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Sample records for ivory coast tektites

  1. Beryllium-10 in Ivory Coast Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serefiddin, F.; Herzog, G. F.; Koeberl, C.

    2005-03-01

    10Be concentrations in Ivory Coast tektites are consistent with formation from near surface terrestrial soils. Concentrations 77% lower than in Australasian tektites reflect differences in source materials, longer decay and environmental factors.

  2. New data on selected Ivory Coast tektites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuttitta, F.; Carron, M.K.; Annell, C.S.

    1972-01-01

    Fourteen Ivory Coast tektites exhibit a range of bulk indices of refraction of 1.5156 to 1.5217 ?? 0.0004 and of bulk specific gravities of 2.428 to 2.502 ??0.005. Seven of these Ivory Coast (IVC) tektites were analyzed for major and minor element content. Compared to tektites from other strewn fields, their SiO2 content is low (67.2-69.1 %), A12O3 relatively high (15.8-16.8 %), and total iron relatively high but with a more restricted range (6.3-6.8 % as FeO). Their lime content is low (0.71-1.35%) compared to Australasian tektites but their MgO CaO ratio (about 3.1) is unusually high. All other tektite groups have Na2O K2O ratios less than unity, but the Na2O K2O ratio of the IVC tektites is slightly greater than unity. Their K Rb ratios range from 200 to 256 and average 227, which is higher than those determined for Australasian tektites, but similar to some obtained for moldavites. The Li content (41-48 ppm) is about the same as that of the Australasian tektites, but the Cs and Rb are lower, being 1.9 to 2.9 and 57 to 86 ppm, respectively. The IVC tektites are high in Cr (260-375 ppm), Co (19-25 ppm) and Ni (101-167 ppm), and particularly in Pb (<10-18 ppm), Cu (13-21 ppm) and Ga (14-23 ppm). The high Cr Ni ratios of the IVC tektites (range 2-3.6) are similar to those found for australites, philippinites and thailandites, but not the javanites and indochinites. Evaluation of these and other reported data show that compositional similarities between the IVC tektites and green or black Bosumtwi Crater glasses strongly support the hypothesis of a common impact origin-i.e. the Bosumtwi Crater site. Comparison of the IVC tektite composition with those of returned lunar materials (gabbros, basalts, breccia and soils) do not support a lunar origin for the Ivory Coast tektites. ?? 1972.

  3. New data on selected Ivory Coast tektites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuttitta, F.; Carron, M. K.; Annell, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Fourteen Ivory Coast tektites exhibit a range of bulk indices of refraction of 1.5156 to 1.5217 plus or minus 0.0004 and of bulk specific gravities of 2.428 to 2.502 plus or minus 0.005. Seven of these Ivory Coast (IVC) tektites were analyzed for major and minor element content. Compared to tektites from other strewn fields, their SiO2 content is low (67.2-69.1%), Al2O3 relatively high (15.8-16.8%), and total iron relatively high but with a more restricted range (6.3-6.8% as FeO). Their lime content is low (0.71-1.35%) compared to Australasian tektites but their MgO/CaO ratio (about 3.1) is unusually high. All other tektite groups have Na2O/K2O ratios less than unity, but the Na2O/K2O ratio of the IVC tektites is slightly greater than unity. Their K/Rb ratios range from 200 to 256 and average 227.

  4. Oxygen isotopes as tracers of tektite source rocks: An example from the Ivory Coast tektites and Lake Bosumtwi Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Joel D.; Koeberl, Christian; Chamberlain, C. Page

    1993-01-01

    Oxygen isotope studies of tektites and impact glasses provide an important tool to help in identifying the target lithologies for terrestrial impacts, including the K-T boundary impact. However, such studies may be complicated by modification of the original oxygen isotope values of some source rocks during the tektite formation process either by vapor fractionation or incorporation of meteoric water. To further investigate the relationship between the oxygen isotopic composition of tektites and their source rocks, Ivory Coast tektites and samples of impact glasses and bedrock lithologies from the Bosumtwi Crater in Ghana--which is widely believed to be the source crater for the Ivory Coast tektites--were studied. Our preliminary results suggest that the phyllites and metagraywackes from the Bosumtwi Crater were the predominant source materials for the impact glasses and tektites and that no significant oxygen isotope modification (less than 1 percent delta(O-18)) took place during impact melting. This contrasts with previous studies of moldavites and Australasian tektites and their sedimentary source materials which suggests a 4 to 5 percent lowering of delta(O-18) due to meteoric water incorporation during impact melting.

  5. Osmium isotopes in Ivory Coast tektites: Confirmation of a meteoritic component and rhenium depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Shirey, Steven B.

    1993-01-01

    The sensitive negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry method was used for the measurement of concentrations and isotopic ratios of osmium and rhenium in four Ivory Coast tektites. These tektites have crustal major and trace element composition, as well as large negative epsilon(sub Nd)(-20) and positive epsilon(sub Sr)(+260 to +300) which are characteristic for old continental crust. Os concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 0.30 ppb were found, clearly much higher than average crustal values, Os-187/Os-186 ratios of about 1.2-1.7, and low Re-187/Os-186 ratios. These results show unambiguously the existence of a meteoritic component (on the order of 0.06%) in the Ivory Coast tektites. Low Re abundances are the result of fractionation of Re during the impact.

  6. Trace Elements in Ivory Coast Tektites, Microtektites, and Fallback Particles of the Lake Bosumtwi Impact Crater, Ghana: A LA-ICP-MS Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luetke, S.; Deutsch, A.; Berndt, J.; Langenhorst, F.

    2008-03-01

    LA-ICP-MS trace element data of Ivory Coast tektites, microtektites, and glassy fallback particles indicate a soil contribution to the precursor materials of the tektites. A variable Ni/Co ratio seems to be characteristic of the fallback particles.

  7. Petrology and geochemistry of target rocks from the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana, and comparison with Ivory Coast tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Blum, Joel D.; Chamberlain, C. Page

    1998-06-01

    The 10.5 km diameter Bosumtwi crater in Ghana, West Africa, is the most likely source crater for the Ivory Coast tektites, as the tektites and the crater have the same age (1.07 Ma), and there are close similarities between the isotopic and chemical compositions of the tektites and crater rocks. The crater is excavated in 2.1-2.2 Ga old metasediments and metavolcanics of the Birimian Supergroup. Here we present the first integrated petrographic and geochemical study of rocks from the Bosumtwi impact crater. A variety of target rocks from the Bosumtwi impact structure were selected to represent the major rock types that have been described before, resulting in four groups: shale, phyllite-graywacke, and two different types of granites (from dispersed dikes and from the so-called Pepiakese intrusion at the northeastern side of the crater). These rocks were analyzed for their major and trace element composition and their petrographic characteristics. In addition, representative samples were also analyzed for their O, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions. The target rocks do not show any unambiguous evidence of shock metamorphism (i.e., planar deformation features, PDFs). Distinct impact-characteristic shock effects (PDFs) were identified only in clasts within suevite-derived melt fragments. The compositional range of the target rocks is significantly wider than that of the Ivory Coast tektites, but overlap the tektite compositions. A best-fit line for the Bosumtwi crater rocks in a Rb-Sr isotope evolution diagram yields an "age" of 1.98 Ga, and an initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of 0.701, which is close to results previously obtained for granitoid intrusions in the Birimian of Ghana. Our Nd isotopic data yield depleted mantle model ages ranging from 2.16 to 2.64 Ga, and ɛ Nd values of -17.2 to -25.9‰. Harmonic least-squares (HMX) mixing calculations were able to reproduce the composition of Ivory Coast tektites from a mixture of Bosumtwi country rocks that include about 70

  8. Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    1985-07-01

    Since the Ivory Coast's independence (1960), the population has increased from 3.7 million to 9.7 million, representing a growth rate of up to 4.2%. The country's 5th 5-Year Plan (1981-85) has 4 priorities: 1) agricultural modernization, 2) traditional industry and crafts modernization, 3) human resources enhancement, and 4) continued economic growth. Population objectives include 1) increasing peasant aid, 2) making education more development oriented, 3) making health care more accessible, and 4) finding solutions to employment and unemployment problems. The government wants to increase population size because it needs labor for economic development. Programs 1) develop areas with high out-migration, 2) reduce maternal and child mortality, and 3) support family planning only to benefit family well being. Although the Ivory Coast's population will reach 15 million by the year 2000, and population density has tripled since 1950, the country is still thinly populated. The current population policy strives to 1) reduce infant mortality, 2) maintain fertility, and 3) diminish immigration and emigration. Life expectancy is 47 years, infant mortality is 122/1000, and most rural people have no health services. The government considers the total fertility rate of 6.7 satisfactory. Abortion for contraceptive purposes and sterilization are illegal; access to contraception is limited. The Ivory Coast, because of rapid economic growth, attracts immigrants from neighboring countries; at present 1/3 of the population is foreign-born. The government is trying to integrate natives more fully into the labor force. There is little emigration, but internal migration involves almost half of the population. The government attempts to 1) slow down and redirect rural to urban migration to small and medium sized towns and 2) slow rural to rural migration from the savannah to the forest zone.

  9. Uppermost impact fallback layer in the Bosumtwi crater (Ghana): Mineralogy, geochemistry, and comparison with Ivory Coast tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Brandstätter, Franz; Glass, Billy P.; Hecht, Lutz; Mader, Dieter; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    In 2004, an International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilling project at the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana (10.5 km in diameter, 1.07 Myr old), was performed to study the sediments that fill the lake as well as the underlying impactites. In one (LB-05) of 16 cores drilled into the lake sediments, the zone between the impact breccias and the post-impact sediments was penetrated, preserving the final, fine-grained impact fallback layer. This ~30 cm thick layer contains in the top 10 cm “accretionary” lapilli, microtektite-like glass spherules, and shocked quartz grains. Glass particles -- mostly of splash form less than 1 mm size -- make up the bulk of the grains (~70-78% by number) in the coarser size fraction (>125 μm) of the top of the fallback layer. About one-third of all quartz grains in the uppermost part of the layer are shocked, with planar deformation features (PDFs); almost half of these grains are highly shocked, with 3 or more sets of PDFs. K-feldspar grains also occur and some show shock deformation. The abundance of shocked quartz grains and the average shock level as indicated by the number of sets of PDFs, for both quartz and K-feldspar, decrease with depth into the layer. The well-preserved glass spherules and fragments are chemically rather homogeneous within each particle, and also show relatively small variations between the various particles. On average, the composition of the fallback spherules from core LB-5B is very similar to the composition of Ivory Coast tektites and microtektites, with the exception of CaO contents, which are about 1.5 to 2 times higher in the fallback spherules. This is a rare case in which the uppermost fallback layer and the transition to the post-impact sediments has been preserved in an impact structure; its presence indicates that the impactite sequence at Bosumtwi is complete and that Bosumtwi is a very well-preserved impact crater.

  10. Beryllium-10 concentrations of tektites from the Ivory Coast and from Central Europe: Evidence for near-surface residence of precursor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serefiddin, Feride; Herzog, Gregory F.; Koeberl, Christian

    2007-03-01

    By using accelerator mass spectrometry, we measured 10Be ( T1/2 = 1.5 Ma) concentrations in nine Ivory Coast (IVC) tektites, in six soil samples collected near the Bosumtwi impact crater, the likely source region, and in a depth profile taken through a 23 g moldavite. In the core of the moldavite sample we also measured an upper limit on the 36Cl ( T1/2 = 0.3 My) concentration. The average 10Be concentration in IVC tektites of (22 ± 11) × 10 6 atom/g exceeds reasonable limits for a meteoritic component or cosmic-ray production in situ after tektite formation. The 10Be must be meteoric, which implies that IVC tektites formed from soils or sediments. Corrected to the time of formation (ToF) 1.07 Ma ago and for a small in situ component, the average 10Be concentration of (35 ± 7) × 10 6 atom/g (1 - σ mean) is considerably lower than those of contemporary Bosumtwi soils, ˜250 × 10 6 atom/g, or of Australasian tektites at their ToF, 0.8 Ma B.P. near Lake Bosumtwi today the soil column is only ˜1 m thick. If the landscape was similar 1.07 Ma ago, then the total thickness of the tektite formation zone probably did not exceed 10 m. With increasing depth below the surface of the moldavite, the 10Be concentrations decrease rapidly owing to the presence of a surface component, probably of recent origin. The main interior mass of the sample contains ˜0.8 × 10 6 atom 10Be/g and fewer than 0.1 × 10 6 atom 36Cl/g, little of which can be meteoritic. Although not definitive, consideration of several possible cosmic-ray exposure histories suggests that about half the interior 10Be has a meteoric origin, which if corrected to the time of formation yields a concentration compatible with those measured in typical contemporary soils. The observations are consistent with the formation of three of the four main tektite groups from surface soils or sediments.

  11. Single crystal U–Pb zircon age and Sr–Nd isotopic composition of impactites from the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Comparison with country rocks and Ivory Coast tektites

    PubMed Central

    Ferrière, Ludovic; Koeberl, Christian; Thöni, Martin; Liang, Chen

    2010-01-01

    The 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact structure (Ghana), excavated in 2.1–2.2 Gyr old supracrustal rocks of the Birimian Supergroup, was drilled in 2004. Here, we present single crystal U–Pb zircon ages from a suevite and two meta-graywacke samples recovered from the central uplift (drill core LB-08A), which yield an upper Concordia intercept age of ca. 2145 ± 82 Ma, in very good agreement with previous geochronological data for the West African Craton rocks in Ghana. Whole rock Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope data of six suevites (five from inside the crater and one from outside the northern crater rim), three meta-graywacke, and two phyllite samples from core LB-08A are also presented, providing further insights into the timing of the metamorphism and a possibly related isotopic redistribution of the Bosumtwi crater rocks. Our Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd data show also that the suevites are mixtures of meta-greywacke and phyllite (and possibly a very low amount of granite). A comparison of our new isotopic data with literature data for the Ivory Coast tektites allows to better constrain the parent material of the Ivory Coast tektites (i.e., distal impactites), which is thought to consist of a mixture of metasedimentary rocks (and possibly granite), but with a higher proportion of phyllite (and shale) than the suevites (i.e., proximal impactites). When plotted in a Rb/Sr isochron diagram, the sample data points (n = 29, including literature data) scatter along a regression line, whose slope corresponds to an age of 1846 ± 160 Ma, with an initial Sr isotope ratio of 0.703 ± 0.002. However, due to the extensive alteration of some of the investigated samples and the lithological diversity of the source material, this age, which is in close agreement with a possible “metamorphic age” of ∼ 1.8–1.9 Ga tentatively derived from our U–Pb dating of zircons, is difficult to consider as a reliable metamorphic age. It may perhaps reflect a common ancient source

  12. Single crystal U-Pb zircon age and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of impactites from the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Comparison with country rocks and Ivory Coast tektites.

    PubMed

    Ferrière, Ludovic; Koeberl, Christian; Thöni, Martin; Liang, Chen

    2010-08-01

    The 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact structure (Ghana), excavated in 2.1-2.2 Gyr old supracrustal rocks of the Birimian Supergroup, was drilled in 2004. Here, we present single crystal U-Pb zircon ages from a suevite and two meta-graywacke samples recovered from the central uplift (drill core LB-08A), which yield an upper Concordia intercept age of ca. 2145 ± 82 Ma, in very good agreement with previous geochronological data for the West African Craton rocks in Ghana. Whole rock Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope data of six suevites (five from inside the crater and one from outside the northern crater rim), three meta-graywacke, and two phyllite samples from core LB-08A are also presented, providing further insights into the timing of the metamorphism and a possibly related isotopic redistribution of the Bosumtwi crater rocks. Our Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd data show also that the suevites are mixtures of meta-greywacke and phyllite (and possibly a very low amount of granite). A comparison of our new isotopic data with literature data for the Ivory Coast tektites allows to better constrain the parent material of the Ivory Coast tektites (i.e., distal impactites), which is thought to consist of a mixture of metasedimentary rocks (and possibly granite), but with a higher proportion of phyllite (and shale) than the suevites (i.e., proximal impactites). When plotted in a Rb/Sr isochron diagram, the sample data points (n = 29, including literature data) scatter along a regression line, whose slope corresponds to an age of 1846 ± 160 Ma, with an initial Sr isotope ratio of 0.703 ± 0.002. However, due to the extensive alteration of some of the investigated samples and the lithological diversity of the source material, this age, which is in close agreement with a possible "metamorphic age" of ∼ 1.8-1.9 Ga tentatively derived from our U-Pb dating of zircons, is difficult to consider as a reliable metamorphic age. It may perhaps reflect a common ancient source whose Rb-Sr isotope

  13. Single crystal U-Pb zircon age and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of impactites from the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Comparison with country rocks and Ivory Coast tektites.

    PubMed

    Ferrière, Ludovic; Koeberl, Christian; Thöni, Martin; Liang, Chen

    2010-08-01

    The 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact structure (Ghana), excavated in 2.1-2.2 Gyr old supracrustal rocks of the Birimian Supergroup, was drilled in 2004. Here, we present single crystal U-Pb zircon ages from a suevite and two meta-graywacke samples recovered from the central uplift (drill core LB-08A), which yield an upper Concordia intercept age of ca. 2145 ± 82 Ma, in very good agreement with previous geochronological data for the West African Craton rocks in Ghana. Whole rock Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope data of six suevites (five from inside the crater and one from outside the northern crater rim), three meta-graywacke, and two phyllite samples from core LB-08A are also presented, providing further insights into the timing of the metamorphism and a possibly related isotopic redistribution of the Bosumtwi crater rocks. Our Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd data show also that the suevites are mixtures of meta-greywacke and phyllite (and possibly a very low amount of granite). A comparison of our new isotopic data with literature data for the Ivory Coast tektites allows to better constrain the parent material of the Ivory Coast tektites (i.e., distal impactites), which is thought to consist of a mixture of metasedimentary rocks (and possibly granite), but with a higher proportion of phyllite (and shale) than the suevites (i.e., proximal impactites). When plotted in a Rb/Sr isochron diagram, the sample data points (n = 29, including literature data) scatter along a regression line, whose slope corresponds to an age of 1846 ± 160 Ma, with an initial Sr isotope ratio of 0.703 ± 0.002. However, due to the extensive alteration of some of the investigated samples and the lithological diversity of the source material, this age, which is in close agreement with a possible "metamorphic age" of ∼ 1.8-1.9 Ga tentatively derived from our U-Pb dating of zircons, is difficult to consider as a reliable metamorphic age. It may perhaps reflect a common ancient source whose Rb-Sr isotope

  14. Tektites and their origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Questions concerning the tektite distribution are examined, taking into account the Australasian strewn field, the Ivory Coast strewn field, the Moldavite strewn field, the North American strewn field, the Libyan desert glass, the Aouelloul crater glass, and amerikanites. Attention is given to the shapes of tektites, the internal structure of tektites, the physical properties of tektite glass, the chemical composition of tektites, isotopes, fission tracks, cosmic ray tracks, and arguments in favor and against the terrestrial origin of tektites. It is concluded that tektites cannot be terrestrial in origin. They are probably volcanic ejects, of geologically recent epochs, from one or a number of lunar volcanoes.

  15. Glassy Objects (Microtektites?) from Deep-Sea Sediments near the Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Glass, B P

    1968-08-30

    Glassy objects of spherical, oval, dumbbell, teardrop, and irregular shapes have been found in a deep-sea sediment core taken off the Ivory Coast. They occur in a layer of sediment that was apparently deposited about 800,000 years ago. Their geographic location, appearance, and physical properties suggest that they are microtektites and that they are related to the tektite-strewn field of the Ivory Coast.

  16. Glassy Objects (Microtektites?) from Deep-Sea Sediments near the Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Glass, B P

    1968-08-30

    Glassy objects of spherical, oval, dumbbell, teardrop, and irregular shapes have been found in a deep-sea sediment core taken off the Ivory Coast. They occur in a layer of sediment that was apparently deposited about 800,000 years ago. Their geographic location, appearance, and physical properties suggest that they are microtektites and that they are related to the tektite-strewn field of the Ivory Coast. PMID:17812117

  17. Ivory Coast: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Thea C.

    A survey of the status of language usage in the Ivory Coast begins with an overview of the usage patterns of French, the official language, and the five most commonly used native languages: Jula, Anyi-Baoule, Senoufo, Bete, and Dan. Recent Ivorian efforts at language planning, development, and research are also highlighted. A matrix follows that…

  18. French in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  19. Education by Television in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valerien, Jean

    1981-01-01

    The management, administration, production, and broadcasting of educational television are discussed and evaluated with respect to its use in elementary education, training of teachers, and out-of-school education in the Ivory Coast during the 1970s. (CHC)

  20. ETV Program Production in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stella; Klees, Steven

    The efficiency of educational broadcasting in the Ivory Coast is assessed from the standpoint of what and how physical and human resources are utilized. Information was obtained by reviewing the large volume of documents that have been published about the project and through interviewing personnel involved in its management and operation. The…

  1. North-American Microtektites are More Oxidised than Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Koeberl, C.; Glass, B. P.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.

    2012-09-01

    North American (NA) microtektites display Fe3+/Fetot ratios from 0 to 0.75, much higher than microtektites from Ivory Coast and Australasian strewn fields. FTIR determined water content compare well with NA tektites, suggesting lack of alteration.

  2. Phillips goes subsea trees in Ivory Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Bryngelson, R.H.

    1982-11-15

    Describes installation of 3 wet, diver-assist trees, in the Espoir field offshore Ivory Coast, as part of Phillips Petroleum's plans to use 5 satellite wells with downhole completion equipment and subsea production trees. Simplicity in design and attention to training has resulted in an installation time of about 3 weeks for one of the largest subsea trees in the industry. Presents diagram showing the converted jackup, Dan Duke drilling unit, which supports equipment to handle production from subsea wells.

  3. [The migration policy of the Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Brou, K; Charbit, Y

    1994-01-01

    Migration policies adopted by the Ivory Coast at independence were essentially a continuation of colonial policies aimed at providing manpower for the coffee and cacao plantations of the south, whose exports were to form the basis of the national development strategy. Instead of forced labor, the government facilitated installation of migrants in agricultural areas by means of laws assuring their access to lands not currently in use. Massive immigration of workers resulted in an age and sex distribution favorable to the needs of the plantation economy. The concentration of development efforts in the forest zone of the south, including Abidjan, encouraged thousands of workers from the savannah to migrate south in search of higher incomes and better living conditions. Bilateral accords with the former Upper Volta and with France and multilateral accords with the Economic Community of the West African states regulated the migratory movement. The Ivory Coast's migration policy succeeded in populating the forest zone and permitted the Ivory Coast to construct a powerful economy. But the policy produced sometimes violent opposition among natives overwhelmed by foreigners in search of lands. The loss of labor force in the savannah threatened the nation's food supply and demographic balance. In the forest zone itself, many of the immigrant workers left the plantations to seek greater success in the cities, swelling the ranks of the urban unemployed and leaving much of the rural area short of labor. In prosperous times, when prices for southern goods were high, the system worked reasonably well. When economic conditions worsened, the inefficiency of the policy became clear. At those times the international conventions failed to control the influx because of the conflicting interests of the countries. Ethnic and regional tensions mounted, the rural exodus continued despite attempts to encourage regional development, and conflicts over land tenure intensified.

  4. Infrasound from lightning measured in Ivory Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, T.; Matoza, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms occur continuously around the world and that about 45 lightning flashes are produced per second over the globe. More than two thirds (42) of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) are now certified and routinely measure signals due to natural activity (e.g., airflow over mountains, aurora, microbaroms, surf, volcanoes, severe weather including lightning flashes, ...). Some of the IMS stations are located where worldwide lightning detection networks (e.g. WWLLN) have a weak detection capability but lightning activity is high (e.g. Africa, South America). These infrasound stations are well localised to study lightning flash activity and its disparity, which is a good proxy for global warming. Progress in infrasound array data processing over the past ten years makes such lightning studies possible. For example, Farges and Blanc (2010) show clearly that it is possible to measure lightning infrasound from thunderstorms within a range of distances from the infrasound station. Infrasound from lightning can be detected when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. The motion of the squall zone is very well measured inside this zone. Up to 25% of lightning flashes can be detected with this technique, giving better results locally than worldwide lightning detection networks. An IMS infrasound station has been installed in Ivory Coast for 8 years. The optical space-based instrument OTD measured a rate of 10-20 flashes/km^2/year in that country and showed strong seasonal variations (Christian et al., 2003). Ivory Coast is therefore a good place to study infrasound data associated with lightning activity and its temporal variation. First statistical results will be presented in this paper based on 3 years of data (2005-2008).

  5. Phillips goes subsea trees in Ivory Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Bryngelson, R.H.

    1982-11-15

    Describes installation of 3 satellite subsea trees in 500 ft of water from a semisubmersible drilling rig. These wet, diver-assist trees are part of Phillips Petroleum's early development and production program (EDPP) for the Espoir field offshore Ivory Coast, with plans calling for 5 satellite wells with downhole completion equipment and subsea production trees. Diagram shows how a converted jackup, Dan Duke, supports equipment to handle production from subsea wells. Table gives time breakdown of subsea tree installation. Before mobilizing the subsea trees, control system, and tubulars to the rig, a study of deck layout, payloads, and traffic patterns was performed. Concludes that, based on experience in this project and the cost differences between purchase and installation costs, final success is 90% dependent on informed and trained field personnel after engineering, design, and manufacturing; attention to installation procedures and training of field and operational personnel are as critical or more critical than design changes to equipment; and selection of a supplier for high technology equipment, based on a low bid alone, may not translate into lower installation costs.

  6. The oldest rock of Ivory Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouamelan, Alain Nicaise; Djro, Sagbrou Chérubin; Allialy, Marc Ephrem; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Peucat, Jean-Jacques

    2015-03-01

    The tonalitic gneiss of Balmer (TGB), in the SASCA area of south-western Ivory Coast, previously dated at 3141 ± 2 Ma using the single zircon evaporation method, is regarded as a relic of Archean rock within the Paleoproterozoic (Birimian) formation of the West African Craton (WAC). We present new geochronological data for the TGB using the laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method. We obtain a U-Pb age of 3207 ± 7 Ma for abundant zircons extracted from the tonalitic gneiss, and interpret this age as that of the magmatic protolith because of the igneous-type homogeneous zircon population. Certain magmatic zircon edges and some round zircons define an upper intercept age of 3155 ± 17 Ma which could represent overgrowths during gneissification. It appears that the TGB was not affected by the events posterior to its genesis, i.e. the Liberian (2.9-2.7 Ga) and Eburnean (2.4-2.0 Ga) events. Additionally, the TGB proves to be a juvenile Leonian rock, as indicated by the Nd model age of 3456 Ma, and could also constitute the protolith of the granulitic grey gneisses and charnockites of the Man area, which are 150-400 Ma younger.

  7. Nd and Sr isotopic evidence for the origin of tektite material from DSDP site 612 off the New Jersey coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecher, O.; Ngo, H. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1989-01-01

    The Sr and Nd isotopic composition was analyzed for samples from the Late Eocene tektite material from DSDP site 612 off the New Jersey coast, to determine whether these tektites may be assigned to the North-American-tektite group. It was found that the ranges of the Sr-87/Sr-86 and the Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios were much wider than in the 612-tectite material than in the tightly constrained group of North American tektites and microtektites and were significantly different from ratios in other groups of tektites. Results indicate that the DSDP tektites were formed from a chemically and isotopically heterogeneous material, in a regime that was different from that of other groups of tektites. It is suggested that the 612-tectites and the North American tektites were either formed by impacts of several bolides in the same general area or by a single impact event that sampled different layers.

  8. Infrasound from lightning measured in Ivory Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, T.; Millet, C.; Matoza, R. S.

    2012-04-01

    It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms occur continuously around the world and that about 45 lightning flashes are produced per second over the globe. More than two thirds (42) of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) are now certified and routinely measure signals due to natural activity (e.g., airflow over mountains, aurora, microbaroms, surf, volcanoes, severe weather including lightning flashes, …). Some of the IMS stations are located where worldwide lightning detection networks (e.g. WWLLN) have a weak detection capability but lightning activity is high (e.g. Africa, South America). These infrasound stations are well localised to study lightning flash activity and its disparity, which is a good proxy for global warming. Progress in infrasound array data processing over the past ten years makes such lightning studies possible. For example, Farges and Blanc (2010) show clearly that it is possible to measure lightning infrasound from thunderstorms within a range of distances from the infrasound station. Infrasound from lightning can be detected when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. The motion of the squall zone is very well measured inside this zone. Up to 25% of lightning flashes can be detected with this technique, giving better results locally than worldwide lightning detection networks. An IMS infrasound station has been installed in Ivory Coast for 9 years. The lightning rate of this region is 10-20 flashes/km2/year from space-based instrument OTD (Christian et al., 2003). Ivory Coast is therefore a good place to study infrasound data associated with lightning activity and its temporal variation. First statistical results will be presented in this paper based on 4 years of data (2005-2009). For short lightning distances (less than 20 km), up to 60 % of lightning detected by WWLLN has been one-to-one correlated

  9. Ehrlichia canis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in the Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Socolovschi, Cristina; Gomez, José; Marié, Jean-Lou; Davoust, Bernard; Guigal, Pierre-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis is distributed globally, but its prevalence in Africa is poorly known. In the study reported herein, 27% of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from watchdogs in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, were positive for E. canis using quantitative real-time PCR. A new molecular strategy is proposed that can be used not only for epidemiological study, but also for the diagnosis of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Our findings show for the first time the presence of E. canis using molecular tools in the Ivory Coast, providing direct evidence for the presence of this pathogen.

  10. What it is like to live in the Ivory Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Liddell, W.W.

    1981-09-01

    Exploration and production activity is increasing in the Ivory Coast on the strength of a small discovery by Exxon in 1977 and unofficial reports that Phillips has found a field in deep water which approaches Prudhoe Bay in size. Phillips is bringing five offshore rigs into Ivoirian waters.

  11. Television and Educational Reform in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Tony

    1978-01-01

    To achieve a basic and common level of primary education, the Ivory Coast has developed a program of teaching pupils via television and related materials. Out-of-school education for adults, curriculum innovations, and continuous inservice training for teachers are additional elements of the educational reform. (JMD)

  12. Analysis of the Ivory Coast Educational Television Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, R. Arnold

    1975-01-01

    A critical assessment of the potential impact and ideological implications of the large scale introduction of television to the Ivory Coast, as a reinforcer of the attitudes of the dominant elite educated abroad and a bastion of urbanity and middle class influence as opposed to the nurturing of traditional indigenous culture. Also considered is…

  13. Secondary School Alternatives in the Ivory Coast: Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnany, Emile G.

    Intended to provide information for Ivorian decision makers, this paper presents an overview of technological alternatives for the delivery of instruction at the post-primary level and their accompanying costs. Five alternatives for regular secondary education as it now exists in the Ivory Coast are reviewed: traditional, audiovisual-traditional,…

  14. Isotopic fractionation of zinc in tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynier, Frederic; Beck, Pierre; Jourdan, Fred; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Reimold, Uwe; Koeberl, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Tektites are terrestrial natural glasses produced during a hypervelocity impact of an extraterrestrial projectile onto the Earth's surface. The similarity between the chemical and isotopic compositions of tektites and terrestrial upper continental crust implies that the tektites formed by fusion of such target rock. Tektites are among the driest rocks on Earth. Although volatilization at high temperature may have caused this extreme dryness, the exact mechanism of the water loss and the behavior of other volatile species during tektite formation are still debated. Volatilization can fractionate isotopes, therefore, comparing the isotope composition of volatile elements in tektites with that of their source rocks may help to understand the physical conditions during tektite formation. For this study, we have measured the Zn isotopic composition of 20 tektites from four different strewn fields. Almost all samples are enriched in heavy isotopes of Zn compared to the upper continental crust. On average, the different groups of tektites are isotopically distinct (listed from the isotopically lightest to the heaviest): Muong-Nong type indochinites ( δ66/64Zn = 0.61 ± 0.30‰); North American bediasites ( δ66/64Zn = 1.61 ± 0.49‰); Ivory Coast tektites ( δ66/64Zn = 1.66 ± 0.18‰); the Australasian tektites (others than the Muong Nong-type indochinites) ( δ66/64Zn = 1.84 ± 0.42‰); and Central European moldavites ( δ66/64Zn = 2.04 ± 0.19‰). These results are contrasted with a narrow range of δ66/64Zn = 0-0.7‰ for a diverse spectrum of upper continental crust materials. The elemental abundance of Zn is negatively correlated with δ66/64Zn, which may reflect that isotopic fractionation occurred by evaporation during the heating event upon tektite formation. Simple Rayleigh distillation predicts isotopic fractionations much larger than what is actually observed, therefore, such a model cannot account for the observed Zn isotope fractionation in tektites. We

  15. North-American Microtektites are More Oxidised than Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Koeberl, C.; Glass, B. P.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.

    2012-03-01

    Microtektites from the Australasian and Ivory Coast strewn fields (SF) show low values of the Fe^3^+/Fe_t_o_t ratio, comparable to tektites from the same SF. In contrast, microtektites from the North American SF show a wider range (from 0 to 0.75).

  16. The Influence of Predisposing, Enabling and Need Factors on Condom Use in Ivory Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngamini Ngui, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify key determinants of condom use in Ivory Coast. Data stem from Ivory Coast Demographic Health Survey (DHS) conducted by ORC Macro in 2005 among a representative sample of 9,686 persons aged 15 - 49. Following the behavioral model, we use logistic regression to assess the effect of predisposing,…

  17. Malaria outbreak among French army troops returning from the Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Mayet, Aurélie; Lacassagne, David; Juzan, Nicolas; Chaudier, Bernard; Haus-Cheymol, Rachel; Berger, Franck; Romand, Olivier; Ollivier, Lénaick; Verret, Catherine; Deparis, Xavier; Spiegel, André

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, a French Army unit reported 39 malaria cases among service persons returning from Ivory Coast. Thirty, including three serious forms, occurred after the return to France. The risk of post-return malaria was higher than the risk in Ivory Coast. Half of the imported cases had stopped post-return chemoprophylaxis early.

  18. Tektite origin by hypervelocity asteroidal or cometary impact: The quest for the source craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian

    1992-01-01

    Tektites are natural glasses that are chemically homogeneous, often spherically symmetrical objects several centimeters in size, and occur in four known strewn fields on the surface of the Earth: the North American, moldavite (or Central European), Ivory Coast, and Australasian strewn fields. Tektites found within such strewn fields are related to each other with respect to their petrological, physical, and chemical properties as well as their age. A theory of tektite origin needs to explain the similarity of tektites in respect to age and certain aspects of isotopic and chemical composition within one strewn field, as well as the variety of tektite materials present in each strewn field. In addition to tektites on land, microtektites (which are generally less than 1 mm in diameter) have been found in deep-sea cores. Tektites are classified into three groups: (1) normal or splash-form tektites, (2) aerodynamically shaped tektites, and (3) Muong Nong-type tektites (sometimes also called layered tektites). The aerodynamic ablation results from partial remelting of glass during atmospheric passage after it was ejected outside the terrestrial atmosphere and quenched from a hot liquid. Aerodynamically shaped tektites are known mainly from the Australasian strewn field where they occur as flanged-button australites. The shapes of splash-form tektites (spheres, droplets, teardrops, dumbbells, etc., or fragments thereof) are the result of the solidification of rotating liquids in the air or vacuum. Mainly due to chemical studies, it is now commonly accepted that tektites are the product of melting and quenching of terrestrial rocks during hypervelocity impact on the Earth. The chemistry of tektites is in many respects identical to the composition of upper crustal material.

  19. [Pediatric colonoscopy at the University Hospital of Cocody (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Okon, J B; Assi, C; Diakité, M; Siaka, K; Ouattara, A; Soro, D; Coulibaly, A; Lohouès, M J; Camara, B M

    2012-01-01

    No published data are available on pediatric colonoscopy in Ivory Coast (and only one report on pediatric gastroscopy). We conducted a retrospective study of all colonoscopy reports of procedures performed from 1 September, 1991, to December 31, 2010, at the University Hospital of Cocody in Abidjan (Ivory Coast) and examined the epidemiological aspects, conditions of performance, indications, and results of colonoscopy in patients younger than 18 years. Eleven of the total of 1 159 colonoscopies were performed in in this age group (0.94%). The mean age of these 8 girls and 3 boys was 15 years (range: 10 to 17 years). All patients had been referred by a gastroenterologist. Bowel preparation was performed in all with a water enema. Premedication was performed exclusively with midazolam. A pediatric colonoscope was used. The colonoscopy was incomplete in 36% of cases (n=4). Rectal bleeding was the main indication. Results were abnormal in 72% of cases (n=8) and the lesions found were juvenile polyps, ulcerative colitis, sigmoid varices, rectocolitis due to a caustic product, and adenomatous polyps. The results of the examination were normal in 3 children. No complications were reported. In conclusion, although the pediatric colonoscopy practice at the University Hospital of Cocody in Abidjan is extremely small, its therapeutic and diagnostic yields are high, particularly in cases of rectal bleeding. Physicians (general practitioners and pediatricians) managing children should not hesitate to ask for a colonoscopy when appropriate.

  20. Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of tektite material from Barbados and their relationship to North American tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, H. H.; Wasserburg, J.; Glass, B. P.

    1985-01-01

    The isotopic composition of microtektites from Barbados was determined to establish their possible source and their relationship to known tektite strewn fields. Analyzed samples included microtektites and tektite fragments from the Barbados oceanic beds, samples of deep sea ooze, in which they occur, and of underlying volcanic ash, as well as glass beads from Lake Wanapitei Crater. Isotope ratios (Sr-87/Sr-86, Nd-143/Nd-144, Rb-87/Sr-86, and Sm-147/Nd-144) were determined, and the epsilon values for Sr and Nd plotted on the diagram available for the fields of North America, Australia, Ivory Coast, and Moldavite tektites. The epsilon coordinates of all Barbados microtektite and bulk tektite samples plot precisely within the narrow field determined by North American tektites (epsilon Sr, 111; epsilon Nd, -6.2), yield an Nd model age of 0.6 AE, and are distinct from all other fields. The isotopic signatures of samples from sea ooze, ash layer, and of the Lake Wanapitei glass beads are clearly different from all known tektite classes. It is concluded that the Barbados tektites are of the same source and temporal event as the North American tektites.

  1. Innovative production system goes in off Ivory Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, M.; Barnes, J. |

    1995-07-17

    The phased field development of the Lion and Panthere fields, offshore the Ivory Coast, includes a small floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) tanker with minimal processing capability as an early oil production system (EPS). For the long-term production scheme, the FPSO will be replaced by a converted jack up mobile offshore production system (MOPS) with full process equipment. The development also includes guyed-caisson well platforms, pipeline export for natural gas to fuel an onshore power plant, and a floating storage and offloading (FSO) tanker for oil export. Pipeline export for oil is a future possibility. This array of innovative strategies and techniques seldom has been brought together in a single project. The paper describes the development plan, early oil, jack up MOPS, and transport and installation.

  2. [Traditional health practitioners and epilepsies in Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    François, A A; Elisée, B K; Christian, T A; Armel, K H; Any, G; Tchwa, A M; Constance, Y A

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a descriptive 3-month observational study concerning the experience and knowledge about epilepsy of 30 traditional health practitioners in the Ivory Coast. Most respondents were men over 30 years of age. They had an average of 14.3 years of professional experience. More than half of respondents (54%) had not attended school. All traditional practitioners knew that epilepsy was a brain disease. For 83.3% of them, the disease was supernatural, due to a curse. These traditional healers knew all the clinical manifestations of generalized tonico-clonic seizure. For over 72% of them, noise, presence of a public, nervousness and coffee consumption were factors favoring seizures. Sixty percent of the traditional healers still believed in the contagiousness of epilepsy, and all claimed to cure it by traditional treatment. Most all healers (97%) used plant products, but only 10% released the name of the plants used (Rubiaceae or Lamiaceae families). This survey highlights the urgency of awareness campaigns and the need for training of Ivorian traditional healers and the necessity to improve the collaboration between modern and traditional medicine.

  3. Energy assessment of Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goering, P.

    1986-11-01

    This report is an overview of the energy market in four West African countries: The Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal. We feel these countries are representative of the West African region. Together they account for 75% of the total energy use in West Africa, 78% of GDP, and 76% of population. The purpose of the study is to analyze the evolution of energy demand in the context of the general socio-economic background of the region. The study also examines energy supply and trade related to the energy sector. The analysis focuses on the study of commercial fuels. Although we have reviewed studies of wood, solar, wind, and agricultural residues, we leave out detailed discussions of these non-commercial energy forms. The first part of the report is an assessment of the trends in energy demand in the four study countries. We discuss the main factors driving energy demand sector by sector. This is followed by a review of the primary energy resources of the countries, and of the capacity for production of secondary fuels. The last section looks at energy trade, with particular emphasis on the role of the United States.

  4. Ivory Coast-Ghana margin: model of a transform margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mascle, J.; Blarez, E.

    1987-05-01

    The authors present a marine study of the eastern Ivory Coast-Ghana continental margins which they consider one of the most spectacular extinct transform margins. This margin has been created during Early-Lower Cretaceous time and has not been submitted to any major geodynamic reactivation since its fabric. Based on this example, they propose to consider during the evolution of the transform margin four main and successive stages. Shearing contact is first active between two probably thick continental crusts and then between progressively thinning continental crusts. This leads to the creation of specific geological structures such as pull-apart graben, elongated fault lineaments, major fault scarps, shear folds, and marginal ridges. After the final continental breakup, a hot center (the mid-oceanic ridge axis) is progressively drifting along the newly created margin. The contact between two lithospheres of different nature should necessarily induce, by thermal exchanges, vertical crustal readjustments. Finally, the transform margin remains directly adjacent to a hot but cooling oceanic lithosphere; its subsidence behavior should then progressively be comparable to the thermal subsidence of classic rifted margins.

  5. On the occurrence of gold mineralizations in southeastern Ivory Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadio, E.; Coulibaly, Y.; Allialy, M. E.; Kouamelan, A. N.; Pothin, K. B. K.

    2010-07-01

    Gold mineralizations are known to occur in the Paleoproterozoic (Birimian) formations of the Aboisso area, southeastern Ivory Coast. These formations, which have been structured during the Eburnean orogeny, mainly consist of volcanic, volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks intruded by granitic, basic and ultrabasic plutons. Exploration of these terranes has revealed numerous gold mineralizations, the most significant of which are located in the Aféma shear zone. Four distinct types of mineralizations can be distinguished based on the typology of the host rocks. These include mineralizations enclosed in highly silicified volcanic rocks (type 1), mineralizations closely related to intense silicification of metasedimentary rocks (type 2), mineralizations associated with silicified polygenic conglomerates (type 3), and mineralizations encountered in brecciated and silicified zones within a metadiorite sill (type 4). Gold is observed either as free gold, or in association with pyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, ±pyrrhotite, ±galena, ±anatase, ±monazite, ±magnetite. Gold and the various sulfides are mostly of hydrothermal epigenetic origin. The fact that the gold mineralizations occurs in brecciated and silicified zones around granitoid intrusions clearly indicates that post-magmatic hydrothermal activity and tectonics exerted a major control during the mineralization process.

  6. Essential oil of three Uvaria species from Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Muriel, Koffi A; Félix, Tonzibo Z; Figueredo, Gilles; Chalard, Pierre; N'guessan, Yao T

    2011-11-01

    Different parts of Uvaria ovata (Dunals) A, U. anonoides Baker f. and U. tortilis A. Chev were collected from Ivory Coast, in Toumodi (center), Agboville (south-east) and Sikensi (south), respectively. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, were investigated by CG and CG/MS. The proportion of the chromatographed constituents identified varied from 92.5% to 98.5%. For U. ovata, the root bark oil comprised mainly camphene (10.2%), beta-pinene (10.1%), epi-alpha-cadinol (13.2%) and intermedeol (9.7%), while the oil of the stem bark was dominated by epi-alpha-cadinol (27.3%), intermedeol (11.9%) and benzyl benzoate (13.4%). The oil of the leaves showed beta-caryophyllene (15.6%), germacrene D (24.2%) and benzyl benzoate (18.3%) as the most abundant constituents. The leaf oil of U. anonoides was rich in 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (21.3%) and benzyl benzoate (8.7%), while, gamma-terpinene (31.7%), beta-caryophyllene (23.9%) and germacrene D (15.8%) constituted the main components of the stem bark oil of U. tortilis.

  7. [Traditional health practitioners and epilepsies in Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    François, A A; Elisée, B K; Christian, T A; Armel, K H; Any, G; Tchwa, A M; Constance, Y A

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a descriptive 3-month observational study concerning the experience and knowledge about epilepsy of 30 traditional health practitioners in the Ivory Coast. Most respondents were men over 30 years of age. They had an average of 14.3 years of professional experience. More than half of respondents (54%) had not attended school. All traditional practitioners knew that epilepsy was a brain disease. For 83.3% of them, the disease was supernatural, due to a curse. These traditional healers knew all the clinical manifestations of generalized tonico-clonic seizure. For over 72% of them, noise, presence of a public, nervousness and coffee consumption were factors favoring seizures. Sixty percent of the traditional healers still believed in the contagiousness of epilepsy, and all claimed to cure it by traditional treatment. Most all healers (97%) used plant products, but only 10% released the name of the plants used (Rubiaceae or Lamiaceae families). This survey highlights the urgency of awareness campaigns and the need for training of Ivorian traditional healers and the necessity to improve the collaboration between modern and traditional medicine. PMID:25193012

  8. [Fattening diet and metabolic syndrome in Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Hauhouot-Attoungbré, Marie Laure; Yayo, Eric Sagou; Konan, Jean-Louis; Koné, Fatoumata; Siara, Eugénie; Monnet, Dagui

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a particular state of morbidity characterized by the association of several factors contributing to the increase in the cardiovascular risk. This constellation of factors associates the glucose intolerance and its corollary the hyperglycemia, the overweight, the hypertriglyceridemia, the fall of the HDL-cholesterol and arterial hypertension. In Africa, it is difficult to evaluate in the actual prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The present study aims was to determine the prediction and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a group of nurse--lactating mothers--in Abidjan (Ivory Coast), who were submitted at a particularly rich food lipids. Our populations were composed to 100 lactating women, and we used the definition of « National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III ». The results obtained showed that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 7%, and 30% of them are presented an abdominal obesity. Our populations were composed to 100 lactating women, which belong to the Ethie where the habit are to eat, after giving birth, high foods lipids for 6 months. We used the definition of "National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III" to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this population and see if the diet has a negative influence. The results obtained showed that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 7%, and 30% of them are presented an abdominal obesity. The risk to develop a metabolic syndrome in this specific population of nurse is particularly big and it's linked to their eating habits.

  9. Zhamanshin and Aouelloul - Craters produced by impact of tektite-like glasses?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, John A.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the enhanced abundance of siderophile elements and chromium in tektite-like glasses from the two impact craters of Zhamanshin and Aouelloul cannot be explained as a result of contamination of the country rock by meteorites nor, probably, comets. The pattern is, however, like that found in certain Australasian tektites, and in Ivory Coast tektites. It is concluded, in agreement with earlier suggestions by Campbell-Smith and Hey, that these craters were formed by the impact of large masses of tektite-like glass, of which the glasses which were studied are fragments. It follows that it is necessary, in considering an impact crater, to bear in mind that the projectile may have been a glass.

  10. Fragmentation and hydration of tektites and microtektites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, B.P.; Muenow, D.W.; Bohor, B.F.; Meeker, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    An examination of data collected over the last 30 years indicates that the percent of glass fragments vs. whole splash forms in the Cenozoic microtektite strewn fields increases towards the source crater (or source region). We propose that this is due to thermal stress produced when tektites and larger microtektites fall into water near the source crater while still relatively hot (>1150 ??C). We also find evidence (low major oxide totals, frothing when melted) for hydration of most of the North American tektite fragments and microtektites found in marine sediments. High-temperature mass spectrometry indicates that these tektite fragments and microtektites contain up to 3.8 wt% H2O. The H2O-release behavior during the high-temperature mass-spectrometric analysis, plus high Cl abundances (???0.05 wt%), indicate that the North. American tektite fragments and microtektites were hydrated in the marine environment (i.e., the H2O was not trapped solely on quenching from a melt). The younger Ivory Coast and Australasian microtektites do not exhibit much evidence of hydration (at least not in excess of 0.5 wt% H2O); this suggests that the degree of hydration increases with age. In addition, we find that some glass spherules (with 65 wt% SiO2 can undergo simple hydration in the marine environment, while impact glasses (with <65 wt% SiO2) can also undergo palagonitization.

  11. Lassa virus isolates from Mali and the Ivory Coast represent an emerging fifth lineage.

    PubMed

    Manning, John T; Forrester, Naomi; Paessler, Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Previous imported cases of Lassa fever (LF) into the United Kingdom from the Ivory Coast and Mali, as well as the detection of Lassa virus (LASV) among the Mastomys natalensis population within Mali has led to the suggestion that the endemic area for LF is expanding. Initial phylogenetic analyses arrange isolates from Mali and the Ivory Coast separately from the classical lineage IV isolates taken from Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. The availability of full genome sequences continues to increase, allowing for a more complete phylogenetic comparison of the isolates from Mali and the Ivory Coast to the other existing isolates. In this study, we utilized a Bayesian approach to infer the demographic histories of each LASV isolate for which the full sequence was available. Our results indicate that the isolates from Mali and the Ivory Coast group separately from the isolates of lineage IV, comprising a distinct fifth lineage. The split between lineages IV and V is estimated to have occurred around 200-300 years ago, which coincides with the colonial period of West Africa.

  12. An Administrative History of Out-of-School Educational Television in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Stephen

    This report describes the basic organization, management and evolution of the department producing "Tele Pour Tous," the first attempt to use national television in the Ivory Coast to bring educational and informational programs to a non-school adult, rural public. The department's task was (1) to produce TV programs, (2) to train and supervise TV…

  13. Technology and Educational Reform: The Case of Ivory Coast (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Stephen H.

    1975-01-01

    This article examines the evaluative aspects of Ivory Coast's educational television system. It is less an analysis of evaluation results than a description of the types of evaluation data being generated. It discusses the development of the evaluation component of the project in terms of: (1) types of evaluation to be undertaken, (2) identity of…

  14. Access to "Elite" Education in the Ivory Coast--The Importance of Socioeconomic Origins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlick, Robert B.

    1978-01-01

    Analyzes patterns of recruitment to higher education in contemporary Ivory Coast in terms of access to educational resources which offer the potential for individual entry into prestigious careers. Finds that allocation of resources is relatively open and that the priveleged position of white-collar elite is declining. (Author/AV)

  15. Cost Analysis of the Primary Instructional Television Program in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eicher, Jean-Claude; Orivel, Francois

    This study of the costs of educational reform undertaken in the Ivory Coast in 1971 focuses on the primary education level (children aged 7-12). Designed to ensure that 100 percent of the primary school-age children receive an education and to adapt the content of that education to the characteristics and needs of Ivorians, this reform entailed…

  16. Technology and Educational Reform: The Case of Ivory Coast (Part I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Stephen H.

    1974-01-01

    This article traces the historical development of Ivory Coast's educational television system. Included are: (1) background information and initial planning, (2) structural organization including evaluation and maintenance, (3) provisions for inservice teacher training and adult education, (4) written materials production, and (5) program…

  17. On Needs Assessment of Out-of-School Educational Television in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Stephen

    Six needs assessment studies are summarized from the point of view of rural needs, the media and information system, the educational situation, and expressed wishes on the part of spectators for TV program topics in the Ivory Coast. The six studies included were: (1) Ethno-Sociology Institute Study, 1974; (2) Evaluation Service Study A, 1975; (3)…

  18. Economic Studies and Out-of-School Education Program Evaluation for the Ivory Coast. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Stephen; And Others

    This report is a final one in a series of 17 reports concerned with costs analysis/projections of the instructional television program and the Out of School Television (OSTV) project in the Ivory Coast. It includes an introduction to the OSTV project after its first five years of existence, a description of the main elements of the in-school…

  19. Torches in the Night. Educational Experiences in Tanzania and the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncie, Peter C.

    This booklet describes two educational projects financed by the World Bank in cooperation with UNESCO. Tanzania was the site of one project, where agricultural training at the intermediate and farmer levels was the focus. The second project was in the Ivory Coast and involved construction of technical, vocational, agricultural, teacher training…

  20. Labor Markets and the Social Demand for Education: An Analysis of the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Stuart

    This paper analyzes the relationship between existing secondary and technical schools and employment in the modern private sector of the Ivory Coast. Enrollments in secondary and technical schools are examined, and the social demand for education, characteristics of the Ivorian labor market, and the matching of labor supply and demand are…

  1. [History of an epidemiological route between Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso: the case of the Koudougou sleeping sickness foci].

    PubMed

    Kiendrébéogo, D; Kambiré, R; Jamonneau, V; Lingué, K; Solano, P; Courtin, F

    2012-11-01

    In the first half of the XXth century, while Upper-Volta (now Burkina Faso) was suffering a terrible epidemic of sleeping sickness, the French colonial administration encouraged the movement of people from Upper-Volta to Ivory Coast to meet their demands for labour. This led to the establishment of Mossi villages, such as those of Koudougou, in the Ivorian forest with populations originating from areas of Upper-Volta that were not only densely populated but also severely affected by sleeping sickness. Since 2000, most cases of sleeping sickness in the Koudougou district of Burkina Faso have been in people originally from Ivory Coast. Who are they? Where did they settle in Burkina Faso? Where do they come from in Ivory Coast? After having retraced the epidemiological history of Koudougou villages in Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast, the history of ten cases of sleeping sickness detected passively at Koudougou hospital since 2000 were analysed. All cases originated from the forest area of Ivory Coast. Understanding the spread of sleeping sickness between Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast will assist in the identification of areas of disease risk.

  2. [Carrier state of enteric viruses in Ivory Coast pregnant women in good health].

    PubMed

    Gershy-Damet, G M; Koffi, K; Soro, B; Dosso, M; Saracino, J C; N'Goran, S; Sangare, A; Ehouman, A

    1988-01-01

    The present work emphasize the great diversity of the viral species encountered in pregnant women (Rotavirus, Coronavirus, Adenovirus, Poliovirus, Coxsackievirus). In each of the different regions studied, one or two viral types are usually predominant. In Man (West Ivory Coast) region for instance, Rotaviruses and Coronaviruses were mainly encountered; in Bouaké, Polioviruses and Adenoviruses were predominant whereas in Bondoukou and Odienné respectively Coxsackieviruses and Adenoviruses were predominantly identified. Multiple viral infections were also evidenced: Rotaviruses + Coronaviruses, Rotaviruses + Polioviruses, Coronaviruses + Polioviruses, Polioviruses and Adenoviruses. The greatest number of multiple infections was found in Man (8 cases). Inapparent infections were mainly detected in Man where the prevalence for at least one viral type is very high 91.6%; in Bouaké, prevalence of at least one viral type is around 36%. The least level of prevalence was recorded in Bondoukou (East of Ivory Coast) and Odienné (North-West) respectively 17% and 20%.

