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Sample records for ix paralympic winter

  1. Torino 2006. XX Olympic and IX Paralympic Winter Games: the ENT experience

    PubMed Central

    Succo, G; Crosetti, E; Mattiazzo, A; Riontino, E; Massazza, G

    2008-01-01

    Summary A total of 27 competition days, more than 3000 athletes, over 10,000 components of the Olympic family, 3,500 workers, 2,500 volunteers, an overall business of more than 2 billion Euros. These, in a nutshell, are just a few of the data concerning the XX Olympic and the IX Paralympic Winter Games, Torino, Italy, 2006. Such a huge event, obviously required a meticulously organized medical service to cope with the healthcare of the athletes, official workers and the Olympic family, distributed over a geographic area of approximately 80 km in diameter. An ENT service was organized within the medical service, which was divided between 3 Polyclinics, in which 12 ENT Specialists were on duty. The present report gives an account of the final data concerning the service involved, together with a description of the approach used in the actual organization, with a view to providing useful information for colleagues who will be called upon, for a similar service, in future Olympic Winter Games. The ENT healthcare offered was confirmed to be proportional to the requirements, both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. All the ENT specialists involved, reported having gained an immense store of human experience from having lived the Olympic atmosphere as a volunteer exerting one’s own profession. The facilities available in the Polyclinics, which were at a considerable distance from the Hospital, were found to be more than adequate with respect to the pathological conditions and service requested, particularly in 17% of the cases which would otherwise have been sent to a Hospital Outpatient Unit at least 80 km away. PMID:18646571

  2. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  3. Motivation and satisfaction among polyclinic volunteers at the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Reeser, J; Berg, R; Rhea, D; Willick, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Olympic and Paralympic Games rely heavily on volunteers to provide many essential services, including medical care of athletes. Objective: This preliminary investigation sought to characterise the motivational influences and factors responsible for the satisfaction of Olympic and Paralympic healthcare volunteers. Methods: The 2002 Winter Games polyclinic healthcare volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to elicit information about their motives for volunteering and the factors that contributed to their satisfaction with their volunteer experience. Results: There was no significant difference in the motivation or satisfaction summary scores based on event worked. There was a strong positive correlation between motivation and satisfaction. Physician respondents had a lower mean motivation score than did non-physician volunteers. Conclusions: There were no significant motivational differences between Olympic and Paralympic volunteers, but there were several differences noted between physician and non-physician volunteers. The 2002 polyclinic volunteers appear to have been motivated by a complex process best described as "enlightened self interest," and all were generally well satisfied with their experience. These results may assist organisers of future Games in selecting appropriately motivated volunteer personnel and creating rewarding work environments for them. PMID:15793078

  4. [Catering for client groups during the XXII Olympic winter games and XI Paralympic winter games of 2014 in Sochi].

    PubMed

    Popova, A Yu; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaya, T V; Balaeva, M I; Vechernyaya, L S; Vechernyaya, E A; Bozhko, I I; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Tushina, O V; Manin, E A; Taran, T V

    2016-01-01

    The problems of catering control various client groups during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is one of the priorities of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population during mass events. The data on the order of nutrition of guests and participants of the games, control of food items, sanitary and microbiological monitoring of drinking water, food raw materials and products are presented. It is noted that the ongoing supervisory activities contributed to the sanitary and epidemiological well-being during the Games. The purpose of this study was to lighting modern achievements in the field of nutrition and food microbiology in the period of the Olympic Games and the determination of their value to the further improvement and use at when conducting mass gatherings. PMID:27228711

  5. [Catering for client groups during the XXII Olympic winter games and XI Paralympic winter games of 2014 in Sochi].

    PubMed

    Popova, A Yu; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaya, T V; Balaeva, M I; Vechernyaya, L S; Vechernyaya, E A; Bozhko, I I; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Tushina, O V; Manin, E A; Taran, T V

    2016-01-01

    The problems of catering control various client groups during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is one of the priorities of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population during mass events. The data on the order of nutrition of guests and participants of the games, control of food items, sanitary and microbiological monitoring of drinking water, food raw materials and products are presented. It is noted that the ongoing supervisory activities contributed to the sanitary and epidemiological well-being during the Games. The purpose of this study was to lighting modern achievements in the field of nutrition and food microbiology in the period of the Olympic Games and the determination of their value to the further improvement and use at when conducting mass gatherings.

  6. Mid-Mountain Clouds at Whistler During the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ruping; Joe, Paul; Isaac, George A.; Gultepe, Ismail; Rasmussen, Roy; Milbrandt, Jason; McTaggart-Cowan, Ron; Mailhot, Jocelyn; Brugman, Melinda; Smith, Trevor; Scott, Bill

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive study of mid-mountain clouds and their impacts on the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics is presented. Mid-mountain clouds were frequently present on the Whistler alpine venue, as identified in an extensive archive of webcam images over a 45-day period from February 5 to March 21, 2010. These clouds posed serious forecast challenges and had significant impacts on some Olympic and Paralympic alpine skiing competitions. Under fair weather conditions, a diurnal upslope (anabatic) flow can work in concert with a diurnal temperature inversion aloft to produce a localized phenomenon known as "Harvey's Cloud" at Whistler. Two detailed case studies in this paper suggest that mid-mountain clouds can also develop in the area as a result of a moist valley flow interacting with a downslope flow descending from the mountaintop. A southerly inflow through the Sea-to-Sky corridor can be channeled by the local topography into a westerly upslope flow toward Whistler Mountain, resulting in orographic clouds on the alpine venue. Under favorable circumstances, these clouds are trapped to the mid-mountain zone by the leeward subsidence of an elevated southerly flow. The presence of the downslope subsidence was manifested by a distinguished dry layer observed on the top of the mid-mountain clouds in both cases. It is the subsidence-induced adiabatic warming that imposes a strong buoyant suppression to trap the mid-mountain cloud. On the other hand, the subsidence-induced dry layer has the potential to trigger evaporative instability to periodically breakup the mid-mountain cloud.

  7. An Experimental High-Resolution Forecast System During the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailhot, J.; Milbrandt, J. A.; Giguère, A.; McTaggart-Cowan, R.; Erfani, A.; Denis, B.; Glazer, A.; Vallée, M.

    2014-01-01

    Environment Canada ran an experimental numerical weather prediction (NWP) system during the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games, consisting of nested high-resolution (down to 1-km horizontal grid-spacing) configurations of the GEM-LAM model, with improved geophysical fields, cloud microphysics and radiative transfer schemes, and several new diagnostic products such as density of falling snow, visibility, and peak wind gust strength. The performance of this experimental NWP system has been evaluated in these winter conditions over complex terrain using the enhanced mesoscale observing network in place during the Olympics. As compared to the forecasts from the operational regional 15-km GEM model, objective verification generally indicated significant added value of the higher-resolution models for near-surface meteorological variables (wind speed, air temperature, and dewpoint temperature) with the 1-km model providing the best forecast accuracy. Appreciable errors were noted in all models for the forecasts of wind direction and humidity near the surface. Subjective assessment of several cases also indicated that the experimental Olympic system was skillful at forecasting meteorological phenomena at high-resolution, both spatially and temporally, and provided enhanced guidance to the Olympic forecasters in terms of better timing of precipitation phase change, squall line passage, wind flow channeling, and visibility reduction due to fog and snow.

  8. Very-short range forecasting system for 2018 Pyeonchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Ji-Eun; Park, Kyungjeen; Kim, Minyou; Kim, Changhwan; Joo, Sangwon

    2016-04-01

    The 23rd Olympic Winter and the 13th Paralympic Winter Games will be held in Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea respectively from 9 to 25 February 2018 and from 9 to 18 February 2018. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the National Institute for Meteorological Science (NIMS) have the responsibility to provide weather information for the management of the Games and the safety of the public. NIMS will carry out a Forecast Demonstration Project (FDP) and a Research and Development Project (RDP) which will be called ICE-POP 2018. These projects will focus on intensive observation campaigns to understand severe winter weathers over the Pyeongchang region, and the research results from the RDP will be used to improve the accuracy of nowcasting and very short-range forecast systems during the Games. To support these projects, NIMS developed Very-short range Data Assimilation and Prediction System (VDAPS), which is run in real time with 1 hour cycling interval and up to 12 hour forecasts. The domain is covering Korean Peninsular and surrounding seas with 1.5km horizontal resolution. AWS, windprofiler, buoy, sonde, aircraft, scatwinds, and radar radial winds are assimilated by 3DVAR on 3km resolution inner domain. The rain rate is converted into latent heat and initialized via nudging. The visibility data are also assimilated with the addition of aerosol control variable. The experiments results show the improvement in rainfall over south sea of Korean peninsula. In order to reduce excessive rainfalls during first 2 hours due to the reduced cycling interval, the data assimilation algorithm is optimized.

  9. [Modern methods application of genotyping of infectious diseases pathogens in the context of operational work of specialized anti-epidemic team during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games].

    PubMed

    Kuzkin, B P; Kulichenko, A N; Volynkina, A S; Efremenko, D V; Kuznetsova, I V; Kotenev, E S; Lyamkin, G I; Kartsev, N N; Klindukhov, V P

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the experience of genotyping and sequencing technologies in laboratories of specialized anti-epidemic team (SAET) during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi. The work carried out during the pre-Olympic period on performance of readiness by SAET for these studies is analyzed. The results of genotyping strains of pathogens during the Olympic Games are presented. A conclusion about the effectiveness of the use of molecular genetic techniques in terms of SAET is made.

  10. [Modern methods application of genotyping of infectious diseases pathogens in the context of operational work of specialized anti-epidemic team during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games].

    PubMed

    Kuzkin, B P; Kulichenko, A N; Volynkina, A S; Efremenko, D V; Kuznetsova, I V; Kotenev, E S; Lyamkin, G I; Kartsev, N N; Klindukhov, V P

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the experience of genotyping and sequencing technologies in laboratories of specialized anti-epidemic team (SAET) during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi. The work carried out during the pre-Olympic period on performance of readiness by SAET for these studies is analyzed. The results of genotyping strains of pathogens during the Olympic Games are presented. A conclusion about the effectiveness of the use of molecular genetic techniques in terms of SAET is made. PMID:26016355

  11. [ORGANIZATION OF THE QUALITY CONTROL OF PLACEMENT AND ACCOMMODATION OF PARTICIPANTS ATTENDANTS AND GUESTS OF THE XXII OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES AND XI PARALYMPIC WINTER GAMES OF 2014 IN THE RESORT CITY OF SOCHI].

