with di-n-propyl-(S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(3-cyclohexyl)propanoato ligand has a potent cytotoxic effect on glioma, melanoma and fibrosarcoma cell lines. In this work, we investigated the influence of the Pt(IV) compound on immune cells. We determined its effect on the viability of spleen cells and lymph node cells and on their capability to produce interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17. Also, we researched the compound's impact on peritoneal macrophages and generation of NO in these cells. Our results show that the complex has limited influence on cell viability of immune cells, but profound inhibitory effect on the production of examined immune mediators. These results are valuable as they show that the novel Pt(IV) complex applied in concentrations which are effective against tumor cells do not affect immune cell viability. Moreover, they also imply that the complex has immunomodulatory properties.

  17. Increasing Institutional Effectiveness through Outcomes Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Donna; Green, Peggy

    In 1987, under pressure from its accreditation agency and the state, Broward Community College (BCC) initiated the Institutional Effectiveness and Assessment Project to improve the college through outcomes assessment. The project had four interrelated components: (1) a revision of BCC's mission statement to incorporate a new section on…

  18. OES-IA Annex IV: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices - Report from the Experts’ Workshop September 27th – 28th 2010 Clontarf Castle, Dublin Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; O'Toole, Michael J.

    2010-12-02

    An experts' workshop was convened in Dublin Ireland September 27th – 28th 2010 in support of IEA Ocean Energy Systems Implementing Agreement Annex IV. PNNL was responsible for organizing the content of the workshop, overseeing the contractors (Irish Marine Institute) hosting the event, presenting material on Annex IV and materials applicable to the workshop intent. PNNL is also overseeing a contractor (Wave Energy Center/University of Plymouth – WEC/UP) in the collection and analysis of the Annex IV data. Fifty-eight experts from 8 countries attended the workshop by invitation, spending two days discussing the needs of Annex IV. Presentations by DOE (background on Annex IV), PNNL (process for developing Annex IV; presentation of the draft database for PNNL project, plans for incorporating Annex IV data), WEC/UP on the environmental effect matrix, and four MHK developers (two from the UK, one from Ireland and one from Sweden; each discussing their own projects and lessons learned for measuring and mitigating environmental effects, as well as interactions with consenting [permitting] processes) helped provide background. The workshop participants worked part of the time in the large group and most of the time in four smaller breakout groups. Participants engaged in the process and provided a wealth of examples of MHK environmental work, particularly in the European nations. They provided practical and actionable advice on the following: • Developing the Annex IV database, with specific uses and audiences • Strong consensus that we should collect detailed metadata on available data sets, rather than attempting to draw in copious datasets. The participants felt there would then be an opportunity to then ask for specific set of data as needed, with specific uses and ownership of the data specified. This is particularly important as many data collected, particularly in Europe but also in Canada, are proprietary; developers were not comfortable with the idea of

  19. Astragaloside IV ameliorates allergic inflammation by inhibiting key initiating factors in the initial stage of sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Kai-fan; Yu, Xi; Wei, Xiao; Gui, Li-li; Liu, Hai-liang; Wang, Xiao-yu; Tao, Yu; Jiang, Guo-rong; Hong, Min

    2016-01-01

    To illuminate the anti-allergy mechanism of astragaloside IV (AS-IV), we assessed its effects in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). AS-IV administered in the sensitization phase, rather than in the elicitation phase, dramatically alleviated the symptoms of allergic inflammation. We hypothesized that AS-IV exerts its anti-allergy effects by regulating the production of key pro-allergic cytokines based on the fact that interleukin (IL)-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) levels increase significantly in the initial stage of the sensitization phase. AS-IV administered in the initial stage of ACD inhibited TSLP and IL-33 expression and reduced the proportion of type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). An in vitro study showed that the production of pro-allergic cytokines was significantly inhibited in AS-IV presenting HaCaT cells. We also verified that AS-IV administered only in the initial stage markedly alleviated inflammation, including ear swelling, Th2 cytokine expression, and histological changes. Taken together, these results suggest that AS-IV effectively ameliorates the progression of allergic inflammation by inhibiting key initiating factors, including TSLP and IL-33, and can be used to prevent and/or treat patients with ACD. Our data also suggest that these key pro-allergic cytokines are potential therapeutic targets for allergic diseases. PMID:27917896

  20. Effect of lone-pair stereoactivity on polyhedral volume and structural flexibility: application to Te(IV)O6 octahedra.

    PubMed

    Christy, Andrew G; Mills, Stuart J

    2013-10-01

    The Distortion Theorem implies that the irregularity of bond distances in a distorted coordination polyhedron causes an increase of mean bond distance. Examination of 40 polyhedra containing the lone-pair cation Te(IV) shows that this does not imply an increase in polyhedral volume. Volumes of these polyhedra are 10.3-23.7 Å(3), compared with the 12.83 Å(3) expected for a hypothetical regular octahedron. There is little correlation between volume and measures of polyhedral distortion such as quadratic elongation, bond-angle variance or vector bond valence. However, the oxygens of our polyhedra lie very close to a sphere of best fit, centred at ~ 1 Å from the Te(IV) atom. The Te(IV)-centre distance is an index of lone-pair stereoactivity and is linearly related to the radius Rsph of the sphere; this is explained by a more localized lone pair repelling the anions more strongly, leading to a longer non-bonded distance between the lone pair and anions. Polyhedral volume still varies considerably for a given Rsph, because the oxygen ligands may be distributed over the whole sphere surface, or confined to a small portion of it. The uniformity of this distribution can be estimated from the distance between the sphere centre and the centroid of the O6 polyhedron. Te(IV)-centre and centroid-centre distances alone then account for 95% of the variation observed in volume for polyhedra which are topologically octahedral. Six of the polyhedra studied that are outliers are closer in shape to pentagonal pyramids than octahedra. These have short distances from the central Te(IV) cation to other Te(IV) and/or to large, polarizable cations, suggesting additional weak bonding interactions between these species and the central lone pair. The flexibility of lone-pair polyhedra is further enhanced by the ability of a single polyhedron to accommodate different cations with different degrees of lone-pair activity, which facilitates more diverse solid solution behaviour than would

  1. Division Iv: Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbally, Christopher; D'Antona, Francesca; Spite, Monique; Asplund, Martin; Charbonnel, Corinne; Docobo, Jose Angel; Gray, Richard O.; Piskunov, Nikolai E.

    2012-04-01

    This Division IV was started on a trial basis at the General Assembly in The Hague 1994 and was formally accepted at the Kyoto General Assembly in 1997. Its broad coverage of ``Stars'' is reflected in its relatively large number of Commissions and so of members (1266 in late 2011). Its kindred Division V, ``Variable Stars'', has the same history of its beginning. The thinking at the time was to achieve some kind of balance between the number of members in each of the 12 Divisions. Amid the current discussion of reorganizing the number of Divisions into a more compact form it seems advisable to make this numerical balance less of an issue than the rationalization of the scientific coverage of each Division, so providing more effective interaction within a particular field of astronomy. After all, every star is variable to a certain degree and such variability is becoming an ever more powerful tool to understand the characteristics of every kind of normal and peculiar star. So we may expect, after hearing the reactions of members, that in the restructuring a single Division will result from the current Divisions IV and V.

  2. A Spectrum of IV and V Modeling Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimdahl, Mats; Owen, David

    2004-01-01

    The aerospace industry in general and NASA in particular is using more (semi-formal) model-based software development. Model-based development produces a collection of artifacts, for example, state diagrams, module diagrams (such as class diagrams), control-block diagrams, etc. These artifacts may than be used as a basis for auto code generation for production use. Therefore, these models must be properly evaluated in the IV and V process. IV and V practitioners know how assess standard procedural systems. But what can we du about IV and V of model-based systems? The goal of the work outlined in this proposal is to use cost effective automated techniques to the largest extent possible during the IV and V process. Our working hypotheses are: 1. There exists a range of validation techniques that can assess models built using a range of modeling techniques of increasing cost and complexity. Specifically, we hypotesize that the "cheaper" techniques can find faults cheaply and early in a project. These early results are then used to predict if this is a problem system and if a more elaborate and expensive IV and V effort is justified. 2. There exists a set of migration procedures that let us seamlessly move from simple models using cheaper techniques into more elaborate models suitable for a more expensive and detailed analysis. 3. We further hypothesize that this migration process is much cheaper than simply remodeling the system under investigation from scratch when moving to models needed for the more detailed and expensive IV and V assessments.

  3. The effect of chelating agent on the separation of Fe(III) and Ti(IV) from binary mixture solution by cation-exchange membrane.

    PubMed

    Kir, Esengül; Cengeloğlu, Yunus; Ersöz, Mustafa

    2005-12-15

    The competitive transport of Fe(III) and Ti(IV) ions and the effect of chelating agents on separation from binary mixture solutions through charged polysulfone cation-exchange membrane (SA3S) has been studied under Donnan dialysis conditions. The amount of chelating agent was taken as an equimolar of Fe(III) ion in the feed phase. In this process, the membrane separated two electrolyte solutions: the feed solution, initially containing metal salts (Fe, Ti), or metal salts solution, containing a chelating agent, and the other side (receiver solution) being HCl solution. An external potential field is not applied. It was observed that the chelating agents affect the metal transport; the transport of Fe(III) is decreased and the transport of Ti(IV) is increased.

  4. Subclinical effects of chronic increased lead absorption--a prospective study. Part IV. Evaluation of heme synthesis effects

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.L.; Baloh, R.W.; Browdy, B.L.; Gonick, H.C.; Brown, C.P.; Spivey, G.H.; Culver, B.D.

    1982-02-01

    The effects of lead exposure on heme synthesis in workers with subclinical responses and in controls were evaluated. delta-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-d) correlated significantly with blood lead levels in the control group but not with those in the exposed group. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin correlated significantly with blood lead levels in the exposed group but not with those in the controls and was found to be a good indicator of blood lead history among exposed persons. Hemoglobin values determined at initial employment were not statistically different from those determined during the baseline test for a group of 12 workers with a maximum blood lead level of 86 micrograms/100 ml during their exposure history. The effect such heme inhibition may have on other body functions is uncertain.

  5. Subclinical effects of chronic increased lead absorption--a prospective study. Part IV. Evaluation of heme synthesis effects

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.L.; Baloh, R.W.; Browdy, B.L.; Gronick, H.C.; Brown, C.P.; Spivey, G.H.; Culver, B.D.

    1982-02-01

    The effects of lead exposure on heme synthesis in workers with subclinical responses and in controls were evaluated. delta-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-d) correlated significantly with blood lead levels in the control group but not with those in the exposed group. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin correlated significantly with blood lead levels in the exposed group but not with those in the controls and was found to be a good indicator of blood lead history among exposed persons. Hemoglobin values determined at initial employment were not statistically different from those determined during the baseline test for a group of 12 workers with a maximum blood lead level of 85 ..mu..g/100 ml during their exposure history. The effect such heme inhibition may have on other body functions is uncertain.

  6. Differential effect of dark rearing on long-term potentiation induced by layer IV and white matter stimulation in rat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Salami, M; Fathollahi, Y; Semnanian, S; Atapour, N

    2000-12-01

    In the earlier work, we showed that primed-burst stimulation (PBs) is an effective protocol to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) in layer II/III of adult rat visual cortex in vitro. In the present study, we investigated effects of dark rearing on potentiation of layer II/III responses to stimulation of layer IV or the underlying white matter in the visual cortex in vitro. Long-term potentiation was induced by PBs applied to white matter or layer IV of the cortex in light and dark reared rats. Regardless of the stimulation site, layer II/III field potentials consisted of two components. In general, the latency of responses in dark reared rats was shorter than that in light reared ones. Whereas PBs of layer IV produced LTP of two components in both the groups, that of white matter induced an appreciable potentiation of the second component in both groups and the first component only in dark reared rats. These results indicate that PBs of either white matter or layer IV can gain access to the modifiable synapses that are related to the second component of layer II/III responses in light and dark reared visual cortex, but accessibility of the modifiable synapses that are related to first component depends on the tetanization site. The dark rearing enhances accessibility of the modifiable synapses that are related to the first component following PBs of the white matter. It is suggested that the immaturity of inhibitory circuits and/or better function of excitatory ones in the visual cortex of dark reared rats may contribute to the enhanced accessibility of the first component.

  7. Analysis of Phoenix Anomalies and IV & V Findings Applied to the GRAIL Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    NASA IV&V was established in 1993 to improve safety and cost-effectiveness of mission critical software. Since its inception the tools and strategies employed by IV&V have evolved. This paper examines how lessons learned from the Phoenix project were developed and applied to the GRAIL project. Shortly after selection, the GRAIL project initiated a review of the issues documented by IV&V for Phoenix. The motivation was twofold: the learn as much as possible about the types of issues that arose from the flight software product line slated for use on GRAIL, and to identify opportunities for improving the effectiveness of IV&V on GRAIL. The IV&V Facility provided a database dump containing 893 issues. These were categorized into 16 bins, and then analyzed according to whether the project responded by changing the affected artifacts or using as-is. The results of this analysis were compared to a similar assessment of post-launch anomalies documented by the project. Results of the analysis were discussed with the IV&V team assigned to GRAIL. These discussions led to changes in the way both the project and IV&V approached the IV&V task, and improved the efficiency of the activity.

  8. A Comparison Study: Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) with Referred Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Danielle M.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted based on the limited availability of research comparing the KABC-II and WISC-IV. The study included 30 Caucasian students between the ages of 6 years, 7 months to 16 years 11 months who attend rural school districts in Ohio and West Virginia and were referred due to academic concerns; the sample consisted of 19 females and…

  9. Energy levels and lifetimes of Nd IV, Pm IV, Sm IV, and Eu IV

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Safronova, U. I.; Johnson, W. R.

    2003-09-01

    To address the shortage of experimental data for electron spectra of triply ionized rare-earth elements we have calculated energy levels and lifetimes of 4f{sup n+1} and 4f{sup n}5d configurations of Nd IV (n=2), Pm IV (n=3), Sm IV (n=4), and Eu IV (n=5) using Hartree-Fock and configuration-interaction methods. To control the accuracy of our calculations we also performed similar calculations for Pr III, Nd III, and Sm III, for which experimental data are available. The results are important, in particular, for physics of magnetic garnets.

  10. Influence of Source/Drain Residual Implant Lattice Damage Traps on Silicon Carbide Metal Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Drain I-V Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjaye, J.; Mazzola, M. S.

    4H-SiC n-channel power metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) with nitrogen n+-implanted source/drain ohmic contact regions, with and without p-buffer layer fabricated on semi-insulating substrates exhibited hysteresis in the drain I-V characteristics of both types of devices at 300 K and 480 K due to traps. However, thermal spectroscopic measurements could detect the traps only in the devices without p-buffer. Device simulation and optical admittance spectroscopy (OAS) are used to resolve the discrepancy in the initial experimental characterization results. Device simulations and OAS suggest that, in addition to the semi-insulating (SI) substrate traps, acceptor traps due to source/drain residual implant lattice damage contribute to the hysteresis observed in the drain I-V characteristics of the devices. Simulations suggest these traps are contained in the lateral straggle of the implanted source and drain regions since the drain current largely flows between the un-gated edges of the source and drain through the volume of lateral straggle traps. Since hysteresis in I-V curves is a manifestation of the presence of defects in devices and since defects degrade carrier mobility and hence device performance, efforts should be made to minimize the source/drain lateral straggle implant damage.

  11. X-Band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Comparison of Mononuclear Mn(IV)-oxo and Mn(IV)-hydroxo Complexes and Quantum Chemical Investigation of Mn(IV) Zero-Field Splitting.

    PubMed

    Leto, Domenick F; Massie, Allyssa A; Colmer, Hannah E; Jackson, Timothy A

    2016-04-04

    X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to probe the ground-state electronic structures of mononuclear Mn(IV) complexes [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) and [Mn(IV)(O)(OH)(Me2EBC)](+). These compounds are known to effect C-H bond oxidation reactions by a hydrogen-atom transfer mechanism. They provide an ideal system for comparing Mn(IV)-hydroxo versus Mn(IV)-oxo motifs, as they differ by only a proton. Simulations of 5 K EPR data, along with analysis of variable-temperature EPR signal intensities, allowed for the estimation of ground-state zero-field splitting (ZFS) and (55)Mn hyperfine parameters for both complexes. From this analysis, it was concluded that the Mn(IV)-oxo complex [Mn(IV)(O)(OH)(Me2EBC)](+) has an axial ZFS parameter D (D = +1.2(0.4) cm(-1)) and rhombicity (E/D = 0.22(1)) perturbed relative to the Mn(IV)-hydroxo analogue [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) (|D| = 0.75(0.25) cm(-1); E/D = 0.15(2)), although the complexes have similar (55)Mn values (a = 7.7 and 7.5 mT, respectively). The ZFS parameters for [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) were compared with values obtained previously through variable-temperature, variable-field magnetic circular dichroism (VTVH MCD) experiments. While the VTVH MCD analysis can provide a reasonable estimate of the magnitude of D, the E/D values were poorly defined. Using the ZFS parameters reported for these complexes and five other mononuclear Mn(IV) complexes, we employed coupled-perturbed density functional theory (CP-DFT) and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations with second-order n-electron valence-state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) correction, to compare the ability of these two quantum chemical methods for reproducing experimental ZFS parameters for Mn(IV) centers. The CP-DFT approach was found to provide reasonably acceptable values for D, whereas the CASSCF/NEVPT2 method fared worse, considerably overestimating the magnitude of D in several cases. Both methods were poor in

  12. Effect of 360His mutation in apolipoprotein A-IV on plasma HDL-cholesterol response to dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Jansen, S; Lopez-Miranda, J; Ordovas, J M; Zambrana, J L; Marin, C; Ostos, M A; Castro, P; McPherson, R; Lopez Segura, F; Blanco, A; Jimenez Pereperez, J A; Perez-Jimenez, F

    1997-10-01

    In order to determine whether genetic variability of apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV is responsible for the improvement in lipid profile when dietary saturated fats are replaced by carbohydrates or monounsaturated fats, 41 healthy male subjects were studied: 33 were homozygous for the 360Gln allele and 8 were heterozygote carriers of the 360His allele. These were administered three consecutive 4-week diets. The first was a diet rich in saturated fat (SAT diet, with 38% fat, 20% saturated. This was followed by a low fat diet (NCEP-I, with < 30% fat, < 10% saturated). The final diet was rich in monounsaturated fat (MUFA diet, with 38% fat, 22% monounsaturated). There was no difference in plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels of both groups of individuals after consuming the SAT diet. Switching from this diet to the NCEP-I diet, carriers of the 360His allele presented a greater decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (-10 vs. -1 mg/dL, P < 0.004) and apoA-I levels (-19 vs. -8 mg/dL, P < 0.037). Similarly, replacement of carbohydrates by monounsaturated fats produced a greater increase in HDL-C (9 vs. 1 mg/dL, P < 0.003) and apoA-I levels (9 vs. 2 mg/dL, P < 0.036) in carriers of the 360His mutation. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activities and apoA-IV levels were also measured. However, no genotype-related differences were observed for these parameters. Our results suggest that variability in HDL-C and apoA-I response to diet is, at least partially, determined by the 360His mutation of apoA-IV.

  13. Risk assessment and toxicology databases for health effects assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S.

    1990-12-31

    Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Training effectiveness assessment: Methodological problems and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Kenneth D.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. military uses a large number of simulators to train and sustain the flying skills of helicopter pilots. Despite the enormous resources required to purchase, maintain, and use those simulators, little effort has been expended in assessing their training effectiveness. One reason for this is the lack of an evaluation methodology that yields comprehensive and valid data at a practical cost. Some of these methodological problems and issues that arise in assessing simulator training effectiveness, as well as problems with the classical transfer-of-learning paradigm were discussed.

  15. EffectiveDB—updates and novel features for a better annotation of bacterial secreted proteins and Type III, IV, VI secretion systems

    PubMed Central

    Eichinger, Valerie; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Platzer, Alexander; Jehl, Marc-André; Arnold, Roland; Rattei, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Protein secretion systems play a key role in the interaction of bacteria and hosts. EffectiveDB (http://effectivedb.org) contains pre-calculated predictions of bacterial secreted proteins and of intact secretion systems. Here we describe a major update of the database, which was previously featured in the NAR Database Issue. EffectiveDB bundles various tools to recognize Type III secretion signals, conserved binding sites of Type III chaperones, Type IV secretion peptides, eukaryotic-like domains and subcellular targeting signals in the host. Beyond the analysis of arbitrary protein sequence collections, the new release of EffectiveDB also provides a ‘genome-mode’, in which protein sequences from nearly complete genomes or metagenomic bins can be screened for the presence of three important secretion systems (Type III, IV, VI). EffectiveDB contains pre-calculated predictions for currently 1677 bacterial genomes from the EggNOG 4.0 database and for additional bacterial genomes from NCBI RefSeq. The new, user-friendly and informative web portal offers a submission tool for running the EffectiveDB prediction tools on user-provided data. PMID:26590402

  16. Equivalent dynamic human brain NK1-receptor occupancy following single-dose i.v. fosaprepitant vs. oral aprepitant as assessed by PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Van Laere, K; De Hoon, J; Bormans, G; Koole, M; Derdelinckx, I; De Lepeleire, I; Declercq, R; Sanabria Bohorquez, S M; Hamill, T; Mozley, P D; Tatosian, D; Xie, W; Liu, Y; Liu, F; Zappacosta, P; Mahon, C; Butterfield, K L; Rosen, L B; Murphy, M G; Hargreaves, R J; Wagner, J A; Shadle, C R

    2012-08-01

    The type 1 neurokinin receptor (NK1R) antagonist aprepitant and its i.v. prodrug fosaprepitant have been approved for prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy. This study evaluated the magnitude and duration of brain NK1R occupancy over a period of 5 days after single-dose i.v. infusion of 150-mg fosaprepitant and single-dose oral administration of 165-mg aprepitant, using serial [(18)F]MK-0999 positron emission tomography (PET) in 16 healthy subjects. Each subject underwent three scans. Brain NK1R occupancy rates after i.v. fosaprepitant at time to peak concentration (T(max); ~30 min), 24, 48, and 120 h after the dose were 100, 100, ≥97, and 41-75%, respectively. After aprepitant, NK1R occupancy rates at these time points (T(max) ~4 h) were ≥99, ≥99, ≥97, and 37-76%, respectively. Aprepitant plasma concentration profiles were comparable for the two dosage forms. The study illustrates the utility of PET imaging in determining central bioequivalence in a limited number of subjects.

  17. Astragaloside IV for Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia: Preclinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui-Lin; Zhou, Qi-Hui; Xu, Meng-Bei; Zhou, Xiao-Li

    2017-01-01

    Astragaloside IV (AST-IV) is a principal component of Radix Astragali seu Hedysari (Huangqi) and exerts potential neuroprotection in experimental ischemic stroke. Here, we systematically assessed the effectiveness and possible mechanisms of AST-IV for experimental acute ischemic stroke. An electronic search in eight databases was conducted from inception to March 2016. The study quality score was evaluated using the CAMARADES. Rev Man 5.0 software was used for data analyses. Thirteen studies with 244 animals were identified. The study quality score of included studies ranged from 3/10 to 8/10. Eleven studies showed significant effects of AST-IV for ameliorating the neurological function score (P < 0.05); seven studies for reducing the infarct volume (P < 0.05); and three or two studies for reducing the brain water content and Evans blue leakage (P < 0.05), respectively, compared with the control. The mechanisms of AST-IV for ischemic stroke are multiple such as antioxidative/nitration stress reaction, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptosis. In conclusion, the findings of present study indicated that AST-IV could improve neurological deficits and infarct volume and reduce the blood-brain barrier permeability in experimental cerebral ischemia despite some methodological flaws. Thus, AST-IV exerted a possible neuroprotective effect during the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury largely through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptosis properties. PMID:28303172

  18. Effective Online Instructional and Assessment Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaytan, Jorge; McEwen, Beryl C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the instructional and assessment strategies that are most effective in the online learning environment. Faculty and students identified several strategies for maintaining instructional quality in the online environment, including the importance of using a variety of instructional methods to appeal…

  19. Maximizing the Effective Use of Formative Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Nancy B.

    2016-01-01

    In the current age of accountability, teachers must be able to produce tangible evidence of students' concept mastery. This article focuses on implementation of formative assessments before, during, and after instruction in order to maximize teachers' ability to effectively monitor student achievement. Suggested strategies are included to help…

  20. Health Effects Assessment for Carbon Tetrachloride (1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  1. Accelerated School Programmes: Assessing Their Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaziel, Haim

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of Accelerated School Programs (ASPs) on the basis of a study of four comprehensive schools in Israel. Assesses the influence of ASPs upon internal school processes, such as school goals, structures, and cultures, as perceived by school staff. Determines the project's impact on staff and parents' attitudes, and examines…

  2. Professional Learning Communities: Assessment--Development--Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipp, Kristine Kiefer; Huffman, Jane Bumpers

    This presentation addresses three topics: (1) the assessment of professional learning communities in schools; (2) the design and development of professional learning communities in schools; and (3) the effects of professional learning communities in schools. The purpose of this brief document is to share descriptions, processes, and materials…

  3. Fractional CO2 laser as an effective modality in treatment of striae alba in skin types III and IV

    PubMed Central

    Naein, Farahnaz Fatemi; Soghrati, Mehrnaz

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rapid stretching of the skin over the weak connective tissue leads to development of striae distensae. Recently, researchers have shown special interest towards use of fractional photothermolysis in treatment of striae and several studies have shown its usefulness. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of Fractional CO2 laser in treatment of striae alba. Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was carried out in female patients with striae alba. Ninety two striae were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Five sessions of laser resurfacing, were performed in Group 1, every 2–4 weeks. Group 2 was treated with 10% glycolic acid+0.05% tretinoin cream nightly during the study. Photographs were taken from the striae before and two weeks after the end of treatment. Mean surface area of striae compared between two groups. Patients’ views regarding the degree of improvement were assessed via visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: Forty six striae in Group 1 underwent laser resurfacing and 46 matched striae in Group 2, were treated with topical cream. Mean difference of striae surface area, was significantly decreased after treatment in Group 1 (-37.1±15.6 cm2) in comparison with Group 2(-7.9±9 cm2) (P value >0.001). Mean VAS was significantly higher in Group 1 (3.05±0.74) compared to Group 2 (0.63±0.66) (P value >0.001). Conclusions: Fractional photothermolysis via Fractional CO2 laser seems to be an effective method for treatment of striae alba. PMID:23825991

  4. Interplay of Tunneling, Two-State Reactivity, and Bell-Evans-Polanyi Effects in C-H Activation by Nonheme Fe(IV)O Oxidants.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Debasish; Shaik, Sason

    2016-02-24

    The study of C-H bond activation reactions by nonheme Fe(IV)O species with nine hydrocarbons shows that the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) involves strong tunneling and is a signature of the reactive spin states. Theory reproduces the observed spike-like appearance of plots of KIE(exp) against the C-H bond dissociation energy, and its origins are discussed. The experimentally observed Bell-Evans-Polanyi correlations, in the presence of strong tunneling, are reproduced, and the pattern is rationalized.

  5. Promotion of Astragaloside IV for EA-hy926 Cell Proliferation and Angiogenic Activity via ERK1/2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi; Chen, Jiandong; Fu, Yuxuan; Chen, Xiaohu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pro-angiogenic effects of Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) in vitro and reveal the potential mechanisms. A kind of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), named EA-hy926 cells, were treated with various dosages of AS-IV. We then utilized Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), real-time PCR and Western blot to detect EA-hy926 cells' proliferation and proangiogenic effect from AS-IV. Data showed that AS-IV promoted EA-hy926 cells proliferation, as assessed by CCK-8. The AS-IV was also associated with an increased tube formation and upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the influence of AS-IV on cell proliferation and angiogenisis could be abolished by inhibitor PD98059 through suppressed extracellular signal regulated protein kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. These data demonstrated that the AS-IV activated the ERK1/2 pathway to control VEGF synthesis. Our findings conclude that the AS-IV promotes EA-hy926 cells proliferation and angiogenesis through ERK1/2 pathway, and it is also a regulator of VEGF.

  6. Antipsychotic-like effect of GLP-1 agonist liraglutide but not DPP-IV inhibitor sitagliptin in mouse model for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Tejashree S; Sharma, Ajaykumar N; Lucot, James B; Elased, Khalid M

    2013-04-10

    Recent studies indicate a high comorbidity between type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and neurological disorders. Many are associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission such as schizophrenia. Because most of the antipsychotic drugs aggravate pre-existing insulin resistance in type-2 diabetics, there is a need to search for alternative antipsychotics. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone primarily involved in glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 agonist (liraglutide) and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor (sitagliptin) are the US-FDA approved medications for the management of T2DM. However, little is known about their role in dopamine mediated neurological disorders like schizophrenia. To address this, we used apomorphine-induced cage climbing behavior as a murine model for psychosis and examined for potential antipsychotic-like effect of liraglutide and sitagliptin. While acute liraglutide treatment (50 μg/kg; i.p.) significantly attenuated apomorphine (3 mg/kg, s.c.) induced cage climbing, sitagliptin (50mg/kg; i.p.) failed to elicit such effect. This is the first preclinical evidence for antipsychotic-like effect of GLP-1 receptor agonist. These results open an opportunity to explore GLP-1 analogs for their potential to modulate spectrum of dopamine-mediated neurological disorders.

  7. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized when discussing the physiology, assessment, and performance effects of dehydration. The underappreciated physiologic distinction between a loss of hypo-osmotic body water (intracellular dehydration) and an iso-osmotic loss of body water (extracellular dehydration) is presented and argued as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. The importance of diagnostic and biological variation analyses to dehydration assessment methods is reviewed and their use in gauging the true potential of any dehydration assessment method highlighted. The necessity for establishing proper baselines is discussed, as is the magnitude of dehydration required to elicit reliable and detectable osmotic or volume-mediated compensatory physiologic responses. The discussion of physiologic responses further helps inform and explain our analysis of the literature suggesting a ≥ 2% dehydration threshold for impaired endurance exercise performance mediated by volume loss. In contrast, no clear threshold or plausible mechanism(s) support the marginal, but potentially important, impairment in strength, and power observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small and related primarily to distraction or discomfort. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (e.g., endurance, strength, cognitive, and motor skill).

  8. Hysteresis effects on I-V relations in a single crystal of the Cu-In-Te system with two mobile ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R.; Arranz, A.

    2013-02-01

    Three slices of the same In-rich chalcopyrite single crystal ingot of the Cu-In-Te system with different compositions and stoichiometric deviations are studied by means of electrical measurements. The slices are mixed electronic and ionic conductors, and under a constant applied voltage and under dark conditions, variations of the current intensity with time are observed due to ionic motion. The measuring time was 25, or 300 s, in measurements carried out subsequently two months later. Symmetric electrodes formed by graphite paint are used on both sides of the samples. The electrode/semiconductor/electrode solid-state device does not block the electrons, while it blocks the ions at the semiconductor/electrode interface. Nonlinear I-V relations and different hysteresis effects are obtained, relating the different ionic mobilities to the measuring time. To understand the different I-V relations and hysteresis cycles, a two-mobile-ion framework is applied. The effect of ion motion in the electronic current and the voltage drop at the semiconductor/electrode interface, due to ionic accumulation, are studied. The different results in each sample can only be explained by taking into account the motion of two different ions, and the different compositions and stoichiometric deviations of the slices. The understanding and, above all, the control of the ionic motion in In-rich chalcopyrites could be the key to improve the reproducibility of solar cell efficiency.

  9. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... venous catheter - home; Port - home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment ... is given quickly, all at once. A slow infusion, which means the medicine is given slowly over ...

  10. A Mutation in the Intracellular Loop III/IV of Mosquito Sodium Channel Synergizes the Effect of Mutations in Helix IIS6 on Pyrethroid Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingxin; Nomura, Yoshiko; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Nannan; Zhorov, Boris S.

    2015-01-01

    Activation and inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels are critical for proper electrical signaling in excitable cells. Pyrethroid insecticides promote activation and inhibit inactivation of sodium channels, resulting in prolonged opening of sodium channels. They preferably bind to the open state of the sodium channel by interacting with two distinct receptor sites, pyrethroid receptor sites PyR1 and PyR2, formed by the interfaces of domains II/III and I/II, respectively. Specific mutations in PyR1 or PyR2 confer pyrethroid resistance in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Recently, a unique mutation, N1575Y, in the cytoplasmic loop linking domains III and IV (LIII/IV) was found to coexist with a PyR2 mutation, L1014F in IIS6, in pyrethroid-resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae. To examine the role of this mutation in pyrethroid resistance, N1575Y alone or N1575Y + L1014F were introduced into an Aedes aegypti sodium channel, AaNav1-1, and the mutants were functionally examined in Xenopus oocytes. N1575Y did not alter AaNav1-1 sensitivity to pyrethroids. However, the N1575Y + L1014F double mutant was more resistant to pyrethroids than the L1014F mutant channel. Further mutational analysis showed that N1575Y could also synergize the effect of L1014S/W, but not L1014G or other pyrethroid-resistant mutations in IS6 or IIS6. Computer modeling predicts that N1575Y allosterically alters PyR2 via a small shift of IIS6. Our findings provide the molecular basis for the coexistence of N1575Y with L1014F in pyrethroid resistance, and suggest an allosteric interaction between IIS6 and LIII/IV in the sodium channel. PMID:25523031

  11. Thyroid toxicants: assessing reproductive health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Gloria D; Choksi, Neepa Y; Moore, John A; Shelby, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    A thyroid toxicant workshop sponsored by the National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction convened on 28-29 April 2003 in Alexandria, Virginia. The purpose of this workshop was to examine and discuss chemical-induced thyroid dysfunction in experimental animals and the relevance of reproductive and developmental effects observed for prediction of adverse effects in humans. Presentations highlighted and compared reproductive and developmental effects of thyroid hormones in humans and rodents. Rodent models of thyroid system dysfunction were presented. Animal testing protocols were reviewed, taking into account protocol designs that allow extrapolation to possible human health effects. Potential screening methods to assess toxicant-induced thyroid dysfunction were outlined, and postnatal bioassays of thyroid-related effects were discussed. PMID:14998754

  12. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  13. The Effect of Crystal Packing and ReIV Ions on the Magnetisation Relaxation of [Mn6]-Based Molecular Magnets

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Lillo, José; Cano, Joan; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Brechin, Euan K

    2015-01-01

    The energy barrier to magnetisation relaxation in single-molecule magnets (SMMs) proffers potential technological applications in high-density information storage and quantum computation. Leading candidates amongst complexes of 3d metals ions are the hexametallic family of complexes of formula [Mn6O2(R-sao)6(X)2(solvent)y] (saoH2=salicylaldoxime; X=mono-anion; y=4–6; R=H, Me, Et, and Ph). The recent synthesis of cationic [Mn6][ClO4]2 family members, in which the coordinating X ions were replaced with non-coordinating anions, opened the gateway to constructing families of novel [Mn6] salts in which the identity and nature of the charge balancing anions could be employed to alter the physical properties of the complex. Herein we demonstrate initial experiments to show that this is indeed possible. By replacing the diamagnetic ClO4− anions with the highly anisotropic ReIV ion in the form of [ReIVCl6]2−, the energy barrier to magnetisation relaxation is increased by up to 30 %. PMID:25951415

  14. Monitoring of the effects of transfection with baculovirus on Sf9 cell line and expression of human dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    PubMed

    Ustün-Aytekin, Ozlem; Gürhan, Ismet Deliloğlu; Ohura, Kayoko; Imai, Teruko; Ongen, Gaye

    2014-01-01

    Human dipeptidylpeptidase IV (hDPPIV) is an enzyme that is in hydrolase class and has various roles in different parts of human body. Its deficiency may cause some disorders in the gastrointestinal, neurologic, endocrinological and immunological systems of humans. In the present study, hDPPIV enzyme was expressed on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell lines as a host cell, and the expression of hDPPIV was obtained by a baculoviral expression system. The enzyme production, optimum multiplicity of infection, optimum transfection time, infected and uninfected cell size and cell behavior during transfection were also determined. For maximum hDPPIV (269 mU mL(-1)) enzyme, optimum multiplicity of infection (MOI) and time were 0.1 and 72 h, respectively. The size of infected cells increased significantly (P < 0.001) after 24 h post infection. The results indicated that Sf9 cell line was applicable to the large scale for hDPPIV expression by using optimized parameters (infection time and MOI) because of its high productivity (4.03 mU m L(-1) h(-1)).

