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Sample records for ivar jrving tnis

  1. Thermophysical Model of S-complex NEAs: 1627 Ivar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, Jenna; Howell, Ellen S.; Magri, Christopher; Fernandez, Yanga R.; Marshall, Sean E.; Warner, Brian D.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    We present an updated thermophysical model of 1627 Ivar, an Amor class near Earth asteroid (NEA) with a taxonomic type of Sqw [1]. Ivar's large size and close approach to Earth in 2013 (minimum distance 0.32 AU) provided an opportunity to observe the asteroid over many different viewing angles for an extended period of time, which we have utilized to generate a shape and thermophysical model of Ivar, allowing us to discuss the implications that these results have on the regolith of this asteroid. Using the software SHAPE [2,3], we updated the nonconvex shape model of Ivar, which was constructed by Kaasalainen et al. [4] using photometry. We incorporated 2013 radar data and CCD lightcurves using the Arecibo Observatory's 2380Mz radar and the 0.35m telescope at the Palmer Divide Station respectively, to create a shape model with higher surface detail. We found Ivar to be elongated with maximum extended lengths along principal axes of 12 x 5 x 6 km and a rotation rate of 4.795162 ± 5.4 * 10-6 hrs [5]. In addition to these radar data and lightcurves, we also observed Ivar in the near IR using the SpeX instrument at the NASA IRTF. These data cover a wide range of Ivar's rotational longitudes and viewing geometries. We have used SHERMAN [6,7] with input parameters such as the asteroid's IR emissivity, optical scattering law, and thermal inertia, in order to complete thermal computations based on our shape model and known spin state. Using this procedure, we find which reflective, thermal, and surface properties best reproduce the observed spectra. This allows us to characterize properties of the asteroid's regolith and study heterogeneity of the surface. We will compare these results with those of other S-complex asteroids to better understand this asteroid type and the uniqueness of 1627 Ivar.[1] DeMeo et al. 2009, Icarus 202, 160-180 [2] Magri, C. et al. 2011, Icarus 214, 210-227. [3] Crowell, J. et al. 2014, AAS/DPS 46 [4] Kaasalainen, M. et al. 2004, Icarus 167, 178

  2. Thermophysical Model of S-complex NEAs: 1627 Ivar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, Jenna L.; Howell, Ellen S.; Magri, Christopher; Fernandez, Yan R.; Marshall, Sean E.; Warner, Brian D.; Vervack, Ronald J.

    2015-11-01

    We present updates to the thermophysical model of asteroid 1627 Ivar. Ivar is an Amor class near Earth asteroid (NEA) with a taxonomic type of Sqw [1] and a rotation rate of 4.795162 ± 5.4 * 10-6 hours [2]. In 2013, our group observed Ivar in radar, in CCD lightcurves, and in the near-IR’s reflected and thermal regimes (0.8 - 4.1 µm) using the Arecibo Observatory’s 2380 MHz radar, the Palmer Divide Station’s 0.35m telescope, and the SpeX instrument at the NASA IRTF respectively. Using these radar and lightcurve data, we generated a detailed shape model of Ivar using the software SHAPE [3,4]. Our shape model reveals more surface detail compared to earlier models [5] and we found Ivar to be an elongated asteroid with the maximum extended length along the three body-fixed coordinates being 12 x 11.76 x 6 km. For our thermophysical modeling, we have used SHERMAN [6,7] with input parameters such as the asteroid’s IR emissivity, optical scattering law and thermal inertia, in order to complete thermal computations based on our shape model and the known spin state. We then create synthetic near-IR spectra that can be compared to our observed spectra, which cover a wide range of Ivar’s rotational longitudes and viewing geometries. As has been noted [6,8], the use of an accurate shape model is often crucial for correctly interpreting multi-epoch thermal emission observations. We will present what SHERMAN has let us determine about the reflective, thermal, and surface properties for Ivar that best reproduce our spectra. From our derived best-fit thermal parameters, we will learn more about the regolith, surface properties, and heterogeneity of Ivar and how those properties compare to those of other S-complex asteroids. References: [1] DeMeo et al. 2009, Icarus 202, 160-180 [2] Crowell, J. et al. 2015, LPSC 46 [3] Magri C. et al. 2007, Icarus 186, 152-177 [4] Crowell, J. et al. 2014, AAS/DPS 46 [5] Kaasalainen, M. et al. 2004, Icarus 167, 178-196 [6] Crowell, J. et

  3. Updated Shape Model of 1627 Ivar from 2013 Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, Jenna L.; Howell, Ellen S.; Magri, Christopher; Fernandez, Yanga R.; Marshall, Sean E.; Warner, Brian D.; Vervack, Ronald J.

    2014-11-01

    1627 Ivar is a near Earth asteroid with a taxonomic type of Sqw [1] and a rotation period of about 4.8 hours [2] and was the first asteroid to be imaged by radar in 1985. Its large size and close approach to Earth in 2013 (minimum distance 0.32 AU) provided an opportunity to observe the asteroid over many different viewing angles for an extended period of time. We are determining a new shape model of Ivar by combining delay-Doppler data and visible-wavelength lightcurves obtained in 2013 using the Arecibo Observatory’s 2380 MHz radar and the 0.35m telescope at the Palmer Divide Station respectively. We have used the software SHAPE [3] to incorporate these recent radar and lightcurve datasets and in order to find the best shape model for Ivar that updates the results presented by Kaasalainen et al. [4], which was based solely on lightcurves. The software yields reasonable asteroid shapes by rejecting overly complex and implausible shapes that may appear to fit the data. Using this updated shape model, future work will involve putting this shape model into the thermal-modeling code SHERMAN to create synthetic near-IR spectra that can be compared to our 2013 IRTF SpeX data that cover a wide range of Ivar’s rotational longitudes and viewing geometries. We will thus learn more about the detailed regolith and surface properties of Ivar and how those properties compare to those of other S-complex asteroids. References: [1] DeMeo et al. 2009, Icarus 202, 160-180. [2] Ostro, S. J. et al. 1990, Astron. J., 99, 2012-2018. [3] Magri, C. et al. 2011, Icarus 214, 210-227. [4] Kaasalainen, M. et al. 2004, Icarus 167, 178-196. We thank NSF (AST-1109855) and the CLASS SSERVI for their support of this work.

  4. Implementation of EU discharge guidelines at IVAR's Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant of North Jaeren, Stavanger, Norway.