    PubMed

    Gorskiĭ, A A; Gus'kov, A S; Pochtareva, E S; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaia, T V; Vechemyaia, E A; Biriukov, V A; Bozhko, I I; Kulichenko, A N; Taran, T V; Zaĭtsev, A A; Tushina, O V

    2015-01-01

    There is presented the analysis of activities of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare to ensure adequate conditions of accommodation of the participants, attendants and guests of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in the Resort city of Sochi according to regulated requirements. There were detected ways of the strengthening the supervision for the quality of the accommodation during mass sports activities for the assurance of the rights for consumers. PMID:26155635

  12. Creating a gold medal Olympic and Paralympics health care team: a satisfaction survey of the mobile medical unit/polyclinic team training for the Vancouver 2010 winter games

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mobile medical unit/polyclinic (MMU/PC) was an essential part of the medical services to support ill or injured Olympic or Paralympics family during the 2010 Olympic and Paralympics winter games. The objective of this study was to survey the satisfaction of the clinical staff that completed the training programs prior to deployment to the MMU. Methods Medical personnel who participated in at least one of the four training programs, including (1) week-end sessions; (2) web-based modules; (3) just-in-time training; and (4) daily simulation exercises were invited to participate in a web-based survey and comment on their level of satisfaction with training program. Results A total of 64 (out of 94 who were invited) physicians, nurses and respiratory therapists completed the survey. All participants reported favorably that the MMU/PC training positively impacted their knowledge, skills and team functions while deployed at the MMU/PC during the 2010 Olympic Games. However, components of the training program were valued differently depending on clinical job title, years of experience, and prior experience in large scale events. Respondents with little or no experience working in large scale events (45%) rated daily simulations as the most valuable component of the training program for strengthening competencies and knowledge in clinical skills for working in large scale events. Conclusion The multi-phase MMU/PC training was found to be beneficial for preparing the medical team for the 2010 Winter Games. In particular this survey demonstrates the effectiveness of simulation training programs on teamwork competencies in ad hoc groups. PMID:24225074

  13. [FEATURES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF SANITARY-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE DURING THE PERIOD OF PREPARATION AND HOSTING OF THE XXII OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES AND XI PARALYMPIC WINTER GAMES IN THE RESORT CITY OF SOCHI IN 2014].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Popova, A Iu; Kuzkin, B P; Guskova, A S; Ivanov, G E; Pakskina, N D; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaia, T V; Balaeva, M I; Biriukov, V A; Bozhko, I I; Tesheva, S Ch; Daragan, Iu G; Parkhomenko, V V; Rafeenko, G K; Kulichenko, A N; Manin, E A; Maletskaia, O V; Vasilenko, N F; Efremenko, D V; Orobeĭ, V G; Eldinova, V E; Pilikova, O M; Malaĭ, V I; Iunicheva, Iu V

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are presented the basic principles of the organization of activities for the assurance ofthe sanitary- epidemiological welfare in the period ofpreparation and hosting of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in the Resort City of Sochi. There are considered features of the organization ofepidemiological surveillance in the pre-Olympic period, the period of the games and the state of the morbidity rate in the region after the Olympics. There are presented data on certain directions of the work of organs and institutions of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare on the disease control of the event. PMID:26155633

  14. Assimilation and High Resolution Forecasts of Surface and Near Surface Conditions for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Natacha B.; Bélair, Stéphane; Bilodeau, Bernard; Tong, Linying

    2014-01-01

    A dynamical model was experimentally implemented to provide high resolution forecasts at points of interests in the 2010 Vancouver Olympics and Paralympics Region. In a first experiment, GEM-Surf, the near surface and land surface modeling system, is driven by operational atmospheric forecasts and used to refine the surface forecasts according to local surface conditions such as elevation and vegetation type. In this simple form, temperature and snow depth forecasts are improved mainly as a result of the better representation of real elevation. In a second experiment, screen level observations and operational atmospheric forecasts are blended to drive a continuous cycle of near surface and land surface hindcasts. Hindcasts of the previous day conditions are then regarded as today's optimized initial conditions. Hence, in this experiment, given observations are available, observation driven hindcasts continuously ensure that daily forecasts are issued from improved initial conditions. GEM-Surf forecasts obtained from improved short-range hindcasts produced using these better conditions result in improved snow depth forecasts. In a third experiment, assimilation of snow depth data is applied to further optimize GEM-Surf's initial conditions, in addition to the use of blended observations and forecasts for forcing. Results show that snow depth and summer temperature forecasts are further improved by the addition of snow depth data assimilation.

  15. Medical Care Before and During the Winter Paralympic Games in Turin 2006, Vancouver 2010 and Sochi 2014

    PubMed Central

    Gawroński, Wojciech; Sobiecka, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Medical care in disabled sports is crucial both as prophylaxis and as ongoing medical intervention. The aim of this paper was to present changes in the quality of medical care over the consecutive Paralympic Games (PG). The study encompassed 31 paralympians: Turin (11), Vancouver (12), and Sochi (8) competing in cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, biathlon and snowboarding. The first, questionnaire-based, part of the study was conducted in Poland before the PG. The athletes assessed the quality of care provided by physicians, physiologists, dieticians, and physiotherapists, as well as their cooperation with the massage therapist and the psychologist. The other part of the study concerned the athletes’ health before leaving for the PG, as well as their diseases and injuries during the PG. The quality of medical care was poor before the 2006 PG, but satisfactory before the subsequent PG. Only few athletes made use of psychological support, assessing it as poor before the 2006 PG and satisfactory before the 2010 and 2014 PG. The athletes’ health condition was good during all PG. The health status of cross-country skiers was confirmed by a medical fitness certificate before all PG, while that of alpine skiers only before the 2014 PG. There were no serious diseases; training injuries precluded two athletes from participation. The quality of medical care before the PG was poor, however, became satisfactory during the actual PG. The resulting ad hoc pattern deviates from the accepted standards in medical care in disabled sports. PMID:26834868

  16. Paralympics--Barcelona 1992.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, J; Stirk, A; Thomas, A; Geary, F

    1994-01-01

    The British Team at the 9th Paralympic Games in September 1992 in Barcelona comprised 151 men and 54 women athletes in a total of 15 sports. They were supported by a staff of 86 including a 12-strong medical team. The athletes were selected from the National Championships of the five disability organizations: British Wheelchair Sports Federation; British Blind Sport; Cerebral Palsy Sport; British Amputee Sports Association; and the British Les Autres Sports Association. This article outlines the organization and experience of the medical support team. The injury/illness profile was similar to those in able bodied sport. The team went on to achieve 40 gold, 47 silver and 41 bronze medals, maintaining third place on the medal table as achieved in Seoul in 1988. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8044485

  17. Paralympic Athletes and "Knowing Disability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hayley

    2012-01-01

    This article explores non-disabled young people's understandings of Paralympic athletes and the disability sports they play. The article examines how society has come to know disability by discussing medical and social model views of disability. The conceptual tools offered by Pierre Bourdieu are utilised as a means of understanding the nature and…

  18. A Historical Perspective of the Paralympic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePauw, Karen P.

    2012-01-01

    Athletes with disabilities are more visible in the 21st century than they used to be, including in the world of sport. Today, one hears about the Paralympic Games, can find media coverage of them, can read about athletes who compete in the Paralympics and about advancements in sport prosthetic devices in science and sport magazines, and can even…

  19. Paralympic Games Inspire and Excite the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author cites the good outcomes from exposing young people to Paralympic Games. In addition, the author explains how the Paralympic Games brings to the host city many opportunities for young people to experience first-hand the common humanity that lies within every human being. Children are given the opportunity to witness and…

  20. Access for all: the rise of the Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Gold, John R; Gold, Margaret M

    2007-05-01

    The Paralympic, or Parallel, Games for athletes with disabilities have played a major role over the past half century in changing attitudes towards disability and accelerating the agenda for inclusion. This article charts their development from small beginnings as a competition for disabled ex-servicemen and women in England founded shortly after the Second World War to the present day ambulatory international festival of Summer and Winter Games organized in conjunction with the Olympic Games. The Paralympic Games trace their origins to the work of Dr (later Sir) Ludwig Guttmann at the National Spinal Injuries Unit at Stoke Mandeville Hospital in Buckinghamshire who used sport as an integral part of the treatment of paraplegic patients. A sports competition was held at the hospital to coincide with the Opening Ceremony of the London Games in July 1948. This became an annual event attracting the first international participation in 1952, after which it became the International Stoke Mandeville Games. From 1960 onwards attempts were made to hold every fourth Games in the Olympic host city. Despite initial success in staging the 1960 Games in Rome and the 1964 Games in Tokyo, subsequent host cities refused to host the competitions and alternative locations were found where a package of official support, finance and suitable venues could be assembled. In 1976, the scope of the Games was widened to accept other disabilities. From 1988 onwards, a process of convergence took place that saw the Paralympics brought into the central arena of the Olympics, both literally and figuratively. In the process they have embraced new sports, have encompassed a wider range of disabilities, and helped give credence to the belief that access to sport is available to all. The Paralympics also underline the change from sport as therapeutic competition to that of elite events that carry intrinsic prestige, with growing rivalry over medal tables. For the future, however, questions remain as

  1. Empower, Inspire, Achieve: (Dis)Empowerment and the Paralympic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue, David E. J.; Howe, P. David

    2012-01-01

    This paper undertakes a critical examination of the International Paralympic Committee's desire to use the Paralympic Games as a vehicle to empower individuals with a disability. We achieve this by applying Pierre Bourdieu's sociological concepts of habitus and capital to semi-structured interviews conducted with Paralympic stakeholders.…

  2. [Doping in disabled sports. Doping control activities at the Paralympic Games 1984-2008 and in Germany 1992-2008].

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Hemmersbach, Peter; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2009-12-15

    Activities concerning the fight against doping with regard to the Paralympic Games have been initiated in 1984, when first doping controls were conducted. The foundation of the International Paralympic Committee exactly 20 years ago (1989) considerably supported systematic sports drug-testing programs specifically designed to meet the particular challenges related to disabled sports, which yielded a variety of adverse analytical findings (e.g., with anabolic steroids, diuretics, corticosteroids, and stimulants) especially at Paralympic Summer Games. In Germany, doping controls for handicapped athletes were established in 1992 and have been conducted since by the National Paralympic Committee Germany and the National Anti-Doping Agency. Also here, various analogies in terms of antidoping rule violations were found in comparison to doping controls of nondisabled athletes. In the present article, available numbers of samples analyzed at Paralympic Summer and Winter Games as well as within the doping control program for disabled sports in Germany are summarized, and particularities concerning sample collection and the doping method termed boosting are presented.