  15. The DPP-IV inhibitor linagliptin and GLP-1 induce synergistic effects on body weight loss and appetite suppression in the diet-induced obese rat.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Paulsen, Sarah; Vrang, Niels; Mark, Michael; Jelsing, Jacob; Klein, Thomas

    2014-10-15

    Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DPP-IV inhibitors are considered weight neutral, suggesting that elevation of endogenous incretin levels is not sufficient to promote weight loss per se. Here we evaluated the effect of linagliptin in combination with subcutaneous treatment of GLP-1(7-36) on body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Linagliptin administered perorally (1.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), but not subcutaneously (0.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), evoked a very modest body weight loss (2.2%) after 28 days of treatment. GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) treatment alone induced a body weight loss of 4.1%. In contrast, combined linagliptin (1.5mg/kg, p.o., or 0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg) treatment evoked a marked anorectic response with both routes of linagliptin administration being equally effective on final body weight loss (7.5-8.0%). In comparison, liraglutide monotherapy (0.2mg/kg, s.c., b.i.d.) reduced body weight by 10.1%. Interestingly, the weight lowering effect of combined linagliptin and GLP-1 treatment was associated with a marked increase in chow preference, being more pronounced as compared to liraglutide treatment. In addition, linagliptin and GLP-1 co-treatment, but not liraglutide, specifically increased prepro-dynorphin mRNA levels in the caudate-putamen, an effect not obtained with administration of the compounds individually. In conclusion, co-treatment with linagliptin and GLP-1 synergistically reduces body weight in obese rats. The anti-obesity effect was caused by appetite suppression with a concomitant change in diet preference, which may potentially be associated with increased dynorphin activity in forebrain regions involved in reward anticipation and habit learning.

  16. Expanding the ecological validity of WAIS-IV and WMS-IV with the Texas functional living scale.

    PubMed

    Whipple Drozdick, Lisa; Munro Cullum, C

    2011-06-01

    Assessment of functional status is an important aspect of clinical evaluation. As part of the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), participants completed the Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), a measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The relationships between TFLS and WAIS-IV and WMS-IV were examined in both normally developing and clinical samples. In general, the highest correlations were between TFLS and measures of general cognitive ability (WAIS-IV FSIQ [Full Scale IQ] and GAI [General Ability Index]) and working memory (WAIS-IV WMI [Working Memory Index] and WMS-IV VWMI [Visual Working Memory Index]). Across the clinical populations, working memory subtests were generally strongly related to TFLS performance, although this relationship was more consistent with WAIS-IV than WMS-IV. Contrast scaled scores are presented for the TFLS based on WAIS-IV or WMS-IV performance. These scores allow the evaluation of functional abilities within the context of cognitive and memory ability, enhancing and expanding the utility of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV.

  17. Chronic effects of myocardial infarction on right ventricular function: a noninvasive assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, S.; Hopkins, J.M.; Shah, P.M.

    1983-10-01

    To assess the chronic effects of myocardial infarction on right ventricular function, 48 subjects were studied utilizing radionuclide angiography and two-dimensional echocardiography. Ten were normal subjects (group I), 11 had previous inferior wall myocardial infarction (group II), 10 had previous anteroseptal infarction (group III), 11 had combined anteroseptal and inferior infarction (group IV) and 6 had extensive anterolateral infarction (group V). The mean (+/- standard deviation) left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.66 +/- 0.03 in group I, 0.58 +/- 0.02 in group II, 0.52 +/- 0.02 in group III, 0.33 +/- 0.03 in group IV and 0.33 +/- 0.01 in group V. No systematic correlation between left and right ventricular ejection fraction was observed among the groups. The mean right ventricular ejection fraction was significantly reduced in the presence of inferior myocardial infarction (0.30 +/- 0.03 in group II and 0.29 +/- 0.03 in group IV compared with 0.43 +/- 0.02 in group I (p less than 0.001)). The group II and IV patients also had increased (p less than 0.001) right ventricular end-diastolic area and decreased (p less than 0.001) right ventricular free wall motion by two-dimensional echocardiography. In the presence of anteroseptal infarction (group III), right ventricular free wall motion was increased (p less than 0.05) compared with normal subjects (group I). Thus, the effects of prior myocardial infarction on right ventricular function depend more on the location of infarction than on the extent of left ventricular dysfunction. Inferior infarction was commonly associated with reduced right ventricular ejection fraction and increased right ventricular end-diastolic area. The right ventricular free wall excursion was increased in the presence of anteroseptal infarction, suggested loss of contribution of interventricular septal contraction to right ventricular ejection.

  18. Statistical analysis of solar wind stream interface induced temperature effects on the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere over SANAE IV, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunjobi, Olakunle; Sivakumar, Venkataraman; William; Sivla, T.

    Using superposed epoch techniques, the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetic and Dynamics) and NOAA 15-18 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) satellites measurements are used to examine the response of the polar MLT (Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere) temperature to energetic electron precipitation during solar wind stream interfaces (SI). We first investigate the relationship between the ionospheric absorption from the ground based riometer and degree of energetic electron precipitation from the MEPED (Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detectors) on board the NOAA satellites. By interpolating the energetic electron measurements from MEPED instruments, we can obtain the electron precipitation rates close in time to the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) temperature retrieval. Using measurements sorted over the vicinity of SANAE IV (South Africa National Antarctic Expedition IV), we investigate if there are significant temperature effects in the MLT altitude on SI arrival at Earth. The preliminary analysis indicate that there are no temperature increase below 100 km prior to the SI triggered precipitation; whereas a clear temperature increase is observed at 95 km immediately after the SI impact. The analysis on the SI geophysical properties indicates that an enhanced magnetospheric convection resulting to heating could be responsible for the temperature modification on SI arrival.

  19. Thermodynamic effects after Diode and Er:YAG laser irradiation of grade IV and V titanium implants placed in bone - an ex vivo study. Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Matys, Jacek; Botzenhart, Ute; Gedrange, Tomasz; Dominiak, Marzena

    2016-10-01

    Many inserted implants are affected by peri-implantitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate increases in implant temperature, depending on the diameter and chemical composition of implants. In particular we measured the time it takes for the temperature of an implant to rise by 10°C and evaluated laser power settings required to prevent thermal injury when an implant surface is decontaminated during the treatment of peri-implantitis. The study analysed six implants placed in porcine ribs and divided into two groups according to their diameter and chemical composition (grade IV and grade V titanium). The implants were irradiated with Diode and Er:YAG lasers using different laser parameters. The temperature was measured with a K-type thermocouple. The temperature on the implant surface rose as the laser power increased and the implant diameter decreased. The time required to increase the temperature of an implant by 10°C was less than it was for titanium grade IV. The temperature gradient was below 10°C for all implants treated using a laser power up to 1 W. It is important to choose the correct laser parameters, depending on the chemical composition and diameter of the implant, so that decontamination of the implant surface is thorough, effective and safe.

  20. Impact of TBI on late effects in children treated by megatherapy for Stage IV neuroblastoma. A study of the French Society of Pediatric oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Flandin, Isabelle; Michon, Jean; Pinkerton, Ross; Coze, Carole; Stephan, Jean Louis; Fourquet, Bernard; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Bergeron, Christophe; Philip, Thierry; Carrie, Christian . E-mail: carrie@lyon.fnclcc.fr

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the contribution of total body irradiation (TBI) to late sequelae in children treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for Stage IV neuroblastoma. Patients and Methods: We compared two populations that were similar with regard to age, stage, pre-autologous bone marrow transplantation chemotherapy (CT) regimen, period of treatment, and follow-up (12 years). The TBI group (n = 32) received TBI as part of the megatherapy procedure (1982-1993), whereas the CT group (n 30) received conditioning without TBI (1985-1992). Analysis 12 years later focused on growth, weight and corpulence (body mass index) delay; hormonal deficiencies; liver, kidney, heart, ear, eye, and dental sequelae; school performance; and the incidence of secondary tumors. Results: Impact of TBI was most marked in relation to growth and weight delay, although the mean delay was not severe, probably because of treatment with growth hormones. Other consequences of TBI were thyroid insufficiency, cataracts, and a high incidence of secondary tumors. Hearing loss and dental agenesis were more prominent in the group treated with CT alone. No differences were observed in school performance. Conclusion: The most frequent side effects of TBI were cataracts, thyroid insufficiency, and growth delay, but more worrying is the risk of secondary tumors. Because of the young mean age of patients and the toxicity of TBI regimens without any survival advantage, regimens without TBI are preferable in the management of Stage IV neuroblastoma.

  1. The effects of MucR on expression of type IV secretion system, quorum sensing system and stress responses in Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Liu, Wenxiao; Peng, Xiaowei; Jing, Zhigang; Wu, Qingmin

    2013-10-25

    MucR is a transcriptional regulator in many bacterial pathogens and is required for virulence in mice and macrophages, resistance to stress responses, and modification of the cell envelope in Brucella spp. To determine why the mucR deleted mutant is attenuated in vivo and in vitro, we performed RNA-seq analysis using Brucella melitensis RNA obtained from B. melitensis 16M and 16MΔmucR grown under the same conditions. We found 442 differentially expressed genes; 310 were over expressed, and 132 were less expressed in 16MΔmucR. Many genes identified are involved in metabolism, cell wall/envelope biogenesis, replication, and translation. Notably, genes involved in type IV secretion system and quorum sensing system were down-regulated in 16MΔmucR. In addition, genes involved in tolerance to acid and iron-limitation were also affected and experimentally verified in this study. The effects of MucR on Brucella survival and persistence in mice and macrophages were related to type IV secretion system, quorum sensing system, and stress tolerance, which also provide added insight to the MucR regulon.

  2. A cluster analytic study of the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children-IV in children referred for psychoeducational assessment due to persistent academic difficulties.

    PubMed

    Hale, Corinne R; Casey, Joseph E; Ricciardi, Philip W R

    2014-02-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children-IV core subtest scores of 472 children were cluster analyzed to determine if reliable and valid subgroups would emerge. Three subgroups were identified. Clusters were reliable across different stages of the analysis as well as across algorithms and samples. With respect to external validity, the Globally Low cluster differed from the other two clusters on Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II Word Reading, Numerical Operations, and Spelling subtests, whereas the latter two clusters did not differ from one another. The clusters derived have been identified in studies using previous WISC editions. Clusters characterized by poor performance on subtests historically associated with the VIQ (i.e., VCI + WMI) and PIQ (i.e., POI + PSI) did not emerge, nor did a cluster characterized by low scores on PRI subtests. Picture Concepts represented the highest subtest score in every cluster, failing to vary in a predictable manner with the other PRI subtests.

  3. Epilepsy & IQ: the clinical utility of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) indices in the neuropsychological assessment of people with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie; McGrath, Katherine; Thompson, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    We examined Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) General Ability Index (GAI) and Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) discrepancies in 100 epilepsy patients; 44% had a significant GAI > FSIQ discrepancy. GAI-FSIQ discrepancies were correlated with the number of antiepileptic drugs taken and duration of epilepsy. Individual antiepileptic drugs differentially interfere with the expression of underlying intellectual ability in this group. FSIQ may significantly underestimate levels of general intellectual ability in people with epilepsy. Inaccurate representations of FSIQ due to selective impairments in working memory and reduced processing speed obscure the contextual interpretation of performance on other neuropsychological tests, and subtle localizing and lateralizing signs may be missed as a result.

  4. Validation of the Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory-IV with the SCID-II.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey L; Klein, Marjorie H; Benjamin, Lorna S

    2003-06-01

    The Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory (WISPI-IV; Klein & Benjamin, 1996) is the latest version of a self-report measure of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) derived from an interpersonal perspective. When categorical diagnoses derived from the WISPI-IV were compared with independent SCID-II diagnoses, the majority of the kappas were poor (>.40). However, all but one of the effect sizes for the differences in WISPI-IV means between groups with and without SCID-II diagnoses were large (>.80). When SCID-II and WISPI-IV dimensional scores were considered, the average r between profiles was .61 (median = .58) and correlations between corresponding PD scales (mean diagonal r = .48; mean off-diagonal r = .18) indicated good convergent and discriminant validity for five of the WISPI-IV scales. These results add to the cumulating evidence suggesting greater reliability and validity of dimensional over categorical scores for PDs. Researchers and clinicians interested in having an efficient method of assessing PDs may consider using a dimensional approach such as the WISPI-IV as an alternative to diagnostic interview.

  5. Evaluation of cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and cellular ultrastructural effects of heteroleptic oxidovanadium(IV) complexes of salicylaldimines and polypyridyl ligands.

    PubMed

    Scalese, Gonzalo; Correia, Isabel; Benítez, Julio; Rostán, Santiago; Marques, Fernanda; Mendes, Filipa; Matos, António Pedro; Costa Pessoa, João; Gambino, Dinorah

    2017-01-01

    Searching for prospective vanadium-based drugs for cancer treatment, a new series of structurally related [V(IV)O(L-2H)(NN)] compounds (1-8) was developed. They include a double deprotonated salicylaldimine Schiff base ligand (L-2H) and different NN-polypyridyl co-ligands having DNA intercalating capacity. Compounds were characterized in solid state and in solution. EPR spectroscopy suggests that the NN ligands act as bidentate and bind through both nitrogen donor atoms in an axial-equatorial mode. The cytotoxicity was evaluated in human tumoral cells (ovarian A2780, breast MCF7, prostate PC3). The cytotoxic activity was dependent on type of cell and incubation time. At 24h PC3 cells presented low sensitivity, but at 72h all complexes showed high cytotoxic activity in all cells. Human kidney HEK293 and ovarian cisplatin resistant A2780cisR cells were also included to evaluate selectivity towards cancer cells and potency to overcome cisplatin resistance, respectively. Most complexes showed no detectable interaction with plasmid DNA, except 2 and 7 which depicted low ability to induce single strand breaks in supercoiled DNA. Based on the overall cytotoxic profile, complexes with 2,2´-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline ligands (1 and 2) were selected for further studies, which consisted on cellular distribution and ultrastructural analyses. In the A2780 cells both depicted different distribution profiles; the former accumulates mostly at the membrane and the latter in the cytoskeleton. Morphology of treated cells showed nuclear atypia and membrane alterations, more severe for 1. Complexes induce different cell death pathways, predominantly necrosis for 1 and apoptosis for 2. Complexes alternative mode of cell death motivates the possibility for further developments.

  6. New technologies - How to assess environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, P. J.; Lavin, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for assessing the environmental effects of a room-and-pillar mining system (RP) and a new hydraulic borehole mining system (HBM). Before environmental assessment can begin, each technology is defined in terms of its engineering characteristics at both the conceptual and preliminary design stages. The mining sites are also described in order to identify the significant advantages and constraints for each system. This can be a basic physical and biological survey of the region at the conceptual stage, but a more specific representation of site characteristics is required at the preliminary stage. Assessment of potential environmental effects of each system at the conceptual design is critical to its hardware development and application. A checklist can be used to compare and identify the negative impacts of each method, outlining the resource affected, the type of impact involved, and the exact activity causing that impact. At the preliminary design stage, these impacts should be evaluated as a result of either utilization or alteration. Underground coal mining systems have three major utilization impacts - the total area disturbed, the total water resources withdrawn from other uses, and the overall energy efficiency of the process - and one major alteration impact - the degradation of water quality by sedimentation and acid contamination. A comparison of the RP and HBM systems shows the HBM to be an environmentally less desirable system for the Central Appalachia region.

  7. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  8. Prospective study on cost-effectiveness of home-based motor assessment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cubo, E; Mariscal, N; Solano, B; Becerra, V; Armesto, D; Calvo, S; Arribas, J; Seco, J; Martinez, A; Zorrilla, L; Heldman, D

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Treatment adjustments in Parkinson's disease (PD) are in part dependent on motor assessments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of home-based motor monitoring plus standard in-office visits versus in-office visits alone in patients with advanced PD. Methods The procedures consisted of a prospective, one-year follow-up, randomized, case-control study. A total of 40 patients with advanced PD were randomized into two groups: 20 patients underwent home-based motor monitoring by using wireless motion sensor technology, while the other 20 patients had in-office visits. Motor and non-motor symptom severities, quality of life, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and comorbidities were assessed every four months. Direct costs were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Cost-effectiveness was assessed using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results Both groups of PD patients were largely comparable in their clinical and demographic variables at baseline; however, there were more participants using levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel in the home-based motor monitoring group. There was a trend for lower Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale functional status (UPDRS II) scores in the patients monitored at home compared to the standard clinical follow-up ( p = 0.06). However, UPDRS parts I, III, IV and quality-adjusted life-years scores were similar between both groups. Home-based motor monitoring was cost-effective in terms of improvement of functional status, motor severity, and motor complications (UPDRS II, III; IV subscales), with an ICER/UPDRS ranging from €126.72 to €701.31, respectively. Discussion Home-based motor monitoring is a tool which collects cost-effective clinical information and helps augment health care for patients with advanced PD.

  9. Effects of enhancing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with reducing equivalents and ubiquinone on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium toxicity and complex I-IV damage in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2004-03-15

    The effects of increasing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), by enhancing electron transport chain components, were evaluated on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) toxicity in brain neuroblastoma cells. Although glucose is a direct energy source, ultimately nicotinamide and flavin reducing equivalents fuel ATP produced through OXPHOS. The findings indicate that cell respiration/mitochondrial O(2) consumption (MOC) (in cells not treated with MPP+) is not controlled by the supply of glucose, coenzyme Q(10) (Co-Q(10)), NADH+, NAD or nicotinic acid. In contrast, MOC in whole cells is highly regulated by the supply of flavins: riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN), where cell respiration reached up to 410% of controls. In isolated mitochondria, FAD and FMN drastically increased complex I rate of reaction (1300%) and (450%), respectively, having no effects on complex II or III. MPP+ reduced MOC in whole cells in a dose-dependent manner. In isolated mitochondria, MPP+ exerted mild inhibition at complex I, negligible effects on complexes II-III, and extensive inhibition of complex IV. Kinetic analysis of complex I revealed that MPP+ was competitive with NADH, and partially reversible by FAD and FMN. Co-Q(10) potentiated complex II ( approximately 200%), but not complex I or III. Despite positive influence of flavins and Co-Q(10) on complexes I-II function, neither protected against MPP+ toxicity, indicating inhibition of complex IV as the predominant target. The nicotinamides and glucose prevented MPP+ toxicity by fueling anaerobic glycolysis, evident by accumulation of lactate in the absence of MOC. The data also define a clear anomaly of neuroblastoma, indicating a preference for anaerobic conditions, and an adverse response to aerobic. An increase in CO(2), CO(2)/O(2) ratio, mitochondrial inhibition or O(2) deprivation was not directly toxic, but activated metabolism through glycolysis prompting depletion of glucose

  10. A Comprehensive Functional Analysis of NTRK1 Missense Mutations Causing Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type IV (HSAN IV)

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Samiha S.; Chen, Ya‐Chun; Halsall, Sally‐Anne; Nahorski, Michael S.; Omoto, Kiyoyuki; Young, Gareth T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a complete lack of pain perception and anhidrosis. Here, we studied a cohort of seven patients with HSAN IV and describe a comprehensive functional analysis of seven novel NTRK1 missense mutations, c.1550G >A, c.1565G >A, c.1970T >C, c.2096T >C, c.2254T >A, c.2288G >C, and c.2311C >T, corresponding to p.G517E, p.G522E, p.L657P, p.I699T, p.C752S, p.C763S, and p.R771C, all of which were predicted pathogenic by in silico analysis. The results allowed us to assess the pathogenicity of each mutation and to gain novel insights into tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TRKA) downstream signaling. Each mutation was systematically analyzed for TRKA glycosylation states, intracellular and cell membrane expression patterns, nerve growth factor stimulated TRKA autophosphorylation, TRKA‐Y496 phosphorylation, PLCγ activity, and neurite outgrowth. We showed a diverse range of functional effects: one mutation appeared fully functional, another had partial activity in all assays, one mutation affected only the PLCγ pathway and four mutations were proved null in all assays. Thus, we conclude that complete abolition of TRKA kinase activity is not the only pathogenic mechanism underlying HSAN IV. By corollary, the assessment of the clinical pathogenicity of HSAN IV mutations is more complex than initially predicted and requires a multifaceted approach. PMID:27676246

  11. A Comprehensive Functional Analysis of NTRK1 Missense Mutations Causing Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type IV (HSAN IV).

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Samiha S; Chen, Ya-Chun; Halsall, Sally-Anne; Nahorski, Michael S; Omoto, Kiyoyuki; Young, Gareth T; Phelan, Anne; Woods, Christopher Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a complete lack of pain perception and anhidrosis. Here, we studied a cohort of seven patients with HSAN IV and describe a comprehensive functional analysis of seven novel NTRK1 missense mutations, c.1550G >A, c.1565G >A, c.1970T >C, c.2096T >C, c.2254T >A, c.2288G >C, and c.2311C >T, corresponding to p.G517E, p.G522E, p.L657P, p.I699T, p.C752S, p.C763S, and p.R771C, all of which were predicted pathogenic by in silico analysis. The results allowed us to assess the pathogenicity of each mutation and to gain novel insights into tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TRKA) downstream signaling. Each mutation was systematically analyzed for TRKA glycosylation states, intracellular and cell membrane expression patterns, nerve growth factor stimulated TRKA autophosphorylation, TRKA-Y496 phosphorylation, PLCγ activity, and neurite outgrowth. We showed a diverse range of functional effects: one mutation appeared fully functional, another had partial activity in all assays, one mutation affected only the PLCγ pathway and four mutations were proved null in all assays. Thus, we conclude that complete abolition of TRKA kinase activity is not the only pathogenic mechanism underlying HSAN IV. By corollary, the assessment of the clinical pathogenicity of HSAN IV mutations is more complex than initially predicted and requires a multifaceted approach.

  12. Dust in brown dwarfs and extra-solar planets. IV. Assessing TiO2 and SiO nucleation for cloud formation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G.; Helling, Ch.; Giles, H.; Bromley, S. T.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Clouds form in atmospheres of brown dwarfs and planets. The cloud particle formation processes, seed formation and growth/evaporation are very similar to the dust formation process studied in circumstellar shells of AGB stars and in supernovae. Cloud formation modelling in substellar objects requires gravitational settling and element replenishment in addition to element depletion. All processes depend on the local conditions, and a simultaneous treatment is required. Aims: We apply new material data in order to assess our cloud formation model results regarding the treatment of the formation of condensation seeds. We look again at the question of the primary nucleation species in view of new (TiO2)N-cluster data and new SiO vapour pressure data. Methods: We applied the density functional theory (B3LYP, 6-311G(d)) using the computational chemistry package Gaussian 09 to derive updated thermodynamical data for (TiO2)N clusters as input for our TiO2 seed formation model. We tested different nucleation treatments and their effect on the overall cloud structure by solving a system of dust moment equations and element conservation for a prescribed Drift-Phoenixatmosphere structure. Results: Updated Gibbs free energies for the (TiO2)N clusters are presented, as well as a slightly temperature dependent surface tension for T = 500 ... 2000 K with an average value of σ∞ = 480.6 erg cm-2. The TiO2 seed formation rate changes only slightly with the updated cluster data. A considerably larger effect on the rate of seed formation, and hence on grain size and dust number density, results from a switch to SiO nucleation. The question about the most efficient nucleation species can only be answered if all dust/cloud formation processes and their feedback are taken into account. Despite the higher abundance of SiO over TiO2 in the gas phase, TiO2 remains considerably more efficient at forming condensation seeds by homogeneous nucleation. The paper discusses the effect

  13. Effect of Vanadium(IV)-Doping on the Visible Light-Induced Catalytic Activity of Titanium Dioxide Catalysts for Methylene Blue Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen-Churng; Lin, Yo-Jane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vanadium(IV)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst powders were prepared by the sol–gel method and characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller–specific surface area, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. V-doping in the TiO2 increases the crystal grain size, which decreases the specific surface areas of powders. This V-doping changes the band gap of TiO2, leading to extend the absorption to visible light regions (400–800 nm). Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water was investigated as a function of the vanadium content in TiO2 and was found to follow pseudo first-order rate kinetics. Appropriate content of V-doping is an effective means to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 for MB degradation under visible light irradiation. PMID:22693413

  14. WISC-IV and Low IQ: Review and Comparison with the WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The WISC-IV is likely to be in common use for the assessment of children with low intellectual ability for the next 10-12 years. There are several concerns about its uses with these children. Some children may not understand the instructions on some subtests, notably for letter-number sequencing. There may be an unacknowledged floor effect that…

  15. Understanding the Effectiveness of Online Peer Assessment: A Path Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jingyan; Zhang, Zhidong

    2012-01-01

    Peer assessment has been implemented in schools as both a learning tool and an assessment tool. Earlier studies have explored the effectiveness of peer assessment from different perspectives, such as domain knowledge and skills, peer assessment skills, and attitude changes. However, there is no holistic model describing the effects of cognitive…

  16. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  17. IVS Technology Coordinator Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report of the Technology Coordinator includes the following: 1) continued work to implement the new VLBI2010 system, 2) the 1st International VLBI Technology Workshop, 3) a VLBI Digital- Backend Intercomparison Workshop, 4) DiFX software correlator development for geodetic VLBI, 5) a review of progress towards global VLBI standards, and 6) a welcome to new IVS Technology Coordinator Bill Petrachenko.

  18. The PLATO IV Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, Jack

    The PLATO IV computer-based instructional system consists of a large scale centrally located CDC 6400 computer and a large number of remote student terminals. This is a brief and general description of the proposed input/output hardware necessary to interface the student terminals with the computer's central processing unit (CPU) using available…

  19. Little Jiffy, Mark IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Rice, John

    1974-01-01

    In this paper three changes and one new development for the method of exploratory factor analysis (a second generation Little Jiffy) developed by Kaiser are described. Following this short description a step-by-step computer algorithm of the revised method, dubbed Little Jiffy, Mark IV is presented. (MP)

  20. Effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on Electric Utilities: An Update, The

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on SO2 emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. It updates and expands the EIA report, Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  1. Improving study design for antidepressant effectiveness assessment.

    PubMed

    Naudet, Florian; Millet, Bruno; Reymann, Jean Michel; Falissard, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Antidepressants effectiveness in major depressive disorder (MDD) is still questioned because the extrapolation of randomized controlled trial (RCT) results to "real life" settings is problematic. The application of the RCT paradigm in a disorder of this type, where global care plays a central role, raises questions regarding the internal and external validity of this type of study. Outcome measurement, attrition rates, the ability of the double-blind design to control for expectations, placebo response, the representativeness of trial participants and publication bias are major methodological pitfalls. This review discusses these issues. It is illustrated using original data and proposes some alternatives for assessing antidepressant effectiveness via different approaches. Some are easy to implement, such as ecological measures, qualitative approaches, improvement of analytical strategy and improvement of blinding procedures. Some are sophisticated, involving temporary deception to deal with the confounding effect of expectations, and they raise ethical issues. Others resort to external validity, this being the case in observational studies. But all are necessary to explore antidepressant effectiveness.

  2. Effects of brining on the corrosion of ZVI and its subsequent As(III/V) and Se(IV/VI) removal from water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Xu, Hui; Shan, Chao; Jiang, Zhao; Pan, Bingcai

    2017-03-01

    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) has been extensively applied in water remediation, and most of the ZVI materials employed in practical applications are iron scraps, which have usually been corroded to certain extent under different conditions. In this study, the effects of brining with six solutions (NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3, Na2SiO3, NH4Cl, and NaH2PO4) on the corrosion of ZVI and its performance in the removal of As(III/V)/Se(IV/VI) were systematically investigated. All the studied solutions enhanced the corrosion of ZVI except for Na2SiO3, and the degrees of corrosion followed the order of NH4Cl > NaH2PO4 > Na2SO4 > NaCl > NaHCO3 > H2O > Na2SiO3. The corrosion products derived from ZVI were identified by SEM and XRD, and the dominant corrosion products varied with the type of brine solution. The positive correlation between the degree of ZVI corrosion and As(III/V)/Se(IV/VI) removal by the pre-corroded ZVI (pcZVI) was verified. In addition, As and Se removal by pcZVI was realized via a comprehensive process including adsorption and reduction, as further supported by the XPS analysis. We believe this study will shed new light upon the selection of iron materials pre-corroded under different saline conditions for practical water remediation.

  3. Limitations to effect of alpha-MSH on permeability of blood-brain barrier to IV /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Kastin, A.J.; Fabre, L.A.

    1982-12-01

    The effects of several variables on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to /sup 99m/Tc-labeled sodium pertechnetate after IV administration of alpha-MSH were investigated. Doses of alpha-MSH of about 200 micrograms/kg were generally more effective in increasing the brain:blood ratio of radioactivity than the smaller doses that had previously been shown to affect behavior and the EEG. Pulsatile administration of a total of 200 micrograms/kg alpha-MSH over 90 min did not change the permeability of the BBB to the pertechnetate anion. Infusion of the same dose over 90 min significantly increased the brain:blood ratio of radioactivity in one of two experiments: no significant effects were seen with infusion for shorter times, lower concentrations, or with a 4-9 analog (Org 2766). In another experiment, bolus injection of 200 micrograms/kg alpha-MSH resulted in a significantly increased ratio 90 min later as compared with controls. Although the effects of a peptide on the permeability of the BBB to other compounds remains intriguing, limitations appear to exist in experiments with /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate.

  4. Agreement for depression diagnosis between DSM-IV-TR criteria, three validated scales, oncologist assessment, and psychiatric clinical interview in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rhondali, Wadih; Freyer, Gilles; Adam, Virginie; Filbet, Marilène; Derzelle, Martine; Abgrall-Barbry, Gaelle; Bourcelot, Sophie; Machavoine, Jean-Louis; Chomat-Neyraud, Muriel; Gisserot, Olivier; Largillier, Rémi; Le Rol, Annick; Priou, Frank; Saltel, Pierre; Falandry, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression, a major outcome in cancer patients, is often evaluated by physicians relying on their clinical impressions rather than patient self-report. Our aim was to assess agreement between patient self-reported depression, oncologist assessment (OA), and psychiatric clinical interview (PCI) in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC). Methods This analysis was a secondary endpoint of the Elderly Women AOC Trial 3 (EWOT3), designed to assess the impact of geriatric covariates, notably depression, on survival in patients older than 70 years of age. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (GDS), the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, the distress thermometer, the mood thermometer, and OA. The interview guide for PCI was constructed from three validated scales: the GDS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, revised (DSM) criteria for depression were used as a gold standard. Results Out of 109 patients enrolled at 21 centers, 99 (91%) completed all the assessments. Patient characteristics were: mean age 78, performance status ≥2: 47 (47%). Thirty six patients (36%) were identified as depressed by the PCI versus 15 (15%) identified by DSM. We found moderate agreement for depression identification between DSM and GDS (κ=0.508) and PCI (κ=0.431) and high agreement with MADRS (κ=0.663). We found low or no agreement between DSM with the other assessment strategies, including OA (κ=−0.043). Identification according to OA (yes/no) resulted in a false-negative rate of 87%. As a screening tool, GDS had the best sensitivity and specificity (94% and 80%, respectively). Conclusion The use of validated tools, such as GDS, and collaboration between psychologists and oncologists are warranted to better identify emotional disorders in elderly women with AOC. PMID:26203235

  5. The control of steroidogenesis by human fetal adrenal cells in tissue culture. IV. The effect of exposure to placental steroids.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, K; Faiman, C; Feyes, F I; Winter, J S

    1982-01-01

    The effect upon steroidogenesis of adding various steroids produced by the placenta was studied in short term cultures of human fetal adrenal cells. The addition of high concentrations (10(3) ng/ml) of estrone or estriol inhibited the production of cortisol, but only the former elicited a parallel increase in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) production. Estradiol was effective in inhibiting delta-4-3-ketosteroid production at concentrations of 10-100 ng/ml, levels which approach those found in the fetal circulation, while DHA production was increased at concentrations of 1 microgram/ml. The addition of progesterone (4 microgram/ml) to the medium caused increased production of cortisol and corticosterone, but had no effect on DHA production. Pregnenolone (4 microgram/ml) increased the basal production of DHA and slightly impaired both basal and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone production, but had no effect on cortisol production. The data demonstrate that the many fetal and placental factors which have been studied to date, only ACTH and estrogens can interact to produce the characteristic fetal pattern of steroidogenesis. Preliminary studies indicate that this effect-stimulated aldosterone production, but had no effect on cortisol production. The data demonstrate that the many fetal and placental factors which have been studied to date, only ACTH and estrogens can interact to produce the characteristic fetal pattern of steroidogenesis. Preliminary studies indicate that this effect-stimulated aldosterone production, but had no effect on cortisol production. The data demonstrate that the many fetal and placental factors which have been studied to date, only ACTH and estrogens can interact to produce the characteristic fetal pattern of steroidogenesis. Preliminary studies indicate that this effect of estrogen is not influenced by other peptide hormones such as hCG, human prl, beta-lipotropin, corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide, or beta-endorphin. A revised model of

  6. Survey to assess Persian Gulf spill effects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-10

    This paper reports that an international group is poised for an extensive survey of the Persian Gulf, including an assessment of the long term effects of last year's oil spill, a legacy of the Persian Gulf war. Saudi Arabia plans a $450 million cleanup program on beaches fouled by the massive spill. Plans for the survey were disclosed by the United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). It is to be carried out under the auspices of the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (Ropme), Unesco's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Ropme member countries are Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

  7. Quantitative Assessment of Motor and Sensory/Motor Acquisition in Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Infants and Young Children. Volume IV: Application of the Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guess, Doug; And Others

    Three studies that applied quantitative procedures to measure motor and sensory/motor acquisition among handicapped and nonhandicapped infants and children are presented. In addition, a study concerning the replication of the quantitative procedures for assessing rolling behavior is described in a fourth article. The first study, by C. Janssen,…

  8. Effect of sublingual nitrate on respiratory reflexes arising from stimulation of juxta-pulmonary capillary (J) receptors by i.v. lobeline and short duration exercise.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ashima; Srivastava, Niraj; Raj, Hans

    2012-05-31

    Juxta-pulmonary capillary (J or pulmonary C fiber) receptors are stimulated by an increase in pulmonary blood flow and give rise to respiratory acceleration and related sensations and inhibit exercise. However, the reverse, i.e., the effect of reducing pulmonary blood flow on their reflexes, is as yet not known. This was investigated by carrying out a placebo-controlled study on the acute effects of a single dose (0.4 mg) of sublingual glyceryl nitrate (GTN), known to shift blood from the central to the peripheral circulation, on the respiratory parameters of exercising healthy subjects and on their responses to i.v. lobeline. In 10 subjects, GTN use delayed the first appearance of respiratory sensations from 9.08 ± 0.9 min to 11 min (P=0.002), reduced the increase in minute ventilation by the end of 10 min of exercise (P=0.003) and increased its duration by 1-4s and doubled it in the remaining one subject. In a majority of 8 of them, the effect of GTN on i.v. lobeline-induced respiratory reflexes and sensations was a significant increase in the dose required (P=0.006) for producing threshold effects and in the latency of their appearance (P=0.003). The latter feature points to a reduction in blood flow in the lung parenchyma where these receptors are located and to which they are sensitive. As this would have led to a reduced stimulation of these receptors, it would account for the delayed appearance of respiratory symptoms, a reduction in ventilatory increase and prolongation of exercise duration. We demonstrated a mechanism of reducing the stimulus level of J receptors by reducing pulmonary blood flow by means of pharmacological sequestration with GTN use, which then led to a reduction in the magnitude of respiratory and viscerosomatic reflexes, while noting at the same time that changes in blood flow in the pulmonary bed do not directly influence limb muscles, tendons and joints which also determine exercise output.

  9. Clinical and CNS effects of oral and I.V. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Patterson, C D; Polvan, N; Bigelow, A; Bergey, B

    1975-09-01

    Both oral and intravenous TRH produce systematic alterations in brain function of depressive patients as determined by scalp-recorded computerized cerebral biopotentials (computer EEG). The computer EEG (CEEG) profiles of both formulations are not only very similar to each other, but also resemble the CEEG profiles of psychostimulant compounds (Bio-availability). As in CEEG findings, TSH plasma levels also indicate that oral TRH is indeed an active compound. Although some "antidepressive" effects were observed after both formulations, they were not present in every patient, and it was not always the case after repetitive TRH administration, nor were the effects on depressed mood too impressive. On the other hand, in almost all patients certain behavioral effects of TRH were seen which related to "life instincts" and "life performance". The increase of interest, desire and drive for work, food and sex was one of the most striking findings, particularly after intravenous TRH. This may be responsible for the "antidepressive" effects of TRH in patients in whom depression may be the result of an inhibition of "instinctive" functions.