    PubMed

    Tornes, O

    2001-01-01

    Norway is a leading country on wastewater treatment comprising chemical precipitation processes. This is because Norwegian effluent standards to the North Sea have traditionally focused on phosphorus removal. In most cases, chemical treatment therefore has been considered to give lower investment and operating costs than biological treatment. Norwegian wastewater policy and management is based on the EU guidelines resulting from the EEA (European Economic Area) Agreement. According to the 1991 Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive, this will in most cases require secondary treatment. However, primary treatment can be accepted for plants larger than 10,000 PT with effluents to less sensitive coastal areas, if no negative environmental impacts can be proved. The main objective of the Regional Water, Sewerage and Waste Company (IVAR) is to comply with the prevailing effluent limits at lowest possible cost. During the past four years, IVAR has therefore undertaken comprehensive optimising of the precipitation process including full-scale experiments with different coagulant dosing control systems and different types of coagulants. IVAR also accomplished a feasibility study of introducing biological treatment as an alternative to chemical treatment. Under the prevailing frame conditions of discharge requirements and sludge deposit costs, it is not economically feasible to change to organic coagulants or biological treatment. This conclusion might have to be altered resulting from the implementation of new EU regulations and increasing sludge deposit costs. This paper presents results from full-scale experiments, extracts from the feasibility study and a comparison of costs. Furthermore, the practical consequences of implementing the EU-guidelines are discussed.

  5. Understanding the Importance of Shape in Thermal Modeling: The Case of 1627 Ivar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, Jenna L.; Howell, Ellen S.; Magri, Christopher; Fernandez, Yanga R.; Nolan, Michael C.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Marshall, Sean E.

    2016-10-01

    We seek to investigate the compositional surface variation of near Earth asteroids (NEAs). To do this, we employ detailed shape models and near-IR observations, taken over a range of viewing geometries, in order to create thermophysical models. The thermal spectra are therefore linked to regions on the asteroid, and we can seek out a set of thermal parameters that are capable of reproducing the thermal spectra over the entirety of the asteroid's surface. This method also enables us to characterize portions of the asteroid that may have different thermal properties than other regions, in which case there is no single set of thermal parameters that satisfy all of the thermal observations, indicating a heterogeneous surface.We present our findings on 1627 Ivar, an Amor class NEA with a taxonomic type of Sqw [1], and a rotation period of 4.7951689 hr ± 0.0000026 [2]. During Ivar's apparition in 2013, we obtained CCD lightcurves, radar data, and near-IR spectra. Using the software SHAPE, we have used lightcurve and radar data to generate an improved shape model of Ivar [2][3].For the thermophysical modeling, we have used SHERMAN [3,4] to determine which reflective, thermal, and surface properties for Ivar best reproduce our spectra, taken using the SpeX instrument at the NASA IRTF [5]. Input parameters for SHERMAN include the asteroid's IR emissivity, optical scattering law and thermal inertia in order to complete thermal computations based on the shape model. We also compare these results to those created by using the Kaasalainen lightcurve model [6]. Since models created from lightcurve inversion techniques far outnumber those created using radar data, it is important to understand how these two models differ when studying thermal models.References: [1] DeMeo et al. 2009, Icarus 202, 160-180 [2] Crowell et al. 2016, Icarus, in press [3] Crowell et al. 2014, AAS/DPS 46 [4] Howell et al. 2015, AAS/DPS 47 [5] Rayner et al. 2003, PASP 115, 362 [6] Kaasalainen et al. 2004

  6. Brain Mapper and IVAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Human Engineering Methods (HEM) Research Laboratory is utilized for the development of human-response measurement technologies to assess the effects of advanced crew station concepts on the crews ability to perform flight-management tasks effectively. Behavioral response and psychophysiological response measurement systems have been developed to assess mental loading, stress, task engagement, and situation awareness. Measurement capabilities include topographic brainmapping (EEG and evoked responses), monitoring of pulse, heart and muscle electrical activity (EKG and EMG), skin temperature and conductance, respiration, and tracking of eye lookpoint (oculometry) and overt behavior (video analysis). A real-time multiattribute task (MAT) battery has been developed to recreate flight-management task conditions in the laboratory setting for initial testing of advanced human-response measurement concepts. Mobile physiological monitoring and behavioral response capture-stations are located at simulator sites to refine these measurement concepts for flight-management research.

  7. Development of the EURITRACK tagged neutron inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Bernard, S.; Mariani, A.; Szabo, J.-L.; Mercier, E.; Sannie, G.; Viesti, G.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Fabris, D.; Zenoni, A.; Bonomi, G.; Donzella, A.; Fontana, A.; Boghen, G.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Moszynski, M.; Batsch, T.; Gierlik, M.; Woski, D.; Klamra, W.; Isaksson, P.; Le Tourneur, P.; Lhuissier, M.; Colonna, A.; Tintori, C.; Peerani, P.; Sequeira, V.; Salvato, M.

    2007-08-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project is part of the 6th European Union Framework Program. It aims at developing a Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) to detect illicit materials, such as explosives and narcotics, in cargo containers. Fast neutron induced reactions produce specific gamma-rays used to determine the chemical composition of the inspected material. The associated particle technique is employed to precisely locate the interaction points of the neutrons. A new deuterium-tritium neutron generator has been developed, including a pixelized alpha particle detector. The TNIS also comprises high-efficiency fast neutron and gamma-ray detectors, a dedicated front-end electronics and an integrated software to entirely drive the system and automatically process the data. Most components have been integrated during last months at Institute Ruder Boskovic, in Zagreb, Croatia. An overview of the TNIS and of its preliminary performances is presented.

  8. Electron Resonance Decay into a Biological Function: Decrease in Viability of E. coli Transformed by Plasmid DNA Irradiated with 0.5-18 eV Electrons.

    PubMed

    Kouass Sahbani, S; Cloutier, P; Bass, A D; Hunting, D J; Sanche, L

    2015-10-01

    Transient negative ions (TNIs) are ubiquitous in electron-molecule scattering at low electron impact energies (0-20 eV) and are particularly effective in damaging large biomolecules. Because ionizing radiation generates mostly 0-20 eV electrons, TNIs are expected to play important roles in cell mutagenesis and death during radiotherapeutic cancer treatment, although this hypothesis has never been directly verified. Here, we measure the efficiency of transforming E. coli bacteria by inserting into the cells, pGEM-3ZfL(-) plasmid DNA that confers resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin. Before transformation, plasmids are irradiated with electrons of specific energies between 0.5 and 18 eV. The loss of transformation efficiency plotted as a function of irradiation energy reveals TNIs at 5.5 and 9.5 eV, corresponding to similar states observed in the yields of DNA double strand breaks. We show that TNIs are detectable in the electron-energy dependence of a biological process and can decrease cell viability.