  3. 75 FR 54069 - U.S. Paralympics Monthly Assistance Allowance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... payment of a monthly assistance allowance to military veterans training to make the United States... United States Paralympics team or is residing at a United States Paralympics training center. The... Sports Programs and Special Events (002C), Department of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue,...

  4. The Organization of Paralympic Sport in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Joe; Mushett, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, Paralympic sport is governed by the United States Olympic Committee (USOC), as set forth in the Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act of 1998. The USOC formed a dedicated Paralympic Division in 2001 to manage this responsibility in close cooperation with other USOC divisions and many of the sport-specific national…

  5. Using Cross-Curricular Ideas to Infuse Paralympic Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepfer, Amanda T. S.; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2012-01-01

    The Paralympic Games are the second largest sport event in the world. They occur two weeks after the Olympic Games in the same geographic location and sport venues. Despite the Paralympic Games' longevity, many Americans do not even know they exist. One way to meaningfully share information about this event with people of all ages is to infuse a…

  6. Psychological Preparation for Paralympic Athletes: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Boris; Orbach, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Since the first Paralympics in 1960 there has been an increase in social and scientific interest in Paralympic athletes' personality, their preparation, and their sport results. During the last 20 yr, researchers and practitioners have been focused on psychological-skills programs for athletes with disabilities. The purpose of this article was to describe a psychological-preparation program for Israeli Paralympic athletes. Two subprograms, the learning-modification-application approach and the Simulation Training Exercise Program, were adapted to athletes' disability and sport demands. Two case studies, from table tennis and sailing (Sonar 3-person keelboat), are described to demonstrate how systematic sport psychology preparation can be effectively integrated into the training process of Paralympic athletes. Some recommendations for Paralympic athletes are presented.

  7. Psychological Preparation for Paralympic Athletes: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Boris; Orbach, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Since the first Paralympics in 1960 there has been an increase in social and scientific interest in Paralympic athletes' personality, their preparation, and their sport results. During the last 20 yr, researchers and practitioners have been focused on psychological-skills programs for athletes with disabilities. The purpose of this article was to describe a psychological-preparation program for Israeli Paralympic athletes. Two subprograms, the learning-modification-application approach and the Simulation Training Exercise Program, were adapted to athletes' disability and sport demands. Two case studies, from table tennis and sailing (Sonar 3-person keelboat), are described to demonstrate how systematic sport psychology preparation can be effectively integrated into the training process of Paralympic athletes. Some recommendations for Paralympic athletes are presented. PMID:26113552

  8. Verification of an ENSO-Based Long-Range Prediction of Anomalous Weather Conditions During the Vancouver 2010 Olympics and Paralympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ruping; Joe, Paul I.; Doyle, Chris; Whitfield, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review of the anomalous weather conditions during the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games and the efforts to predict these anomalies based on some preceding El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals are presented. It is shown that the Olympic Games were held under extraordinarily warm conditions in February 2010, with monthly mean temperature anomalies of +2.2 °C in Vancouver and +2.8 °C in Whistler, ranking respectively as the highest and the second highest in the past 30 years (1981-2010). The warm conditions continued, but became less anomalous, in March 2010 for the Paralympic Games. While the precipitation amounts in the area remained near normal through this winter, the lack of snow due to warm conditions created numerous media headlines and practical problems for the alpine competitions. A statistical model was developed on the premise that February and March temperatures in the Vancouver area could be predicted using an ENSO signal with considerable lead time. This model successfully predicted the warmer-than-normal, lower-snowfall conditions for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics.

  9. Using Role Models to Help Celebrate Paralympic Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastro, James; Ahrens, Christopher; Statton, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    A role model is a person or challenge that inspires an individual to go beyond what is expected of him or her and to reach a specific goal. Role models can exemplify motivation, passion, and a genuine love of their life's work. All students need role models, and Paralympic sport athletes can be just that, especially for students with disabilities.…

  10. Paralympic sport: an emerging area for research and consultancy in sports biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L

    2011-09-01

    The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. The overall purpose of this paper is to highlight the role that the field of sports biomechanics specifically (and sports science in general) may play in improving performance in various summer Paralympic sports through research and consultancy. To achieve this broad aim, this review provides some history and background on the Summer Paralympic Games, discusses the eligibility and classification rules, describes the potential for the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to inform practice and research in this area, and reviews selected studies examining the biomechanics of the primary forms of Paralympic locomotion. Some recommendations on how sports biomechanics can help facilitate improvements in Paralympic athletic performance through applied research and consultancy are provided, along with commentary on what may be some of the most important issues addressing Paralympic sport.

  11. Coach Autonomy Support, Basic Need Satisfaction, and Intrinsic Motivation of Paralympic Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banack, Hailey R.; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Bloom, Gordon A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study, grounded in self-determination theory, was to explore the relationship between Paralympic athletes' perceptions of autonomy-supportive coach behavior, basic psychological needs, and intrinsic motivation to know, accomplish, and experience stimulation. One hundred thirteen Canadian Paralympic athletes completed an…

  12. Volunteer Voice. Volume IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volunteer Voice, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document consists of the three volume IX issues of "Volunteer Voice," a newsletter of the Tacoma Community House Training Project. The first issue consists of one teacher's personal account of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teaching and includes the following: an annotated list of ESL text books, a list of activities resources,…

  13. Arboviral and other illnesses in travellers returning from Brazil, June 2013 to May 2016: implications for the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Mockenhaupt, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P; Rothe, Camilla; von Sonnenburg, Frank; van Genderen, Perry J; Chappuis, Francois; Asgeirsson, Hilmir; Caumes, Eric; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Malvy, Denis; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Jensenius, Mogens; Larsen, Carsten Schade; Castelli, Francesco; Rapp, Christophe; Field, Vanessa; Molina, Israel; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Florescu, Simin; Lalloo, David; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated EuroTravNet (a GeoSentinel subnetwork) data from June 2013 to May 2016 on 508 ill travellers returning from Brazil, to inform a risk analysis for Europeans visiting the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Brazil. Few dengue fever cases (n = 3) and no cases of chikungunya were documented during the 2013-15 Brazilian winter months, August and September, the period when the Games will be held. The main diagnoses were dermatological (37%), gastrointestinal (30%), febrile systemic illness (29%) and respiratory (11%).

  14. Arboviral and other illnesses in travellers returning from Brazil, June 2013 to May 2016: implications for the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Mockenhaupt, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P; Rothe, Camilla; von Sonnenburg, Frank; van Genderen, Perry J; Chappuis, Francois; Asgeirsson, Hilmir; Caumes, Eric; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Malvy, Denis; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Jensenius, Mogens; Larsen, Carsten Schade; Castelli, Francesco; Rapp, Christophe; Field, Vanessa; Molina, Israel; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Florescu, Simin; Lalloo, David; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated EuroTravNet (a GeoSentinel subnetwork) data from June 2013 to May 2016 on 508 ill travellers returning from Brazil, to inform a risk analysis for Europeans visiting the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Brazil. Few dengue fever cases (n = 3) and no cases of chikungunya were documented during the 2013-15 Brazilian winter months, August and September, the period when the Games will be held. The main diagnoses were dermatological (37%), gastrointestinal (30%), febrile systemic illness (29%) and respiratory (11%). PMID:27416907

  15. The Road to Rio: Medical and Scientific Perspectives on the 2016 Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Blauwet, Cheri; Lexell, Jan; Derman, Wayne; Idrisova, Guzel; Kissick, James; Stomphorst, Jaap; Wosornu, Yetsa Tuakli; Van de Vliet, Peter; Webborn, Nick

    2016-08-01

    In August and September of this year, the world will turn its attention to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the 2016 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games. Of interest to physiatrists, the Paralympic Games will take place from September 7 to 18, with an estimated total of 4 billion viewers. In the United States, for the first time in history, the Summer Games will be broadcast over a total of 66 hours on NBCUniversal. The Paralympic Games represent the pinnacle of elite sport for athletes with disabilities while also changing perceptions around the importance of grassroots sport and physical activity opportunities for the disability community more broadly.

  16. The Road to Rio: Medical and Scientific Perspectives on the 2016 Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Blauwet, Cheri; Lexell, Jan; Derman, Wayne; Idrisova, Guzel; Kissick, James; Stomphorst, Jaap; Wosornu, Yetsa Tuakli; Van de Vliet, Peter; Webborn, Nick

    2016-08-01

    In August and September of this year, the world will turn its attention to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the 2016 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games. Of interest to physiatrists, the Paralympic Games will take place from September 7 to 18, with an estimated total of 4 billion viewers. In the United States, for the first time in history, the Summer Games will be broadcast over a total of 66 hours on NBCUniversal. The Paralympic Games represent the pinnacle of elite sport for athletes with disabilities while also changing perceptions around the importance of grassroots sport and physical activity opportunities for the disability community more broadly. PMID:27432531

  17. Title IX: Boom or Bust?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Marilyn J.

    2003-01-01

    Athletics has been significantly impacted by Title IX through an increase the number of female athletes, the number of teams available, and indirectly, the development of women's professional leagues. However, women in leadership positions in athletics have declined significantly since Title IX was signed into law. A concern about the…