  3. Genetic population study of Y-chromosome markers in Benin and Ivory Coast ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Lima, Cesar; Brucato, Nicolas; Croze, Myriam; Bellis, Gil; Schiavinato, Stephanie; Massougbodji, Achille; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2015-11-01

    Ninety-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seventeen short tandem repeat (STRs) were investigated on the Y-chromosome of 288 unrelated healthy individuals from populations in Benin (Bariba, Yoruba, and Fon) and the Ivory Coast (Ahizi and Yacouba). We performed a multidimensional scaling analysis based on FST and RST genetic distances using a large extensive database of sub-Saharan African populations. There is more genetic homogeneity in Ivory Coast populations compared with populations from Benin. Notably, the Beninese Yoruba are significantly differentiated from neighbouring groups, but also from the Yoruba from Nigeria (FST>0.05; P<0.01). The Y-chromosome dataset presented here provides new valuable data to understand the complex genetic diversity and human male demographic events in West Africa.

  4. A new species of Furculanurida (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Ivory Coast, with comments on related genera.

    PubMed

    Zon, Serge Demeango; Tano, Yao; Deharveng, Louis

    2014-10-29

    A new species of Pseudachorutinae, Furculanurida emucronata sp. nov., is described from Lamto in the Ivory Coast. It differs from all known Pseudachorutinae species by the presence of a strong lateral tooth on the claw of leg I, and from other species of the genus Furculanurida by the absence of a mucro. It is provisionally assigned to the genus Furculanurida which is redefined accordingly. The heterogeneity of the genus is stressed, and its relationships with Arlesiella, Kenyura, Pseudachorutes and Stachorutes are discussed.

  5. [Epidemiologic study on patrons of traditional drink establishments (Bandjidromes) in Abidjan, Ivory Coast and surrounding areas].

    PubMed

    Yeo-Tenena, Y J M; Yao, Y P; Konan, Y E; Koffi, K E; Amani, N; Delfosse, R C J

    2007-02-01

    This transverse descriptive study was conducted over a three-month period from January 10 to April 10, 2003. Findings demonstrated a clear profile of 120 patrons of traditional drinking establishments called n the city of Abidjan and surrounding areas in the Ivory Coast. All subjects interrogated were male. Mean age was 31.1 years. Almost all subjects interrogated (99.2%) were of Ivory Coast nationality. The main ethnic group was Akan (86.7%) from Baoulé (60%). More than a third (35.9%) of subjects interviewed were unemployed. Most (62.5%) were single. All subjects interrogated stated that they attended "bandjidromes" to drink palm wine although other alcoholic beverages were served. However only 9.2% of subjects drank only palm wine. The euphoric effect of alcohol and friendly atmosphere of the drinking establishment were the main reasons for attendance (53.3%). Most persons interrogated (63.3%) had been consuming alcohol for more than 10 years. More than half (55%) spent less than three hours a day drinking alcoholic beverages. Daily consumption of palm wine ranged from two to four liters for most atrons (76.7%). Only 2.5% (3/120) presented neuropsychiatric disturbances. These results could be useful in the fight against alcoholism.

  6. Serological survey of canine leptospirosis in three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan, Gabon and Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Roqueplo, Cédric; Marié, Jean-Lou; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Kodjo, Angeli; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the presence of leptospiral antibodies among 475 dogs from three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan (n=62), Gabon (n=255) and Ivory Coast (n=158). Sixteen reference strains belonging to seven serogroups were used as antigen in the microscopic agglutination test. Overall, considering titres ≥1:40, 453 samples were positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. Focusing on high titres, i.e. ≥1:320, the seroprevalence was 40.8%. In Gabon, the seroprevalence was higher in rural areas than in an urban environment (p<0.001). In Ivory Coast, the seroprevalence for serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola was not statistically different according to the vaccinal status. Predominant serogroups varied according to the countries but Grippotyphosa and Sejroë were the most common, while Icterohaemorragiae and Canicola were dominant in Sudan. In these three countries, dogs are heavily exposed to pathogenic Leptospira and humans living in the same environment are also at risk of infection.

  7. Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic “weak type” orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, M.; Gumiaux, C.; Cagnard, F.; Pouclet, A.; Ouattara, G.; Pichon, M.

    2009-11-01

    The Paleoproterozoic domain of the Ivory Coast lies in the central part of the West African Craton (WAC) and is mainly constituted by TTG, greenstones, supracrustal rocks and leucogranites. A compilation of metamorphic and radiometric data highlights that: i) metamorphic conditions are rather homogeneous through the domain, without important metamorphic jumps, ii) HP-LT assemblages are absent and iii) important volumes of magmas emplaced during the overall Paleoproterozoic orogeny suggesting the occurrence of long-lived rather hot geotherms. Results of the structural analysis, focused on three areas within the Ivory Coast, suggest that the deformation is homogeneous and distributed through the Paleoproterozoic domain. In details, results of this study point out the long-lived character of vertical movements during the Eburnean orogeny with a two folds evolution. The first stage is characterized by the development of "domes and basins" geometries without any boundary tectonic forces and the second stage is marked by coeval diapiric movements and horizontal regional-scale shortening. These features suggest that the crust is affected by vertical movements during the overall orogeny. The Eburnean orogen can then be considered as an example of long-lived Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogen.

  8. Risk factors for chronic renal failure in Ivory Coast: a prospective study of 280 patients.

    PubMed

    Ackoundou-N'Guessan, K C; Lagou, D A; Tia, M W; Gnionsahe, D A; Guei, M C

    2011-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) represents the major cause of mortality in the nephrology unit in Ivory Coast because the means for appropriate management are lacking. The present study was performed to investigate the risk factors for CRF so that strategies for prevention could be elaborated. A case-control study was performed prospectively at the Yopougon Teaching Hospital in Abidjan from January 2006 to December 2006. Factors known to cause CRF were investigated in patients and controls. Their prevalence rates were compared with the general population. A total of 280 patients and 113 controls were recruited. The mean age of the patients was 37.88 ± 13.33 years and that of the controls was 41.5 ± 9.72 years. Both genders were equally represented. The main causes of CRF were chronic glomerulonephritis (47.48%), with HIV infection accounting for 15% of them, and essential hypertension (HTA) (25%). Essential HTA represented the only factor which, if untreated, inevitably leads to CRF. Thus, our study indicates that HTA is a major public health concern. All efforts should be implemented to reduce the high prevalence of HTA and the deleterious effect of this disorder in Ivory Coast.

  9. Determinants of maternal deaths in induced abortion complications in Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Thonneau, Patrick; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Goyaux, Nathalie; Djanhan, Yao; Yace-Soumah, Frederique; Welffens, Christiane

    2004-10-01

    Persistently high levels of maternal mortality have been reported in Abidjan, the capital of Ivory Coast, with a high prevalence of deaths related to complications of induced abortion. In order to assess the determinants of maternal deaths in induced-abortion complications, this study investigated women admitted to the gynecological departments of four reference hospitals throughout Ivory Coast. Information concerning abortion events was collected by means of a questionnaire during a confidential, face-to-face interview. Medical records were used to collect clinical data and final vital status. In our series, 60% of women declared that they induced abortion themselves at their home; a large majority mentioned "insertion of objects into the vagina" or "ingestion of traditional plants" for this purpose. On the other hand, 40% declared that abortion had been performed by a health worker, mostly at a health facility and by using surgical methods (dilatation and curettage). Less-educated women were more likely to have chosen to induce abortion themselves at home, and more-educated women had undergone abortion through a health professional. Our findings highlight the role of both women and health professionals in responsibility for induced abortion complications.

  10. Serological survey of canine leptospirosis in three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan, Gabon and Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Roqueplo, Cédric; Marié, Jean-Lou; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Kodjo, Angeli; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the presence of leptospiral antibodies among 475 dogs from three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan (n=62), Gabon (n=255) and Ivory Coast (n=158). Sixteen reference strains belonging to seven serogroups were used as antigen in the microscopic agglutination test. Overall, considering titres ≥1:40, 453 samples were positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. Focusing on high titres, i.e. ≥1:320, the seroprevalence was 40.8%. In Gabon, the seroprevalence was higher in rural areas than in an urban environment (p<0.001). In Ivory Coast, the seroprevalence for serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola was not statistically different according to the vaccinal status. Predominant serogroups varied according to the countries but Grippotyphosa and Sejroë were the most common, while Icterohaemorragiae and Canicola were dominant in Sudan. In these three countries, dogs are heavily exposed to pathogenic Leptospira and humans living in the same environment are also at risk of infection. PMID:25467033

  11. Oryctes monoceros trapping with synthetic pheromone and palm material in Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Allou, Kouassi; Morin, Jean-Paul; Kouassi, Philippe; N'klo, François Hala; Rochat, Didier

    2006-08-01

    Oryctes monoceros is the most serious pest in coconut plantations, causing up to 40% damage in tropical Africa, especially in Ivory Coast. With a view to reducing pest populations by olfactory trapping, field trials were carried out to assess the efficiency of a synthetic aggregation pheromone: ethyl 4-methyloctanoate (1), 4-methyloctanoic acid (2), a related volatile produced by males, and decaying palm material, either oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) or pieces of coconut wood (CW) of various ages. Vertical polyvinyl chloride tube traps (2 x 0.16 m with two openings in the upper half), embedded in the soil, were more efficient than 30-L pail traps 1.5 m above ground. EFB, which were inactive alone, synergized captures with synthetic pheromone. CW was more effective than EFB in comparative trials. Compound 2 did not catch any beetles when assessed with EFB, and reduced catches by 1 + EFB when tested at >10% with the pheromone. Trapping over 6 mo in 2002 and 2003 in a 19-ha coconut plot inside a 4,000-ha oil palm estate reduced damage from 3.8% in 2001 to 0.5% in 2002, then to 0.2% in 2003. Damage was 0.0% in 2004 with routine trapping using 32 traps, which caught 3369 beetles in 9 mo. The results are discussed in relation to other Dynastid palm pests and coconut protection in Ivory Coast. PMID:16900429

  12. Remote sensing survey applied to synthetic geological mapping in Ivory Coast (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroin, Jean-Paul; Delor, Claude; Simeon, Yves; Yao, Bertin

    1994-12-01

    We have used remote sensing as an additional method in 1:200 000-scale reconnaissance mapping of the Ivory Coast. Landsat imagery was chosen for its low cost, and its interest for relatively small-scale work and its synthetic and multispectral properties. This proved perfectly satisfactory, especially in the bush savanna to the north of latitude 7 deg 30'. The imagery was also compared with aeromagnetic survey results. The lithostructural features revealed by MSS can be directly correlated with field observations. 1) Certain clear facies variations (amphibolites or gabbros among acidic rocks, for example) are spectrally well expressed. Conglomerates are commonly distinctive (on the Katiola sheet for example), when they are sufficiently extensive and they form ridges that can be followed several tens of kilometres. 2) The traces of planar structures can, at least locally, be followed and correlated with a regional schistosity. Certain features mappable on images confirm offset across transcurrent structures identified on the ground (N-S transcurrent fault zones, for example). Our experience in Ivory Coast shows that the use of Landsat MSS imagery should systematically be considered for any small- scale studies in which only a small part of the budget can be attributed to remote sensing.

  13. [AIDS prevention by a youth association in Ivory Coast: impact, successes and disappointments].

    PubMed

    Deniaud, F; Fampou-Toundji, J C

    1999-01-01

    Over the last few years, the number of associations involved in AIDS prevention has dramatically increased in Ivory Coast, especially in Abidjan. This article describes an experiment in the prevention of AIDS and STDs among young people in Abidjan by means of peer education. It follows the management and progress of a youth organization for AIDS prevention, CESAM (Cellule Scolaire Anti-SIDA et MST), the School-based Anti-AIDS and STD Unit. Critical review of the activities of this association identifies a number of methodological, planning, human and material problems, which have received little attention in the past. CESAM is one of the first anti-AIDS associations in Ivory Coast to target young people and to have young members. This may be the reason for some of its successes and some of its failures and disappointments. The association's successes include the provision of information to more than 25,000 people between 1992 and 1996, and the overall satisfaction of the public and local AIDS institutions. The young people involved have taken on a new social identity, which has developed from the motivation of association members and the personal experiences of some with respect to AIDS, STDs and problems associated with contraception. However, this new identity is threatened by rivalry between members and the search for funding, as the substantial funding obtained in 1994-1995 can show it. PMID:10623875

  14. "Tele Pour Tous" in Rural Ivory Coast: Audience, Impact, Perceptions: Report of Two Surveys Conducted in January and April, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etaix, Mireille; Lenglet, Frans

    This report presents the results of two surveys conducted in January and April 1977 in the Ivory Coast to assess the impact of the "Tele Pour Tous" programs on rural audiences in terms of awareness, learning, and action. Descriptions of the socio-economic characteristics of the audience and their viewing patterns were sought, and attempts were…

  15. L'Enonce Toura-Cote d'Ivoire (The Spoken Language of Toura-Ivory Coast).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearth, Thomas

    The spoken language of Toura, a language spoken by nearly 20,000 inhabitants of a mountainous region situated in the north of Man, the administrative center of the West Ivory Coast, is systematically analyzed in this linguistic study. Sixteen major chapters include: (1) grammatical generalizations, (2) phonemic unities, (3) classification of…

  16. [Malaria in military personnel: the case of the Ivory Coast in 2002-2003].

    PubMed

    Migliani, R; Josse, R; Hovette, P; Keundjian, A; Pages, F; Meynard, J-B; Ollivier, L; Sbai Idrissi, K; Tifratene, K; Orlandi, E; Rogier, C; Boutin, J-P

    2003-01-01

    French troops were sent to the Ivory Coast on September 22, 2002 within the framework of Operation Unicorn in response to the political unrest. From September 22 to October 20, a total of 37 cases of malaria were reported, i.e., 35.7 cases per 1000 man-months. As of October 11, the central headquarters of the Armed Services Health Corps decided to use doxycycline as the exclusive agent for drug prophylaxis in military personnel on duty in the Ivory Coast and to enhance vector control measures. The incidence of malaria decreased to 2 cases per 1000 man-months at the sixth month. A recrudescence of malaria to 15 cases per 1000 man-months was observed with the rainy season in April. During this period one person presenting severe malaria with coma required emergency evacuation to France. In May 2003, several studies were undertaken to determine the factors that caused this recrudescence. These studies included surveys to evaluate awareness concerning malaria and monitor compliance with drug prophylaxis and tolerance of doxycycline, a case-control study to identify factors related to malarious episodes and an entomological study. Awareness of malaria was high with 75% of the 477 respondents stating that malaria could be transmitted by single mosquito bite. The case-control study showed a correlation between occurrence of malarious bouts and non-compliance with drug prophylaxis (p < 10(-5)). The odds-ratio was 3.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.52-6.14) for subjects claiming zero to one incident of non-compliance per week and 7.51 (IC95%, 3.24-17.40) for those claiming more than one incident of non-compliance per week. Tolerance of doxycyline was good since 72% of respondents reported no adverse effects. The main vector was Anopheles gambiae. The number of bites per man per night ranged from 25 to 2 and the number of infected bites ranged from 2 to 3 per week. Treatment was initiated promptly using quinine at a total dose of 25 mg/kg in 3 daily doses for 7 days by the

  17. Anhemialges suteui n. sp. (Astigmata: Analgidae) from Hylia prasina (Cassin) (Passeriformes, Macrosphenidae) in Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Ioana Cristina; Chişamera, Gabriel Bogdan; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Hilare, Yaokokore-Béibro; Adam, Costică; D'Amico, Gianluca; Gherman, Călin M; Mihalca, Andrei D; Sándor, Attila D

    2016-10-01

    Anhemialges suteui n. sp. (Astigmata: Analgidae: Analginae) is described from the green hylia Hylia prasina (Cassin) (Passeriformes, Macrosphenidae) in Ivory Coast. The new species differs from the closest species, Anhemialges mironovi Kolarova, 2010, by the following features: in both sexes, solenidion σ on genu II is modified and widened in a form of leaf; dorsal setae c2, d2 and e2 are longer; and sternum and epimerites II are thinner. In males of the new species ambulacral discs of legs IV extend beyond the level of the lobar apices; in females, dorsal setae c2, d2 and e2 are situated on small oval shields and the anterior margin of epigynum exceeds the level of mesal extremities of epimerites II.

  18. Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of natural kaolins from the Ivory Coast (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sei, J.; Morato, F.; Kra, G.; Staunton, S.; Quiquampoix, H.; Jumas, J. C.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.

    2006-10-01

    Thirteen clay samples from four deposits in the Ivory Coast (West Africa) were studied using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and chemical analysis. Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of these samples are given. Kaolinite is the principal mineral but other minerals are present in small quantities: illite, quartz, anatase and iron oxides (oxides and oxyhydroxides). The crystallographic, morphological and surface characteristics are influenced by the presence of these impurities. In particular, the presence of iron oxides was associated with reduced structural ordering and thermal stability of kaolinite and increased specific surface area. These clays could be used in the ceramics industry to make tiles and bricks, and also in agronomy as supports for chemical fertilizers or for environmental protection by immobilising potentially toxic waste products.

  19. [Traditional practices and exploitation of medicinal plants in odontostomatology in Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Sangare, A; Samba, M; Guinan, J C; Bakayoko-Ly, R; Bourgeois, D

    2011-03-01

    Traditional medicine of which is a part traditional odontology occupies an important place within the African societies. It often constitutes the first appeal (80 % of the population) because of the high cost of the care, the incapacity of the human and material resources but also the faiths of the populations. This reality makes valuation of the traditional odontology a necessity. This study comes within this framework. It's a contribution for a better knowledge of practices and plants used in traditional odontology in Ivory Coast. So, after a presentation of some traditional knowledge's and their fields of application, the authors review studies made on the efficiency of plants in the prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of some oral diseases. The objective of these researches is to elaborate effective and financially affordable traditional improved drugs.

  20. Allele and haplotype diversity of X-chromosomal STRs in Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Pasino, Serena; Caratti, Stefano; Del Pero, Massimiliano; Santovito, Alfredo; Torre, Carlo; Robino, Carlo

    2011-09-01

    Twenty-one X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, including the six clusters of linked markers DXS10148-DXS10135-DXS8378 (Xp22), DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074 (Xq12), DXS6801-DXS6809-DXS6789 (Xq21), DXS7424-DXS101 (Xq22), DXS10103-HPRTB-DXS10101 (Xq26), DXS8377-DXS10146-DXS10134-DXS7423 (Xq28) and the loci DXS6800, GATA172D05 and DXS10011 were typed in a population sample from Ivory Coast (n=125; 51 men and 74 women). Allele and haplotype frequencies as well as linkage disequilibrium data for kinship calculations are provided. On the whole, no significant differences in the genetic variability of X-STR markers were observed between Ivorians and other sub-Saharan African populations belonging to the Niger-Kordofanian linguistic group. PMID:21717153

  1. Allele and haplotype diversity of X-chromosomal STRs in Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Pasino, Serena; Caratti, Stefano; Del Pero, Massimiliano; Santovito, Alfredo; Torre, Carlo; Robino, Carlo

    2011-09-01

    Twenty-one X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, including the six clusters of linked markers DXS10148-DXS10135-DXS8378 (Xp22), DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074 (Xq12), DXS6801-DXS6809-DXS6789 (Xq21), DXS7424-DXS101 (Xq22), DXS10103-HPRTB-DXS10101 (Xq26), DXS8377-DXS10146-DXS10134-DXS7423 (Xq28) and the loci DXS6800, GATA172D05 and DXS10011 were typed in a population sample from Ivory Coast (n=125; 51 men and 74 women). Allele and haplotype frequencies as well as linkage disequilibrium data for kinship calculations are provided. On the whole, no significant differences in the genetic variability of X-STR markers were observed between Ivorians and other sub-Saharan African populations belonging to the Niger-Kordofanian linguistic group.

  2. Anhemialges suteui n. sp. (Astigmata: Analgidae) from Hylia prasina (Cassin) (Passeriformes, Macrosphenidae) in Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Ioana Cristina; Chişamera, Gabriel Bogdan; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Hilare, Yaokokore-Béibro; Adam, Costică; D'Amico, Gianluca; Gherman, Călin M; Mihalca, Andrei D; Sándor, Attila D

    2016-10-01

    Anhemialges suteui n. sp. (Astigmata: Analgidae: Analginae) is described from the green hylia Hylia prasina (Cassin) (Passeriformes, Macrosphenidae) in Ivory Coast. The new species differs from the closest species, Anhemialges mironovi Kolarova, 2010, by the following features: in both sexes, solenidion σ on genu II is modified and widened in a form of leaf; dorsal setae c2, d2 and e2 are longer; and sternum and epimerites II are thinner. In males of the new species ambulacral discs of legs IV extend beyond the level of the lobar apices; in females, dorsal setae c2, d2 and e2 are situated on small oval shields and the anterior margin of epigynum exceeds the level of mesal extremities of epimerites II. PMID:27638732

  3. [The epidemiological profile of subjects exposed to rabies in Abidjan, Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Tiembré, Issaka; Vroh Benié Bi, Joseph; N'Cho Dagnan, Simplice; Kouadio Ekra, Daniel; Zebe, Sonia; Tagliante-Saracino, Janine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiological profile of subjects exposed to rabies in the anti-rabies center of Abidjan in Ivory Coast. The paper is based on a cross-sectional study conducted among all people exposed to the risk of rabies and followed in the anti-rabies center from January to December 2008. During the study period, 2,673 subjects were exposed, i.e. 5 exposures for every 10,000 persons. 1,534 patients (57.4%) were male. The most exposed age groups were the 0-9 and 10-19 age groups (22.4% and 29.5% respectively). In Abidjan, 608 individuals (22.7%) were exposed in Cocody, 471 individuals (17.6%) in Abobo, and 310 individuals (11.6%) in Yopougon. Exposure occurred in 76.9% of cases (2,055 subjects) at home and exclusively concerned visitors of the family. Exposures by animal bites represented 88.1% (2,354 subjects) of all cases, while 23.2% (620 subjects) of exposures were category III. The average period between exposure and consultation was 10 days. Subjects were exposed as a result of contact with a dog in 92.1 % of cases (2,462 subjects). The animal was found alive in 74.9% (2,002 cases) and was not immunized in 87.2% of cases (2,331). Post-exposure prophylaxis was given up by 1,470 persons (55.2%). 13 subjects were received at the stage of clinical rabies. Increased knowledge of the epidemiological profile of rabies exposure will contribute to improving the management of the disease in Ivory Coast.

  4. Female genital mutilation and intimate partner violence in the Ivory Coast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serious forms of violence against women include Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). The aim of this study was to determine if FGM is associated with IPV, using data obtained from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2012 in Ivory Coast. Methods Participants for this study were drawn from the 2011-12 Ivory Coast Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS), a nationally representative sample of 10060 women aged 15 to 49 years. The analysis of this paper is restricted to the sample of women who responded to the FGM and domestic violence modules (N = 5005). Results The lifetime prevalence of physical violence was 24.8%, sexual violence, 5.7%, and emotional violence, 19.0%, and the prevalence of any lifetime IPV was 32.1%. In all, 40.6% reported female genital cutting or mutilation (FGM). Women reporting FGM were two times as likely to experience sexual IPV (AOR: 1.96, CI: 1.29-2.98), while other subtypes of IPV were higher in women reporting FGM but they were not significant. Of the socio-demographic covariates, urban residence and having a primary education were associated with most subtypes of IPV, while being a Muslim seemed protective from any type, sexual and emotional IPV. Having seen the father beating the mother was positively associated with most IPV subtypes, and having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the previous 12 months was associated with physical and sexual IPV. Conclusion Significant rates of FGM and IPV were found among this sample of Ivorian women calling for the need for multiple strategies to reduce FGM and IPV. PMID:24451017

  5. Origins and dispersal of the mitochondrial DNA region V 9 bp deletion and insertion in Nigeria and the Ivory Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Merriwether, D.A.; Huston, S.L.; Bunker, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    An intergenic region V Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 9 bp deletion located between the genes for tRNA{sup LYS} and cytochrome oxidase II was discovered in a small percentage of Nigerian and Ivory Coast natives. Previously this deletion has been described as Asian-specific and has been reported throughout the New World, Asia, S.E. Asia, and the Pacific Islands at frequencies ranging from 0% to 100%. In the New World and the Pacific Islands, the deletion is almost always accompanied by an Hae III restriction site gain at nt 16517. All 9 occurrences of the deletion observed in Africa (from four different populations) co-occur with the Hae III 16517 site gain, indicating that the African deletion probably shares a common origin with the deletion described as {open_quotes}Asian-specific{close_quotes}. The deletion was found in Benin and Sokoto, Nigeria in 2/54 Edo Bini, 1/2 Edo Ishan, 3/99 Hausa, 0/18 Fulani, and 0/16 other Nigerians. The deletion was also detected in 3/115 Ivory Coast natives from Abidjan. A 9 bp insertion (triplication) was observed in 1/115 Ivory Coast natives. The triplicated individual also possessed the Hae III 16517 site gain. The fragment containing the African deletion was sequenced and found to be identical in sequence to the Asian deletion region. D-loop sequence of nts 15975 to 00048 revealed that 2 of the 3 Ivory Coast deleted individuals and 1 of the 6 Nigerians deleted (Hausa) had a T-C transition at nt position 16189 which is common in New World-deleted individuals. These results raise the possibility that the occurrence of this deletion predates the separation of Asian and African populations from a common ancestral populations, or that the deletion has occurred more than once in human evolution. Either explanation requires that caution be exercised when using the 9 bp deletion as a population marker.

  6. [Ivory Coast uprising and returning Burkinabe immigrants: evaluation of the risk for reemergence of sleeping sickness in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Courtin, F; Jamonneau, V; Kambiré, R; Solano, P

    2010-12-01

    Following the sociopolitical unrest that occurred in Ivory Coast in 2002, 360,000 Burkinabe immigrants returned to Burkina Faso that was the epicenter of sleeping sickness last century and is now thought to be free of autochthonous transmission. The purpose of this study was to determine if the massive return of immigrants from human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) endemic areas of Ivory Coast to areas in Burkina Faso where the vector (tsetse fly) is currently present could lead to re-emergence of the disease. Risk areas for re-emergence were identified taking into account the number of returning immigrants, history of the disease, and presence of tsetse flies. Based on these criteria, study was focused on two villages, i.e., Folonzo and Gbalara, located in southern Burkina Faso near the Ivory Coast border. Study in these two villages consisted of characterization of the population (repatriates or not, origin, ...) and medical surveys to assess the presence/absence of the disease. Departure of some returning immigrants from areas including sleeping sickness foci in Ivory Coast (e.g. center west) confirmed the potential risk of re-emergence of the disease. Although no case of sleeping sickness was diagnosed, several serologically positive people were identified and will be followed up. This study failed to demonstrate a clear-cut correlation between massive population movements due to war and reemergence of sleeping sickness. However, this study may have been timed too soon after the return of immigrants to detect reemergence of HAT that could require several years.

  7. Phenetic and genetic structure of tsetse fly populations (Glossina palpalis palpalis) in southern Ivory Coast

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleeping sickness, transmitted by G. p. palpalis, is known to be present in the Ivory Coast. G. p. palpalis has recently been reported to occur in several places within the town of Abidjan, including: (i) the Banco forest, (ii) the Abobo Adjamé University campus and (iii) the zoological park. Could these three places be treated sequentially, as separate tsetse populations, or should they be taken as one area comprising a single, panmictic population? Methods The amount of gene flow between these places provides strategic information for vector control. It was estimated by the use of both microsatellite DNA and morphometric markers. The idea was to assess the interest of the faster and much less expensive morphometric approach in providing relevant information about population structure. Thus, to detect possible lack of insect exchange between these neighbouring areas of Abidjan, we used both genetic (microsatellite DNA) and phenetic (geometric morphometrics) markers on the same specimens. Using these same markers, we also compared these samples with specimens from a more distant area of south Ivory Coast, the region of Aniassué (186 km north from Abidjan). Results Neither genetic nor phenetic markers detected significant differentiation between the three Abidjan G. p. palpalis samples. Thus, the null hypothesis of a single panmictic population within the city of Abidjan could not be rejected, suggesting the control strategy should not consider them separately. The markers were also in agreement when comparing G. p. palpalis from Abidjan with those of Aniassué, showing significant divergence between the two sites. Conclusions Both markers suggested that a successful control of tsetse in Abidjan would require the three Abidjan sites to be considered together, either by deploying control measures simultaneously in all three sites, or by a continuous progression of interventions following for instance the "rolling carpet" principle. To compare the

  8. Infrasound from lightning measured in Ivory Coast from 2004 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, Thomas; Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, Lars; Diawara, Adama

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms occur continuously around the world and that about 45 lightning flashes are produced per second over the globe. 80 % of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) are now certified and routinely measure signals due to natural activity (e.g., airflow over mountains, aurora, microbaroms, surf, volcanoes, severe weather including lightning flashes …). Some of the IMS stations are located where lightning activity is high (e.g. Africa, South America). These infrasound stations are well localised to study lightning flash activity and its disparity, which is a good proxy for global warming. Progress in infrasound array data processing over the past ten years makes such lightning studies possible. Assink et al. (2008) and Farges and Blanc (2010) show clearly that it is possible to measure lightning infrasound from thunderstorms within 300 km. One-to-one correlation is possible when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. When the lightning flash occurs within 20 km, it is also possible to rebuild the 3D geometry of the discharges when the network size is less than 100 m (Arechiga et al., 2011; Gallin, 2014). An IMS infrasound station has been installed in Ivory Coast since 2002. The lightning rate of this region is 10-20 flashes/km²/year from space-based instrument OTD (Christian et al., 2003). Ivory Coast is therefore a good place to study infrasound data associated with lightning activity and its temporal variation. First statistical results will be presented in this paper based on 10 years of data (2005-2014). Correlation between infrasound having a mean frequency higher than 1 Hz and lightning flashes detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) is systematically looked for. One-to-one correlation is obtained for flashes occurring within about 100 km. An exponential decrease of the

  9. [Ivory Coast: television outside of school for education of rural adults, a critical review].

    PubMed

    Benveniste, A

    1979-01-01

    The television education program in the Ivory Coast is part of a large national program of educational reform; the objective is to improve the efficiency of the education system, with the following principles: discover realistic methods of elite selection and staff training, as well as information and broadcasting techniques which allow the whole population to feel integrated and to take an active part in the efforts of the politicians. Education in the Ivory Coast has 4 main characteristics: low school attendance, insufficient profit, underqualified teachers and inadaptation of education to the socio-economical needs of the country. The 1st step of the installation of educational television was the official adoption of television in 1968. The 2nd step was the opening of the 1st television classes in 1971. Finally the 3d step was the extension of the television education program to the adults in 1973. This program became operational in the beginning of 1974-5. The objectives are to undertake an educational action which would allow all rural and urban people to understand the developmental actions and to participate to the improvement of their condition; to modernize and improve the standards of life for the rural population; to valorize agricultural work; to inform the population on the administrative and political structures of the country and on its goals; to make television more profitable. These objectives set the educational action in the context of the present policy of development, without establishing precisely its content. Its range is very wide as its main goal is to sensitize the population to the themes of national development and political orientations. The programs broadcasted concern agriculture, health, hygiene. The public consists of adults and young people, rural for the most part, and who have no contact with the school program. There is a contradiction in the program: it aims at a wide public and tries to obtain mass participation, while it

  10. Lithium in tektites and impact glasses: Implications for sources, histories and large impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magna, T.; Deutsch, A.; Mezger, K.; Skála, R.; Seitz, H.-M.; Mizera, J.; Řanda, Z.; Adolph, L.

    2011-04-01

    Lithium (Li) abundances and isotope compositions were determined in a representative suite of tektites (moldavites, Muong Nong-type tektites and an australite, Ivory Coast tektites and bediasites), impact-related glasses (Libyan Desert Glass, zhamanshinites and irghizites), a glass fragment embedded in the suevite from the Ries impact crater and sedimentary materials in order to test a possible susceptibility of Li to fractionation during hypervelocity impact events and to de-convolve links to their potential parental sources. The overall data show a large spread in Li abundance (4.7-58 ppm Li) and δ 7Li values (-3.2‰ to 26.0‰) but individual groups of tektites and impact glasses have distinctive Li compositions. Most importantly, any significant high-temperature Li isotope fractionation can be excluded by comparing sedimentary lithologies from central Europe with moldavites. Instead, we suggest that Li isotope compositions in tektites and impact-related glasses are probably diagnostic of the precursor materials and their pre-impact geological histories. The Muong Nong-type tektites and australite specimen are identical in terms of Li concentrations and δ 7Li and we tentatively endorse their common origin in a single impact event. Evidence for low-temperature Rayleigh fractionation, which must have operated prior to impact-induced melting and solidification, is provided for a subset of Muong Nong-type tektites. Although Li isotope variations in most tektites are broadly similar to those of the upper continental crust, Libyan Desert Glass carries high δ 7Li ⩾24.7‰, which appears to mirror the previous fluvial history of parental material that was perhaps deposited in lacustrine environment or coastal seawater. Lithium isotopes in impact-related glasses from the Zhamanshin crater define a group distinct from all other samples and point to melting of chemically less evolved mafic lithologies, which is also consistent with their major and trace element

  11. The Guiana and the West African Shield Palaeoproterozoic grouping: new palaeomagnetic data for French Guiana and the Ivory Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomade, Sébastien; Chen, Yan; Pouclet, André; Féraud, Gilbert; Théveniaut, Hervé; Daouda, Bertin Yao; Vidal, Max; Rigolet, Cécile

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study is to document the Palaeoproterozoic palaeomagnetic database for the Guiana and West African Shields in order to better understand the paleogeographic evolution of these two cratons. A total of 59 sites were sampled (33 in French Guiana and 26 in the Ivory Coast) in granites and metavolcanic rocks. Magnetic, petrographic and palaeomagnetic investigations were carried out on these rocks. Magnetic experiments and petrographic observations show that undeformed magnetite is the main magnetic remanent carrier in granites of French Guiana and both magnetite and haematite in rocks from the Ivory Coast. Both thermal and magnetic alternating-field demagnetizations were applied to the rocks. Four high-temperature magnetic remanent directions were isolated in French Guiana and the Ivory Coast. These directions are distinct from the present Earth's field and to the local Early Jurassic palaeomagnetic components. Reversal and contact tests were obtained for the collection from French Guiana. Based on these arguments and mineralogical investigations, we propose that the magnetic remanence represent a Palaeoproterozoic magnetization. Four virtual palaeomagnetic poles were calculated: GUI1, GUI2 for French Guiana; IC1 and IC2 for the Ivory Coast with their corresponding coordinates: GUI1: λGUI1=-62°N, φGUI1= 61°E, k= 18, A95= 10°, N= 15; GUI2: λGUI2=-5°N, φGUI2= 50°E, k= 26, A95= 18°, N= 5; IC1: λIC1=-82°N, φIC1= 292°N, k= 28, A95= 13°, N= 6; IC2: λIC2=-25°N, φIC2= 83°E, k= 11, A95= 16°, N= 9. The magnetization age ranged from 2.04 to 1.97 Ga for the French Guiana poles (40Ar/39Ar) and between 2.10 to 2.00 Ga for the Ivory Coast poles (startigraphic ages). Combining these new palaeomagnetic poles and previously published data, two apparent polar wander paths were proposed for these two shields. The comparison of these two Palaeoproterozoic paths seems to indicate that the two cratons belonged to the same block at about 2.00 Ga but

  12. [Smoking in the African setting (Abidjan, Ivory coast): patient knowledge, attitude and behavior].

    PubMed

    Koffi, N; Kouassi, B; Horo, K; Kouakou, Y G M; N'Gom, A; Toloba, Y; Bouzid, S; Aka-Danguy, E

    2004-09-01

    Recent studies on smoking conducted in the ivory coast have been sparse despite increasingly aggressive tobacco company campaigns. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the influence of medical specialty on patient knowledge, attitude and smoking behavior among people consulting three university hospitals in Abidjan. The inquiry was performed with a questionnaire concerning a comparative series of 180 subjects (90 patients in each sample). Overall, the series included 16.10% active smokers, 15.60% former smokers, and 68.30% non-smokers, with no difference between the groups. The well-known feature of smoking with friends was main reason cited for beginning smoking. Three quarters of patients (75.9%) had attempted to stop smoking. Information about smoking was obtained from the media. The hospital was involved little in acquiring knowledge about smoking. Type of specialist consultation (hospital units providing care for smoking-related disease or not) had little influence. Hospital units should become more involved in the anti-smoking campaign. Consultations on cessation of smoking should be instituted in a country with highly aggressive smoking advertisements.

  13. Three-dimensional seismic interpretation: Espoir Field area, offshore Ivory Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Grillot, L.R.; Anderton, P.W.; Haselton, T.M.; Dermargne, J.F.

    1986-05-01

    The Espoir oil field, located approximately 13 km offshore Ivory Coast, was discovered in 1980 by a joint venture comprised of Phillips Petroleum Company, AGIP, SEDCO Energy, and PETROCI. Following the discovery, a three-dimensional seismic survey was recorded by GSI in 1981-1982 to provide detailed seismic coverage of Espoir field and adjacent features. The seismic program consisted of 7700 line-km of data acquired in a single survey area that is located on the edge of the continental shelf and extends into deep water. In comparison with previous two-dimensional seismic surveys, the three-dimensional data provided several improvements in interpretation and mapping including: (1) sharper definition of structural features, (2) reliable correlations of horizons and fault traces between closely spaced tracks, (3) detailed time contour maps from time-slice sections, and (4) improved velocity model for depth conversion. The improved mapping helped us identify additional well locations; the results of these wells compared favorably with the interpretation made prior to drilling.

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Closely Related Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus Species Obtained from the Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Moore, Geromy G; Mack, Brian M; Beltz, Shannon B

    2015-12-03

    Aspergillus ochraceoroseus and Aspergillus rambellii were isolated from soil detritus in Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, Africa. The Type strain for each species happens to be the only representative ever sampled. Both species secrete copious amounts of aflatoxin B1 and sterigmatocystin, because each of their genomes contains clustered genes for biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. We sequenced their genomes using a personal genome machine and found them to be smaller in size (A. ochraceoroseus = 23.9 Mb and A. rambellii = 26.1 Mb), as well as in numbers of predicted genes (7,837 and 7,807, respectively), compared to other sequenced Aspergilli. Our findings also showed that the A. ochraceoroseus Type strain contains a single MAT1-1 gene, while the Type strain of A. rambellii contains a single MAT1-2 gene, indicating that these species are heterothallic (self-infertile). These draft genomes will be useful for understanding the genes and pathways necessary for the cosynthesis of these two toxic secondary metabolites as well as the evolution of these pathways in aflatoxigenic fungi.

  15. Feeding and oral processing behaviors of two colobine monkeys in Tai Forest, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    McGraw, W Scott; van Casteren, Adam; Kane, Erin; Geissler, Elise; Burrows, Brittany; Daegling, David J

    2016-09-01

    We collected frequency data on oral processing behaviors during feeding in habituated groups of Western red colobus, Piliocolobus badius, and Western black and white, Colobus polykomos, ranging in the Ivory Coast's Tai National Park. During the sampling period, the diet of red colobus consisted of approximately 75% leaves compared to approximately 47% leaves and buds in black and white colobus. Black and white colobus chewed more frequently per ingestive event than did red colobus. Black and white colobus also employed their anterior teeth much more frequently than did red colobus, a difference attributed to the frequent consumption by C. polykomos of Pentaclethra macrophylla seeds and pods. A material analysis of these food items reveals that both the seed coating and seed flesh are quite soft; however, the pod housing the seeds is very tough. We argue that the pod's toughness, geometry, and fiber orientation collectively result in a food that is very difficult to process, resulting in long handling times and frequent, aggressive use of the incisors. We compare these data with those collected on another Tai primate-the sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys-and demonstrate that during feeding, both colobine species use their incisors less than the mangabey, but that the cercopithecine chews less than either colobine. Combining data on oral processing behaviors with those on the material properties of items being ingested should lead to more informed interpretations of dentognathic morphology.

  16. Regulation of business activities of petroleum contractors in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Ivory Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Frilet, M.; Newman, J.

    1982-03-01

    Foreign companies engaging in business in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Ivory Coast are subject to a broad range of regulations. This article deals only with those aspects of the regulations that are most important to petroleum contractors intending to engage in business in these countries. The regulator scheme actually applicable in a given case will depend on the legal structure through which a corporation operates. An American corporation may envisage engaging in business on a long-term basis through a local subsidiary or branch. On the other hand, it may wish only to perform temporary activities pursuant to one or more fixed-duration contracts with petroleum companies operating in one of countries. Each of these situations is dealt with. Common features of each area of regulation were described and the differences in regulations were presented. These topics were included: exchange control regulation, corporate forms of business association, authorization to engage in business, requirement of government or local participation in capital, investment code incentives, labor law requirements, taxation of corporations, taxation of profits, taxation of income from movable capital, taxation of amounts paid abroad as technical assistance fees, royalties and similar compensation, turnover taxes, payroll taxes, taxation of business performed without forming a local company or branch, taxation of employees and Social Security contributions. (DP)

  17. The Sefwi-Comoé belt Ghana/Ivory Coast : a major crustal shear zone ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessell, Mark

    2010-05-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Sefwi-Comoé region that straddles Ghana and the Ivory Coast in West Africa has been characterised as resulting from a combination of compression and simple shear during late synkinematic leucogranite intrusion. The analysis of regional geophysical datasets allows us to better define the geometry of the major lithostratigraphic packages and their structural contacts in this region. This analysis reveals a series of well defined leucogranites intrusions enveloped by high strain zones. Recent finite element modelling of two-phase aggregates has shown that we can analyse the geometry of these systems both in terms of their finite defomation and their mechanical contrast. We interpret the geometries we see in the Sefwi-Comoé region as reflecting the activity of a major crustal deformation zone which was dominated by simple shear. The comparison with the modelling suggests a finite shear strain of approximately 5 gamma, which in turn implies a lateral displacement of 400 km across the belt. Our analysis suggests that the leucogranites were already acting as more rigid bodies during the (dextral?) shearing, suggesting that their emplacement was predominantly pre-kinematic, and which has implications for their potential subsequent remobilization by gravitational forces.

  18. Characterisation of Kaolinitic Clays from the Ivory Coast: Identification of Structural Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sei, J.; Abba Touré, A.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Quiquampoix, H.; Staunton, S.; Jumas, J. C.; Womes, M.

    2004-09-01

    Five clays from four different deposits in the Ivory Coast (Adattié, Nieki, Grand-Bassam, Nigui-Saff) were studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at room temperature. Their chemical compositions were determined by X-ray fluorescence and the most important crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction. In these natural clays, kaolinite is the dominant mineral phase with minor amounts of other minerals including quartz, haematite, goethite, lepidocrocite and illite. Room-temperature 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of the samples from Nieki, Adattié and Nigui-Saff show mainly a broad quadrupole-split doublet which indicates that iron is essentially present as Fe(III). Samples from Grand-Bassam contain important amounts of goethite (α-FeOOH) and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH). Some samples from Nigui-Saff contain large amounts of haematite. Clays from Nieki and Adattié are characterised by very low concentrations of iron oxides or hydroxides, and by small amounts of structural Fe(II) in the kaolinite lattice. Oxidation states and lattice sites of structural iron in the kaolinites were determined by 57Fe Mössbauer spectra recorded after iron extraction with dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB). The results were confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements.

  19. Taxonomic diversity and structure of benthic macroinvertebrates in Aby Lagoon (Ivory Coast, West Africa).

    PubMed

    Kouadio, K N; Diomandé, D; Ouattara, A; Koné, Y J M; Gourène, G

    2008-09-15

    The benthic macroinvertebrates of Aby lagoon (West Africa: Ivory coast) was studied during four seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season, respectively) from June 2006 to March 2007. The distribution of the benthic macroinvertebrates species was recorded at 13 stations on the whole of the lagoon. A total of 62 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 28 families and 10 orders were listed. The molluscs and crustaceans dominate qualitatively by adding up 51 and 24%, respectively of the total number of organisms. Five taxa (Corbula trigona (20%), Pachymelania aurita (12%), Clibernhardius cooki (7%), Oligochaeta (7%) and Crassostrea gasar (6%) accounted for 52% of total abundance. Classification analysis used to perform the characterisation of the lagoon on the basis of benthic macroinvertebrates showed the existence of four main clusters in which the seasonal pattern in benthic macroinvertebrates were very similar in the four seasons. In contrast the species richness and diversity indices were significantly different. Furthermore these indices where higher in the stations closer to the sea and surrounded by mangrove trees (southern area) compared to the inland ones.

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Closely Related Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus Species Obtained from the Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Moore, Geromy G; Mack, Brian M; Beltz, Shannon B

    2016-03-01

    Aspergillus ochraceoroseus and Aspergillus rambellii were isolated from soil detritus in Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, Africa. The Type strain for each species happens to be the only representative ever sampled. Both species secrete copious amounts of aflatoxin B1 and sterigmatocystin, because each of their genomes contains clustered genes for biosynthesis of these mycotoxins. We sequenced their genomes using a personal genome machine and found them to be smaller in size (A. ochraceoroseus = 23.9 Mb and A. rambellii = 26.1 Mb), as well as in numbers of predicted genes (7,837 and 7,807, respectively), compared to other sequenced Aspergilli. Our findings also showed that the A. ochraceoroseus Type strain contains a single MAT1-1 gene, while the Type strain of A. rambellii contains a single MAT1-2 gene, indicating that these species are heterothallic (self-infertile). These draft genomes will be useful for understanding the genes and pathways necessary for the cosynthesis of these two toxic secondary metabolites as well as the evolution of these pathways in aflatoxigenic fungi. PMID:26637470

  1. [Vectorial transmission of malaria in shrubby Savannah area at Ganse, Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Adja, A M; N'Goran, K E; Kengne, P; Koudou, G B; Toure, M; Koffi, A A; Tia, E; Fontenille, D; Chandre, F

    2006-10-01

    A longitudinal entomologic study was carried out in the village of Ganse located in the Northeastern Ivory Coast from July 2000 to July 2001. The threefold purpose of the study was to index Plasmodium-carrying Anopheles species by capturing mosquitoes on human volunteers, collecting larvae in different dwelling types, and evaluating the involvement each species in the malaria transmission. A total of 4 species belonging to the Anopheles genus were collected in the village. Identification of circumsporozoite protein using the ELISA technique demonstrated that three species were plasmodium vectors. These species belonged to the An. gambiae complex (An. gambiae s.s. 100%), to the An. funestus group (An. funestus s.s. 95.6%) and to the An. nill group (An. nili s.s. 100%). The estimated mean sporozoite index was 5.9% for An. gambiae s.l., 4.3% for the An. funestus group and 2.6% for the An. nili group. The main larva breeding sites were standing water such as puddles for An. gambiae s.l., streams with tall plants for the An. funestus group and the Comoe River for An. nili group. Because peak breeding of these three species occurs at three successive times; i.e., in May, September and July respectively, transmission of P. falciparum is continuous throughout the year. The transmission rate is high since we recorded up to up to 410 infected bites per person per year. In addition to showing the presence of An. rivulorum-like, our findings in the area demonstrates the important role of An. nili s.s. in the transmission and the complexity of the vectorial system.

  2. Exocrine pancreatic function of children from the Ivory Coast compared to French children. Effect of kwashiorkor.

    PubMed

    Sauniere, J F; Sarles, H; Attia, Y; Lombardo, A; Yoman, T N; Laugier, R; Manlan, K; Sahel, J

    1986-05-01

    One hundred nineteen children, either French or from the Ivory Coast, aged 1-8 years, were submitted to pancreatic function testing by duodenal aspiration. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, phospholipase, amylase, volume, bicarbonate, chloride, and calcium were estimated before and after an intravenous injection of 1 CU secretin + 3 CHR units pancreozymin per kilogram of body weight. Sixty-two patients were normal European children, and 11 were normal African children. Twenty-five African children presented with kwashiorkor and 10 African children had presented with kwashiorkor but had recovered at the time of the test. Three cases of recurrent kwashiorkor are also included. In the normal group of African children, phospholipase concentration, volume, and bicarbonate were significantly decreased but chymotrypsin and trypsin concentrations were not, when compared to the normal European population. In kwashiorkor patients, lipase, amylase, phospholipase, and chymotrypsin concentration were significantly decreased compared to normal Africans. Trypsin, volume, and bicarbonate were not affected. These modifications disappeared after refeeding. In cases of recurrent kwashiorkor, all enzymes, including trypsin, were decreased. Calcium was never modified. These modifications were very different from those observed in chronic alcoholic and hypercalcemic pancreatitis. In a two-year study, chronic calcifying pancreatitis (CCP) was diagnosed in 14 patients (13 males), hospitalized in Abidjan. The mean age at onset of the disease was 41 years (SD 12.71), which is very similar to European cases. The most frequent cause was alcoholism, as in Occidental countries. The nutrition of the population was low in protein, calories being provided mostly by manioc, but no apparent symptoms of malnutrition were observed in the parents of our patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Tektite controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.

    1981-04-01

    Clues as to the possible origin of tektites are found by studying the chemical composition, sites where they are found, and shapes. An important chemical fact of tektites is that they are extremel dry. Tektites lie in four major areas and in three isolated regions. They are distributed as if they fell from the skies. By studying the flanged shapes of the australites, it was concluded that their shape was due to a fast, hot trip through the atmosphere. Tektites show no cosmic ray tracks which implies their space exposure time was short. This rules out the possibility that they are a form of meteorite with these clues in mind, four theories on their possible origin are discussed in this paper. The theories are: (1) terrestial impact by meteorite or comet; (2) lunar impact; (3) terrestial volcanoes; and (4) lunar volcanoes. This article rules out the first three theories for reasons which are given and leans toward the fourth theory as the most probable of the four. (SC)

  4. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of an extract from Parkia biglobosa used in traditional medicine in the Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, F; Kanko, C; Juge, M; Grimaud, N; Jean, A; N'Guessan, Y T; Petit, J Y

    2000-12-01

    In the Ivory coast, Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) is used in traditional medicine as an analgesic drug, especially against dental pain. Of the three extracts obtained from the plant bark, the hexane fraction was studied to determine its analgesic and/or antiinflammatory activities. The results show that this extract possesses a marked analgesic activity when evaluated with the abdominal writhing test in mice, but, like paracetamol, was ineffective with the hot-plate method, a feature suggesting a peripheral mechanism of action. This activity was accompanied by an antiinflammatory effect, somewhat weaker than the analgesic one.

  5. Rainfall-runoff modelling and water resources assessment in northwestern Ivory Coast. Tentative extension to ungauged catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servat, Eric; Dezetter, Alain

    1993-07-01

    Most development projects in northern Ivory Coast require good water resource management. Rainfall-runoff modelling was performed in 20 catchments (100-4500 km 2) to provide reliable tools for the assessment of water supply in the sudanese savannah area. After the calibration of two conceptual models (GR3 and CREC), the parameters were characterized so that these models could be applied to ungauged catchments. Predetermination equations were established using variables related to the catchment land use and the rainfall distribution over the year. The GR3 model produced good results although further work is needed to improve the reliability of the equations before operational use.

  6. [Description of three new monogenean gill parasites from Mormyrus rume (Valenciennes, 1846) (Teleostei: Mormyridae) in Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Blahoua, K G; Pariselle, A; N'Douba, V; Kone, T; Kouassi, N J

    2009-03-01

    The study of the gill parasites from elephant fish Mormyrus rume Valenciennes, 1846 (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from the Ayamé man-made Lake (Ivory Coast) revealed the presence of three new monogenean species of the genus Bouixella Euzet & Dossou, 1976, which can be mainly distinguished from all other species of the genus by the morphology and the size of the sclerotised parts of the haptor (dorsal and ventral anchor, dorsal and ventral bar) and by the size and the structure of the male copulatory organ. In this paper, descriptions of Bouixella gorei n. sp., Bouixella yaoi n. sp. and Bouvixella koutouani n. sp. are given. PMID:19353952

  7. Living Kidney Donor Transplantation in a Resource-limited Country: The Ivory Coast Experience.

    PubMed

    Ackoundou-N'Guessan, C; Hoang, A D; Ben Abdallah, T; Gnionsahe, D A; Dollo, I; Ripoche, C; Coulibaly, N; Aye, D Y; N'Guessan, F Y; Diby Kouame, B; Guei, C M; Tia, M W; Amekoudji, Y; Lagou, D A

    2015-01-01

    Renal transplantation that offers a good quality of life still is not performed by the majority of countries of black Africa. We started a pilot project of renal transplantation in Ivory Coast 2 years ago. The present paper reports the preliminary results, difficulties related to the program, and perspectives regarding its expansion. Ten living related kidney transplantations have been performed over a 2-year period. Recipients and their respective donors were male. The mean age of the recipients was 42.8 years (22-57), and the mean age of the donors was 29.4 years (22-43). The mean number of mismatches was 3.2 (0-6). None was immunized. Recipients and donors were all EBV IgG positive and CMV IgG positive. All but 1 case were induced with basiliximab. The mean graft and patient survival time was 16.6 months (6-26). The mean cold ischemic time was 2.27 hours (1-3.32). The mean serum creatinine at discharge was 241.87 μmol/L (115.18-1063.2), at 6 months was 117.20 μmol/l (95.6-139.9), at 12 months was 104.55 μmol/L (62.02-132.9), and at 24 months was 104.55 μmol/L (62.02-132.9). The mean cyclosporine through level (C0) at 6 months was 137.57 ng/mL (70-366), at 12 months was 117.33 ng/mL (62-197), and at 24 months was 78 ng/mL. The mean cyclosporine 2-hour post-administration concentration levels (C2) at 6 months was 764.9 ng/mL (430-1421), at 12 months was 937.17 ng/mL (483-1292), and at 24 months was 690.66 ng/mL (488-853). Main complications were sepsis, adenovirus hemorrhagic cystitis, new-onset diabetes after transplantation, delayed graft function, polycythemia, and cytomegalovirus infection. No clinical rejection was diagnosed over the 2-year period. Patient and graft survival was 100% at a mean post-transplantation time of approximately 16.6 months. PMID:26293016

  8. Living Kidney Donor Transplantation in a Resource-limited Country: The Ivory Coast Experience.

    PubMed

    Ackoundou-N'Guessan, C; Hoang, A D; Ben Abdallah, T; Gnionsahe, D A; Dollo, I; Ripoche, C; Coulibaly, N; Aye, D Y; N'Guessan, F Y; Diby Kouame, B; Guei, C M; Tia, M W; Amekoudji, Y; Lagou, D A

    2015-01-01

    Renal transplantation that offers a good quality of life still is not performed by the majority of countries of black Africa. We started a pilot project of renal transplantation in Ivory Coast 2 years ago. The present paper reports the preliminary results, difficulties related to the program, and perspectives regarding its expansion. Ten living related kidney transplantations have been performed over a 2-year period. Recipients and their respective donors were male. The mean age of the recipients was 42.8 years (22-57), and the mean age of the donors was 29.4 years (22-43). The mean number of mismatches was 3.2 (0-6). None was immunized. Recipients and donors were all EBV IgG positive and CMV IgG positive. All but 1 case were induced with basiliximab. The mean graft and patient survival time was 16.6 months (6-26). The mean cold ischemic time was 2.27 hours (1-3.32). The mean serum creatinine at discharge was 241.87 μmol/L (115.18-1063.2), at 6 months was 117.20 μmol/l (95.6-139.9), at 12 months was 104.55 μmol/L (62.02-132.9), and at 24 months was 104.55 μmol/L (62.02-132.9). The mean cyclosporine through level (C0) at 6 months was 137.57 ng/mL (70-366), at 12 months was 117.33 ng/mL (62-197), and at 24 months was 78 ng/mL. The mean cyclosporine 2-hour post-administration concentration levels (C2) at 6 months was 764.9 ng/mL (430-1421), at 12 months was 937.17 ng/mL (483-1292), and at 24 months was 690.66 ng/mL (488-853). Main complications were sepsis, adenovirus hemorrhagic cystitis, new-onset diabetes after transplantation, delayed graft function, polycythemia, and cytomegalovirus infection. No clinical rejection was diagnosed over the 2-year period. Patient and graft survival was 100% at a mean post-transplantation time of approximately 16.6 months.