  9. [Exploring Current Problems and Corresponding Strategies for Evaluation of Innovative Medical Devices in China].

    PubMed

    Du, Ranran; Ouyang, Zhaolian; Li, Yang; Yang, Yuan; Yang, Guozhong; Chi, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Through the analysis of the current status and problems of innovative medical devices evaluation, tnis paper discussed the strategies of evaluation, and ultimately raises the frame of evaluation, so as to provide reference for scientific evaluation of medical devices in China.

  10. Nerve-responsive troponin I slow promoter does not respond to unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. S.; Hodgson, V. R.; Hardeman, E. C.; Booth, F. W.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the regulation of the troponin I slow (TnIs) promoter during skeletal muscle unloading-induced protein isoform transition, by using a transgenic mouse line harboring the -4,200 to +12 base pairs region of the human TnIs promoter. Eighteen female transgenic mice ( approximately 30 g body mass) were randomly divided into two groups: weight-bearing (WB) controls (n = 9) and hindlimb unloaded (HU; n = 9). The HU mice were tail suspended for 7 days. Body mass was unchanged in the WB group but was reduced (-6%; P < 0.05) after the HU treatment. Absolute soleus muscle mass (-25%) and soleus mass relative to body mass (-16%) were both lower (P < 0.05) in the HU group compared with the WB mice. Northern blot analyses indicate that 7 days of HU result in a 64% decrease (P < 0.05) in the abundance of endogenous TnIs mRNA (microg/mg muscle) in the mouse soleus. Furthermore, there is a trend for the abundance of the fast troponin I mRNA to be increased (+34%). Analysis of transgenic chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in the soleus muscle revealed no difference (P > 0.05) between WB and HU groups. We conclude that additional elements are necessary for the TnIs gene to respond to an unloading-induced, slow-to-fast isoform transition stimulus.

  11. Scanning Cargo Containers with Tagged Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viesti, G.; Botosso, C.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Zenoni, A.; Donzella, A.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Bernard, S.; Mariani, A.; Szabo, J.-L.; Sannie, G.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Nad, K.; Peerani, P.; Sequeira, V.; Salvato, M.; Moszynski, M.; Gierlik, M.; Klamra, W.; Le Tourneur, P.; Lhuissier, M.; Colonna, A.; Tintori, C.

    2007-10-01

    A new Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) able to detect illicit materials such as explosives and narcotics in cargo containers has been developed within the EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project. After the R&D phase, the inspection portal has been installed and commissioned at the Rijeka seaport in Croatia, where it has been operated in connection with the existing X-ray scanner for a first two-month demonstration campaign. Results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper.

  12. Scanning Cargo Containers with Tagged Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Viesti, G.; Botosso, C.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Zenoni, A.; Donzella, A.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Bernard, S.; Mariani, A.; Szabo, J.-L.; Sannie, G.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Nad, K.; Peerani, P.; Sequeira, V.

    2007-10-26

    A new Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) able to detect illicit materials such as explosives and narcotics in cargo containers has been developed within the EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project. After the R and D phase, the inspection portal has been installed and commissioned at the Rijeka seaport in Croatia, where it has been operated in connection with the existing X-ray scanner for a first two-month demonstration campaign. Results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper.

  13. Imaging transcription in vivo: distinct regulatory effects of fast and slow activity patterns on promoter elements from vertebrate troponin I isoform genes

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Zaheer A; Gundersen, Kristian; Buonanno, Andres; Vullhorst, Detlef

    2005-01-01

    Firing patterns typical of slow motor units activate genes for slow isoforms of contractile proteins, but it remains unclear if there is a distinct pathway for fast isoforms or if their expression simply occurs in the absence of slow activity. Here we first show that denervation in adult soleus and EDL muscles reverses the postnatal increase in expression of troponin I (TnI) isoforms, suggesting that high-level transcription of both genes in mature muscles is under neural control. We then use a combination of in vivo transfection, live muscle imaging and fluorescence quantification to investigate the role of patterned electrical activity in the transcriptional control of troponin I slow (TnIs) and fast (TnIf) regulatory sequences by directly stimulating denervated muscles with pattern that mimic fast and slow motor units. Rat soleus muscles were electroporated with green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter constructs harbouring 2.7 and 2.1 kb of TnIs and TnIf regulatory sequences, respectively. One week later, electrodes were implanted and muscles stimulated for 12 days. The change in GFP fluorescence of individual muscle fibres before and after the stimulation was used as a measure for transcriptional responses to different patterns of action potentials. Our results indicate that the response of TnI promoter sequences to electrical stimulation is consistent with the regulation of the endogenous genes. The TnIf and TnIs enhancers were activated by matching fast and slow activity patterns, respectively. Removal of nerve-evoked activity by denervation, or stimulation with a mismatching pattern reduced transcriptional activity of both enhancers. These results strongly suggest that distinct signalling pathways couple both fast and slow patterns of activity to enhancers that regulate transcription from the fast and slow troponin I isoforms. PMID:15528243

  14. 2250-MHz High Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier (HEMPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, W. Herbert; Bell, Joseph L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Tnis paper will focus on developing an exotic switching technique that enhances the DC-to-RF conversion efficiency of microwave power amplifiers. For years, switching techniques implemented in the 10 kHz to 30 MHz region have resulted in DC-to-RF conversion efficiencies of 90-95-percent. Currently amplifier conversion efficiency, in the 2-3 GHz region approaches, 10-20-percent. Using a combination of analytical modeling and hardware testing, a High Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier was built that demonstrated conversion efficiencies four to five times higher than current state of the art.

  15. Stories of Discovery Stimulate the Physics Major--A Polemic, with Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Alfred

    1980-01-01

    Provides historical examples of intuitive discovery applicable to the teaching of physics for majors. Cites details for the discovery of Coulomb's law, emphasizing the roles of Joseph Priestley and Henry Cavendish. Also discusses the career of Ivar Giaever, a Nobel Prize winner of 1973 in solid state physics. (CS)

  16. Technology demonstration of space intravehicular automation and robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry; Barker, L. Keith

    1994-01-01

    Automation and robotic technologies are being developed and capabilities demonstrated which would increase the productivity of microgravity science and materials processing in the space station laboratory module, especially when the crew is not present. The Automation Technology Branch at NASA Langley has been working in the area of intravehicular automation and robotics (IVAR) to provide a user-friendly development facility, to determine customer requirements for automated laboratory systems, and to improve the quality and efficiency of commercial production and scientific experimentation in space. This paper will describe the IVAR facility and present the results of a demonstration using a simulated protein crystal growth experiment inside a full-scale mockup of the space station laboratory module using a unique seven-degree-of-freedom robot.