  10. Optimizing IV and V for Mature Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhman, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    NASA is intending for its future software development agencies to have at least a Level 3 rating in the Carnegie Mellon University Capability Maturity Model (CMM). The CMM has built-in Verification and Validation (V&V) processes that support higher software quality. Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of software developed by mature agencies can be therefore more effective than for software developed by less mature organizations. How is Independent V&V different with respect to the maturity of an organization? Knowing a priori the maturity of an organization's processes, how can IV&V planners better identify areas of need choose IV&V activities, etc? The objective of this research is to provide a complementary set of guidelines and criteria to assist the planning of IV&V activities on a project using a priori knowledge of the measurable levels of maturity of the organization developing the software.

  11. The effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 on electric utilities: An update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report presents data and analyses related to Phase I implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment by electric utilities. It describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on sulfur dioxide emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. The first year of Phase I demonstrated that the market-based sulfur dioxide emissions control system could achieve significant reductions in emissions at lower than expected costs. Some utilities reduced aggregate emissions below legal requirements due to economic incentives; other utilities purchased additional allowances to avoid noncompliance. More than half of the utilities switched to or blended with lower sulfur coal, due to price reductions in the coal market which were partially due to the allowance trading program. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  12. EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND SULFATE CONCENTRATION ON PROBABLITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR LIQUID WASTE TANKS- PART IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.

    2012-08-23

    A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion susceptibility. Testing solutions were chosen to build off previous experimental results from FY07, FY08, FY09 and FY10 to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate. The FY11 results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits as well.

  13. Children with chronic lung diseases have cognitive dysfunction as assessed by event-related potential (auditory P300) and Stanford-Binet IQ (SB-IV) test.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Abd Elmonaem, Mahmoud Tarek; Khalil, Lobna Hamed; Goda, Mona Hamdy; Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Ramzy, Mourad Alfy

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) in children represents a heterogeneous group of many clinico-pathological entities with risk of adverse impact of chronic or intermittent hypoxia. So far, few researchers have investigated the cognitive function in these children, and the role of auditory P300 in the assessment of their cognitive function has not been investigated yet. This study was designed to assess the cognitive functions among schoolchildren with different chronic pulmonary diseases using both auditory P300 and Stanford-Binet test. This cross-sectional study included 40 school-aged children who were suffering from chronic chest troubles other than asthma and 30 healthy children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic state as a control group. All subjects were evaluated through clinical examination, radiological evaluation and spirometry. Audiological evaluation included (basic otological examination, pure-tone, speech audiometry and immittancemetry). Cognitive function was assessed by auditory P300 and psychological evaluation using Stanford-Binet test (4th edition). Children with chronic lung diseases had significantly lower anthropometric measures compared to healthy controls. They had statistically significant lower IQ scores and delayed P300 latencies denoting lower cognitive abilities. Cognitive dysfunction correlated to severity of disease. P300 latencies were prolonged among hypoxic patients. Cognitive deficits in children with different chronic lung diseases were best detected using both Stanford-Binet test and auditory P300. P300 is an easy objective tool. P300 is affected early with hypoxia and could alarm subtle cognitive dysfunction.

  14. Alternate Assessments as One Measure of Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Jacqueline F.; Kleinert, Harold L.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Gong, Brian; Quenemoen, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) flexibility requires states to develop and implement teacher effectiveness measures that consider student assessment results, including assessment results for students with disabilities participating in general and alternate assessments. We describe how alternate assessment results for students with…

  15. The Effect of Assessment of Process after Receiving Teacher Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruegg, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the effect of assessing both process and product compared to assessing written products alone. Two groups of students received teacher feedback over a one-year period. One group was assessed on their revisions in addition to the quality of final drafts, while a second group was assessed on the quality of final…

  16. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  17. CDP-choline at high doses is as effective as i.v. thrombolysis in experimental animal stroke.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, María; Leciñana, María Alonso de; Rodríguez-Frutos, Berta; Ramos-Cejudo, Jaime; Roda, José María; Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2012-09-01

    Use of thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke may be limited by a narrow benefit/risk ratio. Pharmacological inhibition of the ischaemic cascade may constitute an effective and safer approach to stroke treatment. This study compared the effects of high doses of cytidine diphosphate-choline (CDP-choline; 1000 mg/kg) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; 5 mg/kg) in an experimental animal model of embolic stroke. Fifteen rats were embolized in the right internal carotid artery with an autologous clot and were divided into three groups: (1) infarct; (2) intravenous rt-PA 5 mg/kg 30 minutes post-embolization; and (3) CDP-choline 1000 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, three doses, 30 minutes, 24 hours, and 48 hours post-embolization. Functional evaluation scores were evaluated using Rogers test, lesion volume by haematoxylin and eosin staining, cell death with transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling, and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In this study, CDP-choline and rt-PA produced a significant reduction in brain damage considering infarct volume, cell death, and inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6) compared with the infarct group. Additionally, CDP-choline significantly decreased infarct volume, cell death, and IL-6 levels with respect to the rt-PA group. From these results, we conclude that high-dose CDP-choline may be an effective treatment for acute ischaemic stroke even in absence of thrombolysis.

  18. Silk fibroin/gelatin electrospun nanofibrous dressing functionalized with astragaloside IV induces healing and anti-scar effects on burn wound.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ying-Hui; Peng, Li-Hua; Liu, Xin; Chen, Xi; Xiong, Jie; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2015-02-20

    Functional wound dressing has provided new challenges for researchers who focus on burn to improve skin graft quality, reduce scarring, and develop a pluristratified dermal or epidermal construct of a burn wound. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a silk fibroin/gelatin (SF/GT) electrospun nanofibrous dressing loaded with astragaloside IV (AS) on deep partial-thickness burn wound. AS-loaded SF/GT-blended nanofibrous dressing was prepared by electrospinning nanotechnology. The optimal ratio (25:75) of silk fibroin to gelatin was further optimized by evaluating ATR-FTIR characteristics, mechanical properties, porosity, swelling rate, degradation, and release profile of the AS-loaded SF/GT nanofibrous dressing. In contrast to the blank control, the AS-loaded SF/GT nanofibrous dressing promoted cell adhesion and proliferation with good biocompatibility in vitro (p<0.01). This dressing also accelerated wound healing and inhibited scar formation in vivo by stimulating wound closure (p<0.05), increasing angiogenesis, regulating newly formed types of collagen, and improving collagen organization. These results showed that SF/GT nanofibrous dressing is a promising topical drug delivery system. Furthermore, AS-functionalized SF/GT nanofibrous dressing is an excellent topical therapeutic that could be applied to promote healing and elicit anti-scar effects on partial-thickness burn wound.

  19. Immunoregulatory effects of covalent antigen-antibody complexes. IV. Priming and tolerance in T-dependent responses.

    PubMed Central

    Tite, J P; Morrison, C A; Taylor, R B

    1982-01-01

    Stable, covalently bonded, monomeric complexes of rabbit anti-NAP (4-azido-2-nitrophenyl) antibodies and NAP-bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase), when injected into mice, prime the subsequent response to a soluble challenge of RNase. This effect is shown to be dependent on an intact Fc portion of the rabbit antibody and not simply due to foreign determinants recognized on the latter. A study of the kinetics of elimination of radioiodinated complexes from the serum indicates that the generation of a primary anti-rabbit IgG response and subsequent clearance of the complex leads to priming of the anti-RNase response. If mice are previously rendered tolerant to rabbit IgG or the complexes are ultracentrifuged, the priming to RNase is often abolished and tolerance may be induced. PMID:6179858

  20. Complements to nonperturbative treatment of radiative damping effect in dielectronic recombination: {delta}n=2 transition in C IV

    SciTech Connect

    Stancalie, V.

    2005-10-01

    The primary purpose of the present work is to provide new refined results from nonperturbative treatment of the radiative damping effect in dielectronic recombination. The present results are used to test and confirm previously reported method [V. Stancalie, Phys. Plasmas 12, 043301 (2005)] taking full account of the electron collision and radiative processes in a consistent way, when radiation field is considered to all orders. This work refers to the 1s{sup 2}2s5s({sup 1}S) and 1s{sup 2}2p7s({sup 1}P{sup 0}) configurations, embedded in the electric dipole field of the 2s-2p core transition in Li-like C ion. Comparisons with previously reported results are shown. This data are believed to be the first demonstration of {delta}n=2 channel in dielectronic recombination of Li-like into Be-like C and are important in plasma diagnostics.

  1. KOH concentration effect on the cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells. IV - Results of failure analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    Potassium hydroxide concentration effects on the cycle life of a Ni/H2 cell have been studied by carrying out a cycle life test on ten Ni/H2 boiler plate cells which contain electrolytes of various KOH concentrations. Failure analyses of these cells were carried out after completion of the life test, which accumulated up to 40,000 cycles at an 80-percent depth of discharge over a period of 3.7 years. These failure analyses included studies on changes of electrical characteristics of test cells, and component analyses after disassembly of the cell. The component analyses included visual inspections, dimensional changes, capacity measurements of nickel electrodes, scanning electron microscopy, surface area measurements, and chemical analyses. Results have indicated that failure mode and change in the nickel electrode varied as the concentration was varied, especially when the concentration was changed from 31 percent or higher to 26 percent or lower.

  2. A sputnik IV saga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Charles A.

    2009-12-01

    The Sputnik IV launch occurred on May 15, 1960. On May 19, an attempt to deorbit a 'space cabin' failed and the cabin went into a higher orbit. The orbit of the cabin was monitored and Moonwatch volunteer satellite tracking teams were alerted to watch for the vehicle demise. On September 5, 1962, several team members from Milwaukee, Wisconsin made observations starting at 4:49 a.m. of a fireball following the predicted orbit of Sputnik IV. Requests went out to report any objects found under the fireball path. An early morning police patrol in Manitowoc had noticed a metal object on a street and had moved it to the curb. Later the officers recovered the object and had it dropped off at the Milwaukee Journal. The Moonwarch team got the object and reported the situation to Moonwatch Headquarters at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. A team member flew to Cambridge with the object. It was a solid, 9.49 kg piece of steel with a slag-like layer attached to it. Subsequent analyses showed that it contained radioactive nuclei produced by cosmic ray exposure in space. The scientists at the Observatory quickly recognized that measurements of its induced radioactivity could serve as a calibration for similar measurements of recently fallen nickel-iron meteorites. Concurrently, the Observatory directorate informed government agencies that a fragment from Sputnik IV had been recovered. Coincidently, a debate in the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space involved the issue of liability for damage caused by falling satellite fragments. On September 12, the Observatory delivered the bulk of the fragment to the US Delegation to the UN. Two days later, the fragment was used by US Ambassador Francis Plimpton as an exhibit that the time had come to agree on liability for damage from satellite debris. He offered the Sputnik IV fragment to USSR Ambassador P.D. Morozov, who refused the offer. On October 23, Drs. Alla Massevitch and E.K. Federov of the USSR visited the

  3. Behavioral studies with anxiolytic drugs. IV. Serotonergic involvement in the effects of buspirone on punished behavior of pigeons

    SciTech Connect

    Witkin, J.M.; Mansbach, R.S.; Barrett, J.E.; Bolger, G.T.; Skolnick, P.; Weissman, B.

    1987-12-01

    Interactions of the nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic, buspirone, with serotonin (5-HT) were studied using behavioral and neurochemical procedures. Punished responding was studied in pigeons as this behavior is a generally acknowledged preclinical predictor of anxiolytic activity and because buspirone increases punished responding of pigeons with greater potency and efficacy than in other species. Keypeck responses were maintained under either fixed-interval or fixed-ratio schedules of food presentation; every 30th response produced a brief electric shock and suppressed responding (punishment). Buspirone (0.1-5.6 mg/kg i.m.) produced dose-related increases in punished responding which reached a maximum at 1 mg/kg. A serotonin agonist, MK-212 (0.01 mg/kg), antagonized whereas the 5-HT antagonist, cyproheptadine (0.01 mg/kg), potentiated the effects of buspirone without having behavioral effects of their own. The characteristics of (/sup 3/H)-5-HT binding in pigeon brain membranes were similar to results reported in mammalian brain. Neither buspirone, MJ-13805 (gepirone, a related analog), nor MJ-13653 (a buspirone metabolite), significantly affected (/sup 3/H)-5-HT binding and none of the compounds appreciably inhibited uptake of (/sup 3/H)-5-HT into pigeon cerebral synaptosomes. Hill coefficients significantly less than unity for all drugs except 5-HT suggested multiple serotonergic binding sites for buspirone and analogs. Buspirone and MJ-13805 (1 nM) inhibited (/sup 3/H)ketanserin binding (a measure of 5-HT2 binding sites) in pigeon cerebrum with Ki values above 10(-6) M. The number of (/sup 3/H)ketanserin binding sites was estimated to be 109 fmol/mg of protein in pigeon cerebrum compared to 400 fmol/mg of protein in rat cerebrum.

  4. Predicting DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jie; Li, Chanjuan; Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Ye, Jiming; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2017-02-02

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a promising Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug target. DPP-IV inhibitors prolong the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), improve glucose homeostasis without weight gain, edema, and hypoglycemia. However, the marketed DPP-IV inhibitors have adverse effects such as nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity, skin reactions and pancreatitis. Therefore, it is still expected for novel DPP-IV inhibitors with minimal adverse effects. The scaffolds of existing DPP-IV inhibitors are structurally diversified. This makes it difficult to build virtual screening models based upon the known DPP-IV inhibitor libraries using conventional QSAR approaches. In this paper, we report a new strategy to predict DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches involving naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods. We built 247 machine learning models based on 1307 known DPP-IV inhibitors with optimized molecular properties and topological fingerprints as descriptors. The overall predictive accuracies of the optimized models were greater than 80%. An external test set, composed of 65 recently reported compounds, was employed to validate the optimized models. The results demonstrated that both NB and RP models have a good predictive ability based on different combinations of descriptors. Twenty "good" and twenty "bad" structural fragments for DPP-IV inhibitors can also be derived from these models for inspiring the new DPP-IV inhibitor scaffold design.

  5. Predicting DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jie; Li, Chanjuan; Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Ye, Jiming; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a promising Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug target. DPP-IV inhibitors prolong the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), improve glucose homeostasis without weight gain, edema, and hypoglycemia. However, the marketed DPP-IV inhibitors have adverse effects such as nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity, skin reactions and pancreatitis. Therefore, it is still expected for novel DPP-IV inhibitors with minimal adverse effects. The scaffolds of existing DPP-IV inhibitors are structurally diversified. This makes it difficult to build virtual screening models based upon the known DPP-IV inhibitor libraries using conventional QSAR approaches. In this paper, we report a new strategy to predict DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches involving naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods. We built 247 machine learning models based on 1307 known DPP-IV inhibitors with optimized molecular properties and topological fingerprints as descriptors. The overall predictive accuracies of the optimized models were greater than 80%. An external test set, composed of 65 recently reported compounds, was employed to validate the optimized models. The results demonstrated that both NB and RP models have a good predictive ability based on different combinations of descriptors. Twenty "good" and twenty "bad" structural fragments for DPP-IV inhibitors can also be derived from these models for inspiring the new DPP-IV inhibitor scaffold design.

  6. Current Knowledge and Projection on Assessing the Effectiveness of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlansky, Jesse

    This discussion of methods used to assess the effectiveness of training for U.S. Army personnel identifies various types of training, describes methods currently used, and suggests ways of improving the assessment process. The methodology and results of assessments of effectiveness, including the costs associated with the level of performance, are…

  7. Valuing a More Rigorous Review of Formative Assessment's Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apthorp, Helen; Klute, Mary; Petrites, Tony; Harlacher, Jason; Real, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Prior reviews of evidence for the impact of formative assessment on student achievement suggest widely different estimates of formative assessment's effectiveness, ranging from 0.40 and 0.70 standard deviations in one review. The purpose of this study is to describe variability in the effectiveness of formative assessment for promoting student…

  8. Effects of thermal annealing on the deep-level defects and I-V characteristics of 200 keV proton irradiated AlGaAs-GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, S. S.; Schoenfeld, D. W.; Chiu, T. T.; Loo, R. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed characterization of deep-level defects and analysis of dark I-V data in 200 keV proton irradiated AlGaAs-GaAs solar cells have been carried out for several proton fluences (5 x 10 to the 11th, 10 to the 12th, and 10 to the 13th P/sq cm), using DLTS, C-V, and I-V measurement techniques. To study the effect of low temperature thermal annealing on the deep-level defect properties, these irradiated samples were annealed in vacuum at 300 C for one hour. Comparison was then made on the measured defect parameters (i.e., defect energy levels and densities) and the dark I-V characteristics for both the annealed and unannealed samples.

  9. Pharmacology of Casimiroa edulis IV. Hypotensive effects of compounds isolated from methanolic extracts in rats and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Magos, G A; Vidrio, H; Reynolds, W F; Enríquez, R G

    1999-01-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of the methanolic extract of seeds of Casimiroa edulis led to the isolation of seven constituents with cardiovascular activity, namely the new compound synephrine acetonide and the known compounds N-monomethylhistamine, N,N-dimethylhistamine, proline, N-methylproline, gamma-aminobutyric acid and casimiroedine. In anesthetized rats, both histamine derivatives produced transient hypotension mediated via H1-histaminergic receptors and in the case of N,N-dimethylhistamine, via nitric oxide release. Synephrine acetonide produced transient hypertension and tachycardia, mediated via alpha- and alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptores, respectively. The chromatographic zone containing N-methyproline, proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid elicited marked and prolonged hypotension. Finally, casimiroedine did not modify the blood pressure of anesthetized rats, but lowered it persistently in anesthetized guinea pigs. It was concluded that hypotension produced by C. edulis is due to several active components. The immediate effect can be attributed to the histamine derivatives acting on H1-receptors. More prolonged hypotension would be produced by the mixture of amino acids through an unknown mechanism, as well as by casimiroedine, possibly by activation of H3-receptors. Hypotension is partially offset by synephrine acetonide through adrenergic mechanisms.

  10. New therapeutic approach to Tourette Syndrome in children based on a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase IV study of the effectiveness and safety of magnesium and vitamin B6

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lopez, Rafael; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Garcia, Cesar Ruiz; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Romero-Gonzalez, Julio; Moreno, Jose L; Faus, Vicente; Aguas, Guadalupe del Castillo; Diaz, Juan C Ramos

    2009-01-01

    Background Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurological condition presenting chronic motor and phonic tics, and important degree of comorbidity. Considered an uncommon illness, it first becomes apparent during childhood. Current standard treatment only achieves partial control of the condition, and provokes frequent, and sometimes severe, side effects. Methods and design Main aim: To show that, with respect to placebo treatment, the combination of 0.5 mEq/Kg magnesium and 2 mg/Kg vitamin B6 reduces motor and phonic tics and incapacity in cases of exacerbated TS among children aged 7–14 years, as measured on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Secondary aims: Assess the safety of the treatment. Describe metabolic changes revealed by PET. Measure the impact of the experimental treatment on family life. Methodology Randomized, blinded clinical trials. Phase IV study (new proposal for treatment with magnesium and vitamin B6). Scope: children in the geographic area of the study group. Recruitment of subjects: to include patients diagnosed with TS, in accordance with DSM-IV criteria (307.23), during a period of exacerbation, and provided none of the exclusion criteria are met. Instrumentation: clinical data and the YGTSS score will be obtained at the outset of a period of exacerbation (t0). The examinations will be made after 15 (t1), 30 (t2), 60 (t3) and 90 days (t4). PET will be performed at the t0 and t4. We evaluated decrease in the overall score (t0, t1, t2, t3, t4), PET variations, and impact made by the treatment on the patient's life (Psychological General Well-Being Index). Discussion Few clinical trials have been carried out on children with TS, but they are necessary, as current treatment possibilities are insufficient and often provoke side effects. The difficulty of dealing with an uncommon illness makes designing such a study all the more complicated. The present study seeks to overcome possible methodological problems by implementing a prior, phase

  11. [Effect of predosing with Y-12,141 on its antiallergic activity. --Studies on anti-allergic agents(IV)-- (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Goto, K; Terasawa, M; Komori, A; Maruyama, Y

    1981-02-01

    Y-12, 141 (0.1 approximately 0.3 mg/kg) given i.v. 1 min before the antigen challenge inhibited both the 48-hour passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and active anaphylactic bronchoconstriction of rats mediated by IgE-like antibody. The anti-PCA activity of Y-12, 141 (0.3 mg/kg i.v.) given 1 min before the antigen challenge decreased significantly by predosing with Y-12, 141 (1 approximately 3 mg/kg i.v.) 60 min before the antigen challenge. The induction of tachyphylaxis in the PCA test appeared to depend on the doses in internal between predosing and second dosing. The anti-PCA activity of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) at a dose of 1 mg/kg i.v. decreased significantly by predosing with DSCG (10 mg/kg i.v.) 30 min before the antigen challenge. Cross-tachyphylaxis between Y-12, 141 and DSCG was observed in the PCA test. The tachyphylaxis to Y-12, 141 was more readily induced in the PCA than in the bronchoconstriction. The inhibitory activity of Y-12, 141 (0.3 mg/kg i.v.) given 1 min before the antigen challenge in the PCA and bronchoconstriction was not affected by predosing with Y-12, 141 (1 mg/kg p.o. or s.c.) for 7 days.

  12. Expanding the Ecological Validity of WAIS-IV and WMS-IV with the Texas Functional Living Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdick, Lisa Whipple; Cullum, C. Munro

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of functional status is an important aspect of clinical evaluation. As part of the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), participants completed the Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), a measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The…

  13. Fabrication of a Core-Shell-Type Photocatalyst via Photodeposition of Group IV and V Transition Metal Oxyhydroxides: An Effective Surface Modification Method for Overall Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Takata, Tsuyoshi; Pan, Chengsi; Nakabayashi, Mamiko; Shibata, Naoya; Domen, Kazunari

    2015-08-05

    The design of optimal surface structures for photocatalysts is a key to efficient overall water splitting into H2 and O2. A unique surface modification method was devised for a photocatalyst to effectively promote overall water splitting. Photodeposition of amorphous oxyhydroxides of group IV and V transition metals (Ti, Nb, Ta) over a semiconductor photocatalyst from corresponding water-soluble metal peroxide complexes was examined. In this method, amorphous oxyhydroxide covered the whole surface of the photocatalyst particles, creating a core-shell structure. The water splitting behavior of the novel core-shell-type photocatalyst in relation to the permeation behavior of the coating layer was investigated in detail. Overall water splitting proceeded successfully after the photodeposition, owing to the prevention of the reverse reaction. The photodeposited oxyhydroxide layers were found to function as molecular sieves, selectively filtering reactant and product molecules. By exploiting the selective permeability of the coating layer, redox reactions on the photocatalyst surface could be suitably controlled, which resulted in successful overall water splitting.

  14. PMD IVS Analysis Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornatore, Vincenza

    2013-01-01

    The main activities carried out at the PMD (Politecnico di Milano DIIAR) IVS Analysis Center during 2012 are briefly higlighted, and future plans for 2013 are sketched out. We principally continued to process European VLBI sessions using different approaches to evaluate possible differences due to various processing choices. Then VLBI solutions were also compared to the GPS ones as well as the ones calculated at co-located sites. Concerning the observational aspect, several tests were performed to identify the most suitable method to achieve the highest possible accuracy in the determination of GNSS (GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM) satellite positions using the VLBI technique.

  15. Assessment for Learning: Effects and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flórez, María Teresa; Sammons, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The idea that schools can impact positively on student outcomes is a crucial driver in the rise of interest in school improvement research and practice. This review focuses on assessment for learning. Assessment for learning (AfL)--where the first priority is to promote learning--is a key means of initiating improvement. This review proposes that…

  16. Wargaming Effectiveness: Its Conceptualization and Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    wargaming and to explore methods for assessing these constructs. Cognitive task analysis was used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding...the wargaming conceptual framework can be feasible to administer and be reliable and valid assessments of their related psychological constructs. If

  17. The effects of a TGR5 agonist and a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakanaka, Taisuke; Inoue, Takuya; Yorifuji, Naoki; Iguchi, Munetaka; Fujiwara, Kaori; Narabayashi, Ken; Kakimoto, Kazuki; Nouda, Sadaharu; Okada, Toshihiko; Kuramoto, Takanori; Ishida, Kumi; Abe, Yosuke; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Umegaki, Eiji; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Luminal nutrients stimulate enteroendocrine L cells to release gut hormones, including intestinotrophic glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). Because L cells express the bile acid receptor TGR5 and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) rapidly degrades GLPs, we hypothesized that luminal TGR5 activation may attenuate intestinal injury via GLP-2 release, which is enhanced by DPPIV inhibition. Methods Intestinal injury was induced in mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water (free access to water containing 5% DSS for 7 days). The selective TGR5 agonist betulinic acid (BTA) and the DPPIV inhibitor sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate (STG) were administered orally for 7 days. Male C57BL/6 mice (6–7 weeks old) were divided into five groups: normal control group, disease control group, BTA low group (drinking water containing 15 mg/L BTA), BTA high group (50 mg/L BTA), and BTA high + STG (3 mg/kg, i.g.) group. Results The selective TGR5 agonist BTA dose-dependently suppressed disease activity index and mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the colon. Nevertheless, STG administration had little additive effect on BTA-induced protection. Fibroblast activation protein mRNA expression, but not expression of other DPP family members, was increased in the colon of DSS-treated mice with increased mucosal DPPIV. Co-administration of the selective GLP-2 antagonist GLP-2 (3–33) reversed the effect of BTA. Conclusion The selective TGR5 agonist BTA ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in mice via the GLP-2 pathway with no effect of DPPIV inhibition, suggesting that other DPP enzymatic activity is involved in GLP-2 degradation. PMID:25827806

  18. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor vildagliptin suppresses development of neuropathy in diabetic rodents: Effects on peripheral sensory nerve function, structure and molecular changes.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Kentaro; Mizukami, Hiroki; Inaba, Wataru; Baba, Masayuki; Yagihashi, Soroku

    2015-11-25

    Incretin-related therapy was found to be beneficial for experimental diabetic neuropathy, but its mechanism is obscure. The purpose of this study is to explore the mechanism through which dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, vildagliptin (VG), influences neuropathy in diabetic rodents. To this end, non-obese type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats (GK) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were treated with VG orally. Neuropathy was evaluated by nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in both GK and STZ-diabetic mice, whereas calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) expressions, neuronal cell size of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) were examined in GK. DRG from GK and STZ-diabetic mice served for analyses of GLP-1 and insulin signaling. As results, VG-treatment improved glucose intolerance and increased serum insulin and GLP-1 in GK accompanied by the amelioration of delayed NCV and neuronal atrophy, reduced CGRP expressions and IENFD. Diet restriction alone did not significantly influence these measures. Impaired GLP-1 signals such as CREB, PKB/Akt and S6RP in DRG of GK were restored in VG-treated group, but the effect was equivocal in diet-treated GK. Concurrently, decreased phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2) in GK was corrected by VG-treatment. Consistent with the effect on GK, VG-treatment improved NCV in diabetic mice without influence on hyperglycemia. DRG of VG-treated diabetic mice were characterized by correction of GLP-1 signals and IRS2 phosphorylation without effects on insulin receptor-β expression. The results suggest close association of neuropathy development with impaired signaling of insulin and GLP-1 in diabetic rodents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of Performance-Based Assessment Criteria on Student Performance and Self-Assessment Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…

  20. 36 CFR 800.5 - Assessment of adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment of adverse effects... PROTECTION OF HISTORIC PROPERTIES The section 106 Process § 800.5 Assessment of adverse effects. (a) Apply criteria of adverse effect. In consultation with the SHPO/THPO and any Indian tribe or Native...

  1. 78 FR 2390 - CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v. California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Complaint Take notice... IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC and CSOLAR IV North, LLC...

  2. The Design of the IGE Evaluation Project Phase IV Comparative Studies. Comparative Study of Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV, Project Paper 80-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This paper outlines the design of two Comparative Studies of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IGE) Evaluation Project. More than 2,000 elementary schools in 25 states use the IGE system. The Evaluation Project was designed to gain a comprehensive view of the system's operation and effectiveness. Phase IV investigated pupil outcomes,…

  3. Natural organic matter influences the dissolution and stability of reduced technetium(IV) and uranium(IV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, B.; Dong, W.; Liang, L.; Wall, N.

    2010-12-01

    Reductive precipitation and immobilization of soluble technetium (as pertechnetate, Tc(VII)O4-) and uranium (as uranyl, U(VI)O22+) to sparingly soluble Tc(IV) and U(IV) species have been proposed as one of the promising remediation technologies to immobilize uranium and technetium in situ in the subsurface. However, the dissolution and long-term stability of reduced Tc(IV) and U(IV) species are poorly understood, particularly in the presence of natural and synthetic organic ligands, which are known to form complexes with these metals or radionuclides and thus cause their mobilization. In this study, the kinetics of both ligand-promoted and oxidative dissolution of Tc(IV) and U(IV) solids are determined, and their mobility is evaluated in the presence of natural organic matter (e.g.,humic acid and fulvic acid) and synthetic ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA). We found that EDTA and the humic acid are among the most effective in promoting the ligand-induced dissolution of Tc(IV) and U(IV) by complexation. However, EDTA is found to suppress the oxidative dissoltuion of Tc(IV) and U(IV), whereas the humic acid enhances the oxidative dissolution due to its redox reactive functional properties. Furthermore, the oxidative dissolution is found to be much quicker than the ligand-promoted dissolution by humic substances. Studies of the dissolution and stability of reduced U(IV) in a contaminated sediment column confirms that both the synthetic and natural organic ligands can cause the mobilization of U(IV) although the dissolution rate is relatively slow. Because these organic ligands commonly co-exit at comtaminated sites, our results suggest that their presence can potentially impact the long-term stability and mobility of reduced Tc(IV) or U(IV) and should be considered in designing remediation strategies using the reductive precipitation approach.

  4. Study of chemical bonding, physical and biological effect of metformin drug as an organized medicine for diabetes patients with chromium(III) and vanadium(IV) ions.

    PubMed

    Adam, Abdel Majid A; Sharshar, T; Mohamed, Mahmoud A; Ibrahim, Omar B; Refat, Moamen S

    2015-01-01

    New vanadium(IV) and chromium(III) complexes of metformin (MFN) were synthesized upon the chemical interaction between vanadyl(II) sulfate monohydrate or chromium(III) chloride hexahydrate with metformin diabetic drug in the media of a pure grade of methanol solvent. The [(VO)2(MFN)2(SO4)2]2H2O and [Cr(MFN)3]·Cl3·6H2O complexes were discussed using microanalytical measurements, molar conductance, spectroscopic (infrared, ESR, XRD, and UV-vis), effective magnetic moment, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal analyses (TG/DTG). The elemental analysis shows that VO(II) and Cr(III) complexes were associated with 1:1 and 1:3M ratios, respectively. The infrared spectroscopic results data received from the comparison between free MFN free ligand and their vanadyl(II) and chromium(III) complexes were proven that metformin reacted with respected metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its two imino groups. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters were estimated from the DTG curves. The microstructure changes of the VO(II) and Cr(III) complexes have been probed using positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) and positron annihilation Doppler broadening (PADB) techniques. The PAL and PADB line-shape parameters were found to be dependent on the structure, electronic configuration and molecular weight of metal complexes. Antimicrobial activity of the metformin free ligand and its vanadyl(II) and chromium(III) complexes were evaluated against the gram negative and gram positive bacteria strains and different fungal strains. Moderate antimicrobial activity recorded by disk diffusion inhibition growth zone method in vanadyl(II) and chromium(III) complexes compared to metformin free ligand.

  5. The Assessment of Effectance Motivation in Normal and Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; Zigler, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Several measures of effectance motivation were constructed; their validity was assessed by administering them to groups of subjects whose effectance motivation was assumed to differ: normal, noninstitutionalized retarded, and institutionalized children matched on mental age. (CS)

  6. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  7. A Model for Effectively Assessing Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohia, Uche O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a model proven to be effective for assessing and documenting evidence of student learning outcomes. Specifically, it will share a model, F.A.M.O.U.S. Copyright ©2008, which is an acronym exemplifying six effective steps for complying with institutional accountability and eternal assessment requirements proscribed by the…

  8. Measuring Working Memory With Digit Span and the Letter-Number Sequencing Subtests From the WAIS-IV: Too Low Manipulation Load and Risk for Underestimating Modality Effects.

    PubMed

    Egeland, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is one of the most frequently used tests among psychologists. In the fourth edition of the test (WAIS-IV), the subtests Digit Span and Letter-Number Sequencing are expanded for better measurement of working memory (WM). However, it is not clear whether the new extended tasks contribute sufficient complexity to be sensitive measures of manipulation WM, nor do we know to what degree WM capacity differs between the visual and the auditory modality because the WAIS-IV only tests the auditory modality. Performance by a mixed sample of 226 patients referred for neuropsychological examination on the Digit Span and Letter-Number Sequencing subtests from the WAIS-IV and on Spatial Span from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition was analyzed in two confirmatory factor analyses to investigate whether a unitary WM model or divisions based on modality or level/complexity best fit the data. The modality model showed the best fit when analyzing summed scores for each task as well as scores for the longest span. The clinician is advised to apply tests with higher manipulation load and to consider testing visual span as well before drawing conclusions about impaired WM from the WAIS-IV.

  9. Assessing Component Effects in Formulation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Snee, Ronald D.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2012-12-17

    The purpose of Snee (2011) was to discuss and illustrate how using Six Sigma concepts and approaches can lead to a better understanding of formulation systems. Central to the recommended approach is estimating and interpreting the effects of the components in the formulation on the response variable. Knowledge of components that have no effect, small or large effects (positive or negative), and similar effects is very helpful in understanding how the formulation system works. This understanding helps one decide 1) which components having large effects should be increased or decreased, and 2) what to do about components with no effects or similar effects. Correspondence between the authors following Snee (2011), along with further review of the literature, have pointed out that the approaches discussed in Snee (2011), and the interpretation of component effects in general, need further clarification. That is the focus of this article.

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  11. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors and diabetes therapy.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Christopher H S

    2008-01-01

    Current type 2 diabetes therapies are mainly targeted at stimulating pancreatic beta-cell secretion and reducing insulin resistance. A number of alternative therapies are currently being developed to take advantage of the actions of the incretin hormones Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) and Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP). These hormones are released from the small intestine in response to nutrient ingestion and stimulate insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. One approach to potentiating their actions is based on inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), the major enzyme responsible for degrading the incretins in vivo. DPP IV exhibits characteristics that have allowed the development of specific orally administered inhibitors with proven efficacy in improving glucose tolerance in animal models of diabetes. A number of clinical trials have demonstrated that DPP IV inhibitors are effective in improving glucose disposal and reducing hemoglobin A1c levels in type 2 diabetic patients and one inhibitor, sitagliptin, is now in therapeutic use, with others likely to receive FDA approval in the near future. Studies aimed at elucidating the mode of action of the inhibitors are still ongoing. Both enhancement of insulin secretion and reduction in glucagon secretion, resulting from the blockade of incretin degradation, are believed to play important roles in DPP IV inhibitor action. Preclinical studies indicate that increased levels of incretins improve beta-cell secretory function and exert effects on beta-cell mitogenesis and survival that can preserve beta-cell mass. Roles for other hormones, neuropeptides and cytokines in DPP IV inhibitor-medicated responses are also possible.

  12. Assessment of Carbon Fiber Electrical Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The risks associated with the use of carbon fiber composites in civil aircraft are discussed along with the need for protection of civil aircraft equipment from fire-released carbon fibers. The size and number of carbon fibers released in civil aircraft crash fires, the downwind dissemination of the fibers, their penetration into buildings and equipment, and the vulnerability of electrical/electronic equipment to damage by the fibers are assessed.

  13. Impact of the agricultural research service watershed assessment studies on the conservation effects assessment project cropland national assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA initiated the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in 2002 to analyze societal and environmental benefits gained from the increased conservation program funding provided in the 2002 Farm Bill. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and...