  9. Halogens in Tektites and Impact Glasses: New Results and a Critical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, T.; Langenauer, M.; Krahenbuhl, U.

    1992-07-01

    We analyzed a variety of glasses from different localities and some related basement rocks. Our aim was to complete the existing database for F, Cl, Br, and I. For the first time Cl, Br, and I data on Darwin Glass are presented and new values for I are reported on Muong Nong-type tektites, Bediasites, Ivory Coast tektites, Libyan Desert Glasses, and Zhamanshinites. Also we reevaluated existing analysis cited in the literature to compare them to our values The halogens contents were determined by neutron activation analysis followed by a simultaneous radiochemical separation by pyrohyrolysis (Langenauer et al. 1992). Analytical problems seem to be a major source of error of many literature values. The tektite and impact glasses show similar australite normalization patterns within their groups and distinct patterns among the groups. The Muong Nong tektites show a volatilization behavior of I > Br > Cl > F, which is compatible with the volatilization behavior of the halogens under oxidizing conditions in a melt. Comparing Darwin Glass with the possible basement rock of Darwin crater we conclude that at least two processes are needed to control the abundance of the halogens: First a selective volatilization of F and then a removal of the halogens with I > Br > Cl > F from the melt. For Darwin Glass an incomplete mixing model is included to explain the observed facts satisfyingly. We think that all the tektites and impact glasses show a similar behavior of the halogens. The lack of data on the composition of the source material makes it difficult to prove the validity of this model. References. LANGENAUER M. AND KRAHENBUHL U., FURRER V., AND WYTTENBACH A. (1992) Determination of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine in seven geochemical reference samples. Geostand. Newslett., 16, 41-44. F Cl Br I Sample (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) Bediasite BED 8401 9+-1 6.3+-0.3 0.07+-0.01 0.026+-0.005 Ivory Coast IVC 2069 22+-2 4.2+-0.2 0.55+-0.02 0.013+-0,006 Muong Nong MN 5425-6 117

  10. Cost Analysis of Non-Formal ETV Systems: A Case Study of the "Extra-Scolaire" System in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    Building on previous evaluations of the ETV systems--both formal and informal--of the Ivory Coast, this study examines the system costs of the "Extra Scolaire" (E/S) program for rural adults. Educational television is utilized through the Ivorian primary system, and battery operated televisions have been widely distributed to schools in rural…

  11. The Ways in which Technology Is Imported and Their Effects on Employment and Training--The Case of the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kone, Zobila

    1984-01-01

    If education is to play a role in the design and implementation of a policy of technological development in the Ivory Coast, an educational policy is needed that aims at improving the country's ability to assimilate, adapt, and modify imported technologies and to produce new technologies locally. (RM)

  12. Sex, fertility and menstruation among the Beng of the Ivory Coast: a symbolic analysis.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, A

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made in this discussion to relocate the topic of menstruation in a new framework, one not directly defined by gender and not restricted to the view that menstrual blood and menstrual pollution are by definition viewed negatively. The Beng (Ivory Coast) notions of menstruation are explored as they relate to wider concepts of pollution and fertility. The analysis demonstrates how menstrual pollution among the Beng forms part of another type of pollution--the spatio symbolic pollution of human fertility when it is removed from its proper place--and how, rather than debasing women, menstruation serves to have added value to a major aspect of women's labor--that of cooking. There are 3 rules which Beng observe concerning menstruation: no initiated, married, or previously married woman who is menstruating may set foot in the forest for any reason other than to defecate; a menstruating woman may not touch a corpse; and a man may not eat food cooked by his wife during the days she is menstruating, nor may a Master of the Earth eat food cooked by any menstruating woman. At first, these taboos appear to be another case of the pollution of women through menstruation and another instance of women's oppression. When explored, the Master of Earth explained that menstrual blood is considered as special because it carries in it a living being and that menstrual blood is like the flower which must emerge before the fruit--the baby--can be born. No answer was provided to the question of pollution. There seemed to be no other rules specifying what activities a woman should or should not pursue during menstruation. She is not isolated from the flux of social life, and sexual activiity during menstruation, though not commonly done, is not taboo. The fact that it is only working in the forest, and not other activities, that is prohibited to menstruating women reveals that menstruation is not regarded as dangerous to men or as polluting in general. Rather, menstrual blood

  13. Cuban tektite revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, C.

    1988-06-01

    Major-element and trace-element analyses were performed on the Cuban tectite, found about 20 years ago at Columbia University and classified by Garlick et al. (1971) as belonging to the North American tectite strewn field. The results indicate that the Cuban tektite is a North American tektite, but different from both bediasites and Georgia tektites, although with some similarities to bediasites. This tektite also has some similarities to the Barbados tektites, and, thus, may comprise its own distinct subgroup, probably related to the Barbados occurrence and belonging to a Caribbean substrewn field. It is concluded that the Cuban tektite really originated from Cuba. 32 references.

  14. A Cuban tektite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garlick, G.D.; Naeser, C.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1971-01-01

    A large tektite from Cuba is classified with other North American tektites on the basis of its age. The major-element chemistry, oxygen isotopic composition, refractive index and density of the Cuban tektite are within the ranges exhibited by bediasites. ?? 1971.

  15. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in avian influenza negative birds from live bird markets and backyard and commercial farms in Ivory-Coast.

    PubMed

    Kouakou, A V; Kouakou, V; Kouakou, C; Godji, P; Kouassi, A L; Krou, H A; Langeois, Q; Webby, R J; Ducatez, M F; Couacy-Hymann, E

    2015-10-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB) are two major viral diseases affecting the respiratory tracts of birds and whose impact on African poultry is still poorly known. In the present study we aimed at assessing NDV and IBV prevalences in Ivory-Coast by molecular screening of >22,000 avian swabs by nested PCR and by serology testing of close to 2000 avian sera from 2010 through 2012. The NDV and IBV seroprevalences over the study period reached 22% and 72%, respectively. We found 14.7% pooled swabs positive by PCR for NDV and 14.6% for IBV. Both pathogens are therefore endemic in Ivory-Coast. Economic losses associated with NDV and IBV infections still need to be evaluated.

  16. Ivory Basements and Ivory Towers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    The metaphors of the ivory tower and ivory basement are used in this chapter to reflect how many women understand and experience the academy. The ivory tower signifies a place that is protected, a place of privilege and authority and a place removed from the outside world (and consequently the rigours of the market place). The ivory tower, by…

  17. Geostatistical estimation of the transmissivity in a highly fractured metamorphic and crystalline aquifer (Man-Danane Region, Western Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razack, Moumtaz; Lasm, Théophile

    2006-06-01

    This work is aimed at estimating the transmissivity of highly fractured hard rock aquifers using a geostatistical approach. The studied aquifer is formed by the crystalline and metamorphic rocks of the Western Ivory Coast (West Africa), in the Man Danané area. The study area covers 7290 km 2 (90 km×81 km). The fracturing network is dense and well connected, without a marked fracture direction. A data base comprising 118 transmissivity ( T) values and 154 specific capacity ( Q/ s) values was compiled. A significant empirical relationship between T and Q/ s was found, which enabled the transmissivity data to be supplemented. The variographic analysis of the two variables showed that the variograms of T and Q/ s (which are lognormal variables) are much more structured than those of log T and log Q/ s (which are normal variables). This result is contrary to what was previously published and raises the question whether normality is necessary in geostatistical analysis. Several input and geostatistical estimations of the transmissivity were tested using the cross validation procedure: measured transmissivity data; supplemented transmissivity data; kriging; cokriging. The cross validation results showed that the best estimation is provided using the kriging procedure, the transmissivity field represented by the whole data sample (measured+estimated using specific capacity) and the structural model evaluated solely on the measured transmissivity. The geostatistical approach provided in fine a reliable estimation of the transmissivity of the Man Danané aquifer, which will be used as an input in forthcoming modelling.

  18. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity among cattle in the central savannah-forest area of Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Sanogo, Moussa; Abatih, Emmanuel; Thys, Eric; Fretin, David; Berkvens, Dirk; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-11-01

    Serological results obtained from 907 serum samples collected from unvaccinated cattle of at least 6 months of age in the savannah-forest region of Ivory Coast were used to investigate risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis seropositivity. Serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Using a parallel interpretation, RBT and iELISA results showed that 10.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.4, 12.4) of the cattle had antibodies against Brucella in our study area. The logistic regression analysis indicated that brucellosis seropositivity was associated with age and herd size. Cattle above 5 years of age were found to have a higher chance of being seropositive (odd ratio (OR)=2.8; 95% CI: 1.3, 6.4) compared to cattle under 3 years of age. Similarly, the odd of brucellosis seropositivity for herds with more than 100 cattle was 3.3 (95% CI: 1.2, 8.9) times higher compared to those with less than 50 cattle.

  19. Brief communication: Endocranial volumes in an ontogenetic sample of chimpanzees from the Taï Forest National Park, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Simon; Gunz, Philipp; Schwarz, Uta; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Ontogenetic samples of endocranial volumes (EVs) from great apes and humans are critical for understanding the evolution of the brain growth pattern in the hominin lineage. However, high quality ontogenetic data are scarce, especially for nonhuman primates. Here, we provide original data derived from an osteological collection of a wild population of Pan troglodytes verus from the Taï Forest National Park, Ivory Coast. This sample is unique, because age, sex, and pedigree information are available for many specimens from behavioral observations in the wild. We scanned crania of all 30 immature specimens and 13 adult individuals using high-resolution computed tomography. We then created virtual casts of the bony braincase (endocasts) to measure EVs. We also measured cranial length, width, and height and attempted to relate cranial distances to EV via regression analysis. Our data are consistent with previous studies. The only neonate in the sample has an EV of 127 cm(3) or 34% of the adult mean. EV increases rapidly during early ontogeny. The average adult EV in this sample is 378.7 ± 30.1 cm(3) . We found sexual dimorphism in adults; males seem to be already larger than females before adult EV is attained. Regressions on cranial width and multiple regression provide better estimates for EV than regressions on cranial length or height. Increasing the sample size and compiling more high quality ontogenetic data of EV will help to reconcile ongoing discussions about the evolution of hominin brain growth.

  20. Spatial versus temporal patterns in fish assemblages of a tropical estuarine coastal lake: The Ebrié Lagoon (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecoutin, Jean-Marc; Richard, Emilie; Simier, Monique; Albaret, Jean-Jacques

    2005-09-01

    The fish assemblages of the Ebrié lagoon (Ivory Coast) were sampled by experimental fishing over the entire lagoon using a purse seine net. The sampling was conducted in the two main hydroclimatic seasons for this ecosystem, i.e. in the dry season (March-April) and in the wet season (August-September). The results obtained showed a fish assemblage organized around a consistently occurring group of twenty species. When analysed in terms of ecological categories, the seasonal influence led to a cycle in the assemblages from freshwater to marine around this permanent species pool, with a seasonal renewal of the assemblage. At the scale of the lagoon, there were variations in the composition of the assemblages that clearly distinguished the western part from the eastern one. The limit was situated at the Vridi canal, a wide artificial channel permanently connecting the lagoon to the sea. To the west, the assemblage was characterised by a strong spatial uniformity and low seasonal variability. To the east, the assemblage formed two different entities; one assemblage with pronounced freshwater affinities occurring in a side arm and the other assemblage with great seasonal variability under the alternating influence of seawater in the dry season and freshwater in the wet season. This part of the lagoon functioned somewhat like a typical estuary.

  1. Seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and methane in the rivers and lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koné, Y. J. M.; Abril, G.; Delille, B.; Borges, A. V.

    2009-04-01

    We report a data-set of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved methane (CH4) in three rivers (Bia, Tanoé and Comoé) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebrié, Potou and Grand-Lahou) of Ivory Coast (West Africa), during the four main climatic seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season). The surface waters of the three rivers were oversaturated in CO2 and CH4 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, the seasonal variability of CO2 and CH4 seemed to be largely controlled by dilution during the flooding period. The strong correlation of CH4 concentrations with the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) confirm the dominance of a continental sources (from soils) for both CO2 and CH4 in these rivers. The largest CH4 over-saturations and diffusive air-water CH4 fluxes were observed in the Tendo and Aby lagoons that are permanently stratified systems (unlike the other 3 lagoons), leading to anoxic bottom waters favorable for a large CH4 production. In addition, these two stratified lagoons showed low pCO2 values due to high primary production, which suggests an efficient transfer of organic matter across the pycnocline. As a result, the stratified Tendo and Aby lagoons were respectively, a low source of CO2 to the atmosphere and a sink of atmospheric CO2 while the other 3 well-mixed lagoons were strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere but lower sources of CH4 to the atmosphere.

  2. Impact of vertical structure on water mass circulation in a tropical lagoon (Ebrié, Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenon, Isabelle; Audouin, Olivier; Pouvreau, Nicolas; Maurin, Jean-Christophe

    2009-09-01

    A one-dimensional vertical model has been developed to simulate the water mass circulation along the vertical structure in all deep coastal areas. The model has hydrodynamic and transport components solved using finite difference scheme. The one-dimensional vertical model results are coupled to the vertically averaged two-dimensional model results at each point of a horizontal grid. A theoretical salinity profile is introduced for each vertically integrated value obtained from the 2DH model results. A viscosity profile, simulating a viscosity value close to zero at the surface and with large viscosity gradients, is applied along the water column. The model is applied to the Vridi channel, connecting the Ebrié lagoon to the sea (Ivory Coast). The response of the Ebrié lagoon is studied in terms of inflow and outflow of water in the system through the Vridi channel. Due to the abrupt variation of the surface slope, vertical velocities along the water column show an anticlockwise spiral from bottom to surface during a tidal cycle. Due to the bottom friction and to the vertical viscosity profile, velocities decrease from surface to bottom. However, the freshwater inflow slows down the tidal propagation during the flood and causes the surface velocity to be smaller than the bottom velocity at mid-tide. Close to the bottom, velocities follow an anticlockwise movement due to the tidal propagation. At the water surface, velocities follow only an alternative movement of either ebb or flood, along the channel direction. No cross shore velocities can develop at the surface in the channel.

  3. [Specific diversity and culicidian nuisance in the villages of N'gatty and Allaba in laguna area of Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Fofana, D; Konan, K L; Djohan, V; Konan, Y L; Koné, A B; Doannio, J M C; N'goran, K E

    2010-12-01

    Entomological surveys were undertaken between June and December 2006 in N'gatty and Allaba. These villages are located in southern Ivory Coast in a laguna area in Dabou department. In these villages, there are large swampy areas, which have caused the multiplication of anthropophilic Culicidae. Mosquitoes have been collected at preimaginal stage at the time of the larval prospecting and at adult stage through human landing catch. Larval collections have been made using the classic method of "dipping". Larvae have been identified to the genus level. Then, they have been bred in the laboratory to identify adults. Adults collection has been made once a month during three consecutive nights by human landing catch inside houses. Adults have been identified to the specific level. Eight genera of mosquitoes have been collected in these two villages: Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex, Eretmapodites, Mansonia, Toxorhynchites and Uranotaenia. Twenty-four species have been listed during this stu y. The genus Mansonia is the most predominant with 86% (N = 15,811) and 80% (N = 1,385), respectively, in N'gatty and Allaba. The average biting rate per day varies between N'gatty and Allaba. It is estimated to 308 bites per human per night (b/h/n) in N'gatty and 72 b/h/n in Allaba. In these villages, mosquito nuisance is mainly due to Mansonia with 264 b/h/n and 58 b/h/n, respectively, in N'gatty and Allaba. However, Anopheles gambiae s.l. average rate was 12 b/h/n in N'gatty and 2 b/h/n in Allaba.

  4. Bio-guided isolation of antioxidant compounds from Chrysophyllum perpulchrum, a plant used in the Ivory Coast pharmacopeia.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Bidie Alain; Karine, Ndjoko; Barthélemy, Attioua Koffi; Noél, Zirihi Guédé; David, N'guessan Jean; Joseph, Djaman Allico; Hosttetmann, Kurt

    2010-09-13

    Chrysophyllum perpulchrum (Sapotaceae) is used in the traditional Ivory Coast pharmacopeia to cure fevers. The extract of C. perpulchrum used for this study was the powdered form obtained from the maceration of the dried plant bark in 96% methanol, followed by evaporation to dryness. In the present study, the antioxidative and radical-scavenging activities of the methanolic extract were studied with three standard biological tests: DPPH reduction, ferric thiocyanate (FTC) lipidic peroxidation inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). Gallic acid and quercetin were used as references. The total amount of phenolic compounds in the extract was determined by ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Catechin and two dimeric procyanidins were found to be the compounds responsible for the activities. They were chemically dereplicated in the extract by LC-MS. For quantitation purposes, they were isolated by successive chromatographic methods and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. The quantities of these compounds in C. perpulchrum were 5.4% for catechin (P1), and 5.6 and 9.2% for dimers (compounds 2 (P2) and 3 (P3)), respectively. They displayed antioxidant activity with IC(50) values of 2.50 ± 0.15 µg/mL (P1), 2.10 ± 0.2 µg/mL (P2) and 2.10 ± 0.1 µg/mL (P3). The total extract, the active fractions and the pure compounds inhibited the lipid peroxidation by the FTC method and the TBARS method in the range of 60%. These values were comparable to those seen for quercetin.

  5. Tektite Process Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, T. H. S.

    2015-07-01

    Shock accounts for only half of "australite" tektites 10 km/s morphologically derived speed. 5,000 m/s delta V remains unaccounted. In perspective, this is equivalent to ~50 years of geosynchronous station keeping budget, and 3/4 of the tektite's KE.

  6. Gases in Tektite Bubbles.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Dunning, K L

    1962-07-20

    Spectroscopic analysis of light produced by electrodeless discharge in a tektite bubble showed the main gases in the bubble to be neon, helium, and oxygen. The neon and helium have probably diffused in from the atmosphere, while the oxygen may be atmospheric gas incorporated in the tektite during its formation.

  7. Gases in Tektite Bubbles.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Dunning, K L

    1962-07-20

    Spectroscopic analysis of light produced by electrodeless discharge in a tektite bubble showed the main gases in the bubble to be neon, helium, and oxygen. The neon and helium have probably diffused in from the atmosphere, while the oxygen may be atmospheric gas incorporated in the tektite during its formation. PMID:17801113

  8. Origin of tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, John A.

    1994-01-01

    The origin of tektites has been obscure because of the following dilemma. The application of physical principles to the data available on tektites points strongly to origin from one or more lunar volcanoes; but few glasses of tektite composition have hitherto been reported from the lunar samples. Instead, the lunar silicic glasses consist chiefly of a material very rich in K2O and poor in MgO. The ratio of K2O/MgO is higher in these glasses than in any tektites reported. The solution of the dilemma seems to come from the study of some recently discovered terrestrial deposits of tektite glass with high values of K2O/MgO at the Cretaceous Tertiary boundary. These glasses are found to be very vulnerable to crystallization into sandine or to alteration to smectite. These end products are known and are more abundant than any terrestrial deposits of tektite glass. It seems possible that, in fact, the moon produces tektite glass, mostly of the high K2O-low MgO type; but on Earth these deposits are destroyed. The much less abundant deposits with lower K and higher Mg are observed because they survive. Other objections to the lunar origin hypothesis appear to be answerable.

  9. Palaeoclimatic and deforestation effect on the coastal fresh groundwater resources of SE Ivory Coast from isotopic and chemical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adiaffi, Bernard; Marlin, Christelle; Oga, Yéï Marie Solange; Massault, Marc; Noret, Aurelie; Biemi, Jean

    2009-05-01

    SummaryIn the South-east of the Ivory Coast, two aquifer systems have been studied in the sedimentary deposits at the South and in the fractured bedrock at the North of the study area (5-6°N, 2.40-4.40°W) : (1) the Continental Terminal (CT) and (2) the Paleoproterozoïc Bedrock (PB). In the studied area, the vegetation cover has undergone significant changes since 1955 in addition to climate change. Rainforests have gradually disappeared due to natural and anthropological deforestation. The impact of deforestation on groundwater of the PB and on the CT has been studied by a geochemical approach. Stable isotopes ( 18O, 2H and 13C) contents, radiocarbon ( 14C) contents and chemical data (major ions) have been measured on a set of 25 groundwater samples. The residence time of the groundwaters is estimated with the 14C using two models: (i) the model of well-mixed reservoir (WMR model) and (ii) the piston flow model (PF model). The range of the PB groundwater residence time (15,200-8300 to ˜300-100 a BP) for both models shows that the recharge has started at the beginning of the post-glacial period whereas the CT aquifer recharge is much more recent (from 300 a BP to today). The PB groundwater provides information about paleoclimatic conditions that occurred over the studied area during the late Pleistocene. The low contents indicate cold and/or more humid conditions of recharge. During that period, the low content of 13C is consistent with a vegetation cover dominated by rainforest (C 3 plants). After the 20th century, the progressive evolution of vegetation cover from forest to cultivated plants and grasses is shown by the enrichment of groundwater in 13C (C 3 plants to C 4 plants). The relatively high mineralization level (mean of 143.7 mg L -1) and high δ18O- δ2H values of modern PB groundwater reflect of a recharge process that is slowed by a thick layer (16.3-72.5 m) of weathered formations above the PB formations. Groundwaters of the CT aquifer are

  10. Groundwater Pathways In Fractured Heterogeneous Granitic Aquifers - A Hydrochemistry Survey In The Sassandra Watershed (Inland Ivory Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, T.; Fouche, O.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrogeochemical data and Landsat images are used to characterize the groundwater flow in a complex fractured granitic aquifer system located at the South-West of Ivory Coast (West Africa). The specific processing of the Landsat ETM+ images allows producing a detailed map of faults having length more than 3 km. The map is integrated with other data sources into a geographical information system (GIS) in order to identify areas favourable to groundwater sampling in fractured rock. The results of statistical analyses, as applied to hydrochemical data set clearly indicate that the groundwater of the study region is principally of Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-K-HCO3 types. The Ca-HCO3 type waters occur in areas of recharge (generally topographically higher area) i.e. where recharge occurs relatively fast. These waters generally have lower pH and EC values. The recharge occurs through preferential pathways such as alongside dykes and sills and the various fracture and joint patterns that transect the study area. The Na- HCO3 and Na-SO4 type waters occur in discharging and static regimes (the lower lying areas) where evaporation and cation exchange are the dominant processes. Ground waters are mostly oxidizing in character, and clearly unsaturated with respect to calcite, reflecting the small amount of carbonate in the aquifer. A few samples are reducing, with low NO3 and high dissolved Fe2+ and Mn2+ concentration and occur in the valley area. These reducing waters are thought to have experienced a deeper circulation and longer residence time in which reducing reactions have proceeded, with groundwater discharge along the valleys bottom. The chemistry of major ions, here applied to fractured aquifers, turns to be a powerful tool when carefully compared with a map of fault traces. We obtain a sufficient knowledge of the aquifer heterogeneity prior to realize a zoning of the region, based on cells with homogeneous hydrodynamic behaviour in which local permeability ellipses are

  11. Trace Element Data help Understanding the Origin of Lake Bosumtwi Crater Related Glass (Ivory Coast Tektites, Microtektites, Fall-Back Particles, Suevite Glass)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, A.; Langenhorst, F.; Berndt, J.

    2015-09-01

    We report for the four internally rather homogeneous groups of glass (IVC, IVC-MT, BOT 12 [suevite], FBG) concentrations of major and 42 minor elements (in-situ data with LA-ICP-MS) as well as Sr-Nd, and DEGAS data.

  12. Les sous-prefectures de Sikensi et Dabakala, Cote-d'Ivoire. (The Regions of Sikensi and Dabakala, Ivory Coast.) Method de preparation de la carte scolaire: etudes de cas 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallak, J.; And Others

    This volume contains the results of the first study of the problems associated with using educational television in curriculum planning in the Ivory Coast. The study was conducted in two districts of this African country, one relatively developed and situated in the southern part of the country, and the other more characteristic of the poorer…

  13. The tektite problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Small glassy pebbles, called tektites, are found in widely scattered locations around the world. These tektites appear much like volcanic glass obsidian, but their chemical composition is different from that of any terrestrial lava and they contain far less water and none of obsidian's characteristic microcrystals. No one has ever found the mother lode of a field of tektites. They cannot, therefore, be the product of terrestrial volcanism. Recently acquired knowledge about the moon's surface confirms earlier indications that tektites cannot be bits of lunar soil propelled to the earth by the impact of meteorites on the moon. According to one of two remaining possibilities tektites are bits of terrestrial sedimentary rock excavated by meteorites striking the earth's surface, melted by the heat of impact, and congealed into glass as they travel above the atmosphere to the scattered sites where they are found. The other possibility is that tektites are the remains of gobs of lava fired at the earth by volcanic activity on the moon.

  14. [Private companies: an opportunity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevention and care in Ivory Coast in the wake of HIV/AIDS?].

    PubMed

    Bekelynck, A

    2015-02-01

    In the 1990s, defenders of "aids exceptionnalism" have promised that the inequities caused by HIV/AIDS could provide leverage in the care of other health issues later. Fifteen years later, this argument can be rethought at the light of the current context of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Ivory Coast. In fact, in this country, the challenges caused by HBVecho those of HIV/AIDS fifteen years ago: high prevalence (8-10%), ignorance of the disease, and high cost of care. To this end, this article compares the role of private companies in the fights against HIV/AIDS in the 2000s and its role in the fight against HBV today. Although some private firms played a critical role in the promotion of universal access to ART, today, they are one of the few places where HBV screening, vaccination and treatment are offered in the country. HIV/AIDS opened the door for private companies to address other diseases through their health care systems. However, many challenges still need to be met: the absence of qualitative ongoing training for health professionals, illness representations and the costs of treatments, which are all related to the lack of international and national collective action. In Ivory Coast, at the early stage of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, national authorities took up the leadership in the fight against AIDS in West Africa, by developing extraverted strategies (Xth ICASA's organization, Unaids initiative hosting). The exceptional international mobilization and the creation of innovative funding mechanisms [International Therapeutic Solidarity Fund (ITSF), Global Fund (GM), and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)] have facilitated easy access to ARV. Although 380 million people are infected by chronic HBV in the world, even so, international and national collective actions are fledgling and remained weak. Moreover, private firms have represented leverage for testing, treatment, and the provision of universal access to medication in the context of the HIV

  15. Detrital Mineral Grains in Tektites.

    PubMed

    Bairnes, V E

    1963-12-27

    Abundant detrital crystalline mineral grains have been found in layered Muong Nong-type indochinite tektites from Nong Sapong, northeastern Thailand. These grains are an integral part of some tektite layers, and their presence furnishes strong presumptive evidence that indochinites, as well as other tektite groups in which layered specimens occur, formed from surficial earth materials.

  16. Detrital Mineral Grains in Tektites.

    PubMed

    Bairnes, V E

    1963-12-27

    Abundant detrital crystalline mineral grains have been found in layered Muong Nong-type indochinite tektites from Nong Sapong, northeastern Thailand. These grains are an integral part of some tektite layers, and their presence furnishes strong presumptive evidence that indochinites, as well as other tektite groups in which layered specimens occur, formed from surficial earth materials. PMID:17834370

  17. The role of savannas in the terrestrial Si cycle: A case-study from Lamto, Ivory Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, Anne; Bouvet, Mickael; Abbadie, Luc

    2011-08-01

    Savannas currently occupy a fifth of the earth's land surface and are predicted to expand in the next few centuries at the expense of tropical forests, mainly as a result of deforestation and human fires. Can such a vegetation trend impact, through changes in plant Si cycling, the lithogenic silicon (LSi) release into soils (through chemical weathering) and the net dissolved Si (DSi) outputs from soils to stream water (through chemical denudation)? The first step of an investigation requires quantifying the net Si fluxes involved in the plant/soil system. Here, a schematic steady-state Si cycle, established for a tropical humid savanna (Lamto, Ivory Coast) that developed on a ferruginous soil and is subjected to annual fires, is presented. Erosion was assumed to be insignificant. LSi and biogenic Si (BSi under the form of phytoliths) pools were measured, and Si fluxes were estimated from Si concentrations and mass balance calculation. Identification of plant and soil phytoliths indicated that the soil BSi pool is in equilibrium with the current BSi input by the savanna. In the soil column, mixing between a young rapidly recycled BSi pool and an old stable BSi pool is attested by a mixing line equation. Storage of the old BSi pool is assimilated as a BSi output from the plant/soil system. A BSi output additionally occurs after annual fires, when ashes are exported. Both BSi outputs decrease as much the BSi dissolution. In order to uptake constant DSi flux, the savanna increases by three to eight times the net LSi release, depending upon the post-fire ash exportation scenario. A comparison between savanna and rainforest Si cycles that maximizes the differences in plant/soil systems and minimizes differences in climate is presented. The comparison revealed that BSi storage is higher in the savanna soil than in the rainforest soil, mainly due to BSi production that is twice higher in the savanna (127 vs 67 kg/ha/yr). The resulting LSi release that is enhanced by plant

  18. The role of savannas in the terrestrial Si cycle: A case-study from Lamto, Ivory Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, A. E.; Abbadie, L.

    2011-12-01

    Savannas currently occupy a fifth of the earth's land surface and are predicted to expand in the next few centuries at the expense of tropical forests, mainly as a result of deforestation and human fires. Can such a vegetation trend impact, through changes in plant Si cycling, the lithogenic silicon (LSi) release into soils (through chemical weathering) and the net dissolved Si (DSi) outputs from soils to stream water (through chemical denudation)? The first step of an investigation requires quantifying the net Si fluxes involved in the plant/soil system. Here, a schematic steady-state Si cycle, established for a tropical humid savanna (Lamto, Ivory Coast) that developed on a ferruginous soil and is subjected to annual fires, is presented. Erosion was assumed to be insignificant. LSi and biogenic Si (BSi under the form of phytoliths) pools were measured, and Si fluxes were estimated from Si concentrations and mass balance calculation. Identification of plant and soil phytoliths indicated that the soil BSi pool is in equilibrium with the current BSi input by the savanna. In the soil column, mixing between a young rapidly recycled BSi pool and an old stable BSi pool is attested by a mixing line equation. Storage of the old BSi pool is assimilated as a BSi output from the plant/soil system. A BSi output additionally occurs after annual fires, when ashes are exported. Both BSi outputs decrease as much the BSi dissolution. In order to uptake constant DSi flux, the savanna increases by three to eight times the net LSi release, depending upon the post-fire ash exportation scenario. A comparison between savanna and rainforest Si cycles that maximizes the differences in plant/soil systems and minimizes differences in climate is presented. The comparison revealed that BSi storage is higher in the savanna soil than in the rainforest soil, mainly due to BSi production that is twice higher in the savanna (127 vs 67 kg/ha/yr). The resulting LSi release that is enhanced by plant

  19. Palaeoproterozoic high-pressure granulite overprint of the Archaean continental crust: evidence for homogeneous crustal thickening (Man Rise, Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitra, Pavel; Kouamelan, Alain N.; Ballèvre, Michel; Peucat, Jean-Jacques

    2010-05-01

    The character of mountain building processes in the Palaeoproterozoic times is subject to much debate. The local observation of Barrovian-type assemblages and high-pressure granulite relics in the Man Rise (Côte d'Ivoire), led some authors to argue that Eburnean (Palaeoproterozoic) reworking of the Archaean basement was achieved by modern-style thrust-dominated tectonics (e.g., Feybesse & Milési, 1994). However, it has been suggested that crustal thickening and subsequent exhumation of high-pressure crustal rocks can be achieved by virtue of homogeneous, fold-dominated deformation of hot crustal domains even in Phanerozoic orogenic belts (e.g., Schulmann et al., 2002; 2008). We describe a mafic granulite of the Kouibli area (Archaean part of the Man Rise, western Ivory Coast) that displays a primary assemblage (M1) containing garnet, diopsidic clinopyroxene, red-brown pargasitic amphibole, plagioclase (andesine), rutile, ilmenite and quartz. This assemblage is associated with a subvertical regional foliation. Symplectites that develop at the expense of the M1 assemblage contain orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase (bytownite), green pargasitic amphibole, ilmenite and magnetite (M2). Multiequilibrium thermobarometric calculations and P-T pseudosections calculated with THERMOCALC suggest granulite-facies conditions of ca. 13 kbar, 850°C and <7 kbar, 700-800°C for M1 and M2, respectively. In agreement with the qualitative information obtained from reaction textures and chemical zoning of minerals, this suggests an evolution dominated by decompression accompanied by moderate cooling. A Sm-Nd garnet - whole-rock age of 2.03 Ga determined on this sample indicates that this evolution occurred during the Palaeoproterozoic. We argue that from the geodynamic point of view the observed features are best explained by homogeneous thickening of the margin of the Archaean craton, re-heated and softened due to the accretion of hot, juvenile Palaeoproterozoic crust, as

  20. Phylogeny of the genus Willemia (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) and biogeography of the W. buddenbrocki-group with description of a new species from Ivory Coast (western Africa).

    PubMed

    Zon, Serge Déméango; Bedos, Anne; D'Haese, Cyrille A

    2015-01-01

    Willemia tondoh sp. nov. from the Ivory Coast (western Africa) is described and illustrated. The new species is the 14th in the buddenbrocki-group and is defined with two large globular sensilla placed in a cavity and covered in part by tegumental fold on antennal segment IV, 7 chaetae on antennal segment I, postantennal organ with 9 vesicles, s-chaetae subcylindrical and acuminate on abdominal terga and chaetae a1 absent on abdominal sternum IV. A phylogeny for all the 46 species of the genus Willemia is proposed. Based on the phylogentic framework, the biogeography of the buddenbrocki-group is discussed. An identification key for all 46 known species of the genus is provided. PMID:26249949

  1. Phylogeny of the genus Willemia (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) and biogeography of the W. buddenbrocki-group with description of a new species from Ivory Coast (western Africa).

    PubMed

    Zon, Serge Déméango; Bedos, Anne; D'Haese, Cyrille A

    2015-06-29

    Willemia tondoh sp. nov. from the Ivory Coast (western Africa) is described and illustrated. The new species is the 14th in the buddenbrocki-group and is defined with two large globular sensilla placed in a cavity and covered in part by tegumental fold on antennal segment IV, 7 chaetae on antennal segment I, postantennal organ with 9 vesicles, s-chaetae subcylindrical and acuminate on abdominal terga and chaetae a1 absent on abdominal sternum IV. A phylogeny for all the 46 species of the genus Willemia is proposed. Based on the phylogentic framework, the biogeography of the buddenbrocki-group is discussed. An identification key for all 46 known species of the genus is provided.

  2. Origin of Tektites.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Shute, B E

    1963-03-29

    A comet of the size recently postulated by H. C. Urey would leave a large crater. It is shown, from aerodynamic theory, from observations of distribution around terrestrial impact craters, and from experimental nuclear explosions, that the observed distribution of tektites cannot be the result of impact on the earth, whether cometary or meteoritic. It is further shown, from aerodynamic theory, from observation of a meteor shower, and from study of the breakup of artificial satellites, that the distribution of tektites can be accounted for as a result of fusion stripping of a satellite, as originally suggested by Suess. PMID:17757065

  3. Origin of Tektites.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Shute, B E

    1963-03-29

    A comet of the size recently postulated by H. C. Urey would leave a large crater. It is shown, from aerodynamic theory, from observations of distribution around terrestrial impact craters, and from experimental nuclear explosions, that the observed distribution of tektites cannot be the result of impact on the earth, whether cometary or meteoritic. It is further shown, from aerodynamic theory, from observation of a meteor shower, and from study of the breakup of artificial satellites, that the distribution of tektites can be accounted for as a result of fusion stripping of a satellite, as originally suggested by Suess.

  4. Layered tektites - A multiple impact origin for the Australasian tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, J. T.

    1991-02-01

    The mechanisms proposed for the origin of tektites from the Australasian field are examined using neutron activation data for twenty layered tektites and six splash tektites of known and widely separated sites of a field greater than 1140 km in length. Evidence is presented indicating that the layered tektites formed as sheets or pools of melt. It is argued that their distribution across a field greater than 1140 km in length is inconsistent with their formation in a single crater, and that many impact craters are required to account for their distribution across such a large field.

  5. Assessment of Mycotoxin Exposure in Côte d’ivoire (Ivory Coast) Through Multi-Biomarker Analysis and Possible Correlation with Food Consumption Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kouadio, James Halbin; Lattanzio, Veronica M. T.; Ouattara, Djeneba; Kouakou, Brou; Visconti, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Scope: The aim of the presented study was to investigate the mycotoxin exposure of Ivorian population related to the consumption patterns of maize, peanuts, millet, and cassava product (attiéké). Materials and Methods: Maize flour samples (n = 51) were purchased from all Abidjan local markets, in the south of Ivory Coast, and urine (n = 99) was collected during the same reference period (July–September 2011) from volunteers living in Abidjan and Daloa cities. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was used to analyze aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FB1, FB2), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), and T-2 and HT-2 toxins in maize flour samples, and their relevant biomarkers (AFM1, DON, DON + de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM-1), FB1, α-zearalenol (ZOL), β-ZOL, and OTA) in urine samples. Results: Critical maize contamination was observed by AFs occurrence (total AFs 4.5 – 330.0 μg/kg) while OTA was found in 13% of samples analyzed. AFM1 was detected in 40% of urines samples (0.06 – 14.11 ng/ml), OTA in 37% (0.01 – 0.42 ng/ml), FB1 in 27% (0.07 to 15.31 ng/ml) and, DON was found in 21% of samples at levels up to 10.0 ng/ml. The correlation coefficients (R2) obtained by plotting the percentage of biomarker occurrence (positive samples) versus the frequency of food consumption revealed maize, peanuts, millet and attiéké were strongly linked to AFB1 and OTA exposure with values of R2 ranged from 0.462 to 0.956. Conclusion: The present study provided data on mycotoxin risk in Ivory Coast, revealing a frequent co-exposure to the major mycotoxins such as AFs, OTA, and fumonisins, which appeared to be related to the frequency of peanuts, maize, millet and attiéké consumption. PMID:25948962

  6. Paleoclimatic and deforestation effect on the chemical and isotopic composition of the coastal fresh groundwater resources of South-east Ivory Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adiaffi, B.; Marlin, C.; Yei, O. M.-S.; Massault, M.; Noret, A.; Biemi, J.

    2009-04-01

    Since a half of century, the forest surface area of the South Ivory Coast has been decreased for the benefit of agriculture (15 000 km2 in 1993 versus 83 000 km2 in 1955-1958). This area also undergoes climate change. Vegetation cover has gradually changed from rainforests (C3 plants) to savanna (C4 plants) and agricultural plants. In the Abidjan area (5.00-6.00°N, 2.40-4.40°W), the mean rainfall amount and temperature value evolve during the 20th century (1912 mm/year and 26.3°C/year during the first decennial to 1613 mm/year and 26.9°C/year during the last ten years). The Paleoproterozoïc fractured bedrock (PB) and the Continental Terminal (CT) deposits groundwater are studied to show the climate change and deforestation effect on the area groundwater resources using stable isotopes (18O, 2H and 13C) contents, radiocarbon (14C) contents and chemical data on a set of 25 groundwater samples. The residence time of the groundwaters is estimated by the 14C using two models: (i) the model of well-mixed reservoir (WMR model) and (ii) the piston flow model (PF model). The range of the PB groundwater residence time (15 000 - 8 000 to ~ 300 - 100 a BP) for both models shows that the recharge has started at the beginning of the post-glacial period whereas the CT aquifer recharge is much more recent (from 300 a BP to today). The PB groundwater provides information about paleoclimatic conditions that occurred over the studied area during the late Pleistocene. It is demonstrated, through this study, that the evolution of vegetation cover (from forests to savanna and agriculture plants) is shown in groundwater by the trend in 13C content from old groundwater (confined bedrock groundwater: residence time of ~ 15 000 a BP) to the recent groundwater (unconfined bedrock groundwater and CT groundwater: residence times: ~ 300 a BP and lower than 100 a BP, respectively). The δ18O and δ2H values also increase with time from the beginning of the post-glacial period (~ 15 000 a BP

  7. The Origin of Tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, J. A.

    1960-01-01

    Tektites are probably extraterrestrial, rather than the result of heating some terrestrial materials, because they are a chemically homogeneous group with definite peculiarities (high silica, excess of alkaline earths over alkalis, excess of potash over soda, absence of water), and because some of them (the australites) appear to have undergone ablation in flight through the atmosphere. Since comparatively slow heating is required to explain the liquefaction of the tektite material, it is suggested that the tektites arrived along orbits which were nearly parallel to the surface of the earth, and which resulted from the decay of the orbit of a natural satellite. The great meteor procession of February 9, 1913, is an example of such an object. Comparison with the reentry phenomena of the artificial satellite 1957 Beta suggests that the 1913 shower consisted of a single large stone weighing about 400 kilograms, and a few dozen smaller bodies weighing about 40 grams each, formed by ablation from the larger body. It is shown that under the observed conditions considerable liquid flow would be expected in the stone, which would be heated to about 2100 K. Objects falling from such a shower near the perigee point of the orbit would have a considerable distribution along the orbit as a result of slight variations in height or drag coefficient. The distribution in longitude would be made wider by the turning of the earth under the orbit during the time of fall. The ultimate source of the body which produces a tektite shower is probably the moon, which appears, by virtue of its polarization and the phase distribution of the returned light, to contain high-silica materials. It is suggested that the Igast object alleged to have fallen in 1855 is in fact genuine and represents an unmelted portion of the lunar crust.

  8. Ivory Snowmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Recalling memories from her own third grade art classes, Ann Mueller, recreated an updated version for her students showing her students how to make snow scenes from Ivory Snow flakes. She showed students the video, The Snowman based on Raymond Briggs's book of the same name. Its beautiful images spur the imagination, and the musical score is…

  9. Tektites and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, J. T.; Heins, W. A.

    1993-02-01

    Only four tektite fields have been produced during the past 40 m.y., even though at least 60 impact craters have been produced during the same period in continental lithologies having tektite-like compositions. The apparent reason for this discrepancy is that the ejecta from most crater-forming impacts was not completely melted. The key factor affecting melt production seems to be the nature of the target, particularly its porosity. The fraction of projectile kinetic energy converted to heat may be an order of magnitude higher in a highly porous target than in a void-free target. The grain size and water content of the target are also important. The ideal target is a porous, fine-grained sediment such as loess, particularly if it is also dry. It is suggested that the rate of impact production of fully molten crater ejecta is proportional to the fraction of the continental surface having thick (greater than 10 m) blankets of dry loess and that tektites are mainly produced during cold, dry periods when such deposits are an order of magnitude more common than at present.

  10. Tektite glass in apollo 12 sample.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A

    1970-06-01

    The glassy portion of lunar sample 12013 from Apollo 12 is chemically more like some tektites from Java than like any terrestrial igneous rock. It satisfies all the chemical criteria for a tektite. Tektites are relatively recent and acid rocks, whereas the moon is chiefly ancient and basaltic; hence, tektites are probably ejected volcanically, rather than by impact, from the moon.

  11. Tektite glass in apollo 12 sample.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A

    1970-06-01

    The glassy portion of lunar sample 12013 from Apollo 12 is chemically more like some tektites from Java than like any terrestrial igneous rock. It satisfies all the chemical criteria for a tektite. Tektites are relatively recent and acid rocks, whereas the moon is chiefly ancient and basaltic; hence, tektites are probably ejected volcanically, rather than by impact, from the moon. PMID:17843588

  12. Emissions and concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the air of the tropical forest of the Ivory Coast and of temperate regions in France

    SciTech Connect

    Delmas, R.; Baudet, J.; Servant, J.; Baziard, Y.

    1980-08-20

    Atmospheric H/sub 2/S was measured by a fluorometric method (sensitivity 10 ng). In France, for aerated soils the emissions were between 0.8 and 27 ..mu..g m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/ H/sub 2/S (average 5 ..mu..g m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/). The soil temperature is an important factor governing this emission. The H/sub 2/S concentrations in the air ranged from 0.017 to 0.17 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ (average 0.080 ..mu..g m/sup -3/). In the Ivory Coast the H/sub 2/S emissions were estimated between 30 and 300 ..mu..g m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/. The measured concentrations of H/sub 2/S in the air at ground level ranged from 0.10 to 8.7 ..mu..g m/sup -3/. The relative importance of the measured emissions for anoxic soils of the humid equatorial forests in the global S cycle is discussed.

  13. Sex and age differences in the diet and ingestive behaviors of sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) in the Tai Forest, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    McGraw, W Scott; Vick, Anna E; Daegling, David J

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Cercocebus-Mandrillus clade are united by several morphological features, including expanded premolars which are argued to be associated with a preponderance of hard objects in the diet. We test the association between premolar expansion and hard object feeding by examining how different dental regions are used during food processing. We examined the diet and oral processing activities of sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) in the Ivory Coast's Tai forest from August 2008 to September 2009. In addition to compiling diet profiles, we recorded the frequency that individuals performed four activities: 1) incising, 2) canine puncturing/scraping, 3) postcanine crushing (i.e., isometric biting), and 4) routine mastication (chewing cycles). Sooty mangabeys have a relatively narrow diet that consists largely of nuts/seeds, fruits, and invertebrates. While there are age and sex differences in diet, the most frequently consumed foods are similar across age and sex classes. The most frequently consumed foods are seeds of Sacoglottis gabonensis which are the hardest items in the sooty mangabey diet. Patterns of ingestive behavior vary with food type, but adults and nonadults (excluding infants dependent on mothers) of both sexes process similar foods. Premolar expansion in Cercocebus atys is associated with powerful crushing of hard objects of specific size and durophagy is a constant feature of sooty mangabey feeding ecology throughout ontogeny.

  14. Genotyping for cytokine polymorphisms in a Northern Ivory Coast population reveals a high frequency of the heterozygote genotypes for the TNF-α-308G/A SNP.

    PubMed

    Santovito, A; Cervella, P; Schleicherova, D; Delpero, M

    2012-08-01

    Cytokine polymorphisms influence the outcomes of parasitic diseases and vary among populations because of their different evolutionary histories and selective pressures imposed by host-pathogen interactions. In this frame, we investigated the frequencies of TNF-α (-308G/A), TGF-β(1) (codon 10C/T, codon 25C/G) and IL-10 (-1082A/G) SNPs in 133 individuals from Ouangolodougou, a rural village in Northern Ivory Coast, where malaria and other parasitic diseases are endemic. The SNPs alleles were determined by ARMS-PCR methodology. Allele frequencies of the SNPs investigated were as follows: IL 10 -1082G = 0.741 and -1082A = 0.259; TGF-β(1) Codon 10 C = 0.835 and T = 0.165; TGF-β(1) Codon 25 G = 0.782 and C = 0.218. For the TNF-α gene, we found high frequencies of the -308A allele (0.305) and heterozygote genotypes (0.594), with a consequent deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The high heterozygosity at the TNF-α locus suggests a possible selective advantage of the heterozygote genomes, associated with intermediate levels of TNF-α expression, against the infectious agents endemic in Western Africa.

  15. Georgiaites: Tektites in Central Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albin, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Information is provided about the origin, the features, and the availability of tektites which are odd and very rare types of transparent glass theorized to be from a common, yet unknown, origin. The basis for this article is the Howard collection of tektites found in a small region of central Georgia. (seven references) (JJK)

  16. Tektite 2 habitability research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowlis, D. P.; Wortz, E. C.; Watters, H.

    1972-01-01

    Multi-level parameters relating to perceived life quality in an isolated research and residence quarters were measured using a variety of tests. The habitat under study, emplaced beneath the sea off the coast of St. John's Island as a part of the Tektite II program, was being used for marine research. The crew for each of the 10 missions consisted of one engineer and 4 scientists. One mission had an all-female crew. Mission length was either 14 or 20 days, and 4 engineers, in covering 6 missions, stayed in the habitat for periods of 30 days each. A personality test was taken before confinement in the habitat. Two attitude tests were filled out by the aquanauts while they were still in the habitat. Daily moods were monitored during all missions. Special observations were made of leisure time use. Standardized private debriefings were administered at the end of each mission to each aquanaut. Other behavioral observations made by another research team were intercorrelated with the other measures described above.

  17. [Observations on tsetse flies in a forest focus of human trypanosomiasis in Ivory Coast. 3. Dispersal and distribution of fly populations around a village (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gouteux, J P; Dongo, P; Coulibaly, D

    1982-06-01

    In the Vavoua human trypanosomiasis focus (forest zone of Ivory Coast) four tsetse fly catching series, of nine days each, were made during the rainy season using eighty five biconical traps. The dispersion of flies in the study area was studied by the mark-release-recapture method. Two series of two sets of capture-mark-release were carried out. In the first set flies were captured, marked and released in their point of origin and in the second set captured and marked in the village periphery but released in coffee plantations and vice versa. A total of 10198 tsetse flies were marked and released and 267 were recaptured. There was no difference between recapture rates of the different village or plantation released G. palpalis; this suggested that the same population was living in different biotops. Males and females from the periphery of the village behaved differently. Males dispersed evenly in contrast to females which remained in their original area. This difference in dispersion of the two sexes may be of epidmiological importance for human trypanosomiasis. Of interest was the discovery of a small community of peri-domestic G. pallicera during the periods March--April and May. The estimation of tsetse population by the Lincoln Index, is related to the dispersive power of the species concerned. When evaluated through the recapture rate this was found to be ten and seven times higher for G. pallicera and G. nigrofusca respectively, than for G. palpalis. This difference may be important in explaining the phenomenon of reinvasion and the little apparent effect of insecticidal control on the two former species.

  18. Petrography of some Belize Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. T.; Petruny, L. W.; Cornec, J. H.; Rochette, P.; Milham, D.

    2016-08-01

    Petrographic analysis of doubly polished thin sections of three Belize tektites in this study shows rare grains of lechatelierite and quartz, plus rare opaque grains. Numerous very small bubbles closely attend some impact-affected quartz grains.

  19. Comparison of the bacterial species diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out at selected farms in Ivory Coast and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Camu, Nicholas; Falony, Gwen; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-08-01

    To compare the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process carried out in different cocoa-producing regions, heap and box (one Ivorian farm) and box (two Brazilian farms) fermentations were carried out. All fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. In general, the temperature inside the fermenting mass increased throughout all fermentations and reached end-values of 42-48 °C. The main end-products of pulp carbohydrate catabolism were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. In the case of the fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm, the species diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) was restricted. Lactobacillus fermentum and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides were the predominant LAB species, due to their ethanol and acid tolerance and citrate consumption. The levels of mannitol, ascribed to growth of L. fermentum, were fermentation-dependent. Also, enterobacterial species, such as Erwinia soli and Pantoea sp., were among the predominating microbiota during the early stages of both heap and box fermentations in Ivory Coast, which could be responsible for gluconic acid production. Consumption of gluconic acid at the initial phases of the Ivorian fermentations could be due to yeast growth. A wider microbial species diversity throughout the fermentation process was seen in the case of the box fermentations on the selected Brazilian farms, which differed, amongst other factors, regarding pod/bean selection on these farms as compared to fermentations on the selected Ivorian farm. This microbiota included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus durianis, L. fermentum, Lactobacillus mali, Lactobacillus nagelii, L. pseudomesenteroides, and Pediococcus acidilactici, as well as Bacillus subtilis that was present at late fermentation, when the temperature inside the fermenting mass reached values higher than 50 °C. Moreover, AAB seemed to dominate the Brazilian box fermentations studied, explaining higher acetic

  20. Tektite ablation - Some confirming calculations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, J. A., III; Silver, A. D.; Cameron, W. S.; Adams , E. W.; Warmbrod, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The calculation of tektite ablation has been redone, taking into account transient effects, internal radiation, melting and nonequilibrium vaporization of the glass, and the drag effect of the flanges. It is found that the results confirm the earlier calculations of Chapman and his group and of Adams and his co-workers. The general trend of the results is not sensitive to reasonable changes of the physical parameters. The ablation is predominantly by melting rather than by vaporization at all velocities up to 11 km/sec; this is surprising in view of the lack of detectable melt flow in most tektites. Chemical effects have not been considered.

  1. [Resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to pyrethroids and DDT at Tiassalékro, an irrigated rice-growing village in the southern forest of Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Konan, K G; Koné, A B; Konan, Y L; Fofana, D; Konan, K L; Diallo, A; Ziogba, J C; Touré, M; Kouassi, K P; Doannio, J M C

    2011-10-01

    An assessment of the sensitivity of Anopheles gambiae s.l.to three pyrethroids (alphacypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin) and DDT has been carried out with a laboratory strain (Kisumu reference sensitive strain) and a wild strain (Tiassalékro strain) using larvae from an irrigated rice-growing area of Tiassalékro, located in the southern forest of Ivory Coast. The sensitivity tests were performed according to the standard WHO cylinder tests with adult female A. gambiae s.l. aged 2 to 4 days. The results showed that the strain of Tiassalékro is resistant to the three tested pyrethroids and DDT. The molecular forms M and S were identified, with a predominance of M form. The resistance mechanism involved is the Kdr mutation. In this region, control measures against malaria vectors by using bed nets impregnated with these insecticides or household sprays could be compromised.

  2. Submicroscopic spherules and color of tektites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.

    1964-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements of 18 tektites from various strewn fields have been made as a function of temperature from 77??K to room temperature. A relatively large temperature-independent component of the magnetic susceptibility was observed in all cases, and an analysis of the data shows that this component is the result of submicroscopic iron spherules in the tektites. An analysis of the color of tektites in terms of the magnetic measurements and also of the optical absorption spectra suggests that the basic color of all tektites is green or greenish-blue, and that the brown to black coloration in some tektites is due to finely dispersed Fe2O3 and/or many metallic spherules, both probably of colloidal size. ?? 1964.

  3. Tektites and their origin. [properties and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted of the literature pertaining to the origin and characteristics of tektites. Topics discussed include tektite distribution in geographical locations, shapes of tektites, internal structure of tektites, physical properties, mechanical properties, optical properties, chemical composition, and comparisons with compositions of impact materials. Various arguments are presented on the terrestrial origin of tektites. It was found that some lunar craters of considerable size must be the products of volcanism which occurred during the past few million years, and that the moon must have within it a reservoir of rock which is considerably more like the mantle of the earth than like the rocks from which the basalts of the lunar crust are derived.

  4. Fe-57 Moessbauer study of tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, B. J.; Leung, L. K.

    1976-01-01

    Moessbauer measurements were made on selected moldavite, australite, philippinite, and Georgia tektites. The spectra consist of two apparent lines, but at least two quadrupole doublets can be fitted to these spectra. The Moessbauer parameters for these doublets indicate that they arise from Fe2+ ions with local environments, which are relatively rich and relatively poor in calcium, respectively, similar to those in clinopyroxenes. No evidence for Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios above 0.01 (estimated detection limit) have been found in any tektite. Tektites are considerably more reduced than previously believed, and the extent of the reduction shows little or no variation among different types of tektites. These results limit the source materials of tektites to minerals in which the iron is uniformly highly reduced and in which the iron is contained clinopyroxene-like phases.