  17. SSBRP Communication & Data System Development using the Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the standard method for specifying, visualizing, and documenting the artifacts of an object-oriented system under development. UML is the unification of the object-oriented methods developed by Grady Booch and James Rumbaugh, and of the Use Case Model developed by Ivar Jacobson. This paper discusses the application of UML by the Communications and Data Systems (CDS) team to model the ground control and command of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) User Operations Facility (UOF). UML is used to define the context of the system, the logical static structure, the life history of objects, and the interactions among objects.

  18. Irradiation of 4''x4'' NaI(Tl) detector by the 14 MeV neutrons.

    PubMed

    Sudac, D; Valkovic, V

    2010-01-01

    Within the EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project, a new Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) has been developed and installed in the Port of Rijeka in Croatia. The system was based on the examination of sea containers with the 14 MeV neutron beam. During the operation the characteristic gamma rays were produced and measured by several 5''x5''x10'' NaI(Tl) detectors. During this procedure some of the detectors were exposed to an intensive neutron beam radiation. It was necessary to check for possible radiation damage of the NaI(Tl) scintillator during the gamma detector selection phase of the project. The 4''x4'' NaI(Tl) detector was exposed to 14 MeV neutrons for 20 h. From the presented results on energy resolution and activation measurements it could be concluded that there are no significant differences in energy resolution before and after the irradiation by 4.7x10(11) of 14 MeV neutrons. The only problem could be the high level of medium and long term induced activity in the energy region below 2 MeV.

  19. Single mutation (A162H) in human cardiac troponin I corrects acid pH sensitivity of Ca2+-regulated actomyosin S1 ATPase.

    PubMed

    Dargis, Roland; Pearlstone, Joyce R; Barrette-Ng, Isabelle; Edwards, Helena; Smillie, Lawrence B

    2002-09-20

    In contrast to skeletal muscle, the efficiency of the contractile apparatus of cardiac tissue has long been known to be severely compromised by acid pH as in the ischemia of myocardial infarction and other cardiac myopathies. Recent reports (Westfall, M. V., and Metzger, J. M. (2001) News Physiol. Sci. 16, 278-281; Li, G., Martin, A. F., and Solaro, R. J. (2001) J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 33, 1309-1320) have indicated that the reduced Ca(2+) sensitivity of cardiac contractility at low pH (TnIs) of their troponins. Here, using a reconstituted Ca(2+)-regulated human cardiac troponin-tropomyosin actomyosin S1 ATPase assay, we report that a single TnI mutation, A162H, restores Ca(2+) sensitivity at pH 6.5 to that at pH 7.0. Levels of inhibition (pCa 7.0), activation (pCa 4.0), and cooperativity of ATPase activity were minimally affected. Two other mutations (Q155R and E164V) also previously suggested by us (Pearlstone, J. R., Sykes, B. D., and Smillie, L. B. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 7601-7606) and involving charged residues showed no such effects. With fast skeletal muscle troponin, a single TnI H130A mutation reduced Ca(2+) sensitivity at pH 6.5 to levels approaching the cardiac system at pH 6.5. These observations provide structural insight into long-standing physiological and clinical phenomena and are of potential relevance to therapeutic treatments of heart disease by gene transfer, stem cell, and cell transplantation approaches. PMID:12151382

  20. Effective strategies to counter campus presentations on climate denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Jeffrey D.; Katz, Miriam E.

    2012-07-01

    Although 97%-98% of the climate researchers most actively publishing in the field accept the basic tenets of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) findings [Anderegg et al., 2010], there is a consistent undercurrent of doubt among the general public (A. Leiserowitz et al., Global warming's six Americas in May 2011, online report, 57 pp., Yale Project on Climate Change Communication, Yale University, New Haven, Conn., 2011). To some extent, this doubt is fueled by high-profile climate change deniers who offer "the real view" of climate science [Oreskes and Conway, 2010]. Our campuses recently hosted two such speakers: Ivar Giaever at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) and Christopher Monckton (also known as Lord Monckton) at Union College. (Monckton's presentation can be seen athttp://union.campusreform.org/group/blog/live-webinar-lord-monckton-at-union-college.)

  1. Observations on the magnitude-frequency distribution of Earth-crossing asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Shoemaker, Carolyn S.

    1987-01-01

    During the past decade, discovery of Earth-crossing asteroids has continued at the pace of several per year; the total number of known Earth crossers reached 70 as of September, 1986. The sample of discovered Earth crossers has become large enough to provide a fairly strong statistical basis for calculations of mean probabilities of asteroid collision with the Earth, the Moon, and Venus. It is also now large enough to begin to address the more difficult question of the magnitude-frequency distribution and size distribution of the Earth-crossing asteroids. Absolute V magnitude, H, was derived from reported magnitudes for each Earth crosser on the basis of a standard algorithm that utilizes a physically realistic phase function. The derived values of H range from 12.88 for (1627) Ivar to 21.6 for the Palomar-Leiden object 6344, which is the faintest and smallest asteroid discovered.

  2. Final technical report on atmospheric ozone as a climate gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Chyung

    1998-11-12

    This report summarizes the major research accomplishments of the project ''Atmospheric Ozone as a Climate Gas'' for the period July 1, 1994--March 31, 1998. The report is divided into three sctions: research summary, publications and participation of graduate students. The objectives of the research program were: (1) to improve understanding of the physical, chemical and dynamical processes that control mid-latitute O{sub 3} in the lower stratosphere and free troposphere; and (2) to develop improved predictions of future O{sub 3} changes in these regions and their influence on (and response to) future climate changes. The research term includes a subcontractor, Professor Ivar Isaksen of the University of Oslo.

  3. Physical and dynamical studies of planet-crossing asteroids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, G.

    This thesis is a summary of the following papers: 1. A data base of observing conditions for Aten-Apollo-Amor objects during the 20th century, 1986. 2. A data base of observing conditions for Aten-Apollo-Amor objects during the 20th century. II. First update (through February 1988), 1988. 3. UBVRI and JHK photometry of the near-Earth asteroid 1862 Apollo, 1983. 4. Physical studies of Apollo-Amor asteroids: UBVRI photometry of 1036 Ganymed and 1627 Ivar, 1988. 5. Physical studies of asteroids XVII: JHK photometry of selected main-belt and near-Earth asteroids, 1988. 6. Asteroids in cometary orbits, 1985. 7. Orbital studies of 1982 YA, 1983 VA and 1984 BC, 1986. 8. Orbital evolution studies of planet-crossing asteroids, 1988.