  18. Sport Injuries in Elite Paralympic Swimmers With Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marilia Magno e; Bilzon, James; Duarte, Edison; Gorla, Jose; Vital, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Context: Visually impaired athletes sustain overuse injuries in the lower limbs, but the pattern of injuries may vary according to the sport. The characteristics of sports injuries in visually impaired swimmers are unknown. Objective: To determine the characteristics and epidemiologic measures (prevalence, clinical incidence, and incidence rate) of sports injuries in visually impaired elite national swimmers and to assess differences among visual classes and between sexes. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: International Paralympic competitions held between 2004 and 2008. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-eight elite, visually impaired swimmers (19 males, 9 females) from the Brazilian Paralympic Team participated in this study. Twelve were visual class S11 (blind swimmers), 12 were S12 (low-vision swimmers), and 4 were S13 (low-vision swimmers). Intervention(s): A standardized report form was used to collect data during 5 competitions. This was endorsed by 2 Brazilian sports governing bodies. Main Outcome Measures: The characteristics, prevalence, clinical incidence, and incidence rate of injuries were calculated. Results: Eighteen athletes reported 41 sports injuries, with a prevalence of 64%, clinical incidence of 1.5 injuries per athlete, and an incidence rate of 0.3 injuries per athlete per competition. Overuse injuries (80%) were more frequent than traumatic injuries (20%). The clinical incidence and prevalence varied according to sex and visual class, but no statistical differences were observed (P > .05). The highest proportion of injuries was in the trunk (46.34%), followed by the upper limbs (34.15%). The shoulders (29.27%) were most affected, followed by the thoracic (21.95%) and lumbar spine (17.07%). Spasm (36.59%) was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by tendinopathy (26.83%). Conclusions: Visually impaired swimmers had a relatively high proportion of overuse injuries, predominantly associated with muscle spasm in the spine and

  19. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness testing in athletes of the Swiss Paralympic team

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess airway hyperresponsiveness to eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation and dry powder mannitol challenge in athletes aiming to participate at the Paralympic Games 2008 in Beijing, especially in athletes with spinal cord injury. Methods Forty-four athletes with a disability (27 with paraplegia (group 1), 3 with tetraplegia (group 2) and 14 with other disabilities such as blindness or single limb amputations (group 3) performed spirometry, skin prick testing, measurement of exhaled nitric oxide, eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation challenge test (EVH) and mannitol challenge test (MCT). A fall in FEV1 of ≥10% in either challenge test was deemed positive for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Results Fourteen (32%) athletes were atopic and 7 (16%) had a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. Absolute lung function values were significantly lower in patients of group 1 and 2 compared to group 3. Nine (20%) athletes were positive to EVH (8 paraplegics, 1 tetraplegic), and 8 (18%) athletes were positive to MCT (7 paraplegics, 1 tetraplegic). Fourteen (22.7%) subjects were positive to at least one challenge; only three athletes were positive to both tests. None of the athletes in group 3 had a positive test. Both challenge tests showed a significant association with physician-diagnosed asthma status (p = 0.0001). The positive and negative predictive value to diagnose physician-diagnosed asthma was 89% and 91% for EHV, and 75% and 86% for MCT, respectively. Conclusion EVH and MCT can be used to identify, but especially exclude asthma in Paralympic athletes. PMID:23845126

  20. Kinematics of cross-country sit skiing during a Paralympic race.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Marco; Janssen, Thomas; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Pellegrini, Barbara; Fischer, Gabriela; Schena, Federico

    2013-02-01

    The study had three purposes: to verify a hypothesized speed decrease during the 15 km cross-country sit skiing (CCSS) race; documenting this possible fatigue effect (speed decrease), to evaluate changes among the four laps in kinematics parameters (cycle speed, cycle duration, cycle length, duty cycle (percentage ratio between pushing and total cycle duration), pole inclination, trunk inclination and shoulder-hand distance); to compare the kinematics parameters in cross-country sit skiers of different level. Video recordings were carried out during the 2006 Turin Winter Paralympic Games with two conventional digital video-cameras positioned on a flat and an uphill (8.3°) track, respectively. Better performing skiers (G1) had significantly higher speeds than worse performers (G2) both in the flat (6.54 ± 0.13 vs. 5.89 ± 0.50 ms(-1) and 5.55 ± 0.14 vs. 4.62 ± 0.22 ms(-1) in the first and last lap, respectively) and in the uphill track (3.67 ± 0.45 vs. 3.05 ± 0.59 ms(-1) and 3.20 ± 0.36 vs. 2.26 ± 0.36 ms(-1) in the first and last lap, respectively). The G1 athletes were able to maintain the high-speed better than the G2 over the entire race. Significant differences in cycle length and duty cycle between groups would be justified by the higher physical fitness of G1 skiers.

  1. Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities.

    PubMed

    Fagher, Kristina; Forsberg, Anna; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Our knowledge of sports-related injuries in para-sport is limited and there are no data on how Paralympic athletes themselves perceive an injury. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities. Eighteen Swedish Paralympic athletes with vision impairment, intellectual impairment, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, myelomeningocele, dysplasia and neuromuscular disorder, representing 10 different para-sports, were interviewed. The qualitative phenomenographic method was used to interpret the data. The analysis revealed nine categories of perceptions of experiences. The athletes perceived that their impairments were involved in the cause and consequential chains associated with a sports-related injury. Other categories that denoted and described these injuries were: sport overuse, risk behaviour, functional limitations, psychological stressors, the normalised pain, health hazards, individual possibilities to prevent sports-related injuries and unequal prerequisites. This qualitative study revealed that Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries are complex and multifactorial, and in several ways differ from able-bodied athletes. This needs to be considered in the sports health and safety work within the Paralympic Movement as well as in the design of future injury surveillance systems and preventive programmes.

  2. Enzymic conversion of alpha-oxyprotohaem IX into biliverdin IX alpha by haem oxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, T; Sudo, Y; Sano, S

    1990-01-01

    Conversion of four isomers of meso-oxyprotohaem IX into the corresponding biliverdin IX was attempted with a reconstituted haem oxygenase system in the presence of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH. Only the alpha-isomer of meso-oxyprotohaem IX was converted effectively into biliverdin IX alpha, which was further reduced to bilirubin IX alpha by biliverdin reductase. Only trace amounts of biliverdins IX beta, IX gamma and IX delta were respectively formed from the incubation mixture of the corresponding oxyprotohaemin IX isomers with the complete haem oxygenase system under the same conditions. In a kinetic study, the Km for alpha-meso-oxyprotohaem IX was 3.6 microM, which was 2-fold higher than that for protohaem IX. The maximum velocity (Vmax.) of the conversion of alpha-meso-oxyprotohaem IX into biliverdin IX alpha was twice as fast as that of protohaem IX. These results demonstrate that alpha-meso-oxyprotohaem IX is an intermediate of haem degradation and it was converted stereospecifically into biliverdin IX alpha via verdohaem IX alpha. PMID:2122884

  3. Title IX--Its Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerou, Nancy

    Fear, judgements, and violence have characterized discrimination throughout history. In sex discrimination, both sexes have a responsibility to fight discriminatory attitudes. Women should retain their distinctly feminine characteristics while at the same time being provided the same opportunities as men of equal ability. Title IX of the Education…

  4. The Impact of Paralympic School Day on Student Attitudes toward Inclusion in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Paralympic School Day (PSD) is a disability awareness program that provides a platform for attitude change by raising awareness about disability and disability sport. The purpose of this study was to determine if PSD would have a positive impact on the attitudes of students without disabilities toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in…

  5. Analysis of the body composition of Paralympic athletes: Comparison of two methods.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Valdir De Aquino; Alves, Eduardo Da Silva; Schwingel, Paulo Adriano; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Silva, Andressa Da; Winckler, Ciro; Vital, Roberto; De Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Tufik, Sergio; De Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-11-01

    Body composition is a physiological variable associated with physical activity and, in some cases, is related to athletic performance. Our objectives were to describe the body composition of participants in three distinct Paralympic sports and to compare the values of body density and estimated body fat obtained from the Paralympic athletes on the National Team by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and by the anthropometric method (skinfolds (SFs)). The sample consisted of 70 volunteers of both genders. The body composition of the volunteers was evaluated using the ADP in a Bod Pod(®) and seven SFs. There were no significant differences between the values obtained by ADP and SF for body fat percentage (p = .58) and body density (p = .49). Analysis by Bland-Altman plots showed mean differences of 0.56 ± 4.94 (-9.12-10.23) and -0.0017 ± 0.0113 (-0.024-0.020) for body fat percentage and body density, respectively. In conclusion, body composition analyses of Paralympic athletes by the ADP and SF methods show similar results, and ADP should be used as the first option when available. When the use of ADP is not possible, estimating body density and fat percentage by SF is a viable alternative for Paralympic athletes when future comparisons will use the same analysis method.

  6. Olympic Education and Beyond: Olympism and Value Legacies from the Olympic and Paralympic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatziefstathiou, Dikaia

    2012-01-01

    This article starts with a discussion on the links between Olympism and education as presented in the early years of the modern Olympic Movement and the ideological vision of its founder, Baron Pierre de Coubertin. Questions about whether that vision can remain as an ideological platform for the Olympic and Paralympic Games are debated in the…

  7. Purification and characterization of an abnormal factor IX (Christmas factor) molecule. Factor IX Chapel Hill.

    PubMed

    Chung, K S; Madar, D A; Goldsmith, J C; Kingdon, H S; Roberts, H R

    1978-11-01

    Human Factor IX (Christmas factor) was isolated from the plasma of a patient with mild hemophilia B. The patient's plasma contained 5% Factor IX clotting activity but 100% Factor IX antigenic activity as determined by immunological assays, which included inhibitor neutralization and a radioimmunoassay for Factor IX. This abnormal Factor IX is called Factor IX Chapel Hill (Factor IXCH). Both normal Factor IX and Factor IXCH have tyrosine as the NH2-terminal amino acid. The two proteins have a similar molecular weight, a similar amino acid analysis, the same number of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues (10 gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues), and a similar carbohydrate content. Both exist as a single-chain glycoprotein in plasma. The major difference between normal Factor IX and Factor IXCH is that the latter exhibits delayed activation to Factor IXa in the presence of Factor XIa and Ca2+. Thus, Factor IXCH differs from other previously described abnormal Factor IX molecules.

  8. Title IX: A Brief History. 25 Years of Title IX. WEEA Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentin, Iram

    This brief history of Title IX points out that the role of women and girls in education and the work force began to change significantly with the passage of Title IX as part of the Education Amendments to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title IX ensures legal protection against discrimination for students and employees. This article discusses the…

  9. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare Department of Health and... Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets [ ]....

  10. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2002-10-01 2002-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  11. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-10-01

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  12. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-10-01

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  13. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

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    2005-07-01

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  14. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

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  15. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

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  16. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1998-10-01

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  17. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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  18. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-10-01

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  19. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2009-10-01

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  20. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-07-01

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  1. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2001-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2001-10-01 2001-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  2. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2004-10-01 2004-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  3. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2007-07-01 2007-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  4. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2008-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2008-10-01 2008-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  5. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1999-10-01

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  6. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-07-01

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  7. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2016-07-01

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  8. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-07-01

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  9. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-10-01

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  10. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

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    1997-10-01

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  11. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  12. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

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    1996-10-01

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  13. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

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  14. Coach autonomy support, basic need satisfaction, and intrinsic motivation of paralympic athletes.