  5. An Ordinary Chondrite Impactor Composition for the Bosumtwi Impact Structure, Ghana, West Africa: Discussion of Siderophile Element Contents and Os and Cr Isotope Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Shukolyukov, Alex; Lugmair, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    Osmium isotope data had shown that Ivory Coast tektites contain an extraterrestrial component, but do not allow distinction between chondritic and iron meteorite contamination. PGE abundances of Ivory Coast tektites and impactites and target rocks from the Bosumtwi crater, the source crater of the Ivory Coast tektites, were all relatively high and did not allow to resolve the presence, or identify the nature, of the meteoritic component. However, Cr isotope analyses of an Ivory Coast tektite yielded a distinct 53Cr excess of 0.30+/-0.06, which indicates that the Bosumtwi impactor was an ordinary chondrite.

  6. Chemical systematics among the moldavite tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.; Lindsley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The compositional variations that occur among the moldavite tektites are caused principally by incomplete mixing of two components during fusion. With the possible exception of silica, there is no evidence for significant losses of volatile species by fractional vaporization. Chemical constraints have been calculated for the two source-materials that contributed to the moldavites. If these tektites were formed by impact fusion, as is commonly believed, then the compositional systematics preserved within the moldavites suggest that hypersonic flow and ejection of impact melts are orderly processes. Insights gained from the study of tektites should prove useful in interpreting the chemistries of impact glasses from other bodies in the solar system.

  7. Multicentre study evaluating the non-inferiority of the new paediatric formulation of artesunate/amodiaquine versus artemether/lumefantrine for the management of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in Cameroon, Ivory Coast and Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This multicentre study was carried out in Cameroon, Ivory Coast and Senegal to evaluate the non-inferiority of the new paediatric formulation of artesunate/amodiaquine (AS+AQ)(Camoquin-Plus Paediatric®) in suspension form versus artemether/lumefantrine (AL)(Coartem®) in the management of African children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Methods It was an open randomized trial including children aged between 7 months and 7 years. The endpoints were Adequate Clinical and Parasitological Response (ACPR) at day 28, the clinical and biological tolerability. Statistical analyses were done in Intention To Treat (ITT) and in Per protocol (PP). Results At the end of the study 481 patients were enrolled in the three countries (249 in the AS+AQ arm and 232 in the AL arm). ACRP in ITT after PCR correction did not show any statistical difference between the two groups with 97.6% for AS+AQ versus 94.8% for AL. In the PP analysis, the corrected ACRP were respectively 98.7% and 96.9% for the two regimens. The clinical tolerance was good without significant difference. Anaemia was significantly higher at D7 in the two groups compared to D0. Conclusion This study demonstrates the non-inferiority of AS+AQ versus AL, its efficacy and tolerance in the management of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in African children. PMID:23270636

  8. Search for carbon 14 in tektites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeckl, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt was made to detect cosmic-ray produced C-14 in australites and far-east tektites. No C-14 activity was found outside of statistical fluctuations. If a terrestrial age of 10 thousand years is assumed for australites, a maximum cosmic-ray exposure time of one thousand years is obtained for these tektites on the basis of a 2-sigma statistical error.

  9. Study of the ablative effects on tektite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, K. K.

    1975-01-01

    The tumbling and surface roughness effects on the trajectory of entry tektite are studied in both free molecular and continuum flows. It was concluded that, while surface roughness has negligible effect on trajectory, the tumbling may play an important role in tektite trajectory and the consequent ablation, provided the body shape is different from a sphere. A shape factor was a good parameter for correlations between body shape and tumbling effects.

  10. Isotopic fractionation of Cu in tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynier, Frederic; Koeberl, Christian; Beck, Pierre; Jourdan, Fred; Telouk, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Tektites are terrestrial natural glasses of up to a few centimeters in size that were produced during hypervelocity impacts on the Earth's surface. It is well established that the chemical and isotopic composition of tektites is generally identical to that of the upper terrestrial continental crust. Tektites typically have very low water content, which has generally been explained by volatilization at high temperature; however, the exact mechanism is still debated. Because volatilization can fractionate isotopes, comparing the isotopic composition of volatile elements in tektites with those of their source rocks may help to understand the physical conditions during tektite formation. Interestingly, volatile chalcophile elements (e.g., Cd and Zn) seem to be the only elements for which isotopic fractionation is known so far in tektites. Here, we extend this study to Cu, another volatile chalcophile element. We have measured the Cu isotopic composition for 20 tektite samples from the four known different strewn fields. All of the tektites (except the Muong Nong-types) are enriched in the heavy isotopes of Cu (1.98 < δ 65Cu < 6.99) in comparison to the terrestrial crust (δ 65Cu ≈ 0) with no clear distinction between the different groups. The Muong Nong-type tektites and a Libyan Desert Glass sample are not fractionated (δ 65Cu ≈ 0) in comparison to the terrestrial crust. To refine the Cu isotopic composition of the terrestrial crust, we also present data for three geological reference materials (δ 65Cu ≈ 0). An increase of δ 65Cu with decreasing Cu abundance probably reflects that the isotopic fractionation occurred by evaporation during heating. A simple Rayleigh distillation cannot explain the Cu isotopic data and we suggest that the isotopic fractionation is governed by a diffusion-limited regime. Copper is isotopically more fractionated than the more volatile element Zn (δ 66/64Zn up to 2.49‰). This difference of behavior between Cu and Zn is

  11. The oxidation state of iron in tektite glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fudali, R. F.; Dyar, M. Darby; Griscom, David L.; Schreiber, Henry D.

    1987-01-01

    The reported extremes in Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratios of tektites are evaluated and alternative methods of analysis (wet chemical and instrumental) are explored. It is believed that most if not all Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratios in tektites fall within the 0.02-0.12 range. The findings suggest that tektites are not of lunar volcanic origin and that special formation conditions specific to Muong Nong tektites need not be postulated.

  12. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline) on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Konan, Y L; Sylla, M S; Doannio, J M; Traoré, S

    2003-06-01

    Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades) of Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) and Carapa procera (gobi) were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 +/- 37.0 mn and 74.6 +/- 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti) are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 +/- 30.0 mn and 60.8 +/- 33.9 mn). On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8% and 35.9% for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7% and 47.4% against An. gambiae). Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less) than the vaseline's.

  13. Age of the Australasian Tektite Strewn Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izokh, E. P.

    1993-07-01

    As Fig. 1 shows, the widespread belief that the age of the Australasian tektite strewn field (AATSF) is ~0.7 m.y. appeared to be conventional. Tektites of different fission-track ages were found within the AATSF: 0.83 m.y. [1], 3.54-4.25 m.y. [2], and ~11 m.y. [3]. The first systematic investigation of the tektites, which were collected from a single stratigraphic layer in Vietnam, revealed three statistically discrete tektite age groups: 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 m.y. [4]. Similar tektites 0.75 m.y. and 1.1 m.y. in age are typical of the Zhamanshin impact crater, which represents an eminent part of the AATSF [5]. Fig. 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows radiogenic dating: 1-2: AATSF; 3-4: Zhamanshin; 1,3: data with known annealing correction. Compiled after Zahringer, 1963; Fleischer and Price, 1964; Gentner et al., 1969; McDougal and Lovering, 1969; Fleischer et al., 1969; Storzer and Wagner, 1979, 1980; Watanabe et al., 1985; Virk, 1985; Shukolukov et al., 1986; Kashkarov et al, 1986, 1987; Kolesnikov et al., 1987; Storzer and Muller-Sonhius, 1986; Arakelyants et al., 1988; etc. The very young geological age of the AATSF was established in Australia, and was confirmed by the author in Vietnam and in the Zhamanshin impact crater. This well-known tektite age paradox strongly supports an extraterrestrial origin of tektites. The paradox is fatal to the currently dominating Earth- impact theory of tektite origin, and we are not surprised that there are no continued attempts to either silence or disavow its significance. As a matter of fact, the formation of the gigantic AATSF can be considered as the main reason for the abrupt catastrophic climatic global changes and mass extinction of species on the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary 10,000 years ago [5,6]. The age-paradox scope dictates that tektites have been periodically formed and accumulated somewhere on an as-yet-unknown planetary body and then delivered to the Earth. The extraterrestrial volcanic eruptions seem

  14. Découverte d'un diatrème de kimberlite diamantifère à Séguéla en Côte-d'IvoireDiscovery of a diamond-bearing kimberlite diatreme at Séguéla in Ivory Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouclet, André; Allialy, Marc; Daouda-Yao, Bertin; Esso, Botty

    2004-01-01

    The Séguéla area in Ivory Coast is known for its diamond-bearing field related to dykes of kimberlite and lamproite. These dykes, devoid of any deformation and metamorphism, crosscut the Birimian formations. Their N 170° orientation is controlled by the tectonized contact between the Archean and the Paleoproterozoic shields of the West-African craton. Discovery of a diatreme, with its pipe breccias and well-preserved maar sediments, below the present-day colluvia, attests for the probable recent geological age (Cretaceous?) of the kimberlitic activity. To cite this article: A. Pouclet et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  15. The Ivory Tower Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chantler, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The corollary of the concept of the "ivory tower", as reflected in the writings of Plato and Newman amongst others, was, paradoxically, the vital importance of the university for wider society. Nevertheless from the mid-twentieth century, the esteem in which a "liberal" university education was held was diminished by rising…

  16. Mechanism of Muong Nong-type tektite formation and speculation on the source of Australasian tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    The source crater of the youngest and largest of the tektite strewnfields, the Australasian strewnfield, has not been located. A number of lines of evidence indicate that the Muong Nong-type tektites, primarily found in Indochina, are more primitive than the much more abundant and widespread splash-form tektites, and are proximal to the source. In this study the spatial distribution of Muong Nong-type tektite sites and chemical character have been used to indicate the approximate location of the source. The variation of Muong Nong-type tektite chemical composition appears to be caused by mixing of two silicate rock end-members and a small amount of limestone, and not by vapor fractionation. The variation in composition is not random, and does not support in situ melting or multiple impact theories. The distribution of both Muong Nong and splash-form tektite sites suggest the source is in a limited area near the southern part of the Thailand-Laos border.

  17. Structure of ivory.

    PubMed

    Locke, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Profiles with all orientations have been used to visualize the 3D structure of ivory from tusks of elephant, mammoth, walrus, hippopotamus, pig (bush, boar, and warthog), sperm whale, killer whale, and narwhal. Polished, forming, fractured, aged, and stained surfaces were prepared for microscopy using epi-illumination. Tusks have a minor peripheral component, the cementum, a soft derivative of the enamel layer, and a main core of dentine=ivory. The dentine is composed of a matrix of particles 5-20 microm in diameter in a ground substance containing dentinal tubules about 5 microm in diameter with a center to center spacing of 10-20 microm. Dentinal tubules may be straight (most) or curly (pigs). The main findings relate to the way that dentinal tubules align in sheets to form microlaminae in the length of the tusk. Microlaminae are sheets of laterally aligned dentinal tubules. They are axial but may be radial (most), angled to the forming face (pigs and hippopotamus canines), or radial but helical (narwhals). Within the microlaminae the dentinal tubules may be radial, angled to the axis (whales, walrus, and pigs), or may change their orientation from one microlamina to the next in helicoids (canines of hippopotamuses, incisors of proboscidea). In the nonbanded, featureless ivories from the hippopotamus incisors, the dentinal tubules form radial microlamina from which the arrangements in other ivories can be derived. In the canines of hippopotamuses and incisors of proboscidea, the dentinal tubule orientation changes incrementally from one microlamina to the next in a helicoid, a stack of dentinal tubules that change their orientation by 180 degrees anticlockwise. Dentinal tubules having different orientations are laid down concurrently, not layer by layer as in most examples of helicoidal architecture (e.g., insect cuticle). In proboscidean ivory, the microlaminae are radial, normal to the banding of growth layers marking the plane of deposition. They form radial

  18. Structure of ivory.

    PubMed

    Locke, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Profiles with all orientations have been used to visualize the 3D structure of ivory from tusks of elephant, mammoth, walrus, hippopotamus, pig (bush, boar, and warthog), sperm whale, killer whale, and narwhal. Polished, forming, fractured, aged, and stained surfaces were prepared for microscopy using epi-illumination. Tusks have a minor peripheral component, the cementum, a soft derivative of the enamel layer, and a main core of dentine=ivory. The dentine is composed of a matrix of particles 5-20 microm in diameter in a ground substance containing dentinal tubules about 5 microm in diameter with a center to center spacing of 10-20 microm. Dentinal tubules may be straight (most) or curly (pigs). The main findings relate to the way that dentinal tubules align in sheets to form microlaminae in the length of the tusk. Microlaminae are sheets of laterally aligned dentinal tubules. They are axial but may be radial (most), angled to the forming face (pigs and hippopotamus canines), or radial but helical (narwhals). Within the microlaminae the dentinal tubules may be radial, angled to the axis (whales, walrus, and pigs), or may change their orientation from one microlamina to the next in helicoids (canines of hippopotamuses, incisors of proboscidea). In the nonbanded, featureless ivories from the hippopotamus incisors, the dentinal tubules form radial microlamina from which the arrangements in other ivories can be derived. In the canines of hippopotamuses and incisors of proboscidea, the dentinal tubule orientation changes incrementally from one microlamina to the next in a helicoid, a stack of dentinal tubules that change their orientation by 180 degrees anticlockwise. Dentinal tubules having different orientations are laid down concurrently, not layer by layer as in most examples of helicoidal architecture (e.g., insect cuticle). In proboscidean ivory, the microlaminae are radial, normal to the banding of growth layers marking the plane of deposition. They form radial

  19. Ivory vertebra and systemic mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Laurent; Suarez, Felipe; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Hermine, Olivier

    2012-05-01

    The ivory vertebra sign seen on a standard radiograph of the spine should prompt investigations for a cause, which is most likely to be a bone metastasis, a lymphoma, or Paget's disease of bone. A diagnosis of idiopathic ivory vertebra can be given if no cause is identified. We report an unusual case of ivory vertebra sign that was due to systemic mastocytosis and improved with specific treatment. Although osteoporosis is the most common bone abnormality in systemic mastocytosis, an isolated sclerotic or lytic lesion may be found. The ivory vertebra sign should not be considered idiopathic until tests are done for mastocytosis, particularly given the availability of effective treatments.

  20. Study of the ablative effects on tektites: Atmosphere entry of a swarm of tektites. [shielding by hypersonic wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepri, P.; Chen, K. K.

    1977-01-01

    The large variety of ablation markings observed on recovered tektites lead to the previously proposed swarm wake model which states that the lead peripheral tektites bore the blunt of aerodynamic heating upon entry, and that the bulk of tektites in the wake enjoyed partial shielding at the expense of the leaders. Further considerations are presented in support of this model. Quantitative assessments indicate that wake shielding might indeed have provided for substantially less heating than would have been experienced by a tektite entering an undisturbed atmosphere along a similar trajectory. For the case of strong wake shielding it is even possible that the surface temperature of a falling tektite had barely reached its melting point. In the distribution of tektites, there is a size band (near R = 0.5 cm) which is least susceptible to melting.

  1. Exploration of tektite formation processes through water and metal content measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Nigel; Bouchet, Romain A.; Lee, Cin-Ty A.

    2011-07-01

    Impact events are a significant surface-modifying process on solar system objects lacking frequent resurfacing by atmospheric or igneous processes. To better explore the effects of impacts on surface materials, we measured the water and trace element compositions of tektites from Da Lat, Vietnam. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for water measurements and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used for trace element measurements. Consistent with previous investigations of tektites, we found that the samples are depleted in volatile metals (e.g., Zn, Pb) as well as in water compared with the average continental crust, although water contents are still extremely high for rocks melted at atmospheric pressure. While Zn and Pb concentrations are linearly correlated with each other, there is no correlation between H2O and Zn or Pb contents. Combined with water contents of other tektites in the Australasian strewn field, our results demonstrate that the source impact occurred at a wet site in or off the coast of the Indochina peninsula.

  2. Volatile fractionation and tektite source material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Louis S.

    1989-01-01

    The arguments used by Love and Woronow (1988) to assess the role played in the origin of bediasites by extensive volatile fractionation are critically examined. Using the ratios of 'refractory' oxides, CaO, Al2O3, and MgO, to the 'volatile' oxides, Na2O and K2O, these authors concluded that vapor fractionation did not play a significant role. In this paper, experimental evidence is presented that shows that the assumption of volatility for the alkali elements (as least with respect to silica) to be not valid under the conditions under which tektites formed. It is shown that the results of vapor fractionation in experiments on glasses of tektite composition are approximately parallel the trends seen in bediasite analysis.

  3. Tektites - Volcanic ejecta from the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. S.; Lowrey, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility is considered that tektites are lunar volcanic ejecta, and lunar regions are examined from which tektites could be ejected with the necessary velocities and trajectories to reach the earth. The examined regions include areas around the Lunar Transient Phenomena sites near Censorinus, Messier, Messier A, and Taruntius, the area of Mare Foecunditatis near Secchi X, areas near Cauchy and Capella, and the eastern part of Mare Tranquillitatis. Evidence of acidic volcanic activity in these regions is described in detail, including possible calderas, mudflows, and endogenous domes. It is suggested that the moon is still gently degassing and that more violent eruptions of material may still occur on rare occasions. Remotely-sensed evidence of recent lunar internal activity is noted.

  4. Origin of tektites: an alternative to terrestrial impact theory.

    PubMed

    Izokh, E P

    1996-01-01

    The Terrestrial Impact Theory (TIT) has won a complete victory over O'Keefe's lunar volcanic theory, but only because the Moon appears to be the wrong place for tektites. Indeed, the TIT ignores strong evidence of their volcanic origin--far from the Moon. The Extraterrestrial Volcanic Comet Theory proposes an alternative to both of these theories. Major arguments for an extraterrestrial tektite source are paradoxical: a great time difference between tektite formation and their arrival on Earth, and also forms, plastic deformations, ice collision marks, vacuum voids, etc. indicating specific conditions of tektite formation such as low gravitational field, lack of atmosphere, interaction of hot plastic tektites with ice, etc. Major evidence of volcanic origin includes: close analogy between shaped tektites and small volcanic bombs, and between layered tektites and lava or tuff-lava flows or huge bombs; analogy between flanged tektites and volcanic bombs ablated by gasjets: long-time, multistage formation of some tektites that corresponds to wide variations in their radiometric ages; well-ordered long compositional trends (series) typical of magmatic differentiation; different compositional tektite families (subseries) comparable to different stages (phases) of the volcanic process. Thus, different types of volcanic eruptions under extraterrestrial conditions could be reconstructed based on tektite properties. It is presumed that tektites were transported to the Earth by specific eruptive comets, i.e. in the form of ice-tektite agglomerates launched into space by volcanic explosion. Major arguments favouring comets include: ice collision marks and imprints as mentioned above; linear band-like sculpture of the Australasian strewn field as evidence of comet fragmentation and slope or skipping trajectory of separate fragments; compact coincidence of the Zhamanshin impact crater with small tektite strewn field as evidence of steep trajectory of separate comet fragments

  5. Origin of tektites: an alternative to terrestrial impact theory.

    PubMed

    Izokh, E P

    1996-01-01

    The Terrestrial Impact Theory (TIT) has won a complete victory over O'Keefe's lunar volcanic theory, but only because the Moon appears to be the wrong place for tektites. Indeed, the TIT ignores strong evidence of their volcanic origin--far from the Moon. The Extraterrestrial Volcanic Comet Theory proposes an alternative to both of these theories. Major arguments for an extraterrestrial tektite source are paradoxical: a great time difference between tektite formation and their arrival on Earth, and also forms, plastic deformations, ice collision marks, vacuum voids, etc. indicating specific conditions of tektite formation such as low gravitational field, lack of atmosphere, interaction of hot plastic tektites with ice, etc. Major evidence of volcanic origin includes: close analogy between shaped tektites and small volcanic bombs, and between layered tektites and lava or tuff-lava flows or huge bombs; analogy between flanged tektites and volcanic bombs ablated by gasjets: long-time, multistage formation of some tektites that corresponds to wide variations in their radiometric ages; well-ordered long compositional trends (series) typical of magmatic differentiation; different compositional tektite families (subseries) comparable to different stages (phases) of the volcanic process. Thus, different types of volcanic eruptions under extraterrestrial conditions could be reconstructed based on tektite properties. It is presumed that tektites were transported to the Earth by specific eruptive comets, i.e. in the form of ice-tektite agglomerates launched into space by volcanic explosion. Major arguments favouring comets include: ice collision marks and imprints as mentioned above; linear band-like sculpture of the Australasian strewn field as evidence of comet fragmentation and slope or skipping trajectory of separate fragments; compact coincidence of the Zhamanshin impact crater with small tektite strewn field as evidence of steep trajectory of separate comet fragments

  6. Oxygen Isotope Constraints on the Origin of Georgia Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F.

    1997-07-01

    Georgia tektites ("georgiaites") are North American tektites that occur in east-central Georgia. In this investigation small chips of tektite material was separated from 24 individual specimens for oxygen isotope analysis. Results have an analytical precision of 0.2% based on duplicate analysis of a NIST silicate standard (NBS-28) and tektites. Oxygen isotope ratios (i.e., delta (18) O - SMOW) range from + 6.9 to + 10.7 parts per mil. The mean delta (18) O for Georgia tektites is + 9.1 parts per mil. These results are consistent with a delta (18) O value reported previously on a single georgiaite [1]. It appears that the tektites have oxygen isotope ratios similar to igneous and/or metamorphic rocks. Blum and Chamberlain [2] argue that since sea water has a relatively low delta (18) O value, its addition to isotopically heavier sedimentary rocks could account for the relatively low oxygen isotope ratios determined for the tektites. Such a model would require vaporization of the target material in order to exchange oxygen between the water and silicates. However, vaporization is not a popular theory of tektite petrogenesis, and since tektites contain very little water, it is difficult to reconcile the low delta (18) O values due to mixing with sea water. An alternative explanation may be that the low delta (18) O values are derived from a crystalline basement or it may be that the sedimentary target rocks at the proposed source crater (i.e., Chesapeake Bay crater) have delta (18) O values similar to that of the tektites. To resolve the issue, it will be necessary to melt samples of the proposed target material and make delta (18) O measurements on the resulting glass and then compare the results to the tektites. References: [1] Taylor, H.P. and Epstein, S. (1969) J. Geophys. Res., 74, 6834-6844. [2] Blum J.D. and Chamberlain C.D. (1992) Science, 257, 1104-1107.

  7. A 10.8-kg layered (Muong-Nong-type) tektite from Wenchang, Hainan, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Futrell, Darryl S.; Wasson, John T.

    1993-01-01

    A 10.79-kg layered tektite from Hainan is the largest tektite from China, and the fifth largest reported to date. It, together with a 1.9-kg Hainan tektite described by Yuan (1981), greatly extends the area of the Australasian field within which layered tektites having masses greater than 1 kg have been found.

  8. Field Evaluation of a Combination of Monospecific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Type-Specific Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 Infections in HIV-Seropositive Persons in Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    PubMed Central

    Nkengasong, John N.; Maurice, Chantal; Koblavi, Stéphania; Kalou, Mireille; Bile, Celestin; Yavo, Daniel; Boateng, Emmanuel; Wiktor, Stefan Z.; Greenberg, Alan E.

    1998-01-01

    Serologic distinction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 infection is made difficult because of the cross-reactivity and high cost of existing differentiation assays. An evaluation of a strategy based on a combination of monospecific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (CME), was carried out in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, where both HIV-1 and HIV-2 are present, to determine its accuracy and cost-effectiveness. A total of 1,608 (428 HIV-1-positive, 361 HIV-2-positive, 371 dually HIV-1 and HIV-2 [HIV-D] reactive, and 448 HIV-negative) sera that had been serotyped by a line immunoassay (Peptilav) were tested retrospectively by an HIV-1-monospecific (Wellcozyme HIV Recombinant ELISA) and an HIV-2-monospecific (ICE*-HIV-2) assay. The CME strategy gave concordant results for all of the 428 sera scored as HIV-1 by Peptilav. Of the 361 sera scored as HIV-2 by Peptilav, 316 (87.5%) were scored as HIV-2 by CME; the remaining 45 sera were positive by both monospecific ELISAs (mean optical density ratios, 1.36 for Wellcozyme and 11.30 for ICE*-HIV-2) and were classified as HIV-D by CME. Of the 371 sera classified as HIV-D by Peptilav, 344 (92.7%), 21, and 6 were scored as HIV-D, HIV-1, and HIV-2, respectively, by CME. Additional testing of the discrepant samples by two HIV differentiation assays (RIBA and INNO-LIA) gave results that agreed with those by CME for most of the sera. In addition, 267 other sera were tested prospectively by both CME and Peptilav. In the prospective evaluation, CME results agreed with those by Peptilav for all 106 HIV-1 sera and 40 of the 41 HIV-2 sera. However, of the 120 sera scored as HIV-D by Peptilav, 69 (57.5%), 47 (39.2%), and 4 (3.3%) were scored as HIV-D, HIV-1 only, and HIV-2 only, respectively, by CME. All 47 samples scored as HIV-1 by CME and two of four HIV-2 sera gave concordant results by RIBA, whereas 29 of 47 sera scored as HIV-1 by CME and all four HIV-2 sera gave concordant results by INNO-LIA. The

  9. Field recovery of layered tektites in northeast Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, J.T.; Pitakpaivan, K.; Putthapiban, P.

    1995-07-25

    The authors recovered Australasian tektites in place throughout a 40 X 130 km region in northeast Thailand extending from the Laotian border westward to a line connecting Na Pho Klang in the northeast through Det Udom to Nam Yun in the south. With two exceptions, in sites near the western edge of this region, all fragments are layered (muong-Nong-type) tektites. It appears that large layered tektites are mainly found by rice farmers in fields that were forested until the recent past. The presence of layered tektites in this 40 X 130 km area implies that impact melt that fell in these areas was hot enough to flow if it was deposited on a sloping surface. The absence of splash-form tektites from the region indicates that the layer was still molten when masses having shapes (teardrops, dumbbells, etc.) produced by spinning reached the ground. To account for this and to allow time for the melt to flow a few tens of centimeters requires that the atmosphere remained hot (>2300 K) for a few minutes. Tektites that are in place are almost always associated with a widespread 10-cm to meter-thick layer of laterite. In two cases (one involving layered, one involving splash-form tektites), where accurate stratigraphic control demonstrated that the tektites were still in section, they were sited on top of the laterite layer just below a layer of aeolian sand. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. A laboratory model for splash-form tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins Tanton, L. T.; Aussillous, P.; Bico, J.; Quéré, D.; Bush, J. W. M.

    2003-04-01

    We assume that tektites are produced by terrestrial impacts, either directly from the splashing of shock melt, or possibly as condensates from the impact vapor cloud. In either case, the final product is a fluid drop falling through air, and this physical system is our subject of focus. We interpret and extend the dynamics and stability of spinning, translating fluid drops to make inferences concerning the dynamic history of tektites. Drop shape is uniquely prescribed by normal force balance at the tektite surface. The shapes of drops progress with change in the non-dimensional group Bo, called the Bond number, which is a ratio of density, angular speed, and drop radius to surface tension. As Bond number increases, the tektite shape progresses from a sphere to a dumbbell or an oblate ellipsoid, and then to a biconcave shape. A laboratory model for tektites is developed that consists of rolling or tumbling molten metallic drops either in a cylindrical drum or down a ramp into air or a quench bath. The model reproduces all of the known forms of splash-form tektites, including spheres, oblate ellipsoids, dumbbells, teardrops and tori. The laboratory also highlights important differences between rolling drops and drops tumbling while in flight; for example, toroidal drops are much more stable when rolling. We conclude that molten tektites can exist as equilibrium bodies of revolution only up to 3 mm, based on an analysis of capillary length. Smaller drops are the product of break-up at greater than terminal velocity. Larger tektites are necessarily non-equilibrium forms. This underscores the importance of cooling and quenching in flight, since many tektites greatly exceed the maximum sizes anticipated based on any reasonable relative flight speed estimate, suggesting that their break-up time greatly exceeded their cooling time. This is supported by the large fraction of tektites that show a high-viscosity crust that evidently cracked while in flight.

  11. Tektite-like bodies at Lonar Crater, India - Implications for the origin of tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murali, A. V.; Zolensky, M. E.; Blanchard, D. P.

    1987-01-01

    Homogeneous dense glass bodies (both irregular and splash form) with high silica contents (about 67 pct SiO2) occur in the vicinity of Lonar Crater, India. Their lack of microlites and mineral remnants and their uniform chemical composition virtually preclude a volcanic origin. They are similar to tektites reported in the literature. While such a close association of tektite-like bodies with impact craters is already known (Aouelloul Crater, Mauritania; Zhamanshin Crater, U.S.S.R.), the tektite-like bodies at Lonar Crater are unique in that they occur in an essentially basaltic terrain. Present geochemical data are consistent with these high silica glass bodies being impact melt products of two-thirds basalt and one-third local intertrappean sediment (chert). The tektite-like bodies of the impact craters Lonar, Zhamanshin, and Aouelloul are generally similar. Strong terrestrial geochemical signatures reflect the target rock REE patterns and abundance ratios and demonstrate their terrestrial origin resulting from meteorite impact, as has been suggested by earlier workers.

  12. A New Tektite Discovery in the Guangdong Province, China, and the Search for the Source Crater of the Australasian Tektite Strewn Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, T.; Maier, R. V.; Sturm, S.; Zhu, Meng-Hua.

    2014-09-01

    A new tektite location in South China is presented that belongs to the Australasian tektite strewnfield. We also investigated a 30 km circular structure in the Guangdong and Guangxi Province that might be related to the Australasian impact event.

  13. Viscous flow and crystallization behavior of tektite glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, L. C.; Yinnon, H.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The variation of viscosity with temperature was determined in the 200-2000 K range for a Muong Nong tektite material. The viscosity at the liquidus temperature of 1320 C is 20,000 P; treatments between 900 and 1300 C do not result in significant crystallization in the natural sample except when the sample is heated in contact with a synthetic tektite composition. Two synthetic microtektite with lower SiO2 contents than the Muong Nong material were also examined; heat flow calculations were performed for 2.5 to 10 cm spheres of tektite when cooling by radiation.

  14. 3-D laser images of splash-form tektites and their use in aerodynamic numerical simulations of tektite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, C.; Butler, S.; Fry, C.; McCausland, P. J. A.; Herd, R. K.; Sharomi, O.; Spiteri, R. J.; Ralchenko, M.

    2014-05-01

    Ten splash-form tektites from the Australasian strewn field, with masses ranging from 21.20 to 175.00 g and exhibiting a variety of shapes (teardrop, ellipsoid, dumbbell, disk), have been imaged using a high-resolution laser digitizer. Despite challenges due to the samples' rounded shapes and pitted surfaces, the images were combined to create 3-D tektite models, which captured surface features with a high fidelity (≈30 voxel mm-2) and from which volume could be measured noninvasively. The laser-derived density for the tektites averaged 2.41 ± 0.11 g cm-3. Corresponding densities obtained via the Archimedean bead method averaged 2.36 ± 0.05 g cm-3. In addition to their curational value, the 3-D models can be used to calculate the tektites' moments of inertia and rotation periods while in flight, as a probe of their formation environment. Typical tektite rotation periods are estimated to be on the order of 1 s. Numerical simulations of air flow around the models at Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 to 106 suggest that the relative velocity of the tektites with respect to the air must have been <10 m s-1 during viscous deformation. This low relative velocity is consistent with tektite material being carried along by expanding gases in the early time following the impact.

  15. [The spectrum characteristic analysis of mammoth ivory].

    PubMed

    Yin, Zuo-wei; Luo, Qin-feng; Zheng, Chen; Bao, De-qing; Li, Xiao-lu; Li, Yu-ling; Chen, Quan-li

    2013-09-01

    Due to the similarities between mammoth ivory ornaments and modern elephant ivory ones in the market, the spectral properties of the two kinds of ivories were analyzed and compared in the present paper through the gemological tests, infrared spectrum and X-ray powder diffraction, etc. The research found that the refractive index and specific gravity of the two ivories are very similar. The refractive index of mammoth ivory is 1.52-1.53 whereas that of elephant ivory is 1.54-1.55. The specific gravity of mammoth ivory is 1.77 and that of elephant ivory is 1.72. It should be careful that Schreger angles are used to distinguish the two kinds of ivories, because the angles of inner and middle layers in the two kinds of tusks are similar except the angles of elephant tusk out-layers are larger than those of mammoth (The Schreger angle of the sample mammoth ivory belonging to out-layer tusks is 100 degrees nd that of elephant ivory is 115 degrees). In addition, the out-layer Schreger angles of Asian elephants are normally less than 120 degrees, while those of Africa elephants are bigger than 120 degrees (This can be used to identify Asian and Africa elephant ivories). The infrared spectroscopy test shows that the water-molecule-related absorption peaks of 3319, 1642 and 1557 cm(-1) are more obvious in the modern elephant ivory samples than in the mammoth ivory samples; the collagen-related absorption peaks of 2927and 2855 cm(-1) are obvious in the modern elephant ivory but extremely weak in the mammoth ivory. The results indicate that collagen and crystallized water in mammoth ivory reduced to a very low level after having been buried for a long period. X-ray powder diffraction results show that the diffraction peak splits of mammoth ivories are more obvious and sharp than that of elephant ivories, which means hydroxyapatites crystallized better despite being buried for thousands of years. Hence, it is an important reference for identifying the two kinds of ivories that

  16. [The spectrum characteristic analysis of mammoth ivory].

    PubMed

    Yin, Zuo-wei; Luo, Qin-feng; Zheng, Chen; Bao, De-qing; Li, Xiao-lu; Li, Yu-ling; Chen, Quan-li

    2013-09-01

    Due to the similarities between mammoth ivory ornaments and modern elephant ivory ones in the market, the spectral properties of the two kinds of ivories were analyzed and compared in the present paper through the gemological tests, infrared spectrum and X-ray powder diffraction, etc. The research found that the refractive index and specific gravity of the two ivories are very similar. The refractive index of mammoth ivory is 1.52-1.53 whereas that of elephant ivory is 1.54-1.55. The specific gravity of mammoth ivory is 1.77 and that of elephant ivory is 1.72. It should be careful that Schreger angles are used to distinguish the two kinds of ivories, because the angles of inner and middle layers in the two kinds of tusks are similar except the angles of elephant tusk out-layers are larger than those of mammoth (The Schreger angle of the sample mammoth ivory belonging to out-layer tusks is 100 degrees nd that of elephant ivory is 115 degrees). In addition, the out-layer Schreger angles of Asian elephants are normally less than 120 degrees, while those of Africa elephants are bigger than 120 degrees (This can be used to identify Asian and Africa elephant ivories). The infrared spectroscopy test shows that the water-molecule-related absorption peaks of 3319, 1642 and 1557 cm(-1) are more obvious in the modern elephant ivory samples than in the mammoth ivory samples; the collagen-related absorption peaks of 2927and 2855 cm(-1) are obvious in the modern elephant ivory but extremely weak in the mammoth ivory. The results indicate that collagen and crystallized water in mammoth ivory reduced to a very low level after having been buried for a long period. X-ray powder diffraction results show that the diffraction peak splits of mammoth ivories are more obvious and sharp than that of elephant ivories, which means hydroxyapatites crystallized better despite being buried for thousands of years. Hence, it is an important reference for identifying the two kinds of ivories that

  17. The problem of the origin of tektites from Zhamanshin astrobleme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takhauov, Artur; Anoshin, Dmitriy; Plotnikova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Tektites (from Greek. Tektós - molten, melted) - are natural glassy formations of yellow, green, but mostly black color, completely fused, that may have different shape and size. According to their composition tektites are high-silicon (acidic) glasses. The content of SiO may reach 88,5%, AlO - 20,5%, FeO - 11,5%, and CaO - 8,5%. The presence of Ni and relatively low content of water in comparison with other glasses (only 0.02%, which is 10 times less than in the volcanic glass) is of particular importance. The name to tektites was given by Austrian geologist E. Suess (1900). Tektites are often denominated according to their location: irgizites and zhamanshinites (river Irgiz and Zhamanshin hole in Kazakhstan), moldavites [river Moldava (modern Vltava, Czech Republic)] filippinites (Philippines), idoshinites (Indo-china), avstralites (Australia), etc. There is still no generally accepted hypothesis about the origin of tektites: some consider them to be a part of meteorites, others suggest that tektites are the result of the explosion and melting of terrestrial matter that happens when meteorites, asteroids or comets fall down on Earth. The aim of the present work is to conduct analytic studies of tektites from Zhamanshin crater. We examined 50 samples that are part of the collection from the Zhamanshin crater gathered in 1979 by I.N. Plotnikova during her student field expedition led by P.V. Florenskiy. For the convenience of the research of tektites during its early stages the authors compiled a morphological classification of the given samples. On the basis of the visual inspection by the help of a magnifying glass we distinguished the following groups of tektites, which are characterized by certain morphological features: 1. Porous (cavernous), black, isometric shape 2. Porous (cavernous), yellowish-brown, isometric shape 3. Elongated, torose 4. Elongated, with glassy luster 5. Elongated, twisted 6. worm-shaped 7. Vitreous, glassy 8. Deformated The vast

  18. Jetting and the origin of tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickery, A. M.

    1991-01-01

    The scientific consensus is that tektites were produced by impacts on the Earth, but the exact mechanism by impacts might form tektites is still unclear. The most widely cited mechanism is jetting, which results from the extremely high pressures generated at the intersection of two bodies whose surfaces converge obliquely at high speed. Theory of jetting for thin plates is extended to the case of the impact of the sphere onto a half-space. The calculations are done for the impact of a silicate sphere onto a silicate target for impact speeds of 15, 20, and 25 km/sec, spanning the range of reasonable impact speeds for asteroids. The angle of impact is varied from 0 to 75 deg. The mass jetted, the jet velocity, projectile fraction in the jet, azimuthal distribution of the jet, and the phase of the jetted material are calculated as functions of time. The total mass jetted and the overall mass-averages of jet velocity, etc. are also calculated.

  19. Annual Movement Patterns of Endangered Ivory Gulls: The Importance of Sea Ice

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Nora C.; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Mallory, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is an endangered seabird that spends its entire year in the Arctic environment. In the past three decades, threats from various sources have contributed to a >70% decline in Canada. To assess the annual habitat needs of this species, we attached satellite transmitters to 12 ivory gulls on Seymour Island, Nunavut in 2010, which provided up to four breeding seasons of tracking data. Analysis of migratory behaviour revealed considerable individual variation of post-breeding migratory route selection. Ivory gulls traveled a median of 74 days during post-breeding migration, but only 18 days during pre-breeding migration. In contrast to predictions, ivory gulls did not use the Greenland coast during migratory periods. Ivory gulls overwintered near the ice edge in Davis Strait, but also used the Labrador Sea in late February and March. We suggest that the timing of formation and recession and extent of sea ice plays a large role in ivory gull distribution and migratory timing. PMID:25551556

  20. Annual movement patterns of endangered ivory gulls: the importance of sea ice.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Nora C; Gilchrist, H Grant; Mallory, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is an endangered seabird that spends its entire year in the Arctic environment. In the past three decades, threats from various sources have contributed to a >70% decline in Canada. To assess the annual habitat needs of this species, we attached satellite transmitters to 12 ivory gulls on Seymour Island, Nunavut in 2010, which provided up to four breeding seasons of tracking data. Analysis of migratory behaviour revealed considerable individual variation of post-breeding migratory route selection. Ivory gulls traveled a median of 74 days during post-breeding migration, but only 18 days during pre-breeding migration. In contrast to predictions, ivory gulls did not use the Greenland coast during migratory periods. Ivory gulls overwintered near the ice edge in Davis Strait, but also used the Labrador Sea in late February and March. We suggest that the timing of formation and recession and extent of sea ice plays a large role in ivory gull distribution and migratory timing.

  1. Diminished tektite ablation in the wake of a swarm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepri, P.; Chen, K. K.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of ablation markings on tektite surfaces reveal that a large variation in aerodynamic heating must have occurred among the members of a swarm during atmospheric entry. In a few cases, the existence of jagged features indicates that these tektite surfaces may have barely reached the melting temperature. Such an observation seems to be incompatible with the necessarily large heating rates suffered by other tektites which exhibit the ring wave melt flow. A reconciliation is proposed in the form of a wake shielding model which is a natural consequence of swarm entry. Calculations indicate that the observed ablation variations are actually possible for swarm entry at greater than escape velocity. This aerodynamic conclusion provides support for the arguments favoring extraterrestrial origin of tektites.

  2. Study of the ablative effects on tektite. [reentry trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, K. K.

    1975-01-01

    The tumbling and surface roughness effects on the trajectory of entry tektite were studied in both free molecular and continuum flows. It is shown that, while surface roughness has negligible effect on trajectory, the tumbling may play an important role in tektite trajectory and the consequent ablation, provided the body shape is different from a sphere. A shape factor B was proposed to measure the shape irregularity and is found to be a good parameter for correlations between body shape and tumbling effects.

  3. The oxidation state of iron in tektite glass

    SciTech Connect

    Fudali, R.F. ); Dyar, M.D. ); Griscom, D.L. ); Schreiber, H.D. )

    1987-10-01

    Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ratios in tektite glass have the potential for constraining the f{sub O{sub 2}}-T conditions associated with tektite melts prior to quenching. But even discounting older analyses, values of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} in the literature range from zero to 0.82. The authors have analyzed five tektites from populations that have been reported to have Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ratios both of zero and also a range of ratios up to 0.67. The authors employed several wet chemical techniques and two instrumental techniques - Moessbauer and Electron Spin Resonance - for all five samples and failed to confirm either extreme. The range they found of 0.02-0.12 is in excellent agreement with the literature values that they consider to be consistently most reliable and they believe that most if not all Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ratios in tektites fall within this range. The obvious presence of systematic errors in their data set strongly suggests the true range is narrower than their reported range. Additional standardization work is need to address these systematic errors. Nevertheless, the authors present accuracy is sufficient to demonstrate that there is no need to invoke a lunar volcanic origin for tektites or to postulate special formation conditions specific to Muong Nong tektites.

  4. Healdsburgite - a New Tektite and Associated Tektite Strewnfield in North Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, R. C.; Deino, A. L.; Norwick, S. A.; Byrd, C.

    2012-12-01

    Erickson, Rolfe; Norwick, Steven; and Byrd, Caitlin, Sonoma State University; Deino, Alan, Berkeley Geochronology Center. I A Distinctive Glass Clast Population In numerous locations in Sonoma and Solano Counties in north central California, over an area of ~ 200 km2, distinctive ~ 1-5 cm dominantly ovoid glass clasts are found as part of the pebble population in young sediments. They are composed of black massive aphyric nonvesicular glass whose surfaces are totally covered with a texture of adjoining small deep pits and grooves. The pits are hemispherical, 1-10 mm across, and join at sharp edges composed of straight segments. The grooves, where present, are the width and depth of the pits and may be up to several cm long and vermicular. Some clasts have internal layering resembling flow textures. These glass objects were brought to our attention by a local resident, Ms. Diane Moore, about 20 years ago. Four of these glass clasts from widely separated locations in the exposure area have been dated by the laser incremental-heating Ar39/Ar40 method at the Berkeley Geochronology Center, with an age of ~ 2.81 Ma (upper Pliocene). The four samples have mutually overlapping ages at one sigma. Chemical analyses of the 10 major and 50 minor elements, of four widely separated clasts, were obtained at commercial laboratories. The clasts are all rhyolites and cluster tightly on the TAS diagram of Le Maitre et al (2002). All available data show that all these pitted and grooved clasts are part of a single population. II. The Clasts are Tektites We believe these distinctive glass clasts to be tektites for the following reasons: 1. Pits are always present and wholly cover the clast surface. Perhaps half the clasts also have distinctive irregular vermicular grooves superimposed on the pitted surface. This surface pattern is like those on other long-recognized 'classic' tektites, like indochinites. The clasts look like tektites; compare McCall (2001, Figure 2.30) for example. 2

  5. Seconds After Impact: Insights from Diffusion Between Lechatelierite and Host Glass in Tektites and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macris, C. A.; Badro, J.; Asimow, P. D.; Eiler, J. M.; Stolper, E. D.

    2014-09-01

    This study exploits the presence of lechatelierites in tektites to extract information about their thermal histories by investigating chemical diffusion between molten silica inclusions and surrounding felsic melt in natural tektites and experiments.

  6. New estimates of area and mass for the North American tektite strewn field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, C.

    1989-01-01

    A revised estimate is given for the total mass of the North American tektite material, which is based on a concept of patches or rays of distribution rather than on a continuous tektite and microtektite blanket. This concept yields a total mass of about 3 x 10 to the 14th g, which is less than a third of previous estimates. The shape of the North American tektite strewn field is in agreement with other tektite strewn fields.

  7. Optical magnetic, and electrical properties of tektites, meteorites, and other space related materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The scope of the project is reported to study the infrared absorption of water and the magnetic properties of the iron in tektites. Subsequently, the work was expanded to include the other properties of tektites and lunar materials. When the lunar samples became available, the emphasis of the research shifted from tektites to lunar samples.

  8. Magnetic susceptibility of tektites and some other glasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.

    1959-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility at several magnetic field strengths of about thirty tektites from various localities have been measured. The susceptibility ranges from 2 ?? 10-6 to about 7.9 ?? 10-6 e.m.u./g. Tektites from a given locality have similar susceptibilities. The intensity of magnetization of all the tektites measured is zero or very small. For comparison, the same measurements have been made on about thirty obsidians. The magnetic susceptibilities cover approximately the same range, but the intensity of magnetization of the impurity was found to be much higher. By heating the obsidians to 1450??C the intensity of magnetization was reduced to zero. From the above data, it is shown that the tektites must have been heated well above 1400??C, and that essentially all the iron is in solution. On the other hand, the evidence shows that obsidians have not been heated much above this temperature, and that there is a significant amount of undissolved iron in the glass, probably as magnetite. Further, if tektites are extraterrestrial, they probably entered the earth's atmosphere as a glass. ?? 1959.

  9. The water, deuterium, gas and uranium content of tektites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.

    1958-01-01

    The water content, deuterium concentration of the water, total gas and uranium contents were determined on tektite samples and other glass samples from Texas, Australia, Philippine Islands, Java, French Indo-China, Czechoslovakia, Libyan Desert, Billiton Island, Thailand, French West Africa, Peru, and New Mexico. The water content ranges from 0.24 per cent for the Peru tektite, to 0.0002 per cent for a moldavite. The majority of the tektites have less than 0.05 per cent water, and average 0.005 per cent H2O by weight. No other gases were detected, the lower detection limit being about 1 p.p.m. by weight. The deuterium content of the water in tektites is in the same range as that in terrestrial waters, and varies from 0.010 mole per cent to 0.0166 mole per cent deuterium. The uranium content is about from 1 to 3 p.p.m. The possible origin of tektites is discussed. The experimental data presented favour their being originally terrestrial, but produced by some catastrophic event. An extra-terrestrial source is not ruled out. ?? 1958.

  10. A possible tektite strewn field in the Argentinian Pampa.

    PubMed

    Bland, P A; de Souza Filho, C R; Jull, A J T; Kelley, S P; Hough, R M; Artemieva, N A; Pierazzo, E; Coniglio, J; Pinotti, L; Evers, V; Kearsley, A T

    2002-05-10

    Impact glass associated with 11 elongate depressions in the Pampean Plain of Argentina, north of the city of Rio Cuarto, was suggested to be proximal ejecta related to a highly oblique impact event. We have identified about 400 additional elongate features in the area that indicate an aeolian, rather than an impact, origin. We have also dated fragments of glass found at the Rio Cuarto depressions; the age is similar to that of glass recovered 800 kilometers to the southeast. This material may be tektite glass from an impact event around 0.48 million years ago, representing a new tektite strewn field.

  11. Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, D.K.; Tuniz, C.; Moniot, R.K.; Kruse, T.H.; Herzog, G.F.

    1982-11-19

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x 10/sup 8/ atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10/sup 6/ years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

  12. Beryllium-10 in australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor.

    PubMed

    Pal, D K; Tuniz, C; Moniot, R K; Kruse, T H; Herzog, G F

    1982-11-19

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x l0(8) atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10(6) years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

  13. Beryllium-10 in Australasian tektites - Evidence for a sedimentary precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, D. K.; Moniot, R. K.; Kruse, T. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Tuniz, C.

    1982-01-01

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 100 micron atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 million years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event.

  14. A possible tektite strewn field in the Argentinian Pampa.

    PubMed

    Bland, P A; de Souza Filho, C R; Jull, A J T; Kelley, S P; Hough, R M; Artemieva, N A; Pierazzo, E; Coniglio, J; Pinotti, L; Evers, V; Kearsley, A T

    2002-05-10

    Impact glass associated with 11 elongate depressions in the Pampean Plain of Argentina, north of the city of Rio Cuarto, was suggested to be proximal ejecta related to a highly oblique impact event. We have identified about 400 additional elongate features in the area that indicate an aeolian, rather than an impact, origin. We have also dated fragments of glass found at the Rio Cuarto depressions; the age is similar to that of glass recovered 800 kilometers to the southeast. This material may be tektite glass from an impact event around 0.48 million years ago, representing a new tektite strewn field. PMID:12004127

  15. Beryllium-10 in australasian tektites: evidence for a sedimentary precursor.

    PubMed

    Pal, D K; Tuniz, C; Moniot, R K; Kruse, T H; Herzog, G F

    1982-11-19

    Each of seven Australasian tektites contains about 1 x l0(8) atoms of beryllium-10 (half-life, 1.53 x 10(6) years) per gram. Cosmic-ray bombardment of the australites cannot have produced the measured amounts of beryllium-10 either at the earth's surface or in space. The beryllium-10 contents of these australites are consistent with a sedimentary precursor that adsorbed from precipitation beryllium-10 produced in the atmosphere. The sediments must have spent several thousand years at the earth's surface within a few million years of the tektite-producing event. PMID:17771035

  16. Magnetic properties of tektites and other related impact glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Devouard, B.; Moustard, F.; Bezaeva, N. S.; Cournède, C.; Scaillet, B.

    2015-12-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of the magnetic properties of the four known tektite fields and related fully melted impact glasses (Aouelloul, Belize, Darwin, Libyan desert and Wabar glasses, irghizites, and atacamaites), namely magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis properties as well as properties dependent on magnetic grain-size. Tektites appear to be characterized by pure Fe2+ paramagnetism, with ferromagnetic traces below 1 ppm. The different tektite fields yield mostly non-overlapping narrow susceptibility ranges. Belize and Darwin glasses share similar characteristics. On the other hand the other studied glasses have wider susceptibility ranges, with median close to paramagnetism (Fe2+ and Fe3+) but with a high-susceptibility population bearing variable amounts of magnetite. This signs a fundamental difference between tektites (plus Belize and Darwin glasses) and other studied glasses in terms of oxygen fugacity and heterogeneity during formation, thus bringing new light to the formation processes of these materials. It also appears that selecting the most magnetic glass samples allows to find impactor-rich material, opening new perspectives to identify the type of impactor responsible for the glass generation.

  17. Metallic spherules in tektites from Isabela, Philippine Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.; Adler, I.; Dwornik, E.J.; Littler, J.

    1962-01-01

    Iron-nickel spherules, as much as 0.5 mm in diameter, have been found completely embedded in some philippinites. The spherules consist mainly of kamacite with unidentified pink inclusions. The meteoritic origin of these spherules seems reasonable, suggesting that the tektites containing them were formed by asteroidal or meteoritic impact.

  18. Iron Redox Variations in Australasian Muong Nong-Type Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Trapananti, A.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-08-01

    The Fe oxidation state along few profile across dark/light layers of two Australasian Muong Nong tektite sample have been studied by Fe K-edge XANES. The dark layer results to be slightly but reproducibly more oxidized respect to the light layers.

  19. Soret diffusion: A possible cause of compositional heterogeneity within tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.; Liu, Y.-G.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Although a terrestrial origin for tektites is well-established on geochemical evidence, the physical processes involved in tektite formation have been largely ignored by geochemists and petrologists. For example, two observations that potentially bear on the physics of their origin are the following: (1) The flange of an australite is often more heterogeneous than its core; and (2) microtektites are compositionally more diverse than tektites. The first observation contradicts the traditional view of flange formation since a second heating to super-liquidus temperatures during atmospheric re-entry should, by chemical diffusion and mixing, have tended to homogenize the melt as it flowed off the leading edge of the core to form the flange. Analyses of an australite flange have been performed by electron microprobe. The results of those analyses emphasize the magnitude of the heterogeneity, as well as the well-defined elemental correlations that may constrain the process responsible for it. The second observation that the bulk compositions of microtektites are more divers than the tektites within the same strewnfield is a well-known characteristic, for which no quantitative explanation has been offered. The current investigation has involved the analysis of 43 Australasian microtektites from the Wharton Basin by electron microprobe, as well as trace-element abundances on fifteen of these microtecktites by INAA.

  20. Iron Redox Variations in Australasian Muong Nong-Type Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuli, G.; Cicconi, M. R.; Trapananti, A.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Pratesi, G.; Paris, E.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-09-01

    The Fe oxidation state along profiles across dark and light layers of two Australasian Muong Nong tektite samples have been studied by Fe K-edge XANES. The dark layer results to be slightly but reproducibly more oxidized respect to the light layers.

  1. Zircon and chromite crystals in a muong nong-type tektite.

    PubMed

    Glass, B P

    1970-08-21

    Chromite, zircon, and quartz crystals (identified by x-ray diffraction) have been recovered from a 2.07-gram sample of Muong Nong-type tektite. The absence of eskolaite (Cr(2)O(3)) and baddeleyite (ZrO(2)) supports a previous conclusion that Muong Nong-type tektites were not heated as intensely as other tektite groups. X-ray asterism studies indicate that the crystals are shocked, which supports an impact origin. The presence of chromite and zircon together suggests that the Muong Nong-type tektite was produced from sedimentary material.

  2. Vector diagram of the chemical compositions of tektites and earth lavas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvasha, L. G.; Gorshkov, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical compositions of tektites and various volcanic glasses, similar in composition to tektites are compared by a petrochemical method. The advantage of the method is that a large number of chemical analyses of igneous rocks can be graphically compared with the help of vectors, plotted in relation to six parameters. These parameters, calculated from ratios of the main oxides given by silicate analysis, reflect the chief characteristics of igneous rock. Material for the study was suppled by data from chemical analysis characterizing tektites of all known locations and data from chemical analyses of obsidians similar in chemical composition to tektites of various petrographical provinces.