  4. A Physically Based Correlation of Irradiation-Induced Transition Temperature Shifts for RPV Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Eason, Ernest D.; Odette, George Robert; Nanstad, Randy K; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2007-11-01

    data. It contains two terms, corresponding to the best-understood radiation damage features, matrix damage and copper-rich precipitates, although the empirical calibration will ensure that all other damage processes that are occurring are also reflected in those terms. Effects of material chemical composition, product form, and radiation exposure are incorporated, such that all effects are supported by findings of statistical significance, physical understanding, or comparison with independent data from controlled experiments, such as the Irradiation Variable (IVAR) Program. In most variable effects, the model is supported by two or three of these different forms of evidence. The key variable trends, such as the neutron fluence dependence and copper-nickel dependence in the new TTS model, are much improved over RG1.99/2 and are well supported by independent data and the current understanding of embrittlement mechanisms. The new model includes the variables copper, nickel, and fluence that are in RG1.99/2, but also includes effects of irradiation temperature, neutron flux, phosphorus, and manganese. The calibrated model is a good fit, with no significant residual error trends in any of the variables used in the model or several additional variables and variable interactions that were investigated. The report includes a chapter summarizing the current understanding of embrittlement mechanisms and one comparing the IVAR database with the TTS model predictions. Generally good agreement is found in that quantitative comparison, providing independent confirmation of the predictive capability of the TTS model. The key new insight in the TTS modeling effort, that flux effects are evident in both low (or no) copper and higher copper materials, is supported by the IVAR data. The slightly simplified version of the TTS model presented in Section 7.3 of this report is recommended for applications.

  5. Inhibitory region of troponin I: Ca(2+)-dependent structural and environmental changes in the troponin-tropomyosin complex and in reconstituted thin filaments.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Kobayashi, M; Gryczynski, Z; Lakowicz, J R; Collins, J H

    2000-01-11

    In muscle thin filaments, the inhibitory region (residues 96-117) of troponin I (TnI) is thought to interact with troponin C (TnC) in the presence of Ca(2+) and with actin in the absence of Ca(2+). To better understand these interactions, we prepared mutant TnIs which contained a single Cys-96 or Cys-117 and labeled them with the thiol-specific fluorescent probe N-(iodoacetyl)-N'-(1-sulfo-5-naphthyl)ethylenediamine (IAEDANS). We characterized the microenvironments of the AEDANS labels on TnI in the presence and absence of Ca(2+) by measuring the extent of acrylamide quenching of fluorescence and lifetime-resolved anisotropy. In the troponin-tropomyosin (Tn-Tm) complex, the AEDANS labels on both Cys-96 and Cys-117 were less accessible to solvent and less flexible in the presence of Ca(2+), reflecting closer interactions with TnC under these conditions. In reconstituted thin filaments, the environment of the AEDANS on Cys-96 was not greatly affected by Ca(2+), while the AEDANS on Cys-117 was more accessible but significantly less flexible as it moved away from actin and interacted strongly with TnC in the presence of Ca(2+). We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure distances between AEDANS on TnI Cys-96 or Cys-117 and 4-¿[(dimethylamino)phenyl]azo¿phenyl-4'-maleimide (DABmal) on actin Cys-374 in reconstituted thin filaments. In the absence of Ca(2+), the mean distances were 40.2 A for Cys-96 and 35.2 A for Cys-117. In the presence of Ca(2+), Cys-96 moved away from actin Cys-374 by approximately 3.6 A, while Cys-117 moved away by approximately 8 A. This suggests the existence of a flexible "hinge" region near the middle of TnI, allowing amino acid residues in the N-terminal half of TnI to interact with TnC in a Ca(2+)-independent manner, while the C-terminal half of TnI binds to actin in the absence of Ca(2+) or to TnC in the presence of Ca(2+). This is the first report to demonstrate structural movement of the inhibitory region of TnI in the

  6. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al., 2010). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (approx. 0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of Explore-NEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with band area ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed.The results of our

  7. Physical characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbó, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling, D.E. et al. [2010]. Astron. J. 140, 770-784. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/140/3/770). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (˜0.7-2.5 μm) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with Band Area Ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a

  8. From X-Rays to MRI: Physics in GE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Roland W.

    2004-03-01

    The GE Research Laboratory, founded in 1900, became the first laboratory of scientific research in U.S. industry. William Coolidge, a physicist, joined the laboratory in 1905 and produced two advances of immense importance. The first, ductile tungsten, is still the heart of every incandescent light bulb. The second, the "Coolidge" X-Ray tube, remains an essential tool of modern medicine. In the process, Coolidge explored two main approaches of physics in industry. One addresses a commercial problem or opportunity (better light bulbs) and finds interesting physics. The other explores interesting physics (X-rays) and creates a commercial opportunity. This paper addresses the mix of these approaches during GE's years as an "electric" (and therefore physics-based) company. Episodes include the following: the work of Irving Langmuir (1932 Nobel laureate in chemistry, but as much physicist as chemist); the post-World War II "golden age of industrial physics" when the endless frontier offered opportunities from nuclear power to diamond making to superconductivity; the Nobel-prize winning work of Ivar Giaever; and interdisciplinary efforts that enabled GE to become a world business leader in two medical diagnostic technologies it did not invent: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. I will speculate on whether this mix of problem-driven and opportunity-driven effort is as relevant to the 21st century as it was to the 20th.

  9. Planet-crossing asteroids: Interrelationships within the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, L. A.; Ahearn, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectra 0.6 to 2.5 micrometer were acquired of asteroids 1627 Ivar (Amor), 43 Ariadne, 335 Roberta, 386 Siegena and 695 Bella (3:1 Kirkwood Gap) with the IRTF, Mauna Kea. CCD spectra 0.5-1.0 micrometer were acquired of 1866 Sisyphus (Apollo), 17 Thetis, 695 Bella, 797 Montana, and 877 Walkure (3:1 Kirkwood Gap) using facilities at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. An upper limit on the production rate of CN in asteroid 3200 Phaeton of < 4 x 10 to the 23rd power sec was determined based on photometric measurements at 3871A using facilities at Lowell Observatory. This value is in the range of the lowest production rate measured for a comet, however, it does not constitute a positive detection of CN in this asteroid. A first attempt of look for companion objects or evidence of dust debris associated with this asteroid was made with a CCD camera. Whereas the search extended to 19th magnitude (corresponding to 150m and 330m for albedos of 0.15 and 0.03 respectively), a look close enough to the asteroid was not attained to definitively eliminate the presence of coorbiting dust debris.