  14. Laser flash photolysis generation and kinetic studies of porphyrin-manganese-oxo intermediates. Rate constants for oxidations effected by porphyrin-Mn(V)-oxo species and apparent disproportionation equilibrium constants for porphyrin-Mn(IV)-oxo species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Horner, John H; Newcomb, Martin

    2005-05-11

    Porphyrin-manganese(V)-oxo and porphyrin-manganese(IV)-oxo species were produced in organic solvents by laser flash photolysis (LFP) of the corresponding porphyrin-manganese(III) perchlorate and chlorate complexes, respectively, permitting direct kinetic studies. The porphyrin systems studied were 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin (TPFPP), and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-methylpyridinium)porphyrin (TMPyP). The order of reactivity for (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O) derivatives in self-decay reactions in acetonitrile and in oxidations of substrates was (TPFPP) > (TMPyP) > (TPP). Representative rate constants for reaction of (TPFPP)Mn(V)(O) in acetonitrile are k = 6.1 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for cis-stilbene and k = 1.4 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for diphenylmethane, and the kinetic isotope effect in oxidation of ethylbenzene and ethylbenzene-d(10) is k(H)/k(D) = 2.3. Competitive oxidation reactions conducted under catalytic conditions display approximately the same relative rate constants as were found in the LFP studies of (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O) derivatives. The apparent rate constants for reactions of (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) species show inverted reactivity order with (TPFPP) < (TMPyP) < (TPP) in reactions with cis-stilbene, triphenylamine, and triphenylphosphine. The inverted reactivity results because (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) disproportionates to (porphyrin)Mn(III)X and (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O), which is the primary oxidant, and the equilibrium constants for disproportionation of (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) are in the order (TPFPP) < (TMPyP) < (TPP). The fast comproportionation reaction of (TPFPP)Mn(V)(O) with (TPFPP)Mn(III)Cl to give (TPFPP)Mn(IV)(O) (k = 5 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1)) and disproportionation reaction of (TPP)Mn(IV)(O) to give (TPP)Mn(V)(O) and (TPP)Mn(III)X (k approximately 2.5 x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)) were observed. The relative populations of (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O) and (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) were determined from the ratios of observed rate constants for

  15. Effects of diagnosis on treatment recommendations in chronic insomnia--a report from the APA/NIMH DSM-IV field trial.

    PubMed

    Buysse, D J; Reynolds, C F; Kupfer, D J; Thorpy, M J; Bixler, E; Kales, A; Manfredi, R; Vgontzas, A; Stepanski, E; Roth, T; Hauri, P; Stapf, D

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether sleep specialists and nonspecialists recommend different treatments for different insomnia diagnoses according to two different diagnostic classifications. Two hundred sixteen patients with chronic insomnia at five sites were each interviewed by two clinicians: one sleep specialist and one nonsleep specialist. All interviewers indicated diagnoses using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV); sleep specialists also indicated diagnoses according to the International Classification for Sleep Disorders (ICSD). Interviewers then indicated how strongly they would recommend each item in a standard list of treatment and diagnostic interventions for each patient. We examined differences in treatment recommendations among the six most common DSM-IV diagnoses assigned by sleep specialists at different sites (n = 192), among the six most common ICSD diagnoses assigned by sleep specialists at different sites (n = 153), and among the six most common DSM-IV diagnoses assigned by nonspecialists at different sites (n = 186). In each analysis, specific treatment and polysomnography recommendations differed significantly for different diagnoses, using either DSM-IV or ICSD criteria. Conversely, different diagnoses were associated with different rank orderings of specific treatment and diagnostic recommendations. Sleep specialist and nonspecialist interviewers each distinguished treatment recommendations among different diagnoses, but in general, nonspecialists more strongly recommended medications and relaxation treatments. Significant site-related differences in treatment recommendations also emerged. Differences in treatment recommendations support the distinction between different DSM-IV and ICSD diagnoses, although they do not provide formal validation. Site-related differences suggest a lack of consensus in how these disorders are conceptualized and treated.

  16. Evidence for a founder effect for the IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T mutation in the Fanconi anemia gene FACC in a Jewish population

    SciTech Connect

    Verlander, P.C.; Kaporis, A.G.; Qian, L.

    1994-09-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder defined by hypersensitivity of cells to DNA cross-linking agents; a gene for complementation group C(FACC) has been cloned. Two common mutations, IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T and 322delG, and several rare mutations have recently been reported in affected individuals. We now report the development of amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) assays for rapid, non-radioactive detection of these known mutations in FACC. Primer pairs specific for variant sequences were designed, with the 3{prime} terminal base of one primer matching the variant base. PCR products are separated by electrophoresis on 2.5% agarose gels; mutations are indicated by the presence of a band of a specific size. These ARMS assays can be multiplexed to allow screening for all known mutations in two PCR reactions. We have used these assays for detection of FACC mutations in affected individuals in the International Fanconi Anemia Registry (IFAR), and for carrier detection FACC families. IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T is the only FACC mutation found in Jewish FA patients and their families, of both Ashkenazi and Sephardic ancestry. This mutation was not found in any affected individual of non-Jewish origin. In addition, DNA samples from 1596 healthy Jewish individuals primarily of Ashkenazi ancestry were supplied to us by Dor Yeshorim. These samples, ascertained for carrier screening for Tay Sachs, cystic fibrosis, and other genetic diseases with a high frequency in the religious Jewish community served by this organization, were tested for both IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T and 322delG mutations; seventeen IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T are of Sephardic Jewish ancestry. We hypothesize that IVS4 +4 A{r_arrow}T is a very old mutation, predating the divergence of the Ashkenazi and Sephardic populations. Haplotype analysis with microsatellite markers is in progress.

  17. Item Response Theory analyses of DSM-IV and DSM-5 stimulant use disorder criteria in an American Indian community sample

    PubMed Central

    Gilder, David A.; Gizer, Ian R.; Lau, Philip; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Native Americans experience some of the highest rates of DSM-IV stimulant dependence (SD) of all U.S. ethnic groups. This report compares DSM-IV and DSM-5 stimulant use disorder (SUD) diagnostic criteria in an American Indian community sample. Methods Demographic information, stimulant (methamphetamine or cocaine) use, and lifetime DSM-IV and DSM-5 diagnoses were assessed in 858 adult American Indians. Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses were used to assess SUD criteria in both DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria sets along an underlying latent trait severity continuum and the effect of demographic variables on differential item functioning (DIF) in those criteria. Results The overall rate of DSM-IV SD was 33%, of DSM-IV SUD was 38%, and of DSM-5 SUD was 36% with no gender differences. All SUD symptoms in both the DSM-IV and DSM-5 datasets functioned on the moderate portion of the underlying severity continuum. “Craving” discriminated better than any other criterion at its level of severity in indicating the presence or absence of SUD. There was little DIF in groups defined by gender or any other demographic variable in either the DSM-IV or DSM-5 datasets. Conclusions These findings indicate that in this American Indian sample, diagnostic criteria for DSM-IV and DSM-5 SUD function similarly in terms of severity and DIF and that the abolition of the DSM-IV distinction between stimulant abuse and dependence in DSM-5 is warranted. PMID:24200103

  18. Changes of Proteases, Antiproteases, and Pathogens in Cystic Fibrosis Patients' Upper and Lower Airways after IV-Antibiotic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Ulrike; Hentschel, Julia; Janhsen, Wibke K.; Hünniger, Kerstin; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Sonnemann, Jürgen; Pfister, Wolfgang; Böer, Klas; Lehmann, Thomas; Mainz, Jochen G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In cystic fibrosis (CF) the upper (UAW) and lower airways (LAW) are reservoirs for pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The consecutive hosts' release of proteolytic enzymes contributes to inflammation and progressive pulmonary destruction. Objectives were to assess dynamics of protease : antiprotease ratios and pathogens in CF-UAW and LAW sampled by nasal lavage (NL) and sputum before and after intravenous- (IV-) antibiotic therapy. Methods. From 19 IV-antibiotic courses of 17 CF patients NL (10 mL/nostril) and sputum were collected before and after treatment. Microbiological colonization and concentrations of NE/SLPI/CTSS (ELISA) and MMP-9/TIMP-1 (multiplex bead array) were determined. Additionally, changes of sinonasal symptoms were assessed (SNOT-20). Results. IV-antibiotic treatment had more pronounced effects on inflammatory markers in LAW, whereas trends to decrease were also found in UAW. Ratios of MMP-9/TIMP-1 were higher in sputum, and ratios of NE/SLPI were higher in NL. Remarkably, NE/SLPI ratio was 10-fold higher in NL compared to healthy controls. SNOT-20 scores decreased significantly during therapy (P = 0.001). Conclusion. For the first time, changes in microbiological patterns in UAW and LAW after IV-antibiotic treatments were assessed, together with changes of protease/antiprotease imbalances. Delayed responses of proteases and antiproteases to IV-antibiotic therapy were found in UAW compared to LAW. PMID:26185365

  19. The Contribution of Project Environmental Assessment to Assessing and Managing Cumulative Effects: Individually and Collectively Insignificant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Bram; Liu, Jialang; Hackett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores the opportunities and constraints to project-based environmental assessment as a means to support the assessment and management of cumulative environmental effects. A case study of the hydroelectric sector is used to determine whether sufficient information is available over time through project-by-project assessments to support an adequate understanding of cumulative change. Results show inconsistency from one project to the next in terms of the components and indicators assessed, limited transfer of baseline information between project assessments over time, and the same issues and concerns being raised by review panels-even though the projects reviewed are operating in the same watershed and operated by the same proponent. Project environmental assessments must be managed, and coordinated, as part of a larger system of impact assessment, if project-by-project assessments are to provide a meaningful forum for learning and understanding cumulative change. The paper concludes with recommendations for improved project-based assessment practice in support of cumulative effects assessment and management.

  20. Distinct expression patterns of alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains in cylindroma and malignant cylindroma.

    PubMed

    Quatresooz, Pascale; Piérard, Gérald E

    2005-01-01

    Cutaneous cylindromas are considered to derive from cells of the sweat gland apparatus. The composition of the thick hyaline eosinophilic basement membrane (BM)-like zone surrounding epithelial aggregates in cylindromas is similar to that of the dermo-epidermal junction. The presence of type IV collagen has been documented, but the distribution of the different constitutive a chains of collagen IV has not been studied so far. Alterations in the expression of these alpha chains have been described in some other conditions including basal cell carcinomas, testes with spermatogenic dysfunction and colorectal carcinomas. The aim was to study the distribution of the alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains in cylindromas and malignant cylindroma, and to compare it with the BM of sweat glands. Seven cylindromas and one malignant cylindroma were studied. They were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded before processing for immunohistochemistry. Immunostaining was assessed using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique with antibodies directed to the alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains. In all cylindromas, a thin continuous and sharply limited immunolabelling for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain was abutted to the tumoral cell aggregates. A speckled immunoreactivity was found in the rest of the hyaline sheath. Globular structures encased in the cell aggregates also exhibited a thin peripheral rim positive for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain. The immunoreactivity was faint and granular in the center of the globules. With the antibody directed against the alpha5 (IV) collagen chain, 3 cylindromas did not show any staining, 2 cases presented discrete focal positivity in the mid-part of the BM-like zone, and 2 cases exhibited a positive staining pattern similar to that observed for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain, but with a focal and more discrete intensity. The malignant cylindroma showed a linear immunoreactivity for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain undistinguishable from

  1. Reconstruction for Type IV Radial Polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Wall, Lindley B; Goldfarb, Charles A

    2015-09-01

    Type IV radial polydactyly represents a thumb with an extra proximal and distal phalanx. Assessment of the thumb for surgical reconstruction includes observing thumb function, evaluating thumb size and stability, and assessing the first web space. Reconstruction includes excision of the smaller thumb, typically the radial thumb, and re-creating thumb stability and alignment by addressing tendon insertion and joint orientation. Although surgical results are satisfying and complications are uncommon, additional surgical intervention may be required over time owing to thumb malalignment or instability.

  2. Equilibrium between Different Coordination Geometries in Oxidovanadium(IV) Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugone, Valeria; Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; Sanna, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory activity, the equilibrium between square pyramidal and octahedral V(IV)O[superscript 2+] complexes is described. We propose a set of experiments to synthesize and characterize two types of V(IV)O[superscript 2+] complexes. The experiment allows great flexibility and may be effectively used at a variety of levels and the activity…

  3. ASSESSING HIPPOCAMPAL CHANGES INDICATIVE OF NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subtle changes in cognitive function are often the earliest indication of neurotoxic effects in humans. The hippocampus is a large forebrain structure subserving specific kinds of information encoding and consolidation in humans and other animals. Because of it laminar structur...

  4. Synthesis, structural characterization, cytotoxicity in vitro, and effect on DNA of sulfate-trans-dichloro-trans-bis(dimethylsulfoxide)-trans-dimethyl-tin(IV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Pérez, Víctor M.; Muñoz-Flores, Blanca M.; Gómez, Alberto; Kharisov, Boris; Santillan, Rosa; Ochoa, María E.; Blanco Jerez, Leonor M.; García, Concepción; Waksman, Noemí; Ramírez, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    The trans-dichloro-trans-bis(dimethylsulfoxide)-trans-dimethyl-tin(IV) resulted from the reaction of dimethyl-tin(IV) dichloride and sodium sulfate in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The tin compound was characterized by IR, NMR, FE-SEM, EDS, and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Suitable DMSO single crystals were obtained after 7 months by slow evaporation at room temperature. The crystal structure has a polymeric arrangement with eight-membered rings as a result of intermolecular coordination SO → Sn. The tin atom has an octahedral distorted geometry where the DMSO molecule is coordinated, and also has an infinite arrangement in 2D. Cytotoxicity against A431 cancer cells and MOLT4 leukemic cells and the DNA interaction of the organotin compound were determined. The organotin sulfate derivative showed low biological activity because of the polymeric structure and the saturated tin coordination capability.

  5. The effect of used deformation, metal sheath and heat treatment on the I-V curve of ex situ MgB 2 composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Melišek, T.

    2004-01-01

    Current-voltage characteristics of MgB 2 composite wires made of ex situ process using Cu, Fe and stainless steel (SS) sheaths have been measured at 4.2 K in the self-field and external magnetic field between 2 and 4 T. It was found that the used mode of deformation (drawing, rotary swaging and two-axial rolling) influences the slope of I-V curve due to affected grain connectivity. Final heat treatment at 950 °C/0.5 h improves grain connectivity apparently, which results in I-V characteristic with very high n-exponents. The n-exponents of multi-core wires measured in external field are apparently lower due to a current sharing among the non-uniform filaments surrounded by high resistance matrix.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF WEATHERIZATION ON RESIDENTIAL RADON LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of the effects of weatherization on residential radon levels. For this assessment, time-integrated radon measurements were taken for 30- to 45-day periods both before and after weatherization in 32 Retro-Tech homes, 28 advanced homes, and...

  7. Human Health Effects, Task Force Assessment, Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronow, Wilbert S.; And Others

    Presented in this preliminary report is one of seven assessments conducted by a special task force of Project Clean Air, the Human Health Effects Task Force. The reports summarize assessments of the state of knowledge on various air pollution problems, particularly in California, and make tentative recommendations as to what the University of…

  8. Creating the Link between Institutional Effectiveness and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterling, Doug; And Others

    The self-examination process used by Sinclair Community College (SCC), in Dayton, Ohio, is designed to improve student learning and the processes that contributes to effective and efficient learning. In 1988, SCC created a college-wide Assessment Steering Committee (ASC) charged with reviewing the status of assessment practices at SCC and making…

  9. Effects of Collaborative Assessment on Language Development and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    TutorWhile assessment and its effects on learning such as "washback" have been the subject of much debate (e.g. Alderson & Wall, 1993; Bachman, 1995: 356; Alderson & Hamp Lyons, 1996; Shohamy "et al", 1996; Andrews "et al", 2002), assessment as a tool for developmental, not merely evaluative, purposes has…

  10. The Effects of Portfolio Assessment on Writing of EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nezakatgoo, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    The primary focus of this study was to determine the effect of portfolio assessment on final examination scores of EFL students' writing skill. To determine the impact of portfolio-based writing assessment 40 university students who enrolled in composition course were initially selected and divided randomly into two experimental and control…

  11. The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills.

    PubMed

    Fastré, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based assessment criteria, describing what students should do, for the task at hand. The performance-based group is compared to a competence-based assessment group in which students receive a preset list of competence-based assessment criteria, describing what students should be able to do. The test phase revealed that the performance-based group outperformed the competence-based group on test task performance. In addition, higher performance of the performance-based group was reached with lower reported mental effort during training, indicating a higher instructional efficiency for novice students.

  12. Assessing Institutional Effectiveness: Issues, Methods, and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron, Ed.

    This collection of 12 papers was presented at a 1987 conference at which speakers presented personal perspectives on institutional effectiveness. Papers are organized under three major headings: "Managing Quality: Methods and Outcomes,""Institutional Response," and "Special Issues." Titles include: (1) "Managing the Meaning of Institutional…

  13. Item Feature Effects in Evolution Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu

    2011-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts by science educators to understand patterns of evolutionary reasoning in science students and teachers, the vast majority of evolution education studies have failed to carefully consider or control for item feature effects in knowledge measurement. Our study explores whether robust contextualization patterns emerge within…

  14. HEALTH EFFECTS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract - In this review, we will focus on the effects of arsenic (As) exposure from drinking water sources. The primary inorganic As species in water are arsenate (V) and/or arsenite (III); their proportions depend on the water's redox potential and pH. Many As contamination...

  15. Density diagnostics derived from the O iv and S iv intercombination lines observed by IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, V.; Del Zanna, G.; Dudík, J.; Mason, H. E.; Giunta, A.; Reeves, K. K.

    2016-10-01

    The intensity of the O iv 2s2 2p 2P-2s2p24P and S iv 3 s2 3p 2P-3s 3p24 P intercombination lines around 1400 Å observed with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) provide a useful tool to diagnose the electron number density (Ne) in the solar transition region plasma. We measure the electron number density in a variety of solar features observed by IRIS, including an active region (AR) loop, plage and brightening, and the ribbon of the 22-June-2015 M 6.5 class flare. By using the emissivity ratios of O iv and S iv lines, we find that our observations are consistent with the emitting plasma being near isothermal (logT[K] ≈ 5) and iso-density (Ne ≈ 1010.6 cm-3) in the AR loop. Moreover, high electron number densities (Ne ≈ 1013 cm-3) are obtained during the impulsive phase of the flare by using the S iv line ratio. We note that the S iv lines provide a higher range of density sensitivity than the O iv lines. Finally, we investigate the effects of high densities (Ne ≳ 1011 cm-3) on the ionization balance. In particular, the fractional ion abundances are found to be shifted towards lower temperatures for high densities compared to the low density case. We also explored the effects of a non-Maxwellian electron distribution on our diagnostic method. The movie associated to Fig. 3 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Health Effects Assessment for Carbon Tetrachloride (Updated 1989)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analys...

  17. Single track effects, Biostack and risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The scientific career of Prof. Bucker has spanned a very exciting period in the fledgling science of Space Radiation Biology. The capability for placing biological objects in space was developed, and the methods for properly packaging, retrieving and analyzing them were worked out. Meaningful results on the effects of radiation were obtained for the first time. In fact, many of the successful techniques and methodologies for handling biological samples were developed in Prof. Bucker's laboratories, as attested by the extensive Biostack program. He was the first to suggest and successfully carry out experiments in space directly aimed at measuring effects of single tracks of high-energy heavy galactic cosmic rays by specifically identifying whether or not the object had been hit by a heavy particle track. Because the "hit" frequencies of heavy galactic cosmic rays to cell nuclei in the bodies of space travelers will be low, it is expected that any effects to humans on the cellular level will be dominated by single-track cell traversals. This includes the most important generally recognized late effect of space radiation exposure: radiation-induced cancer. This paper addresses the single-track nature of the space radiation environment, and points out the importance of single "hits" in the evaluation of radiation risk for long-term missions occurring outside the earth's magnetic field. A short review is made of biological objects found to show increased effects when "hit" by a single heavy charged-particle in space. A brief discussion is given of the most provocative results from the bacterial spore Bacillus subtilis: experimental evidence that tracks can affect biological systems at much larger distances from the trajectory than previously suspected, and that the resultant inactivation cross section in space calculated for this system is very large. When taken at face value, the implication of these results, when compared to those from experiments performed at ground

  18. Aqueous complexation of thorium(IV), uranium(IV), neptunium(IV), plutonium(III/IV), and cerium(III/IV) with DTPA.

    PubMed

    Brown, M Alex; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2012-07-16

    Aqueous complexation of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III/IV), and Ce(III/IV) with DTPA was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and cyclic voltammetry at 1 M ionic strength and 25 °C. The stability constants for the 1:1 complex of each trivalent and tetravalent metal were calculated. From the potentiometric data, we report stability constant values for Ce(III)DTPA, Ce(III)HDTPA, and Th(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 20.01 ± 0.02, log β(111) = 22.0 ± 0.2, and log β(101) = 29.6 ± 1, respectively. From the absorption spectrophotometry data, we report stability constant values for U(IV)DTPA, Np(IV)DTPA, and Pu(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 31.8 ± 0.1, 32.3 ± 0.1, and 33.67 ± 0.02, respectively. From the cyclic voltammetry data, we report stability constant values for Ce(IV) and Pu(III) of log β(101) = 34.04 ± 0.04 and 20.58 ± 0.04, respectively. The values obtained in this work are compared and discussed with respect to the ionic radius of each cationic metal.

  19. Preliminary assessment of valve IST effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, E.; DiBiasio, A.; Carbonaro, J.

    1994-06-01

    A preliminary review of 1ST effectiveness for Code Class 1, 2, and 3 valves at nuclear power plants was performed. These requirements are specified by ASME Section 11, and the Operations and Maintenance Standards (OM-10). The INPO NPRDS database was used to provide failure reports for these components for 1988 to 1992. This time period coincides with the issuance of Generic Letter 89-04, which resulted in a more consistent application of the requirements by the licensees. For this time period, 8593 valve failures were identified. From the review of the NPRDS database, the primary failure causes and failure modes for motor operated (MOV), air operated (AOV), and check valves (CV) were identified. Solenoid operated valves (SOV) were not reviewed in this study. Plant testing programs were effective in identifying approximately 60% of the CV failures, 46% of the AOV failures, and 44% of the MOV failures.

  20. Assessment of selenium effects in lotic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, S J; Palace, V P

    2001-11-01

    The selenium literature has grown substantially in recent years to encompass new information in a variety of areas. Correspondingly, several different approaches to establishing a new water quality criterion for selenium have been proposed since establishment of the national water quality criterion in 1987. Diverging viewpoints and interpretations of the selenium literature have lead to opposing perspectives on issues such as establishing a national criterion based on a sediment-based model, using hydrologic units to set criteria for stream reaches, and applying lentic-derived effects to lotic environments. This Commentary presents information on the lotic verse lentic controversy. Recently, an article was published that concluded that no adverse effects were occurring in a cutthroat trout population in a coldwater river with elevated selenium concentrations (C. J. Kennedy, L. E. McDonald, R. Loveridge, and M. M. Strosher, 2000, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 39, 46-52). This article has added to the controversy rather than provided further insight into selenium toxicology. Information, or rather missing information, in the article has been critically reviewed and problems in the interpretations are discussed.

  1. Assessment of selenium effects in lotic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Steven J.; Palace, Vince

    2001-01-01

    The selenium literature has grown substantially in recent years to encompass new information in a variety of areas. Correspondingly, several different approaches to establishing a new water quality criterion for selenium have been proposed since establishment of the national water quality criterion in 1987. Diverging viewpoints and interpretations of the selenium literature have lead to opposing perspectives on issues such as establishing a national criterion based on a sediment-based model, using hydrologic units to set criteria for stream reaches, and applying lentic-derived effects to lotic environments. This Commentary presents information on the lotic verse lentic controversy. Recently, an article was published that concluded that no adverse effects were occurring in a cutthroat trout population in a coldwater river with elevated selenium concentrations (C. J. Kennedy, L. E. McDonald, R. Loveridge, and M. M. Strosher, 2000, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 39, 46–52). This article has added to the controversy rather than provided further insight into selenium toxicology. Information, or rather missing information, in the article has been critically reviewed and problems in the interpretations are discussed.

  2. GDP (Gemcitabine, Dexamethasone, and Cisplatin) Is Highly Effective and Well-Tolerated for Newly Diagnosed Stage IV and Relapsed/Refractory Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-jing; Dong, Mei; He, Xiao-hui; Li, Ye-xiong; Wang, Wei-hu; Liu, Peng; Yang, Jian-liang; Gui, Lin; Zhang, Chang-gong; Yang, Sheng; Zhou, Sheng-yu; Shi, Yuan-kai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of GDP (gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin) regimen in patients with newly diagnosed stage IV and relapsed/refractory extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL). The study enrolled 41 ENKTL patients who received GDP regimen at the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College between January 2008 and January 2015. The disease status was newly diagnosed stage IV in 15 patients and relapsed/refractory in 26 patients. The median number of cycles of chemotherapy per patient was 6 (range, 2–8 cycles). The overall response rate and complete-remission rate were 83.0% (34/41) and 41.5% (17/41), respectively. After a median follow-up of 16.2 months, 1-year progression-free survival rate and 1-year overall survival rate for the whole cohort were 54.5% and 72.7%. Grade 3 to 4 adverse events included neutropenia (34.1%), thrombocytopenia (19.5%), and anemia (14.6%). Our study has suggested high efficacy and low toxicity profile of GDP regimen in patients with newly diagnosed stage IV and relapsed/refractory ENKTL. PMID:26871836

  3. Single track effects, biostack and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, S.B.

    1992-10-01

    This talk addresses the single-track nature of the space radiation environment, and points out the importance of single ``hits`` in the evaluation of radiation risk for long-term missions occurring outside the earth`s magnetic field. A short review is made of biological objects found to show increased effects when ``hit`` by a single heavy charged-particle in space. A brief discussion is given of the most provocative results from the bacterial spore B. subtilis: experimental evidence that tracks can affect biological systems at much larger distances from the trajectory than previously suspected, and that the resultant inactivation cross section in space calculated for this system is very large. When taken at face value, the implication of these results, when compared to those from experiments performed at ground-based accelerators with beams at low energies in the same LET range, is that high-energy particles can exert their influence a surprising distance from their trajectory and the inactivation cross sections are some twenty times larger than expected. Clearly, beams from high-energy heavy-ion accelerators should be used to confirm these results. For those end points that can also be caused by low-LET beams such as high-energy protons, it is important to measure their action cross sections as well. The ratio of the cross sections for a high-LET beam to that of a low-LET beam is an interesting experimental ratio and, we suggest, of more intrinsic interest than the RBE. It is a measure of the ``biological`` importance of one particle type relative to another particle type. This ratio will be introduced and given the name RPPE (Relative Per Particle Effectiveness). Values of RPPE will be discussed.

  4. Single track effects, biostack and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, S.B.

    1992-10-01

    This talk addresses the single-track nature of the space radiation environment, and points out the importance of single hits'' in the evaluation of radiation risk for long-term missions occurring outside the earth's magnetic field. A short review is made of biological objects found to show increased effects when hit'' by a single heavy charged-particle in space. A brief discussion is given of the most provocative results from the bacterial spore B. subtilis: experimental evidence that tracks can affect biological systems at much larger distances from the trajectory than previously suspected, and that the resultant inactivation cross section in space calculated for this system is very large. When taken at face value, the implication of these results, when compared to those from experiments performed at ground-based accelerators with beams at low energies in the same LET range, is that high-energy particles can exert their influence a surprising distance from their trajectory and the inactivation cross sections are some twenty times larger than expected. Clearly, beams from high-energy heavy-ion accelerators should be used to confirm these results. For those end points that can also be caused by low-LET beams such as high-energy protons, it is important to measure their action cross sections as well. The ratio of the cross sections for a high-LET beam to that of a low-LET beam is an interesting experimental ratio and, we suggest, of more intrinsic interest than the RBE. It is a measure of the biological'' importance of one particle type relative to another particle type. This ratio will be introduced and given the name RPPE (Relative Per Particle Effectiveness). Values of RPPE will be discussed.

  5. Using Self-Assessment to Assess the Effectiveness of Learner Centered Instructional Design and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainwright, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary research in pedagogy provides evidence for use of active learning strategies in the classroom. It is important that faculty demonstrate effectiveness across the spectrum of teaching activities, as well as effectiveness in meeting the learning goals of students. This paper illustrates how self-assessment can be used to evaluate the…

  6. The Effect of Radiation Timing on Patients With High-Risk Features of Parameningeal Rhabdomyosarcoma: An Analysis of IRS-IV and D9803

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, Aaron C.; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Anderson, James R.; Lyden, Elizabeth; Laurie, Fran; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Arndt, Carola A.S.; Michalski, Jeff M.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy remains an essential treatment for patients with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (PMRMS), and early radiation therapy may improve local control for patients with intracranial extension (ICE). Methods and Materials: To address the role of radiation therapy timing in PMRMS in the current era, we reviewed the outcome from 2 recent clinical trials for intermediate-risk RMS: Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS)-IV and Children's Oncology Group (COG) D9803. The PMRMS patients on IRS-IV with any high-risk features (cranial nerve palsy [CNP], cranial base bony erosion [CBBE], or ICE) were treated immediately at day 0, and PMRMS patients without any of these 3 features received week 6-9 radiation therapy. The D9803 PMRMS patients with ICE received day 0 X-Ray Therapy (XRT) as well; however, those with either CNP or CBBE had XRT at week 12. Results: Compared with the 198 PMRMS patients from IRS-IV, the 192 PMRMS patients from D9803 had no difference (P<.05) in 5-year local failure (19% vs 19%), failure-free-survival (70% vs 67%), or overall survival (75% vs 73%) in aggregate. The 5-year local failure rates by subset did not differ when patients were classified as having no risk features (None, 15% vs 19%, P=.25), cranial nerve palsy/cranial base of skull erosion (CNP/CBBE, 15% vs 28%, P=.22), or intracranial extension (ICE, 21% vs 15%, P=.27). The D9083 patients were more likely to have received initial staging by magnetic resonance imaging (71% vs 53%). Conclusions: These data support that a delay in radiation therapy for high-risk PMRMS features of CNP/CBBE does not compromise clinical outcomes.

  7. Effect of charge transfer on the local order in liquid group IV isoelectronic compounds: neutron diffraction data versus numerical tight-binding simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Prigent, G.; Bellissent, R.; Gaspard, J.-P.; Bichara, C.

    1999-06-15

    In a simple tight-binding approach, we consider the role of charge transfer and entropy in the semiconductor-to-metal transition which may occur upon melting group IV elements and their isoelectronic III-V and II-VI compounds. In the liquid state, entropy is shown to destabilise the diamond structure in favor of a metallic simple cubic-like local order, while charge transfer tends to keep the semiconducting tetrahedral local order of the solid state. These results are consistent with neutron diffraction data.

  8. [Evidence-based evaluation of the effect of Type IV Allergies on the reduction of fitness for work. Survey of occupational skin diseases].

    PubMed

    Diepgen, T L; Dickel, H; Becker, D; Geier, J; Mahler, V; Schmidt, A; Schwanitz, H-J; Skudlik, C; Wagner, E; Wehrmann, W; Weisshaar, E; Werfel, T; Blome, O

    2005-03-01

    Evidence-based guidelines about the distribution of type IV allergens of the European standard series in different professions and its occupational relevance are missing. Based on published data, epidemiological investigations, work related knowledge about industrial processes, and allergen specific properties, recommendations are given about the clinical impact in the working environment for the following allergens: acrylates/methacrylates, epoxy resins, dichromate, cobalt, nickel, formaldehyde, (chlor-)methylisothiazolone, p-phenylendiamine, colophony, thiurame, mercaptobenzothiazole, dithiocarbamate, n-isopropyl-n'-phenyl-p-phenylendiamine, fragrance mix, composite mix, and neomycinsulfate. These recommendations might improve the clearance rate and allergological evaluation of the occupational relevance of different delayed type sensitizations or allergens.

  9. Effect of a neutral N2 cloud on the electrical charging of an electron beam-emitting rocket in the ionosphere - Echo IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelson, G. A.; Winckler, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of 114 moles of neutral N2 and a 40-kV, 80 mA electron beam was studied during the Echo IV rocket flight. Neutralizing return currents to the rocket body preferentially followed a route back through the region where the electron beam interacted with the cloud. Photometric observations of a complex luminous discharge accompanying beam injection are reported. Observations of 3914-A emission produced by the beam indicated a maximum neutral N2 number density of nearly 10 to the 15th power per cu cm. An oscillatory discharge with a frequency somewhat lower than the N2 (+) ion gyrofrequency was noted at one point.

  10. Preliminary assessment of pump IST effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    DiBiasio, A.; Grove, E.; Carbonaro, J.

    1994-06-01

    A preliminary review of Inservice Testing (IST) effectiveness for Code Class 1, 2, and 3 pumps at nuclear power plants was performed. IST requirements are specified by ASME Section XI, and the Operations and Maintenance Standard (OM Part 6). The INPO NPRDS database was used to provide failure reports for these components for 1988 to 1992. This time frame coincides with the issuance of Generic Letter 89-04, which resulted in a more consistent application of the requirements by the licensees. For this time period, 2585 pump failures were reported. A review of these failures indicated that the majority (71.6%) were due to external leakage, and were excluded from this study since these events typically do not affect pump operability and are not detected by the measurement of IST parameters. Of the remaining 733 events, a review was performed to identify the primary failure causes, failure modes, and method of detection. Plant testing programs, consisting of IST, surveillance testing, and special testing, detected approximately 40% of these occurrences. Others were detected through operational abnormalities, routine and incidental observations, alarms, and while performing maintenance. This paper provides a discussion of the results of the study.

  11. Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, P.; Ren, W.

    2005-03-29

    A Gen IV Materials Handbook is being developed to provide an authoritative single source of highly qualified structural materials information and materials properties data for use in design and analyses of all Generation IV Reactor Systems. The Handbook will be responsive to the needs expressed by all of the principal government, national laboratory, and private company stakeholders of Gen IV Reactor Systems. The Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan provided here addresses the purpose, rationale, attributes, and benefits of the Handbook and will detail its content, format, quality assurance, applicability, and access. Structural materials, both metallic and ceramic, for all Gen IV reactor types currently supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) will be included in the Gen IV Materials Handbook. However, initial emphasis will be on materials for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Descriptive information (e.g., chemical composition and applicable technical specifications and codes) will be provided for each material along with an extensive presentation of mechanical and physical property data including consideration of temperature, irradiation, environment, etc. effects on properties. Access to the Gen IV Materials Handbook will be internet-based with appropriate levels of control. Information and data in the Handbook will be configured to allow search by material classes, specific materials, specific information or property class, specific property, data parameters, and individual data points identified with materials parameters, test conditions, and data source. Details on all of these as well as proposed applicability and consideration of data quality classes are provided in the Implementation Plan. Website development for the Handbook is divided into six phases including (1) detailed product analysis and specification, (2) simulation and design, (3) implementation and testing, (4) product release, (5) project/product evaluation, and (6) product

  12. pH effect on cellular uptake of Sn(IV) chlorine e6 dichloride trisodium salt by cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Khaled A; Omar, Khalid; Jaafar, M S

    2011-01-01

    The effects of pH value and presence of serum in an incubation medium on photosensitizer drug cellular uptake in MCF7 cancer cells have been investigated. The results showed that the presence of serum in an incubation medium reduced the drug cellular uptake at all pH values. It has been found that decreasing on pH values of the incubation medium increased the cellular uptake of the drug, demonstrating selective uptake of the sensitizer. The HepG2 liver cancer cells exhibited more drug cellular uptake than CCD-18CO normal colon cells, which assessed the selectivity uptake of photosensitizer on cancerous cells. The concentration of photosensitizer measured in 10(6) cells showed a good correlation to the incubation time. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy been have used to examine the cells.

  13. Giant piezoelectricity of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Ruixiang; Li, Wenbin; Li, Ju; Yang, Li

    We predict enormous, anisotropic piezoelectric effects in intrinsic monolayer group IV monochalcogenides (MX, M =Sn or Ge, X =Se or S), including SnSe, SnS, GeSe, and GeS. Using first-principle simulations based on the modern theory of polarization, we find that their piezoelectric coefficients are about one to two orders of magnitude larger than those of other 2D materials, such as MoS2 and GaSe, and bulk quartz and AlN which are widely used in industry. This enhancement is a result of the unique ``puckered'' C2v symmetry and electronic structure of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides. Given the achieved experimental advances in the fabrication of monolayers, their flexible character, and ability to withstand enormous strain, these 2D structures with giant piezoelectric effects may be promising for a broad range of applications such as nano-sized sensors, piezotronics, and energy harvesting in portable electronic devices.

  14. A new behavioral test for assessment of drug effects on attentional performance and its validity in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Atsushi; Iino, Masahiko; Sasaki, Mikio; Hironaka, Naoyuki; Wakasa, Yoshio

    2009-04-01

    The assessment of drug effects on attention is important in non-clinical pharmacology, for both evaluation of safety and therapeutic efficacy of medicinal products. In the present study, we have developed a two-lever choice behavioral test to assess drug effects on attentional performance in monkeys. In each trial of this experiment, one of two lamps in front of a monkey was randomly illuminated for a brief period of time and the monkey was required to press a lever beneath the lamp 30 times to obtain a food reward. The percentage of correct responses, response latency of correct choice responses and response speed were measured. Using this test, we examined the effects of three sedative drugs, diazepam (0.25, 1 and 4 mg/kg, i.g.), ethanol (0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg, i.g.), and pentobarbital (0.25, 1 and 4 mg/kg, i.v.). Diazepam and pentobarbital lengthened response latency without significantly affecting the percentage of correct responses, response and response speed, suggesting selective disruptive effects on attentional performance. In contrast, ethanol at the high dose tested caused deterioration in all three measurements, which is thought to reflect a general sedative effect including motor impairment as reflected by lengthening response speed. It is suggested that the present behavioral test method could detect drug effects on attentional performance in monkeys and could be a useful tool for safety assessment in drug development.