  3. Zircon and chromite crystals in a muong nong-type tektite.

    PubMed

    Glass, B P

    1970-08-21

    Chromite, zircon, and quartz crystals (identified by x-ray diffraction) have been recovered from a 2.07-gram sample of Muong Nong-type tektite. The absence of eskolaite (Cr(2)O(3)) and baddeleyite (ZrO(2)) supports a previous conclusion that Muong Nong-type tektites were not heated as intensely as other tektite groups. X-ray asterism studies indicate that the crystals are shocked, which supports an impact origin. The presence of chromite and zircon together suggests that the Muong Nong-type tektite was produced from sedimentary material. PMID:17820307

  4. Tektites that were partially plastic after completion of surface sculpturing.

    PubMed

    Nininger, H H; Huss, G I

    1967-07-01

    Among the 50,000 tektites collected over an 8-year period as part of a representative collection of the indochinities in an area near Dalat, South Vietnam, several individual ones have been found that show evidence of having been internally plastic after surface sculpturing was essentially completed. Two drops, which were bent after having formed a thin exterior skin or crust, exhibit surface breaks and stretching of their plastic interiors within the breaks. The lack of deep sculpturing in this interior stretched area, coupled with twisting within the break on one of them, indicates that the surface features on these tektites were formed in the atmosphere and not by etching by soil acids, as had been widely believed.

  5. Impact Crater of the Australasian Tektites, Southern Laos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieh, K.; Herrin, J. S.; Wiwegwin, W.; Charusiri, P.; Singer, B. S.; Singsomboun, K.; Jicha, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Australasian strewn field, a horizon of glassy clasts formed of molten ejecta from the impact of a bolide about 770,000 years ago, covers about a tenth of the Earth - from Indochina to Australia and from the Indian to western Pacific oceans. The distribution of chemical and physical characteristics of these tektites implies a very large impact somewhere in central Indochina. A half-century of unsuccessful searching for the impact crater implies obscuration by either erosion or burial. Geomorphological and stratigraphic evidence suggests that the crater lies buried beneath lavas and cinder cones of a 100-km wide volcanic shield centered atop the Bolaven Plateau of southern Laos. One critical test of this hypothesis, using precise 40Ar/39Ar dating, is now in progress - are these highly weathered basalts younger than the tektites? Although volcanic rocks cover most of the area proximal to our purported impact site, a thick, crudely bedded, bouldery to pebbly breccia that crops out southeast of the obscured crater rim appears to be part of an ejecta blanket. The basal unit of this fining-upward sequence comprises large boulders of late-Mesozoic sandstone bedrock that display in situ shattering. This implies emplacement ballistically rather than by debris-flow. Old surfaces in the surrounding region (as others have noted) and on the Plateau have a mantle of pebbly, detrital lateritic debris that in its upper 15 cm contains angular tektite fragments. We hypothesize that this debris is a proximal fall bed produced by shock-induced comminution and ejection of a lateritic soil that covered the Plateau bedrock. Deposition was nearly complete when sparse tektite fragments ejected from nearer the center of the impact began to land. At many sites this pebbly, lateritic bed is overlain by a thick silty bed that others have associated with aeolian erosion of a barren, incinerated tropical landscape. See Herrin et al (this meeting) for more on the volcanic rocks.

  6. Dissecting the Illegal Ivory Trade: An Analysis of Ivory Seizures Data

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Fiona M.; Burn, Robert W.; Milliken, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Reliable evidence of trends in the illegal ivory trade is important for informing decision making for elephants but it is difficult to obtain due to the covert nature of the trade. The Elephant Trade Information System, a global database of reported seizures of illegal ivory, holds the only extensive information on illicit trade available. However inherent biases in seizure data make it difficult to infer trends; countries differ in their ability to make and report seizures and these differences cannot be directly measured. We developed a new modelling framework to provide quantitative evidence on trends in the illegal ivory trade from seizures data. The framework used Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models to reduce bias in seizures data by identifying proxy variables that describe the variability in seizure and reporting rates between countries and over time. Models produced bias-adjusted smoothed estimates of relative trends in illegal ivory activity for raw and worked ivory in three weight classes. Activity is represented by two indicators describing the number of illegal ivory transactions – Transactions Index – and the total weight of illegal ivory transactions – Weights Index – at global, regional or national levels. Globally, activity was found to be rapidly increasing and at its highest level for 16 years, more than doubling from 2007 to 2011 and tripling from 1998 to 2011. Over 70% of the Transactions Index is from shipments of worked ivory weighing less than 10 kg and the rapid increase since 2007 is mainly due to increased consumption in China. Over 70% of the Weights Index is from shipments of raw ivory weighing at least 100 kg mainly moving from Central and East Africa to Southeast and East Asia. The results tie together recent findings on trends in poaching rates, declining populations and consumption and provide detailed evidence to inform international decision making on elephants. PMID:24250744

  7. Dissecting the illegal ivory trade: an analysis of ivory seizures data.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Fiona M; Burn, Robert W; Milliken, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Reliable evidence of trends in the illegal ivory trade is important for informing decision making for elephants but it is difficult to obtain due to the covert nature of the trade. The Elephant Trade Information System, a global database of reported seizures of illegal ivory, holds the only extensive information on illicit trade available. However inherent biases in seizure data make it difficult to infer trends; countries differ in their ability to make and report seizures and these differences cannot be directly measured. We developed a new modelling framework to provide quantitative evidence on trends in the illegal ivory trade from seizures data. The framework used Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models to reduce bias in seizures data by identifying proxy variables that describe the variability in seizure and reporting rates between countries and over time. Models produced bias-adjusted smoothed estimates of relative trends in illegal ivory activity for raw and worked ivory in three weight classes. Activity is represented by two indicators describing the number of illegal ivory transactions--Transactions Index--and the total weight of illegal ivory transactions--Weights Index--at global, regional or national levels. Globally, activity was found to be rapidly increasing and at its highest level for 16 years, more than doubling from 2007 to 2011 and tripling from 1998 to 2011. Over 70% of the Transactions Index is from shipments of worked ivory weighing less than 10 kg and the rapid increase since 2007 is mainly due to increased consumption in China. Over 70% of the Weights Index is from shipments of raw ivory weighing at least 100 kg mainly moving from Central and East Africa to Southeast and East Asia. The results tie together recent findings on trends in poaching rates, declining populations and consumption and provide detailed evidence to inform international decision making on elephants. PMID:24250744

  8. Dissecting the illegal ivory trade: an analysis of ivory seizures data.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Fiona M; Burn, Robert W; Milliken, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Reliable evidence of trends in the illegal ivory trade is important for informing decision making for elephants but it is difficult to obtain due to the covert nature of the trade. The Elephant Trade Information System, a global database of reported seizures of illegal ivory, holds the only extensive information on illicit trade available. However inherent biases in seizure data make it difficult to infer trends; countries differ in their ability to make and report seizures and these differences cannot be directly measured. We developed a new modelling framework to provide quantitative evidence on trends in the illegal ivory trade from seizures data. The framework used Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models to reduce bias in seizures data by identifying proxy variables that describe the variability in seizure and reporting rates between countries and over time. Models produced bias-adjusted smoothed estimates of relative trends in illegal ivory activity for raw and worked ivory in three weight classes. Activity is represented by two indicators describing the number of illegal ivory transactions--Transactions Index--and the total weight of illegal ivory transactions--Weights Index--at global, regional or national levels. Globally, activity was found to be rapidly increasing and at its highest level for 16 years, more than doubling from 2007 to 2011 and tripling from 1998 to 2011. Over 70% of the Transactions Index is from shipments of worked ivory weighing less than 10 kg and the rapid increase since 2007 is mainly due to increased consumption in China. Over 70% of the Weights Index is from shipments of raw ivory weighing at least 100 kg mainly moving from Central and East Africa to Southeast and East Asia. The results tie together recent findings on trends in poaching rates, declining populations and consumption and provide detailed evidence to inform international decision making on elephants.

  9. Post-Primary Options in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniere, Andre; Orivel, Francois

    Designed to provide information for decision-making by Ivorian authorities in the planning of post-primary education over the coming decade, this study compares the implications of alternative policies or scenarios in terms of social impact, technological alternatives, enrollment, and costs. Two parallel channels are assumed open to students under…

  10. Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast): World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the country's limited oil reserves which are almost exhausted meaning difficult times in the future. New terms for an offer of 11 offshore blocks allow for a negotiable split of cost oil and profit oil linked to either daily production or the ratio between accumulated net revenues and accumulated revenue.

  11. Educational Development in Guinea, Mali, Senegal, and Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolibaugh, Jerry B.

    This study describes the educational system and discusses major educational trends and problems in elementary, secondary, higher, agricultural, and vocational education of four major French speaking West African countries since their achievement of independence. One major problem considered is that rapid expansion of educational opportunity in…

  12. Study of the ablative effects on tektites. [wake shielding during atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepri, P.; Chen, K. K.

    1976-01-01

    Equations are presented which provide approximate parameters describing surface heating and tektite deceleration during atmosphere passage. Numerical estimates of these parameters using typical initial and ambient conditions support the conclusion that the commonly assumed trajectories would not have produced some of the observed surface markings. It is suggested that tektites did not enter the atmosphere singly but rather in a swarm dense enough to afford wake shielding according to a shock envelope model which is proposed. A further aerodynamic mechanism is described which is compatible with hemispherical pits occurring on tektite surfaces.

  13. Using morphometric and analytical techniques to characterize elephant ivory.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rina Rani; Goyal, Surendra Prakash; Khanna, Param Pal; Mukherjee, Pulok Kumar; Sukumar, Raman

    2006-10-16

    There is a need to characterize Asian elephant ivory and compare with African ivory for controlling illegal trade and implementation of national and international laws. In this paper, we characterize ivory of Asian and African elephants using Schreger angle measurements, elemental analysis {X-ray fluorescence (XRF), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS)} and isotopic analysis. We recorded Schreger angle characteristics of elephant ivory at three different zones in ivory samples of African (n=12) and Asian (n=28) elephants. The Schreger angle ranged from 32 degrees to 145 degrees and 30 degrees to 153 degrees in Asian and African ivory, respectively. Elemental analysis (for Asian and African ivory) by XRF, ICP-AES and ICP-MS provided preliminary data. We attempted to ascertain source of origin of Asian elephant ivory similarly as in African ivory based on isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and strontium. We determined isotopic ratios of carbon (n=31) and nitrogen (n=31) corresponding to diet and rainfall, respectively. Reference ivory samples from five areas within India were analyzed using collagen and powder sample and the latter was found more suitable for forensic analysis. During our preliminary analysis, the range of delta13C values (-13.6+/-0.15 per thousand and -25.6+/-0.15 per thousand) and delta15N values (10.2+/-0.15 per thousand and 3.5+/-0.15 per thousand) were noted.

  14. [Human African trypanosomiasis in Ivory Coast: biological characteristics after treatment. 812 cases treated in the Daloa focus (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Miezan, T W; Dje, N N; Doua, F; Boa, F

    2002-12-01

    The treatment and post therapeutic follow up of patients diagnosed with HAT are important for HAT control. A longitudinal survey was implemented in the focus of Daloa (Côte d'Ivoire). A total of 812 patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in meningoencephalitic stage and treated with melarsoprol were included, this study pointed out the biological characteristics of patients after treatment. The relapse occurs between 1 and 24 months after treatment. It is essentially neurological, and characterised by the presence in the CSF of antibodies, by the increase of cell count compared with value immediately after treatment, or by the presence of trypanosomes. The cure can be confirmed from 18 months after treatment, and is characterised by the absence of antibodies and trypanosomes in the CSF, by a normal cell count and a normal proteinorachy. Biological scares were recorded on some of the patients after 18 months of follow up, but no relapse occurred among them.

  15. New approach to the origin of the tektite in China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin-Wen, Zhang; Dao-Yi, XU; Zheng, Yan

    1988-01-01

    The tektites in China are distributed on the north part of Australia - Southeastern Asia strewfield of tektite: Leizhou Peninsula of Guangdong Province and Hainan Island, and located exactly at the boundary between Zanjiang Formation and Beihai Formation. A new hypothesis is suggested: During the end of Lower Pleistocene, a comet of special components from the outer part of the Solar System approached the Earth, and then it was captured by the Earth, when it came approximately to the Roche's limet. It was crushed into countless fragments, detritus and dusts, which rotated around the Earth, probably far above the Earth's atmosphere, as a cloud ring. Under the action of crushing energy they could be in the situation of liquid-melt drop in the almost vacuum circumstances and the flow and bubble structure were formed. During their rotation the climate became anomalous and the violet Fe-Si concentration were formed on the surface of sediments. After a rather short time of rotation the unstable ring was broken and the fragments impacted on the hard ground instantaneously.

  16. Hypothetical Source Crater for Australasian Tektites: Moving from Indochina to Northwest China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizera, J.; Řanda, Z.; Kameník, J.; Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.

    2016-08-01

    We argue against the generally accepted hypothetical location of the unknown source crater for Australasian tektites to Indochina, and present a hypothesis of a possible location of the AAT source crater in deserts of NW China.

  17. A dynamical and statistical investigation of the shape of splashform tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, S. L.; Stauffer, M.

    2008-12-01

    Splash-form tektites are believed to represent molten rock that was ejected by a large impactor that solidified while in flight. These glassy rocks are found in a number of strewn fields around the Earth and are found in a number of intriguing shapes including near spheres, axisymmetric biconcave shapes as well as rods and "dumb-bells". In this contribution, we will present the results of a statistical study of the shapes of over 1000 tektites from South-East Asia and the results of a numerical study of the evolution of fluid droplets under the influence of a centrifugal force and surface tension. As we will show, the numerical simulations first evolve to an oblate, axisymmetric form before becoming subject to a non-axisymmetric instability which results in a prolate shape. The numerical model results are consistent with the measurements of real tektites that show that there is a dearth of weakly deformed, highly prolate tektites.

  18. XAFS study on Ca local structure in natural glasses and tektite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobase, T.; Wang, L.; Yoshiasa, A.; Okube, M.; Nakatani, T.; Hayasaka, Y.; Isobe, H.

    2013-04-01

    The local structures of tektite and natural glasses were studied by Ca K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) in order to provide quantitative data on bonding distances and coordination numbers. The pre-edge peak intensities of tektites are 10.7-11.7%, and those of peudotachylite, Kirauea volcanic glass, impactite, pitchstone and perlite are 6.7-10.9%. The main peak shoulder intensities of tektites are 68.3-70.7%, and other natural glasses are 63.0-63.9%. XAFS analysis indicated all tektites possess 7-coordinated Ca, but natural glasses possess 6-, 7- and 8- coordinated Ca. This study indicated that different petrogenesis of natural glasses gives different local structures of calcium.

  19. Geochemistry and origin of tektites from the Penglei area, Hainan province, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kung-suan; Chen, Ju-chin

    Ten tektites from the Penglei area in Hainan province were analyzed for the abundances of major elements, 31 trace elements, and the RbSr isotopic composition. These tektites can be divided into two compositional categories, which are distinguished by high (> 80 wt %) and low (<76 wt %) SiO 2 contents. Tektite TK-1 (high SiO 2) shows a vesicular massive body and has lower refractive index, density, major and trace elements. Its chemical composition closely resembles the average composition of Muong Nong-type indochinites. The others with low SiO 2 either pitted or grooved surfaces, with schlieren structures on some surfaces, and splash-form have similar chemical compositions to those of indochinites. From the chemical composition, it is suggested that the tektites within the Indochina and the Hainan subfields are derived from similar parental material and are similar to the post-Archean upper crustal rocks. In addition, the tektites from Hainan (Hainanites) have large positive ɛSr(0) ratios, indicating that the parent material for these tektites resembles old terrestrial sedimentary rocks. From the Sr isotopic data, it is interpreted that the hainanites do not originate from continental material recently derived from the mantle or recent young sediments such as soil or loess. Based on RbSr isotopic data, it has been suggested by Blum et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta56, 483-492, 1992 that the depositional age of sedimentary target materials is close to 170 Ma (Jurassic). Mixing calculations for various amounts and combinations of target rocks indicate that the best fit for sample TK-1 tektite is a mixture of 2% shale, 38% sandstone, 50% greywacke and 10% quartzite, and the other splash-form tektite is a mixture of 41% shale, 2% sandstone, 20% greywacke and 37% quartzite.

  20. Report of centimeter-sized tektites in Pima County, Arizona, cannot be verified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, David A.; Hildebrand, Alan R.; Drake, Michael J.; Melosh, H. Jay; Vickery, Ann M.

    1995-01-01

    Glassy objects reportedly found in Pima County, Arizona, have been identified as tektites. A field survey of the area where they were said to occur, however, did not produce any other tektites, nor did it reveal any other geologic features that might indicate a nearby impact crater. The major-, minor-, and trace-element composition of one specimen is similar to those measured in indochinites, which suggests the objects reportedly from Pima County were instead transported to southern Arizona from Indochina by people.

  1. Nickel-iron spherules in tektites - Non-meteoritic in origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathy, R.; Larimer, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The concentrations of several diagnostic trace elements were determined in two comparatively large NiFe spherules extracted from tektites. The purpose of the study was to obtain some clues about the chemistry of the projectile that is presumed responsible for the formation of these tektites. However, the trace element pattern is distinctly terrestrial implying that the spherules are the result of in-situ reduction of the host rock and are not meteoritic in origin.

  2. North American tektite debris and impact ejecta from DSDP Site 612

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, B.P. )

    1989-12-01

    A layer of tektite glass and shock-metamorphosed grains found in an upper Eocene section of core 21 from DSDP Site 612 taken on the continental slope off New Jersey may belong to the North American tektite strewn field. In order to better define the layer, a series of samples was taken continuously through the layer at 1 cm intervals. Tektite fragments are in an 8 cm thick layer; microtektites are concentrated in the upper 4 cm, while spherules with crystalline textures (microkrystites) are concentrated in the lower half of the layer. Millimeter-size splash forms are mostly in the lower part of the tektite-bearing layer. Rock and mineral grains showing evidence of shock metamorphism are abundant in the upper half of the tektite-bearing layer. Coesite is abundant, and stishovite was found in one rock fragment. The size and abundance of the tektite glass and the abundance of shocked debris indicate that Site 612 is relatively close to the source crater, which may be to the north of Site 612 on the coastal plain or adjacent continental shelf. 40 refs.

  3. Citizen Science and the Unsolved Austral-Asian Tektite Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, T. H. S.; Davias, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of mid-Pleistocene evidence suggests a 786 ka cosmic impact (MIS 20) at an oblique angle onto the North American ice sheet may have created both the Carolina Bays on the US Eastern coastal plane, as well as the 60 billion tons of Australasian (AA) tektites that cover ¼ to ⅓ of Earth. No AA impact structure has ever been identified. ~12 ka after the AA tektite event came the Brunhes-Matuyama geomagnetic reversal, Earth's most recent. In 1986, Richard Muller's paper "Geomagnetic Reversals from Impacts on the Earth" explained how a geologically rapid change of Earth's crustal spin rate relative to the liquid core would upset its convective cellular dynamo structure, disrupting and dismantling Earth's magnetic field. Muller proposed an impact-induced mini ice age to transport 10 meters of low- and mid-latitude sea into ice at the poles, changing the crustal polar moment of inertia and accelerating rotation relative to the core. Muller's impact ice age is a weak point, but oblique cosmic impacts deliver tangential impulse directly. The Carolina Bays are a depositional formation of high purity quartz sand, angular to subangular in grain texture, covering approximately 5% of the continental US, with an estimated volume of 1600 km3 over the east coastal plain and some of Nebraska. The bays themselves are depressions in the sand layer, expressed through depositional overburden. They range from a few hundred meters to several kilometers in scale. Carolina Bays are now characterized with LiDAR altimetry. Their alignment is systematic by latitude. They conform to 6 archetype ovoid shapes, easily derived using suborbital mechanics. This implies suborbital mechanics was a governor of their transport: the imprint is a snapshot of the emplacement process. Suborbital Analysis using co-aligned axes of 45,000 Carolina Bays indicates the ice sheet impact region was the Georgian Bay, across Lake Huron to Michigan's Saginaw Bay. The average downrange distance of the

  4. Aerodynamic Analysis of Tektites and Their Parent Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, E. W.; Huffaker, R. M.

    1962-01-01

    Experiment and analysis indicate that the button-type australites were derived from glassy spheres which entered or re-entered the atmosphere as cold solid bodies; in case of average-size specimens, the entry direction was nearly horizontal and the entry speed between 6.5 and 11.2 km/sec. Terrestrial origin of such spheres is impossible because of extremely high deceleration rates at low altitudes. The limited extension of the strewn fields rules out extraterrestrial origin of clusters of such spheres because of stability considerations for clusters in space. However, tektites may have been released as liquid droplets from glassy parent bodies ablating in the atmosphere of the earth. The australites then have skipped together with the parent body in order to re-enter as cold spheres. Terrestrial origin of a parent body would require an extremely violent natural event. Ablation analysis shows that fusion of opaque siliceous stone into glass by aerodynamic heating is impossible.

  5. Geographic variation of stable isotopes in African elephant ivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, S.; Merker, S.; Jacob, D.

    2012-04-01

    In 1989, the international community listed the African elephant in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) thus prohibiting commercial ivory trade. Recent surveillance data show that the illegal trade in ivory has been growing worldwide. Long-term preservation of many of the African elephant populations can be supported with a control mechanism that helps with the implementation of remedial conservation action. Therefore, setting up a reference database that predicts the origin of ivory specimens can assist in determining smuggling routes and the provenance of illegal ivory. Our research builds on earlier work to seek an appropriate method for determining the area of origin for individual tusks. Several researchers have shown that the provenance of elephant ivory can be traced by its isotopic composition, but this is the first attempt to produce an integrated isotopic reference database of elephant ivory provenance. We applied a combination of various routine geochemical analyses to measure the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur. Up to now, we analysed 606 ivory samples of known geographical origin from African range states, museums and private collections, comprising 22 African elephant range states. The isotopic measurements were superimposed with data layers from vegetation, geology and climate. A regression function for the isotope composition of the water isotopes in precipitation and collagen in ivory was developed to overcome the problem of imprecise origin of some of the sampled material. Multivariate statistics, such as nearest neighborhood and discriminate analysis were applied to eventually allow a statistical determination of the provenance for ivory of unknown origin. Our results suggest that the combination of isotopic parameters have the potential to provide predictable and complementary markers for estimating the origin of seized elephant ivory.

  6. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. PMID:27141135

  7. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases.

  8. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses*

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. PMID:27141135

  9. Exploration of Tektite Formation Processes through Water and Metal Content Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Nigel John DeWolfe McKinley, II

    Impact events are a significant surface-modifying process on bodies lacking frequent resurfacing by atmospheric or igneous processes. To explore the effects of impacts on surface materials, we measured water and trace element compositions of tektites from Vietnam. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for water measurements and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used for trace element measurements. Consistent with previous investigations of tektites, we found that the samples are depleted in volatile metals (e.g., Zn, Pb) as well as in water compared to the average continental crust, though water contents are high for rocks melted at atmospheric pressure. While Zn and Pb concentrations are linearly correlated with each other, there is no correlation between H2O and Zn or Pb contents. Combined with water contents of other tektites in the Australasian strewnfield, our results demonstrate that the source impact occurred at a wet site near the Indochina peninsula.

  10. 40Ar/39Ar age of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary tektites from Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izett, G.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Snee, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar dating of tektites discovered recently in Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary marine sedimentary rocks on Haiti indicates that the K-T boundary and impact event are coeval at 64.5 ?? 0.1 million years ago. Sanidine from a bentonite that lies directly above the K-T boundary in continental, coal-bearing, sedimentary rocks of Montana was also dated and has a 40Ar/39Ar age of 64.6 ?? 0.2 million years ago, which is indistinguishable statistically from the age of the tektites.

  11. 40Ar/39Ar Age of Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Tektites from Haiti.

    PubMed

    Izett, G A; Dalrymple, G B; Snee, L W

    1991-06-14

    (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of tektites discovered recently in Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary marine sedimentary rocks on Haiti indicates that the K-T boundary and impact event are coeval at 64.5 +/- 0.1 million years ago. Sanidine from a bentonite that lies directly above the K-T boundary in continental, coal-bearing, sedimentary rocks of Montana was also dated and has a (40)Ar/(39)Ar age of 64.6 +/- 0.2 million years ago, which is indistinguishable statistically from the age of the tektites.

  12. Mapping the Elephants of the 19th Century East African Ivory Trade with a Multi-Isotope Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Thorp, Julia; Collins, Matthew J.; Lane, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    East African elephants have been hunted for their ivory for millennia but the nineteenth century witnessed strongly escalating demand from Europe and North America. It has been suggested that one consequence was that by the 1880s elephant herds along the coast had become scarce, and to meet demand, trade caravans trekked farther into interior regions of East Africa, extending the extraction frontier. The steady decimation of elephant populations coupled with the extension of trade networks have also been claimed to have triggered significant ecological and socio-economic changes that left lasting legacies across the region. To explore the feasibility of using an isotopic approach to uncover a ‘moving frontier’ of elephant extraction, we constructed a baseline isotope data set (δ13C, δ15N, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr) for historic East African elephants known to have come from three distinct regions (coastal, Rift Valley, and inland Lakes). Using the isotope results with other climate data and geographical mapping tools, it was possible to characterise elephants from different habitats across the region. This baseline data set was then used to provenance elephant ivory of unknown geographical provenance that was exported from East Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to determine its likely origin. This produced a better understanding of historic elephant geography in the region, and the data have the potential to be used to provenance older archaeological ivories, and to inform contemporary elephant conservation strategies. PMID:27760152

  13. Fission track ages and ages of deposition of deep-sea microtektites.

    PubMed

    Gentner, W; Glass, B P; Storzer, D; Wagner, G A

    1970-04-17

    The Australasian and Ivory Coast deep-sea microtektites have fission track ages of 0.71 and 1.09 million years, respectively. These ages are in good agreement with the ages of deposition of the microtektites determined from paleomagnetic data. Both the fission track ages and ages of deposition of the microtektites agree with the potassium/ argon and fission track ages of tektites from the respective tektite strewn fields.

  14. Fission track ages and ages of deposition of deep-sea microtektites.

    PubMed

    Gentner, W; Glass, B P; Storzer, D; Wagner, G A

    1970-04-17

    The Australasian and Ivory Coast deep-sea microtektites have fission track ages of 0.71 and 1.09 million years, respectively. These ages are in good agreement with the ages of deposition of the microtektites determined from paleomagnetic data. Both the fission track ages and ages of deposition of the microtektites agree with the potassium/ argon and fission track ages of tektites from the respective tektite strewn fields. PMID:17809131

  15. Ivory identification by DNA profiling of cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, James Chun-I; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Huang, Li-Hung; Kuo, Yi-Chen; Wu, Jane-Hong; Chin, Shih-Chien; Lee, An-Hsing; Linacre, Adrian; Tsai, Li-Chin

    2009-03-01

    Ivory can be visually identified in its native form as coming from an elephant species; however, determining from which of the three extant elephant species a section of ivory originates is more problematic. We report on a method that will identify and distinguish the protected and endangered elephant species, Elephas maximus or Loxodonta sp. To identify the species of elephant from ivory products, we developed three groups of nested PCR amplifications within the cytochrome b gene that generate amplification products using highly degraded DNA isolated from confiscated ivory samples dating from 1995. DNA from a total of 382 out of 453 ivory samples were successfully isolated and amplified leading to species identification. All sequences were searched against GenBank and found to match with E. maximus and Loxodonta sp. with at least 99% similarity. The samples that were tested came from eight Asian elephants, 14 African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis), and 360 African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana). This study demonstrates a high success rate in species identification of ivory by a nested PCR approach within the cytochrome b gene which provides the necessary information for the protection of endangered species conservation.

  16. Tektite 1, Man-in-the-Sea Project: Marine Science Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, H. Edward; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes Project Tektite 1, during which a team of four scientists spent 60 days approximately 15 meters beneath the surface of the sea. Describes the "habitat" in which the men lived, reports biological and geological research carried out, and concludes that this research method has many advantages and potentialities. (EB)

  17. Titanium local structure in tektite probed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Yoshiasa, Akira; Okube, Maki; Takeda, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    The local structure of titanium in tektites from six strewn fields was studied by Ti K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) in order to provide quantitative data on Ti-O distance and Ti coordination number. The titanium in tektites possessed different coordination environment types. XANES spectra patterns revealed resemblance to high-temperature TiO(2)-SiO(2) glass and TiO(2) anatase. All samples showed that the valence of Ti is 4+. Based on the Ti-O distances, coordination numbers and radial distribution function determined by EXAFS analyses, the tektites were classified into three types: type I, Ti occupies a four-coordinated tetrahedral site with Ti-O distances of 1.84-1.79 Å; type II, Ti occupies a five-coordinated trigonal bipyramidal or tetragonal pyramidal site with Ti-O distances of 1.92-1.89 Å; type III, Ti occupies a six-coordinated octahedral site with Ti-O distances of 2.00-1.96 Å. Although Ti occupies the TiO(6) octahedral site in most titanium minerals under ambient conditions, some tektites have four- and five-coordinated Ti. This study indicated that the local structure of Ti might change in impact events and the following stages.

  18. Artificial tektites: an experimental technique for capturing the shapes of spinning drops.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kyle A; Butler, Samuel L; Hill, Richard J A

    2015-01-07

    Determining the shapes of a rotating liquid droplet bound by surface tension is an archetypal problem in the study of the equilibrium shapes of a spinning and charged droplet, a problem that unites models of the stability of the atomic nucleus with the shapes of astronomical-scale, gravitationally-bound masses. The shapes of highly deformed droplets and their stability must be calculated numerically. Although the accuracy of such models has increased with the use of progressively more sophisticated computational techniques and increases in computing power, direct experimental verification is still lacking. Here we present an experimental technique for making wax models of these shapes using diamagnetic levitation. The wax models resemble splash-form tektites, glassy stones formed from molten rock ejected from asteroid impacts. Many tektites have elongated or 'dumb-bell' shapes due to their rotation mid-flight before solidification, just as we observe here. Measurements of the dimensions of our wax 'artificial tektites' show good agreement with equilibrium shapes calculated by our numerical model, and with previous models. These wax models provide the first direct experimental validation for numerical models of the equilibrium shapes of spinning droplets, of importance to fundamental physics and also to studies of tektite formation.

  19. Artificial tektites: an experimental technique for capturing the shapes of spinning drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Kyle A.; Butler, Samuel L.; Hill, Richard J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the shapes of a rotating liquid droplet bound by surface tension is an archetypal problem in the study of the equilibrium shapes of a spinning and charged droplet, a problem that unites models of the stability of the atomic nucleus with the shapes of astronomical-scale, gravitationally-bound masses. The shapes of highly deformed droplets and their stability must be calculated numerically. Although the accuracy of such models has increased with the use of progressively more sophisticated computational techniques and increases in computing power, direct experimental verification is still lacking. Here we present an experimental technique for making wax models of these shapes using diamagnetic levitation. The wax models resemble splash-form tektites, glassy stones formed from molten rock ejected from asteroid impacts. Many tektites have elongated or `dumb-bell' shapes due to their rotation mid-flight before solidification, just as we observe here. Measurements of the dimensions of our wax `artificial tektites' show good agreement with equilibrium shapes calculated by our numerical model, and with previous models. These wax models provide the first direct experimental validation for numerical models of the equilibrium shapes of spinning droplets, of importance to fundamental physics and also to studies of tektite formation.

  20. Artificial tektites: an experimental technique for capturing the shapes of spinning drops.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kyle A; Butler, Samuel L; Hill, Richard J A

    2015-01-01

    Determining the shapes of a rotating liquid droplet bound by surface tension is an archetypal problem in the study of the equilibrium shapes of a spinning and charged droplet, a problem that unites models of the stability of the atomic nucleus with the shapes of astronomical-scale, gravitationally-bound masses. The shapes of highly deformed droplets and their stability must be calculated numerically. Although the accuracy of such models has increased with the use of progressively more sophisticated computational techniques and increases in computing power, direct experimental verification is still lacking. Here we present an experimental technique for making wax models of these shapes using diamagnetic levitation. The wax models resemble splash-form tektites, glassy stones formed from molten rock ejected from asteroid impacts. Many tektites have elongated or 'dumb-bell' shapes due to their rotation mid-flight before solidification, just as we observe here. Measurements of the dimensions of our wax 'artificial tektites' show good agreement with equilibrium shapes calculated by our numerical model, and with previous models. These wax models provide the first direct experimental validation for numerical models of the equilibrium shapes of spinning droplets, of importance to fundamental physics and also to studies of tektite formation. PMID:25564381

  1. Artificial tektites: an experimental technique for capturing the shapes of spinning drops

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Kyle A.; Butler, Samuel L.; Hill, Richard J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the shapes of a rotating liquid droplet bound by surface tension is an archetypal problem in the study of the equilibrium shapes of a spinning and charged droplet, a problem that unites models of the stability of the atomic nucleus with the shapes of astronomical-scale, gravitationally-bound masses. The shapes of highly deformed droplets and their stability must be calculated numerically. Although the accuracy of such models has increased with the use of progressively more sophisticated computational techniques and increases in computing power, direct experimental verification is still lacking. Here we present an experimental technique for making wax models of these shapes using diamagnetic levitation. The wax models resemble splash-form tektites, glassy stones formed from molten rock ejected from asteroid impacts. Many tektites have elongated or ‘dumb-bell' shapes due to their rotation mid-flight before solidification, just as we observe here. Measurements of the dimensions of our wax ‘artificial tektites' show good agreement with equilibrium shapes calculated by our numerical model, and with previous models. These wax models provide the first direct experimental validation for numerical models of the equilibrium shapes of spinning droplets, of importance to fundamental physics and also to studies of tektite formation. PMID:25564381

  2. Tektites: Origin as melts produced by the impact of small projectiles onto dry targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, John T.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of tektites in general and layered tektites in particular seems to require a very special kind of cratering event. Evidence for the formation of pools of melt free of unmelted clasts has not been reported for the well-studied terrestrial craters such as Manicouagan or Ries. It is suggested that large amounts of relict-free melt were produced only when a sizeable fraction of the cratered target consisted of dry, high-porosity materials such as aeolian sediments. Since dry, high-porosity target materials are always confined to the outer 100 to 200 m of the Earth, the fraction of melt produced melt is probably higher in small (radius 50 to 500 m) craters than in large (r greater than 1 km) craters. Another reason to infer that the Southeast Asian tektites were produced in a multitude of small craters is the wide distribution of layered tektites. The file spans at least 1200 km, which would require ballistic ejection at velocities greater than 2 km s(-1) if all melt was generated in a single crater. It seems impossible to devise a scenario that would lead to the deposition of primary melt as a crystal-free pool at a distance of 600 km from the crater.

  3. Titanium local structure in tektite probed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Yoshiasa, Akira; Okube, Maki; Takeda, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    The local structure of titanium in tektites from six strewn fields was studied by Ti K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) in order to provide quantitative data on Ti-O distance and Ti coordination number. The titanium in tektites possessed different coordination environment types. XANES spectra patterns revealed resemblance to high-temperature TiO(2)-SiO(2) glass and TiO(2) anatase. All samples showed that the valence of Ti is 4+. Based on the Ti-O distances, coordination numbers and radial distribution function determined by EXAFS analyses, the tektites were classified into three types: type I, Ti occupies a four-coordinated tetrahedral site with Ti-O distances of 1.84-1.79 Å; type II, Ti occupies a five-coordinated trigonal bipyramidal or tetragonal pyramidal site with Ti-O distances of 1.92-1.89 Å; type III, Ti occupies a six-coordinated octahedral site with Ti-O distances of 2.00-1.96 Å. Although Ti occupies the TiO(6) octahedral site in most titanium minerals under ambient conditions, some tektites have four- and five-coordinated Ti. This study indicated that the local structure of Ti might change in impact events and the following stages. PMID:21997913

  4. Multicomponent Diffusion between Felsic and Silicic Melts: Insights from Tektites and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macris, C. A.; Asimow, P. D.; Zhang, Y.; Badro, J.; Stolper, E. M.; Eiler, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Tektites (natural glasses formed as quenched impact melt ejecta) commonly contain inclusions of nearly pure silica glass ("lechatelierite") thought to be quenched from molten silica produced by melting of quartz grains. We investigated chemical diffusion between lechatelierite (~100% SiO2) and surrounding felsic glass (~73% SiO2) in a natural indochinite tektite and in experimental analogues. We discovered concentration profiles of major elements across lechatelierite-felsic glass contacts that reflect diffusion between the two melts at high T as the they followed a ballistic trajectory prior to quenching. The profiles provide information on multicomponent diffusion at the high-silica end of composition space and on the thermal histories of tektites. To reproduce the profiles, we undertook a series of high T melting experiments using an aerodynamic levitation laser furnace. A starting mixture of powdered natural tektite plus quartz grains was exposed to temperatures of 1800-2400˚C for 1-120 s. Direct comparison of concentration profiles between the indochinite and experiments reveals a best match at 2200˚C and 50 s. This experiment successfully reproduced all major aspects of the concentration profiles observed in the natural sample including diffusion length scale, asymmetry, order of steepness of major element profiles, and uphill diffusion of K2O. Not enough information is available to model the full multicomponent diffusion problem, but SiO2 and Al2O3 concentration profiles from lechatelierite to surrounding felsic glass in the experiments can be fit well as a diffusion couple between silica melt and adjacent felsic melt using an effective binary diffusion approach and assuming that the effective binary SiO2 and Al2O3 diffusivities depend exponentially on SiO2 concentration. Further quantification of the diffusion behavior should allow constraints on the thermal histories of tektites.

  5. 75 FR 53012 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ivory Mirror Case”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ivory Mirror Case'' SUMMARY: Notice..., I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``Ivory Mirror Case,''...

  6. Search for the 700,000-year-old source crater of the Australasian tektite strewn field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Garvin, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Many tektite investigations have hypothesized that the impact crater that was the source of the extensive Australasian strewn field lies somewhere in or near Indochina. This is due to variations in abundance and size of tektites across the strewn field, variation of thickness of microtektite layers in ocean cores, nature and ablation characteristics across the field, and, above all, the occurrence of the large, blocky, layered Muong Nong-type tektites in Indochina. A recent study of the location and chemistry of Muong Nong-type and splash-form tektites suggests that the source region can be further narrowed to a limited area in eastern Thailand and southern Loas. Satellite multispectral imagery, a digital elevation dataset, and maps showing drainage patterns were used to search within this area for possible anomalous features that may be large degraded impact craters. Four interesting structures were identified from these datasets, and they are presented.

  7. Artificial tektites: an experimental technique for capturing the shapes of spinning drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tektites are small stones formed from rapidly cooling drops of molten rock ejected from high velocity asteroid impacts with the Earth, that freeze into a myriad of shapes during flight. Many splash-form tektites have an elongated or dumb-bell shape owing to their rotation prior to solidification[1]. Here we present a novel method for creating 'artificial tektites' from spinning drops of molten wax, using diamagnetic levitation to suspend the drops[2]. We find that the solid wax models produced this way are the stable equilibrium shapes of a spinning liquid droplet held together by surface tension. In addition to the geophysical interest in tektite formation, the stable equilibrium shapes of liquid drops have implications for many physical phenomena, covering a wide range of length scales, from nuclear physics (e.g. in studies of rapidly rotating atomic nuclei), to astrophysics (e.g. in studies of the shapes of astronomical bodies such as asteroids, rapidly rotating stars and event horizons of rotating black holes). For liquid drops bound by surface tension, analytical and numerical methods predict a series of stable equilibrium shapes with increasing angular momentum. Slowly spinning drops have an oblate-like shape. With increasing angular momentum these shapes become secularly unstable to a series of triaxial pseudo-ellipsoids that then evolve into a family of two-lobed 'dumb-bell' shapes as the angular momentum is increased still further. Our experimental method allows accurate measurements of the drops to be taken, which are useful to validate numerical models. This method has provided a means for observing tektite formation, and has additionally confirmed experimentally the stable equilibrium shapes of liquid drops, distinct from the equivalent shapes of rotating astronomical bodies. Potentially, this technique could be applied to observe the non-equilibrium dynamic processes that are also important in real tektite formation, involving, e.g. viscoelastic

  8. Ti K-edge EXAFS and XANES study on tektites from different strewnfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Furuta, T.; Okube, M.; Yoshiasa, A.

    2011-12-01

    The concentration and local structure of each element may have various kinds of information about the asteroid impact and mass extinction. Farges and Brown have discussed about the Ti local structure by XANES, and concluded that Ti in tektite occupies 4-coordinated site. EXAFS can be analyzed to give precise information about the distance from Ti to near neighbors. The XAFS measurement of Ti local structure was preformed at the beamline 9C of the Photon Factory in KEK, Tsukuba, Japan. The specimens of tektites are from different strewnfields, they are: indochinite, bediasite, hainanite, philippinite, australite and moldavite. Sample for comparison are Libya desert glass and suevite. The k3χ(k) function was transformed into the radial structure function (RSF) for Ti K-edge of six tektites. The RSF for the Ti atom in indochinite and bediasite are similar; hainanite, australite and philippinite are similar; and moldavite is discriminated from others. It indicates that they have the same local atomic environmental around the Ti atoms and extended structure respectively. Coordination numbers and radial structure function are determined by EXAFS analyses (Table 1). We classified the tektites in three types: in indochinite and bediasite, Ti occupies 4-coordinated tetrahedral site and Ti-O distances are 1.84-1.81 Å; in hainanite, australite and philippinite, Ti occupies 5-coordinated trigonal bi-pyramidal or tetragonal pyramidal site and Ti-O distances are 1.92-1.87 Å; in moldavite, Ti occupies the 6-coordinated octahedral site and Ti-O distance is 2.00-1.96 Å. Formation of tektites is related to the impact process. It is generally recognized that tektites were formed under higher temperature and high pressure. But through this study, local structures of Ti are differing in three strewnfields and even different locations of the same strewnfield. What caused the various local structures will be another topic of tektite studies. Local structure of Ti may be changed in

  9. Source of the Australasian tektite strewn field - A possible off-shore impact site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Walter, L. S.; Marsh, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    Although there is a preponderance of evidence that tektites were formed by asteroid impacts on the earth, no source crater has been found for the largest and youngest of the strewn fields - the Austalasian strewn field. A combined Seasat/Geos 3 altimeter data set of sea surface heights in the northern portion of the Australasian strewn field has been examined for negative gravity anomalies on the continental shelf and slope which might be related to the source crater for these tektites. A large negative anomaly called the Qui Nhon Slope Anomaly is a sea surface depression of approximately 1.5 meters over an area of 100 km diameter. It corresponds to a gravity anomaly of about -50 mgal. It is proposed that this anomaly may be due to the impact structure that produced the Australasian strewn field.

  10. Vapor pressure and vapor fractionation of silicate melts of tektite composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Louis S.; Carron, M.K.

    1964-01-01

    The total vapor pressure of Philippine tektite melts of approximately 70 per cent silica has been determined at temperatures ranging from 1500 to 2100??C. This pressure is 190 ?? 40 mm Hg at 1500??C, 450 ?? 50 mm at 1800??C and 850 ?? 70 mm at 2100?? C. Determinations were made by visually observing the temperature at which bubbles began to form at a constant low ambient pressure. By varying the ambient pressure, a boiling point curve was constructed. This curve differs from the equilibrium vapor pressure curve due to surface tension effects. This difference was evaluated by determining the equilibrium bubble size in the melt and calculating the pressure due to surface tension, assuming the latter to be 380 dyn/cm. The relative volatility from tektite melts of the oxides of Na, K, Fe, Al and Si has been determined as a function of temperature, total pressure arid roughly, of oxygen fugacity. The volatility of SiO2 is decreased and that of Na2O and K2O is increased in an oxygen-poor environment. Preliminary results indicate that volatilization at 2100??C under atmospheric pressure caused little or no change in the percentage Na2O and K2O. The ratio Fe3 Fe2 of the tektite is increased in ambient air at a pressure of 9 ?? 10-4 mm Hg (= 106.5 atm O2, partial pressure) at 2000??C. This suggests that tektites were formed either at lower oxygen pressures or that they are a product of incomplete oxidation of parent material with a still lower ferricferrous ratio. ?? 1964.

  11. The chemical durability of tektites - A laboratory study and correlation with long-term corrosion behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkatt, A.; Boulos, M. S.; Barkatt, A.; Sousanpour, W.; Boroomand, M. A.; Macedo, P. B.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Leach tests carried out on tektite specimens (indochinites and australites) under high-dilution conditions show a common behavior characterized by low leach rates (0.00018 g/sq m per d, or 7.2 x 10 to the -12th m/d at 23 C) and an activation energy of (79,600 + or - 700 J/mol). The extent of selective leaching is very small, of the order of 10 to the -8th m. Extrapolation of test results over the lifetime of the tektites gives an excellent agreement with field observations on the extent of corrosion, and this is an important step in establishing the validity of laboratory tests as a basis for the development of models and predictions concerning long-term durabilities at least in the limiting case of high dilution or rapid flow. The results are also shown to be in agreement with various previous observations on the corrosion resistance of tektites. The chemical durability of tektites is observed to be consistent with their composition, highlighting requirements of high corrosion resistance in glasses; these requirements include a silica content in excess of 67 mol percent, an extremely low water content, and an alkali content which is low both absolutely and relative to the di- and poly-valent metal oxide levels. It is shown that artificial glasses which fulfil these criteria are no less corrosion-resistant than the corresponding natural glasses. These conclusions have bearing on the development, as well as on the evaluation, of glasses intended for very long service, such as radioactive waste vitrification media.

  12. Seismic Investigation and Numerical Modeling of the Lake Bosumtwi Impact Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, T.; Artemieva, N. A.; Milkereit, B.

    2003-02-01

    The Lake Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana, (age 1.07 Ma, diameter 10.5 km) is one of the youngest and best-preserved complex terrestrial impact structures. It was excavated from hard crystalline target rock and is the source of the Ivory Coast tektite strewn field. It is almost entirely filled by the Lake Bosumtwi.

  13. Preliminary discussion on the origin of Lei-gong-mo (tektites)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baoyin, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The specimens of lei-gong-mo (tektites) were collected from Hainan Island and Leizhow Peninsula during the period from 1963 to 1975. The distribution, forms, sculpture, abration surface (bald spot), internal structure and chemical composition of lei-gong-mo are discussed. Studies of these materials lead to the following conclusions: (1) the specimens of lei-gong-mo can be morphologically divided into eight types; (2) the sculptures on the surface of lei-gong-mo are probably due to the corrosion effect of volcanic gas, and the abration surface due to the aerodynamic corrosion; (3) the folded structures in the layered lei-gong-mo (Muong Nong-type tektite) seem hardly to be formed by an impact of meteorites, but they might be produced in the magma flow process when the lei-gong-mo was melting within the crater vent; and (4) the comparison of its chemical composition with that of basalt from Hainan Island does not show that lei-gong-mo came from the local volcano. The hypothesis of the lunar volcanic origin of tektites is examined.

  14. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants

    PubMed Central

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M.; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  15. Nursing research's ivory tower was knocked down long ago.

    PubMed

    Read, Susan

    2016-04-20

    As a retired research nurse whose career spanned nearly 50 years, I am well qualified to challenge the view that nursing research used to consist of 'obscure studies carried out in distant ivory towers' with little connection to actual nurses (editorial, April 6). PMID:27097203

  16. Nursing research's ivory tower was knocked down long ago.

    PubMed

    Read, Susan

    2016-04-20

    As a retired research nurse whose career spanned nearly 50 years, I am well qualified to challenge the view that nursing research used to consist of 'obscure studies carried out in distant ivory towers' with little connection to actual nurses (editorial, April 6).

  17. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species.

  18. Domestication of the Ivory Tower: Institutional Adaptation to Cultural Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Examines the experiences of Native and non-Native Alaskan teacher educators in rural Alaska, describing opportunities for capitalizing on field settings available to faculty at any university. Discusses reasons for putting faculty in the field, looking at field-based training for Native teachers, the "ivory tower" versus the real world,…

  19. The End of the Ivory Tower; Students, Administration and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachman, Marvin

    This paper argues that the "Ivory Tower" stereotype of higher education no longer exists and that this is not only due to increased regulation, litigation, and unionization, but also to greater diversity, both ethnically and racially, within student bodies, faculty, and staff. It states that colleges and universities no longer operate under the…

  20. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  1. Age and provenance of the target materials for tektites and possible impactites as inferred from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr systematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, H. F.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical, trace element, and isotopic compositions of tektites are consistent with production by melting of sediments derived from the old terrestrial continental crust. Each tektite group is characterized by a uniform Nd model age, interpreted as the time of formation of the crustal segment which weathered to form the parent sediment for the tektites. Sr model ages are variable within each group, reflecting Rb-Sr fractionation, and, in the favorable limit of very high Rb/Sr ratios, approach the time of sedimentation of the parent material which melted to form the tektites. Unlike tektites, which are dense homogeneous objects, sanidine spherules are porous, fine grained inhomogeneous objects. The leaching experiment employed by the present study shows that the sanidine spherules could have been formed by an oceanic impact involving basaltic crust and overlying sediments or seawater.

  2. Chemical composition of sawdust from lunar rock 12013 and comparison of a java tektite with the rock.

    PubMed

    Showalter, D L; Wakita, H; Smith, R H; Schmitt, R A; Gillum, D E; Ehmann, W D

    1972-01-14

    Abundances of 11 major and minor elements and 11 trace elements have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis of two Apollo 12013 rock fragments, a sample of rock 12013,17 sawdust, and a Java tektite (J2). Although the abundances of major elements in tektite J2 are similar to those of rock 12013, comparison of the minor and trace elements shows that no fragment or sawdust of rock 12013 that has been analyzed to date is chemically similar to tektite glass. Rock sawdust is representative of "whole rock" composition only if the amount of contamination from the sawing process is known. After appropriate correction for saw wire contamination, analyses of sawdust yield fairly accurate averaged elemental compositions of complex clastic lunar and other rocks.

  3. Chemical composition of sawdust from lunar rock 12013 and comparison of a java tektite with the rock.

    PubMed

    Showalter, D L; Wakita, H; Smith, R H; Schmitt, R A; Gillum, D E; Ehmann, W D

    1972-01-14

    Abundances of 11 major and minor elements and 11 trace elements have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis of two Apollo 12013 rock fragments, a sample of rock 12013,17 sawdust, and a Java tektite (J2). Although the abundances of major elements in tektite J2 are similar to those of rock 12013, comparison of the minor and trace elements shows that no fragment or sawdust of rock 12013 that has been analyzed to date is chemically similar to tektite glass. Rock sawdust is representative of "whole rock" composition only if the amount of contamination from the sawing process is known. After appropriate correction for saw wire contamination, analyses of sawdust yield fairly accurate averaged elemental compositions of complex clastic lunar and other rocks. PMID:17771802

  4. Chemical composition of sawdust from lunar rock 12013 and comparison of a Java tektite with the rock.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Showalter, D. L.; Wakita, H.; Schmitt, R. A.; Gillum, D. E.; Ehmann, W. D.; Smith, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Abundances of 11 major and minor elements and 11 trace elements have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis of two Apollo 12013 rock fragments, a sample of rock 12013,17 sawdust, and a Java tektite (J2). Although the abundances of major elements in tektite J2 are similar to those of rock 12013, comparison of the minor and trace elements shows that no fragment of sawdust or rock 12013 that has been analyzed to date is chemically similar to tektite glass. Rock sawdust is representative of ?whole rock' composition only if the amount of contamination from the sawing process is known. After appropriate correction for saw wire contamination, analyses of sawdust yield fairly accurate averaged elemental compositions of complex clastic lunar and other rocks.

  5. Tektites in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary rocks on Haiti and their bearing on the Alvarez impact extinction hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izett, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Relic tektites are associated with a Pt-group metal abundance anomaly and shocked minerals in a thin marl bed that marks the K-T boundary on Haiti. The presence of these three impact-produced materials at the precise K-T boundary enormously strengthens the Alvarez impact extinction hypothesis. The Haitian tektites are the first datable impact products in K-T boundary rocks, and 40Ar-39Ar ages of the glass show that the K-T boundary and impact event are coeval at 64.5 ?? 0.1 Ma. -from Author

  6. Durabiliy of two simulated nuclear waste glasses, a frit glass, and tektite in aqueous solutions: Final report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, D.A.; Altstetter, C.J.; Brown, S.D.

    1988-05-01

    High level nuclear waste is commonly incorporated into glass for disposal. Therefore the long term aqueous durability of the waste glass is important. The leaching behavior of three simulated nuclear waste glasses (AH10, AH165, and Frit 165) and a natural glass (tektite) were examined using nuclear reaction analysis, leachate solution analysis, and microscopy. The three simulated waste glasses developed hydrated layers which increased in thickness by t/sup /1/2//. The hydrated layer in Frit 165 reached a constant thickness of about one micron. Alkali were preferentially removed from the Frit 165 and AH10. The tektite corroded by slow uniform dissolution. 94 refs., 68 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Fourier-transform Raman spectra of ivory III: identification of mammalian specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Farwell, D. W.; Holder, J. M.; Lawson, E. E.

    1997-11-01

    The FT-Raman spectra of six mammalian ivories, other than elephant and mammoth, are presented and spectral differences formulated into a protocol for the identification of animal species from the ivory samples. In this study, sperm whale, walrus, wart hog, narwhal, hippopotamus and domestic pig are considered. The results, which are obtained non-destructively from a variety of specimens, suggest that FT-Raman spectroscopy provides a potentially useful method for the identification of mammalian ivory.

  8. Comment on "Ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) persists in continental North America".

    PubMed

    Sibley, David A; Bevier, Louis R; Patten, Michael A; Elphick, Chris S

    2006-03-17

    We reanalyzed video presented as confirmation that an ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) persists in Arkansas (Fitzpatrick et al., Reports, 3 June 2005, p. 1460). None of the features described as diagnostic of the ivory-billed woodpecker eliminate a normal pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). Although we support efforts to find and protect ivory-billed woodpeckers, the video evidence does not demonstrate that the species persists in the United States.

  9. Some alkali and titania analyses of tektites before and after G-1 precision monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatlock, D.B.

    1966-01-01

    A comparison of 55 older analyses of Australasian tektites with 110 modern precisely monitored analyses suggests that more than half of the older alkali and titania determinations are decidedly inaccurate and misleading. Deviations of the older analyses from the restricted values of the modern analyses are comparable to the imprecisions shown by early analyses of G-1 granite and W-1 diabase. This suggests that a high percentage of older alkali and titania analyses, such as those of Washington's tables, are of questionable quality. ?? 1966.

  10. Impact origin of the Chesapeake Bay structure and the source of the North American tektites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeberl, C.; Poag, C.W.; Reimold, W.U.; Brandt, D.

    1996-01-01

    Seismic profiles, drill core samples, and gravity data suggest that a complex impact crater ???35.5 million years old and 90 kilometers in diameter is buried beneath the lower Chesapeake Bay. The breccia that fills the structure contains evidence of shock metamorphism, including impact melt breccias and multiple sets of planar deformation features (shock lamellae) in quartz and feldspar. The age of the crater and the composition of some breccia clasts are consistent with the Chesapeake Bay impact structure being the source of the North American tektites.