  10. Thermophysical modeling of asteroids from WISE thermal infrared data - Significance of the shape model and the pole orientation uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuš, J.; Delbo', M.; Ďurech, J.; Alí-Lagoa, V.

    2015-08-01

    In the analysis of thermal infrared data of asteroids by means of thermophysical models (TPMs) it is a common practice to neglect the uncertainty of the shape model and the rotational state, which are taken as an input for the model. Here, we present a novel method of investigating the importance of the shape model and the pole orientation uncertainties in the thermophysical modeling - the varied shape TPM (VS-TPM). Our method uses optical photometric data to generate various shape models that map the uncertainty in the shape and the rotational state. The TPM procedure is then run for all these shape models. We apply the implementation of the classical TPM as well as our VS-TPM to the convex shape models of several asteroids together with their thermal infrared data acquired by the NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and compare the results. These show that the uncertainties of the shape model and the pole orientation can be very important (e.g., for the determination of the thermal inertia) and should be considered in the thermophysical analyses. We present thermophysical properties for six asteroids - (624) Hektor, (771) Libera, (1036) Ganymed, (1472) Muonio, (1627) Ivar, and (2606) Odessa.

  11. Dried blood spots in toxicology: from the cradle to the grave?

    PubMed

    Stove, Christophe P; Ingels, Ann-Sofie M E; De Kesel, Pieter M M; Lambert, Willy E

    2012-03-01

    About a century after its first described application by Ivar Bang, the potential of sampling via dried blood spots (DBS) as an alternative for classical venous blood sampling is increasingly recognized. Perhaps best known is the use of DBS in newborn screening programs, ignited by the hallmark paper by Guthrie and Susi half a century ago. However, it is only recently that both academia and industry have recognized the many advantages that DBS sampling may offer for bioanalytical purposes, as reflected by the strong increase in published reports during the last few years. Currently, major DBS applications include newborn screening for metabolic disorders, epidemiological surveys (e.g. HIV monitoring), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), as well as toxicology. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the distinct subdisciplines of toxicology for which DBS sampling has been applied. DBS sampling for toxicological evaluation has been performed from birth until autopsy, aiming at the assessment of therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse, environmental contaminants, toxins, as well as (trace) elements, with applications situated in fields as toxicokinetics, epidemiology and environmental and forensic toxicology. We discuss the strengths and limitations of DBS in the different subdisciplines and provide future prospects for the use of this promising sampling technique in toxicology.

  12. Measurements of Electron Temperature and Gas Temperature in a Pulsed Atmospheric Pressure Air Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipold, Frank; Hufney Mohamed, Abdel-Aleam; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2001-10-01

    The application of electrical pulses with duration shorter than the time constant for glow-to-arc transition allows us to shift the electron energy distribution in high pressure glow discharges temporally to high energy values [1]. Application of these nonequilibrium plasmas are plasma ramparts, plasma reactors, and excimer light sources. In order to obtain information on the electron energy distribution , or electron energy, respectively, and the gas temperature with the required temporal resolution of 1 ns, we have explored two diagnostic methods. One is based on the evaluation of the bremsstrahlung. This method allows us to determine the electron temperature [2]. The gas temperature is obtained from the rotational spectrum of the second positive system of nitrogen. The results of measurement on a 10 ns pulsed atmospheric pressure air glow will be presented. References [1] Robert H. Stark and Karl H. Schoenbach, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3568 (2001) [2] Jaeyoung Park, Ivars Henins, Hans W. Herrmann, and Gary S. Selwyn, Physics of Plasmas 7, 3141 (2000). [3] R. Block, O. Toedter, and K. H. Schoenbach, Bull. APS 43, 1478 (1998)

  13. RPV-1: A Virtual Test Reactor to simulate irradiation effects in light water reactor pressure vessel steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumel, Stéphanie; Van-Duysen, Jean Claude

    2005-04-01

    Many key components in commercial nuclear reactors are subject to neutron irradiation which modifies their mechanical properties. So far, the prediction of the in-service behavior and the lifetime of these components has required irradiations in so-called ';Experimental Test Reactors'. This predominantly empirical approach can now be supplemented by the development of physically based computer tools to simulate irradiation effects numerically. The devising of such tools, also called Virtual Test Reactors (VTRs), started in the framework of the REVE Project (REactor for Virtual Experiments). This project is a joint effort among Europe, the United States and Japan aimed at building VTRs able to simulate irradiation effects in pressure vessel steels and internal structures of LWRs. The European team has already built a first VTR, called RPV-1, devised for pressure vessel steels. Its inputs and outputs are similar to those of experimental irradiation programs carried out to assess the in-service behavior of reactor pressure vessels. RPV-1 is made of five codes and two databases which are linked up so as to receive, treat and/or convey data. A user friendly Python interface eases the running of the simulations and the visualization of the results. RPV-1 is sensitive to its inputs (neutron spectrum, temperature, …) and provides results in conformity with experimental ones. The iterative improvement of RPV-1 has been started by the comparison of simulation results with the database of the IVAR experimental program led by the University of California Santa Barbara. These first successes led 40 European organizations to start developing RPV-2, an advanced version of RPV-1, as well as INTERN-1, a VTR devised to simulate irradiation effects in stainless steels, in a large effort (the PERFECT project) supported by the European Commission in the framework of the 6th Framework Program.

  14. Environmental problems and geological implications derived from evaporite dissolution in the Barbastro salt anticline (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucha, P.; Gutiérrez, F.; Guerrero, J.

    2008-01-01

    The halite-bearing Barbastro Formation crops out in the core of the Barbastro Anticline (Ebro Tertiary Basin). This anticline is traversed perpendicularly by some of the most important Pyrenean drainages such as the Cinca and Noguera-Ribagorzana Rivers. The terrace sequences of these fluvial systems have been used as markers to identify and assess dissolution-induced subsidence and salt tectonics. In the limbs of the anticline, terrace deposits underlain by detrital bedrock do not show any evidence of deformation and have a consistent thickness of less than 10 m. The deposits of certain terrace levels of the Noguera-Ribagorzana River and its tributary, the Lo Reguer Creek, are locally thickened filling basins generated by dissolution-induced synsedimentary subsidence up to several kilometers long and more than 100 m deep. Conversely, terraces of the Cinca River do not show anomalously high thicknesses, but local uplifts related to differential upward flow of the halite-bearing bedrock. Locally, a minimum uplift rate of 0.3 mm/year has been estimated from a 64-ka terrace tilted away from the valley. The subsidence hazards occur chiefly in areas where the ground receives artificial water recharge. Serviceability of some canals has been notoriously affected by evaporite karstification. The problem has been mitigated to acceptable levels by grouting. Numerous buildings of Ivars de Noguera are severely damaged by dissolution subsidence, and possibly, by hydrocompaction of gypsiferous silts. The pipe network has been replaced to ameliorate the subsidence risk. In the Cinca River valley, cavities with a total volume of about 180,500 m3 have been created by solution mining at depths greater than 500 m. No investigation methods are applied in the brine field to monitor the distribution and evolution of artificial voids. Substantial increase in salinity of the Cinca River is another evidence of subjacent evaporite dissolution.