    PubMed

    Banack, Hailey R; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bloom, Gordon A

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the present study, grounded in self-determination theory, was to explore the relationship between Paralympic athletes' perceptions of autonomy-supportive coach behavior basic psychological needs, and intrinsic motivation to know, accomplish, and experience stimulation. One hundred thirteen Canadian Paralympic athletes completed an online survey, consisting of measures of coach autonomy support; of perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness; and of intrinsic motivation. Perceived coach autonomy support was a predictor of athletes' perceptions of autonomy and relatedness. Perceived competence was a significant predictor of all three forms of intrinsic motivation, while perceived autonomy was a significant predictor of intrinsic motivation to accomplish and experience stimulation. The results highlight the important relationship between coach behavior and athlete motivation in disability sport.

  15. Reliability and validity of a talent identification test battery for seated and standing Paralympic throws.

    PubMed

    Spathis, Jemima Grace; Connick, Mark James; Beckman, Emma Maree; Newcombe, Peter Anthony; Tweedy, Sean Michael

    2015-01-01

    Paralympic throwing events for athletes with physical impairments comprise seated and standing javelin, shot put, discus and seated club throwing. Identification of talented throwers would enable prediction of future success and promote participation; however, a valid and reliable talent identification battery for Paralympic throwing has not been reported. This study evaluates the reliability and validity of a talent identification battery for Paralympic throws. Participants were non-disabled so that impairment would not confound analyses, and results would provide an indication of normative performance. Twenty-eight non-disabled participants (13 M; 15 F) aged 23.6 years (±5.44) performed five kinematically distinct criterion throws (three seated, two standing) and nine talent identification tests (three anthropometric, six motor); 23 were tested a second time to evaluate test-retest reliability. Talent identification test-retest reliability was evaluated using Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots (Limits of Agreement). Spearman's correlation assessed strength of association between criterion throws and talent identification tests. Reliability was generally acceptable (mean ICC = 0.89), but two seated talent identification tests require more extensive familiarisation. Correlation strength (mean rs = 0.76) indicated that the talent identification tests can be used to validly identify individuals with competitively advantageous attributes for each of the five kinematically distinct throwing activities. Results facilitate further research in this understudied area.

  16. Statistical Evidence and Compliance with Title IX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheslock, John J.; Eckes, Suzanne E.

    2008-01-01

    The scope of Title IX clearly includes all aspects of education, but the legislation's application to college athletics receives the most attention. Athletics programs, unlike most academic activities, are sex segregated, so the proper interpretation of the intercollegiate athletics provisions of Title IX is less clear-cut. This article examines…

  17. Title IX and Sex Discrimination. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  18. Winter Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Lois

    1981-01-01

    Try to learn all you can about a plant in the winter. As the season changes, you can see what the dried seed pod is like in bloom. You are a convert if you notice a spectacular show of summer wildflowers and wonder what sort of winter weed will result. (Author/CM)

  19. Immunologic studies of factor IX (Christmas factor). II. Immunoradiometric assay of factor IX antigen.

    PubMed

    Yang, H C

    1978-06-01

    A solid-phase two-site immunoradiometric assay has been developed which measures factor IX antigen levels as low as 0.0004 u per ml of plasma. In normal individuals, the factor IX antigen level correlated with the factor IX procoagulant level. In haemophilia B, 14 patients had markedly reduced antigen levels (less than 0.06 u/ml) and five had normal levels (greater than 0.60 u/ml).

  20. A Physiological Case Study of a Paralympic Wheelchair Tennis Player: Reflective Practise

    PubMed Central

    Diaper, Nicholas J.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the physiological changes caused by long-term training in a world class female tennis player in preparation for a major championship. Additionally, we aim to describe the training interventions and determine a suitable cooling strategy that was to be used at the 2004 Paralympic Games. The athlete underwent regular physiological assessment during 2003-2004. Physiological measures involved body composition, submaximal and peak oxygen uptake and key variables associated with maximal sprinting. In addition, a suitable match-play cooling intervention and hydration strategy was also explored. Body composition improved over the course of the study. Aerobic capacity fell by 21%, yet the submaximal physiological variables such as lactate profile and pushing economy improved. The trade off of aerobic capacity was perhaps noticeably counter-balanced with the maintenance of the peak sprinting speed and improvement found in the fatigue profile across ten repeated sprints. The extensive training programme was responsible for these changes and these adaptations resulted in a more confident athlete, in peak physical condition leading into the Paralympic Games. It is difficult to appreciate the extent to which this work had an impact on tennis performance given the skill requirements of wheelchair tennis and this warrants future attention. Key points Physiological adaptations were apparent over the two-year training period. The training emphasis resulted in a reduction in aerobic capacity, yet an improvement in repetitive sprint performance was seen leading into the Major competition. An effective cooling technique was identified that could be used during wheelchair tennis performance. The athlete and coaches were complimentary to the physiological support provided, which resulted in a more confident athlete at the Paralympic Games. PMID:24149542

  1. Sport activity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: A case study of a Paralympic swimmer.

    PubMed

    Vita, Giuseppe; La Foresta, Stefania; Russo, Massimo; Vita, Gian Luca; Messina, Sonia; Lunetta, Christian; Mazzeo, Anna

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the positive physical, emotional and psychosocial changes induced by sport activity in a Paralympic swimmer with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) type 4A. When we compared evaluations before initiating sport activity with those after five years of competitive activity, we found: i) increased proximal muscles strength of upper limbs; ii) augmented ability to propel wheelchair independently; iii) improved quality of life; iv) reduced trait anxiety and striking improvement of depression; v) enhanced self-esteem. Longitudinal studies in large cohorts to evaluate the positive effects of sport activity are needed to support provision of evidence-based advice to patients and families.

  2. Sport activity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: A case study of a Paralympic swimmer.

    PubMed

    Vita, Giuseppe; La Foresta, Stefania; Russo, Massimo; Vita, Gian Luca; Messina, Sonia; Lunetta, Christian; Mazzeo, Anna

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the positive physical, emotional and psychosocial changes induced by sport activity in a Paralympic swimmer with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) type 4A. When we compared evaluations before initiating sport activity with those after five years of competitive activity, we found: i) increased proximal muscles strength of upper limbs; ii) augmented ability to propel wheelchair independently; iii) improved quality of life; iv) reduced trait anxiety and striking improvement of depression; v) enhanced self-esteem. Longitudinal studies in large cohorts to evaluate the positive effects of sport activity are needed to support provision of evidence-based advice to patients and families. PMID:27460291

  3. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  4. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  5. Phases of the swim-start in Paralympic swimmers are influenced by severity and type of disability.

    PubMed

    Dingley, Andrew; Pyne, David B; Burkett, Brendan

    2014-10-01

    Disabilities in Paralympic swimming could impact a swimmer's ability to execute an effective swim-start. We examined how swim-start performance differed between severity and type of physical disability. Swim-starts were measured in 55 elite Paralympic swimmers from eight different Paralympic classes; S14, S13, S10-S6, S3 grouped as no- (classes S13 & S14), low- (S9 & S10), mid- (S7 & S8) or high- (≤ S6) severity of physical disability and also by type of physical disability (upper, lower, and palsy) to provide meaningful comparisons. The swimmer's competitive level was determined by the international point score (IPS). Swimmers with no physical disability were significantly faster in most swim-start phases compared with those with physical disabilities, as were swimmers with low-severity disabilities compared with the mid- and high-severity groups. Block velocity was highly negatively correlated (r = -0.57 to -0.86) with 15-m swimming time for all groups except high-severity disabilities. Free-swim velocity is a priority area for improving swim-starts for swimmers regardless of disability, given large correlations between this measure and IPS. Swimmers with lower body or high-severity disabilities spent a smaller percentage of time overall in the underwater phase. Assessment of four specific phases of the swim-start highlight distinctive priorities for coaches working with Paralympic swimmers in an applied biomechanical manner.

  6. "Boosting" in Paralympic athletes with spinal cord injury: doping without drugs.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Filomena; Santamaria, Stefania; Iavarone, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The intentional activation of autonomic dysreflexia (AD, also called "boosting"), a practice sometimes used by athletes affected by spinal cord injury (SCI), is banned by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). Although various studies have addressed doping and AD as separate issues, studies evaluating AD as a doping method are lacking. The aim of this brief review is to contribute to better understanding of the relationship between doping and AD. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (from 1994 onwards). The key search terms "autonomic dysreflexia" and "boosting" were crossreferenced with "sport performance". The official Paralympic website was also viewed. AD is a potent sympathetic reflex, due to a massive release of noradrenaline, that results in marked vasoconstriction distal to the level of the lesion. Athletes with SCI often self-inflict physical suffering in order to induce this phenomenon, which carries high health risks (i.e., hypertension, cerebral hemorrhage, stroke and sudden death). Boosting is a practice that can be compared to doping methods and the IPC expressly prohibits it. Any deliberate attempt to induce AD, if detected, will lead to disqualification from the sporting event and subsequent investigation by the IPC Legal and Ethics Committee. PMID:26415788

  7. "Boosting" in Paralympic athletes with spinal cord injury: doping without drugs.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Filomena; Santamaria, Stefania; Iavarone, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The intentional activation of autonomic dysreflexia (AD, also called "boosting"), a practice sometimes used by athletes affected by spinal cord injury (SCI), is banned by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). Although various studies have addressed doping and AD as separate issues, studies evaluating AD as a doping method are lacking. The aim of this brief review is to contribute to better understanding of the relationship between doping and AD. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (from 1994 onwards). The key search terms "autonomic dysreflexia" and "boosting" were crossreferenced with "sport performance". The official Paralympic website was also viewed. AD is a potent sympathetic reflex, due to a massive release of noradrenaline, that results in marked vasoconstriction distal to the level of the lesion. Athletes with SCI often self-inflict physical suffering in order to induce this phenomenon, which carries high health risks (i.e., hypertension, cerebral hemorrhage, stroke and sudden death). Boosting is a practice that can be compared to doping methods and the IPC expressly prohibits it. Any deliberate attempt to induce AD, if detected, will lead to disqualification from the sporting event and subsequent investigation by the IPC Legal and Ethics Committee.