  11. Meteoroid mayhem in Ole Virginny: source of the North American tektite strewn field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C.W.; Powars, D.S.; Poppe, L.J.; Mixon, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    New seismic reflection data from Chesapeake Bay reveal a buried, 85-km-wide, 1.5-2.0-km-deep, peak-ring impact crater, carved through upper Eocene to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary strata and into underlying pre-Mesozoic crystalline basement rocks. A polymictic, late Eocene impact breccia, composed mainly of locally derived sedimentary debris (determined from four continuous cores), surrounds and partly fills the crater. Structural and sedimentary characteristics of the Chesapeake Bay crater closely resemble those of the Miocene Ries peak-ring crater in southern Germany. It is speculated that the Chesapeake Bay crater is the source of the North American tektite strewn field. -Authors

  12. Meteoroid mayhem in Ole Virginny: Source of the North American tektite strewn field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C. Wylie; Powars, David S.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Mixon, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    New seismic reflection data from Chesapeake Bay reveal a buried, 85-km-wide, 1.5-2.0-km-deep, peak-ring impact crater, carved through upper Eocene to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary strata and into underlying pre-Mesozoic crystalline basement rocks. A polymictic, late Eocene impact breccia, composed mainly of locally derived sedimentary debris (determined from four continuous cores), surrounds and partly fills the crater. Structural and sedimentary characteristics of the Chesapeake Bay crater closely resemble those of the Miocene Ries peakring crater in southern Germany. We speculate that the Chesapeake Bay crater is the source of the North American tektite strewn field.

  13. Tektite 2 habitability research program: Day-to-day life in the habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowlis, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Because it is widely agreed that the field of environmental psychology is quite young, it was determined that a sample of recorded observations from a representative mission should be included in the report on Tektite to give the professional reader a better feeling of normal day-to-day life in the isolated habitat. Names of the crew members have been replaced with numbers and some off-color words have been replaced by more acceptable slang; some remarks have been omitted that might lead to easy identification of the subjects. Otherwise, the following pages are exactly as transcribed during the late afternoons and the evenings of the mission.

  14. Development of near-zero water consumption cement materials via the geopolymerization of tektites and its implication for lunar construction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai-tuo; Tang, Qing; Cui, Xue-min; He, Yan; Liu, Le-ping

    2016-01-01

    The environment on the lunar surface poses some difficult challenges to building long-term lunar bases; therefore, scientists and engineers have proposed the creation of habitats using lunar building materials. These materials must meet the following conditions: be resistant to severe lunar temperature cycles, be stable in a vacuum environment, have minimal water requirements, and be sourced from local Moon materials. Therefore, the preparation of lunar building materials that use lunar resources is preferred. Here, we present a potential lunar cement material that was fabricated using tektite powder and a sodium hydroxide activator and is based on geopolymer technology. Geopolymer materials have the following properties: approximately zero water consumption, resistance to high- and low-temperature cycling, vacuum stability and good mechanical properties. Although the tektite powder is not equivalent to lunar soil, we speculate that the alkali activated activity of lunar soil will be higher than that of tektite because of its low Si/Al composition ratio. This assumption is based on the tektite geopolymerization research and associated references. In summary, this study provides a feasible approach for developing lunar cement materials using a possible water recycling system based on geopolymer technology. PMID:27406467

  15. Development of near-zero water consumption cement materials via the geopolymerization of tektites and its implication for lunar construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai-Tuo; Tang, Qing; Cui, Xue-Min; He, Yan; Liu, Le-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The environment on the lunar surface poses some difficult challenges to building long-term lunar bases; therefore, scientists and engineers have proposed the creation of habitats using lunar building materials. These materials must meet the following conditions: be resistant to severe lunar temperature cycles, be stable in a vacuum environment, have minimal water requirements, and be sourced from local Moon materials. Therefore, the preparation of lunar building materials that use lunar resources is preferred. Here, we present a potential lunar cement material that was fabricated using tektite powder and a sodium hydroxide activator and is based on geopolymer technology. Geopolymer materials have the following properties: approximately zero water consumption, resistance to high- and low-temperature cycling, vacuum stability and good mechanical properties. Although the tektite powder is not equivalent to lunar soil, we speculate that the alkali activated activity of lunar soil will be higher than that of tektite because of its low Si/Al composition ratio. This assumption is based on the tektite geopolymerization research and associated references. In summary, this study provides a feasible approach for developing lunar cement materials using a possible water recycling system based on geopolymer technology.

  16. Development of near-zero water consumption cement materials via the geopolymerization of tektites and its implication for lunar construction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Tuo; Tang, Qing; Cui, Xue-Min; He, Yan; Liu, Le-Ping

    2016-07-13

    The environment on the lunar surface poses some difficult challenges to building long-term lunar bases; therefore, scientists and engineers have proposed the creation of habitats using lunar building materials. These materials must meet the following conditions: be resistant to severe lunar temperature cycles, be stable in a vacuum environment, have minimal water requirements, and be sourced from local Moon materials. Therefore, the preparation of lunar building materials that use lunar resources is preferred. Here, we present a potential lunar cement material that was fabricated using tektite powder and a sodium hydroxide activator and is based on geopolymer technology. Geopolymer materials have the following properties: approximately zero water consumption, resistance to high- and low-temperature cycling, vacuum stability and good mechanical properties. Although the tektite powder is not equivalent to lunar soil, we speculate that the alkali activated activity of lunar soil will be higher than that of tektite because of its low Si/Al composition ratio. This assumption is based on the tektite geopolymerization research and associated references. In summary, this study provides a feasible approach for developing lunar cement materials using a possible water recycling system based on geopolymer technology.

  17. Comparison of the magnetic properties and Mossbauer analysis of glass from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Beloc, Haiti, with tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, A. N.; Senftle, F. E.; May, L.; Barkatt, A.; Adel-Hadadi, M. A.; Marbury, G. S.; Izett, G. A.; Maurrasse, F. R.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic properties of black Beloc glass have been measured. The Curie constant, the magnetization, and the magnetic susceptibility of the Beloc glass fall within the known ranges observed for tektites. However, the temperature-independent component of the magnetic susceptibility is slightly higher than that found for tektites. Moreover, it is not possible to match the experimental magnetic data for the Beloc glass with the calculated values using the previously reported Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratio of 0.7. The oxidation state of Fe was therefore redetermined by Mossbauer measurements, and the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratio was found to be 0.024 plus or minus 0.015. Using the redetermined value of the ratio, the magnetic parameters were again calculated using formulas that are applicable to tektites, and good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental values. The experimental magnetic measurements and the redetermined Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratio of the Beloc glass specimens are essentially the same as those found for tektite glass.

  18. Development of near-zero water consumption cement materials via the geopolymerization of tektites and its implication for lunar construction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Tuo; Tang, Qing; Cui, Xue-Min; He, Yan; Liu, Le-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The environment on the lunar surface poses some difficult challenges to building long-term lunar bases; therefore, scientists and engineers have proposed the creation of habitats using lunar building materials. These materials must meet the following conditions: be resistant to severe lunar temperature cycles, be stable in a vacuum environment, have minimal water requirements, and be sourced from local Moon materials. Therefore, the preparation of lunar building materials that use lunar resources is preferred. Here, we present a potential lunar cement material that was fabricated using tektite powder and a sodium hydroxide activator and is based on geopolymer technology. Geopolymer materials have the following properties: approximately zero water consumption, resistance to high- and low-temperature cycling, vacuum stability and good mechanical properties. Although the tektite powder is not equivalent to lunar soil, we speculate that the alkali activated activity of lunar soil will be higher than that of tektite because of its low Si/Al composition ratio. This assumption is based on the tektite geopolymerization research and associated references. In summary, this study provides a feasible approach for developing lunar cement materials using a possible water recycling system based on geopolymer technology. PMID:27406467

  19. 76 FR 15047 - Port of Ivory, LLC-Operation Exemption-Line of Railroad in Tulare County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board Port of Ivory, LLC--Operation Exemption--Line of Railroad in Tulare County, CA Port of Ivory, LLC (Port), a limited liability company and noncarrier, has filed a verified notice... Valley Railroad Company (SJVR) at a point known as Ivory (milepost 232.3 on SJVR's Exeter...

  20. Petrographic and petrological studies of lunar rocks. [Apollo 15 breccias and Russian tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winzer, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    Clasts, rind glass, matrix glass, and matrix minerals from five Apollo 15 glass-coated breccias (15255, 15286, 15465, 15466, and 15505) were studied optically and with the SEM/microprobe. Rind glass compositions differ from sample to sample, but are identical, or nearly so, to the local soil, suggesting their origin by fusion of that soil. Most breccia samples contain green or colorless glass spheres identical to the Apollo 15 green glasses. These glasses, along with other glass shards and fragments, indicate a large soil component is present in the breccias. Clast populations include basalts and gabbros containing phases highly enriched in iron, indicative of extreme differentiation or fractional crystallization. Impact melts, anorthosites, and minor amounts of ANT suite material are also present among the clasts. Tektite glasses, impact melts, and breccias from the Zhamanshin structure, USSR, were also studied. Basic tektite glasses were found to be identical in composition to impact melts from the structure, but no satisfactory parent material has been identified in the limited suite of samples available.

  1. Trace-element composition of Chicxulub crater melt rock, K/T tektites and Yucatan basement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Gregoire, D. C.; Attrep, M., Jr.; Claeys, P.; Thompson, C. M.; Boynton, W. V.

    1993-01-01

    The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary Chicxulub impact is the best preserved large impact in the geologic record. The Chicxulub crater has been buried with no apparent erosion of its intracrater deposits, and its ejecta blanket is known and is well preserved at hundreds of localities globally. Although most of the molten material ejected from the crater has been largely altered, a few localities still preserve tektite glass. Availability of intra- and extracrater impact products as well as plausible matches to the targeted rocks allows the comparison of compositions of the different classes of impact products to those of the impacted lithologies. Determination of trace-element compositions of the K/T tektites, Chicxulub melt rock, and the targeted Yucatan silicate basement and carbonate/evaporite lithologies have been made using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Some sample splits were studied with both techniques to ensure that inter-laboratory variation was not significant or could be corrected. The concentration of a few major and minor elements was also checked against microprobe results. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used to determine Ir abundances in some samples.

  2. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the cloud bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; ... Mar 14, 2000 Images:  California Coast location:  United States region:  ...

  3. Ivory vertebra on 18F-sodium fluoride scan: an old sign in a new modality.

    PubMed

    Oldan, Jorge Daniel; Kuzminski, Samuel; James, Olga

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of ivory vertebra on 18F-sodium fluoride. A prostate cancer patient had a 18F-sodium fluoride PET scan to evaluate overall spread of disease. In addition to other findings of metastatic disease, the patient had an ivory vertebra.

  4. Melting of Soil Rich in Quartz by Radiation from Aerial Bursts - A Possible Cause of Formation of Libyan Desert Glass and Layered Tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetsov, V. V.; Wasson, J. T.

    2007-03-01

    Impact scenarios with breakup and atmospheric deceleration of meteoroids, in which Libyan Desert Glass and layered tektites could be produced, are considered. Amounts of quartz-rich soil melted by radiation from the bursts are estimated.

  5. Isotopic signatures of black tektites from the K-T boundary on Haiti - Implications for the age and type of source material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, W. R.; Izett, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic study was carried out to characterize the type of black tektites from the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary on Haiti (the first reasonably well-preserved impact-derived material recovered from the K-T boundary), in order to help characterize the tektite source material (i.e., the type of rocks that were melted and ejected during the impact event(s) at around 64.5 Ma). Results show that the isotopic data and all of the element concentration data obtained are consistent with an andesitic-dacitic composition for the tektites and their source material. The Nd isotopic data suggest that the source rocks were not older than Silurian (T(chur) = 400 Ma) in age, and were composed largely of young (less than 1080 Ma) crustal material. Of the suspected K-T boundary impact sites, both the Manson (Iowa) and Chicxulub (Yucatan) structures occur in suitable lithologies to yield the Haitian black tektites.

  6. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Meed, R.M.

    1991-10-01

    This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.

  7. Tektite 1, man-in-the-sea project: Marine Science Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, H.E.; Mahnken, C.V.W.; Van Derwalker, J. C.; Waller, R.A.

    1970-01-01

    The Tektite experiment was designed to provide data for a number of behavioral, biomedical, and engineering studies in addition to the marine sciences program. Conditions for some of these studies were not altogether compatible with the program for the marine sciences. For example, isolation imposed by human behavioral studies precluded physical contact with the surface team, even though such contact was physically possible and desirable for the conduct of the marine sciences program. Isolation also imposed on the scientific team the duty of all in-habitat maintenance, both scheduled and unscheduled, thereby taking substantial time from scientific research. In addition, between 10 and 20 percent of the waking time was devoted to performance of psychological tests required for the biomedical studies. Most of the experiments were directed toward detecting potentially adverse changes and thus were accepted as necessary and desirable. The only health problem to affect the scientific program during the dive was a minor external ear infection contracted by all the divers. Nonetheless, the experiment demon. strated, at least to our satisfaction, the advantages of underwater habitation and saturation diving for biological and geological research. A major advantage is the opportunity for continuous monitoring of organisms or processes. In addition, underwater habitation provides for considerably more research time in the water than surface diving or intermittent bottom dwelling, and this advantage increases greatly as the depth of habitation increases. Even in the relatively shallow depths at which Tektite 1 was conducted, the undersea team could spend appreciably more time at work in the water than their colleagues on the surface. Finally, Tektite 1 demonstrated that the scientist who lives in the sea need not have the extensive qualifications of a professional diver. Of the four scientists of the in-habitat team, only Crew Chief Waller was so qualified; the other three

  8. Mid-infrared bi-directional reflectance spectroscopy of impact melt glasses and tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morlok, Andreas; Stojic, Aleksandra; Weber, Iris; Hiesinger, Harald; Zanetti, Michael; Helbert, Joern

    2016-11-01

    We have analyzed 14 impact melt glass samples, covering the compositional range from highly felsic to mafic/basaltic, as part of our effort to provide mid-infrared spectra (7-14 μm) for MERTIS (Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer), an instrument onboard of the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission. Since Mercury was exposed to many impacts in its history, and impact glasses are also common on other bodies, powders of tektites (Irghizite, Libyan Desert Glass, Moldavite, Muong Nong, Thailandite) and impact glasses (from the Dellen, El'gygytgyn, Lonar, Mien, Mistastin, and Popigai impact structures) were analyzed in four size fractions of (0-25, 25-63, 93-125 and 125-250 μm) from 2.5 to 19 μm in bi-directional reflectance. The characteristic Christiansen Feature (CF) is identified between 7.3 μm (Libyan Desert Glass) and 8.2 μm (Dellen). Most samples show mid-infrared spectra typical of highly amorphous material, dominated by a strong Reststrahlen Band (RB) between 8.9 μm (Libyan Desert Glass) and 10.3 μm (Dellen). Even substantial amounts of mineral fragments hardly affect this general band shape. Comparisons of the SiO2 content representing the felsic/mafic composition of the samples with the CF shows felsic/intermediate glass and tektites forming a big group, and comparatively mafic samples a second one. An additional sign of a highly amorphous state is the lack of features at wavelengths longer than ∼15 μm. The tektites and two impact glasses, Irghizite and El'gygytgyn respectively, have much weaker water features than most of the other impact glasses. For the application in remote sensing, spectral features have to be correlated with compositional characteristics of the materials. The dominating RB in the 7-14 μm range correlates well with the SiO2 content, the Christiansen Feature shows similar dependencies. To distinguish between glass and crystalline phases of the same chemical composition, a comparison between CF the SCFM index (SiO2/(SiO2

  9. Accretionary lapilli, tektites, or concretions: the ubiquitous spherules of Meridiani Planum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGregorio, Barry E.

    2004-11-01

    One of the most enigmatic discoveries made by the NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity (MER-B) at the Meridiani Planum landing site are the ubiquitous spherules referred to as "blueberries" by the science team. They cover the entire landing area and can be seen in every direction within view of the rover cameras. Subsequent analysis of a small grouping of the spherules laying on top of a rock outcrop by Mossbauer spectroscopy showed an intense hematite signature not found on the rock or in the surrounding basaltic soils. Spherules were also found attached to and embedded within sedimentary sulfate rock outcrops found at the landing area that have been determined by the MER science team as having been formed in an acidic liquid water environment. The appearance of most of the Meridiani spherules is strikingly similar to the morphology and size of terrestrial accretionary lapilli and show similarities to terrestrial tektites. Accretionary lapilli are spherical balls and fragments with a concentric layered structure that are formed by a variety of mechanisms including hydrovolcanic eruptions, geysers and large meteorite impacts in water. Tektites are glassy impact spherules that form as a result of large meteorite impacts and also seem apparent in some of the rover images. Tektites can be perfectly spherical or have teardrop and dumbbell shapes. A lack of a visible volcanic source capable of producing high volumes of accretionary lapilli as seen in the MER-B images, in combination with the strong spectral signature of hematite, that some of the spherules display, led the MER science team to favor a concretion hypothesis thus far. All of these types of spherules involve interaction of with surface water or ice to form. Problems exist in explaining how the Martian "concretions", if that is indeed what they are, are of such uniform size and have such a wide distribution. Evidence from Martian orbit and on the surface indicate that the Meridiani Planum landing ellipse

  10. Histogenesis of the unique morphology of proboscidean ivory.

    PubMed

    Virág, Attila

    2012-12-01

    The chequered pattern (often called Schreger pattern), which can be seen by unaided eye on transverse profiles of several proboscidean tusks and which can be emphasized by the spreading pattern of the cracks or by mineral discoloration, is an autapomorph feature of the clade Elephantoidea. The pattern differs among proboscidean taxa; therefore, it allows the coarse differentiation of elephants, mammoths, and some other basal groups. Such identification methods could facilitate efforts concerned with protection of the remaining elephant populations through ivory trade restrictions, since the tooth dentine from extinct Mammuthusprimigenius and from extant Loxodontaafricana and Elephasmaximus are the most common raw materials of the ivory carvings. The aim of this study was to show the internal structure of proboscidean ivory and to revise the existing theories on the aforementioned pattern of the elephantoids with reflections on the events which lead to the development of this microstructure. Thin sections and natural crack surfaces with various orientations of M.primigenius, Elephasantiquus, Prodeinotherium, and Deinotherium tusk fragments were used to produce a three-dimensional model which explains the features on all profiles. The "phase shift" model is introduced, which assumes a sinusoid undulation of the dentinal tubules in radial profiles in the case of elephantoids. The model was confirmed by photomicrographs, scanning electron microscopic images, interpretation of natural crack surfaces, and radial displacement analysis of the dentinal tubules. The latter proved that the adjacent waves are not in the same phase. Several new nondestructive distinguishing methods are described here on the basis of the correlation between some microscopic and macroscopic features related to the Schreger pattern. PMID:22949298

  11. Histogenesis of the unique morphology of proboscidean ivory.

    PubMed

    Virág, Attila

    2012-12-01

    The chequered pattern (often called Schreger pattern), which can be seen by unaided eye on transverse profiles of several proboscidean tusks and which can be emphasized by the spreading pattern of the cracks or by mineral discoloration, is an autapomorph feature of the clade Elephantoidea. The pattern differs among proboscidean taxa; therefore, it allows the coarse differentiation of elephants, mammoths, and some other basal groups. Such identification methods could facilitate efforts concerned with protection of the remaining elephant populations through ivory trade restrictions, since the tooth dentine from extinct Mammuthusprimigenius and from extant Loxodontaafricana and Elephasmaximus are the most common raw materials of the ivory carvings. The aim of this study was to show the internal structure of proboscidean ivory and to revise the existing theories on the aforementioned pattern of the elephantoids with reflections on the events which lead to the development of this microstructure. Thin sections and natural crack surfaces with various orientations of M.primigenius, Elephasantiquus, Prodeinotherium, and Deinotherium tusk fragments were used to produce a three-dimensional model which explains the features on all profiles. The "phase shift" model is introduced, which assumes a sinusoid undulation of the dentinal tubules in radial profiles in the case of elephantoids. The model was confirmed by photomicrographs, scanning electron microscopic images, interpretation of natural crack surfaces, and radial displacement analysis of the dentinal tubules. The latter proved that the adjacent waves are not in the same phase. Several new nondestructive distinguishing methods are described here on the basis of the correlation between some microscopic and macroscopic features related to the Schreger pattern.

  12. Biodegradation of ivory (natural apatite): possible involvement of fungal activity in biodeterioration of the Lewis Chessmen.

    PubMed

    Pinzari, Flavia; Tate, James; Bicchieri, Marina; Rhee, Young Joon; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2013-04-01

    Fungal biodeterioration of ivory was investigated with in vitro inoculation of samples obtained from boar and walrus tusks with the fungi Aspergillus niger and Serpula himantioides, species of known geoactive abilities. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopy together with associated analytical techniques was used to characterize fungal interactions with the ivory, including changes in ivory composition, dissolution and tunnelling, and the formation of new biominerals. The research was aimed at providing further understanding of the potential roles of fungi in the colonization and deterioration of ivory in terrestrial environments, but also contributes to our knowledge regarding the possible origins of the surface damage observed on early medieval sculptures made largely from walrus tusks, referred to as 'the Lewis hoard of gaming pieces', that were presumably produced for playing chess. The experiments have shown that the possibility of damage to ivory being caused by fungi is realistic. Scanning electron microscopy revealed penetration of fungal hyphae within cracks in the walrus tusk that showed also widespread tunnelling by fungal hyphae as well as 'fungal footprints' where the surface was etched as a consequence of mycelial colonization. Similar phenomena were observed with boar tusk ivory, while production of metabolites could lead to complete dissolution of the sample. Colonization of ivory and/or exposure to fungal activity lead to extensive secondary biomineral formation, and this was identified as calcium oxalate, mainly as the monohydrate, whewellite. PMID:23157656

  13. Biodegradation of ivory (natural apatite): possible involvement of fungal activity in biodeterioration of the Lewis Chessmen.

    PubMed

    Pinzari, Flavia; Tate, James; Bicchieri, Marina; Rhee, Young Joon; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2013-04-01

    Fungal biodeterioration of ivory was investigated with in vitro inoculation of samples obtained from boar and walrus tusks with the fungi Aspergillus niger and Serpula himantioides, species of known geoactive abilities. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopy together with associated analytical techniques was used to characterize fungal interactions with the ivory, including changes in ivory composition, dissolution and tunnelling, and the formation of new biominerals. The research was aimed at providing further understanding of the potential roles of fungi in the colonization and deterioration of ivory in terrestrial environments, but also contributes to our knowledge regarding the possible origins of the surface damage observed on early medieval sculptures made largely from walrus tusks, referred to as 'the Lewis hoard of gaming pieces', that were presumably produced for playing chess. The experiments have shown that the possibility of damage to ivory being caused by fungi is realistic. Scanning electron microscopy revealed penetration of fungal hyphae within cracks in the walrus tusk that showed also widespread tunnelling by fungal hyphae as well as 'fungal footprints' where the surface was etched as a consequence of mycelial colonization. Similar phenomena were observed with boar tusk ivory, while production of metabolites could lead to complete dissolution of the sample. Colonization of ivory and/or exposure to fungal activity lead to extensive secondary biomineral formation, and this was identified as calcium oxalate, mainly as the monohydrate, whewellite.

  14. Legal ivory trade in a corrupt world and its impact on African elephant populations.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Elizabeth L

    2015-02-01

    Illegal hunting of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) for ivory is causing rapid declines in their populations. Since 2007, illegal ivory trade has more than doubled. African elephants are facing the most serious conservation crisis since 1989, when international trade was banned. One solution proposed is establishment of a controlled legal trade in ivory. High prices for ivory mean that the incentives to obtain large quantities are high, but the quantity of tusks available for trade are biologically constrained. Within that context, effective management of a legal ivory trade would require robust systems to be in place to ensure that ivory from illegally killed elephants cannot be laundered into a legal market. At present, that is not feasible due to corruption among government officials charged with implementing wildlife-related legislation. With organized criminal enterprises involved along the whole commodity chain, corruption enables the laundering of illegal ivory into legal or potentially legal markets. Poachers and traffickers can rapidly pay their way out of trouble, so the financial incentives to break the law heavily outweigh those of abiding by it. Maintaining reliable permitting systems and leak-proof chains of custody in this context is challenging, and effective management breaks down. Once illegal ivory has entered the legal trade, it is difficult or impossible for enforcement officers to know what is legal and illegal. Addressing corruption throughout a trade network that permeates countries across the globe will take decades, if it can ever be achieved. That will be too late for wild African elephants at current rates of loss. If we are to conserve remaining wild populations, we must close all markets because, under current levels of corruption, they cannot be controlled in a way that does not provide opportunities for illegal ivory being laundered into legal markets. PMID:25103555

  15. Using DNA to track the origin of the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 trade ban

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Samuel K.; Mailand, Celia; Booth, Rebecca; Mutayoba, Benezeth; Kisamo, Emily; Clark, Bill; Stephens, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The illegal ivory trade recently intensified to the highest levels ever reported. Policing this trafficking has been hampered by the inability to reliably determine geographic origin of contraband ivory. Ivory can be smuggled across multiple international borders and along numerous trade routes, making poaching hotspots and potential trade routes difficult to identify. This fluidity also makes it difficult to refute a country's denial of poaching problems. We extend an innovative DNA assignment method to determine the geographic origin(s) of large elephant ivory seizures. A Voronoi tessellation method is used that utilizes genetic similarities across tusks to simultaneously infer the origin of multiple samples that could have one or more common origin(s). We show that this joint analysis performs better than sample-by-sample methods in assigning sample clusters of known origin. The joint method is then used to infer the geographic origin of the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 ivory trade ban. Wildlife authorities initially suspected that this ivory came from multiple locations across forest and savanna Africa. However, we show that the ivory was entirely from savanna elephants, most probably originating from a narrow east-to-west band of southern Africa, centered on Zambia. These findings enabled law enforcement to focus their investigation to a smaller area and fewer trade routes and led to changes within the Zambian government to improve antipoaching efforts. Such outcomes demonstrate the potential of genetic analyses to help combat the expanding wildlife trade by identifying origin(s) of large seizures of contraband ivory. Broader applications to wildlife trade are discussed. PMID:17360505

  16. Using DNA to track the origin of the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 trade ban.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Samuel K; Mailand, Celia; Booth, Rebecca; Mutayoba, Benezeth; Kisamo, Emily; Clark, Bill; Stephens, Matthew

    2007-03-01

    The illegal ivory trade recently intensified to the highest levels ever reported. Policing this trafficking has been hampered by the inability to reliably determine geographic origin of contraband ivory. Ivory can be smuggled across multiple international borders and along numerous trade routes, making poaching hotspots and potential trade routes difficult to identify. This fluidity also makes it difficult to refute a country's denial of poaching problems. We extend an innovative DNA assignment method to determine the geographic origin(s) of large elephant ivory seizures. A Voronoi tessellation method is used that utilizes genetic similarities across tusks to simultaneously infer the origin of multiple samples that could have one or more common origin(s). We show that this joint analysis performs better than sample-by-sample methods in assigning sample clusters of known origin. The joint method is then used to infer the geographic origin of the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 ivory trade ban. Wildlife authorities initially suspected that this ivory came from multiple locations across forest and savanna Africa. However, we show that the ivory was entirely from savanna elephants, most probably originating from a narrow east-to-west band of southern Africa, centered on Zambia. These findings enabled law enforcement to focus their investigation to a smaller area and fewer trade routes and led to changes within the Zambian government to improve antipoaching efforts. Such outcomes demonstrate the potential of genetic analyses to help combat the expanding wildlife trade by identifying origin(s) of large seizures of contraband ivory. Broader applications to wildlife trade are discussed. PMID:17360505

  17. Using DNA to track the origin of the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 trade ban.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Samuel K; Mailand, Celia; Booth, Rebecca; Mutayoba, Benezeth; Kisamo, Emily; Clark, Bill; Stephens, Matthew

    2007-03-01

    The illegal ivory trade recently intensified to the highest levels ever reported. Policing this trafficking has been hampered by the inability to reliably determine geographic origin of contraband ivory. Ivory can be smuggled across multiple international borders and along numerous trade routes, making poaching hotspots and potential trade routes difficult to identify. This fluidity also makes it difficult to refute a country's denial of poaching problems. We extend an innovative DNA assignment method to determine the geographic origin(s) of large elephant ivory seizures. A Voronoi tessellation method is used that utilizes genetic similarities across tusks to simultaneously infer the origin of multiple samples that could have one or more common origin(s). We show that this joint analysis performs better than sample-by-sample methods in assigning sample clusters of known origin. The joint method is then used to infer the geographic origin of the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 ivory trade ban. Wildlife authorities initially suspected that this ivory came from multiple locations across forest and savanna Africa. However, we show that the ivory was entirely from savanna elephants, most probably originating from a narrow east-to-west band of southern Africa, centered on Zambia. These findings enabled law enforcement to focus their investigation to a smaller area and fewer trade routes and led to changes within the Zambian government to improve antipoaching efforts. Such outcomes demonstrate the potential of genetic analyses to help combat the expanding wildlife trade by identifying origin(s) of large seizures of contraband ivory. Broader applications to wildlife trade are discussed.

  18. Legal ivory trade in a corrupt world and its impact on African elephant populations.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Elizabeth L

    2015-02-01

    Illegal hunting of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) for ivory is causing rapid declines in their populations. Since 2007, illegal ivory trade has more than doubled. African elephants are facing the most serious conservation crisis since 1989, when international trade was banned. One solution proposed is establishment of a controlled legal trade in ivory. High prices for ivory mean that the incentives to obtain large quantities are high, but the quantity of tusks available for trade are biologically constrained. Within that context, effective management of a legal ivory trade would require robust systems to be in place to ensure that ivory from illegally killed elephants cannot be laundered into a legal market. At present, that is not feasible due to corruption among government officials charged with implementing wildlife-related legislation. With organized criminal enterprises involved along the whole commodity chain, corruption enables the laundering of illegal ivory into legal or potentially legal markets. Poachers and traffickers can rapidly pay their way out of trouble, so the financial incentives to break the law heavily outweigh those of abiding by it. Maintaining reliable permitting systems and leak-proof chains of custody in this context is challenging, and effective management breaks down. Once illegal ivory has entered the legal trade, it is difficult or impossible for enforcement officers to know what is legal and illegal. Addressing corruption throughout a trade network that permeates countries across the globe will take decades, if it can ever be achieved. That will be too late for wild African elephants at current rates of loss. If we are to conserve remaining wild populations, we must close all markets because, under current levels of corruption, they cannot be controlled in a way that does not provide opportunities for illegal ivory being laundered into legal markets.

  19. Ivory Harvesting Pressure on the Genome of the African Elephant: A Phenotypic Shift to Tusklessness.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, Erich J; Miniggio, Hilde D

    2016-09-01

    The unique chequered pattern of elephant ivory has made it a desired commodity for the production of various works of art. The demand however outstrips the supply and with soaring prices, illegal tusk harvesting is thriving on the African continent. Formal restrictions placed on trade in elephant products have been ineffective in reversing the rapid decline in elephant numbers. We are presently facing the reality of extinction of free roaming elephant on the African continent. This paper describes the histogenesis of the chequered pattern, the genomic impact of ivory harvesting on the phenotype of breeding herds, and the contribution of science to tracing the origin of illegal ivory. PMID:26920555

  20. Ivory Harvesting Pressure on the Genome of the African Elephant: A Phenotypic Shift to Tusklessness.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, Erich J; Miniggio, Hilde D

    2016-09-01

    The unique chequered pattern of elephant ivory has made it a desired commodity for the production of various works of art. The demand however outstrips the supply and with soaring prices, illegal tusk harvesting is thriving on the African continent. Formal restrictions placed on trade in elephant products have been ineffective in reversing the rapid decline in elephant numbers. We are presently facing the reality of extinction of free roaming elephant on the African continent. This paper describes the histogenesis of the chequered pattern, the genomic impact of ivory harvesting on the phenotype of breeding herds, and the contribution of science to tracing the origin of illegal ivory.

  1. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    GAO found the situation in the Philadelphia and New York ports similar to that in Prince William Sound-neither industry nor the Coast Guard are prepared to respond to major oil spills. This report discusses how this unpreparedness is due to a lack of specificity in the industry and Coast Guard's plan on how to deal with spills of various sizes and Coast Guard authority to require ship owners and operators to have contingency plans or to require changes in existing plans. On the basic of recent experiences, GAO believes that prevention of oil spills rather than responding to them should be the main priority. Experiences in Price William Sound and in Philadelphia, however, show that much needs to be done to improve prevention measures like monitoring and guiding ship movements and using harbor pilots or vessel escorts.

  2. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities.

  3. Some effects of gas adsorption on the high temperature volatile release behavior of a terrestrial basalt, tektite and lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, D. G.; Muenow, D. W.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Mass pyrograms obtained from high-temperature, mass psectrometric pyrolysis of a glassy theoleiitic submarine basalt and a tektite, ground in air to less than 64 microns, have shown N2 and SO release patterns very similar to those from the pyrolysis of mature lunar soil fines. The N2 and CO release behavior from the terrestrial samples reproduces the biomodal, high-temperature (approximately 700 and 1050 C) features from the lunar samples. Unground portions of the basalt and tektite show no release of N2 and CO during pyrolysis. Grinding also alters the release behavior and absolute amounts of H2O and CO2. It is suggested that adsorption of atmospheric gases in addition to solar wind implantation of ions may account for the wide range of values in previously reported concentrations of carbon and nitrogen from lunar fines.

  4. [Ultrasound scanning of abdominal contusions in children: experience at the Yopougon CHU (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    N'Goan, A M; Aguehounde, C; N'Gbesso, R D; Moh, N; Roux, C; Keita, K

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasound scans were used to study 23 cases of abdominal contusion in children, between January 1992 and December 1993. Thirteen boys and 10 girls were studied. They were all aged between 4 and 14 years, with a mean age of 6 years. The main causes of their injuries were road accidents (12 cases) and play (11 cases). Ultrasound scans were normal in 6 patients and pathological in 17 patients. The most frequently observed injuries were visceral effects (12 cases), almost always associated with hemoperitoneum. In three cases, hemoperitoneum was detected in the absence of visceral effects. The spleen (4 cases) and the liver (4 cases) were the most frequently injured organs. The other injuries detected included renal hematoma, bladder rupture and parietal hematoma. Diagnosis on the basis of ultrasound scans was found to be incorrect in three cases where diagnosis was repeated after the scan. One case involved a blocked perforation of the rectum, one a benign cyst and the other a mesenteric cyst. Despite these misdiagnoses, ultrasound scanning is a highly sensitive and specific method for examination of contusions in children. It is very useful and often sufficient for accurate diagnosis, particularly in units with only modest technical support. PMID:9480035

  5. Management of Hypertension in the Elderly Patient at Abidjan Cardiology Institute (Ivory Coast)

    PubMed Central

    Kramoh, K. E.; Aké-Traboulsi, E.; Konin, C.; N'goran, Y.; Coulibaly, I.; Adoubi, A.; Koffi, J.; Anzouan-Kacou, J. B.; Guikahue, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Since the treatment of hypertension is beneficial for the elderly, we have undertaken this study that aims to evaluate the management of hypertension in elderly patient in Côte d'Ivoire. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted among 854 hypertensive elderly patients of Abidjan Cardiology Institute who were followed for a minimum of one year, between January 2000 and December 2009. Results. The patients mean age was 73.1 ± 5.3 years, and 59% were women. At the first presentation, it was mostly systolic-diastolic hypertension (51.8%) and isolated systolic hypertension (38.5%). Mean blood pressure was 169.4 ± 28.4 mmHg for systolic, 95.3 ± 15.7 mmHg for diastolic, and 74.1 ± 22.8 mmHg for pulse pressure. Pulse pressure was ≥60 mmHg in 80.4%. According to the European Guidelines stratification of the cardiovascular risk-excess attributable to high blood pressure, 82.1% of the sample had a very high added risk. The pharmacological therapy was prescribed in 93.5%. More than 66% of patients were receiving ≥2 antihypertensive drugs including fixed-dose combination drugs. The most common agents used were diuretics (63.5%) followed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in 61.3%. The most common agents used for monotherapy were calcium antagonists. When ≥2 drugs were used, diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers were the most common. Blood pressure control was achieved in 42.6%. Conclusion. The control of elderly hypertension can be effective in Sub-Saharan Africa. He required at least two antihypertensive drugs to meet the recommended blood pressure target. PMID:22028955

  6. [Geographic distribution of trypanosomiasis treated in Ivory Coast from 1993 to 2000].

    PubMed

    Dje, N N; Miezan, T W; N'guessan, P; Brika, P; Doua, F; Boa, F

    2002-12-01

    Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT, or sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense develops chronically in Côte d'Ivoire. From 1993 to 2000, a total of 1616 patients were taken in charge in the three treatment centres of the country, which means an average of 202 patients a year. The patients came from two main areas in the Centre West of the country in the Marahoué region: the districts of Sinfra, South of Bouaflé, and Bonon, West of Bouaflé. In the Centre West and in the South East of the country (Aboisso-Ayamé), patients are still struck by the disease, although these foci are less active. The remaining foci seem to be controlled, although no active survey has been carried out. The areas where the greatest number of patients were recorded are the ones where rental crops are located (cocoa and coffee mainly) and where rural activities tend to bring humans and tsetse flies in contact. In this study, are figured the number of treated patients, the endemic and risk areas. It will help to design control strategies and decision makers to know where priority control programs should be implemented.

  7. Life promises and 'failed' family ties: expectations and disappointment within a clinical trial (Ivory Coast).

    PubMed

    Marcis, F Le

    2015-12-01

    Building on fieldwork carried out in a clinical trial looking at early antiretroviral treatment for HIV in Abidjan, this paper aims to analyse the way relations emerge during trials and the consequences of the end of participation. Instead of discussing it using the register of ethics, understood as a universal set of principles, the trial is analysed for what it means locally for its actors, mainly patients. From this standpoint, the trial can be defined as both a promise of life and of new possibilities embodied in what is often described as new family ties. How are such ties formed and what does it mean when these ties are broken at the end of patient participation? Discussing the failure of family ties commented upon by patients and dealt by physician researcher is a way to look at ethics from below.

  8. Draft genome sequences of two closely-related aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species obtained from the Ivory Coast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomes of the A. ochraceoroseus and A. rambellii type strains were sequenced using a personal genome machine, followed by annotation of their genes. The genome size for A. ochraceoroseus was found to be approximately 23 Mb and contained 7,837 genes, while the A. rambellii genome was found to be...

  9. Chemical variability of Cleistopholis patens (Benth.) Engl. et Diels leaf oil from ivory coast.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Zana Adama; Boti, Jean Brice; Attioua, Koffi Barthelemy; Ahibo, Antoine Coffy; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Bighelli, Ange

    2013-11-01

    The chemical composition of 48 leaf oil samples isolated from individual plants of Cleistopholis patens (Benth.) Engl. et Diels harvested in four Ivoirian forests was investigated by GC-FID (determination of retention indices), GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR analyses. The main components identified were β-pinene (traces-59.1%), sabinene (traces-54.2%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (0.3-39.3%), linalool (0.1-38.5%), (E)-β-ocimene (0.1-33.2%), germacrene D (0.0-33.1%), α-pinene (0.1-32.3%), and germacrene B (0-21.2%). The 48 oil compositions were submitted to hierarchical clustering and principal components analyses, which allowed the distinction of three groups within the oil samples. The oil composition of the major group (GroupI, 33 samples) was dominated by (E)-β-caryophyllene and linalool. The oils of Group II (eight samples) contained mainly β-pinene and α-pinene, while those of Group III (seven samples) were dominated by sabinene, limonene, and β-phellandrene. Moreover, the compositions of the Ivoirian C. patens leaf oils differed from those of Nigerian and Cameroonian origins.

  10. Integrated water pollution assessment of the Ebrié Lagoon, Ivory Coast, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheren, P. A. G. M.; Kroeze, C.; Janssen, F. J. J. G.; Hordijk, L.; Ptasinski, K. J.

    2004-01-01

    An environmental pollution assessment of the Ebrié lagoon, the largest coastal ecosystem in Western Africa, was executed by applying the Driving force-Pressure-State-Impacts-Response (DPSIR) framework. The domestic and industrial activities in Abidjan and agricultural activities in the wider catchment area were identified as the main driving forces. Two-thirds of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) loads and 95% of total nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) loads of Abidjan are from domestic effluents, with industry making up the rest. Outside of the direct influence of Abidjan, nutrient levels in the lagoon are governed by the influx of nutrients from the rivers Comoé, Mé and Agnéby, with nutrient land runoff as the key factors. Total annual N loads to the lagoon for 2000 are estimated at 33 kt, of which 45% from urban sources, 42% from land runoff and 13% from atmospheric deposition. Estimates for P are 2.5 kt, 39%, 48% and 13%, respectively. Scenario analysis has shown that autonomous growth, without pollution reduction measures, would result in an estimated five-fold increase in nutrient inputs to the lagoon over the period 1980-2050. Nutrient concentrations in the lagoon would consequently increase by a factor of 3 1/2, which could escalate to a dramatic level of eutrophication for the complete system. Pollution reduction policies aimed at non-point sources would be most effective in reducing nutrient concentrations. Point-source pollution reduction would improve conditions around Abidjan, but not substantially in the other sections of the lagoon. The approach taken in this study has proven efficient under conditions of relative data scarceness, and sufficiently reliable to allow for policy level conclusions to be drawn.

  11. Performance of rapid tests and algorithms for HIV screening in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Loukou, Y G; Cabran, M A; Yessé, Zinzendorf Nanga; Adouko, B M O; Lathro, S J; Agbessi-Kouassi, K B T

    2014-01-01

    Seven rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) of HIV were evaluated by a panel group who collected serum samples from patients in Abidjan (HIV-1 = 203, HIV-2 = 25, HIV-dual = 25, HIV = 305). Kit performances were recorded after the reference techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following RDTs showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity higher than 99%: Determine, Oraquick, SD Bioline, BCP, and Stat-Pak. These kits were used to establish infection screening strategies. The combination with 2 or 3 of these tests in series or parallel algorithms showed that series combinations with 2 tests (Oraquick and Bioline) and 3 tests (Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak) gave the best performances (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%). However, the combination with 2 tests appeared to be more onerous than the combination with 3 tests. The combination with Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak tests serving as a tiebreaker could be an alternative to the HIV/AIDS serological screening in Abidjan.

  12. Management of hypertension in the elderly patient at abidjan cardiology institute (ivory coast).

    PubMed

    Kramoh, K E; Aké-Traboulsi, E; Konin, C; N'goran, Y; Coulibaly, I; Adoubi, A; Koffi, J; Anzouan-Kacou, J B; Guikahue, M

    2012-01-01

    Background. Since the treatment of hypertension is beneficial for the elderly, we have undertaken this study that aims to evaluate the management of hypertension in elderly patient in Côte d'Ivoire. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted among 854 hypertensive elderly patients of Abidjan Cardiology Institute who were followed for a minimum of one year, between January 2000 and December 2009. Results. The patients mean age was 73.1 ± 5.3 years, and 59% were women. At the first presentation, it was mostly systolic-diastolic hypertension (51.8%) and isolated systolic hypertension (38.5%). Mean blood pressure was 169.4 ± 28.4 mmHg for systolic, 95.3 ± 15.7 mmHg for diastolic, and 74.1 ± 22.8 mmHg for pulse pressure. Pulse pressure was ≥60 mmHg in 80.4%. According to the European Guidelines stratification of the cardiovascular risk-excess attributable to high blood pressure, 82.1% of the sample had a very high added risk. The pharmacological therapy was prescribed in 93.5%. More than 66% of patients were receiving ≥2 antihypertensive drugs including fixed-dose combination drugs. The most common agents used were diuretics (63.5%) followed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in 61.3%. The most common agents used for monotherapy were calcium antagonists. When ≥2 drugs were used, diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers were the most common. Blood pressure control was achieved in 42.6%. Conclusion. The control of elderly hypertension can be effective in Sub-Saharan Africa. He required at least two antihypertensive drugs to meet the recommended blood pressure target.

  13. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ivory Coast and Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii was detected in Florida in 2007. It was hypothesized that the pathogen originated from Africa because brown rust of sugarcane (syn. common rust) was introduced to the Western Hemisphere from Africa. Requests for rust infected sugarcane samples were...

  14. [Evaluation of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in Ivory Coast from 2008 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Ahui, B J-M; Horo, K; Bakayoko, A S; Kouassi, A B; Anon, J C; Brou-Gode, V C; Koffi, M O; Itchy, M V; N'Gom, A S; N'Goran, N B; Aka-Danguy, E

    2013-12-01

    This is a retrospective study conducted from January 2008 to December 2010 on sectional descriptive analysis of records of patients treated for MDR-TB and whose follow-up was in the thoracic department of Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) of Cocody in Abidjan Côte d'Ivoire. We selected eight patients who met the inclusion criteria of 21 MDR-TB patients registered during the study period. The average age was 29.25years ranging from 21 to 39. Males accounted for 75% of the patients (6 males and 2 females). The students represented the professional social layer most affected with 37.5% of the patients. All patients had a history of tuberculosis and only one patient was HIV positive under anti-retroviral (zidovudin, lamivudin and efavirenz). All cultures found Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The resistance profile in addition to isoniazid and rifampicin, found two cases of resistance to ethambutol and streptomycin. The chest radiograph at the time of initiation of second-line treatment showed essentially excavations in 75% of cases and infiltrates in 25%. The lesions were bilateral in 7 of 8 patients (87.5%). The main side effects observed during treatment were limited to cochleovestibular disorders (2 patients) and neuropsychiatric disorders (2 patients) and digestive disorders in half of the patients with removal of the offending molecule kanamycin. After 24months of treatment, it was numbered five cures (62.5%), two failures and one death.

  15. Life promises and 'failed' family ties: expectations and disappointment within a clinical trial (Ivory Coast).

    PubMed

    Marcis, F Le

    2015-12-01

    Building on fieldwork carried out in a clinical trial looking at early antiretroviral treatment for HIV in Abidjan, this paper aims to analyse the way relations emerge during trials and the consequences of the end of participation. Instead of discussing it using the register of ethics, understood as a universal set of principles, the trial is analysed for what it means locally for its actors, mainly patients. From this standpoint, the trial can be defined as both a promise of life and of new possibilities embodied in what is often described as new family ties. How are such ties formed and what does it mean when these ties are broken at the end of patient participation? Discussing the failure of family ties commented upon by patients and dealt by physician researcher is a way to look at ethics from below. PMID:26361643

  16. 12th International Congress (Abidjan, Ivory Coast, July 25-29, 1969)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Mabel

    1970-01-01

    The past president of the American Association of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation reports on the annual meetings of (1) the International Council on Health, Physical Education, and Recreation and (2) the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession. (SW)

  17. [Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy or the Destombes-Rosai-Dorfman disease in the Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Soubeyrand, J; Clerc, M; Rain, J D; Leleu, J P; Niamkey, E; Diallo, D; Raoul, D; Beda, B Y

    1984-04-01

    Sinusal histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy is a rare pathological entity since, as of 1983, only 200 cases have been published. Following the seminal description in 1965 by Destombes in Blacks, histological features of this disease were specified by Rosai and Dorfman in 1969 and 1972. We report three cases in young Ivorian subjects. The presenting finding is always chronically enlarged lymph nodes, but extranodal lesions are possible, most commonly involving the eye, salivary glands, upper respiratory tract, skin, bone, testis, and nervous system. Diagnosis can be ascertained only upon histologic examination of lymph node biopsy specimens which shows the three cardinal criteria, i.e. massive sinusal histiocytosis, lymphophagocytosis, and mature plasmocytosis. Although a few fatal cases have been reported, the disease usually runs a benign course, with exacerbations of variable duration. Great caution should therefore be taken in deciding upon management, particularly as regards corticosteroid therapy, radiotherapy or anticancer chemotherapy. Etiopathogeny of the disease is unsettled; there is general agreement as to the existence of a cellular immune dysfunction resulting in the lympho-histiocytic proliferation.

  18. [Five years of cholera surveillance in Ivory Coast during social and political crisis, 2001 to 2005].

    PubMed

    Ekra, K D; Attoh-Touré, H; Bénié, B V J; Coulibaly, D; Koutouan, M G; Aka, L N; Dagnan, S N; Coulibaly, A; Douba, A; Tiembré, I; Odéhouri-Koudou, P; Tagliante-Saracino, J

    2009-05-01

    For an efficient struggle against infectious diseases with epidemic potential, the Cdte d'Ivoire set up a precocious alert system in 2001 with a main objective: to detect epidemics of cholera, measles, yellow fever and meningitis and to provide necessary information for their control and their prevention. During the 2001 to 2005 period, the country was marked by military and political crisis which occurred in 2002; the country had to face up to a reappearance of cholera. How did it evolve in such a context? The question was to describe the performances of the system and the evolution of cholera from weekly data collected by the centers of epidemiological monitoring in health districts. The cases and declared deaths were compiled and the indicators of morbidity and mortality were then studied according to time site and individual features on the period of 2001 to 2005. From 2001 to 2005, 11,874 cases were notified with 564 deaths and a lethal rate of 4.7%. In 2001, from the initial source of infection, the civil jail, the epidemic of cholera disseminated itself through visitors in the whole city of Abidjan where 3250 cases were notified. Out of city, 20 outbreaks have been declared with a total of 3010 cases. The yearly highest impact, 37 living cases/100,000 inhabitants recorded in 2001, decreased regularly until 2005 with 0.2 living cases/100,000. After 2002, outbreaks were located mainly in the half south of the country which welcomed displaced populations from the north, preferably in transition or settling zones near the front line. The lethal rate in Abidjan (2.3%) was less important than that of other health districts (8.6%). The lethal rate globally increased as the impact decreased. Vibrio cholerae was responsible for the epidemics. The group of 15 years old and over was the most affected (12.69 living cases/100,000) whereas the highest lethal rate appeared in the group under 5 years old (6.6%). The reappearance and constant cholera epidemics in Côte d'Ivoire are due to bad general hygiene conditions, insufficient supply of drinking water from wells or packaged, concentration of populations in the south of the country due to war and uncontrolled development of the poor and unsanitary precarious boroughs. Outburst during the dry season is a warning signal of an important epidemic during the raining season especially in poor urban areas. The precocious alert system has permitted to detect the epidemics, to follow up their evolution and to orientate the struggle against cholera in Côte d'Ivoire.

  19. Anisotropy of Paramagnetic Susceptibility Observed at the Surface of an Indochinite Tektite Detected by Field-Induced Rotational-Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, Chiaki; Hisaoshi, Keiji

    Local anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility Δχ is detected at the surface area of an indochinite tektite, which is an amorphous silicate produced by a meteorite impact followed by rapid cooling. The observed Δχ values showed a maximum value at the surface (Δχ = 1.8 x 10-6 emu/g), which gradually decreased toward the inner direction. The local Δχ values were obtained from a period of field-induced rotational-oscillation measured for the thin plates (1.0 x 1.0 x 0.2 mm) separated from the surface area; spatial resolution of Δχ depth profile was improved to a level of 0.2 mm in the present study. The observed Δχ at the surface of indochinite was comparable to the value previously observed at the surface of a moldavite tektite. The existence of local Δχ at the surface of two different tektites, formed by separate events, indicated that a slight distortion of isotropic configuration may generally occur in the atomic positions of amorphous silicates, especially when they were formed by rapid cooling.

  20. High levels of contaminants in ivory gull Pagophila eburnea eggs from the Russian and Norwegian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Miljeteig, Cecilie; Strøm, Hallvard; Gavrilo, Maria V; Volkov, Andrey; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2009-07-15

    We found high levels of contaminants, in particular organochlorines, in eggs of the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea, a high Arctic seabird species threatened by climate change and contaminants. An 80% decline in the ivory gull breeding population in the Canadian Arctic the last two decades has been documented. Because of the dependence of the ivory gull on sea ice and its high trophic position, suggested environmental threats are climate change and contaminants. The present study investigated contaminant levels (organochlorines, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated alkyl substances, and mercury) in ivory gull eggs from four colonies in the Norwegian (Svalbard) and Russian Arctic (Franz Josef Land and Severnaya Zemlya). The contaminant levels presented here are among the highest reported in Arctic seabird species, and we identify this as an important stressor in a species already at risk due to environmental change.

  1. The diffraction grating in the Ivory optomechanical modeling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatheway, Alson E.

    2013-09-01

    In imaging spectrometers it is important that both the image of the far-field object and the image of the slit be stable on the detector plane. Lenses and mirrors contribute to the motions of these images but motions of the diffraction grating also have their own influences on these image motions. This paper develops the vector equations for the images (spectra) of the diffraction grating and derives their optomechanical influence coefficients from them. The Ivory Optomechanical Modeling Tools integrates the diffraction grating into the larger optical imaging system and formats the whole system's influence coefficients suitably for both spreadsheet and finite element analysis methods. Their application is illustrated in an example of a spectrometer exposed to both static and dynamic disturbances.

  2. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.

  3. Obsidians and tektites: Natural analogues for water diffusion in nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, J.J.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Stevenson, C.M.

    1991-11-01

    Projected scenarios for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository include significant periods of time when high relative humidity atmospheres will be present, thus the reaction processes of interest will include those known to occur under these conditions. The ideal natural analog for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository would consist of natural borosilicate glasses exposed to expected repository conditions for thousands of years; however, the prospects for identifying such an analog are remote, but an important caveat for using natural analog studies is to relate the reaction processes in the analog to those in the system of interest, rather than a strict comparison of the glass compositions. In lieu of this, identifying natural glasses that have reacted via reaction processes expected in the repository is the most attractive option. The goal of this study is to quantify molecular water diffusion in the natural analogs obsidian and tektites. Results from this study can be used in assessing the importance of factors affecting molecular water diffusion in nuclear waste glasses, relative to other identified reaction processes. In this way, a better understanding of the long-term reaction mechanism can be developed and incorporated into performance assessment models. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Coeval ages of Australasian, Central American and Western Canadian tektites reveal multiple impacts 790 ka ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Winfried H.; Trieloff, Mario; Bollinger, Klemens; Gantert, Niklas; Fernandes, Vera A.; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Povenmire, Hal; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Guglielmino, Massimo; Koeberl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    High resolution 40Ar-39Ar step heating dating of australites and indochinites, representing a large area of the Australasian strewn field, and more recently discovered tektite-like glasses from Central America (Belize) and Western Canada, were carried out. Precise plateau ages were obtained in all cases, yielding indistinguishable ages of 789 ± 9 ka for four australites, 783 ± 5 ka for four indochinites, 783 ± 17 ka for one Western Canadian and 769 ± 16 ka for one Belize impact glass. Concerning major elements and REEs, australites and the Western Canadian impact glass are indistinguishable. If the Western Canadian sample was transported by impact ejection and belongs to the Australasian strewn field, this implies extremely far ballistic transport of 9000 km distance, assuming a source crater in southern Asia. The distinct major element and REE composition of the Belize impact glass suggests formation in another separate impact event. We conclude that the Australasian/Western Canadian impact glasses formed 785 ± 7 ka ago in a single event and Belize impact glass in a separate event 769 ± 16 ka ago. The two impact events forming these two strewn fields occurred remarkably closely related in time, i.e., separated by <30 ka.

  5. Tektites, Apollo, the Crust, and Planets: A Life with Trace Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart Ross

    2016-06-01

    Stuart Ross Taylor, MSc (University of New Zealand), PhD (Indiana University), ScD (University of Oxford), FAA, AC, always called Ross, grew up on a farm near Ashburton, New Zealand. Ross has worked on a wide variety of topics in trace element geochemistry, including the composition and evolution of the Moon, the continental crust, tektites, impact glasses, and island arc rocks. In 1969 he carried out the first chemical analysis of the first returned lunar sample at NASA in Houston. He has published 10 books and 240 papers in scientific journals. He was awarded the V.M. Goldschmidt Award of the Geochemical Society in 1993. In 1994 he was elected a Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences. In 1998, he was awarded the Leonard Medal of the Meteoritical Society, in 2002 the Bucher Medal of the American Geophysical Union, and in 2012 the Shoemaker Distinguished Lunar Scientist Medal of the NASA Lunar Science Institute. Asteroid 5670 is named Rosstaylor.