  15. Aprepitant for the management of nausea with inpatient IV dihydroergotamine

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Denise E.; Tso, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of oral aprepitant, a substance P/neurokinin A receptor antagonist, in controlling nausea associated with IV dihydroergotamine (DHE) administered for medically refractory migrainous headache in patients not responding to standard antiemetics or with a history of uncontrolled nausea with DHE. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of prospectively collected hourly diary data and clinical notes of patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2015 for inpatient treatment with DHE. Patients were classified using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Peak and average daily nausea scores from hourly diaries, or daily entries of notes, and concurrent antiemetic use were collected and tabulated. Results: Seventy-four patients, of whom 24 had daily diaries, with chronic migraine with or without aura, with or without medication overuse, or new daily persistent headache of a migrainous type, were identified. In 36 of 57 cases in which aprepitant was administered during hospitalization, there was a 50% reduction in the average daily number of as-needed antinausea medications. Of 57 patients, 52 reported that the addition of aprepitant improved nausea. Among 21 of 24 patients with hourly diary data, nausea scores were reduced and in all 12 with vomiting there was cessation of emesis after aprepitant was added. Aprepitant was well tolerated with no treatment emergent adverse events. Conclusions: Aprepitant can be effective in the treatment of refractory DHE-induced nausea and emesis. Given the broader issue of troublesome nausea and vomiting in acute presentations of migraine, general neurologists may consider what place aprepitant has in the management of such patients. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with medically refractory migraine receiving IV DHE, oral aprepitant reduces nausea. PMID:27629088

  16. Institutional Effectiveness: A Model for Planning, Assessment & Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckee Meadows Community Coll., Sparks, NV.

    The report presents Truckee Meadows Community College's (Colorado) model for assessing institutional effectiveness and validating the College's mission and vision, and the strategic plan for carrying out the institutional effectiveness model. It also outlines strategic goals for the years 1999-2001. From the system-wide directive that education…

  17. Effectiveness, Teaching, and Assessments: Survey Evidence from Finance Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ming Ming; Kwan, Jing Hui; Kadir, Hazlina Abdul; Abdullah, Mahdhir; Yap, Voon Choong

    2010-01-01

    The present article examines the effectiveness, teaching, assessment methods, and the importance of finance concepts in three undergraduate finance courses in a private university in Malaysia. Approximately 224 undergraduates (finance majors) were surveyed and demonstrated positive attitudes toward the effectiveness of the finance subjects. The…

  18. Assessing Mediational Models: Testing and Interval Estimation for Indirect Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Falk, Carl F.; Savalei, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models specifying indirect or mediated effects are common in the social sciences. An indirect effect exists when an independent variable's influence on the dependent variable is mediated through an intervening variable. Classic approaches to assessing such mediational hypotheses (Baron & Kenny, 1986; Sobel, 1982) have in recent years…

  19. Different patterns of postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in normal, type IIa, type III, and type IV hyperlipoproteinemic individuals. Effects of treatment with cholestyramine and gemfibrozil.

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, M S; Eisenberg, S; Breslow, J L

    1987-01-01

    To study exogenous fat metabolism, we used the vitamin A-fat loading test, which specifically labels intestinally derived lipoproteins with retinyl palmitate (RP). Postprandial RP concentrations were followed in total plasma, and chylomicron (Sf greater than 1,000) and nonchylomicron (Sf less than 1,000) fractions. In normal subjects postprandial lipoproteins were present for more than 14 h, and chylomicron levels correlated inversely with lipoprotein lipase activity and fasting high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and nonchylomicron levels correlated inversely with hepatic triglyceride lipase activity. The main abnormality in type IV patients was a 5.6-fold increase in the chylomicron fraction, whereas in type III patients it was a 6.4-fold increase in nonchylomicrons. Type IIa patients had abnormally low chylomicron fractions. In type IV patients gemfibrozil decreased, whereas in type IIa patients cholestyramine increased the chylomicron fraction 66 and 88%, respectively. This study demonstrates an unexpectedly large magnitude and long duration of postprandial lipemia in normal subjects and patients. These particles are potentially atherogenic, and their role in human atherosclerosis warrants further study. PMID:3470306

  20. Effects of the Au/CdTe back contact on IV and CV characteristics of Au/CdTe/CdS/TCO solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemegeers, Alex; Burgelman, Marc

    1997-03-01

    A simple analytical theory is presented to explain the measured roll over and cross over behaviour of the IV characteristics of thin film CdTe solar cells. It involves a classical description of the CdS/CdTe junction and the CdTe/back contact structure and is extended with a new description of minority carrier current in the CdTe contact region. This extension is crucial in describing the light dependence of the forward IV curves, and hence cross over. The same model also explains the measured CV curves. It is shown that analysis of the capacitance measurement can yield additional information about the doping density of CdTe in the vicinity of the contact. A relationship between the fill factor of the solar cell and the barrier height of the back contact is derived; this relation is useful as a new, practical criterion for the quality of the back contact. The results of this simple analytical model are confirmed by full numerical calculations of the dc and ac characteristics.

  1. Apolipoprotein A-IV: a protein intimately involved in metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Kohan, Alison B.; Lo, Chun-Min; Liu, Min; Howles, Philip; Tso, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the physiological roles of apoA-IV in metabolism, and to underscore the potential for apoA-IV to be a focus for new therapies aimed at the treatment of diabetes and obesity-related disorders. ApoA-IV is primarily synthesized by the small intestine, attached to chylomicrons by enterocytes, and secreted into intestinal lymph during fat absorption. In circulation, apoA-IV is associated with HDL and chylomicron remnants, but a large portion is lipoprotein free. Due to its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, and because it can mediate reverse-cholesterol transport, proposed functions of circulating apoA-IV have been related to protection from cardiovascular disease. This review, however, focuses primarily on several properties of apoA-IV that impact other metabolic functions related to food intake, obesity, and diabetes. In addition to participating in triglyceride absorption, apoA-IV can act as an acute satiation factor through both peripheral and central routes of action. It also modulates glucose homeostasis through incretin-like effects on insulin secretion, and by moderating hepatic glucose production. While apoA-IV receptors remain to be conclusively identified, the latter modes of action suggest that this protein holds therapeutic promise for treating metabolic disease. PMID:25640749

  2. Ecosystem assessment methods for cumulative effects at the regional scale

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental issues such as nonpoint-source pollution, acid rain, reduced biodiversity, land use change, and climate change have widespread ecological impacts and require an integrated assessment approach. Since 1978, the implementing regulations for the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) have required assessment of potential cumulative environmental impacts. Current environmental issues have encouraged ecologists to improve their understanding of ecosystem process and function at several spatial scales. However, management activities usually occur at the local scale, and there is little consideration of the potential impacts to the environmental quality of a region. This paper proposes that regional ecological risk assessment provides a useful approach for assisting scientists in accomplishing the task of assessing cumulative impacts. Critical issues such as spatial heterogeneity, boundary definition, and data aggregation are discussed. Examples from an assessment of acidic deposition effects on fish in Adirondack lakes illustrate the importance of integrated data bases, associated modeling efforts, and boundary definition at the regional scale.

  3. Examining Computational Assumptions For Godiva IV

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, Alexander Matthew; Jaegers, Peter James

    2016-08-11

    Over the course of summer 2016, the effects of several computational modeling assumptions with respect to the Godiva IV reactor were examined. The majority of these assumptions pertained to modeling errors existing in the control rods and burst rod. The Monte Carlo neutron transport code, MCNP, was used to investigate these modeling changes, primarily by comparing them to that of the original input deck specifications.

  4. Pesticide effects on the plant cuticle. IV. The effect of EPTC on the permeability of cabbage, bean, and sugar beet cuticle

    SciTech Connect

    Flore, J.A.; Bukovac, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC, 2.24 kg/ha) inhibited epicuticular wax production on developing leaves of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L., resulting in an increase in cuticular permeability. This increased penetration of /sup 14/C-1-naphthaleneacetic acid (/sup 14/C-NAA) and increased cuticular transpiration. EPTC-enhanced penetration was a consequence of increased diffusion across the cuticle, and not of active uptake. Application of EPTC increased penetration of NAA 200% in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and 121% in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). For cabbage, the percent increase in penetration due to EPTC inhibition of cuticle development 7 days after treatment (141%) was similar to that at 42 days (112%). The effect of EPTC declined until full leaf expansion (28 days after application). Silver nitrate was preferentially taken up by the cuticular ledges of guard cells and the anticlinal walls of epidermal cells, and was greater in leaves from EPTC-treated plants than in those from non-treated plants. 27 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  5. An effective office ergonomic assessment and intervention program.

    PubMed

    Childre, Frances; Koehl, Bradley

    2009-12-01

    A significant portion of U.S. employees are office based and their work is sedentary. Office ergonomics is relevant to this population of employees to minimize the deleterious effects of static or sustained postures. Occupational health nurses currently conduct ergonomic assessments and provide interventions to decrease physical stressors. This article describes a straightforward process occupational health nurses can use to augment their ergonomic assessment and evaluation activities.

  6. Significant errors and misdirection in class IV laser therapy study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, James D

    2014-04-01

    This Correspondence relates to the article by Ottaviani et al (Effect of Class IV Laser Therapy on Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis: A Clinical and Experimental Study. Am J Pathol 2013, 183:1747-1757.).

  7. Structure based virtual screening of MDPI database: discovery of structurally diverse and novel DPP-IV inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tanwar, Omprakash; Tanwar, Lalima; Shaquiquzzaman, Md; Alam, Md Mumtaz; Akhter, Mymoona

    2014-08-01

    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) has been emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Structure based virtual screening (SBVS) of Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) database was performed using Glide and Gold against DPP-IV enzyme. Six promising hits were identified and tested for DPP-IV inhibition. Three compounds were found to be active at low micromolar concentration. The 3-(1-hydrazinyl-1-(phenylamino)ethyl)-4-hydroxy-1-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one (compound A) was found to be the most potent hit with an IC50 of 0.73 μM. These three compounds (A, B and D) were then assessed for their glucose lowering effects in glucose fed hyperglycemic female Wistar rats. The glucose lowering effects of compounds also confirms their potential as anti-diabetic agents. The present study demonstrates a successful utilization of in silico SBVS tools in identification of novel and potential DPP-IV inhibitor.

  8. DNA ligase IV as a new molecular target for temozolomide

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Natsuko; Takahashi, Akihisa; Mori, Eiichiro; Ohnishi, Ken; McKinnon, Peter J.; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Nakase, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2009-10-02

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is a methylating agent used in chemotherapy against glioblastoma. This work was designed to clarify details in repair pathways acting to remove DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by TMZ. Cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts were used which were deficient in DSB repair genes such as homologous recombination repair-related genes X-ray repair cross-complementing group 2 (XRCC2)and radiation sensitive mutant54 (Rad54), non-homologous end joining repair-related gene DNAligase IV (Lig4). Cell sensitivity to drug treatments was assessed using colony forming assays. The most effective molecular target which was correlated with TMZ cell sensitivity was Lig4. In addition, it was found that small interference RNAs (siRNA) for Lig4 efficiently enhanced cell lethality induced by TMZ in human glioblastoma A172 cells. These findings suggest that down regulation of Lig4 might provide a useful tool for cell sensitization during TMZ chemotherapy.

  9. ILLIAC IV Applications Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-31

    necember, 1973 indicates that it would be reasonable to use PF./l ^s a comnatible lanauaoe for the implementation of distributed systems. C...mini-host has even made it cost-effective for the Dinital Eouinment Corporation to include a PDP-11 to IMP interface in their line of peripherals

  10. The effect of multimedia replacing text in resident clinical decision-making assessment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Todd P; Schrager, Sheree M; Rake, Alyssa J; Chan, Michael W; Pham, Phung K; Christman, Grant

    2016-10-17

    Multimedia in assessing clinical decision-making skills (CDMS) has been poorly studied, particularly in comparison to traditional text-based assessments. The literature suggests multimedia is more difficult for trainees. We hypothesize that pediatric residents score lower in diagnostic skill when clinical vignettes use multimedia rather than text for patient findings. A standardized method was developed to write text-based questions from 60 high-resolution, quality multimedia; a series of expert panels selected 40 questions with both a multimedia and text-based counterpart, and two online tests were developed. Each test featured 40 identical questions with reciprocal and alternating modality (multimedia vs. text). Pediatric residents and rising 4th year medical students (MS-IV) at a single residency were randomized to complete either test stratified by postgraduate training year (PGY). A mixed between-within subjects ANOVA analyzed differences in score due to modality and PGY. Secondary analyses ascertained modality effect in dermatology and respiratory questions using Mann-Whitney U tests, and correlations on test performance to In-service Training Exam (ITE) scores using Spearman rank. Eighty-eight residents and rising interns completed the study. Overall multimedia scores were lower than text-based scores (p = 0.047, η p(2)  = 0.04), with highest disparity in rising interns (MS-IV); however, PGY had a greater effect on scores (p = 0.001, η p(2)  = 0.16). Respiratory questions were not significantly lower with multimedia (n = 9, median 0.71 vs. 0.86, p = 0.09) nor dermatology questions (n = 13, p = 0.41). ITEs correlated significantly with text-based scores (ρ = 0.23-0.25, p = 0.04-0.06) but not with multimedia scores. In physician trainees with less clinical experience, multimedia-based case vignettes are associated with significantly lower scores. These results help shed light on the role of multimedia versus text-based information in

  11. Parts and Components Reliability Assessment: A Cost Effective Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    System reliability assessment is a methodology which incorporates reliability analyses performed at parts and components level such as Reliability Prediction, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) to assess risks, perform design tradeoffs, and therefore, to ensure effective productivity and/or mission success. The system reliability is used to optimize the product design to accommodate today?s mandated budget, manpower, and schedule constraints. Stand ard based reliability assessment is an effective approach consisting of reliability predictions together with other reliability analyses for electronic, electrical, and electro-mechanical (EEE) complex parts and components of large systems based on failure rate estimates published by the United States (U.S.) military or commercial standards and handbooks. Many of these standards are globally accepted and recognized. The reliability assessment is especially useful during the initial stages when the system design is still in the development and hard failure data is not yet available or manufacturers are not contractually obliged by their customers to publish the reliability estimates/predictions for their parts and components. This paper presents a methodology to assess system reliability using parts and components reliability estimates to ensure effective productivity and/or mission success in an efficient manner, low cost, and tight schedule.

  12. The challenges and opportunities in cumulative effects assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Melissa M.; Mease, Lindley A; Martone, Rebecca G; Prahler, Erin E; Morrison, Tiffany H; Clarke Murray, Cathryn; Wojcik, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The cumulative effects of increasing human use of the ocean and coastal zone have contributed to a rapid decline in ocean and coastal resources. As a result, scientists are investigating how multiple, overlapping stressors accumulate in the environment and impact ecosystems. These investigations are the foundation for the development of new tools that account for and predict cumulative effects in order to more adequately prevent or mitigate negative effects. Despite scientific advances, legal requirements, and management guidance, those who conduct assessments—including resource managers, agency staff, and consultants—continue to struggle to thoroughly evaluate cumulative effects, particularly as part of the environmental assessment process. Even though 45 years have passed since the United States National Environmental Policy Act was enacted, which set a precedent for environmental assessment around the world, defining impacts, baseline, scale, and significance are still major challenges associated with assessing cumulative effects. In addition, we know little about how practitioners tackle these challenges or how assessment aligns with current scientific recommendations. To shed more light on these challenges and gaps, we undertook a comparative study on how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is conducted by practitioners operating under some of the most well-developed environmental laws around the globe: California, USA; British Columbia, Canada; Queensland, Australia; and New Zealand. We found that practitioners used a broad and varied definition of impact for CEA, which led to differences in how baseline, scale, and significance were determined. We also found that practice and science are not closely aligned and, as such, we highlight opportunities for managers, policy makers, practitioners, and scientists to improve environmental assessment.

  13. Biostimulation by Glycerol Phosphate to Precipitate Recalcitrant Uranium(IV) Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Laura; Morris, Katherine; Trivedi, Divyesh; Bewsher, Alastair; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2015-09-15

    Stimulating the microbial reduction of aqueous uranium(VI) to insoluble U(IV) via electron donor addition has been proposed as a strategy to remediate uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. However, concerns have been raised regarding the longevity of microbially precipitated U(IV) in the subsurface, particularly given that it may become remobilized if the conditions change to become oxidizing. An alternative mechanism is to stimulate the precipitation of poorly soluble uranium phosphates via the addition of an organophosphate and promote the development of reducing conditions. Here, we selected a sediment sample from a U.K. nuclear site and stimulated the microbial community with glycerol phosphate under anaerobic conditions to assess whether uranium phosphate precipitation was a viable bioremediation strategy. Results showed that U(VI) was rapidly removed from solution and precipitated as a reduced crystalline U(IV) phosphate mineral similar to ningyoite. This mineral was considerably more recalcitrant to oxidative remobilization than the products of microbial U(VI) reduction. Bacteria closely related to Pelosinus species may have played a key role in uranium removal in these experiments. This work has implications for the stewardship of uranium-contaminated groundwater, with the formation of U(IV) phosphates potentially offering a more effective strategy for maintaining low concentrations of uranium in groundwater over long time periods.

  14. [Effects of short-term and prolonged flickering on the system of cytochromeoxidase modules of the kitten primary visual cortex IV layer].

    PubMed

    Merkul'eva, N S; Makarov, F N

    2008-05-01

    CO "spots" in layer IV of primary visual cortex were investigated in 33, 49 and 93-days kittens that were subjected to flickering light stimulation. Kittens from first group were stimulated since eye opening (long-term stimulation), other kittens--since postnatal day 26, 42 or 85 until euthanasia (short-term stimulation). Both types of stimulation did not disturb CO "spots" spatial organization but obviously increased a contrast of splenial CO "spots". Lateral "spots" contrast increasing took place after long-term stimulation until the 93rd postnatal day or after short stimulation since 26th to 33rd postnatal day. Flickering light stimulation seems to lead to structural and metabolic alterations in primary visual cortex. These alterations are processed in different way in regions of area 17 that is responsible for central and peripheral vision, respectively. It seems to reflect, firstly, primary activation of Y processing stream and, secondly, the strengthening of contralateral input to area 17.

  15. PTP1B, α-glucosidase, and DPP-IV inhibitory effects for chromene derivatives from the leaves of Smilax china L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bing Tian; Le, Duc Dat; Nguyen, Phi Hung; Ali, Md Yousof; Choi, Jae-Sue; Min, Byung Sun; Shin, Heung Mook; Rhee, Hae Ik; Woo, Mi Hee

    2016-06-25

    Two new flavonoids, bismilachinone (11) and smilachinin (14), were isolated from the leaves of Smilax china L. together with 14 known compounds. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. The PTP1B, α-glucosidase, and DPP-IV inhibitory activities of compounds 1-16 were evaluated at the molecular level. Among them, compounds 4, 7, and 10 showed moderate DPP-IV inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 20.81, 33.12, and 32.93 μM, respectively. Compounds 3, 4, 6, 11, 12, and 16 showed strong PTP1B inhibitory activities, with respective IC50 values of 7.62, 10.80, 0.92, 2.68, 9.77, and 24.17 μM compared with the IC50 value for the positive control (ursolic acid: IC50 = 1.21 μM). Compounds 2-7, 11, 12, 15, and 16 showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with respective IC50 values of 8.70, 81.66, 35.11, 35.92, 7.99, 26.28, 11.28, 62.68, 44.32, and 70.12 μM. The positive control, acarbose, displayed an IC50 value of 175.84 μM. In the kinetic study for the PTP1B enzyme, compounds 6, 11, and 12 displayed competitive inhibition with Ki values of 3.20, 8.56, and 5.86 μM, respectively. Compounds 3, 4, and 16 showed noncompetitive inhibition with Ki values of 18.75, 5.95, and 22.86 μM, respectively. Molecular docking study for the competitive inhibitors (6, 11, and 12) radically corroborates the binding affinities and inhibition of PTP1B enzymes. These results indicated that the leaves of Smilax china L. may contain compounds with anti-diabetic activity.

  16. Determination of the solubility of Np(IV), Pu(III) - (VI),Am(III) - (VI), and Te(IV), (V) hydroxo compounds in 0.5 - 14 M NaOH solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.

    1996-09-24

    The solubilities of Am(III), Np(IV), Pu(IV), Tc(IV), Np(V), Pu(V), Am(V), and Tc(V) hydroxo compounds were studied in 0.5 to 14 M NaOH solutions at 25{+-}2 {degrees}C. The effects of fluoride, phosphate, carbonate, oxalate, and some other organic complexing agents on the solubilities of Np(IV), Pu(IV), and TC(IV) hydroxides were investigated at 1.0 and 4.0 M NAOH. Some predictions were made on the dissolved (I.V) and (V) species present in alkali solutions.

  17. A Multi-Sample Confirmatory Factor Analysis of PTSD Symptoms: What Exactly Is Wrong with the DSM-IV Structure?

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.

    2013-01-01

    Within the DSM-IV, PTSD symptoms are rationally classified as assessing one of three symptom domains: reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, or hyperarousal. However, two alternative four-factor models have been advocated as superior to the DSM-IV framework, based on confirmatory factor analysis. In the Numbing model, symptoms of emotional numbing are differentiated from avoidance. In the Dysphoria model, several symptoms of numbing and hyperarousal are combined to form a factor purported to assess general psychological distress. Examination of these models, within 29 separate data sets, supports two conclusions. First, contrary to its conceptual underpinnings, the Dysphoria model differs empirically from the Numbing model solely in the correlation predicted between two hyperarousal symptoms; all other predicted correlations made by the two models are substantively identical. Second, when the factor analytic presumption of simple structure is relaxed to allow for potential presentation order effects, other plausible symptom structures emerge. In particular, the fit of the DSM-IV model improved dramatically and was a better fit to the data than either four-factor model. The ostensible inferiority of the DSM-IV model may be due to a methodological artifact stemming from the order in which symptoms are typically assessed. The provisional decision to revise the structure of PTSD symptoms in the DSM-5 in light of confirmatory factor analytic results may be misguided. PMID:23128035

  18. Confirmatory factor analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV.

    PubMed

    Holdnack, James A; Xiaobin Zhou; Larrabee, Glenn J; Millis, Scott R; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2011-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV Adult battery (i.e., age 16-69 years) co-norming sample (n = 900) to test 13 measurement models. The results indicated that two models fit the data equally well. One model is a seven-factor solution without a hierarchical general ability factor: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Working Memory, Auditory Memory, and Visual Memory. The second model is a five-factor model composed of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Memory with a hierarchical general ability factor. Interpretative implications for each model are discussed.

  19. Contribution of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) Collagen IV to the Mechanical Properties of the Glomerular Basement Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyoneva, Lazarina

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a vital part of the blood-urine filtration barrier in the kidneys. In healthy GBMs, the main tension-resisting component is alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) type IV collagen, but in some diseases it is replaced by other collagen IV isoforms. As a result, the GBM becomes leaky and disorganized, ultimately resulting in kidney failure. Our goal is to understanding the biomechanical aspects of the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains and how their absence could be responsible for (1) the initial injury to the GBM and (2) progression to kidney failure. A combination of experiments and computational models were designed for that purpose. A model basement membrane was used to compare experimentally the distensibility of tissues with the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains present and missing. The experiments showed basement membranes containing alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains were less distensible. It has been postulated that the higher level of lateral cross-linking (supercoiling) in the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks contributes additional strength/stability to basement membranes. In a computational model of supercoiled networks, we found that supercoiling greatly increased the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreased the permeability, which is well suited for the needs of the GBM. It is also known that the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks are more protected from enzymatic degradation, and we explored their significance in GBM remodeling. Our simulations showed that the more protected network was needed to prevent the system from entering a dangerous feedback cycle due to autoregulation mechanisms in the kidneys. Overall, the work adds to the evidence of biomechanical differences between the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks and other collagen IV networks, points to supercoiling as the main source of biomechanical differences, discusses the suitability of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV

  20. The MAX IV imaging concept.

    PubMed

    Matěj, Zdeněk; Mokso, Rajmund; Larsson, Krister; Hardion, Vincent; Spruce, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The MAX IV Laboratory is currently the synchrotron X-ray source with the beam of highest brilliance. Four imaging beamlines are in construction or in the project phase. Their common characteristic will be the high acquisition rates of phase-enhanced images. This high data flow will be managed at the local computing cluster jointly with the Swedish National Computing Infrastructure. A common image reconstruction and analysis platform is being designed to offer reliable quantification of the multidimensional images acquired at all the imaging beamlines at MAX IV.

  1. Title IV Program Evaluation, Albuquerque Public School System, Albuquerque, New Mexico, May 1974 and May 1976. Research and Evaluation Report Series No. 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Mary; And Others

    During May of 1974 and of 1976, needs assessment questionnaires were distributed to American Indian parents to determine their perception of the Title IV Program and its effectiveness. In 1974, 50 parents responded to the questionnaire. In 1976, 37 parents responded to the questionnaire which had been revised. Both years, several of the returned…

  2. Independent Examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): What Does the WAIS-IV Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M.; Kranzler, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS-IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs…

  3. Radiation-induced bystander effect: early process and rapid assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, K N; Hou, Jue; Liu, Qian; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is a biological process that has received attention over the past two decades. RIBE refers to a plethora of biological effects in non-irradiated cells, including induction of genetic damages, gene expression, cell transformation, proliferation and cell death, which are initiated by receiving bystander signals released from irradiated cells. RIBE brings potential hazards to normal tissues in radiotherapy, and imparts a higher risk from low-dose radiation than we previously thought. Detection with proteins related to DNA damage and repair, cell cycle control, proliferation, etc. have enabled rapid assessment of RIBE in a number of research systems such as cultured cells, three-dimensional tissue models and animal models. Accumulated experimental data have suggested that RIBE may be initiated rapidly within a time frame as short as several minutes after radiation. These have led to the requirement of techniques capable of rapidly assessing RIBE itself as well as assessing the early processes involved.

  4. Identification and characterization of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor from aronia juice

    SciTech Connect

    Kozuka, Miyuki; Yamane, Takuya; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Nakagaki, Takenori; Ohkubo, Iwao; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2015-09-25

    Aronia berries have many potential effects on health, including an antioxidant effect, effect for antimutagenesis, hepatoprotection and cardioprotection, an antidiabetic effect and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Previous human studies have shown that aronia juice may be useful for treatment of obesity disorders. In this study, we found that aronia juice has an inhibitory effect against dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) (EC 3.4.14.5). DPP IV is a peptidase that cleaves the N-terminal region of incretins such as glucagon-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Inactivation of incretins by DPP IV induces reduction of insulin secretion. Furthermore, we identified that cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside as the DPP IV inhibitor in aronia juice. DPP IV was inhibited more strongly by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside than by cyanidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside. The results suggest that DPP IV is inhibited by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside present in aronia juice. The antidiabetic effect of aronia juice may be mediated through DPP IV inhibition by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside. - Highlights: • DPP IV activity is inhibited by aronia juice. • DPP IV inhibitor is cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside in aronia juice. • DPP IV is inhibited by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside more than cyanidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside.

  5. Effective Collaboration among the Gross Motor Assessment Team Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the gross motor assessment team (GMAT) members' roles and collaborative approach to making appropriate decisions and modifications when addressing the needs of individuals with disabilities in physical education. Case studies of students are used to demonstrate effective uses of the GMAT. The primary outcome of the GMAT's…

  6. Documenting Student Performance through Effective Performance Assessments: Workshop Summary. Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Education Curriculum Materials Service.

    This document contains materials about and from a workshop that was conducted to help Ohio horticulture teachers learn to document student competence through effective performance assessments. The document begins with background information about the workshop and a list of workshop objectives. Presented next is a key to the 40 performance…

  7. Revealing the Effects of Cognitive Education Programmes through Dynamic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzuriel, David

    2011-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of dynamic assessment (DA) in revealing outcomes of cognitive education programmes. Three programmes based on "mediated learning experience" theory are reviewed: "Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment", "Bright Start", and "Peer Mediation with…

  8. Assessing the Cost-Effectiveness of Family Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePanfilis, Diane; Dubowitz, Howard; Kunz, James

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of two alternate forms of Family Connections (FC), a child neglect prevention program, in relation to changes in risk and protective factors and improvements in child safety and behavioral outcomes. Methods: In the original FC study, a sample of 154 families (473 children) in a poor, urban neighborhood,…

  9. Examining the Relationship between Two Assessments of Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jana; Evans, C. Samuel; Norman, Antony D.

    2010-01-01

    We administered two instruments designed to assess and predict teacher effectiveness, the TeacherInsight Interview (TI) and the Renaissance Teacher Work Sample (TWS), to student teachers (N = 396) at a large comprehensive institution in the Southeastern United States to investigate whether TWS performance predicts TI scores. We first investigated…

  10. Network-level fallout radiation effects assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    National Security calls for the ability to maintain communication capabilities in times of national disaster, which could include a nuclear attack. Nuclear detonation has two basic by-products for which telecommunication equipments are susceptible to damage. These are electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and fallout radiation. The purposes of the EMP Mitigation Program are to analyze and to lessen the effects of EMP and fallout radiation on national telecommunications resources. Fallout radiation occurs after the initial intense high-frequency EMP, and is the subject of this analysis. Fallout radiation is the residual radiation that remains in the atmosphere after a nuclear blast, and which can be carried by weather conditions to locations far from the detonation point. This analysis focuses on the effects of fallout radiation on the telecommunications network of the American Telephone and Telegraph Co. (AT and T). This assessment of AT and T-network's communications-capabilities uses a network-level approach to assess fallout-radiation effects on the network's performance. The approach used was developed for assessing network-level EMP effects on Public Switched Network communication capabilities. Details are given on how EMP assessments utilize this method. Equipment-level fallout-radiation survivability data is also required.

  11. Performance Indicators for Jamestown Community College: Assessing Institutional Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burbey, Denise; Welch, Kathy; Vorp, Laurie; Fellows, Zoe; Winger, Gary; Seguin, Dave; Sorokes, Larry

    This document discusses the performance indicators set forth by Jamestown Community College in 2002 in order to assess the effectiveness of the school in specified areas. The document begins with an overview of the vision and mission statement of the school. The mission statement is closely related to the indicators that are discussed in the…

  12. Feedback Effects of Teaching Quality Assessment: Macro and Micro Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the feedback effects of teaching quality assessment. Previous literature looked separately at the evolution of individual and aggregate scores to understand whether instructors and university performance depends on its past evaluation. I propose a new quantitative-based methodology, combining statistical distributions and…

  13. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project—The First Five Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was initiated by USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) in response to a general call for better accountability of how soci...

  14. Backwash Effects of Portfolio Assessment in Academic Writing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syafei, Muh

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a study investigating students' opinions and reflections on backwash effects of portfolio assessments applied in Academic Writing course. To obtain the data, the researcher carried out interviews with 70 students of English Education Department (EED) of "Universitas Muria Kudus" (UMK) who took Academic Writing I and…

  15. 36 CFR 800.5 - Assessment of adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION OF HISTORIC PROPERTIES The section 106 Process § 800.5 Assessment of adverse effects. (a) Apply... have been identified subsequent to the original evaluation of the property's eligibility for the... qualities of a property of religious and cultural significance to an Indian tribe or Native...

  16. Columbia Basin College Assessment & Effectiveness: Report to the College Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Basin Coll., Pasco, WA.

    This report furnishes examples of assessment and effectiveness activities at Columbia Basin College (Washington). In 1997, the college's Board of Trustees began using the Carver Model of policy governance and created a new college mission statement and related end states, which directly answer the question, "What good will be produced for…

  17. Assessing the Effectiveness of Biosurveillance Via Discrete Event Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    EFFECTIVENESS OF BIOSURVEILLANCE VIA DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION by Jason H. Dao March 2011 Thesis Advisor: Ronald D. Fricker, Jr. Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessing the Effectiveness of Biosurveillance Via Discrete Event Simulation 6...the potential for disastrous outcomes is greater than it has ever been. In order to confront this threat, biosurveillance systems are utilized to

  18. Angiotensin IV possibly acts through PKMzeta in the hippocampus to regulate cognitive memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Chow, Lok-Hi; Tao, Pao-Luh; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Lin, Yu-Hui; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung

    2015-10-01

    Ang IV is an endogenous peptide generated from the degradation of angiotensin II. Ang IV was found to enhance learning and memory in CNS. PKMzeta was identified to be a fragment of PKCzeta (protein kinase Czeta). Its continuous activation was demonstrated to be correlated with the formation of memory in the hippocampus. Therefore, we investigated whether PKMzeta participates in the effects of Ang IV on memory. We first examined the effect of Ang IV on non-spatial memory/cognition in modified object recognition test in rats. Our data showed that Ang IV could increase the exploration time on novel object. The co-administration of ZIP (PKMzeta inhibitor) with Ang IV significantly blocked the effect by Ang IV. The effects of Ang IV on hippocampal LTP at the CA1 region were also evaluated. Ang IV significantly increased the amplitude and slope of the EPSPs, which was consistent with other reports. Surprisingly, instead of potentiating LTP, Ang IV caused a failed maintenance of LTP. Moreover, there was no quantitative change in PKMzeta induced by Ang IV and/or ZIP after behavioral experiments. Taken together, our data re-confirmed the finding of the positive effect of Ang IV to enhance memory/cognition. The increased strength of EPSPs with Ang IV could also have certain functional relevance. Since the behavioral results suggested the involvement of PKMzeta, we hypothesized that the enhancement of memory/cognition by Ang IV may rely on an increase in PKMzeta activity. Overall, the present study provided important advances in our understanding of the action of Ang IV in the hippocampus.

  19. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC LIGANDS ON THE STABILITY AND MOBILITY OF REDUCED TC(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Nathalie A. Wall; Baohua Gu

    2012-12-20

    The primary objectives were (1) to quantify the interactions of organic ligands with Tc(IV) through the generation of thermodynamic (complexation) and kinetic parameters needed to assess and predict the mobility of reduced Tc(IV) at DOE contaminated sites; and (2) to determine the impact of organic ligands on the mobility and fate of reduced Tc(IV) under field geochemical conditions.

  20. Reduced serum dipeptidyl peptidase-IV after metformin and pioglitazone treatments.

    PubMed

    Lenhard, James M; Croom, Dallas K; Minnick, Dana T

    2004-11-05

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) regulates metabolism by degrading incretins involved in nutritional regulation. Metformin and pioglitazone improve insulin sensitivity whereas glyburide promotes insulin secretion. Zucker diabetic rats were treated with these antidiabetic agents for 2 weeks and DPP-IV activity and expression were determined. Serum DPP-IV activity increased whereas tissue activity decreased as the rats aged. Treatment of rats with metformin, pioglitazone, and glyburide did not alter DPP-IV mRNA expression in liver or kidney. Metformin and pioglitazone significantly (P<0.05) reduced serum DPP-IV activity and glycosylated hemoglobin. Glyburide did not lower DPP-IV activity or glycosylated hemoglobin. Regression analysis showed serum DPP-IV activity correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.92) and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels (r=-0.49). Metformin, pioglitazone, and glyburide had no effect on serum DPP-IV activity in vitro, indicating these are not competitive DPP-IV inhibitors. We propose the in vivo inhibitory effects observed with metformin and pioglitazone on serum DPP-IV activity results from reduced DPP-IV secretion.

  1. Synergistic inhibitory effect of nicotine plus oral contraceptive on mitochondrial complex-IV is mediated by estrogen receptor-β in female rats.