  15. Near-infrared spectra of 12 Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, John K.; Harris, Alan W.; Rivkin, Andrew S.; Wolters, Stephen D.; Green, Simon F.; McBride, Neil; Mann, Rita K.; Kerr, Tom H.

    2007-01-01

    We present a number of spectra of Near-Earth Objects taken in the period 1998-2003 with two different instruments (CGS4 and UIST) on the UKIRT telescope. Since observations with CGS4 require multiple spectral fragments to be observed sequentially and then spliced together we assess the reliability of this technique using comparisons between multiple observations of the same object, between observations of the same object with both instruments and with independent spectra of common objects. We conclude that while problems in the spectral splicing can occur, they are usually intuitively obvious and that overall our dataset is sound. The objects for which we present new spectral data are: 1627 Ivar, 4179 Toutatis, 5381 Sekhmet, (5587) 1990 SB, 6489 Golevka, (11405) 1999 CV 3, (14402) 1991 DB, 25143 Itokawa, (25330) 1999 KV 4, (52760) 1998 ML 14, (66391) 1999 KW 4, and (101955) 1999 RQ 36. Our results, together with albedo data from the literature, suggest carbonaceous compositions for 25330 and 101955. The available data for 14402 suggest it may belong to the relatively rare M class. Our analysis suggests an S or Sq classification for 52760 and a V classification for 5381 Sekhmet. For all remaining objects the UKIRT data are consistent with published spectral classifications. We find that only 3 of the 12 objects are not S/Q/V-class, which is roughly consistent with the results of Binzel et al. [Binzel, R.P., Rivkin, A.S., Stuart, J.S., Harris, A.W., Bus, S.J., Burbine, T.H., 2004. Icarus 170, 259-294]. Four spectra of Toutatis taken over a range of solar phase angles between 0.7°-81° and at intervals of several weeks are indistinguishable within the uncertainties and therefore do not reveal any evidence for phase reddening or surface variegation.

  16. A study of the 21 March 2012 tornadic quasi linear convective system in Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Joan; Arús, Joan; Castán, Salvador; Pineda, Nicolau; Rigo, Tomeu; Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar

    2015-05-01

    This study presents a description of a quasi linear convective system that took place in Catalonia (NE Spain) on 21 March 2012 producing heavy rainfall, moderate lightning activity and a weak tornado in the village of Ivars d'Urgell around 19 UTC after local sunset. A post-event survey indicated EF0 and EF1 damage in houses of the village - roofs and ceilings, broken windows, fences and walls and trees knocked down - along a track approximately 4 km long and about 20 m wide. Doppler radar observations show that the parent thunderstorm that spawned the tornado was one of a series that developed along a convective line that moved from S to N, initiating convective activity in terms of precipitation and lightning in the Mediterranean Sea and moving inland in S Catalonia (Tarragona and Salou coastal areas, producing local flash floods). Convective activity remained several hours with series of thunderstorms developing along the same paths. The synoptic situation was dominated by a high pressure ridge extending from northern Africa to central Europe, with a closed maximum sea level pressure area around 1036 hPa over northern France, southern Germany and Austria. On the other hand a relative low pressure area seen on 850 hPa and upper levels was present over the Iberian Peninsula, favouring a southern maritime flow from the Mediterranean between the forward part of the low pressure area and the high pressure system which blocked the advance of the low to the east. In the study we examine both the synoptic environment and storm scale observations with Doppler radar and total lightning data (cloud to ground and intracloud flashes) that lead to this cool-season severe convective event which is remarkable given the fact that, unlike in this case, most reported tornadoes in the region occur during the warm season (with peaks in August and September) and during daylight hours (6 to 18 UTC).

  17. The Contribution of Soil Moisture Information to Forecast Skill: Two Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal

    2010-01-01

    This talk briefly describes two recent studies on the impact of soil moisture information on hydrological and meteorological prediction. While the studies utilize soil moisture derived from the integration of large-scale land surface models with observations-based meteorological data, the results directly illustrate the potential usefulness of satellite-derived soil moisture information (e.g., from SMOS and SMAP) for applications in prediction. The first study, the GEWEX- and ClIVAR-sponsored GLACE-2 project, quantifies the contribution of realistic soil moisture initialization to skill in subseasonal forecasts of precipitation and air temperature (out to two months). The multi-model study shows that soil moisture information does indeed contribute skill to the forecasts, particularly for air temperature, and particularly when the initial local soil moisture anomaly is large. Furthermore, the skill contributions tend to be larger where the soil moisture initialization is more accurate, as measured by the density of the observational network contributing to the initialization. The second study focuses on streamflow prediction. The relative contributions of snow and soil moisture initialization to skill in streamflow prediction at seasonal lead, in the absence of knowledge of meteorological anomalies during the forecast period, were quantified with several land surface models using uniquely designed numerical experiments and naturalized streamflow data covering mUltiple decades over the western United States. In several basins, accurate soil moisture initialization is found to contribute significant levels of predictive skill. Depending on the date of forecast issue, the contributions can be significant out to leads of six months. Both studies suggest that improvements in soil moisture initialization would lead to increases in predictive skill. The relevance of SMOS and SMAP satellite-based soil moisture information to prediction are discussed in the context of these

  18. Balloon Angioplasty – The Legacy of Andreas Grüntzig, M.D. (1939–1985)

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Matthias; Grüntzig, Johannes; Husmann, Marc; Rösch, Josef