  6. Science education in rural America: Adaptations for the ivory tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Doren, Gregory S.

    This thesis illustrated what can happen when academic culture disconnects from the cultures surrounding it. It showed that formal school environments are not always the best places to learn. A discussion of the debate between coherence and fragmentation learning theories illustrated academic chasms and a mindset that science education must originate from within ivory towers to be valued. Rationales for place-based science education were developed. Two National Science Foundation initiatives were compared and contrasted for relevance to Native Science education (a) Informal Science Education and (b) Science Education for New Civic Engagement and Responsibilities. A National Science Foundation instrument, known as the Self-Assessment of Learning Gains, was selected to field-test measures of learning science outside of university science courses. Principles of chemistry were taught in community workshops, and those participant self-assessments were compared to self-assessments of students in introductory chemistry courses at two universities. University students consistently claimed the greatest learning gains, in the post-course survey, for the same areas that they claimed to have the greatest understanding, in the pre-course survey. The workshop participant responses differed, depending upon location of the learning environment. When held in a university laboratory, ideas were not related to other cultures, even when a Native Elder was present to describe those relationships. When held in a cultural center, those relationships were among the highest learning gains claimed. One of the instrument's greatest assets was the ability to measure reactions, level 4 of Bennett's (1976) hierarchy of evidence for program evaluation. A long-term commitment to informal science education (not short-term exhibits or programs), combined with negotiated place-based education was recommended as a crucially needed initiative, if relationships between universities and Native American

  7. Neodymium and strontium isotopic study of Australasian tektites - New constraints on the provenance and age of target materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Joel D.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Koeberl, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of Australasian tectites (including two flanged Australian tectites, two low-SiO2 Muong Nong-type tectites, and three high-SiO2 Muong Nong-type tectites) and the Nd, Sm, Sr, and Rb concentrations were investigated by isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry, and the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope systematics were used to study the characteristics of the parental material. It is shown that the Nd and Sr isotopic data provide evidence that all Australasian tektites were derived from a single sedimentary formation with a narrow range of stratigraphic ages close to 170 Ma. It is suggested that all of the Australasian tektites were derived from a single impact event and that the australites represent the upper part of a melt sheet ejected at high velocity, whereas the indochinites represent melts formed at a lower level in the target material distributed closer to the area of the impact.

  8. Unusual appearance of Schreger-like pattern in Hippopotamus amphibius ivory: wildlife forensics investigation of a netsuke.

    PubMed

    Sims, Margaret E

    2010-07-15

    The National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory routinely receives confiscated wildlife parts and products (including ivory) for identification purposes as part of wildlife law enforcement casework. Identification of evidentiary ivory typically involves a detailed and comprehensive visual and microscopic examination of the objects, as well as observation with ultraviolet light. Of thousands of ivory objects examined at the Lab, the author has observed unusual non-Proboscidean (elephant) objects with Schreger-like (cross-hatched) pattern. One of these objects was a small well-polished netsuke carved from a hippopotamus canine.

  9. Unusual appearance of Schreger-like pattern in Hippopotamus amphibius ivory: wildlife forensics investigation of a netsuke.

    PubMed

    Sims, Margaret E

    2010-07-15

    The National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory routinely receives confiscated wildlife parts and products (including ivory) for identification purposes as part of wildlife law enforcement casework. Identification of evidentiary ivory typically involves a detailed and comprehensive visual and microscopic examination of the objects, as well as observation with ultraviolet light. Of thousands of ivory objects examined at the Lab, the author has observed unusual non-Proboscidean (elephant) objects with Schreger-like (cross-hatched) pattern. One of these objects was a small well-polished netsuke carved from a hippopotamus canine. PMID:20451339

  10. Dating ivory by determination of 14C, 90Sr and 228/232Th.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Stefanie A K; Brunnermeier, Matthias J; Schupfner, Robert; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2012-09-10

    A method is described to determine the time of death of elephants. This is accomplished by analysis of the radionuclides 14C, 90Sr and 228/232Th in known samples of ivory, and in samples of unknown age. The reliability of this method is considerably increased by multi nuclide analysis.

  11. Putative audio recordings of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis).

    PubMed

    Collins, Michael D

    2011-03-01

    Putative audio recordings of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) are presented along with discussions of the videos from which they were extracted and the observations that were made when these data were obtained. On two occasions, high-pitched calls were heard coming from the direction of a bird that was identified in the field as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker. These calls seem to match the description of an alarm call that was reported in the 1930s. One of the videos captured a series of the high-pitched calls, which sound similar to the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) bell call but do not match published sonograms of that call. A putative double knock, which is characteristic of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker, was captured in another video a little over a minute before a large bird with characteristics consistent with an Ivory-billed Woodpecker flew into view. Since it is extremely difficult to observe this critically endangered species, information on audio clues could have an impact on its conservation.

  12. Asians in the Ivory Tower: Dilemmas of Racial Inequality in American Higher Education. Multicultural Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teranishi, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Highly respected scholar Robert Teranishi draws on his vast research to present this timely and compelling examination of the experience of Asian Americans in higher education. "Asians in the Ivory Tower" explores why and how Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) are important to our nation's higher education priorities and places the…

  13. Focused ion beam milling and ultramicrotomy of mineralised ivory dentine for analytical transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jantou, V; Turmaine, M; West, G D; Horton, M A; McComb, D W

    2009-06-01

    The use of focused ion beam (FIB) milling for preparation of sections of mineralised ivory dentine for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is investigated. Ivory dentine is essentially composed of fibrillar type-I collagen and apatite crystals. The aim of this project is to gain a clearer understanding of the relationship between the organic and inorganic components of ivory dentine using analytical TEM, in order to utilise these analytical techniques in the context of common skeletal diseases such as osteoporosis and arthritis. TEM sections were prepared in both single and dual beam FIB instruments, using two standard lift-out techniques, in situ and ex situ. The FIB sections were systematically compared with sections prepared by ultramicrotomy, the traditional preparation route in biological systems, in terms of structural and chemical differences. A clear advantage of FIB milling over ultramicrotomy is that dehydration, embedding and section flotation can be eliminated, so that partial mineral loss due to dissolution is avoided. The characteristic banding of collagen fibrils was clearly seen in FIB milled sections without the need for any chemical staining, as is commonly employed in ultramicrotomy. The FIB milling technique was able to produce high-quality TEM sections of ivory dentine, which are suitable for further investigation using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-filtering TEM (EFTEM) to probe the collagen/apatite interface.

  14. 75 FR 41886 - Recovery Plan for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    .... The draft recovery plan was completed and released for public comment on August 22, 2007 (72 FR 47064... Fish and Wildlife Service Recovery Plan for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis....S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce the availability of the Final Recovery Plan for the...

  15. Nurturing and Validating Indigenous Epistemologies in Higher Education: Comment on "Domestication of the Ivory Tower."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Mary Eunice

    2002-01-01

    Responds to a paper that focused on the "domestication of the ivory tower" and that highlighted indigenous, field-based education associated with higher education institutions in Alaska. Shares two stories that illustrate what indigenous students often encounter in higher education, places of learning that frequently devalue or ignore their world…

  16. From the Ivory Tower to the Schoolhouse: How Scholarship Becomes Common Knowledge in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Why do so many promising ideas generated by education research fail to penetrate the world of classroom practice? In "From the Ivory Tower to the Schoolhouse," education historian Jack Schneider seeks to answer this familiar and vexing question by turning it on its head. He looks at four well-known ideas that emerged from the world of…

  17. Combating the illegal trade in African elephant ivory with DNA forensics.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Samuel K; Joseph Clark, William; Drori, Ofir; Stephen Kisamo, Emily; Mailand, Celia; Mutayoba, Benezeth; Stephens, Matthew

    2008-08-01

    International wildlife crime is burgeoning in this climate of global trade. We contend that the most effective way to contain this illegal trade is to determine where the wildlife is being removed. This allows authorities to direct law enforcement to poaching hot spots, potentially stops trade before the wildlife is actually killed, prevents countries from denying their poaching problems at home, and thwarts trade before it enters into an increasingly complex web of international criminal activity. Forensic tools have been limited in their ability to determine product origin because the information they can provide typically begins only at the point of shipment. DNA assignment analyses can determine product origin, but its use has been limited by the inability to assign samples to locations where reference samples do not exist. We applied new DNA assignment methods that can determine the geographic origin(s) of wildlife products from anywhere within its range. We used these methods to examine the geographic origin(s) of 2 strings of seizures involving large volumes of elephant ivory, 1 string seized in Singapore and Malawi and the other in Hong Kong and Cameroon. These ivory traffickers may comprise 2 of the largest poaching rings in Africa. In both cases all ivory seized in the string had common origins, which indicates that crime syndicates are targeting specific populations for intense exploitation. This result contradicts the dominant belief that dealers are using a decentralized plan of procuring ivory stocks as they became available across Africa. Large quantities of ivory were then moved, in multiple shipments, through an intermediate country prior to shipment to Asia, as a risk-reduction strategy that distances the dealer from the poaching locale. These smuggling strategies could not have been detected by forensic information, which typically begins only at the shipping source. PMID:18786100

  18. Combating the illegal trade in African elephant ivory with DNA forensics.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Samuel K; Joseph Clark, William; Drori, Ofir; Stephen Kisamo, Emily; Mailand, Celia; Mutayoba, Benezeth; Stephens, Matthew

    2008-08-01

    International wildlife crime is burgeoning in this climate of global trade. We contend that the most effective way to contain this illegal trade is to determine where the wildlife is being removed. This allows authorities to direct law enforcement to poaching hot spots, potentially stops trade before the wildlife is actually killed, prevents countries from denying their poaching problems at home, and thwarts trade before it enters into an increasingly complex web of international criminal activity. Forensic tools have been limited in their ability to determine product origin because the information they can provide typically begins only at the point of shipment. DNA assignment analyses can determine product origin, but its use has been limited by the inability to assign samples to locations where reference samples do not exist. We applied new DNA assignment methods that can determine the geographic origin(s) of wildlife products from anywhere within its range. We used these methods to examine the geographic origin(s) of 2 strings of seizures involving large volumes of elephant ivory, 1 string seized in Singapore and Malawi and the other in Hong Kong and Cameroon. These ivory traffickers may comprise 2 of the largest poaching rings in Africa. In both cases all ivory seized in the string had common origins, which indicates that crime syndicates are targeting specific populations for intense exploitation. This result contradicts the dominant belief that dealers are using a decentralized plan of procuring ivory stocks as they became available across Africa. Large quantities of ivory were then moved, in multiple shipments, through an intermediate country prior to shipment to Asia, as a risk-reduction strategy that distances the dealer from the poaching locale. These smuggling strategies could not have been detected by forensic information, which typically begins only at the shipping source.

  19. Year of the Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

    1980-01-01

    President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

  20. Heat induced transformation of fossil mastodon ivory into turquoise 'odontolite'. Structural and elemental characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, I.; Vignaud, C.; Menu, M.

    2000-10-01

    The present work deals with the structural and elemental analysis of turquoise mineral imitations as 'odontolite' or bone turquoise by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) and particle induced X-ray and γ-ray emission (PIXE-PIGE). The aim of the work is to evidence the former deliberate transformation of fossilised ivory by man in order to transform them into semi-precious stones. We show that the crystal structure of 'odontolite' artefacts consisting of fluorapatite (Ca 5(PO 4) 3F) corresponds to that of heated fossil mastodon ivory (12-15 million years old). Metallic traces detected by PIXE-PIGE in these 'odontolites' are discussed in order to explain their role for coloration. Other more greenish turquoise imitations have a bone-like structure and composition, and carbonate-hydroxylapatite. The presence of copper salts at the surface is responsible for their green coloration.

  1. Histogenesis of the chequered pattern of ivory of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, E J; Bosman, M C; Vorster, R; Noffke, C E

    1998-12-01

    This study aimed to propose a hypothesis on the events which lead to the development of the characteristic chequered pattern of elephant ivory. Twenty fragments of ivory and six elephant tusks were obtained through the National Parks Board of South Africa. Polished surfaces were prepared in sagittal and longitudinal planes and the characteristics of the distinctive chequered pattern described. Light- and electron-microscopical techniques and image analyses were employed to determine the morphological basis of the pattern and to describe the spatial distribution, density and morphology of the dentinal tubules. These investigations showed that the distinctive pattern was the result of the sinusoidal, centripetal course followed by dentinal tubules. The apical, slanted part of the sinusoidal curve is the result of the centripetally moving odontoblast, which, during formation of ivory, progresses towards the centre of the tusk on a decreasing circumference. It is suggested that this leads to cell crowding, increased pressure between odontoblasts and subsequent apical movement of their cell bodies, cell degeneration and fusion. Odontoblastic degeneration and fusion probably relieve the pressure between the crowded odontoblasts by reducing their numbers and the remaining odontoblasts now orientate their centripetal course towards the tip of the tusk, thereby forming the anterior-directed part of the sinusoidal path of the tubule. As odontoblasts progress centripetally the diameter of the pulpal cavity decreases further and the processes of apical movement, fusion and degeneration of odontoblasts are repeated. This occurs until the pulpal cavity is obliterated.

  2. Genotoxicity testing with the somatic white-ivory system in the eye of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Würgler, F E; Kägi, A

    1991-05-01

    The white-ivory test in Drosophila melanogaster is designed to detect chemically induced reversions of the sex-linked, recessive unstable eye-color mutation white-ivory to the wild-type form. After exposure of larvae reversions are detectable as clones of red facets in the eye of newly enclosed adult flies. Tester strains containing a quadruplication of the white-ivory gene on the X-chromosome(s) were used. In a strain with males carrying 4 copies of the gene and females carrying 8 copies of the gene, spontaneous reversions occurred proportional to the gene copy number. In contrast to this, chemically induced reversions occurred only 1.36 times more frequently in females (carrying 8 copies of the gene) than in males (carrying 4 copies). Since chemicals inducing different lesions in DNA (bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, daunomycin, diethyl sulfate and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene) did induce statistically significant frequencies of reversions the test appears to be capable of detecting a wide variety of genotoxic chemicals with different modes of action. The recombinogen strychnine did not induce reversions. PMID:1903508

  3. A Sustainable Substitute for Ivory: the Jarina Seed from the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yinghao; Meyers A, Marc A.; Wang, Bin; Yang, Wen; Jung, Jae-Young; Coimbra, Carlos F. M.

    2015-01-01

    The dried endosperm of the seed of Phytelephas sp is widely used for artisanal work in the Amazon region due to its favorable mechanical properties and pleasant appearance that resemble elephant ivory. While the seeds have enjoyed popularity and limited use by selected industries (e.g., military uniform buttons and piano keys) and handicraft applications, little is known about the mechanical properties and structure of this sustainable material. This work is the first to characterize the dried Jarina endosperm and to investigate its functionality as a viable substitute for elephant ivory. Structural analysis of typical seeds reveals the prevalence of tubules that align in rings and radiate from the (usually hollow) core of the seed. This seed, in the absence of a reinforcement structure or mineral phase, possesses mechanical properties slightly inferior to elephant ivory and selected plastics, while retaining the visual appeal of a naturally occurring material. A synthetic structure inspired on the seed is created and suggestions for further development are discussed. PMID:26399626

  4. A Sustainable Substitute for Ivory: the Jarina Seed from the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yinghao; Meyers, A Marc A; Wang, Bin; Yang, Wen; Jung, Jae-Young; Coimbra, Carlos F M

    2015-09-24

    The dried endosperm of the seed of Phytelephas sp is widely used for artisanal work in the Amazon region due to its favorable mechanical properties and pleasant appearance that resemble elephant ivory. While the seeds have enjoyed popularity and limited use by selected industries (e.g., military uniform buttons and piano keys) and handicraft applications, little is known about the mechanical properties and structure of this sustainable material. This work is the first to characterize the dried Jarina endosperm and to investigate its functionality as a viable substitute for elephant ivory. Structural analysis of typical seeds reveals the prevalence of tubules that align in rings and radiate from the (usually hollow) core of the seed. This seed, in the absence of a reinforcement structure or mineral phase, possesses mechanical properties slightly inferior to elephant ivory and selected plastics, while retaining the visual appeal of a naturally occurring material. A synthetic structure inspired on the seed is created and suggestions for further development are discussed.

  5. Rapidly increasing methyl mercury in endangered ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) feathers over a 130 year record.

    PubMed

    Bond, Alexander L; Hobson, Keith A; Branfireun, Brian A

    2015-04-22

    Mercury (Hg) is increasing in marine food webs, especially at high latitudes. The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of methyl mercury (MeHg) has serious effects on wildlife, and is most evident in apex predators. The MeHg body burden in birds is the balance of ingestion and excretion, and MeHg in feathers is an effective indicator of overall MeHg burden. Ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea), which consume ice-associated prey and scavenge marine mammal carcasses, have the highest egg Hg concentrations of any Arctic bird, and the species has declined by more than 80% since the 1980s in Canada. We used feathers from museum specimens from the Canadian Arctic and western Greenland to assess whether exposure to MeHg by ivory gulls increased from 1877 to 2007. Based on constant feather stable-isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) values, there was no significant change in ivory gulls' diet over this period, but feather MeHg concentrations increased 45× (from 0.09 to 4.11 µg g(-1) in adults). This dramatic change in the absence of a dietary shift is clear evidence of the impact of anthropogenic Hg on this high-latitude threatened species. Bioavailable Hg is expected to increase in the Arctic, raising concern for continued population declines in high-latitude species that are far from sources of environmental contaminants.

  6. A Sustainable Substitute for Ivory: the Jarina Seed from the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yinghao; Meyers A, Marc A.; Wang, Bin; Yang, Wen; Jung, Jae-Young; Coimbra, Carlos F. M.

    2015-09-01

    The dried endosperm of the seed of Phytelephas sp is widely used for artisanal work in the Amazon region due to its favorable mechanical properties and pleasant appearance that resemble elephant ivory. While the seeds have enjoyed popularity and limited use by selected industries (e.g., military uniform buttons and piano keys) and handicraft applications, little is known about the mechanical properties and structure of this sustainable material. This work is the first to characterize the dried Jarina endosperm and to investigate its functionality as a viable substitute for elephant ivory. Structural analysis of typical seeds reveals the prevalence of tubules that align in rings and radiate from the (usually hollow) core of the seed. This seed, in the absence of a reinforcement structure or mineral phase, possesses mechanical properties slightly inferior to elephant ivory and selected plastics, while retaining the visual appeal of a naturally occurring material. A synthetic structure inspired on the seed is created and suggestions for further development are discussed.

  7. Rapidly increasing methyl mercury in endangered ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) feathers over a 130 year record

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Alexander L.; Hobson, Keith A.; Branfireun, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is increasing in marine food webs, especially at high latitudes. The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of methyl mercury (MeHg) has serious effects on wildlife, and is most evident in apex predators. The MeHg body burden in birds is the balance of ingestion and excretion, and MeHg in feathers is an effective indicator of overall MeHg burden. Ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea), which consume ice-associated prey and scavenge marine mammal carcasses, have the highest egg Hg concentrations of any Arctic bird, and the species has declined by more than 80% since the 1980s in Canada. We used feathers from museum specimens from the Canadian Arctic and western Greenland to assess whether exposure to MeHg by ivory gulls increased from 1877 to 2007. Based on constant feather stable-isotope (δ13C, δ15N) values, there was no significant change in ivory gulls' diet over this period, but feather MeHg concentrations increased 45× (from 0.09 to 4.11 µg g−1 in adults). This dramatic change in the absence of a dietary shift is clear evidence of the impact of anthropogenic Hg on this high-latitude threatened species. Bioavailable Hg is expected to increase in the Arctic, raising concern for continued population declines in high-latitude species that are far from sources of environmental contaminants. PMID:25788594

  8. A Sustainable Substitute for Ivory: the Jarina Seed from the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yinghao; Meyers, A Marc A; Wang, Bin; Yang, Wen; Jung, Jae-Young; Coimbra, Carlos F M

    2015-01-01

    The dried endosperm of the seed of Phytelephas sp is widely used for artisanal work in the Amazon region due to its favorable mechanical properties and pleasant appearance that resemble elephant ivory. While the seeds have enjoyed popularity and limited use by selected industries (e.g., military uniform buttons and piano keys) and handicraft applications, little is known about the mechanical properties and structure of this sustainable material. This work is the first to characterize the dried Jarina endosperm and to investigate its functionality as a viable substitute for elephant ivory. Structural analysis of typical seeds reveals the prevalence of tubules that align in rings and radiate from the (usually hollow) core of the seed. This seed, in the absence of a reinforcement structure or mineral phase, possesses mechanical properties slightly inferior to elephant ivory and selected plastics, while retaining the visual appeal of a naturally occurring material. A synthetic structure inspired on the seed is created and suggestions for further development are discussed. PMID:26399626

  9. Intrinsic oxygen fugacity measurements on seven chondrites, a pallasite, and a tektite and the redox state of meteorite parent bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.; Sato, M.

    1984-01-01

    Intrinsic oxygen-fugacity (fO2) measurements were made on five ordinary chondrites, a carbonaceous chondrite, an enstatite chondrite, a pallasite, and a tektite. Results are of the form of linear log fO2 - 1 T plots. Except for the enstatite chondrite, measured results agree well with calculated estimates by others. The tektite produced fO2 values well below the range measured for terrestrial and lunar rocks. The lowpressure atmospheric regime that is reported to follow large terrestrial explosions, coupled with a very high temperature, could produce glass with fO2 in the range measured. The meteorite Salta (pallasite) has low fO2 and lies close to Hvittis (E6). Unlike the other samples, results for Salta do not parallel the iron-wu??stite buffer, but are close to the fayalite-quartz-iron buffer in slope. Minor reduction by graphite appears to have taken place during metamorphism of ordinary chondrites. fO2 values of unequilibrated chondrites show large scatter during early heating suggesting that the constituent phases were exposed to a range of fO2 conditions. The samples equilibrated with respect to fO2 in relatively short time on heating. Equilibration with respect to fO2 in ordinary chondrites takes place between grades 3 and 4 of metamorphism. Application of P - T - fO2 relations in the system C-CO-CO2 indicates that the ordinary chondrites were metamorphosed at pressures of 3-20 bars, as it appears that they lay on the graphite surface. A steep positive thermal gradient in a meteorite parent body lying at the graphite surface will produce thin reduced exterior, an oxidized near-surface layer, and an interior that is increasingly reduced with depth; a shallow thermal gradient will produce the reverse. A body heated by accretion on the outside will have a reduced exterior and oxidized interior. Meteorites from the same parent body clearly are not required to have similar redox states. ?? 1984.

  10. Parametric study of the impact of waste pollutants on groundwater: the case of Abidjan District (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Tacher, Laurent; Derron, Marc-Henri; Franz, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Abidjan like numerous African cities is experiencing a significant and uncontrolled population growth. The annual growth rate is estimated at 3.99% by the National Institute of Statistics. This rapid population growth also generates growing needs in general and especially for drinking water and economic activities. In the District of Abidjan, groundwater comes from the Mio-Pliocene age aquifer called "Continental Terminal". This unconfined aquifer is the main source of water supply. Its lithology consists of four levels. Actually only the two upper levels outcrop and constitute the main part of the Continental Terminal aquifer. Some recent studies report a potential overexploitation and pollution of Abidjan groundwater (Jourda, 1986, Kouame 2007, Deh, 2013). This deterioration in water quality could be due to the release of domestic and industrial waste water, pesticide and fertilizer from crops and toxic waste sites containing high doses of organochlorines, of hydrogen sulfide and sulfides. This risk is also linked to the economic activities such as car workshops, gas stations and the sand exploitation in the lagoon. To observe the likely evolution of such contaminants in the subsurface and we developed hydrogeological models that couple groundwater flow and transport with FEFLOW software. The model is composed of a sandy layer where two constant hydraulic heads of 55 m and 0.2 m are imposed on the north and the south respectively. We carried out grain size analysis of some samples (E2, E3, E4, E5, and E6) which shows particle size ranging between 0.0001 mm and 8 mm. This grain size analysis performed by sieving underwater and laser indicates that these five soils are: loamy sand with traces of clay and gravel for E2 and E5; Sandy loam with traces of clay for E3; Sand with traces of clay and gravel for E4 and Sand with traces of silt and clay for E6. Their porosity and average values of permeability coefficient K measured in the laboratory range from 0.2 to 0.4 and 2.9E-8 and 2.48E-5 m/s, respectively. These values of permeability are low. They were therefore multiplied by 10 in order to calibrate the model. This suggests that the environment of deposition of the sands is heterogeneous with coarse sand channels in places as it can be expected in such lagoon environment. The result of the model simulation in steady state indicates the groundwater flow direction (North-South) and the approach of pollutants plumes to some well fields after 20 years. References: Deh S. K. (2013). Contributions de l'évaluation de la vulnérabilité spécifique aux nitrates et d'un modèle de transport des organochlorés a la protection des eaux souterraines du district d'Abidjan (sud de la Côte d'Ivoire) 230p. Jourda J. P. (1987). Contribution à l'étude géologique et hydrogéologique de la région du Grand Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). Thèse de doctorat de 3ème cycle, Université scientifique, technique et médicale de Grenoble, 319p. Kouamé K. J. (2007). Contribution à la Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eaux (GIRE) du District d'Abidjan (Sud de la Côte d'Ivoire) : Outils d'aide à la décision pour la prévention et la protection des eaux souterraines contre la pollution, Thèse de doctorat unique de l'Université de Cocody, 229p.

  11. [Intestinal parasites in children in Biankouma, Ivory Coast (mountaineous western region): efficacy and safety of praziquantel and albendazole].

    PubMed

    Adoubryn, K D; Kouadio-Yapo, C G; Ouhon, J; Aka, N A D; Bintto, F; Assoumou, A

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are a global public health problem, especially among schoolchildren. The purpose of this study was to determine the overall and specific prevalences of intestinal helminth infection and to assess the clinical efficacy, tolerance, and safety of praziquantel and albendazole for treating it. A descriptive cross-sectional study based on random sampling with one degree of freedom was conducted from November 2006 to March 2007 in the primary schools of Biankouma, Côte d'Ivoire. Stool samples were collected from 386 children aged from 4 to 15 years and analyzed by direct examination, with both the simplified Ritchie and Kato techniques. Children infected by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis eggs were treated with praziquantel (40 mg/kg in a single dose), albendazole (400 mg/kg in a single dose) or both, as deemed necessary. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasite infection was 55.2%, including overall 15.4% with more than one parasite: two in 14.2% and three in 1.2%. Infection was correlated with male gender and older age. The most frequent helminths were Schistosoma mansoni (35.5%) and Necator americanus (25.9%). The efficacy rate for praziquantel, defined as parasite-free stools, was 57.7% on day 14 and 80.9% on day 90. The efficacy rate for albendazole on day 7 was 96.1% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 93% for Necator americanus and 81.3% for Trichuris trichiura. Adverse effects were common (40.8%) but minor (abdominal pain, headache, and itching) within 2 to 4 hours after intake of praziquantel.

  12. [Prevalence of HBs antigen carriage in a population of national Gendarmerie recruits in Ivory Coast in 2008].

    PubMed

    Kra, O; N'dri, N; Ouattara, B; Kadjo, K; Aba, T; Bissagnéné, E

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBsAg carriage in Ivorian gendarmerie recruits in 2008. This prevalence was 15.6%. It was highest in recruits aged 18 years (24%), in those who were married (33.3%) and in those who had had more than three sexual partners in the 6 months before the survey (19.4%). It was also higher in recruits who had never used condoms (20.6%) and in those who had undergone blood transfusions (27%). A policy of vaccination against HBV in the army, in teenagers and adults must be implemented to reduce HBsAg carriage in the army and in the Ivorian population.

  13. Fluid immiscibility and gold deposition in the Birimian quartz veins of the Angovia deposit (Yaouré, Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, Y.; Boiron, M. C.; Cathelineau, M.; Kouamelan, A. N.

    2008-02-01

    The Paleoproterozoic terranes (Birimian) of West Africa are well known to host numerous economic gold mineralizations. The Angovia gold mineralization is located in a brecciated and mylonitic zone within the Birimian greenstones. The sulfide-gold mineralization is mainly represented by gold associated with pyrite and chalcopyrite. A fluid inclusion study undertaken on mineralized quartz veins revealed the presence of aqueous-carbonic (CO 2-H 2O) fluids, the association of carbonic (CO 2) and early aqueous fluids, followed by later aqueous (H 2O-salt) and finally nitrogen-rich fluids. Entrapment of the initial homogeneous aqueous-carbonic fluids prior to fluid immiscibility depicts the evolution of the P-T conditions during the exhumation of the terranes after the peak of green-schist metamorphism. The CO 2 rich-fluid occurs especially in gold-bearing quartz, and are considered as the main evidence of the ore-forming process in the gold-bearing quartz veins. It is considered as a product of immiscibility of the CO 2-H 2O parent. The volatile fraction of carbonic and aqueous-carbonic fluid inclusions is dominated by CO 2, containing minor amounts of N 2, even smaller amounts of CH 4 and sporadically, H 2S. The aqueous-carbonic fluids have moderate salinity (3-10 wt.% eq. NaCl). Late aqueous and N 2 - (CH 4-CO 2) fluids are considered as later, unrelated to the main ore stage, and were trapped during the cooling of the hydrothermal system from 300 to 200 °C. The immiscibility has been favored by a strong pressure drop, the main trapping P-T conditions being 320-370 °C and 105-135 MPa. The mineralizing process is likely related to the immiscibility event, which was probably favored by the release of the fluid pressure after fracturing along the main shear zones. The ore process is likely to have occurred along the main shear zones or related secondary structures affected by cycling of the fluid pressure and quartz sealing-fracturing processes. The superimposed process can also explain the relative complexity of the quartz textures and fluid inclusion microfractures, and the rather wide range in the density of both parent fluid and CO 2-dominated fluid.

  14. Early treatment failure during treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with atovaquone-proguanil in the Republic of Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Wurtz, Nathalie; Pascual, Aurélie; Marin-Jauffre, Adeline; Bouchiba, Housem; Benoit, Nicolas; Desbordes, Marc; Martelloni, Maryse; Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Richa, Georges; Taudon, Nicolas; Pradines, Bruno; Briolant, Sébastien

    2012-05-02

    The increased spread of drug-resistant malaria highlights the need for alternative drugs for treatment and chemoprophylaxis. The combination of atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone®) has shown high efficacy against Plasmodium falciparum with only mild side-effects. Treatment failures have been attributed to suboptimal dosages or to parasite resistance resulting from a point mutation in the cytochrome b gene. In this paper, a case of early treatment failure was reported in a patient treated with atovaquone-proguanil; this failure was not associated with a mutation in the parasite cytochrome b gene, with impaired drug bioavailability, or with re-infection.

  15. [Qnr-type quinolone resistance in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacteria in Abidjan, Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Guessennd, N; Bremont, S; Gbonon, V; Kacou-Ndouba, A; Ekaza, E; Lambert, T; Dosso, M; Courvalin, P

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to show the emergence of the qnr genes in extended spectrum beta-lactamases producing enterobacteria in Abidjan between 2005 and 2006. The whole of 151 strains of extended spectrum beta-lactamases producing enterobacteria were studied: 64 Escherichia coli, 66 Klebsiella pneumoniae, seven Klebsiella oxytoca and 14 Enterobacter spp. isolated from various biological products and from in- and out-patients. The techniques of disks diffusion, double-disk synergy, E-test were respectively used for the antimicrobial susceptibility test, the detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamases and the minimal inhibiting concentration. The bla genes(SHV, TEM, CTXM groups 1, 2, 8, 9), and AmpC were determined by PCR and characterized by sequencing. A global prevalence of 27,2 % (41/151) and rates of 9,9, 14,6, 2,7 % for the qnr genes A, B, A and S were observed. The distribution was 42,9 % for Enterobacter spp, 31,2 % for Escherichia coli, 20,5 % for Klebsiella; 30 strains expressed at least two bla genes; four strains were associated with AmpC. The strains were resistant to the cotrimoxazole (97,6 %), to the céfépime (73,2 %), to the céfoxitine (56,1 %), to the imipénème (0 %) and 43,9 % to all the aminosides. This high qnr gene prevalence associated with several types of bla genes in epidemic matter, the high level of resistance to antibiotics make fear a high risk of the transmission of multi-resistants bacteria and challenge the authorities for a resistance monitoring policy.

  16. [Role of patient travel in transmission of human African trypanosomiasis in a highly endemic area of the Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Solano, P; Kone, A; Garcia, A; Sane, B; Michel, V; Michel, J F; Coulibaly, B; Jamonneau, V; Kaba, D; Dupont, S; Fournet, F

    2003-01-01

    Human African trypanosomosis (HAT) remains a major public health problem in Subsaharan Africa. The region around the town of Bonon in middle western Côte d'Ivoire is a highly endemic HAT zone. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of travelling of infected patients in transmission of HAT. The study population included a total of 96 patients in whom HAT had been diagnosed actively or passively between 1999 and 2000. Information on each patient's residence and workplaces, i.e. water site, and farm field, was used to calculate the mean distance traveled and mean number of places visited daily by each patient. Findings indicated that both parameters, i.e., distance traveled and number of places visited, were significantly higher for patients living in Bonon than those living in hamlets or homesteads. Based on analysis of patient movements the endemic zone could be divided into three subdivisions with different modes of disease transmission. This study was performed as a preliminary step for a larger investigation designed to allow specific targeting of HAT hot spots based mainly on a geographic information system.

  17. Genital ulcers associated with human immunodeficiency virus-related immunosuppression in female sex workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Ghys, P D; Diallo, M O; Ettiègne-Traoré, V; Yeboué, K M; Gnaoré, E; Lorougnon, F; Kalé, K; Van Dyck, E; Brettegaard, K; Hoyi, Y M

    1995-11-01

    A cross-sectional study among female sex workers in Abidjan was conducted to study the association between sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and HIV-related immunosuppression. Among 1209 women tested for HIV, 962 (80%) were seropositive. HIV infection was independently associated with a longer duration of sex work, a lower price for intercourse, being an immigrant, and having a positive Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (P < .05). Genital ulcers (25% vs. 5%), genital warts (14% vs. 4%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (32% vs. 16%), Trichomonas vaginalis (27% vs. 17%), and syphilis (27% vs. 17%) were more frequent (P < .05) in HIV-infected than -uninfected women. Among HIV-infected women, the proportions with a genital ulcer were 17%, 25%, and 36% for those with > 28%, 14%-28%, and < 14% CD4 cells, respectively (P < .001). This study suggests that genital ulcers are an opportunistic disease in female sex workers in Abidjan.

  18. Nondestructive discrimination of ivories and prediction of their specific gravity by Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Masahiko; Ninomiya, Toshio; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2003-07-01

    Fourier-transform (FF) Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics were used for nondestructive analysis of ivories. The discrimination of five kinds of ivories, two subspecies of African elephant, mammoth, hippopotamus, and sperm whale, was investigated, and a calibration model for predicting their specific gravity was developed. FT-Raman spectra were measured in situ for them and chemometrics analyses were carried out for the 3050-350 cm(-1) region. The five kinds of ivories were clearly discriminated from each other on the scores plots of two or three principal components (PCs) obtained by principal component analysis (PCA). The loadings plot for PC 1 shows that the discrimination relies on the content ratio of organic collagenous protein and inorganic hydroxyapatite of ivories. The loadings plot for PC 2 shows that bands due to the CH3 and CH2 stretching modes of the protein also play a role in the discrimination. Using partial least squares regression (PLSR), we developed a calibration model that predicts the specific gravity of the ivories from the FT-Raman spectra. The correlation coefficient and root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of this model were 0.980 and 0.024, respectively. PMID:12894836

  19. The identification of elephant ivory evidences of illegal trade with mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and hypervariable D-loop region.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-jung; Lee, Yang-han; Moon, Seo-hyun; Kim, Nam-ye; Kim, Soon-hee; Yang, Moon-sik; Choi, Dong-ho; Han, Myun-soo

    2013-04-01

    DNA analysis of elephant ivory of illegal trade was handled in this work. The speciation and geographical origin of nine specimens of elephant ivory were requested by the police. Without national authorization, the suspect had purchased processed ivory seals from January to May, 2011 by Internet transactions from a site in a neighboring country. The DNA of decalcified ivory evidences was isolated with QIAGEN Micro Kit. The total 844-904 base pair sized sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b and D-loop region could be acquired using direct sequencing analysis. They were compared with the sequences registered in GenBank. It was confirmed that most specimens were likely from African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis), one from African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) and one from Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Analysis of the mitochondrial hypervariable D-loop region sequence of elephants verified that one African savanna elephant might be from South Africa and one Asian elephant from Laos. Cytochrome b and D-loop region located in the mitochondrial DNA resulted in the successful determination of elephant DNA from nine processed ivory specimens.

  20. Levels and trends of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in ivory gull eggs from the Canadian Arctic, 1976 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L; Grant Gilchrist, H; Letcher, Robert J; Drouillard, Ken G

    2007-06-01

    The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is a circumpolar marine bird which has recently been listed as an endangered species in Canada. To determine whether contaminants may be playing a role in the population decline of this species, ivory gull eggs collected in 1976, 1987 and 2004 from Seymour Island in the Canadian Arctic were analyzed for organochlorines, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs. This study also provides the first account of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in ivory gulls. The most quantitatively abundant legacy organochlorines found in the ivory gull eggs were p,p'-DDE, SigmaPCB and oxychlordane. Concentrations of the organochlorines analyzed either decreased or showed little change between 1976 and 2004. Concentrations of SigmaPCDD in ivory gull eggs were greater than SigmaPCDF, and the non-ortho PCBs (primarily PCB-126) contributed the largest fraction to the total TEQ value in all years sampled. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and SigmaTEQ decreased from 1976 to 2004. In contrast, concentrations of the PBDEs steadily increased between 1976 and 2004 driven primarily by increases in BDE-47. Although concentrations of the persistent chlorinated compounds (i.e. organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs) reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for eggs of wild birds, we cannot rule out the possibility of synergistic/additive, sublethal effects. Very few studies have been carried out to evaluate the exposure-effect relationship of the persistent brominated compounds in avian species. Given the scarcity of information on toxicity threshold levels for PBBs and PBDEs in avian species, coupled with the trend toward increasing concentrations in ivory gulls, continued monitoring and further toxicological studies of these compounds are warranted.

  1. Levels and trends of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in ivory gull eggs from the Canadian Arctic, 1976 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L; Grant Gilchrist, H; Letcher, Robert J; Drouillard, Ken G

    2007-06-01

    The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is a circumpolar marine bird which has recently been listed as an endangered species in Canada. To determine whether contaminants may be playing a role in the population decline of this species, ivory gull eggs collected in 1976, 1987 and 2004 from Seymour Island in the Canadian Arctic were analyzed for organochlorines, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs. This study also provides the first account of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in ivory gulls. The most quantitatively abundant legacy organochlorines found in the ivory gull eggs were p,p'-DDE, SigmaPCB and oxychlordane. Concentrations of the organochlorines analyzed either decreased or showed little change between 1976 and 2004. Concentrations of SigmaPCDD in ivory gull eggs were greater than SigmaPCDF, and the non-ortho PCBs (primarily PCB-126) contributed the largest fraction to the total TEQ value in all years sampled. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and SigmaTEQ decreased from 1976 to 2004. In contrast, concentrations of the PBDEs steadily increased between 1976 and 2004 driven primarily by increases in BDE-47. Although concentrations of the persistent chlorinated compounds (i.e. organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs) reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for eggs of wild birds, we cannot rule out the possibility of synergistic/additive, sublethal effects. Very few studies have been carried out to evaluate the exposure-effect relationship of the persistent brominated compounds in avian species. Given the scarcity of information on toxicity threshold levels for PBBs and PBDEs in avian species, coupled with the trend toward increasing concentrations in ivory gulls, continued monitoring and further toxicological studies of these compounds are warranted. PMID:17412396

  2. One-step synthesis of collagen hybrid gold nanoparticles and formation on Egyptian-like gold-plated archaeological ivory.

    PubMed

    Spadavecchia, Jolanda; Apchain, Emilande; Albéric, Marie; Fontan, Elisabeth; Reiche, Ina

    2014-08-01

    A one-step method is reported to synthesize hybrid gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by reduction of HAuCl4 in acetic solution in the presence of collagen (Col), dicarboxylic acid-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG), and cetyltetrammonium bromide (CTAB) mixed with hydoxyapatite (HAP) as surfactants. Such formation process of AuNPs was shown to be responsible for purple stains naturally formed on Egyptianizing archaeological gilded ivories from 8th BC Syria. The understanding of this formation mechanism, which most likely involves a step with hybrid AuNPs, allows the establishing of an authenticity marker of ancient gold-plated ivories.

  3. Bone and ivory points in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic of Europe.

    PubMed

    Villa, P; d'Errico, F

    2001-08-01

    The existence of shaped bone and ivory points, to be used as awls or with wooden hafts, has been suggested for the Lower Paleolithic sites of Torralba and Ambrona and for several Middle Paleolithic sites, such as Vaufrey, Combe Grenal, Pech de l'Azé I and Camiac. The use of hafted bone and ivory points would imply a spear armature technology similar to that well documented in the Upper Paleolithic, often considered an innovation introduced to Europe by anatomically modern humans. The controversial ivory points from the two Spanish sites, whose fracture morphology is considered natural by G. Haynes (1991), have been reanalyzed, checking for putative traces of human manufacture and utilization as described by Howell & Freeman (1983), i.e., polish, flaking of stem, ground edges, striations from manufacture and contact with a haft or binding. We have been able to study 19 new proboscidean tusk tips from the ongoing Ambrona excavations by a Spanish team. For these and nine other Middle Paleolithic bone and antler points we use optical and SEM microscope analysis, taphonomic analysis, comparative observations of Upper Paleolithic bone points, experimental observations of manufacturing traces, modern tusk samples, and data on several bone and antler pseudo-points from carnivore accumulations. We show that none of the objects we have studied can be interpreted as an intentionally shaped point. The absence of hafted bone points in the Middle Paleolithic of Europe is contrasted with evidence of the use of hafted stone points since OIS 5 or earlier in Eurasia and Africa. We suggest that the absence of organic spear armatures in the Middle Paleolithic is not due to a deficiency in the technology of Neandertals but may be tied to the organizational strategies of the hunters and to patterns of game choice and capture.

  4. CONSERVATION. Genetic assignment of large seizures of elephant ivory reveals Africa's major poaching hotspots.

    PubMed

    Wasser, S K; Brown, L; Mailand, C; Mondol, S; Clark, W; Laurie, C; Weir, B S

    2015-07-01

    Poaching of elephants is now occurring at rates that threaten African populations with extinction. Identifying the number and location of Africa's major poaching hotspots may assist efforts to end poaching and facilitate recovery of elephant populations. We genetically assign origin to 28 large ivory seizures (≥0.5 metric tons) made between 1996 and 2014, also testing assignment accuracy. Results suggest that the major poaching hotspots in Africa may be currently concentrated in as few as two areas. Increasing law enforcement in these two hotspots could help curtail future elephant losses across Africa and disrupt this organized transnational crime. PMID:26089357

  5. CONSERVATION. Genetic assignment of large seizures of elephant ivory reveals Africa's major poaching hotspots.

    PubMed

    Wasser, S K; Brown, L; Mailand, C; Mondol, S; Clark, W; Laurie, C; Weir, B S

    2015-07-01

    Poaching of elephants is now occurring at rates that threaten African populations with extinction. Identifying the number and location of Africa's major poaching hotspots may assist efforts to end poaching and facilitate recovery of elephant populations. We genetically assign origin to 28 large ivory seizures (≥0.5 metric tons) made between 1996 and 2014, also testing assignment accuracy. Results suggest that the major poaching hotspots in Africa may be currently concentrated in as few as two areas. Increasing law enforcement in these two hotspots could help curtail future elephant losses across Africa and disrupt this organized transnational crime.

  6. Peripheral ivory osteoma of the mandible in a young female patient.

    PubMed

    Mubeen, Khan; Vijayalakshmi, Konaajji Ramachandra; Abhishek, Pati Ranjan

    2012-05-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon benign neoplasm composed of mature bone. Growth is slow and continuous and located principally in the cranio-maxillo-facial region, and can be central (endosteal) or peripheral (periosteal). Osteomas can be solitary or multiple masses, and they are generally asymptomatic. We discuss a case of ivory osteoma of the mandible in a 35-year-old female, which was present at the left body of the mandible since she was 10 years old, and was gradually increasing in size. The osteoma was removed surgically through an intraoral approach, and no recurrence was observed.

  7. Non-destructive analysis of the two subspecies of African elephants, mammoth, hippopotamus, and sperm whale ivories by visible and short-wave near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Masahiko; Morimoto, Susumu; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2004-06-01

    Visible (VIS) and short-wave near infrared (SW-NIR) spectroscopy was used for non-destructive analysis of ivories. VIS-SW-NIR (500-1000 nm) spectra were measured in situ for five kinds of ivories, that is two subspecies of African elephants, mammoth, hippopotamus, and sperm whale. Chemometrics analyses were carried out for the spectral data from 500 to 1000 nm region. The five kinds of ivories were clearly discriminated from each other on the scores plot of two principal components (PCs) obtained by principal component analysis (PCA). It was noteworthy that the ivories of the two subspecies of African elephants were discriminated by the scores of PC 1. The loadings plot for PC 1 showed that the discrimination relies on the intensity changes in bands due to collagenous proteins and water interacting with proteins. It was found that the scores plot of PC 2 is useful to distinguish between the ivories of the two subspecies of African elephants and the other ivories. We also developed a calibration model that predicted the specific gravity of five kinds of ivories from their VIS-SW-NIR spectral data using partial least squares (PLS)-1 regression. The correlation coefficient and root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of this model were 0.960 and 0.037, respectively.

  8. Non-destructive analysis of the two subspecies of African elephants, mammoth, hippopotamus, and sperm whale ivories by visible and short-wave near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Masahiko; Morimoto, Susumu; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2004-06-01

    Visible (VIS) and short-wave near infrared (SW-NIR) spectroscopy was used for non-destructive analysis of ivories. VIS-SW-NIR (500-1000 nm) spectra were measured in situ for five kinds of ivories, that is two subspecies of African elephants, mammoth, hippopotamus, and sperm whale. Chemometrics analyses were carried out for the spectral data from 500 to 1000 nm region. The five kinds of ivories were clearly discriminated from each other on the scores plot of two principal components (PCs) obtained by principal component analysis (PCA). It was noteworthy that the ivories of the two subspecies of African elephants were discriminated by the scores of PC 1. The loadings plot for PC 1 showed that the discrimination relies on the intensity changes in bands due to collagenous proteins and water interacting with proteins. It was found that the scores plot of PC 2 is useful to distinguish between the ivories of the two subspecies of African elephants and the other ivories. We also developed a calibration model that predicted the specific gravity of five kinds of ivories from their VIS-SW-NIR spectral data using partial least squares (PLS)-1 regression. The correlation coefficient and root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of this model were 0.960 and 0.037, respectively. PMID:15152335

  9. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Smit, J; Montanari, A; Swinburne, N H; Alvarez, W; Hildebrand, A R; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Lowrie, W; Asaro, F

    1992-02-01

    The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatán, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. We interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal "spherule bed" contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded "laminated beds" contains intraclasts and abundant plant debris, and may be the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin "ripple beds" composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatán.

  10. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, J. ); Montanari, A.; Swinburne, N.H.M.; Alvarez, W. ); Hildebrand, A.R. ); Margolis, S.V.; Claeys, P. ); Lowrie, W. ); Asaro, F. )

    1992-02-01

    The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatan, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. The authors interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal 'spherule bed' contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded 'laminated beds' contains intraclasts can abundant plant debris, and may the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin 'ripple beds' composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 {plus minus} 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Their observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatan.

  11. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, J.; Montanari, A.; Swinburne, N. H.; Alvarez, W.; Hildebrand, A. R.; Margolis, S. V.; Claeys, P.; Lowrie, W.; Asaro, F.

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatan, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. We interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal "spherule bed" contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded "laminated beds" contains intraclasts and abundant plant debris, and may be the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin "ripple beds" composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatan.

  12. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Smit, J; Montanari, A; Swinburne, N H; Alvarez, W; Hildebrand, A R; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Lowrie, W; Asaro, F

    1992-02-01

    The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatán, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. We interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal "spherule bed" contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded "laminated beds" contains intraclasts and abundant plant debris, and may be the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin "ripple beds" composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatán. PMID:11537752

  13. Coeval 40Ar/39Ar Ages of 65.0 Million Years Ago from Chicxulub Crater Melt Rock and Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Tektites.

    PubMed

    Swisher, C C; Grajales-Nishimura, J M; Montanari, A; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Alvarez, W; Renne, P; Cedillo-Pardoa, E; Maurrasse, F J; Curtis, G H; Smit, J; McWilliams, M O

    1992-08-14

    (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of drill core samples of a glassy melt rock recovered from beneath a massive impact breccia contained within the 180-kilometer subsurface Chicxulub crater in Yucatán, Mexico, has yielded well-behaved incremental heating spectra with a mean plateau age of 64.98 +/- 0.05 million years ago (Ma). The glassy melt rock of andesitic composition was obtained from core 9 (1390 to 1393 meters) in the Chicxulub 1 well. The age of the melt rock is virtually indistinguishable from (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages obtained on tektite glass from Beloc, Haiti, and Arroyo el Mimbral, northeastern Mexico, of 65.01 +/- 0.08 Ma (mean plateau age for Beloc) and 65.07 +/- 0.10 Ma (mean total fusion age for both sites). The (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages, in conjunction with geochemical and petrological similarities, strengthen the recent suggestion that the Chicxulub structure is the source for the Haitian and Mexican tektites and is a viable candidate for the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact site.

  14. Coeval Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of 65.0 million years ago from Chicxulub crater melt rock and Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swisher, Carl C., III; Grajales-Nishimura, Jose M.; Montanari, Alessandro; Margolis, Stanley V.; Claeys, Philippe; Alvarez, Walter; Renne, Paul; Cedillo-Pardo, Esteban; Maurrasse, Florentin J.-M. R.; Curtis, Garniss H.

    1992-01-01

    Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of drill-core samples of a glassy melt rock recovered from beneath a massive impact breccia contained with the 180-kilometer subsurface Chicxulub crater yields well-behaved incremental heating spectra with a mean plateau age of 64.98 +/- 0.05 million years ago (Ma). The glassy melt rock of andesitic composition was obtained from core 9 (1390 to 1393 meters) in the Chicxulub 1 well. The age of the melt rock is virtually indistinguishable from Ar-40/Ar-39 ages obtained on tektite glass from Beloc, Haiti, and Arroyo el Mimbral, northeastern Mexico, of 65.01 +/- 0.08 Ma (mean plateau age for Beloc) and 65.07 +/- 0.10 Ma (mean total fusion age for both sites). The Ar-40/Ar-39 ages, in conjunction with geochemical and petrological similarities, strengthen the suggestion that the Chicxulub structure is the source for the Haitian and Mexican tektites and is a viable candidate for the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact site.

  15. Coeval 40Ar/39Ar Ages of 65.0 Million Years Ago from Chicxulub Crater Melt Rock and Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Tektites.

    PubMed

    Swisher, C C; Grajales-Nishimura, J M; Montanari, A; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Alvarez, W; Renne, P; Cedillo-Pardoa, E; Maurrasse, F J; Curtis, G H; Smit, J; McWilliams, M O

    1992-08-14

    (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of drill core samples of a glassy melt rock recovered from beneath a massive impact breccia contained within the 180-kilometer subsurface Chicxulub crater in Yucatán, Mexico, has yielded well-behaved incremental heating spectra with a mean plateau age of 64.98 +/- 0.05 million years ago (Ma). The glassy melt rock of andesitic composition was obtained from core 9 (1390 to 1393 meters) in the Chicxulub 1 well. The age of the melt rock is virtually indistinguishable from (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages obtained on tektite glass from Beloc, Haiti, and Arroyo el Mimbral, northeastern Mexico, of 65.01 +/- 0.08 Ma (mean plateau age for Beloc) and 65.07 +/- 0.10 Ma (mean total fusion age for both sites). The (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages, in conjunction with geochemical and petrological similarities, strengthen the recent suggestion that the Chicxulub structure is the source for the Haitian and Mexican tektites and is a viable candidate for the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact site. PMID:17789640

  16. Assigning African elephant DNA to geographic region of origin: Applications to the ivory trade

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Samuel K.; Shedlock, Andrew M.; Comstock, Kenine; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Mutayoba, Benezeth; Stephens, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Resurgence of illicit trade in African elephant ivory is placing the elephant at renewed risk. Regulation of this trade could be vastly improved by the ability to verify the geographic origin of tusks. We address this need by developing a combined genetic and statistical method to determine the origin of poached ivory. Our statistical approach exploits a smoothing method to estimate geographic-specific allele frequencies over the entire African elephants' range for 16 microsatellite loci, using 315 tissue and 84 scat samples from forest (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) and savannah (Loxodonta africana africana) elephants at 28 locations. These geographic-specific allele frequency estimates are used to infer the geographic origin of DNA samples, such as could be obtained from tusks of unknown origin. We demonstrate that our method alleviates several problems associated with standard assignment methods in this context, and the absolute accuracy of our method is high. Continent-wide, 50% of samples were located within 500 km, and 80% within 932 km of their actual place of origin. Accuracy varied by region (median accuracies: West Africa, 135 km; Central Savannah, 286 km; Central Forest, 411 km; South, 535 km; and East, 697 km). In some cases, allele frequencies vary considerably over small geographic regions, making much finer discriminations possible and suggesting that resolution could be further improved by collection of samples from locations not represented in our study. PMID:15459317

  17. Circumpolar contamination in eggs of the high-Arctic ivory gull Pagophila eburnea.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Magali; Verboven, Nanette; Strøm, Hallvard; Miljeteig, Cecilie; Gavrilo, Maria V; Braune, Birgit M; Boertmann, David; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2015-07-01

    The ivory gull Pagophila eburnea is a high-Arctic species threatened by climate change and contaminants. The objective of the present study was to assess spatial variation of contaminant levels (organochlorines [OCs], brominated flame retardants [BFRs], perfluorinated alkyl substances [PFASs], and mercury [Hg]) in ivory gulls breeding in different areas across the Arctic region as a baseline for potential future changes associated with climate change. Contaminants were already determined in eggs from Canada (Seymour Island; except PFASs), Svalbard in Norway (Svenskøya), and 3 sites in Russia (Nagurskoe, Cape Klyuv, and Domashny). New data from Greenland allowed the investigation of a possible longitudinal gradient of contamination. The most quantitatively abundant OCs were p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorobiphenyls. Mercury concentrations were higher in Canada compared with other colonies. Eggs from Nagurskoe often were characterized by higher OC and BFR concentrations. Concentrations gradually decreased in colonies situated east of Nagurskoe. In contrast, PFAS concentrations, especially perfluorooctanoate and perfluorononanoate, were higher in Greenland. Some of the contaminants, especially Hg and p,p'-DDE, exceeded published thresholds known to disrupt the reproductive success of avian species. Overall, the levels of OCs, BFRs, and PFASs did not suggest direct lethal exposure to these compounds, but their potential synergetic/additive sublethal effects warrant monitoring.