  8. Express-evaluation of the psycho-physiological condition of Paralympic athletes

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovski, Alexander; Gromova, Irina; Korotkov, Konstantin; Shelkov, Oleg; Akinnagbe, Femi

    2012-01-01

    Objective Evaluation of elite athletes’ psycho-physiological condition at various stages of preparation and in international competition. Design Athletes were tested during training and participation in international competition using methods of galvanic skin response (GSR) and gas discharge visualization (GDV). Setting Saint Petersburg Federal Research Institute of Physical Culture and Sport, Russia and Paralympic athletic training camp, Norway. Participants Eighteen athletes from Russia’s Skiing and Biathlon Paralympic Team. All athletes had some level of damage to their musculoskeletal system. Main outcome measures Stress level (SL), energy potential (EP), and psycho-emotional tension (PET). Results It was found that the higher the level of EP achieved by the athlete in the training period, the lower the SL in the competition time. The SL of an athlete recorded in the training period significantly correlates with the SL both before and at the time of competition. The PET and SL before the World Cup was negatively correlated to the results of skiing competitions. Conclusion Evaluation of PET, EP, and SL through GSR and GDV offers a fast, highly precise, non-invasive method to assess an athlete’s level of readiness during both training and at the time of competition. PMID:24198605

  9. Barriers and facilitators of sports in Dutch Paralympic athletes: An explorative study.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, E A; Geertzen, J H B; de Jong, R; Dijkstra, P U; Dekker, R

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight in barriers and facilitators of sports in paralympic athletes. An online questionnaire was distributed through the Netherlands Olympic Committee and National Sports Confederation to determine personal and environmental barriers and facilitators of sports participation. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model and theory of planned behavior were used to respectively categorize the results in environmental and personal factors, and attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. Seventy-six Dutch Paralympic athletes completed the questionnaire (51% response rate). Barriers and facilitators experienced by ambulant and wheelchair athletes were compared. Most frequently mentioned personal barrier was dependency of others (22%), while most frequently mentioned environmental barrier was lack of sports facilities (30%). Wheelchair athletes mentioned more barriers (median = 3, interquartile range: 0.5-6), than ambulant athletes (median = 1.0,interquartile range:0.0-3.0, P = 0.023). One-third of the athletes did not experience any barriers. Most frequently mentioned personal facilitators to initiate sports participation were fun (78%), health (61%), and competition (53%). Most frequently mentioned environmental facilitator was social support (40%). This study indicated that barriers of sport were mostly environmental, while facilitators were usually personal factors. Attitude and subjective norm were considered the most important components for intention to participation in sports. The facilitators outweighed the barriers and kept the athletes being active in sports.

  10. Paralympic athletes with cerebral palsy display altered pacing strategies in distance-deceived shuttle running trials.

    PubMed

    Runciman, P; Tucker, R; Ferreira, S; Albertus-Kajee, Y; Derman, W

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated performance and physiology to understand pacing strategies in elite Paralympic athletes with cerebral palsy (CP). Six Paralympic athletes with CP and 13 able-bodied (AB) athletes performed two trials of eight sets of 10 shuttles (total 1600m). One trial was distance-deceived (DEC, 1000 m + 600 m) one trial was nondeceived (N-DEC, 1600 m). Time (s), heart rate (HR, bpm), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, units), and electromyography of five bilateral muscles (EMG) were recorded for each set of both trials. The CP group ran slower than the AB group, and pacing differences were seen in the CP DEC trial, presenting as a flat pacing profile over the trial (P < 0.05). HR was higher and RPE was lower in the CP group in both trials (P < 0.05). EMG showed small differences between groups, sides, and trials. The present study provides evidence for a possible pacing strategy underlying exercise performance and fatigue in CP. The results of this study show (1) underperformance of the CP group, and (2) altered pacing strategy utilization in the CP group. We proposed that even at high levels of performance, the residual effects of CP may negatively affect performance through selection of conservative pacing strategies during exercise.

  11. “Boosting” in Paralympic athletes with spinal cord injury: doping without drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeo, Filomena; Santamaria, Stefania; Iavarone, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Summary The intentional activation of autonomic dysreflexia (AD, also called “boosting”), a practice sometimes used by athletes affected by spinal cord injury (SCI), is banned by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). Although various studies have addressed doping and AD as separate issues, studies evaluating AD as a doping method are lacking. The aim of this brief review is to contribute to better understanding of the relationship between doping and AD. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (from 1994 onwards). The key search terms “autonomic dysreflexia” and “boosting” were cross-referenced with “sport performance”. The official Paralympic website was also viewed. AD is a potent sympathetic reflex, due to a massive release of noradrenaline, that results in marked vasoconstriction distal to the level of the lesion. Athletes with SCI often self-inflict physical suffering in order to induce this phenomenon, which carries high health risks (i.e., hypertension, cerebral hemorrhage, stroke and sudden death). Boosting is a practice that can be compared to doping methods and the IPC expressly prohibits it. Any deliberate attempt to induce AD, if detected, will lead to disqualification from the sporting event and subsequent investigation by the IPC Legal and Ethics Committee. PMID:26415788

  12. Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games and Paralympic Games event study, 1996. Final report, July 1996--August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Amodei, R.; Bard, E.; Brong, B.; Cahoon, F.; Jasper, K.

    1998-11-01

    The Atlanta metropolitan region was the location of one of the most ambitious Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) deployments in the United States. This deployment included several individual projects--a Central Transportation Management Center (TMC), six Traffic Control Centers (TCCs), one Transit Information Center (TIC), The Travel Information Showcase (TIS), and the extension of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) Rail network and the new high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes on I-85 and I-75. The 1996 Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games and Paralympic Games created a focus for these projects. All of these systems were to be brought on-line in time for the Olympic Games. This report presents the findings of the 1996 Olympic and Paralympic Games Events Study--a compilation of findings of system performance, the benefits realized, and the lessons learned during their operations over the event period. The study assessed the performance of the various Travel Demand Management (TDM) plans employed for Olympic Games traffic management.

  13. Quantum supersymmetric Bianchi IX cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault; Spindel, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of a supersymmetric squashed three-sphere by dimensionally reducing (to one timelike dimension) the action of D =4 simple supergravity for a S U (2 ) -homogeneous (Bianchi IX) cosmological model. The quantization of the homogeneous gravitino field leads to a 64-dimensional fermionic Hilbert space. After imposition of the diffeomorphism constraints, the wave function of the Universe becomes a 64-component spinor of spin(8,4) depending on the three squashing parameters, which satisfies Dirac-like, and Klein-Gordon-like, wave equations describing the propagation of a "quantum spinning particle" reflecting off spin-dependent potential walls. The algebra of the supersymmetry constraints and of the Hamiltonian one is found to close. One finds that the quantum Hamiltonian is built from operators that generate a 64-dimensional representation of the (infinite-dimensional) maximally compact subalgebra of the rank-3 hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra A E3 . The (quartic-in-fermions) squared-mass term μ^ 2 entering the Klein-Gordon-like equation has several remarkable properties: (i) it commutes with all the other (Kac-Moody-related) building blocks of the Hamiltonian; (ii) it is a quadratic function of the fermion number NF; and (iii) it is negative in most of the Hilbert space. The latter property leads to a possible quantum avoidance of the singularity ("cosmological bounce"), and suggests imposing the boundary condition that the wave function of the Universe vanish when the volume of space tends to zero (a type of boundary condition which looks like a final-state condition when considering the big crunch inside a black hole). The space of solutions is a mixture of "discrete-spectrum states" (parametrized by a few constant parameters, and known in explicit form) and of continuous-spectrum states (parametrized by arbitrary functions entering some initial-value problem). The predominantly negative values of the squared-mass term lead to a "bottle

  14. Winter Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Outdoor Educators of Quebec, Montreal.

    Materials on 11 topics presented at a winter workshop for Quebec outdoor educators have been compiled into this booklet. Action story, instant replay, shoe factory, sound and action, and find an object to fit the description are described and recommended as group dynamic activities. Directions for five games (Superlative Selection; Data…

  15. Winter Wonderlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  16. Winter Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

    Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

  17. Metabolic Demand of Paralympic Alpine Skiing in Sit-Skiing Athletes.

    PubMed

    Goll, Maren; Wiedemann, Michael S F; Spitzenpfeil, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Paralympic Alpine Skiing comprises three main categories, namely Standing, Visually Impaired and Sitting, to one of which athletes get classified depending on their individual impairment of ability. An existing sport profile of alpine skiing for able-bodied athletes facilitates the physical preparation process of Standing and Visually Impaired athletes. However, very little is known about performance determinants as well as content and structure of the physical preparation of athletes with congenital or acquired spinal cord injury competing in the Sitting class. The objective of this study was to describe the metabolic demands of Paralympic Alpine Skiing Sitting class athletes using laboratory and field measurements. The study determined maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximum heart rate (HRmax) and maximal blood lactate concentration ([La(-)]) as well as ventilatory thresholds in laboratory testing (n = 6) as well as on-snow in Slalom (SL) carried out in a ski dome, and Giant-Slalom (GS) on a natural slope. On-snow test variables are expressed normalized to laboratory maximum values (%VO2max, %HRmax). For SL, values reached ~30% VO2max and ~60% HRmax whereas GS values were slightly higher reaching ~50% VO2max and ~75% HRmax. Lactate concentration remained close to baseline values for SL and was slightly higher at ~3 mmol·L(-1) for GS. All athletes remained below their second ventilatory threshold and even skied for a long portion of runtime below their first ventilatory threshold. In general, measured metabolic values were lower than reported for able-bodied alpine skiers. However, despite the small and inhomogeneous sample covering all but one sit-skiing classes, strain of sit-skiing appears to be consistent throughout the five sit-skiing classes. Common measures of aerobic or anaerobic performance variables do not suggest further investigations in the field of metabolism for performance determinants in sit-skiing. Key pointsMetabolic demand and strain of