    2014-01-01

    In 1974, at the Medical Policlinic of the University of Zürich, German-born physician-scientist Andreas Grüntzig (1939–1985) for the first time applied a balloon-tipped catheter to re-open a severely stenosed femoral artery, a procedure, which he initially called “percutaneous transluminal dilatation”. Balloon angioplasty as a therapy of atherosclerotic vascular disease, for which Grüntzig and Charles T. Dotter (1920–1985) received a nomination for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978, became one of the most successful examples of translational medicine in the twentieth century. Known today as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in peripheral arteries or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in coronary arteries, balloon angioplasty has become the method of choice to treat patients with acute myocardial infarction or occluded leg arteries. On the occasion of the 40th anniversary of balloon angioplasty, we summarize Grüntzig’s life and career in Germany, Switzerland, and the United States and also review the developments in vascular medicine from the 1890s to the 1980s, including Dotter’s first accidental angioplasty in 1963. The work of pioneers of catheterization, including Pedro L. Fariñas in Cuba, André F. Cournand in France, Werner Forssmann, Werner Porstmann and Eberhard Zeitler in Germany, António Egas Moniz and Reynaldo dos Santos in Portugal, Sven-Ivar Seldinger in Sweden, and Barney Brooks, Thomas J. Fogarty, Melvin P. Judkins, Richard K. Myler, Dickinson W. Richards, and F. Mason Sones in the United States, is discussed. We also present quotes by Grüntzig and excerpts from his unfinished autobiography, statements of Grüntzig’s former colleagues and contemporary witnesses, and have included hitherto unpublished historic photographs and links to archive recordings and historic materials. This year, on June 25, 2014, Andreas Grüntzig would have celebrated

  19. Balloon Angioplasty - The Legacy of Andreas Grüntzig, M.D. (1939-1985).

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias; Grüntzig, Johannes; Husmann, Marc; Rösch, Josef

    2014-01-01

    In 1974, at the Medical Policlinic of the University of Zürich, German-born physician-scientist Andreas Grüntzig (1939-1985) for the first time applied a balloon-tipped catheter to re-open a severely stenosed femoral artery, a procedure, which he initially called "percutaneous transluminal dilatation". Balloon angioplasty as a therapy of atherosclerotic vascular disease, for which Grüntzig and Charles T. Dotter (1920-1985) received a nomination for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978, became one of the most successful examples of translational medicine in the twentieth century. Known today as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in peripheral arteries or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in coronary arteries, balloon angioplasty has become the method of choice to treat patients with acute myocardial infarction or occluded leg arteries. On the occasion of the 40(th) anniversary of balloon angioplasty, we summarize Grüntzig's life and career in Germany, Switzerland, and the United States and also review the developments in vascular medicine from the 1890s to the 1980s, including Dotter's first accidental angioplasty in 1963. The work of pioneers of catheterization, including Pedro L. Fariñas in Cuba, André F. Cournand in France, Werner Forssmann, Werner Porstmann and Eberhard Zeitler in Germany, António Egas Moniz and Reynaldo dos Santos in Portugal, Sven-Ivar Seldinger in Sweden, and Barney Brooks, Thomas J. Fogarty, Melvin P. Judkins, Richard K. Myler, Dickinson W. Richards, and F. Mason Sones in the United States, is discussed. We also present quotes by Grüntzig and excerpts from his unfinished autobiography, statements of Grüntzig's former colleagues and contemporary witnesses, and have included hitherto unpublished historic photographs and links to archive recordings and historic materials. This year, on June 25, 2014, Andreas Grüntzig would have celebrated his 75(th

  20. Balloon Angioplasty - The Legacy of Andreas Grüntzig, M.D. (1939-1985).

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias; Grüntzig, Johannes; Husmann, Marc; Rösch, Josef

    2014-01-01

    In 1974, at the Medical Policlinic of the University of Zürich, German-born physician-scientist Andreas Grüntzig (1939-1985) for the first time applied a balloon-tipped catheter to re-open a severely stenosed femoral artery, a procedure, which he initially called "percutaneous transluminal dilatation". Balloon angioplasty as a therapy of atherosclerotic vascular disease, for which Grüntzig and Charles T. Dotter (1920-1985) received a nomination for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978, became one of the most successful examples of translational medicine in the twentieth century. Known today as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in peripheral arteries or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in coronary arteries, balloon angioplasty has become the method of choice to treat patients with acute myocardial infarction or occluded leg arteries. On the occasion of the 40(th) anniversary of balloon angioplasty, we summarize Grüntzig's life and career in Germany, Switzerland, and the United States and also review the developments in vascular medicine from the 1890s to the 1980s, including Dotter's first accidental angioplasty in 1963. The work of pioneers of catheterization, including Pedro L. Fariñas in Cuba, André F. Cournand in France, Werner Forssmann, Werner Porstmann and Eberhard Zeitler in Germany, António Egas Moniz and Reynaldo dos Santos in Portugal, Sven-Ivar Seldinger in Sweden, and Barney Brooks, Thomas J. Fogarty, Melvin P. Judkins, Richard K. Myler, Dickinson W. Richards, and F. Mason Sones in the United States, is discussed. We also present quotes by Grüntzig and excerpts from his unfinished autobiography, statements of Grüntzig's former colleagues and contemporary witnesses, and have included hitherto unpublished historic photographs and links to archive recordings and historic materials. This year, on June 25, 2014, Andreas Grüntzig would have celebrated his 75(th

  1. Synchrotron X-ray Scattering from Self-organized Soft Nanostructures in Clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossum, J. O.

    2009-04-01

    . Gog, C. Venkataraman, Observations of orientational ordering in aqueous suspensions of a nano-layered silicate, ENERGY The International Journal 30, 873 (2005). 2. D. M. Fonseca, Y. Méheust, J. O. Fossum, K. D. Knudsen, K. J. Måløy and K. P. S. Parmar, Phase behavior of platelet-shaped nanosilicate colloids in saline solutions: A small-angle X-ray scattering study J. Appl. Cryst. 40 292 (2007) 3. E. N. de Azevedo, M. Engelsberg, J. O. Fossum, R. E. de Souza, Anisotropic water diffusion in nematic self-assemblies of clay nano-platelets suspended in water, Langmuir 23, 5100 (2007) 4. Nils Ivar Ringdal, Master thesis, Department of Physics, NTNU (2008) 5. J.O. Fossum, Y. Meheust, K.P.S. Parmar, K.D. Knudsen, K.J. Maloy, D.d.M. Fonseca, Intercalation-enhanced electric polarization and chain formation of nano-layered particles, Europhys. Lett., 74, 438 (2006), and in the Scientific Highlights 2006 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility - ESRF (2007) 6. K.P.S. Parmar, Y. Meheust, B. Schelderupsen and J.O. Fossum, Electrorheological suspensions of laponite in oil: rheometry studies, Langmuir 24,1814 (2008) 7. F. Bergaya, B. K. G. Theng, and G. Lagaly, editors. Handbook of Clay Science. Elsevier (2006)