    PubMed

    Raval, Ami P; Dave, Kunjan R; Saul, Isabel; Gonzalez, Gabriel J; Diaz, Francisca

    2012-04-01

    Chronic nicotine and oral contraceptive (NOC) exposure caused significant loss of hippocampal membrane-bound estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β) in female rats compared with exposure to nicotine alone. Mitochondrial ER-β regulates estrogen-mediated mitochondrial structure and function; therefore, investigating the impact of NOC on mitochondrial ER-β and its function could help delineate the harmful synergism between nicotine and OC. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NOC-induced loss of mitochondrial ER-β alters the oxidative phosphorylation system protein levels and mitochondrial respiratory function. This hypothesis was tested in hippocampal mitochondria isolated from female rats exposed to saline, nicotine, OC or NOC for 16 days. NOC decreased the mitochondrial ER-β protein levels and reduced oxygen consumption and complex IV (CIV) activity by 34% and 26% compared with saline- or nicotine-administered groups, respectively. We also observed significantly low protein levels of all mitochondrial-encoded CIV subunits after NOC as compared with the nicotine or saline groups. Similarly, the silencing of ER-β reduced the phosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein, and also reduced levels of CIV mitochondrial-encoded subunits after estrogen stimulation. Overall, these results suggest that mitochondrial ER-β loss is responsible for mitochondrial malfunction after NOC.

  2. Effects of transient and prolonged flashing light stimulation on the cytochrome oxidase module system in layer IV of the primary visual cortex of kittens.

    PubMed

    Merkul'eva, N S; Makarov, F N

    2009-06-01

    Cytochrome oxidase spots in layer IV of field 17 of the primary visual cortex were studied in kittens aged 33, 49, and 93 days, stimulated with a light flashing at a frequency of 15 Hz. The kittens of one group received stimulation from the moment of eye opening until euthanasia (prolonged stimulation); other groups received stimulation for eight days starting from ages 26, 42, or 85 days (transient stimulation), again until euthanasia. Both types of stimulation were found not to alter the geometrical characteristics of cytochrome oxidase spots, but led to significant increases in the contrast of spots located in the splenial gyrus. Increases in spot contrast in the lateral gyrus occurred only after prolonged stimulation to age 93 days or after transient stimulation from age 26 days to age 33 days. Thus, stimulation of kittens of different ages with a light flashing at a frequency of 15 Hz led to structural-metabolic changes in the primary visual cortex. These changes were apparent to different extents in areas of the cortex responsible for central and peripheral vision. This may be explained, firstly, by the predominant activation of the Y conducting channel of the visual system and, secondly, by the increase in dominance of the contralateral input to the primary visual cortex.

  3. The effect of "on/off" molecular switching on the photophysical and photochemical properties of axially calixarene substituted activatable silicon(iv)phthalocyanine photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Güngör, Ömer; Altınbaş Özpınar, Gül; Durmuş, Mahmut; Ahsen, Vefa

    2016-05-04

    Silicon(iv) phthalocyanines ( and ) bearing two calixarene groups as axial ligands were synthesized. Surprisingly, both phthalocyanines were obtained as two different isomers ( and ) depending on the distance between calixarene benzene groups and the phthalocyanine ring. DFT and TD-DFT computations were performed to model plausible structures of these isomers and to simulate electronic absorption spectra. These isomers converted into each other depending on the polarity of the used solvent, temperature and light irradiation. The photophysical and photochemical properties of each isomer were investigated in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for the determination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) activities of these compounds. The more blue-shifted isomers ( and ) showed higher fluorescence quantum yields and singlet oxygen generation compared to more red-shifted counterparts ( and ). This behavior is extremely important for developing activatable photosensitizers for cancer treatment by PDT. Although these photosensitizers produce lower singlet oxygen in normal cells, they produce higher singlet oxygen (six times higher for ) in cancer cells since these photosensitizers converted to more blue-shifted isomers by using light irradiation.

  4. Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, Michael J.; Shih-Chieh, Kao; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Kaiser, Dale P.; Martinez, Rocio; Webb, Cindy; Wei, Yaxing

    2012-10-01

    As directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the SECURE Water Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11), the US Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) and other federal agencies, including federal dam owners, has prepared a comprehensive assessment examining the effects of climate change on water available for hydropower at federal facilities and on the marketing of power from these federal facilities. This Oak Ridge National Laboratory report, referred to as the “9505 Assessment,” describes the technical basis for the report to Congress that was called for in the SECURE Water Act.

  5. [Unintended effects assessment of genetically modified crops using omics techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Li, Yan-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Safety assessment is the essential process for commercial application of genetically modified (GM) crops. Omics techniques can be used to evaluate the safety of GM crops unbiasedly at different biological levels, such as transcripts, proteins and metabolites. In the present review, the researches on unintended effects assessment of GM crops using transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques in recent ten years have been summarized. The facts show that the environmental factors (growing area and season) and genotype difference play greater roles than gene insertion does for most unintended variations in GM crops.

  6. Socioeconomic Impact Assessment. Communications Industry. Phase IV. Impact Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-21

    cminI~auo W" - ŕI 00 7.Twulmal C Iatso’m 3d 441 000-033 ,0 ACUMENICS TitI 6 am 40" * ,-0- ;4-0 I~* O~o w - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ A Im0 fam 1Wa0 ~-~- W~~ "ttMmq4w...Comparison Year NAS Stage A Model 3d 1976 Upgraded 3rd, Phase I 1980 Upgraded 3rd, Phase II 1985 I ACUMENICS 62 (7 The above comparisons are picked on...Upgraded 3rd, Phase I a. Flight Plan Error Correction by Source b. Automatic Clearance Coordination c. Conflict-Free Clearances, including 2D/ 3D RNAV d

  7. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Lovley, D R

    1991-01-01

    The oxidation of organic matter coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) is one of the most important biogeochemical reactions in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater. This process, which may have been the first globally significant mechanism for the oxidation of organic matter to carbon dioxide, plays an important role in the oxidation of natural and contaminant organic compounds in a variety of environments and contributes to other phenomena of widespread significance such as the release of metals and nutrients into water supplies, the magnetization of sediments, and the corrosion of metal. Until recently, much of the Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction in sedimentary environments was considered to be the result of nonenzymatic processes. However, microorganisms which can effectively couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) have recently been discovered. With Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor, these organisms can completely oxidize fatty acids, hydrogen, or a variety of monoaromatic compounds. This metabolism provides energy to support growth. Sugars and amino acids can be completely oxidized by the cooperative activity of fermentative microorganisms and hydrogen- and fatty-acid-oxidizing Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reducers. This provides a microbial mechanism for the oxidation of the complex assemblage of sedimentary organic matter in Fe(III)- or Mn(IV)-reducing environments. The available evidence indicates that this enzymatic reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) accounts for most of the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in sedimentary environments. Little is known about the diversity and ecology of the microorganisms responsible for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction, and only preliminary studies have been conducted on the physiology and biochemistry of this process. PMID:1886521

  8. Facile Routes to Th(IV), U(IV), and Np(IV) Phosphites and Phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Eric M.; Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-08-05

    Three actinide(IV) phosphites and a NpIV phosphate, AnIV(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂ (An = Th, U, Np) and Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂, respectively, were synthesized using mild hydrothermal conditions. The first three phases are isotypic and were obtained using similar reaction conditions. Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂ was synthesized using an analogous method to that of Np(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂. However, this fourth phase is quite different in comparison to the other phases in both composition and structure. The structure of Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂ is constructed from double layers of neptunium(IV) phosphate with caesium cations in the interlayer region. In contrast, An(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂ (An = Th, U, Np) form dense 3D networks. The actinide contraction is detected in variety of metrics obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Changes in the oxidation state of the neptunium starting materials yield different products.

  9. Effect of soil in nutrient cycle assessment at dairy farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; de Boer, Imke; van Dam, Jos; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Annual farm nutrient cycle assessments give valuable insight in the nutrient cycles and nutrient losses at dairy farms. It describes nutrient use efficiencies for the entire farm and for the underlying components cattle, manure, crops and soil. In many modelling studies, soil is kept as a constant factor, while soil quality is vital for soil functioning of the ecosystem. Improving soil quality will improve the nutrient cycle, and will also have positive effect on the soil functions crop production, water cycling and greenhouse gas mitigation. Spatial variation of soil properties within a farm, however, are not included in annual nutrient cycle assessments. Therefore it is impossible to identify fields where most profit can be gained by improving farm management at field level, and it is not possible to identify and to quantify nutrient flow path ways. The aim of this study is to develop a framework to improve the annual nutrient cycle assessment at Dutch dairy farms, by including soil properties and their spatial variation within farms. Soil type and soil quality will be described by visual soil assessment of soil quality characteristics. The visual observations will be linked to the nutrient cycle assessment, using soil-hydrological model SWAP. We will demonstrate how soil quality at field level can impact on crop production, eutrophication potential and greenhouse gas potential at farm level. Also, we will show how this framework can be used by farmers to improve their farm management. This new approach is focusing on annual nutrient cycle assessment, but could also be used in life cycle assessment. It will improve understanding of soil functioning and dairy farm management.

  10. Dibutyltin(IV) complexes containing arylazobenzoate ligands: chemistry, in vitro cytotoxic effects on human tumor cell lines and mode of interaction with some enzymes.

    PubMed

    Basu Baul, Tushar S; Paul, Anup; Pellerito, Lorenzo; Scopelliti, Michelangelo; Singh, Palwinder; Verma, Pooja; Duthie, Andrew; de Vos, Dick; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2011-04-01

    Dibutyltin(IV) complexes of composition Bu₂Sn(LH)₂, where LH is a carboxylate residue derived from 2-[(E)-(5-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoate (L¹H) with water molecule (1), 4-[(E)-(5-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoate (L²H) (2) and 4-[(E)-(4-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)diazenyl]benzoate (L³H) (3), were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic (¹H, ¹³C and ¹¹⁹Sn NMR, IR, ¹¹⁹Sn Mössbauer) techniques. A full characterization was accomplished from the crystal structure of complex 1. The molecular structures and geometries of the complexes (1a i.e. 1 without water molecule and 3) were fully optimized using the quantum mechanical method (PM6). Complexes 1 and 3 were found to exhibit stronger cytotoxic activity in vitro across a panel of human tumor cell lines viz., A498, EVSA-T, H226, IGROV, M19 MEL, MCF-7 and WIDR. Compound 3 is found to be four times superior for the A498, EVSA-T and MCF-7 cell lines than CCDP (cisplatin), and four, eight and sixteen times superior for the A498, H226 and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively, compared to ETO (etoposide). The mechanistic role of cytotoxic activity of test compounds is discussed in relation to the theoretical results of docking studies with some key enzymes such as ribonucleotide reductase, thymidylate synthase, thymidylate phosphorylase and topoisomerase II associated with the propagation of cancer.

  11. Silicon(IV) phthalocyanines substituted axially with different nucleoside moieties. Effects of nucleoside type on the photosensitizing efficiencies and in vitro photodynamic activities.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bi-Yuan; Shen, Xiao-Min; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Cai, Yi-Bin; Ke, Mei-Rong; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2016-06-01

    A series of new silicon(IV) phthalocyanines (SiPcs) di-substituted axially with different nucleoside moieties have been synthesized and evaluated for their singlet oxygen quantum yields (ΦΔ) and in vitro photodynamic activities. The adenosine-substituted SiPc shows a lower photosensitizing efficiency (ΦΔ=0.35) than the uridine- and cytidine-substituted analogs (ΦΔ=0.42-0.44), while the guanosine-substituted SiPc exhibits a weakest singlet oxygen generation efficiency with a ΦΔ value down to 0.03. On the other hand, replacing axial adenosines with chloro-modified adenosines and purines can result in the increase of photogenerating singlet oxygen efficiencies of SiPcs. The formed SiPcs 1 and 2, which contain monochloro-modified adenosines and dichloro-modified purines respectively, appear as efficient photosensitizers with ΦΔ of 0.42-0.44. Both compounds 1 and 2 present high photocytotoxicities against HepG2 and BGC823 cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 9nM to 33nM. The photocytotoxicities of these two compounds are remarkably higher than the well-known anticancer photosensitizer, chlorin e6 (IC50=752nM against HepG2 cells) in the same condition. As revealed by confocal microscopy, for both cell lines, compound 1 can essentially bind to mitochondria, while compound 2 is just partially localized in mitochondria. In addition, the two compounds induce cell death of HepG2 cells likely through apoptosis.

  12. Severity of 12-Month DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Costello, Jane; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2012-01-01

    Context Estimates of DSM-IV disorder prevalence are high; stringent criteria to define need for services are desired. Objective To present US national data on the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of 12-month serious emotional disturbance (SED), defined by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Design The National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement is a national survey of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders among US adolescents. Setting Dual-frame household and school samples of US adolescents. Participants Total of 6483 pairs of adolescents aged 13 to 17 (interviews) and parents (questionnaires). Main Outcome Measures The DSM-IV disorders were assessed with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview and validated with blinded clinical interviews based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children. Serious emotional disturbance was operationalized as a DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview disorder with a score of 50 or less on the Children’s Global Assessment Scale (ie, moderate impairment in most areas of functioning or severe impairment in at least 1 area). Concordance of Composite International Diagnostic Interview SED diagnoses with blinded Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children diagnoses was good. Results The estimated prevalence of SED was 8.0%. Most SEDs were due to behavior (54.5%) or mood (31.4%) disorders. Although respondents with 3 or more disorders made up only 29.0% of those with 12-month DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview disorders, they constituted 63.5% of SEDs. Predictive effects of high comorbidity were significantly greater than the product of their disorder-specific odds ratios and consistent across disorder types. Associations of sociodemographic variables with SED

  13. Measuring health program effectiveness in the field: an assessment tool.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Sharon M; Yassin, Abdiaziz S; Brown, Wayne G; Perry, Helen N; Thacker, Stephen B

    2007-01-01

    To assist field workers in program evaluation and to explicitly discuss program strengths and weaknesses, a practical method to estimate the effectiveness of public health interventions within the existing program capacity was developed. The method and materials were tested in seven countries (Afghanistan, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Uganda, Guatemala, the Philippines, and Ghana). In this method, four core components are assessed using a questionnaire: (1) the efficacy of the intervention; (2) the level of existing human resources (i.e., quality of recruitment, training, and continuing education); (3) the infrastructure (i.e., supplies, salary, transportation, and supervision); and (4) the level of community support (i.e., access and demand). Using the assessment tool provided, program staff can determine if all necessary elements are in place for a successful program that can deliver the specific intervention. Based on the results of the assessment program, weaknesses can be identified, explicitly discussed, and addressed. The usefulness of this tool in humanitarian relief may be twofold: (1) to assess the design and implementation of effective programs; and (2) to highlight the inevitable need for capacity building as the disaster situation evolves.

  14. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) With Sulfate At Variable Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Xia; J.I. Friese; D.A> Moore; P.P. Bachelor; L. Rao

    2006-10-05

    The complexation of plutonium(IV) with sulfate at variable temperatures has been investigated by solvent extraction method. A NaBrO{sub 3} solution was used as holding oxidant to maintain the plutonium(IV) oxidation state throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-HSO{sub 4}{sup -} complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase, were calculated from the effect of [HSO{sub 4}{sup -}] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures using the Van't Hoff equation.

  15. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) with Fluoride at Variable Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yuanxian; Rao, Linfeng; Friese, Judah I.; Moore, Dean A.; Bachelor, Paula P.

    2010-02-02

    The complexation of Pu(IV) with fluoride at elevated temperatures was studied by solvent extraction technique. A solution of NaBrO3 was used as holding oxidant to maintain the oxidation state of plutonium throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of fluoride were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-F- complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase under the experimental conditions, were calculated from the effect of fluoride ions on the distribution ratio. The thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy of complexation between Pu(IV) and fluoride at 25 degrees C - 55 degrees C were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures by using the Van’t Hoff equation.

  16. Design guidelines for assessing and controlling spacecraft charging effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.; Garrett, H. B.; Whittlesey, A. C.; Stevens, N. J.

    1984-01-01

    The need for uniform criteria, or guidelines, to be used in all phases of spacecraft design is discussed. Guidelines were developed for the control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft surfaces by the lower energy space charged particle environment. Interior charging due to higher energy particles is not considered. A guide to good design practices for assessing and controlling charging effects is presented. Uniform design practices for all space vehicles are outlined.

  17. Assessing the Effectiveness of Deradicalization Programs for Islamist Extremists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DERADICALIZATION PROGRAMS FOR ISLAMIST EXTREMISTS Amanda K. Johnston Special Agent , Naval Criminal Investigative... reputation within the group can push the individual to exit the group. The negative societal pressures due to involvement with a group can also cause an...Afghanistan, thousands of Yemenis were believed to have traveled to Afghanistan to participate in the fight against the Soviets.53 Arab-Afghan

  18. Assessment of anticoagulant effect of evening primrose oil.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Azra; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Ahmed, Shahida Parveen

    2009-10-01

    Effect of evening primrose oil (EPO) was assessed on coagulation parameters following 30 and 60 days administration of 90, 180 and 360 microl/kg oil to healthy rabbits of either sex. There was significant increase in all assays except Fibrinogen time. These effects might be due to inactivation or inhibition of factors affecting coagulation. The intake of evening primrose oil also significantly decreased platelet count. Results of this study suggest that evening primrose oil shows considerable anti-anticoagulant and anti-platelet activity in animals and has potential to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  19. Can Teacher Quality Be Effectively Assessed? National Board Certification as a Signal of Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Anthony, Emily

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the results a study assessing the relationship between the certification of teachers by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) and elementary level student achievement. We examine whether NBPTS assesses the most effective applicants, whether certification by NBPTS serves as a signal of teacher…

  20. Assessing SCHIP effects using household survey data: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed Central

    Dubay, L; Kenney, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe how household surveys can be used to assess the effects of the new State Children's Health insurance Program (SCHIP) , review methodologic issues associated with household survey data, and propose solutions for dealing with these issues. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To estimate the effect of SCHIP, analysis must explicitly recognize and control for the fact that other factors that could affect the outcomes of interest besides the new program will change over the analysis period. In assessing SCHIP's effect, SCHIP-eligible children must be identified using a detailed simulation model. Analyses that use either a simple eligibility model or only examine children with incomes between 100 and 200 percent of poverty will not accurately identify SCHIP-eligible children. Under these circumstances estimates of the effect of SCHIP will be biased downward. In addition analyses must rely on the same survey in the pre- and post- SCHIP periods to obtain reliable estimates. Moreover, the survey must attempt to obtain data on separate SCHIP programs, and analysts must consider the implications of the possible increasing underreporting of public health insurance coverage. Finally, analysts should be cautious about evaluating SCHIP's success before the program is mature. CONCLUSION: While evaluating SCHIP using household surveys has some challenges, if conducted carefully such analyses will provide important in formation on the effect of the SCHIP program that can not be obtained elsewhere. PMID:16148956

  1. Controls on project proponents and environmental impact assessment effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Ortolano, L. )

    1993-01-01

    The degree of effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) for particular projects is associated with the existence of mechanisms of organizational control. Five dimensions of EIA effectiveness are considered: procedural compliance, completeness of EIA documents, methods to assess impacts, influence on project decisions, and weight given to environmental factors. Six mechanisms of control are introduced and illustrated by programs and projects in several countries. Experience in the Philippines under President Marcos demonstrates that procedural control in the form of EIA regulations, when used without other control mechanisms, will lead at most to token compliance. Judicial control, as practiced in the US, yields high procedural compliance. Evaluative control can yield effective EIA, but some systems based on this form of control treat only a small fraction of the major projects proposed. Both control exerted by development assistance organizations and control by professionals have great potential for yielding effective EIA, but that potential has not been fully realized. Control exerted directly by citizens or agencies not otherwise involved in EIA is uncommon, but cases from Taiwan demonstrate that those controls can be significant. An understanding of relationships between control mechanisms and EIA effectiveness is useful in designing EIA policies and programs.

  2. Assessing biological effects from highway-runoff constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny R.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1999-01-01

    Increased emphasis on evaluation of nonpoint-source pollution has intensified the need for techniques that can be used to discern the toxicological effects of complex chemical mixtures. In response, the use of biological assessment techniques is receiving increased regulatory emphasis. When applied with documented habitat assessment and chemical analysis, these techniques can increase our understanding of the influence of environmental contaminants on the biological integrity and ecological function of aquatic communities.The contaminants of greatest potential concern in highway runoff are those that arise from highway construction, maintenance, and use. The major contaminants of interest are deicers; nutrients; metals; petroleum-related organic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), and methyl tert -butyl ether (MTBE); sediment washed off the road surface; and agricultural chemicals used in highway maintenance. Hundreds, if not thousands, of biological endpoints (measurable responses of living organisms) may be either directly or associatively affected by contaminant exposure. Measurable effects can occur throughout ecosystem processes across the wide range of biological complexity, ranging from responses at the biochemical level to the community level. The challenge to the environmental scientist is to develop an understanding of the relationship of effects at various levels of biological organization in order to determine whether a causal relationship exists between chemical exposure and substantial ecological impairment. This report provides a brief history of the evolution of biological assessment techniques, a description of the major classes of contaminants that are of particular interest in highway runoff, an overview of representative biological assessment techniques, and a discussion of data-quality considerations. Published reports with a focus on the effects of highway runoff on the

  3. Assessing the matrix effects of hemolyzed samples in bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicola C; Bajaj, Navgeet; Fan, Juan; Wong, Ernest Y K

    2009-09-01

    Validation of LC-MS/MS assays includes an assessment of matrix effects. Hemolysis effect, a special type of matrix effect, can also have an impact on analyte quantitation. In situations where the hemolysis effect is marginal, this can be resolved simply by dilution of hemolyzed samples with plasma prior to analysis. However, in some cases, the impact can be so dramatic that analytes are completely immeasurable. In such situations, modification to the bioanalytical method will be required, including, but not limited to, adjusting the chromatographic conditions to separate interferences present in hemolyzed samples; additional sample clean-up techniques such as protein precipitation in combination with SPE or a change in extraction technique such as from SPE to a liquid-liquid extraction method. Here, we report examples from four bioanalytical methods, where the presence of hemolyzed blood in plasma was found to have an impact on analyte quantitation and a description of the solutions adopted to resolve this are provided.

  4. Assessing management effects on Oak forests in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Sishir; Pietsch, Stephan A.; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Historic land use as well as silvicultural management practices have changed the structures and species composition of central European forests. Such changes have effects on the growth of forests and contribute to global warming. As insufficient information on historic forest management is available it is hard to explain the effect of management on forests growth and its possible consequences to the environment. In this situation, the BIOME-BGC model, which integrates the main physical, biological and physiological processes based on current understanding of ecophysiology is an option for assessing the management effects through tracking the cycling of energy, water, carbon and nutrients within a given ecosystems. Such models are increasingly employed to simulate current and future forest dynamics. This study first compares observed standing tree volume, carbon and nitrogen content in soil in the high forests and coppice with standards stands of Oak forests in Austria. Biome BGC is then used to assess the effects of management on forest growth and to explain the differences with measured parameters. Close positive correlations and unbiased results and statistically insignificant differences between predicted and observed volumes indicates the application of the model as a diagnostic tool to assess management effects in oak forests. The observed data in 2006 and 2009 was further compared with the results of respective model runs. Further analysis on simulated data shows that thinning leads to an increase in growth efficiency (GE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and water use efficiency (WUE), and to a decrease in the radiation use efficiency (RUE) in both forests. Among all studied growth parameters, only the difference in the NUE was statistically significant. This indicates that the difference in the yield of forests is mainly governed by the NUE difference in stands due to thinning. The coppice with standards system produces an equal amount of net primary

  5. The Assessment of Effective Dose Equivalent Using Personnel Dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xie

    From January 1994, U.S. nuclear plants must develop a technically rigorous approach for determining the effective dose equivalent for their work forces. This dissertation explains concepts associated with effective dose equivalent and describes how to assess effective dose equivalent by using conventional personnel dosimetry measurements. A Monte Carlo computer code, MCNP, was used to calculate photon transport through a model of the human body. Published mathematical phantoms of the human adult male and female were used to simulate irradiation from a variety of external radiation sources in order to calculate organ and tissue doses, as well as effective dose equivalent using weighting factors from ICRP Publication 26. The radiation sources considered were broad parallel photon beams incident on the body from 91 different angles and isotropic point sources located at 234 different locations in contact with or near the body. Monoenergetic photons of 0.08, 0.3, and 1.0 MeV were considered for both sources. Personnel dosimeters were simulated on the surface of the body and exposed to with the same sources. From these data, the influence of dosimeter position on dosimeter response was investigated. Different algorithms for assessing effective dose equivalent from personnel dosimeter responses were proposed and evaluated. The results indicate that the current single-badge approach is satisfactory for most common exposure situations encountered in nuclear plants, but additional conversion factors may be used when more accurate results become desirable. For uncommon exposures involving source situated at the back of the body or source located overhead, the current approach of using multi-badges and assigning the highest dose is overly conservative and unnecessarily expensive. For these uncommon exposures, a new algorithm, based on two dosimeters, one on the front of the body and another one on the back of the body, has been shown to yield conservative assessment of

  6. Construct Validity of the WISC-IV with a Referred Sample: Direct versus Indirect Hierarchical Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is one of the most frequently used intelligence tests in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Construct validity studies of the WISC-IV have generally supported the higher order structure with four correlated first-order factors and one higher-order…

  7. Validation of DSM-IV Model of Psychiatric Syndromes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecavalier, Luc; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the internal construct validity of the DSM-IV as a conceptual model for characterizing behavioral syndromes in children with ASD. Parent and teachers completed the Child Symptom Inventory-4, a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale, for 6-to-12 year old clinic referrals with an ASD (N = 498). Ratings were…

  8. Construct Validity of the WISC-IV[superscript UK] with a Large Referred Irish Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Marley W.; Canivez, Gary L.; James, Trevor; James, Kate; Good, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Irish educational psychologists frequently use the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth U.K. Edition (WISC-IV[superscript UK]) in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Unfortunately, reliability and validity studies of the WISC-IV[superscript UK] have not yet been reported. This study examined the construct…

  9. Validity of the WISC-IV Spanish for a Clinically Referred Sample of Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Miguel Montes, Liza E.; Allen, Daniel N.; Puente, Antonio E.; Neblina, Cris

    2010-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is the most commonly used intelligence test for children. Five years ago, a Spanish version of the WISC-IV was published (WISC-IV Spanish; Wechsler, 2005), but a limited amount of published information is available regarding its utility when assessing clinical samples. The current study included…

  10. The effect of coordinated water on the connectivity of uranium(IV) sulfate x-hydrate: [U(SO4)2(H2O)5]·H2O and [U(SO4)2(H2O)6]·2H2O, and a comparison with other known structures.

    PubMed

    Burns, Alexander D; Patrick, Brian O; Lam, Anita E; Dreisinger, David

    2014-07-01

    Two new solid-state uranium(IV) sulfate x-hydrate complexes (where x is the total number of coordinated plus solvent waters), namely catena-poly[[pentaaquauranium(IV)]-di-μ-sulfato-κ(4)O:O'] monohydrate], {[U(SO4)2(H2O)5]·H2O}n, and hexaaquabis(sulfato-κ(2)O,O')uranium(IV) dihydrate, [U(SO4)2(H2O)6]·2H2O, have been synthesized, structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and analyzed by vibrational (IR and Raman) spectroscopy. By comparing these structures with those of four other known uranium(IV) sulfate x-hydrates, the effect of additional coordinated water molecules on their structures has been elucidated. As the number of coordinated water molecules increases, the sulfate bonds are displaced, thus changing the binding mode of the sulfate ligands to the uranium centre. As a result, uranium(IV) sulfate x-hydrate changes from being fully crosslinked in three dimensions in the anhydrous compound, through sheet and chain linking in the tetra- and hexahydrates, to fully unlinked molecules in the octa- and nonahydrates. It can be concluded that coordinated waters play an important role in determining the structure and connectivity of U(IV) sulfate complexes.

  11. 21 CFR 1308.14 - Schedule IV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule IV. 1308.14 Section 1308.14 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.14 Schedule IV. (a) Schedule IV shall consist of the drugs and other substances,...

  12. Al III, Si IV, and C IV absorption toward zeta Ophiuchi: Evidence for photionized and collisionally ionized gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembach, Kenneth R.; Savage, Blair D.; Jenkins, Edward B.

    1994-01-01

    We present Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph observations at 3.5 km/s resolution and signal-to-noise ratios of 30 to 60 for the Al III, Si IV, and N V absorption lines in the far-ultraviolet spectrum of the O9.5 V star zeat Ophiuchi. The measurement reveal three types of highly ionized gas along the 140 pc line of sight. (1) Narrow components of Al III (b = 4.3 km/s, the mean value of (v(helio)) = -7.8 km/s; b = 3.2 km/s, the mean value of (v(sub helio)) = -14.4 km/s) and Si IV (b = 5.3 km/s, the mean value of (v(sub helio)) = -15.0 km/s) trace photionized gas in the expanding H II region surrounding zeta Oph. The observed magnitude and direction of the velocity offset between the Al III and Si IV profiles can be explained by models of H II regions that incorporate expansion. Narrow C IV absorption associated with the H II region is not detected. Predictions of the expected amounts of Si IV and C IV overestimate the column densities of these ions by factors of 30 and more than 10, respectively. The discrepancy may be due to the effects of elemental depletions in the gas and/or to the interaction of the stellar wind with surrounding matter. (2) Broad (b = 15 to 18 km/s) and weak Si IV and C IV absorption components are detected near the mean value of (v(sub helio)) = -26 km/s. The high-ionization species associated with these absorption components are probably produced by electron collisional ionization in a heated gas. This absorption may be physically related to the zeta Oph bow shock ot to a cloud complex situated within the local interstellar medium at d less than 60 pc. The C IV to Si IV column density ratio in this gas is 8, a factor of 6 less than conductive interface models predict, but this discrepancy may be removed by considering the effects of self-photoionization within the cooling gas in the model calculations. (3) A broad (b = 13 km/s) and weak C IV absorption feature detected at the mean value of (v(sub helio)) = -61 km/s is not seen in other

  13. Quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of a rockfall warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bründl, Michael; Sättele, Martina; Krautblatter, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Rockslides and rockfalls can pose high risk to human settlements and traffic infrastructure. In addition to structural mitigation measures like rockfall nets, warning systems are increasingly installed to reduce rockfall risks. Whereas for structural mitigation measures with reducing effects on the spatial extent a structured evaluation method is existing, no or only few approaches to assess the effectiveness for warning systems are known. Especially for higher magnitude rockfalls structural mitigation measures are not effective, and reliable early warning systems will be essential in future. In response to that, we developed a classification and a framework to assess the reliability and effectiveness of early warning systems (Sättele et al, 2015a; 2016). Here, we demonstrate an application for the rockfall warning system installed in Preonzo prior to a major rockfall in May 2012 (Sättele et al., 2015b). We show that it is necessary to design such a warning system as fail-safe construction, which has to incorporate components with low failure probabilities, high redundancy, low warning thresholds, and additional control systems. With a hypothetical probabilistic analysis, we investigate the effect of the risk attitude of decision makers and of the number of sensors on the probability of detecting an event and on initiating a timely evacuation, as well as on related intervention cost. We conclude that it is possible to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of warning systems, which helps to optimize mitigation strategies against rockfall events. References Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Reliability and effectiveness of warning systems for natural hazards: concept and application to debris flow warning, Rel. Eng. Syst. Safety, 142, 192-202, 2015a. Sättele, M., Krautblatter, M., Bründl, M., and Straub, D.: Forecasting rock slope failure: How reliable and effective are warning systems?, Landslides, 605, 1-14, 2015b. Sättele, M., Bründl, M., and

  14. Effects That Facebook-Based Online Peer Assessment with Micro-Teaching Videos Can Have on Attitudes toward Peer Assessment and Perceived Learning from Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Guan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects that Facebook-based online peer assessment with micro-teaching videos can have on attitudes toward peer assessment and perceived learning from peer assessment. The study recruited a sample of 31 university students who were enrolled in a teacher-training course. Using assessees' microteaching videos, the…

  15. Evolution of iv iron compounds over the last century.

    PubMed

    Macdougall, Iain C

    2009-12-01

    Administration of intravenous (IV) iron has become pivotal in the management of anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Since parenteral iron was first introduced for human use in the 1930s, things have come a long way. Seventy years ago, iron was toxic, administered as an iron oxyhydroxide complex. This problem was circumvented with the introduction of compounds containing iron in a core surrounded by a carbohydrate shell. The carbohydrate shell consists of molecules such as dextran, sucrose, dextrin or gluconate. The first dextran-containing IV iron preparations carried a small risk of anaphylaxis, but the more recently introduced low molecular weight iron dextran preparation has significantly less risk of this. Iron reactions occur with all IV iron preparations, but are generally not thought to be immune based. Recently, newer IV iron preparations have appeared in the market, including Ferumoxytol (Feraheme) and ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject). These latest IV iron preparations do not contain a requirement for a test dose, and a much higher dose of iron can be delivered as a single administration. Thus, giving supplemental iron to man has come a long way since 1930s; we are now in an era when we are able to administer higher doses of iron with acceptable safety and without significant adverse effects. However, the long-term safety of the newer IV iron preparations is not yet established.

  16. Apolipoprotein A-IV inhibits AgRP/NPY neurons and activates POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) in the brain potently suppresses food intake. However the mechanisms underlying its anorexigenic effects remain to be identified. We first examined the effects of apoA-IV on cellular activities in hypothalamic neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and ne...

  17. Development, Functioning, and Effectiveness of a Preoperative Risk Assessment Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Hassan; Ahmed, Rafeeq; Kulkarni, Salil; Hanif, Sana; Toolsie, Omesh; Abbas, Hafsa; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Lee first described the concept of preoperative assessment testing (PAT) clinic in 1949. An efficiently run clinic is associated with increased cost-effectiveness by lowering preoperative admission time and thus reducing the length of stay and the associated costs. The setup of the PAT clinic should be based on the needs, culture, and resources of the institution. Various models for the setup of PAT clinic have been described, including the concept of a perioperative surgical home, which is a patient-centered model designed to improve health and the delivery of health care and to reduce the cost of care. Although there are several constraints in the development of PAT clinics, with increasing awareness about the usefulness of pre-operative risk assessments, growing bodies of literature, and evidence-based guidelines, these clinics are becoming a medical necessity for the improvement of perioperative care. PMID:27812286

  18. Development, Functioning, and Effectiveness of a Preoperative Risk Assessment Clinic.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Hassan; Ahmed, Rafeeq; Kulkarni, Salil; Hanif, Sana; Toolsie, Omesh; Abbas, Hafsa; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Lee first described the concept of preoperative assessment testing (PAT) clinic in 1949. An efficiently run clinic is associated with increased cost-effectiveness by lowering preoperative admission time and thus reducing the length of stay and the associated costs. The setup of the PAT clinic should be based on the needs, culture, and resources of the institution. Various models for the setup of PAT clinic have been described, including the concept of a perioperative surgical home, which is a patient-centered model designed to improve health and the delivery of health care and to reduce the cost of care. Although there are several constraints in the development of PAT clinics, with increasing awareness about the usefulness of pre-operative risk assessments, growing bodies of literature, and evidence-based guidelines, these clinics are becoming a medical necessity for the improvement of perioperative care.

  19. Selective solid-phase extraction of trace thorium(IV) using surface-grafted Th(IV)-imprinted polymers with pyrazole derivative.

    PubMed

    Lin, Canrong; Wang, Hongqing; Wang, Yuyuan; Cheng, Zhiqiang

    2010-04-15

    A new pyrazole derivative 1-phenyl-3-methylthio-4-cyano-5-acrylicacidcarbamoyl-pyrazole (PMTCAACP) was synthesized and chosen as a complexing monomer for the preparation of surface-grafted ion-imprinted polymers for selective solid-phase extraction of thorium(IV). The silica gel, modified with maleic anhydride, was prepared as a carrier material. In the ion-imprinting process, Th(IV) was complexed with PMTCAACP, and then imprinted in the polymers grafted to the surface of modified silica gel. Subsequently, the template Th(IV) ions were removed with 6 mol/L HCl solution. The obtained ion-imprinted particles for Th(IV) showed specific recognition, and rapid adsorption and desorption kinetics process. The maximum static and total dynamic adsorption capacity of the ion-imprinted polymers (IIPs) for Th(IV) was 64.8 and 37.4 mg/g, respectively. The relative selectivity coefficient values of the imprinted adsorbent for Th(IV)/U(VI), Th(IV)/Ce(III), Th(IV)/La(III), and Th(IV)/Zr(IV) were 72.9, 89.6, 93.8, and 137.2 times greater than non-imprinted matrix, respectively. The interference effect of common cations tested did not interfere with the recovery of Th(IV). The enhancement factor of 20.2, the detection limit of 0.43 microg/L, and the precision of 2.47% (n=7) of the method under the optimized conditions were obtained. Additionally, the calibration curve (r=0.9993) was linear in the range of 1.43-103 microg/L of thorium(IV). The prepared IIPs were shown to be promising for solid-phase extraction coupled with UV-vis spectrophotometry for determination of trace Th(IV) in real samples.

  20. Prospective Environmental Risk Assessment for Sediment-Bound Organic Chemicals: A Proposal for Tiered Effect Assessment.