  18. The Case of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker: The Scientific Process and How It Relates to Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin; Merriam, Jennifer; Greuling, Ruth Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, based on the reported rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker in April 2005, students examine a real-world example of the scientific process and explore the practical implications of their conclusions. The case tells the story of Brad Murky, a student and research assistant who must decide whether the available evidence is…

  19. Eggshell thinning and decreased concentrations of vitamin E are associated with contaminants in eggs of ivory gulls.

    PubMed

    Miljeteig, Cecilie; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Strøm, Hallvard; Gavrilo, Maria V; Lie, Elisabeth; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2012-08-01

    The ivory gull is a high Arctic seabird species threatened by climate change and contaminant exposure. High levels of contaminants have been reported in ivory gull Pagophila eburnea eggs from Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. The present study investigated associations between high levels of contaminants (organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) and mercury (Hg)) and three response variables: eggshell thickness, retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E). Negative associations were found between levels of OCPs, PCBs and BFRs and eggshell thickness (p<0.021) and α-tocopherol (p<0.023), but not with retinol (p>0.1). There were no associations between PFASs and mercury and the three response variables. Furthermore, the eggshell thickness was 7-17% thinner in the present study than in archived ivory gull eggs (≤1930). In general, a thinning above 16 to 20% has been associated with a decline in bird populations, suggesting that contaminant-induced eggshell thinning may constitute a serious threat to ivory gull populations globally.

  20. How Much Ivory Does This Tower Need? What We Spend on, and Get from, Higher Education. Policy Analysis. No. 686

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, Neal

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly asserted, especially by people within higher education, that the American Ivory Tower is strapped for cash and tightfisted taxpayers are to blame. Taxpayer support for postsecondary education has long been in decline, this narrative goes, and has forced schools to continually raise tuition to make up for the losses. Tallying…

  1. An international perspective on advanced neuroimaging: cometh the hour or ivory tower?

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Craig W; Ames, David; Burke, James R; Bustin, Julian; Connelly, Peter; Laczo, Jan; Portet, Florence

    2011-09-01

    Over the past five to ten years, neuroimaging capability for neurodegenerative diseases has made remarkable progress. However, debate remains as to the true clinical utility of these advanced and costly investigations. Not only is the place of these tests in diagnostic algorithms unclear, but the access to them varies both within and between countries. We sought to gather informed opinion from recognized leaders in the field who can combine both an academic and a clinical perspective on the use of neuroimaging in their own countries. Opinion is presented from Scotland, Argentina, the Czech Republic, France, the USA and Australia. The emerging consensus was one of ongoing caution. While in most countries there was a sense that the use of more advanced imaging techniques was growing, their hour has not yet cometh. However, these techniques, rather than falling from the Ivory Tower, should descend slowly step by step onto fertile and receptive clinics from where better clinical guidelines will emerge.

  2. Retrospective Study of a Series of 20 Ivory Prostheses in the Treatment of Trapeziometacarpal Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Spaans, Anne J; van Minnen, L Paul; Weijns, Marieke E; Braakenburg, Assa; van der Molen, Aebele B Mink

    2016-05-01

    Background Many surgical treatment options for osteoarthritis (OA) of the trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint exist. However, no procedure has been proven superior. Good results have been described for TMC joint replacement. Purpose To analyze the results of the Ivory prosthesis in the treatment of symptomatic TMC OA. Patients and Methods A retrospective single-center follow-up study was performed. Visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score, Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ), active range of motion, strength, and radiological outcomes were assessed and analyzed. Differences between the operated and nonoperated hand were analyzed using paired t-tests. Twenty patients were included with a mean follow-up duration of 37.0 months. Results Patients experienced minimal pain with a mean VAS pain score of 1.9. DASH and MHQ scores indicated mild to moderate impairments. Eighty-five percent of patients assessed the operation excellent or good. Significant differences were found in measurements of extension and palmar thumb abduction in favor of the contralateral hand. No significant differences in strength between both hands were found. Two patients had a dislocation of the prosthesis; one patient required open reduction and tightening of the joint capsule. The other dislocation was treated with trapeziectomy and interposition of a fascia lata allograft. One patient had a collapse of the trapezium requiring a revision procedure. Conclusion Ivory prosthesis TMC arthroplasty can achieve good results in patients with symptomatic isolated TMC OA. In this series, however, revision surgery was required in 3 of 20 cases. PMID:27104079

  3. Retrospective Study of a Series of 20 Ivory Prostheses in the Treatment of Trapeziometacarpal Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Spaans, Anne J; van Minnen, L Paul; Weijns, Marieke E; Braakenburg, Assa; van der Molen, Aebele B Mink

    2016-05-01

    Background Many surgical treatment options for osteoarthritis (OA) of the trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint exist. However, no procedure has been proven superior. Good results have been described for TMC joint replacement. Purpose To analyze the results of the Ivory prosthesis in the treatment of symptomatic TMC OA. Patients and Methods A retrospective single-center follow-up study was performed. Visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score, Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ), active range of motion, strength, and radiological outcomes were assessed and analyzed. Differences between the operated and nonoperated hand were analyzed using paired t-tests. Twenty patients were included with a mean follow-up duration of 37.0 months. Results Patients experienced minimal pain with a mean VAS pain score of 1.9. DASH and MHQ scores indicated mild to moderate impairments. Eighty-five percent of patients assessed the operation excellent or good. Significant differences were found in measurements of extension and palmar thumb abduction in favor of the contralateral hand. No significant differences in strength between both hands were found. Two patients had a dislocation of the prosthesis; one patient required open reduction and tightening of the joint capsule. The other dislocation was treated with trapeziectomy and interposition of a fascia lata allograft. One patient had a collapse of the trapezium requiring a revision procedure. Conclusion Ivory prosthesis TMC arthroplasty can achieve good results in patients with symptomatic isolated TMC OA. In this series, however, revision surgery was required in 3 of 20 cases.

  4. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  5. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  6. Canada's east coast play

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The intent of this paper is to give a basic overview presentation on Canada's east coast play - most likely the number one offshore play in the free world - and possibly the world. The play stretches 2,500 miles north and south, as it follows the Labrador Coast, past the Strait of Belle Isle and onto the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and as it makes a 90 degree turn, 1,000 miles east to west along the coast of Nova Scotia to the Georges Bank. 3,500 miles in all - which if placed in western Canada, would stretch from northern Alberta to southern Mexico. It's geologic potential is immense - 15-20 billion barrels of oil and 80-90 Tcf of natural gas. And so far only approximately 2 billion barrels of oil and 5 Tcf of natural gas have been found. There is more out there. And less than 200 wells have been drilled - still very virgin territory. Two world size discoveries have been made in the area. Hibernia, on the Grand Banks, is estimated to contain 1.8 billion barrels. Venture, on the Scotian Shelf, has a natural gas reserve of 2.5 Tcf - big by Canadian standards and significant in that Mobil Oil has also made some other interesting discoveries on the same Sable Island block which have not been delineated.

  7. Tektite Suborbital Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, T. H. S.

    2015-07-01

    The australite fall sites in S. Australia at 10 km/s require loft times of 7.5 hrs from Indochina and 112.5 deg Earth spin, inconsistent with a launch from that same hemisphere. Alternative AA source regions must explain these imprint elements.

  8. The retrieval of fingerprint friction ridge detail from elephant ivory using reduced-scale magnetic and non-magnetic powdering materials.

    PubMed

    Weston-Ford, Kelly A; Moseley, Mark L; Hall, Lisa J; Marsh, Nicholas P; Morgan, Ruth M; Barron, Leon P

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of reduced-size particle powdering methods for the recovery of usable fingermark ridge detail from elephant ivory is presented herein for the first time as a practical and cost-effective tool in forensic analysis. Of two reduced-size powder material types tested, powders with particle sizes ≤ 40 μm offered better chances of recovering ridge detail from unpolished ivory in comparison to a conventional powder material. The quality of developed ridge detail of these powders was also assessed for comparison and automated search suitability. Powder materials and the enhanced ridge detail on ivory were analysed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and interactions between their constituents and the ivory discussed. The effect of ageing on the quality of ridge detail recovered showed that the best quality was obtained within 1 week. However, some ridge detail could still be developed up to 28 days after deposition. Cyanoacrylate and fluorescently-labelled cyanoacrylate fuming of ridge detail on ivory was explored and was less effective than reduced-scale powdering in general. This research contributes to the understanding and potential application of smaller scale powdering materials for the development of ridge detail on hard, semi-porous biological material typically seized in wildlife-related crimes. PMID:26746820

  9. The retrieval of fingerprint friction ridge detail from elephant ivory using reduced-scale magnetic and non-magnetic powdering materials.

    PubMed

    Weston-Ford, Kelly A; Moseley, Mark L; Hall, Lisa J; Marsh, Nicholas P; Morgan, Ruth M; Barron, Leon P

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of reduced-size particle powdering methods for the recovery of usable fingermark ridge detail from elephant ivory is presented herein for the first time as a practical and cost-effective tool in forensic analysis. Of two reduced-size powder material types tested, powders with particle sizes ≤ 40 μm offered better chances of recovering ridge detail from unpolished ivory in comparison to a conventional powder material. The quality of developed ridge detail of these powders was also assessed for comparison and automated search suitability. Powder materials and the enhanced ridge detail on ivory were analysed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and interactions between their constituents and the ivory discussed. The effect of ageing on the quality of ridge detail recovered showed that the best quality was obtained within 1 week. However, some ridge detail could still be developed up to 28 days after deposition. Cyanoacrylate and fluorescently-labelled cyanoacrylate fuming of ridge detail on ivory was explored and was less effective than reduced-scale powdering in general. This research contributes to the understanding and potential application of smaller scale powdering materials for the development of ridge detail on hard, semi-porous biological material typically seized in wildlife-related crimes.

  10. Video analysis of the escape flight of Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus: does the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis persist in continental North America?

    PubMed Central

    Collinson, J Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background The apparent rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis in Arkansas, USA, previously feared extinct, was supported by video evidence of a single bird in flight (Fitzpatrick et al, Science 2005, 308:1460–1462). Plumage patterns and wingbeat frequency of the putative Ivory-billed Woodpecker were said to be incompatible with the only possible confusion species native to the area, the Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus. Results New video analysis of Pileated Woodpeckers in escape flights comparable to that of the putative Ivory-billed Woodpecker filmed in Arkansas shows that Pileated Woodpeckers can display a wingbeat frequency equivalent to that of the Arkansas bird during escape flight. The critical frames from the Arkansas video that were used to identify the bird as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker are shown to be equally, or more, compatible with the Pileated Woodpecker. Conclusion The identification of the bird filmed in Arkansas in April 2004 as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker is best regarded as unsafe. The similarities between the Arkansas bird and known Pileated Woodpeckers suggest that it was most likely a Pileated Woodpecker. PMID:17362504

  11. Discovering vanished paints and naturally formed gold nanoparticles on 2800 years old phoenician ivories using SR-FF-microXRF with the color X-ray camera.

    PubMed

    Reiche, Ina; Müller, Katharina; Albéric, Marie; Scharf, Oliver; Wähning, Andrea; Bjeoumikhov, Aniouar; Radtke, Martin; Simon, Rolf

    2013-06-18

    Phoenician ivory objects (8(th) century B.C., Syria) from the collections of the Badisches Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe, Germany, have been studied with full field X-ray fluorescence microimaging, using synchrotron radiation (SR-FF-microXRF). The innovative Color X-ray Camera (CXC), a full-field detection device (SLcam), was used at the X-ray fluorescence beamline of the ANKA synchrotron facility (ANKA-FLUO, KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany) to noninvasively study trace metal distributions at the surface of the archeological ivory objects. The outstanding strength of the imaging technique with the CXC is the capability to record the full XRF spectrum with a spatial resolution of 48 μm on a zone of a size of 11.9 × 12.3 mm(2) (264 × 264 pixels). For each analyzed region, 69696 spectra were simultaneously recorded. The principal elements detected are P, Ca, and Sr, coming from the ivory material itself; Cu, characteristic of pigments; Fe and Pb, representing sediments or pigments; Mn, revealing deposited soil minerals; Ti, indicating restoration processes or correlated with Fe sediment traces; and Au, linked to a former gilding. This provides essential information for the assessment of the original appearance of the ivory carvings. The determined elemental maps specific of possible pigments are superimposed on one another to visualize their respective distributions and reconstruct the original polychromy and gilding. Reliable hypotheses for the reconstruction of the original polychromy of the carved ivories are postulated on this basis.

  12. Coasts in Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  13. African elephants show high levels of interest in the skulls and ivory of their own species

    PubMed Central

    McComb, Karen; Baker, Lucy; Moss, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    An important area of biology involves investigating the origins in animals of traits that are thought of as uniquely human. One way that humans appear unique is in the importance they attach to the dead bodies of other humans, particularly those of their close kin, and the rituals that they have developed for burying them. In contrast, most animals appear to show only limited interest in the carcasses or associated remains of dead individuals of their own species. African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are unusual in that they not only give dramatic reactions to the dead bodies of other elephants, but are also reported to systematically investigate elephant bones and tusks that they encounter, and it has sometimes been suggested that they visit the bones of relatives. Here, we use systematic presentations of object arrays to demonstrate that African elephants show higher levels of interest in elephant skulls and ivory than in natural objects or the skulls of other large terrestrial mammals. However, they do not appear to specifically select the skulls of their own relatives for investigation so that visits to dead relatives probably result from a more general attraction to elephant remains. PMID:17148317

  14. The nano-morphological relationships between apatite crystals and collagen fibrils in ivory dentine.

    PubMed

    Jantou-Morris, V; Horton, Michael A; McComb, David W

    2010-07-01

    In this work, analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the nanostructure of mineralised ivory dentine, in order to gain a clearer understanding of the relationship between the organic (collagen fibrils) and inorganic (calcium phosphate apatite crystals) components. Thin sections prepared by both focused ion beam (FIB) milling and ultramicrotomy, in the longitudinal and transverse planes, were investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a monochromated field-emission gun scanning TEM (FEI Titan 80-300 FEGSTEM). Both low- and core-loss spectroscopy were used in the investigation, and the signals from phosphorous, carbon, calcium, nitrogen and oxygen were studied in detail. A combination of HAADF (high-angle annular dark-field)-STEM imaging and EELS analysis was used for simultaneous acquisition of both spatial and spectral information pixel by pixel (spectrum imaging). Across the collagen D banding in longitudinal sections, the relative thickness of the bright bands was significantly higher than that of the dark bands. Core-loss spectroscopy showed that the bright bands were richer in apatite than the dark bands. However, no ELNES variation was observed across the D banding. In transverse sections, significant changes in the carbon edge fine structure were observed at the interface between the extra- and intra-fibrillar regions.

  15. Methodological aspects of the white-ivory assay of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, J A; Sierra, L M; Comendador, M A

    1995-10-01

    The white-ivory somatic assay of Drosophila melanogaster was developed to detect genotoxic agents which induce loss of a tandem duplication. Although the mechanism of this loss is not known, some suggestions point to intrachromosomal recombination as the main reversion mechanism. Since the few papers published to date on this assay present controversial methodologies, prior to a larger study of chemicals with different mechanisms of action, we have carried out an analysis to optimize some conditions of this assay. For this purpose, we have used three different strains and four well characterized mutagenic chemicals: N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and hexamethyl phosphoramide (HMPA). The results obtained allow us to conclude that: (i) the best strain for this assay is C(1)DX,y,f/Dp(1:1:1:1)wi,y2, although the use of strain FM6,l(1)66a/Dp(1:1:1:1)wi,y2;st/st could be considered for some mechanistical studies; (ii) developmental reasons make it necessary to use as estimate of reversion frequency the proportion of eyes showing at least one spot; (iii) reversion frequency cannot be used as estimate of mutation efficiency, neither can spot size evaluate time of spot induction; (iv) the four chemicals clearly induce loss of the wi duplication; according to their activities they rank ENU > HMPA > MMS approximately EMS. PMID:7477046

  16. Uncertain sightings and the extinction of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Solow, Andrew; Smith, Woollcott; Burgman, Mark; Rout, Tracy; Wintle, Brendan; Roberts, David

    2012-02-01

    The extinction of a species can be inferred from a record of its sightings. Existing methods for doing so assume that all sightings in the record are valid. Often, however, there are sightings of uncertain validity. To date, uncertain sightings have been treated in an ad hoc way, either excluding them from the record or including them as if they were certain. We developed a Bayesian method that formally accounts for such uncertain sightings. The method assumes that valid and invalid sightings follow independent Poisson processes and use noninformative prior distributions for the rate of valid sightings and for a measure of the quality of uncertain sightings. We applied the method to a recently published record of sightings of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis). This record covers the period 1897-2010 and contains 39 sightings classified as certain and 29 classified as uncertain. The Bayes factor in favor of extinction was 4.03, which constitutes substantial support for extinction. The posterior distribution of the time of extinction has 3 main modes in 1944, 1952, and 1988. The method can be applied to sighting records of other purportedly extinct species.

  17. Mapping Potential Ivory Billed Woodpecker Habitat using Lidar and Hyperspectral Data Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swatantran, A.; Dubayah, R.; Hofton, M.; Blair, J. B.; Handley, L.

    2008-12-01

    Multisensor fusion is a powerful approach towards characterizing forest structure for effective management of wildlife habitats. The rediscovery of the Ivory Billed Woodpecker in 2005 reinforced the need to map and conserve suitable habitat for the previously thought extinct bird. In this study we fused waveform lidar and hyperspectral data to map potential habitat for the woodpecker along the Lower Mississippi Valley of Arkansas. Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data was processed to produce high-resolution forest structure maps. We used multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) to map stressed and dead vegetation from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. LVIS and AVIRIS maps were fused to identify habitat hot-spots based on historical records of habitat preferences of the bird. Results indicate several small hotspots in the bottomland hardwood forests, but very few large and continuous patches qualify as potential woodpecker habitat. Results from this study are expected to aid search efforts for the woodpecker and also provide useful insights into lidar fusion for large scale habitat mapping.

  18. Phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of haemocytes from the ivory snail, Babylonia areolata.

    PubMed

    Di, Guilan; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Ke, Caihuan

    2013-08-01

    Haemocytes from the ivory snail, Babylonia areolata phagocytized Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus after 30 min. Haemocytes phagocytized V. parahaemolyticus at a greater rate than they phagocytized S. cerevisiae. The phagocytic rate (PP) of V. parahaemolyticus by granulocytes to was a little higher than that of S. cerevisiae. The phagocytic index (PI) of V. parahaemolyticus by granulocytes was significantly higher than that of S. cerevisiae. The same was true of hyalinocytes. The PP of granulocytes was significantly higher than that of hyalinocytes for each pathogen. No difference in PI was observed in granulocytes and hyalinocytes. Two defense mechanisms of B. areolata were quantified using flow cytometry. Haemocyte phagocytosis was quantified using fluorescent microbeads and respiratory burst activity was measured using H2O2 increases detected by 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Both phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of the haemocytes increased over time. After 90 min the phagocytic rate no longer increased. In the case of respiratory burst, the greatest increase in fluorescence occurred between 30 and 120 min, no further increase was seen after 120 min. These results showed unequivocally that a native (unstimulated) haemocyte oxidative burst was active in B. areolata. The aim of this study was to further the knowledge of immunology in gastropods.

  19. A coasting cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1989-01-01

    A Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology with energy density decreasing in expansion as 1/R-squared, where R is the Robertson-Walker scale factor, is studied. In such a model the universe expands with constant velocity; hence the term coasting cosmology. Observational consequences of such a model include the age of the universe, the luminosity distance-redshift relation (the Hubble diagram), the angular diameter distance-redshift relation, and the galaxy number count as a function of redshift. These observations are used to limit the parameters of the model. Among the interesting consequences of the model are the possibility of an ever-expanding closed universe, a model universe with multiple images at different redshifts of the same object, a universe with Omega - 1 not equal to 0 stable in expansion, and a closed universe with radius smaller than 1/H(0).

  20. Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana: Geochemistry of impactites and target rocks, and search for a meteoritic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiongxin; Boamah, Daniel; Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Irvine, Gordon; McDonald, Iain

    2005-10-01

    Major and trace element data, including platinum group element abundances, of representative impactites and target rocks from the crater rim and environs of the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana, have been investigated for the possible presence of a meteoritic component in impact-related rocks. A comparison of chemical data for Bosumtwi target rocks and impactites with those for Ivory Coast tektites and microtektites supports the interpretation that the Bosumtwi structure and Ivory Coast tektites formed during the same impact event. High siderophile element contents (compared to average upper crustal abundances) were determined for target rocks as well as for impactites. Chondrite-normalized (and iron meteorite-normalized) abundances for target rocks and impactites are similar. They do not, however, allow the unambiguous detection of the presence, or identification of the type, of a meteoritic component in the impactites. The indigenous siderophile element contents are high and possibly related to regional gold mineralization, although mineralized samples from the general region show somewhat different platinum-group element abundance patterns compared to the rocks at Bosumtwi. The present data underline the necessity of extensive target rock analyses at Bosumtwi, and at impact structures in general, before making any conclusions regarding the presence of a meteoritic component in impactites.

  1. Impact of tributyltin and triphenyltin on ivory shell (Babylonia japonica) populations.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Kojima, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Fumihiko; Kajikawa, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Makoto

    2006-04-01

    We histopathologically examined gonads and chemically determined organotin compounds in tissues of the ivory shell, Babylonia japonica. Imposex (a superimposition of male-type genital organs on females) occurred in approximately 80-90% of B. japonica specimens that we examined, with the penis and vas deferens both well developed. No oviduct blockage by vas deferens formation was observed. Ovarian spermatogenesis and suppressed ovarian maturation were observed in the females that exhibited imposex, although no histopathological abnormalities were found in males. Tissue distributions of organotin compounds [tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their metabolites] were different for butyltins and phenyltins; a remarkably high accumulation of TBT was observed in the ctenidium, osphradium, and heart, whereas high concentrations of TPhT were detected in the ovary and digestive gland. More than one-third of TBT accumulated in the digestive glands of both males and females, followed by the testis, ctenidium, muscle, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, ovary, ctenidium, and head tissues (including the central nervous system ganglia) in females. In both males and females, more than half of total TPhT accumulated in the digestive glands, followed by the gonads. The next highest values were in the muscle, ctenidium, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, oviduct, and head tissues in females. Both TBT and TPhT concentrations in the gonads were positively correlated with penis length in females. Our findings strongly suggest that reproductive failure in adult females accompanied by imposex, possibly induced by TBT and TPhT from antifouling paints, may have caused the marked decline of B. japonica populations in Japan.

  2. Impact of Tributyltin and Triphenyltin on Ivory Shell (Babylonia japonica) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Kojima, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Fumihiko; Kajikawa, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    We histopathologically examined gonads and chemically determined organotin compounds in tissues of the ivory shell, Babylonia japonica. Imposex (a superimposition of male-type genital organs on females) occurred in approximately 80–90% of B. japonica specimens that we examined, with the penis and vas deferens both well developed. No oviduct blockage by vas deferens formation was observed. Ovarian spermatogenesis and suppressed ovarian maturation were observed in the females that exhibited imposex, although no histopathological abnormalities were found in males. Tissue distributions of organotin compounds [tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their metabolites] were different for butyltins and phenyltins; a remarkably high accumulation of TBT was observed in the ctenidium, osphradium, and heart, whereas high concentrations of TPhT were detected in the ovary and digestive gland. More than one-third of TBT accumulated in the digestive glands of both males and females, followed by the testis, ctenidium, muscle, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, ovary, ctenidium, and head tissues (including the central nervous system ganglia) in females. In both males and females, more than half of total TPhT accumulated in the digestive glands, followed by the gonads. The next highest values were in the muscle, ctenidium, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, oviduct, and head tissues in females. Both TBT and TPhT concentrations in the gonads were positively correlated with penis length in females. Our findings strongly suggest that reproductive failure in adult females accompanied by imposex, possibly induced by TBT and TPhT from antifouling paints, may have caused the marked decline of B. japonica populations in Japan. PMID:16818241

  3. Welcoming Blue-Collar Scholars into the Ivory Tower: Developing Class-Conscious Strategies for Student Success. Series on Special Student Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.

    2015-01-01

    "Welcoming Blue-Collar Scholars Into the Ivory Tower" is the first volume in a new book series designed to explore how institutional policies, practices, and cultures shape learning, development, and success for students who have been historically underserved or given limited consideration in the design of higher education contexts.…

  4. Age assessment of ivory by analysis of 14C and 90Sr to determine whether there is an antique on hand.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Stefanie A K; Brunnermeier, Matthias J; Schupfner, Robert; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2011-04-15

    A method is described to determine whether an elephant has died before 1955 or not. This is accomplished by determination of the radionuclides (14)C and (90)Sr in artifacts made of ivory. The reliability of this method is considerably increased by double nuclide analysis and therefore is applicable for judicial expert opinions.

  5. The Red Light in the Ivory Tower: Contexts and Implications of Entrepreneurial Education. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 401

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breault, Donna Adair; Callejo Perez, David M.

    2012-01-01

    "The Red Light in the Ivory Tower: Contexts and Implications of Entrepreneurial Education" critically analyzes the operational behaviors of prestigious and prestige-seeking universities, particularly within the context of budget shortfalls and increasing competition. The book challenges entrepreneurial activities within universities by exploring…

  6. Upper Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The upper Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.5W), though mostly cloud covered in this view, is still readily identifiable because of the distinctive features of the Texas Gulf Coast. Galveston Island, Galveston Bay and the coastal prairie are in the clear. Most of the city of Houston is cloud covered but the Gulf Freeeway connecting Houston and Galveston can be traced for most of it's route.

  7. Upper Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Upper Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.5W) is clearly represented in this view from space. The area covered stretches almost 300 miles from Aransas Pass, on the Texas coast in the south to Cameron, Louisiana in the north. The sharp detail of both the natural and cultural features throughout the scene is especially evident in the Houston area where highways, major streets, airport runways and even some neighborhood lanes can be easily seen.

  8. Thunderstorm, Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This thunderstorm along the Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.0W), USA is seen as the trailing edge of a large cloud mass formed along the leading edge of a spring frontal system stretching northwest to southeast across the Texas Gulf Coast. This system brought extensive severe weather and flooding to parts of Texas and surrounding states. Muddy water discharging from coastal streams can be seen in the shallow Gulf of Mexico as far south as Lavaca Bay.

  9. Seismicity of California's north coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    At least three moment magnitude (M) 7 earthquakes occurred along California's north coast in the second half of the nineteenth century. The M 7.3 earthquake on 23 November 1873 occurred near the California-Oregon coast and likely was located on the Cascadia subduction zone or within the North American plate. The M 7.0 + earthquake on 9 May 1878 was located about 75 km offshore near the Mendocino fault. The surface-wave magnitude (M(s)) 7.0 earthquake on 16 April 1899 was located about 150 km offshore within the Gorda plate. There were at least three M 7 north-coast earthquakes in the 35 years before 1906, two M 7 earthquakes in the 20 years after 1906, no M 7 earthquakes from 1923 until 1980, and four M 7 earthquakes since 1980. The relative seismic quiescence after 1906 for M 7 earthquakes along California's north coast mimics the post-1906 seismic quiescence in the San Francisco Bay area for M 6 earthquakes. The post-1906 relative quiescence did not extend to lower magnitudes in either area. The 18 April 1906 earthquake apparently influenced the rate of occurrence of M 7 north-coast earthquakes as it apparently influenced the rate of M 6 earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay area. The relative seismic quiescence along the California north-coast region after 1906 should be taken into account when evaluating seismic hazards in northwest California.

  10. [The different present-day clinical picture of human African trypanosomiasis caused by T. b. gambiense. Analysis of 300 cases from a focus in Daloa, Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Boa, Y F; Traore, M A; Doua, F; Kouassi-Traore, M T; Kouassi, B E; Giordano, C

    1988-01-01

    300 patients with sleeping sickness have been admitted, at the AHT clinic of Daloa, over a time period of 22 months. The sex ratio of the patients is 1.5 males for 1 female; the mean age is 25.5 years. The most frequent signs and symptoms observed by clinical examination are: fever (30%), nodes (86.3%), prurigo (43.3%), splenomegaly (15.3%), hepatomegaly (1%), headache (72.6%), vigilance and sleeping disturbances (68.7%), perioral reflexes (67.6%), cheiro-oral reflexes (64.3%), movement disorders consisting of tremor, choreo-athetosis movements, buccal dyskinesia or seizures (35%), motor palsy and gait disorders (15%), tonus disturbances (12.3%), sensitivity abnormalities (17%), endocrine disorders (16.3%), psychiatric symptoms (6.3%). According to CSF status, 261 patients have been classified in second period (P2). This group, although biologically well defined, is in fact a miscellaneous group of clinical signs and symptoms ranging from apparently normal patients to sleeping comatose and cachectic patients. 93% of the patients in this group have peripheral signs associated with neurological symptoms. They are as frequent in the first period as in the second period, with a statistical significance. This is an argument to think that the CNS is early affected in the course of the disease. The classification of the patients in groups of increasing neurological impairments, is in accordance with this hypothesis. 89% of the patients in the second period have only slight neurological signs. This explain how difficult it is for a physician to use melarsoprol in the treatment of all patients classified in second period.

  11. Aghien lagoon: a sustainable resource of fresh water for the city of Abidjan (Ivory Coast)? Description of the project and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamagaté, Bamory; Effebi, Rose K.; Goula Bi, Tié Albert; Lanciné Goné, Droh; Noufé, Djibril; Diallo, Seydou; Ehouman, Serge K.; Koffi, Thierry; Zamblé Trabi, Armand; Lazare, Kouakou; Paturel, Jean Emmanuel; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Salles, Christian; Seguis, Luc; Tournoud, Marie-George; Karoui, Hela

    2016-04-01

    With more than 6 million inhabitants, Abidjan district faces tremendous difficulties in water supply. The aquifer of the Continental Terminal which is actually the only drinking water source of the city shows a decline of resources and water demand is increasing due to the population growth. Moreover significant evidences of chemical and biological pollution of the groundwater are observed The Aghien lagoon, the largest freshwater pool located near Abidjan, has been identified by the State of Côte d'Ivoire as a potential resource for the production of drinking water.. The main objective of this project is to assess the quantitative and qualitative capacity of the Aghien lagoon to complement the water supply of Abidjan city in the near future. The main components of the project are: • to assess the water budget of the lagoon and its tributaries, • to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of contaminant levels and fluxes from the tributaries toward the lagoon, • to assess the sustainability of the water resources (quantity and quality) of the lagoon according to land use changes in the catchments . The project started in January 2015. The first year was devoted to the set-up of hydro-meteorological gauges within the lagoon watershed. Three major tributaries of the lagoon are considered, the Mé (4000 km2), the Djibi (78 km2) and Bete (206 km2) rivers. Since the start of the project, bi-monthly hydrochemical sampling surveys have been carried out along the tributaries and in the lagoon. The data available from the surveys concern the physico-chemical parameters, trace elements, all the forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, organic carbon, suspended solids. The Djibi and Bete watersheds are partly urbanized while the Mé basin is mainly rural. Baseflow has been identified as the major contribution to streamflow at the annual scale. The Mé flows into a channel downstream to the Aghien lagoon but during the floods, water from the Mé River can flow up the channel and supply the Aghien lagoon. Discharge measurements have shown that over a period of 8 months Bete and Djibi Rivers renewed half of the total volume of the lagoon. The quantification of the Mé contribution is in progress. In agreement with its high rate of urbanization, Djibi River is highly contaminated. High levels of ammonium and total phosphorus have been observed during both low and high flow conditions. Physico-chemical surveys have shown also higher values of conductivity and lower values of dissolved oxygen in the Djibi River. Despite dilution effect due to the Mé river inflow, the Aghien lagoon is already hypertrophic. The lagoon presents a high biological activity characterized by high values of pH, phosphorus concentration but above all chlorophyll a. The research in the lagoon is going on to characterize the temporal variability and to quantify the impact of the major flood events on the water quality of the lagoon and its tributaries, urbanized or rural.

  12. Characterization of weathering profile in granites and volcanosedimentary rocks in West Africa under humid tropical climate conditions. Case of the Dimbokro Catchment (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koita, M.; Jourde, H.; Koffi, K. J. P.; da Silveira, K. S.; Biaou, A.

    2013-06-01

    In granitic rocks, various models of weathering profile have been proposed, but never for the hard rocks of West Africa. Besides, in the literature there is no description of the weathering profile in volcanosedimentrary rocks. Therefore, we propose three models describing the weathering profiles in granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks for hard rock formations located in West Africa. For each of these models proposed for granitic and volcanosedimentary rocks of the Dimbokro catchment, vertical layered weathering profiles are described, according to the various weathering and erosion cycles (specific to West Africa) that the geological formations of the Dimbokro catchment experienced from the Eocene to the recent Quaternary period. The characterization of weathering profiles is based on: i) bedrocks and weathering profile observations at outcrop, and ii) interpretation and synthesis of geophysical data and lithologs from different boreholes. For each of the geological formations (granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks), their related weathering profile model depicted from top to bottom comprises four separate layers: alloterite, isalterite, fissured layer, and fractured fresh basement. These weathering profiles are systematically covered by a soil layer. Though granites, metasediments and volcanic rocks of the Dimbokro catchment experience the same weathering and erosion cycles during the palaeoclimatic fluctuations from Eocene to recent Quaternary period, they exhibit differences in thickness. In granites, the weathering profile is relatively thin due to the absence of iron crust which protects weathering products against dismantling. In metasediments and volcanic rocks iron crusts develop better than in granites; in these rocks the alterite are more resistant to dismantling.

  13. [Clinical, biological, therapeutic and evolving profile of patients with HIV infection hospitalized at Infectious and tropical diseases unit in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Kra, O; Aba, Y T; Yao, K H; Ouattara, B; Abouo, F; Tanon, K A; Eholié, S; Bissagnené, E

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the clinical, biological, therapeutic and evolving current profile of hospitalized patients with HIV infection in the cohort of the Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit (ITDU) in the aim to improve their care management. This is a retrospective study, conducted on medical data of hospitalized cases of patients with HIV infection in the ITDU at the teaching hospital of Treichville (Abidjan) from 2006 to 2007. During the two years, 447 patients were included in the study. Their average age was 39 years [18 years-86 years] and sex ratio was 0.69. Of the 447 patients, 35% were unemployed and 67% were new patients who had never undergone antiretroviral therapy (ART). The duration of drug exposure was less than 6 months in 59% of treated patients. The average time to initiate ART was seven weeks. Among naive patients 41.9% were lost to follow up, 35.9% were waiting for treatment and 22.1% waiting for baseline biological test to initiate ART. At the initiation of ART, 79.6% of patients had a CD4 count less than 200/mm(3). The reasons of hospitalization defining AIDS were dominated by tuberculosis (34.2%), cerebral toxoplasmosis (17.9%) and neuromeningeal cryptococcosis (8%). The main reasons of hospitalization in classifying non-AIDS were pyelonephritis (6.5%), bacterial pneumonia (5.4%) and undetermined infectious encephalitis (4.9%). Hospital mortality was 24.4%. The leading causes of death were tuberculosis (22.9%), cerebral toxoplasmosis (20.2%), undetermined infectious encephalitis (18.3%) and cryptococcal meningitis (13.7%). The profile of PLHIV in hospital is characterized by profound immunosuppression due to late diagnosis and high mortality associated with severe opportunistic infections and late initiation of ART.

  14. The Economic Value of Breastfeeding (With Results from Research Conducted in Ghana and the Ivory Coast). Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiner, Ted; And Others

    This monograph focuses attention on economic considerations related to infant feeding practices in developing countries. By enlarging on previous methodologies, this paper proposes to improve the accuracy of past estimates of the economic value of human milk, or more specifically, the practice of breastfeeding. The theoretical model employed…

  15. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of essential oils of two aromatic plants from Ivory Coast against Bemisia tabaci G. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Tia, Etienne V; Adima, Augustin A; Niamké, Sébastien L; Jean, Gnago A; Martin, Thibaud; Lozano, Paul; Menut, Chantal

    2011-08-01

    Essential oils of aromatic plants with insecticidal properties are nowadays considered as alternative insecticides to protect cultures from attack by insect pest. The aims of the present work were to evaluate the toxicity of the essential oils vapors of two aromatic plants (Lippia multiflora Mold. and Aframomum latifolium K. Schum) against Bemisia tabaci and to characterize their chemical composition. The highest fumigant toxicity against B. tabaci adults was observed with the L. multiflora oil: by exposure to 0.4 microL/L air, the lethal time inducing 90% mortality (LT90) was below 2 hours for this essential oil whereas it reached 15 h in the case of the A. latifolium oil. Both oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS on two capillary columns. The oil of L. multiflora contained a majority of oxygenated terpenoids mainly represented by the two acyclic components linalool (46.6%) and (E)-nerolidol (16.5%); the oil of A. latifolium was dominated by hydrocarbonated terpenoids among them beta-pinene (51.6%) and beta-caryophyllene (12.3%) were the two major components.

  16. Seminar on the Training of Teachers, by the Interdisciplinary System, To Use This System in Schools (Bouake, Ivory Coast, March 24 - April 4, 1970). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document summarizes the discussion and recommendation made at a meeting held to consider ways and means of putting the syllabuses of teacher training colleges and subsequently those of primary schools on an interdisciplinary footing. The conference was attended by teachers on the staff of primary teacher training colleges in Cameroon, the…

  17. Can the Language of Rights Get Hold of the Complex Realities of Child Domestic Work?: The Case of Young Domestic Workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    This review examines refractions of children's rights in development practice from an anthropological point of view and considers the case of young domestic girls working in Abidjan. The author argues that child labour legislation and the children's rights perspective in Abidjan is permeated by patriarchal values that mask the exploitation of work…

  18. [Vaccination against hepatitis B on the Ivory Coast: study of the anti-HBs response in healthy adult subjects carrying only anti-HBc antibodies before vaccination].

    PubMed

    Ouattara, S A; Meite, M; Aron, Y

    1986-01-01

    A total of 103 volunteers, from 18 to 55 years of age, have received the hevac B Pasteur 5 micrograms vaccine subcutane on sly; one injection a month during three months and one booster injection after one year. The study of the anti-HBs reaction of the subjects, with regard to the serological status to the hepatite B virus before inoculation, has shown that only 78.8% of the subjects, who are only positive towards the anti-HBc antibody, will develop an anti-HBs response of primary type with a relatively low value. In contrast, all anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs subjects, who are positive before inoculation, react with relatively high anti-HBs values right after the first injection, of the seronegative subjects before inoculation. 93.3% will develop an anti-HBs seroconversion after the complete inoculation procedure.

  19. Poetry Expressed: Dance Diversity in the African Subcontinent--Perceptions, Misperceptions, and Preservation (with a Focus on the Ivory Coast and Mali)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumbia, Kadidia

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how African dances are created in many social venues as a form of communicating within specific societies. However, from her travels, she has discovered that there are many misconceptions outside of the continent, and many people who view African dances as exotic or as only entertainment. The article discusses…

  20. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    PubMed

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  1. Bryan Coast, English Coast, Alexander Island, Fallieres Coast, and Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Antarctica shows the Bryan Coast (lower left), the English Coast (lower central), Alexander Island (middle right), the Fallieres Coast (top right), and the Bellingshausen Sea. The entire continent has been dedicated to peaceful scientific investigation since 1961, with the signing of the Antarctic Treaty.The waters surrounding Antarctica are intensely cold. Salt water freezes at -2C, allowing sea ice to form. The middle left portion of the image shows quite a lot of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea. During the Antarctic winter, when data for this image was acquired, Antarctica doubles in size to about 28.5 million square km (or about 11 million square miles), and temperatures in the -60C range are common.This true-color image was compiled from MODIS data gathered March 29, 2002. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  2. [An Extremely Rare Case of Penetrating Head Injury Caused by a Nasal Implant Made of an Ivory Chip and a Review of the Literature].

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Makiko; Okamoto, Koichiro; Tamai, Yuta; Aishima, Kaoru; Inoue, Masato; Ohno, Hiroyasu; Hara, Tetsuo; Matsubayashi, Shigemi

    2016-06-01

    Although penetrating head injuries are very rare in Japan, an extremely rare case is reported in which an ivory chip, embedded in the subcutaneous tissue by a cosmetic rhinoplasty, penetrated the cranium. A 69-year-old woman with a psychiatric disorder suddenly jumped down from a window and bruised her face. The ivory chip went into her left frontal lobe via the frontal sinus. At surgery, it was completely removed via the nasion. There were no postoperative complications after adequate frontal sinus repair and closure of dura mater with a piece of pericranium. The literature dealing with Japanese penetrating head injuries was also reviewed. (Received May 27, 2015; Accepted December 1, 2015; Published June 1, 2016). PMID:27279165

  3. [An Extremely Rare Case of Penetrating Head Injury Caused by a Nasal Implant Made of an Ivory Chip and a Review of the Literature].

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Makiko; Okamoto, Koichiro; Tamai, Yuta; Aishima, Kaoru; Inoue, Masato; Ohno, Hiroyasu; Hara, Tetsuo; Matsubayashi, Shigemi

    2016-06-01

    Although penetrating head injuries are very rare in Japan, an extremely rare case is reported in which an ivory chip, embedded in the subcutaneous tissue by a cosmetic rhinoplasty, penetrated the cranium. A 69-year-old woman with a psychiatric disorder suddenly jumped down from a window and bruised her face. The ivory chip went into her left frontal lobe via the frontal sinus. At surgery, it was completely removed via the nasion. There were no postoperative complications after adequate frontal sinus repair and closure of dura mater with a piece of pericranium. The literature dealing with Japanese penetrating head injuries was also reviewed. (Received May 27, 2015; Accepted December 1, 2015; Published June 1, 2016).

  4. Chalk coast dynamics: Implications for understanding rock coast evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Cherith; Robinson, David

    2011-12-01

    Rock cliffs and shore platforms are linked components of the world's coastal zone. Understanding of the dynamics of their relationships has been hindered by the often imperceptible changes that occur within human time scales. The Cretaceous Chalk coasts of northwest Europe, and particularly those of southeast England, are among the most dynamic, and most intensively studied, cliffed rock coasts in the world. Perceptible changes to both cliffs and platforms have been measured on monthly, seasonal, annual and decadal time scales. Through a review of previously published data and the addition of data not previously published, average cliff retreat rates are calculated as 0.49 ± 0.38 m y - 1 and platform erosion rates 3.999 ± 3.208 mm y - 1 . This paper highlights some of the interactions over time and space between process and measurement that continue to limit our understanding of the dynamics of rock coasts; in particular the link between rates of cliff retreat and platform erosion. It concludes by identifying fruitful areas for future research.

  5. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  6. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  7. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  8. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  9. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  10. California coast nearshore processes study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. During the period 1 May to 30 June 1973 material was processed and interpreted for use in analyzing the three ocean seasons along the California coast. ERTS imagery from the first season of the year, called the Davidson Current period, was mosaiced and analyzed. The second season of the year, the Upwelling period, was mosaiced and interpretation was initiated. Imagery for the third ocean season, the Oceanic period, is being collected for future study.

  11. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  12. Coasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edward K.; Cliff, Ursula

    1974-01-01

    This article compares two approaches to regional planning. In San Francisco, a citizen-initiated supra-agency was organized to prevent overdevelop ment of the coastline. The New York coastline, developed by one man, Robert Moses, is now victim of an inadequate and inefficient system of development that ecologically threatens the area. (MA)

  13. Development of reproductive organs in the ivory shell Babylonia japonica: observations from wild populations and laboratory-reared juveniles.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Hamada, Fumihiko; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Shiraishi, Hiroaki

    2014-02-01

    We histologically examined normal differentiation and development of genital tract and gonad in the ivory shell Babylonia japonica (Buccinidae) to determine whether the formation of male-type genitalia in imposex-exhibiting females mimics the normal development of male genitalia in prosobranch gastropods. We used a wild-caught 2-year-old specimen and laboratory-reared juveniles aged 0-24 months. Gonad differentiation was unclear before age 14 months, but progressed after 16 months. Both sexes had complete genital tract and mature gonad at 20 months. However, differentiation and development occurred earlier in females than in males. Development of genital tract preceded gonad differentiation. Vas deferens morphogenesis in males resembled that in imposex-exhibiting females. These findings help to understand the morphogenesis of genital tract and gonad in prosobranch gastropods and will contribute to more in-depth studies of the mode of action of organotin compounds such as TBT and TPhT in imposex development in female prosobranch gastropods.

  14. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  19. Phytoplankton bloom along the coast of Namibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image, acquired March 4, 2002, shows a phytoplankton bloom along the coast of Namibia. Phytoplankton is a microscopic organism that utilizes chlorophyll, which sunlight reflects off of to create this intense blue-green color in the water. Also prominent in this image is the Skeleton Coast Game Park, which runs along Namibia's northern coast and here glows a beautiful coral-orange color.

  20. Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.

    PubMed

    Beyers, Rene L; Hart, John A; Sinclair, Anthony R E; Grossmann, Falk; Klinkenberg, Brian; Dino, Simeon

    2011-01-01

    Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats.

  1. Resource Wars and Conflict Ivory: The Impact of Civil Conflict on Elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo - The Case of the Okapi Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Beyers, Rene L.; Hart, John A.; Sinclair, Anthony R. E.; Grossmann, Falk; Klinkenberg, Brian; Dino, Simeon

    2011-01-01

    Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats. PMID:22096529

  2. Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.

    PubMed

    Beyers, Rene L; Hart, John A; Sinclair, Anthony R E; Grossmann, Falk; Klinkenberg, Brian; Dino, Simeon

    2011-01-01

    Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats. PMID:22096529

  3. Greenland's Coast in Holiday Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Vibrant reds, emerald greens, brilliant whites, and pastel blues adorn this view of the area surrounding the Jakobshavn Glacier on the western coast of Greenland. The image is a false-color (near-infrared, green, blue) view acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera. The brightness of vegetation in the near-infrared contributes to the reddish hues; glacial silt gives rise to the green color of the water; and blue-colored melt ponds are visible in the bright white ice. A scattering of small icebergs in Disco Bay adds a touch of glittery sparkle to the scene.

    The large island in the upper left is called Qeqertarsuaq. To the east of this island, and just above image center, is the outlet of the fast-flowing Jakobshavn (or Ilulissat) glacier. Jakobshavn is considered to have the highest iceberg production of all Greenland glaciers and is a major drainage outlet for a large portion of the western side of the ice sheet. Icebergs released from the glacier drift slowly with the ocean currents and pose hazards for shipping along the coast.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer views the daylit Earth continuously and the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude is observed every 9 days. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired on June 18, 2003 during Terra orbit 18615. The image cover an area of about 254 kilometers x 210 kilometers, and use data from blocks 34 to 35 within World Reference System-2 path 10.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  4. Discovering the "-Ologies" on the Jurassic Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The Jurassic Coast is Britain's only natural World Heritage site, a tangible time-line that takes one through 185 million years of history in 95 miles of coast. It provides individuals with a world-famous educational resource and an unrivalled outdoor classroom that has played a key role in the study of earth sciences. The author is keen to ignite…

  5. Systems Engineering of Coast Guard Aviator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eugene R.; Caro, Paul W.

    This paper describes a total-program application of the systems engineering concept of the U.S. Coast Guard aviation training programs. The systems approach used treats all aspects of the training to produce the most cost-effective integration of academic, synthetic, and flight training for the production of graduate Coast Guard aviators. The…

  6. 77 FR 56749 - Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... HOUSE, Washington, September 10, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-22807 Filed 9-12-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2... Documents#0;#0; ] Executive Order 13626 of September 10, 2012 Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration By the..., Executive Order 13554 established a Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force (Task Force) to...

  7. Gulf Coast Community College's Memory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Matthew D.

    2005-01-01

    Gulf Coast Community College in Panama City, Florida, is celebrating a fifty-year anniversary in 2007. Maintained by the library, the school's archives represent the historical contributions on a local and national level. Gulf Coast Community College library is ensuring the school's historical significance through the digitization of its…

  8. 76 FR 30575 - Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Marine Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Marine Events AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... regulated area. DATES: Comments and related material must be received by the Coast Guard on or before...

  9. 76 FR 53329 - Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Marine Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Marine Events AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is updating and consolidating the list of marine events occurring annually within the Eleventh Coast Guard District. These...

  10. 33 CFR 23.15 - Coast Guard ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coast Guard ensign. 23.15 Section 23.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.15 Coast Guard ensign. The Coast Guard...

  11. 75 FR 79956 - Protection for Whistleblowers in the Coast Guard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 53 RIN 1625-AB33 Protection for Whistleblowers in the Coast Guard AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: By this direct final rule, the Coast Guard is amending its ``Coast Guard Whistleblower Protection'' regulations to conform...

  12. 33 CFR 23.15 - Coast Guard ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coast Guard ensign. 23.15 Section 23.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.15 Coast Guard ensign. The Coast Guard...

  13. 78 FR 74048 - Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Fireworks Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Fireworks Events AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to amend several permanent safety zones located in the Eleventh Coast Guard District that are...

  14. 33 CFR 23.15 - Coast Guard ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coast Guard ensign. 23.15 Section 23.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.15 Coast Guard ensign. The Coast Guard...

  15. 76 FR 7123 - Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Marine Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Marine Events AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to update and consolidate the list of marine events occurring annually within the Eleventh Coast...

  16. 33 CFR 23.15 - Coast Guard ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coast Guard ensign. 23.15 Section 23.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.15 Coast Guard ensign. The Coast Guard...

  17. 33 CFR 23.15 - Coast Guard ensign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coast Guard ensign. 23.15 Section 23.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.15 Coast Guard ensign. The Coast Guard...

  18. Ctenophores from the Oaxaca coast, including a checklist of species from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Escobar, Fernando; Valadez-Vargas, Diana K; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2015-03-20

    Ctenophores are poorly known in the tropical eastern Pacific, including the southern coast of Mexico. Previous records of ctenophores along the Pacific coast have been provided mainly from northern waters. For the coast of Oaxaca state, their occurrence has only been mentioned before at phylum level. In this paper, we provide the first three records of ctenophores for the Oaxacan coast, which represent new records of Beroe forskalii and Bolinopsis vitrea as well as the first record of Ocyropsis maculata in the tropical eastern Pacific. Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided.

  19. Real-time PCR detection and quantification of elephantid DNA: species identification for highly processed samples associated with the ivory trade.

    PubMed

    Wozney, Kristyne Michelle; Wilson, Paul J

    2012-06-10

    The ivory industry is the single most serious threat to global elephant populations. A highly sensitive, species-specific real-time PCR assay has been developed to detect and quantify African elephant (Loxodonta africana), Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) mitochondrial DNA from highly processed samples involved in the international ivory trade. This assay is especially useful for highly processed samples where there are no distinguishing morphological features to identify the species of origin. Using species-specific Taqman(®) probes targeting a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, we developed an assay that can be used to positively identify samples containing elephant or Woolly mammoth DNA faster and more cost-effectively than traditional sequencing methods. Furthermore, this assay provides a diagnostic result based on probe hybridization that eliminates ambiguities associated with traditional DNA sequence protocols involving low template DNA. The real-time method is highly sensitive, producing accurate and reproducible results in samples with as few as 100 copies of template DNA. This protocol can be applied to the enforcement of the Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES), when positive identification of species from illegally traded products is required by conservation officers in wildlife forensic cases.

  20. 76 FR 46209 - Importation of Tomatoes From the Economic Community of West African States Into the Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ...: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Niger..., Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Niger,...

  1. Muddy Coast Dynamics and Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjerfve, Björn

    Muddy coasts are land-sea transitional environments common along low-energy shorelines around the world. They exist in climatic settings and tidal regimes ranging from microtidal to macro-tidal. Climatic warming and relative sea level rise are likely to have a greater impact on low-lying muddy coasts and deltas than most other coastal environments. This was the working hypothesis of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group 106, “Relative Sea Level and Muddy Coasts of the World,” which concluded its deliberations in the late 1990s.

  2. Southwest coast of Greenland and Davis Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image was taken by MODIS as it passed over the southwest coast of Greenland (right) and the Davis Strait (center and left). The Davis Strait connects Baffin Bay to the north and the Labrador Sea to the south, and separates Greenland from Baffin Island, Canada. The Davis Strait is part of the Northwest Passage, a navigable seaway connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The image shows the prevailing currents in the area, with the warm water of a branch of the North Atlantic Drift flowing northward along the Greenland coast, and the cold, iceberg-filled Labrador Current flowing southward along the Baffin Island coast.

  3. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  4. The Coast Guard Comes to Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on Sea Partners, by the United States Coast Guard, that enables students to understand how pollution affects the marine environment. Correlates the activities with the National Science Education Standards. (DDR)

  5. 46 CFR 4.03-20 - Coast Guard district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard district. 4.03-20 Section 4.03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the...

  6. 33 CFR 23.20 - Coast Guard commission pennant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coast Guard commission pennant. 23.20 Section 23.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.20 Coast Guard commission...

  7. 46 CFR 4.03-20 - Coast Guard district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard district. 4.03-20 Section 4.03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the...

  8. 76 FR 17782 - Protection for Whistleblowers in the Coast Guard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... the Coast Guard'' in the Federal Register. (75 FR 79956). That rule broadens the whistleblower... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 53 RIN 1625-AB33 Protection for Whistleblowers in the Coast Guard AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Direct final rule; confirmation of effective date. SUMMARY: On December...

  9. 33 CFR 52.42 - Views of the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Views of the Coast Guard. 52.42 Section 52.42 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL BOARD FOR CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Submissions by the Coast Guard and Other...

  10. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  11. 33 CFR 23.10 - Coast Guard emblem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coast Guard emblem. 23.10 Section 23.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.10 Coast Guard emblem. (a) The...

  12. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard...

  13. 33 CFR 173.83 - Availability of Coast Guard forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Availability of Coast Guard forms. 173.83 Section 173.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Number § 173.83 Availability of Coast Guard forms. In a State where the Coast Guard is the...

  14. 46 CFR 50.10-30 - Coast Guard number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard number. 50.10-30 Section 50.10-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-30 Coast Guard number. (a) The Coast Guard number...

  15. 33 CFR 23.12 - Coast Guard identifying insignia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coast Guard identifying insignia. 23.12 Section 23.12 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.12 Coast Guard identifying...

  16. 33 CFR 52.42 - Views of the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Views of the Coast Guard. 52.42 Section 52.42 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL BOARD FOR CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Submissions by the Coast Guard and Other...

  17. 33 CFR 23.20 - Coast Guard commission pennant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coast Guard commission pennant. 23.20 Section 23.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.20 Coast Guard commission...

  18. 33 CFR 52.42 - Views of the Coast Guard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Views of the Coast Guard. 52.42 Section 52.42 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL BOARD FOR CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Submissions by the Coast Guard and Other...

  19. 46 CFR 4.03-20 - Coast Guard district.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard district. 4.03-20 Section 4.03-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-20 Coast Guard district. A Coast Guard district is one of the...

  20. 33 CFR 173.83 - Availability of Coast Guard forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of Coast Guard forms. 173.83 Section 173.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Number § 173.83 Availability of Coast Guard forms. In a State where the Coast Guard is the...