  18. Metabolic Demand of Paralympic Alpine Skiing in Sit-Skiing Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Maren; Wiedemann, Michael S. F.; Spitzenpfeil, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Paralympic Alpine Skiing comprises three main categories, namely Standing, Visually Impaired and Sitting, to one of which athletes get classified depending on their individual impairment of ability. An existing sport profile of alpine skiing for able-bodied athletes facilitates the physical preparation process of Standing and Visually Impaired athletes. However, very little is known about performance determinants as well as content and structure of the physical preparation of athletes with congenital or acquired spinal cord injury competing in the Sitting class. The objective of this study was to describe the metabolic demands of Paralympic Alpine Skiing Sitting class athletes using laboratory and field measurements. The study determined maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximum heart rate (HRmax) and maximal blood lactate concentration ([La-]) as well as ventilatory thresholds in laboratory testing (n = 6) as well as on-snow in Slalom (SL) carried out in a ski dome, and Giant-Slalom (GS) on a natural slope. On-snow test variables are expressed normalized to laboratory maximum values (%VO2max, %HRmax). For SL, values reached ~30% VO2max and ~60% HRmax whereas GS values were slightly higher reaching ~50% VO2max and ~75% HRmax. Lactate concentration remained close to baseline values for SL and was slightly higher at ~3 mmol·L-1 for GS. All athletes remained below their second ventilatory threshold and even skied for a long portion of runtime below their first ventilatory threshold. In general, measured metabolic values were lower than reported for able-bodied alpine skiers. However, despite the small and inhomogeneous sample covering all but one sit-skiing classes, strain of sit-skiing appears to be consistent throughout the five sit-skiing classes. Common measures of aerobic or anaerobic performance variables do not suggest further investigations in the field of metabolism for performance determinants in sit-skiing. Key points Metabolic demand and strain of

  19. Title IX: With New Opportunities, Girls' Interest Rises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toporek, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    On June 23, 1972, President Richard M. Nixon signed into law Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which prohibits gender discrimination in any federally financed education program or activity. Title IX is far-reaching, but the law is most often associated with school and college athletics. Title IX allows schools to prove their athletic…

  20. Spotlight on Athletes With a Disability: Malaysian Newspaper Coverage of the 2012 London Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Jadeera Phaik Geok; Khoo, Selina; Razman, Rizal

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed newspaper coverage of the 2012 London Paralympic Games by 8 Malaysian newspapers. Articles and photographs from 4 English-language and 4 Malay-language newspapers were examined from August 28 (1 day before the Games) to September 10, 2012 (1 day after the Games closing). Tables, graphs, letters, fact boxes, and lists of events were excluded from analysis. A total of 132 articles and 131 photographs were analyzed. Content analysis of the newspaper articles revealed that most (62.8%) of the articles contained positive reference to the athletes with a disability. There were equal numbers (39.1%) of action and static shots of athletes. More articles and photographs of Malaysian (58%) than non-Malaysian (42%) athletes with a disability were identified. Only 14.9% of the articles and photographs were related to female athletes with a disability.

  1. Feminizing Science: The Alchemy of Title IX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The author scrutinizes the National Academy of Sciences report "Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering" and its dangerous call to place the sciences under the sledgehammer of Title IX. Her findings: A one-sided, inaccurate, and internally contradictory report prepared by a committee lacking…

  2. Ares I-X Vibroacoustic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Schuster, David M.; Kaufman, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) team recommendations and observations following participation with the Ares I-X Vibroacoustic (VA) Environments Panel in meetings at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in March and April 2008, respectively.

  3. Preparedness of general practitioners in Australia for the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Seelan, S Thava

    2002-01-01

    The modern Olympic Games have been conducted only once every 4 years since 1900. They were held in Sydney, Australia, from September 15 to October 1, 2000, with approximately 35 competition venues, 5 villages, 100 training venues, a media center, and sponsor hospitality areas. Roughly 300 events for 28 sports involved 10,300 athletes from 200 countries, 5,100 team officials, 50,000 volunteers, 15,000 media, a worldwide audience of around 3.5 billion viewers and listeners, and up to several hundred thousand spectators at any one time. The Paralympic Games were also held in Sydney after the Olympic Games, from October 18 to October 29, 2000, with more than 4,000 athletes competing. A report detailing possible health advice and requirements for travelers attending the games has been published previously. Good systems of public and private health care operate in Australia, but health care is not free. Australian taxpayers contribute to a national public health system, Medicare, and even this does not necessarily cover all the costs of treatment. Section 3.5 of the Medicare Benefit Scheme refers to "Reciprocal Health Care Agreements," which exist for immediately necessary medical care ("emergency care"). Agreements with Australia cover New Zealand, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, Italy, Malta, and Ireland. Benefits for Italy and Malta may only be available for the first 6 months of a stay. The Australian government covered much of the costs of medical treatment for most team members competing or involved in the Olympic and Paralympic Games, when the Games Village was open. This did not however extend to other visitors, and public hospitals in Australia are not generally geared and staffed to provide timely general practice services. PMID:12962588

  4. Effectiveness of a dry-land resistance training program on strength, power, and swimming performance in paralympic swimmers.

    PubMed

    Dingley, Andrew A; Pyne, David B; Youngson, Jamie; Burkett, Brendan

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a dry-land resistance training program in Paralympic swimmers to increase swimming power and strength measures, and how these changes affect swimming performance. Seven elite-level Paralympic swimmers (1 man and 6 women; age: 19.4 ± 6.5 years; body mass: 57 ± 12 kg; height: 1.66 ± 0.21 m) performed a 6-week coach-prescribed strength training intervention program designed to improve power, flexibility, and postural control. Exercises targeted the main swimming movements: the start and turn, postural control in the water, and the pull and kick focusing on the gluteals, upper body, and trunk. Swimming-specific tests, involving a 50-m time trial, and timed dive starts were conducted at baseline and after the 6-week program. A bilateral swim-bench ergometer and jump tests were conducted to quantify arm and leg strength and power. After the 6-week intervention, 50-m time trials improved by 1.2%, ± 1.5% (mean, ± 90% confidence limits). Increases in both mean power (6.1%, ± 5.9%) and acceleration (3.7%, ± 3.7%) generated during the dive start enabled swimmers to substantially improve start times to the 5-m (5.5%, ± 3.2) and 15-m (1.8%, ± 1.1%) marks. The resistance training intervention resulted in a very large (r = 0.78, ± 0.37) correlation between dive start velocity and the counter movement jump mean velocity. The 6-week resistance training program for Paralympic swimmers yielded substantial improvements in dry-land measures that corresponded with improvements in both timed dive starts and 50-m time trial performance, thus highlighting the usefulness of dry-land training for enhancing swimming performance in Paralympic swimming.

  5. The Paralympic Movement: using sports to promote health, disability rights, and social integration for athletes with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Blauwet, Cheri; Willick, Stuart E

    2012-11-01

    Competitive sports for people with disabilities has grown rapidly over the past several decades, and opportunities for participation are increasingly available throughout the spectrum from developmental to elite. The Paralympic Games, seen as the pinnacle sporting event that represents the broader Paralympic Movement, has provided a platform to showcase the abilities of people with disabilities while also serving as a catalyst for disability rights through ensuring integration, equality of opportunity, and accessibility of the built environment. Concurrently, media coverage of the Paralympic Games has led to an increased awareness of opportunities for sport participation for individuals with disabilities and, with it, the adjustment of norms regarding expectations for exercise as a component of preventive health. In addition, there is evidence of the power of sports to stimulate confidence, self-efficacy, and a self-perceived high quality of life for individuals with disabilities above and beyond the basic benefits to cardiometabolic fitness. When taken together, the promotion of health, disability rights, and social integration through sports has the power to transform the lives of those who participate and to further stimulate the expansion of opportunities available to the next generation of athletes with disabilities.

  6. Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics Land Surface Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, N. B.; Belair, S.; Tong, L.; Abrahamowicz, M.; Mailhot, J.

    2009-04-01

    Environment Canada's land surface forecast system developed for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics is presented together with an evaluation of its performance for winters 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. The motivation for this work is threefold: it is i) application driven for the 2010 Vancouver Olympics, ii) a testbed for the panCanadian operational land surface forecast model being developed, and iii) the precursor to the fully coupled land-surface model to come. The new high resolution (100m grid size), 2D, and novel imbedded point-based land surface forecast model used to predict hourly snow and surface temperature conditions at Olympic and Paralympic Competition Sites are described. The surface systems are driven by atmospheric forcing provided by the center's operational regional forecast model for the first 48 hours and by the operational global forecast model for hours 49 to 96. The forcing fields are corrected for elevation discrepancies over the rapidly changing and complex mountainous settings of the Vancouver Olympics that arise from resolution differences. Daily 96h land surface forecasts for 2 winters and snow depth and surface air temperature observations collected at several specially deployed competition sites are used to validate the land surface model. We show that the newly implemented surface forecast model refines and improves snow depth and surface temperature forecast issued by the operational weather forecast system throughout the forecast period.

  7. Ares I-X 30 Day Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ess, Bob; Smith, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation represents the 30 day report on the Ares I-X test flight. Included in the review is information on the following areas: (1) Ground Systems, (2) Guidance, Navigation and Control, (3) Roll Response, (4) Vehicle Response, (5) Control System Performance, (6) Structural Damping, (7) Thrust Oscillation, (8) Stage Separation, (9) Connector Assessment, (10) USS Splashdown, (11) Data Recorder and (12) FS Hardware Assessment.

  8. Proteolytic processing of human coagulation factor IX by plasmin.

    PubMed

    Samis, J A; Ramsey, G D; Walker, J B; Nesheim, M E; Giles, A R

    2000-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that thrombin generation in vivo caused a 92% decrease in factor IX (F.IX) activity and the appearance of a cleavage product after immunoblotting that comigrated with activated F.IX (F.IXa). Under these conditions, the fibrinolytic system was clearly activated, suggesting plasmin may have altered F.IX. Thus, the effect(s) of plasmin on human F.IX was determined in vitro. Plasmin (50 nM) decreased the 1-stage clotting activity of F.IX (4 microM) by 80% and the activity of F.IXa (4 microM) by 50% after 30 minutes at 37 degrees C. Plasmin hydrolysis of F.IX yields products of 45, 30, 20, and 14 kd on reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 2 products of 52 and 14 kd under nonreducing conditions. Plasmin-treated F.IX did not bind the active site probe, p-aminobenzamidine, or form an SDS-stable complex with antithrombin. It only marginally activated human factor X in the presence of phospholipid and activated factor VIII. Although dansyl-Glu-Gly-Arg-chloromethyl ketone inactivated-F. IXa inhibited the clotting activity of F.IXa, plasmin-treated F.IX did not. Plasmin cleaves F.IX after Lys43, Arg145, Arg180, Lys316, and Arg318, but F.IXa is not appreciably generated despite cleavage at the 2 normal activation sites (Arg145 and Arg180). Tissue plasminogen activator-catalyzed lysis of fibrin formed in human plasma results in generation of the 45- and 30-kd fragments of F.IX and decreased F.IX clotting activity. Collectively, the results suggest that plasmin is able to down-regulate coagulation by inactivating F.IX. PMID:10648407

  9. [Using modern information technology in the practice of the sanitary-epidemiological surveiliance during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games in Sochi].