    PubMed

    Diepens, Noël J; Koelmans, Albert A; Baveco, Hans; van den Brink, Paul J; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Brock, Theo C M

    A broadly accepted framework for prospective environmental risk assessment (ERA) of sediment-bound organic chemicals is currently lacking. Such a framework requires clear protection goals, evidence-based concepts that link exposure to effects and a transparent tiered-effect assessment. In this paper, we provide a tiered prospective sediment ERA procedure for organic chemicals in sediment, with a focus on the applicable European regulations and the underlying data requirements. Using the ecosystem services concept, we derived specific protection goals for ecosystem service providing units: microorganisms, benthic algae, sediment-rooted macrophytes, benthic invertebrates and benthic vertebrates. Triggers for sediment toxicity testing are discussed.We recommend a tiered approach (Tier 0 through Tier 3). Tier-0 is a cost-effective screening based on chronic water-exposure toxicity data for pelagic species and equilibrium partitioning. Tier-1 is based on spiked sediment laboratory toxicity tests with standard benthic test species and standardised test methods. If comparable chronic toxicity data for both standard and additional benthic test species are available, the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) approach is a more viable Tier-2 option than the geometric mean approach. This paper includes criteria for accepting results of sediment-spiked single species toxicity tests in prospective ERA, and for the application of the SSD approach. We propose micro/mesocosm experiments with spiked sediment, to study colonisation success by benthic organisms, as a Tier-3 option. Ecological effect models can be used to supplement the experimental tiers. A strategy for unifying information from various tiers by experimental work and exposure-and effect modelling is provided.

  1. Assessment of the effective dose equivalent for external photon radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.D.; Poston, J.W.; Xu, X.G. )

    1993-02-01

    Beginning in January 1994, US nuclear power plants must change the way that they determine the radiation exposure to their workforce. At that time, revisions to Title 10 Part 20 of the Code of Federal Regulations will be in force requiring licensees to evaluate worker radiation exposure using a risk-based methodology termed the effective dose equivalent.'' A research project was undertaken to improve upon the conservative method presently used for assessing effective dose equivalent. In this project effective dose equivalent was calculated using a mathematical model of the human body, and tracking photon interactions for a wide variety of radiation source geometries using Monte Carlo computer code simulations. Algorithms were then developed to relate measurements of the photon flux on the surface of the body (as measured by dosimeters) to effective dose equivalent. This report (Volume I of a two-part study) describes: the concept of effective dose equivalent, the evolution of the concept and its incorporation into regulations, the variations in human organ susceptibility to radiation, the mathematical modeling and calculational techniques used, the results of effective dose equivalent calculations for a broad range of photon energiesand radiation source geometries. The study determined that for beam radiation sources the highest effective dose equivalent occurs for beams striking the front of the torso. Beams striking the rear of the torsoproduce the next highest effective dose equivalent, with effective dose equivalent falling significantly as one departs from these two orientations. For point sources, the highest effective dose equivalent occurs when the sources are in contact with the body on the front of the torso. For females the highest effective dose equivalent occurs when the source is on the sternum, for males when it is on the gonads.

  2. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    PubMed

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in Assessment of autism spectrum disorders. Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in J Autism Dev Disord 34(1):19-27, 2004). However, previous studies suggest that while WISC-III and Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) provide similar estimates of non-autistic intelligence, autistic children perform significantly better on RPM (Dawson et al. in Psychol Sci 18(8):657-662, doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01954.x , 2007). The latest WISC version introduces substantial changes in subtests and index scores; thus, we asked whether WISC-IV still underestimates autistic intelligence. Twenty-five autistic and 22 typical children completed WISC-IV and RPM. Autistic children's RPM scores were significantly higher than their WISC-IV FSIQ, but there was no significant difference in typical children. Further, autistic children showed a distinctively uneven WISC-IV index profile, with a "peak" in the new Perceptual Reasoning Index. In spite of major changes, WISC-IV FSIQ continues to underestimate autistic intelligence.

  3. Impacts of Title IV in Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwell, J.; Ellis, H.; Corio, L.; Seinfelt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Maryland Department of Natural Resources` Power Plant Research Program has evaluated the environmental effects of acid deposition on Maryland`s air, land, water (especially the Chesapeake Bay), and human resources since the mid-1980`s. Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) has focused much attention on the mandated reductions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) to control acid deposition. Baseline data on acidic deposition and air emissions/pollution control for NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} acquired through PPRP studies have proved useful in evaluating the impacts of Title IV on Maryland power plants and resources. Three example programs are discussed: The first is an evaluation of SO{sub 2} emissions on ecosystems through the use of critical loads--the amount of acid rain that an ecosystem can tolerate without continuing to acidify. Results support the use of broadly based emissions trading scenarios: The second study is an evaluation of the potential for reducing nitrate loading in the Chesapeake Bay by reducing NO{sub x} emissions. Results indicate substantial NO{sub x} emission reductions could offer significant reductions in nitrate deposition to the Bay: The final study is a review of the impacts of Title IV on the Maryland coal industry and the prospects for coal cleaning and advanced combustion technologies. Current results indicate that Maryland coal will meet Phase 2 SO{sub 2} emission standards using advanced combustion techniques, such as fluidized bed technologies, but that additional emissions controls, such as a scrubber would be required in a conventional boiler.

  4. Integrating Communities of Practice in E-Portfolio Assessment: Effects and Experiences of Mutual Assessment in an Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ling

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects and experiences of a mutual assessment framework (CoPf) in an online graduate course at a mid-west university. CoPf was integrated into the course structure as an innovative application of the standard e-portfolio assessment tool. Using a mixed method, the study first explored the effects of CoPf compared to the…

  5. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  6. A Review and Analysis of the Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness Studies of Comprehensive Health Promotion and Disease Management Programs at the Worksite: 1995-1998 Update (IV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Kenneth R.

    1999-01-01

    Fourth in a series of articles summarizing studies that examined the impact of comprehensive health-promotion and disease-management programs on health and cost. The focus is on worksite health promotion and education. Study results provide cautious optimism about the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these worksite programs and…

  7. Oxovanadium(IV) silsesquioxane complexes.

    PubMed

    Ohde, Christian; Limberg, Christian; Stösser, Reinhard; Demeshko, Serhiy

    2010-03-01

    In the context of a potential modeling of reduced oxovanadium species occurring on the surfaces of silica-supported vanadia catalysts in the course of its turnover, the incompletely condensed silsesquioxane H(3)(c-pentyl)T(7) was reacted with Cl(4)V(THF)(2) (where THF = tetrahydrofuran) in the presence of triethylamine. Precipitation of 3 equiv of HNEt(3)Cl seemed to point to the clean formation of [((c-pentyl)T(7))(V(IV)Cl)] (1), which was supported by electron paramagnetic resonance studies performed for the resulting solutions, but further analytical and spectroscopic investigations showed that the processes occurring at that stage are more complex than that and even include the formation of [((c-pentyl)T(7))(V(V)O)](2) as a side product. Storage of a red-brown hexane solution of this product mixture reproducibly led to the precipitation of blue crystals belonging to the chloride-free compound [((c-pentyl)T(7))(2)(V(IV)=O)(3)(THF)(2)] (2), as revealed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Performing the same reaction in the presence of 2 equiv of pyridine leads to an analogous product, where the THF ligands are replaced by pyridine. Subsequent investigations showed that the terminal oxo ligands at the vanadium centers are, on the one hand, due to the presence of adventitious water; on the other hand, the [(c-pentyl)T(7)](3-) ligand also acted as a source of O(2-). The results of SQUID measurements performed for 2 can be interpreted in terms of a ferromagnetic coupling between the vanadyl units. Exposing 2 to a dioxygen atmosphere resulted in its immediate oxidation to yield the V(V) complex [((c-pentyl)T(7))(V(V)O)](2), which may model a fast reoxidation reaction of oxovanadium(IV) trimers on silica surfaces.

  8. The Reliability and Validity of WISC-IV Scores with Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krouse, Hailey E.; Braden, Jeffery P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability and validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) for use with deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HOH) children. Psychologists (n = 10) provided data for 128 D/HOH children who were assessed with the WISC-IV as part of routine assessments. All the WISC-IV subtests (8) and…

  9. Assessing wave energy effects on biodiversity: the wave hub experience.

    PubMed

    Witt, M J; Sheehan, E V; Bearhop, S; Broderick, A C; Conley, D C; Cotterell, S P; Crow, E; Grecian, W J; Halsband, C; Hodgson, D J; Hosegood, P; Inger, R; Miller, P I; Sims, D W; Thompson, R C; Vanstaen, K; Votier, S C; Attrill, M J; Godley, B J

    2012-01-28

    Marine renewable energy installations harnessing energy from wind, wave and tidal resources are likely to become a large part of the future energy mix worldwide. The potential to gather energy from waves has recently seen increasing interest, with pilot developments in several nations. Although technology to harness wave energy lags behind that of wind and tidal generation, it has the potential to contribute significantly to energy production. As wave energy technology matures and becomes more widespread, it is likely to result in further transformation of our coastal seas. Such changes are accompanied by uncertainty regarding their impacts on biodiversity. To date, impacts have not been assessed, as wave energy converters have yet to be fully developed. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build a framework of understanding regarding the potential impacts of these technologies, underpinned by methodologies that are transferable and scalable across sites to facilitate formal meta-analysis. We first review the potential positive and negative effects of wave energy generation, and then, with specific reference to our work at the Wave Hub (a wave energy test site in southwest England, UK), we set out the methodological approaches needed to assess possible effects of wave energy on biodiversity. We highlight the need for national and international research clusters to accelerate the implementation of wave energy, within a coherent understanding of potential effects-both positive and negative.

  10. PREPARATION OF OXOPORPHINATOMANGANESE (IV) COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Willner, I.; Otvos, J.; Calvin, M.

    1980-07-01

    Oxo-manganese-tetraphenylporphyrin (O=Mn{sup IV}-TPP) has been prepared by an oxygen-transfer reaction from iodosylbenzene to MnIITPP and characterized by its i.r. and field desorption mass spectra, which are identical to those of the product obtained by direct oxidation of Mn{sup III}(TPP) in an aqueous medium; it transfers oxygen to triphenylphosphine to produce triphenylphosphine oxide, and it is suggested that similar intermediates are important in oxygen activation by cytochrome P-450 as well as in the photosynthetic evolution of oxygen.

  11. Astragaloside IV enhances diabetic wound healing involving upregulation of alternatively activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaochun; Huang, Ping; Yuan, Baohong; Liu, Tao; Lan, Fang; Lu, Xiaoyan; Dai, Liangcheng; Liu, Yunjun; Yin, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), one of the major active compounds extracted from Astragali Radix, has been used experimentally for its potent antiinflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. In this study, we further investigate the potential efficacy of AS-IV on impaired wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. A full-thickness skin wound was produced on the back of diabetic mice and treated with AS-IV or vehicle topically. Our results showed that AS-IV application promoted diabetic wound repair with wounds gaping narrower and exhibiting augmented reepithelialization. AS-IV enhanced the collagen deposition and the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes such as fibronectin and collagen IIIa, which implies a direct effect of AS-IV on matrix synthesis. AS-IV also improved the new blood vessel formation in wound tissue with increased numbers of endothelial cells and enhanced expression of VEGF and vWF. Moreover, the beneficial effect of AS-IV was related to the development of polarized alternatively activated macrophages, which involved in resolution of inflammation and facilitation of wound repair. All together, these findings suggest that AS-IV may play a potential effect on maintenance of cutaneous homeostasis and acceleration of diabetic wound healing.

  12. Student Aid and Postsecondary Tax Preferences. Limited Research Exists on Effectiveness of Tools to Assist Students and Families through Title IV Student Aid and Tax Preferences. Report to the Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate. GAO05-684

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Government Accountability Office, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Federal assistance helps students and families pay for postsecondary education through several policy tools--grant and loan programs authorized by title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 and more recently enacted tax preferences. In fiscal year 2004, about $14 billion in grants and $56 billion in loans were made under title IV while…

  13. Assessing fuel treatment effectiveness using satellite imagery and spatial statistics.

    PubMed

    Wimberly, Michael C; Cochrane, Mark A; Baer, Adam D; Pabst, Kari

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the influences of forest management practices on wildfire severity is critical in fire-prone ecosystems of the western United States. Newly available geospatial data sets characterizing vegetation, fuels, topography, and burn severity offer new opportunities for studying fuel treatment effectiveness at regional to national scales. In this study, we used ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression and sequential autoregression (SAR) to analyze fuel treatment effects on burn severity for three recent wildfires: the Camp 32 fire in western Montana, the School fire in southeastern Washington, and the Warm fire in northern Arizona. Burn severity was measured using differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) maps developed by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. Geospatial data sets from the LANDFIRE project were used to control for prefire variability in canopy cover, fuels, and topography. Across all three fires, treatments that incorporated prescribed burning were more effective than thinning alone. Treatment effect sizes were lower, and standard errors were higher in the SAR models than in the OLS models. Spatial error terms in the SAR models indirectly controlled for confounding variables not captured in the LANDFIRE data, including spatiotemporal variability in fire weather and landscape-level effects of reduced fire severity outside the treated areas. This research demonstrates the feasibility of carrying out assessments of fuel treatment effectiveness using geospatial data sets and highlights the potential for using spatial autoregression to control for unmeasured confounding factors.

  14. Separation of very hydrophobic analytes by micellar electrokinetic chromatography IV. Modeling of the effective electrophoretic mobility from carbon number equivalents and octanol-water partition coefficients.

    PubMed

    Huhn, Carolin; Pyell, Ute

    2008-07-11

    It is investigated whether those relationships derived within an optimization scheme developed previously to optimize separations in micellar electrokinetic chromatography can be used to model effective electrophoretic mobilities of analytes strongly differing in their properties (polarity and type of interaction with the pseudostationary phase). The modeling is based on two parameter sets: (i) carbon number equivalents or octanol-water partition coefficients as analyte descriptors and (ii) four coefficients describing properties of the separation electrolyte (based on retention data for a homologous series of alkyl phenyl ketones used as reference analytes). The applicability of the proposed model is validated comparing experimental and calculated effective electrophoretic mobilities. The results demonstrate that the model can effectively be used to predict effective electrophoretic mobilities of neutral analytes from the determined carbon number equivalents or from octanol-water partition coefficients provided that the solvation parameters of the analytes of interest are similar to those of the reference analytes.

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of Germanium(IV)-polyphenol complexes as potential anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Pi, Jiang; Zeng, Jing; Luo, Jian-Jun; Yang, Pei-Hui; Cai, Ji-Ye

    2013-05-15

    Germanium (Ge) is considered to play a key role in the pharmacological effects of some medicinal plants. Here, two new Ge(IV)-polyphenol complexes were synthesized and measured for their potential biological activities. The results indicated that these Ge(IV)-polyphenol complexes possessed great anti-oxidative activities, both showing stronger hydroxyl scavenging effects than their corresponding ligands. We also demonstrated the strong intercalating abilities of Ge(IV)-polyphenol complexes into calf thymus-DNA molecules. In addition, these two Ge(IV)-polyphenol complexes showed strong proliferative inhibition effect on HepG2 cancer cells. Moreover, the morphological changes in HepG2 cells induced by Ge(IV)-polyphenol complexes were detected by atomic force microscopy. All these results collectively suggested that Ge(IV)-polyphenol complexes could be served as promising pharmacologically active substances against cancer treatment.

  16. Nonlinear mixed-effects models for pharmacokinetic data analysis: assessment of the random-effects distribution.

    PubMed

    Drikvandi, Reza

    2017-02-13

    Nonlinear mixed-effects models are frequently used for pharmacokinetic data analysis, and they account for inter-subject variability in pharmacokinetic parameters by incorporating subject-specific random effects into the model. The random effects are often assumed to follow a (multivariate) normal distribution. However, many articles have shown that misspecifying the random-effects distribution can introduce bias in the estimates of parameters and affect inferences about the random effects themselves, such as estimation of the inter-subject variability. Because random effects are unobservable latent variables, it is difficult to assess their distribution. In a recent paper we developed a diagnostic tool based on the so-called gradient function to assess the random-effects distribution in mixed models. There we evaluated the gradient function for generalized liner mixed models and in the presence of a single random effect. However, assessing the random-effects distribution in nonlinear mixed-effects models is more challenging, especially when multiple random effects are present, and therefore the results from linear and generalized linear mixed models may not be valid for such nonlinear models. In this paper, we further investigate the gradient function and evaluate its performance for such nonlinear mixed-effects models which are common in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We use simulations as well as real data from an intensive pharmacokinetic study to illustrate the proposed diagnostic tool.

  17. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA): A Practical and Cost Effective Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Lydia L.; Ingegneri, Antonino J.; Djam, Melody

    2006-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first mission of the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP), a space exploration venture to the Moon, Mars and beyond. The LRO mission includes spacecraft developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and seven instruments built by GSFC, Russia, and contractors across the nation. LRO is defined as a measurement mission, not a science mission. It emphasizes the overall objectives of obtaining data to facilitate returning mankind safely to the Moon in preparation for an eventual manned mission to Mars. As the first mission in response to the President's commitment of the journey of exploring the solar system and beyond: returning to the Moon in the next decade, then venturing further into the solar system, ultimately sending humans to Mars and beyond, LRO has high-visibility to the public but limited resources and a tight schedule. This paper demonstrates how NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission project office incorporated reliability analyses in assessing risks and performing design tradeoffs to ensure mission success. Risk assessment is performed using NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.5 - Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Procedures for NASA Programs and Projects to formulate probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). As required, a limited scope PRA is being performed for the LRO project. The PRA is used to optimize the mission design within mandated budget, manpower, and schedule constraints. The technique that LRO project office uses to perform PRA relies on the application of a component failure database to quantify the potential mission success risks. To ensure mission success in an efficient manner, low cost and tight schedule, the traditional reliability analyses, such as reliability predictions, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), are used to perform PRA for the large system of LRO with more than 14,000 piece parts and over 120 purchased or contractor

  18. Decreasing IV Infiltrates in the Pediatric Patient--System-Based Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Major, Tracie Wilt; Huey, Tricia K

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous infiltrates pose tremendous risk for the hospitalized pediatric patient. Infiltrate events increase hospital-acquired harm, the number of painful procedures, use of supplies, length of stay, and nursing time; it threatens relationships essential in patient- and family-centered care. The goal of this quality improvement project was to achieve a 10% decrease in the baseline infiltrate rate on two inpatient units and in the overall infiltrate rate across all of the pediatric units. A Lean Six Sigma methodology was used to guide project activities. Improvement strategies focused on evidence-based education, intravenous (IV) catheter securement, and family engagement. A comparative purposive sample was used to evaluate the pre- and post-implementation period to determine if desired project success measures were achieved. Data analysis revealed positive results across all units, with the number of events (n = 51 pre; n = 19 post) and the infiltration rates (13.5 pre; 7.1 post) decreasing over a three-month period. A decrease was also noted in the overall percent of IVs that infiltrated in the first 24 hours (45% pre; 42% post). A statistically significant increase (t = 15.16; p < 0.001) was noted in nurses' education pre- and post-assessment survey scores. The family engagement strategy revealed overall parental responses to be 88% positive. By decreasing infiltrates, quality of care improved, resulting in the delivery of safe, effective, and patient-centered IV therapy.

  19. Construction of river model biofilm for assessing pesticide effects.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shohei; Jang, Ji Eun; Itoh, Kazuhito; Suyama, Kousuke; Yamamoto, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Due to the high importance of biofilms on river ecosystems, assessment of pesticides' adverse effects is necessary but is impaired by high variability and poor reproducibility of both natural biofilms and those developed in the laboratory. We constructed a model biofilm to evaluate the effects of pesticides, consisting in cultured microbial strains, Pedobacter sp. 7-11, Aquaspirillum sp. T-5, Stenotrophomonas sp. 3-7, Achnanthes minutissima N71, Nitzschia palea N489, and/or Cyclotella meneghiniana N803. Microbial cell numbers, esterase activity, chlorophyll-a content, and the community structure of the model biofilm were examined and found to be useful as biological factors for evaluating the pesticide effects. The model biofilm was formed through the cooperative interaction of bacteria and diatoms, and a preliminary experiment using the herbicide atrazine, which inhibits diatom growth, indicated that the adverse effect on diatoms inhibited indirectly the bacterial growth and activity and, thus, the formation of the model biofilm. Toxicological tests using model biofilms could be useful for evaluating the pesticide effects and complementary to studies on actual river biofilms.

  20. Paraho environmental data. Part IV. Land reclamation and revegetation. Part V. Biological effects. Part VI. Occupational health and safety. Part VII. End use

    SciTech Connect

    Limbach, L.K.

    1982-06-01

    Characteristics of the environment and ecosystems at Anvil Points, reclamation of retorted shale, revegetation of retorted shale, and ecological effects of retorted shale are reported in the first section of this report. Methods used in screening shale oil and retort water for mutagens and carcinogens as well as toxicity studies are reported in the second section of this report. The third section contains information concerning the industrial hygiene and medical studies made at Anvil Points during Paraho research operations. The last section discusses the end uses of shale crude oil and possible health effects associated with end use. (DMC)

  1. Atmosphere of Mars: Mariner IV Models Compared.

    PubMed

    Fjeldbo, G; Fjeldbo, W C; Eshleman, V R

    1966-09-23

    Three classes of models for the atmosphere of Mars differ in identifying the main ionospheric layer measured by Mariner IV as being analogous to a terrestrial F(2), F(1), or E layer. At an altitude of several hundred kilometers, the relative atmospheric mass densities for these models (in the order named) are approximately 1, 10(2), and 10(4), and the temperatures are roughly 100 degrees , 200 degrees , and 400 degrees K. Theory and observation are in best agreement for an F, s model, for which photodissociation of CO(2), and diffusive separation result in an atomic-oxygen upper atmosphere, with O(+) being the principal ion in the isothermal topside of the ionosphere. The mesopause temperature minimum would be at or below the freezing point of CO(2), and dry ice particles would be expected to form. However, an F(1) model, with molecular ions in a mixed and warmer upper atmosphere, might result if photodissociation and diffusive separation are markedly less than would be expected from analogy with Earth's upper atmosphere. The E model proposed by Chamberlain and McElroy appears very unlikely; it is not compatible with the measured ionization profile unless rather unlikely assumptions are made about the values, and changes with height, of the effective recombination coefficient and the average ion mass. Moreover our theoretical heat-budget computations for the atmospheric region probed by Mariner IV indicate markedly lower temperatures and temperature gradients than were obtained for the E model.

  2. DSM-IV Diagnoses and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children Before and 1 Year after Adenotonsillectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, James E.; Blunden, Sarah; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Guire, Kenneth E.; Champine, Donna; Weatherly, Robert A.; Hodges, Elise K.; Giordani, Bruno J.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    DSM-IV criteria-based psychiatric diagnoses done in children before and one year after adenotonsillectomy are assessed to record any improvement in behavior. It is found that surgery might be associated with reduced behavioral morbidity.

  3. Bringing science into river systems cumulative effects assessment practice

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Nicole E.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Noble, Bram F.

    2011-04-15

    Fast-paced watershed change, driven by anthropogenic development, is threatening the sustainability of freshwater resources across the globe. Developments within watersheds interact in a manner that is additive and synergistic over space and time. Such cumulative environmental effects are defined as the results of actions that are individually minor but collectively significant when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions. Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) then is broadly defined as the process of evaluating the potential impacts of such collective actions on the environment and is a requirement in many countries, including in Canada at the federal level under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. However, current approaches to CEA for river systems are proving to be ineffective, which is largely attributed to the disconnect between CEA science and practice. We highlight this gap herein by discussing contradictions in the CEA literature, challenges in quantifying cumulative interactions, including overcoming spatiotemporal scale issues, multiple hydrologic and ecological pathways, and lack of predictive analysis. Our analysis shows there is a need for improved CEA for river systems, and in responding to this need we propose a conceptual framework for better integrating science and practice for improved CEA for river systems using one of the most adversely affected rivers basins in Canada, the Athabasca River, as our model. We conclude by addressing the challenges inherent to CEA with the intent of providing scientists with ways to help improve CEA of river systems.

  4. Lifetime Prevalence of DSM-IV Mental Disorders Among New Soldiers in the U.S. Army: Results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    attention - deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The SUD assessment included not only illicit drugs but also...oppositional defiant disorder ; SUD, substance use disorder ; ADHD, attention - deficit / hyperactivity disorder . ∗Significant difference between the NSS Regular...total number of years since onset. bPersistence of attention - deficit / hyperactivity disorder is not assessed by the CIDI screening scales and is

  5. How Effective Are Self- and Peer Assessment of Oral Presentation Skills Compared with Teachers' Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grez, Luc; Valcke, Martin; Roozen, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of oral presentation skills is an underexplored area. The study described here focuses on the agreement between professional assessment and self- and peer assessment of oral presentation skills and explores student perceptions about peer assessment. The study has the merit of paying attention to the inter-rater reliability of the…

  6. Non-LTE Models and Theoretical Spectra of Accretion Disks in Active Galactic Nuclei. IV. Effects of Compton Scattering and Metal Opacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubeny, Ivan; Blaes, Omer; Krolik, Julian H.; Agol, Eric

    2001-10-01

    We extend our models of the vertical structure and emergent radiation field of accretion disks around supermassive black holes described in previous papers of this series. Our models now include both a self-consistent treatment of Compton scattering and the effects of continuum opacities of the most important metal species (C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, Ni). With these new effects incorporated, we compute the predicted spectrum from black holes accreting at nearly the Eddington luminosity (L/LEdd~0.3) and central masses of 106, 107, and 108 Msolar. We also consider two values of the Shakura-Sunyaev α parameter, 0.1 and 0.01, but in contrast to our previous papers, we consider a kinematic viscosity that is independent of depth. Although it has little effect when M>108 Msolar, Comptonization grows in importance as the central mass decreases and the central temperature rises. It generally produces an increase in temperature with height in the uppermost layers of hot atmospheres. Compared to models with coherent electron scattering, Comptonized models have enhanced extreme ultraviolet/soft X-ray emission, but they also have a more sharply declining spectrum at very high frequencies. Comptonization also smears the hydrogen and the He II Lyman edges. The effects of metals on the overall spectral energy distribution are smaller than the effects of Comptonization for these parameters. Compared to pure hydrogen-helium models, models with metal-continuum opacities have reduced flux in the high-frequency tail, except at the highest frequencies, where the flux is very low. Metal photoionization edges are not present in the overall disk-integrated model spectra. The viscosity parameter α has a more dramatic effect on the emergent spectrum than do metal-continuum opacities. As α increases (and therefore the disk column density decreases), the flux at both the high- and low-frequency extremes of the spectrum increases, while the flux near the peak decreases

  7. Food proteins and gut mucosal barrier. IV. Effects of acute and chronic ethanol administration on handling and uptake of bovine serum albumin by rat small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.; Carter, E.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1986-11-01

    The effects of ethanol exposure on small intestinal handling and uptake of radiolabeled bovine serum albumin were investigated using everted gut sacs. There was less breakdown of BSA after acute ethanol administration in vitro and after acute and chronic in vivo exposure. Thus, the vascular compartment of the small intestine was confronted with more complete and potentially more antigenic material after ethanol. Changes in BSA binding and uptake after acute exposure were shown to be reversible after 4-6 hr. In all groups, there was more BSA binding when the small intestine was exposed to ethanol. This difference was most pronounced after chronic exposure. In the same group, uptake of BSA was correlated with binding and significantly increased. Combined effects of ethanol on the gut mucosal barrier may account for changes in food antigen handling and uptake.

  8. Embryotoxic effects of thalidomide derivatives in the non-human primate callithrix jacchus. IV. Teratogenicity of micrograms/kg doses of the EM12 enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Heger, W; Schmahl, H J; Klug, S; Felies, A; Nau, H; Merker, H J; Neubert, D

    1994-01-01

    The dose-response of the teratogenic potency of the thalidomide (Thd) derivative EM12 was evaluated in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The smallest daily dose found to be effective was 30 micrograms EM12/kg body wt. This is the lowest dose of a Thd derivative ever reported to induce severe skeletal abnormalities. Ten micrograms EM12/kg body wt may be considered the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) under the experimental conditions chosen. The teratogenic potencies of the two EM12 enantiomers were tested at 100 micrograms/kg body wt, the dose which just induces an almost 100% effect in the case of the racemate. The S(-)-EM12 was found to induce typical severe limb abnormalities such as amelia, phocomelia, and radius aplasia, and none of the exposed fetuses were devoid of skeletal defects. In contrast, only few and minor skeletal defects were observed after application of the R(+) enantiomer. Although a pronounced teratogenic potency of the R(+)-EM12 can now largely be excluded, these low-dose studies are not sufficient to completely rule out any teratogenic potential of this enantiomer, since racemisation to small amounts of the S(-) form may occur in vivo. Further studies with Thd derivatives which are unable to racemise are necessary to prove the assumed complete ineffectiveness of the R(+) enantiomers.

  9. Immunohistochemical analysis of collagen types I, III, IV and alpha-actin in the urethra of sexually intact and ovariectomized beagles.

    PubMed

    Augsburger, Heinz R; Oswald, Marianne

    2007-09-01

    Urinary incontinence is a widespread problem in both postmenopausal women and ovariectomized dogs. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of ovariectomy on the immunoreactivity and the distribution pattern of collagens I, III, IV and alpha-actin in the canine urethra. The immunohistochemical results were evaluated in five sexually intact and five ovariectomized beagles. The immunostaining of both collagens I and III delineated urethral connective tissue fibres and co-localized within in the fibres of both groups. The basement membranes of smooth muscle cells and sinusoids showed marked type IV collagen expression, whereas only faint immunoreactivity was present at the urothelial-stromal interface. No differences could be detected in the expression or distribution of the assessed collagen types and actin between ovariectomized and control animals. In conclusion, ovariectomy does not appear to have an effect on urethral collagens I, III, IV and smooth muscle actin in the dog, as ascertained by immunohistochemistry.

  10. Phase Diagram Calculation of Gas Mixtures for Refrigeration; Reflection & Transmission Coefficients and the Effective Mass: Superconducting Proximity I-V Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedmann, Gideon

    The efficiency of Joule-Thomson refrigerators greatly improves with the addition of hydrocarbons to nitrogen as coolant, and is highly dependent on the mixture composition. To optimize it, we calculated the mixture phase diagram using the Peng-Robinson equation of state. A program was developed to solve numerically a set of coupled non-linear equations for the equilibrium of the vapor and liquid phases of each mixture component. The program is highly efficient, quite stable, and reliable. Gases can be easily added to the program's database. We found that the cooling efficiency of the mixtures has a sharp ridge in composition space, and explain this. To better understand tunneling spectra of the high T_{rm c} cuprate superconductors, we analyzed the one-dimensional behavior of the wavefunction of a free particle striking a crystal interface. We describe the free particle using a wavepacket of plane waves, and the crystal using the Kronig-Penney model. We find that when the wavepacket is spread over many unit cells, it behaves like a free particle wavepacket striking a small potential step. The reflection and transmission coefficients are derived and one finds that they do not contain the particle's effective mass. We determine that the boundary conditions used in a standard effective mass approach must be modified to make it work. We conclude that one should not use the effective mass approximation in treating high T_{rm c} superconductor interfaces. We measured the dynamic resistance of a superconducting -normal metal-normal metal (SNN') geometry and observed that N', a superconductor at low enough temperatures, displays superconducting properties above its critical temperature. They disappear well below the critical temperature of S. We present a simple model of the proximity effect, which is self-consistent at any temperature and good for arbitrary thicknesses of N. The model shows how the superconducting gap decays with the distance from S. We observe that the

  11. Evaluating Environmental Knowledge Dimension Convergence to Assess Educational Programme Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liefländer, Anne K.; Bogner, Franz X.; Kibbe, Alexandra; Kaiser, Florian G.

    2015-03-01

    One aim of environmental education is fostering sustainable environmental action. Some environmental behaviour models suggest that this can be accomplished in part by improving people's knowledge. Recent studies have identified a distinct, psychometrically supported environmental knowledge structure consisting of system, action-related and effectiveness knowledge. Besides system knowledge, which is most often the focus of such studies, incorporating the other knowledge dimensions into these dimensions was suggested to enhance effectiveness. Our study is among the first to implement these dimensions together in an educational campaign and to use these dimensions to evaluate the effectiveness of a programme on water issues. We designed a four-day environmental education programme on water issues for students at an educational field centre. We applied a newly developed multiple-choice instrument using a pre-, post-, retention test design. The knowledge scales were calibrated with the Rasch model. In addition to the commonly assessed individual change in knowledge level, we also measured the change in knowledge convergence, the extent to which the knowledge dimensions merge as a person's environmental knowledge increases, as an innovative indicator of educational success. Following programme participation, students significantly improved in terms of amount learned in each knowledge dimension and in terms of integration of the knowledge dimensions. The effectiveness knowledge shows the least gain, persistence and convergence, which we explain by considering the dependence of the knowledge dimensions on each other. Finally, we discuss emerging challenges for educational researchers and practical implications for environmental educators.

  12. Adaptation of intestinal production of apolipoprotein A-IV during chronic feeding of lipid.

    PubMed

    Kalogeris, T J; Painter, R G

    2001-04-01

    We examined the effect of daily fat supplementation on intestinal gene expression and protein synthesis and plasma levels of apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV). Rats were fasted overnight and then given intragastric bolus infusion of either saline or fat emulsion after 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 days of similar daily feedings. Four hours after the final saline or fat infusion, plasma and jejunal mucosa were harvested; plasma levels of apo A-IV, triglycerides, and leptin were measured, as well as mucosal apo A-IV mRNA levels and biosynthesis of apo A-IV protein. In response to fat, plasma apo A-IV showed an initial 40% increase compared with saline-injected control rats; with continued daily fat feeding, the plasma A-IV response showed rapid and progressive diminution such that by 4 days, plasma A-IV was not different between fat- and saline-fed groups. Jejunal mucosal apo A-IV synthesis and mRNA levels also showed time-dependent refractoriness to fat feeding. However, the kinetics of this effect were considerably slower than in the case of plasma, requiring 16 days for completion. There was no correlation between plasma leptin or triglyceride levels and intestinal apo A-IV synthesis or plasma apo A-IV. These results indicate rapid, fat-induced, posttranslational adapation of plasma apo A-IV levels and a slower, but similarly complete pretranslational adaptation of intestinal apo A-IV production, which are independent of plasma levels of leptin.

  13. An analysis of the effects on precipitation chemistry of Phase I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Title IV

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.A.; Grimm, J.W.; Bowersox, V.C.

    1997-12-31

    Sulfate and free hydrogen ion concentrations in precipitation decreased 10 to 25 percent over large areas of the eastern United States in 1995. The largest decreases in both ions occurred in and downwind of the Ohio River Valley, the same area where Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments set limitations, effective January 1, 1995, on sulfur dioxide emissions from affected coal-fired sources. Based on the authors analysis of precipitation chemistry and emissions data, they conclude that substantial declines in acid rain occurred in the eastern United States in 1995 because of large reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions in the same region.

  14. Contaminants as viral cofactors: assessing indirect population effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springman, Katherine R.; Kurath, Gael; Anderson, James J.; Emlen, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Current toxicological methods often miss contaminant effects, particularly when immune suppression is involved. The failure to recognize and evaluate indirect and sublethal effects severely limits the applicability of those methods at the population level. In this study, the Vitality model is used to evaluate the population level effects of a contaminant exerting only indirect, sublethal effects at the individual level. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with 2.5 or 10.0 mg/kg doses of the model CYP1A inducer, β-naphthoflavone (BNF) as a pre-stressor, then exposed to a challenge dose of 102 or 104 pfu/fish of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), an important viral pathogen of salmonids in North America. At the end of the 28-d challenge, the mortality data were processed according to the Vitality model which indicated that the correlation between the average rate of vitality loss and the pre-stressor dose was strong:R2 = 0.9944. Average time to death and cumulative mortality were dependent on the BNF dose, while no significant difference between the two viral dosages was shown, implying that the history of the organism at the time of stressor exposure is an important factor in determining the virulence or toxicity of the stressor. The conceptual framework of this model permits a smoother transfer of results to a more complex stratum, namely the population level, which allows the immunosuppressive results generated by doses of a CYP1A inducer that more accurately represent the effects elicited by environmentally-relevant contaminant concentrations to be extrapolated to target populations. The indirect effects of other environmental contaminants with similar biotransformation pathways, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), could be assessed and quantified with this model and the results applied to a more complex biological hierarchy.

  15. Optical and Infrared Interferometry IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Jayadev K.; Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.; Malbet, Fabien

    2014-08-01

    Optical and IR Interferometry IV at the SPIE 2014 symposium in Montreal had a strong and vibrant program. After initial fears about budget cuts and travel-funding constraints, the Program Committee had to work hard to accommodate as many quality submissions as possible. Innovative, creative and visionary work ensured that the field has progressed well, despite the bleak funding climate felt in the US, Europe and elsewhere. Montreal proved an excellent venue for this, the largest of Interferometry conferences and the only one that brings together practitioners from the world over. Let us summarize a few highlights to convey a glimpse of the excitement that is detailed in the rest of these Proceedings.

  16. The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

  17. Free-Spinning Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Low-Wing Monoplane with Systematic Changes in Wings and Tails IV : Effect of Center-of-Gravity Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidman, Oscar; Neihouse, A I

    1939-01-01

    Eight wings and three tails, covering a wide range of aerodynamic characteristics, were independently ballasted so as to be interchangeable with no change in mass distribution. For each of the 24 resulting wing-tail combinations, observations were made of the steady spin for four control settings and of recoveries for five control manipulations. The results are presented in the form of charts comparing the spin characteristics. The tests are part of a general investigation being made in the NACA free-spinning tunnel to determine the effects of systematic changes in wing and tail arrangement upon the steady-spin and the recovery characteristics of a conventional low-wing monoplane for various load distributions.

  18. Assessing the cumulative effects of projects using geographic information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, Samuel F.; Canter, Larry W.

    2011-09-15

    Systems that allow users to store and retrieve spatial data, provide for analyses of spatial data, and offer highly detailed display of spatial data are referred to as geographic information systems, or more typically, GIS. Since their initial usage in the 1960s, GISs have evolved as a means of assembling and analyzing diverse data pertaining to specific geographical areas, with spatial locations of the data serving as the organizational basis for the information systems. The structure of GISs is built around spatial identifiers and the methods used to encode data for storage and manipulation. This paper examines how GIS has been used in typical environmental assessment, its use for cumulative impact assessment, and explores litigation that occurred in the United States Federal court system where GIS was used in some aspect of cumulative effects. The paper also summarizes fifteen case studies that range from area wide transportation planning to wildlife and habitat impacts, and draws together a few lessons learned from this review of literature and litigation.

  19. Assessing the effect of increased managed care on hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mowll, C A

    1998-01-01

    This study uses a new relative risk methodology developed by the author to assess and compare certain performance indicators to determine a hospital's relative degree of financial vulnerability, based on its location, to the effects of increased managed care market penetration. The study also compares nine financial measures to determine whether hospital in states with a high degree of managed-care market penetration experience lower levels of profitability, liquidity, debt service, and overall viability than hospitals in low managed care states. A Managed Care Relative Financial Risk Assessment methodology composed of nine measures of hospital financial and utilization performance is used to develop a high managed care state Composite Index and to determine the Relative Financial Risk and the Overall Risk Ratio for hospitals in a particular state. Additionally, financial performance of hospitals in the five highest managed care states is compared to hospitals in the five lowest states. While data from Colorado and Massachusetts indicates that hospital profitability diminishes as the level of managed care market penetration increases, the overall study results indicate that hospitals in high managed care states demonstrate a better cash position and higher profitability than hospitals in low managed care states. Hospitals in high managed care states are, however, more heavily indebted in relation to equity and have a weaker debt service coverage capacity. Moreover, the overall financial health and viability of hospitals in high managed care states is superior to that of hospitals in low managed care states.

  20. Endonuclease IV of Escherichia coli is induced by paraquat

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, E.; Weiss, B.

    1987-05-01

    The addition of paraquat (methyl viologen) to a growing culture of Escherichia coli K-12 led within 1 hr to a 10- to 20-fold increase in the level of endonuclease IV, a DNase for apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. The induction was blocked by chloramphenicol. Increases of 3-fold or more were also seen with plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate. H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ produced no more than a 2-fold increase in endonuclease IV activity. The following agents had no significant effect: streptonigrin, nitrofurantoin, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, ..gamma.. rays, 260-nm UV radiation, methyl methanesulfonate, mitomycin C, and ascorbate. Paraquat, plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate are known to generate superoxide radical anions via redox cycling in vivo. A mutant lacking superoxide dismutase was unusually sensitive to induction by paraquat. In addition, endonuclease IV could be induced by merely growing the mutant in pure O/sub 2/. The levels of endonuclease IV in uninduced or paraquat-treated cells were unaffected by mutations of oxyR, a H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-inducible gene that governs an oxidative-stress regulon. The results indicate that endonuclease IV is an inducible DNA-repair enzyme and that its induction can be mediated via the production of superoxide radicals.

  1. Teaching solar cell I-V characteristics using SPICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devasia, Archana; Kurinec, Santosh K.

    2011-12-01

    The basic equivalent circuit of a p-n junction solar cell is most commonly represented as consisting of a current source in parallel with two diodes and two parasitic resistances. The output of a solar cell is measured by obtaining the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for different illumination intensities, and various parameters are extracted from these characteristics. Because the nature of the information derived from these characteristics is not obvious to the beginning students in photovoltaics, a simulation using SPICE was utilized to explain three solar cell I-V characteristics—dark I-V, illuminated I-V, and open circuit voltage versus the short circuit current (illumination intensity). Students can construct a solar cell and study the effect of the diode and parasitic parameters on the three output I-V characteristics. Series and parallel combinations of solar cells for arrays and modules using bypass diodes are demonstrated using SPICE as educational tools for understanding the role of bypass diodes.

  2. Astragaloside IV ameliorates renal injury in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Huili; Wang, Wenjing; Han, Pengxun; Shao, Mumin; Song, Gaofeng; Du, Heng; Yi, Tiegang; Li, Shunmin

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a lethal complication of diabetes mellitus and a major type of chronic kidney disease. Dysregulation of the Akt pathway and its downstream cascades, including mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2, play a critical role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Astragaloside IV is a major component of Huangqi and exerts renal protection in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. The current study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of diet supplementation of AS-IV on renal injury in db/db mice, a type 2 diabetic mouse model. Results showed that administration of AS-IV reduced albuminuria, ameliorated changes in the glomerular and tubular pathology, and decreased urinary NAG, NGAL, and TGF-β1 in db/db mice. AS-IV also attenuated the diabetes-related activation of Akt/mTOR, NFκB, and Erk1/2 signaling pathways without causing any detectable hepatotoxicity. Collectively, these findings showed AS-IV to be beneficial to type 2 diabetic nephropathy, which might be associated with the inhibition of Akt/mTOR, NFκB and Erk1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:27585918

  3. Assessing Model Treatment of Drought Legacy Effects in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolus, H. R.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C.; Fisher, J. B.; Cook, R. B.; Fang, Y.; Jacobson, A. R.; Michalak, A.; Schaefer, K. M.; Wei, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme climate events play an important and potentially lasting role in terrestrial carbon cycling and storage. In particular, satellite and in-situ measurements have shown that forest recovery time following severe drought can extend several years beyond the return to normal climate conditions. However, terrestrial ecosystem models generally do not account for the physiological mechanisms that cause these legacy effects and, instead, assume complete and rapid vegetation recovery from drought. Using a suite of fifteen land surface models from the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP), we assess models' ability to capture legacy effects by analyzing the spatial and temporal extent of modeled vegetation response to the 2005 Amazon drought. We compare the simulated primary production and ecosystem exchange (GPP, NPP, NEE) to previous recovery-focused analysis of satellite microwave observations of canopy backscatter. Further, we evaluate the specific model characteristics that control the timescale and magnitude of simulated vegetation recovery from drought. Since climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of extreme climate events, improving models' ability to simulate the legacy effects of these events will likely refine estimates of the land carbon sink and its interannual variability.

  4. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland.

  5. Assessing effects of cholera vaccination in the presence of interference.

    PubMed

    Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Hudgens, Michael G; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Clemens, John D; Ali, Mohammad; Emch, Michael E

    2014-09-01

    Interference occurs when the treatment of one person affects the outcome of another. For example, in infectious diseases, whether one individual is vaccinated may affect whether another individual becomes infected or develops disease. Quantifying such indirect (or spillover) effects of vaccination could have important public health or policy implications. In this article we use recently developed inverse-probability weighted (IPW) estimators of treatment effects in the presence of interference to analyze an individually-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of cholera vaccination that targeted 121,982 individuals in Matlab, Bangladesh. Because these IPW estimators have not been employed previously, a simulation study was also conducted to assess the empirical behavior of the estimators in settings similar to the cholera vaccine trial. Simulation study results demonstrate the IPW estimators can yield unbiased estimates of the direct, indirect, total, and overall effects of vaccination when there is interference provided the untestable no unmeasured confounders assumption holds and the group-level propensity score model is correctly specified. Application of the IPW estimators to the cholera vaccine trial indicates the presence of interference. For example, the IPW estimates suggest on average 5.29 fewer cases of cholera per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval 2.61, 7.96) will occur among unvaccinated individuals within neighborhoods with 60% vaccine coverage compared to neighborhoods with 32% coverage. Our analysis also demonstrates how not accounting for interference can render misleading conclusions about the public health utility of vaccination.

  6. Scientific Analysis Is Essential to Assess Biofuel Policy Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Keith L; Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Dale, Virginia H; McBride, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Land-use change (LUC) estimated by economic models has sparked intense international debate. Models estimate how much LUC might be induced under prescribed scenarios and rely on assumptions to generate LUC values. It is critical to test and validate underlying assumptions with empirical evidence. Furthermore, this modeling approach cannot answer if any specific indirect effects are actually caused by biofuel policy. The best way to resolve questions of causation is via scientific methods. Kim and Dale attempt to address the question of if, rather than how much, market-induced land-use change is currently detectable based on the analysis of historic evidence, and in doing so, explore some modeling assumptions behind the drivers of change. Given that there is no accepted approach to estimate the global effects of biofuel policy on land-use change, it is critical to assess the actual effects of policies through careful analysis and interpretation of empirical data. Decision makers need a valid scientific basis for policy decisions on energy choices.

  7. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-07-15

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  8. Assessing the sensitivity of methods for estimating principal causal effects.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Elizabeth A; Jo, Booil

    2015-12-01

    The framework of principal stratification provides a way to think about treatment effects conditional on post-randomization variables, such as level of compliance. In particular, the complier average causal effect (CACE) - the effect of the treatment for those individuals who would comply with their treatment assignment under either treatment condition - is often of substantive interest. However, estimation of the CACE is not always straightforward, with a variety of estimation procedures and underlying assumptions, but little advice to help researchers select between methods. In this article, we discuss and examine two methods that rely on very different assumptions to estimate the CACE: a maximum likelihood ('joint') method that assumes the 'exclusion restriction,' (ER) and a propensity score-based method that relies on 'principal ignorability.' We detail the assumptions underlying each approach, and assess each methods' sensitivity to both its own assumptions and those of the other method using both simulated data and a motivating example. We find that the ER-based joint approach appears somewhat less sensitive to its assumptions, and that the performance of both methods is significantly improved when there are strong predictors of compliance. Interestingly, we also find that each method performs particularly well when the assumptions of the other approach are violated. These results highlight the importance of carefully selecting an estimation procedure whose assumptions are likely to be satisfied in practice and of having strong predictors of principal stratum membership.

  9. To Assess the Effect of Maternal BMI on Obstetrical Outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhanpal, Shuchi; Aggarwal, Asha; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2012-06-01

    AIMS: To assess the effect of maternal BMI on complications in pregnancy, mode of delivery, complications of labour and delivery.METHODS:A crossectional study was carried out in the Obst and Gynae department, Kasturba Hospital, Delhi. The study enrolled 100 pregnant women. They were divided into 2 groups based on their BMI, more than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 were categorized as obese and less than 30 kg/m2 as non obese respectively. Maternal complications in both types of patients were studied.RESULTS:CONCLUSION: As the obstetrical outcome is significantly altered due to obesity, we can improve maternal outcome by overcoming obesity. As obesity is a modifiable risk factor, preconception counseling creating awareness regarding health risk associated with obesity should be encouraged and obstetrical complications reduced.

  10. Personality Profiles of Effective Leadership Performance in Assessment Centers

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Alissa D.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Bernthal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most research examining the relationship between effective leadership and personality has focused on individual personality traits. However, profiles of personality traits more fully describe individuals, and these profiles may be important as they relate to leadership. This study used latent class analysis to examine how personality traits combine and interact to form subpopulations of leaders, and how these subpopulations relate to performance criteria. Using a sample of 2,461 executive-level leaders, six personality profiles were identified: Unpredictable Leaders with Low Diligence (7.3%); Conscientious, Backend Leaders (3.6%); Unpredictable Leaders (8.6%); Creative Communicators (20.8%); Power Players (32.4%); and Protocol Followers (27.1%). One profile performed well on all criteria in an assessment center; remaining profiles exhibited strengths and weaknesses across criteria. Implications and future directions for research are highlighted. PMID:27746587

  11. Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reising, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Argues (guided by "The Challenge of Change: Assessment in the 21st Century") that in the decades ahead, assessment will play an unprecedented role as the vehicle that will influence and guide scheduling, curriculum, and instruction. (SR)

  12. The Calibration of Student Judgement through Self-Assessment: Disruptive Effects of Assessment Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boud, David; Lawson, Romy; Thompson, Darrall G.

    2015-01-01

    Can extended opportunities for self-assessment over time help students develop the capacity to make better judgements about their work? Using evidence gathered through students' voluntary self-assessment of their performance with respect to assessment tasks in two different disciplines at two Australian universities, the paper focuses on the…

  13. Effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate: IV. Feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk production in milking cows.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Rowlinson, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Four early-lactation crossbred cows (82.5 % Holstein) were selected to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on rumen fermentation and milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source: cassava chip (CC) and CC + rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was variation in the level of cottonseed meal (CM): low (LCM) and high (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (180 g CP/kg DM). It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition, or economic return (P > 0.05). However, cows fed with CC had a higher population of amylolytic bacteria than cows fed with CR3:1 (P < 0.05). Cows fed with HCM had a higher total feed intake, milk yield and composition, and milk income when compared with cows fed on LCM although the concentrate and roughage intakes, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, and microbial populations were similar between treatments (P > 0.05). In addition, the carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level interactions were not significant for any parameter. It could be concluded that cassava chip and high level of cottonseed meal could usefully be incorporated into concentrates for dairy cows without impacting on rumen fermentation or milk production.

  14. Distinctive Finite Size Effects on the Phase Diagram and Metal-insulator Transitions of Tungsten-doped Vanadium(IV) Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    L Whittaker; T Wu; C Patridge; S Ganapathy; S Banerjee

    2011-12-31

    The influence of finite size in altering the phase stabilities of strongly correlated materials gives rise to the interesting prospect of achieving additional tunability of solid-solid phase transitions such as those involved in metal-insulator switching, ferroelectricity, and superconductivity. We note here some distinctive finite size effects on the relative phase stabilities of insulating (monoclinic) and metallic (tetragonal) phases of solid-solution W{sub x}V{sub 1-x}O{sub 2}. Ensemble differential scanning calorimetry and individual nanobelt electrical transport measurements suggest a pronounced hysteresis between metal {yields} insulator and insulator {yields} metal phase transformations. Both transitions are depressed to lower critical temperatures upon the incorporation of substitutional tungsten dopants but the impact on the former transition seems far more prominent. In general, the depression in the critical temperatures upon tungsten doping far exceeds corresponding values for bulk W{sub x}V{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} of the same composition. Notably, the depression in phase transition temperature saturates at a relatively low dopant concentration in the nanobelts, thought to be associated with the specific sites occupied by the tungsten substitutional dopants in these structures. The marked deviations from bulk behavior are rationalized in terms of a percolative model of the phase transition taking into account the nucleation of locally tetragonal domains and enhanced carrier delocalization that accompany W{sup 6+} doping in the W{sub x}V{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} nanobelts.

  15. Effects of Feeding Spodoptera littoralis on Lima Bean Leaves: IV. Diurnal and Nocturnal Damage Differentially Initiate Plant Volatile Emission1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Arimura, Gen-ichiro; Köpke, Sabrina; Kunert, Maritta; Volpe, Veronica; David, Anja; Brand, Peter; Dabrowska, Paulina; Maffei, Massimo E.; Boland, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Continuous mechanical damage initiates the rhythmic emission of volatiles in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves; the emission resembles that induced by herbivore damage. The effect of diurnal versus nocturnal damage on the initiation of plant defense responses was investigated using MecWorm, a robotic device designed to reproduce tissue damage caused by herbivore attack. Lima bean leaves that were damaged by MecWorm during the photophase emitted maximal levels of β-ocimene and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate in the late photophase. Leaves damaged during the dark phase responded with the nocturnal emission of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, but with only low amounts of β-ocimene; this emission was followed by an emission burst directly after the onset of light. In the presence of 13CO2, this light-dependent synthesis of β-ocimene resulted in incorporation of 75% to 85% of 13C, demonstrating that biosynthesis of β-ocimene is almost exclusively fueled by the photosynthetic fixation of CO2 along the plastidial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-P pathway. Jasmonic acid (JA) accumulated locally in direct response to the damage and led to immediate up-regulation of the P. lunatus β-ocimene synthase gene (PlOS) independent of the phase, that is, light or dark. Nocturnal damage caused significantly higher concentrations of JA (approximately 2–3 times) along with enhanced expression levels of PlOS. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with PlOS promoter∷β-glucuronidase fusion constructs confirmed expression of the enzyme at the wounded sites. In summary, damage-dependent JA levels directly control the expression level of PlOS, regardless of light or dark conditions, and photosynthesis is the major source for the early precursors of the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-P pathway. PMID:18165324

  16. Assessment of the effect of vasodilators on the distribution of cardiac output by whole-body Thallium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Juni, J.E.; Wallis, J.; Diltz, E.; Nicholas, J.; Lahti, D.; Pitt, B.

    1985-05-01

    Vasodilator therapy (tx) of congestive heart failure (CHF) has been shown to be effective in increasing cardiac output (CO) and lowering vascular resistance. Unfortunately, these hemodynamic effects are not usually accompanied by improved peripheral circulation of exercise capacity. To assess the effect of a new vasodilator, Cl-914, on the redistribution of CO to the peripheral circulation, the authors performed testing whole-body thallium scanning (WB-Th) on 6 patients (pts) with severe CHF. Immediately following i.v. injection of 1.5 mCi Th-201, WB scanning was performed from anterior and posterior views. Regions of interest were defined for the peripheral (P) muscles (legs and arms), central torso (C), and splanchnic bed (S). The geometric mean of activity in these regions was calculated from both views. Each pt was studied before tx and again, after 1 week on tx. Invasive measurements revealed that all pts had significant improvements in resting cardiac output (mean increase 49%) and vascular resistance (mean decrease 30%). Unlike other vasodilators, all CI-914 pts had a significant improvement in treadmill exercise capacity (mean increase 54%). WB-Th revealed a significant shift in CO to the peripheral circulation with P:C increased 33.2% (rho= .001) and P:S increased 29% (rho=.01). Vasoactive drugs may significantly alter the relative distribution of cardiac output. WB-Th scanning provides a simple quantitative means of following such changes.

  17. Study of the cerium(IV)-picrate system in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Kratochvil, B; Tipler, M; McKay, B

    1966-07-01

    A potentiometric and spectrophotometric study has been made of the reaction between hexanitratocerate and picrate in dry acetonitrile. Several cerium(IV)-picrate complexes are formed; the formation constant for the first is estimated to be 4 from spectrophotometric measurements. The catalytic effect of picrate on hydroquinone oxidation by nitratocerate is postulated to be due to more rapid electron transfer by cerium picrate complexes.

  18. Identification and characterization of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor from aronia juice.

    PubMed

    Kozuka, Miyuki; Yamane, Takuya; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Nakagaki, Takenori; Ohkubo, Iwao; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2015-09-25

    Aronia berries have many potential effects on health, including an antioxidant effect, effect for antimutagenesis, hepatoprotection and cardioprotection, an antidiabetic effect and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Previous human studies have shown that aronia juice may be useful for treatment of obesity disorders. In this study, we found that aronia juice has an inhibitory effect against dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) (EC 3.4.14.5). DPP IV is a peptidase that cleaves the N-terminal region of incretins such as glucagon-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Inactivation of incretins by DPP IV induces reduction of insulin secretion. Furthermore, we identified that cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside as the DPP IV inhibitor in aronia juice. DPP IV was inhibited more strongly by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside than by cyanidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside. The results suggest that DPP IV is inhibited by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside present in aronia juice. The antidiabetic effect of aronia juice may be mediated through DPP IV inhibition by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside.

  19. Tethys and Annex IV Progress Report for FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, Luke A.; Butner, R. Scott; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-09-01

    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System, dubbed “Tethys” after the mythical Greek titaness of the seas, is being developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind and Water Power Program (WWPP). Functioning as a smart database, Tethys enables its users to identify key words or terms to help gather, organize and make available information and data pertaining to the environmental effects of MHK and offshore wind (OSW) energy development. By providing and categorizing relevant publications within a simple and searchable database, Tethys acts as a dissemination channel for information and data which can be utilized by regulators, project developers and researchers to minimize the environmental risks associated with offshore renewable energy developments and attempt to streamline the permitting process. Tethys also houses a separate content-related Annex IV data base with identical functionality to the Tethys knowledge base. Annex IV is a collaborative project among member nations of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Ocean Energy Systems – Implementing Agreement (OES-IA) that examines the environmental effects of ocean energy devices and projects. The U.S. Department of Energy leads the Annex IV working with federal partners such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). While the Annex IV database contains technical reports and journal articles, it is primarily focused on the collection of project site and research study metadata forms (completed by MHK researchers and developers around the world, and collected by PNNL) which provide information on environmental studies and the current progress of the various international MHK developments in the Annex IV member nations. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the content

  20. sA Comparison of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Diagnostic Classifications in the Clinical Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaylaci, Ferhat; Miral, Suha

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) according to DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic systems. One hundred fifty children aged between 3 and 15 years diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR were included. PDD symptoms were reviewed through psychiatric assessment based on DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria.…

  1. Assessing Army Professional Forums Metrics for Effectiveness and Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    12 ASSESSING SOCIAL AND INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL ................................................. 16 Social and... Intellectual Capital Present in a Healthy Professional Forum ............................... 16 C o n n ectio n s...2 0 Social and Intellectual Capital - A Proposed Framework for Assessment

  2. Rorschach correlates of the DSM-IV histrionic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Blais, M A; Hilsenroth, M J; Fowler, J C

    1998-04-01

    Rorschach assessment data have long been rationally linked to the psychiatric condition of hysteria. This study represents the first empirical attempt to explore the associations among select Rorschach variables, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD) criteria, and two self-report measures of hysteria. We correlated four Rorschach variables with total symptom scores for DSM-IV Cluster B Personality Disorders (Borderline, Antisocial, Narcissistic, and Histrionic). We found two Rorschach variables, FC + CF + C and T (Exner, 1993), to be significantly and meaningfully correlated with both the DSM-IV HPD total score (number of criteria) and the individual HPD criteria. Although not significantly associated with the HPD total score, Denial (DEN; Lerner & Lerner, 1980) was associated with one individual HPD criterion. Furthermore, DEN was significantly correlated with the MMPI-2 Hysteria (Hy) scale. The results are reviewed in terms of their clinical utility and the insights they offer into the psychological characteristics of the DSM-IV HPD.

  3. Assessment of Current Knowledge about the Effectiveness of School Desegregation Strategies. Volume IV: A Practical Guide to Desegregation: Sources, Materials, and Contacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Meyer

    This volume on desegregation is divided into seven sections that outline and annotate bodies of information available from various sources. These sections include: (1) selected sources of information on various school desegregation issues; (2) "how to" sources on school desegregation; (3) sources of information on cities that have been…

  4. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  5. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Bradley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  6. Parental holding and positioning to decrease IV distress in young children: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Laurie A; Setlik, Jennifer; Luhman, Janet

    2007-12-01

    Young children are generally restrained in supine position for IV starts, a position that creates fear but is presumed necessary. This study randomly assigned children of ages 9 months to 4 years (N = 118) to being held upright by a parent or lying flat on an exam table for their IV procedure. Distress scores as rated by the Procedure Behavior Rating Scale were significantly lower in the upright positioning group (p = .000); parents were more satisfied with the upright position, and the upright position did not significantly alter the number of IV attempts needed. The upright position appears to be an effective way to decrease IV distress in young children.

  7. A methodology for assessing high intensity RF effects in aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Kunz, K.S.; Molau, N.E.; Pennock, S.T.; Poggio, A.J.; Sharpe, R.M.

    1993-07-01

    Optical components have an inherent immunity to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) associated with High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). The optical technology embodied in Fly-by-Light (FBL) might therefore minimize the effects of HIRF on digitally controlled systems while providing lifetime immunity to signal EMI. This is one of the primary motivations for developing FBL systems for aircraft. FBL has the potential to greatly simplify EMI certification by enabling technically acceptable laboratory tests of subsystems, as opposed to expensive full airplane tests. In this paper the authors describe a methodology for assessing EMI effects on FBL aircraft that reduces or potentially eliminates the need for full airplane tests. This methodology is based on comparing the applied EMI stress--the level of interference signal that arrives at a unit under test--versus the EMI strength of the unit--the interference level it can withstand without upset. This approach allows one to use computer models and/or low power coupling measurement and similarity (to other previously tested aircraft) to determine the stress applied to installed subsystems, and to use benchtop cable injection tests and/or mode stirred chamber radiated tests to determine the strength of the subsystem.

  8. Subgroup analyses of clinical effectiveness to support health technology assessments.

    PubMed

    Paget, Marie-Ange; Chuang-Stein, Christy; Fletcher, Christine; Reid, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Subgroup analysis is an integral part of access and reimbursement dossiers, in particular health technology assessment (HTA), and their HTA recommendations are often limited to subpopulations. HTA recommendations for subpopulations are not always clear and without controversies. In this paper, we review several HTA guidelines regarding subgroup analyses. We describe good statistical principles for subgroup analyses of clinical effectiveness to support HTAs and include case examples where HTA recommendations were given to subpopulations only. Unlike regulatory submissions, pharmaceutical statisticians in most companies have had limited involvement in the planning, design and preparation of HTA/payers submissions. We hope to change this by highlighting how pharmaceutical statisticians should contribute to payers' submissions. This includes early engagement in reimbursement strategy discussions to influence the design, analysis and interpretation of phase III randomized clinical trials as well as meta-analyses/network meta-analyses. The focus on this paper is on subgroup analyses relating to clinical effectiveness as we believe this is the first key step of statistical involvement and influence in the preparation of HTA and reimbursement submissions.

  9. Assessment of anxiolytic effect of nerolidol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Rajesh Kumar; Kaur, Dilpreet; Pahwa, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: The present study was to assess the anxiolytic effect of nerolidol in mice. Materials and Methods: The anxiolytic activity was examined using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT), and motor coordination by rotarod test. Thirty Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups of six mice each. Group 1 received vehicle control (normal saline); Group 2 received diazepam (1 mg/kg); Groups 3, 4, and 5 received nerolidol 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, respectively. Results: Nerolidol (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the time spent and a number of entries in open arm as compared to vehicle control in EPM test. In OFT, the nerolidol showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in number of rearings and time spent in center and periphery, suggesting exploratory behavior of animals. Furthermore, nerolidol did not alter the fall down latency in rotarod test. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that nerolidol exerts an anxiolytic effect without altering the motor coordination. PMID:27756960

  10. Rapid assessment of nonlinear optical propagation effects in dielectrics.

    PubMed

    del Hoyo, J; de la Cruz, A Ruiz; Grace, E; Ferrer, A; Siegel, J; Pasquazi, A; Assanto, G; Solis, J

    2015-01-07

    Ultrafast laser processing applications need fast approaches to assess the nonlinear propagation of the laser beam in order to predict the optimal range of processing parameters in a wide variety of cases. We develop here a method based on the simple monitoring of the nonlinear beam shaping against numerical prediction. The numerical code solves the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with nonlinear absorption under simplified conditions by employing a state-of-the art computationally efficient approach. By comparing with experimental results we can rapidly estimate the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients of the material. The validity of this approach has been tested in a variety of experiments where nonlinearities play a key role, like spatial soliton shaping or fs-laser waveguide writing. The approach provides excellent results for propagated power densities for which free carrier generation effects can be neglected. Above such a threshold, the peculiarities of the nonlinear propagation of elliptical beams enable acquiring an instantaneous picture of the deposition of energy inside the material realistic enough to estimate the effective nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients that can be used for predicting the spatial distribution of energy deposition inside the material and controlling the beam in the writing process.

  11. Rapid assessment of nonlinear optical propagation effects in dielectrics

    PubMed Central

    Hoyo, J. del; de la Cruz, A. Ruiz; Grace, E.; Ferrer, A.; Siegel, J.; Pasquazi, A.; Assanto, G.; Solis, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast laser processing applications need fast approaches to assess the nonlinear propagation of the laser beam in order to predict the optimal range of processing parameters in a wide variety of cases. We develop here a method based on the simple monitoring of the nonlinear beam shaping against numerical prediction. The numerical code solves the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with nonlinear absorption under simplified conditions by employing a state-of-the art computationally efficient approach. By comparing with experimental results we can rapidly estimate the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients of the material. The validity of this approach has been tested in a variety of experiments where nonlinearities play a key role, like spatial soliton shaping or fs-laser waveguide writing. The approach provides excellent results for propagated power densities for which free carrier generation effects can be neglected. Above such a threshold, the peculiarities of the nonlinear propagation of elliptical beams enable acquiring an instantaneous picture of the deposition of energy inside the material realistic enough to estimate the effective nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients that can be used for predicting the spatial distribution of energy deposition inside the material and controlling the beam in the writing process. PMID:25564243

  12. Assessing effects of serotonin precursors on newborn behavior.

    PubMed

    Yogman, M W; Zeisel, S H; Roberts, C

    While traditional studies of newborn diet have focused on the effects of malnutrition on the central nervous system, there is now interest in how qualitative differences in the composition of early newborn feeding might influence behavior. This paper reviews the available techniques for assessing newborn perception and cognition, as well as behavioral organization. The paper then focuses intensively on measures of newborn state behaviour in view of evidence in adult humans, as well as in non-human species, suggesting a relationship between sleep behavior (sleep onset, night waking) and brain serotonin levels. A study designed to examine the relationship between dietary precursors of brain serotonin (within the range of concentrations found in human milk) and newborn state behavior after feeding is described to illustrate the application of these techniques. Healthy, fullterm newborns were fed a modified formula, containing tryptophan or valine, on one day, a routine formula on another day, and observed continuously for 3 h after each feeding for the observation and recording of newborn state. Data from individual infants in the tryptophan and valine groups are presented to illustrate the findings that infants fed tryptophan entered quiet sleep and active sleep sooner than infants fed valine and spent more time in active sleep and less time alert. These results illustrate the value of newborn behavior as a sensitive dependent variable in studies of behavioral effects of diet and suggests that variations in serotonin levels in the newborn brain may modulate the newborn's sleep/wake behaviour.

  13. What Strategies are Effective for Formative Assessment in an E-Learning Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzu-Hua

    2007-01-01

    The web-based formative assessment developed in this research is named Formative Assessment Module of the Web-based Assessment and Test Analysis System (FAM-WATA). FAM-WATA is a multiple-choice web-based formative assessment module containing six effective strategies: 'repeat the test', 'correct answers are not given', 'query scores', 'ask…

  14. Classroom Assessment. Principles and Practices for Effective Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, James H.

    This book is designed to provide prospective and practicing teachers with: (1) a concise presentation of assessment principles that clearly and specifically relate to instruction, (2) current research in the field, and (3) practical and realistic examples of assessment and suggestions for assessment built into the instructional process. The book…

  15. Data Management for Effective Condition Assessment of Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Condition assessment provides critical information for assessment of an asset’s physical condition, remaining useful service life, and long-term performance. This paper will describe data management issues integral to a successful condition assessment program. Key points will b...

  16. The MAX IV storage ring project

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Pedro F.; Leemann, Simon C.; Sjöström, Magnus; Andersson, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The MAX IV facility, currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, features two electron storage rings operated at 3 GeV and 1.5 GeV and optimized for the hard X-ray and soft X-ray/VUV spectral ranges, respectively. A 3 GeV linear accelerator serves as a full-energy injector into both rings as well as a driver for a short-pulse facility, in which undulators produce X-ray pulses as short as 100 fs. The 3 GeV ring employs a multibend achromat (MBA) lattice to achieve, in a relatively short circumference of 528 m, a bare lattice emittance of 0.33 nm rad, which reduces to 0.2 nm rad as insertion devices are added. The engineering implementation of the MBA lattice raises several technological problems. The large number of strong magnets per achromat calls for a compact design featuring small-gap combined-function magnets grouped into cells and sharing a common iron yoke. The small apertures lead to a low-conductance vacuum chamber design that relies on the chamber itself as a distributed copper absorber for the heat deposited by synchrotron radiation, while non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating provides for reduced photodesorption yields and distributed pumping. Finally, a low main frequency (100 MHz) is chosen for the RF system yielding long bunches, which are further elongated by passively operated third-harmonic Landau cavities, thus alleviating collective effects, both coherent (e.g. resistive wall instabilities) and incoherent (intrabeam scattering). In this paper, we focus on the MAX IV 3 GeV ring and present the lattice design as well as the engineering solutions to the challenges inherent to such a design. As the first realisation of a light source based on the MBA concept, the MAX IV 3 GeV ring offers an opportunity for validation of concepts that are likely to be essential ingredients of future diffraction-limited light sources. PMID:25177978

  17. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrite to dinitrogen in aqueous suspensions of metal-loaded titanium(IV) oxide in the presence of a hole scavenger: an ensemble effect of silver and palladium co-catalysts.

    PubMed

    Gekko, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Keiji; Kominami, Hiroshi

    2012-06-14

    Nitrite (NO(2)(-)) was photocatalytically reduced to dinitrogen (N(2)) in an aqueous suspension of two kinds of titanium(iv) oxide particles loaded with palladium and silver (Pd-TiO(2) and Ag-TiO(2)) at pH 8 under irradiation of UV light in the presence of sodium oxalate as a hole scavenger. The two metal-loaded TiO(2) photocatalysts had different roles in conversion of NO(2)(-) to N(2) and worked in an effective ensemble without conflict: (1) Pd-TiO(2) induced photocatalytic disproportionation of NO(2)(-) to N(2) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) and (2) Ag-TiO(2) selectively reduced the thus-formed NO(3)(-) back to NO(2)(-) (partially to N(2)) with oxalate acting as a hole scavenger. When Pd-TiO(2) was used alone for NO(3)(-) reduction in the presence of sodium oxalate, Pd-TiO(2) induced fruitless photocatalytic decomposition of oxalate to carbon dioxide and dihydrogen. The presence of Ag-TiO(2) suppressed the fruitless decomposition of oxalate by Pd-TiO(2) because Ag-TiO(2) continuously provided NO(2)(-) in the reaction system using oxalate as a hole scavenger and Pd-TiO(2) therefore only worked as a photocatalyst for disproportionation of NO(2)(-) to N(2) and NO(3)(-) as it did when used alone.

  18. Assessment of climate change effects on Canada's National Park system.

    PubMed

    Suffling, Roger; Scott, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    To estimate the magnitude of climate change anticipated for Canada's 38 National Parks (NPs) and Park Reserves, seasonal temperature and precipitation scenarios were constructed for 2050 and 2090 using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma) coupled model (CGCM1). For each park, we assessed impacts on physical systems, species, ecosystems and people. Important, widespread changes relate to marine and freshwater hydrology, glacial balance, waning permafrost, increased natural disturbance, shorter ice season, northern and upward altitudinal species and biome shifts, and changed visitation patterns. Other changes are regional (e.g., combined East coast subsidence and sea level rise increase coastal erosion and deposition, whereas, on the Pacific coast, tectonic uplift negates sea level rise). Further predictions concern individual parks (e.g., Unique fens of Bruce Peninsular NP will migrate lakewards with lowered water levels, but structural regulation of Lake Huron for navigation and power generation would destroy the fens). Knowledge gaps are the most important findings. For example: we could not form conclusions about glacial mass balance, or its effects on rivers and fjords. Likewise, for the East Coast Labrador Current we could neither estimate temperature and salinity effects of extra iceberg formation, nor the further effects on marine food chains, and breeding park seabirds. We recommend 1) Research on specific large knowledge gaps; 2) Climate change information exchange with protected area agencies in other northern countries; and 3) incorporating climate uncertainty into park plans and management. We discuss options for a new park management philosophy in the face of massive change and uncertainty.

  19. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium – A macroscopic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This study focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  20. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium - A macroscopic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.