    PubMed

    Popova, A Yu; Kuzkin, B P; Demina, Yu V; Dubyansky, V M; Kulichenko, A N; Maletskaya, O V; Shayakhmetov, O Kh; Semenko, O V; Nazarenko, Yu V; Agapitov, D S; Mezentsev, V M; Kharchenko, T V; Efremenko, D V; Oroby, V G; Klindukhov, V P; Grechanaya, T V; Nikolaevich, P N; Tesheva, S Ch; Rafeenko, G K

    2015-01-01

    To improve the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance at the Olympic Games has developed a system of GIS for monitoring objects and situations in the region of Sochi. The system is based on software package ArcGIS, version 10.2 server, with Web-java.lang. Object, Web-server Apach, and software developed in language java. During th execution of the tasks are solved: the stratification of the region of the Olympic Games for the private and aggregate epidemiological risk OCI various eti- ologies, ranking epidemiologically important facilities for the sanitary and hygienic conditions, monitoring of infectious diseases (in real time according to the preliminary diagnosis). GIS monitoring has shown its effectiveness: Information received from various sources, but focused on one portal. Information was available in real time all the specialists involved in ensuring epidemiological well-being and use at work during the Olympic Games in Sochi.

  10. [Using modern information technology in the practice of the sanitary-epidemiological surveiliance during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games in Sochi].

    PubMed

    Popova, A Yu; Kuzkin, B P; Demina, Yu V; Dubyansky, V M; Kulichenko, A N; Maletskaya, O V; Shayakhmetov, O Kh; Semenko, O V; Nazarenko, Yu V; Agapitov, D S; Mezentsev, V M; Kharchenko, T V; Efremenko, D V; Oroby, V G; Klindukhov, V P; Grechanaya, T V; Nikolaevich, P N; Tesheva, S Ch; Rafeenko, G K

    2015-01-01

    To improve the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance at the Olympic Games has developed a system of GIS for monitoring objects and situations in the region of Sochi. The system is based on software package ArcGIS, version 10.2 server, with Web-java.lang. Object, Web-server Apach, and software developed in language java. During th execution of the tasks are solved: the stratification of the region of the Olympic Games for the private and aggregate epidemiological risk OCI various eti- ologies, ranking epidemiologically important facilities for the sanitary and hygienic conditions, monitoring of infectious diseases (in real time according to the preliminary diagnosis). GIS monitoring has shown its effectiveness: Information received from various sources, but focused on one portal. Information was available in real time all the specialists involved in ensuring epidemiological well-being and use at work during the Olympic Games in Sochi. PMID:26016354

  11. [Epidemiological risk of introduction of dangerous and exotic infectious diseases on the territory of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].

    PubMed

    Kuz'kin, B P; Ezhlova, E B; Kulichenko, A N; Maletskaia, O V; Demina, Iu V; Taran, T V; Pakskina, N D; Kharchenko, T V; Grizhebovskiĭ, G M; Savel'ev, V N; Orobeĭ, V G; Klindukhov, V P; Grechanaia, T V; Tesheva, S Ch; Brukhanova, G D

    2015-01-01

    To assess the epidemiological risk of introduction of serious infectious diseases in the pre-Olympic period defined list of dangerous and exotic infections and held assessment of potential danger threatening. Initial external information to assess the potential risk of skidding were reports, forecasts, posted on the official websites. The risk of skidding and epidemiological complications conditionally designated as high, moderate and minimal risk importation of measles virus-Rate was considered as high. In confirmation of the forecast for the period of the Olympic Games in Sochi have been registered about 100 cases of measles. Moderate risk of importation was determined for poliomyelitis due to wild poliovirus, Lassa fever, cholera, plague, and the minimal--for Dengue fever, yellow fever, the Middle East and respiratory syndrome, diseases caused by viruses Marburg and Ebola. Based on of analysis of previous Olympic Games and subsequent co-events related to the activity of the infectious diseases in the world, mate-cluded that even a slight risk of importation of infectious diseases requires maximum alertness and readiness to conduct adequate epidemiological issues incorporated.

  12. Activation of human factor IX (Christmas factor).

    PubMed

    Di Scipio, R G; Kurachi, K; Davie, E W

    1978-06-01

    Human Factor IX (Christmas factor) is a single-chain plasma glycoprotein (mol wt 57,000) that participates in the middle phase of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It is present in plasma as a zymogen and is converted to a serine protease, Factor IXabeta, by Factor XIa (activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent) in the presence of calcium ions. In the activation reaction, two internal peptide bonds are hydrolyzed in Factor IX. These cleavages occur at a specific arginyl-alanine peptide bond and a specific arginyl-valine peptide bond. This results in the release of an activation peptide (mol wt approximately equal to 11,000) from the internal region of the precursor molecule and the generation of Factor IXabeta (mol wt approximately equal to 46,000). Factor IXabeta is composed of a light chain (mol wt approximately equal to 18,000) and a heavy chain (mol wt approximately equal to 28,000), and these chains are held together by a disulfide bond(s). The light chain originates from the amino terminal portion of the precursor molecule and has an amino terminal sequence of Tyr-Asn-Ser-Gly-Lys. The heavy chain originates from the carboxyl terminal region of the precursor molecule and contains an amino terminal sequence of Val-Val-Gly-Gly-Glu. The heavy chain of Factor IXabeta also contains the active site sequence of Phe-Cys-Ala-Gly-Phe-His-Glu-Gly-Arg-Asp-Ser-Cys-Gln-Gly-Asp-SER-Gly-Gly-Pro. The active site serine residue is shown in capital letters. Factor IX is also converted to Factor IXaalpha by a protease from Russell's viper venom. This activation reaction, however, occurs in a single step and involves only the cleavage of the internal arginyl-valine peptide bond. Human Factor IXabeta was inhibited by human antithrombin III by the formation of a one-to-one complex of enzyme and inhibitor. In this reaction, the inhibitor was tightly bound to the heavy chain of the enzyme. These data indicate that the mechanism of activation of human Factor IX and its

  13. On the mechanism of the chemical and enzymic oxygenations of alpha-oxyprotohemin IX to Fe.biliverdin IX alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Sano, S; Sano, T; Morishima, I; Shiro, Y; Maeda, Y

    1986-01-01

    alpha-Oxyprotohemin IX, an early intermediate in heme catabolism, was synthesized and its autoxidation to biliverdin IX alpha was studied. In anaerobic aqueous pyridine, alpha-oxyprotohemin (hexacoordinated) underwent autoreduction to yield an Fe(II) alpha-oxyprotoporphyrin pi-neutral radical bis(pyridine) complex, which reacted with an equimolar amount of dioxygen to give pyridine.verdohemochrome IX alpha and CO in 75-80% yield via an intermediate with an absorption maximum at 893 nm. Verdohemochrome IX alpha did not react with further dioxygen. Reconstituted apomyoglobin.alpha-oxyprotohemin IX complex (pentacoordinated) reacted with an equimolar amount of dioxygen to form an Fe(II) oxyporphyrin pi-neutral radical intermediate, which rearranged to a green compound (lambda max 660 and 704 nm) with elision of CO. The green product, which is probably an apomyoglobin.verdoheme pi-radical complex, reacted with another equimolar amount of dioxygen to give Fe(III).biliverdin IX alpha. Demetallation of this gave biliverdin IX alpha in overall yield of 70-75%. These results indicate that the sequence of oxyheme autoxidation in the presence of apomyoglobin is alpha-oxyprotoheme IX O2----CO----verdohemochrome IX alpha pi-radical O2----Fe(III).biliverdin IX alpha. A similar mechanism may prevail in vivo. The hexa- and pentacoordinated Fe(II) pi-radical form of the oxyporphyrin is crucial in triggering the autoxidation of the complex to verdohemochrome IX alpha. Further oxygenation of verdohemochrome IX alpha to Fe(III).biliverdin IX alpha occurred only in the pentacoordinated apomyoglobin.verdoheme Fe(II) complex. PMID:3456152

  14. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on exercise responses in Paralympic athletes with cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    West, C R; Taylor, B J; Campbell, I G; Romer, L M

    2014-10-01

    We asked whether specific inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improves respiratory structure and function and peak exercise responses in highly trained athletes with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Ten Paralympic wheelchair rugby players with motor-complete SCI (C5-C7) were paired by functional classification then randomly assigned to an IMT or placebo group. Diaphragm thickness (B-mode ultrasonography), respiratory function [spirometry and maximum static inspiratory (PI ,max ) and expiratory (PE ,max ) pressures], chronic activity-related dyspnea (Baseline and Transition Dyspnea Indices), and physiological responses to incremental arm-crank exercise were assessed before and after 6 weeks of pressure threshold IMT or sham bronchodilator treatment. Compared to placebo, the IMT group showed significant increases in diaphragm thickness (P = 0.001) and PI ,max (P = 0.016). There was a significant increase in tidal volume at peak exercise in IMT vs placebo (P = 0.048) and a strong trend toward an increase in peak work rate (P = 0.081, partial eta-squared = 0.33) and peak oxygen uptake (P = 0.077, partial eta-squared = 0.34). No other indices changed post-intervention. In conclusion, IMT resulted in significant diaphragmatic hypertrophy and increased inspiratory muscle strength in highly trained athletes with cervical SCI. The strong trend, with large observed effect, toward an increase in peak aerobic performance suggests IMT may provide a useful adjunct to training in this population.

  15. Quantifying freestyle kick-count and kick-rate patterns in Paralympic swimming.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Sacha K; Pyne, David B; Burkett, Brendan

    2009-11-01

    Swimming speed is a function of the propulsion generated from arm strokes and leg kicks. Kicking is partially obscured underwater, making the kinematics of the kick difficult to analyse. In this study, we quantified 100-m freestyle kick-count and kick-rate patterns for 14 Paralympic swimmers using inertial-sensor technology. Swimmers took 145 +/- 39 kicks (mean +/- s) for swimming trials and 254 +/- 74 kicks for kicking-only trials. Kick rate was 124.9 +/- 20.3 kicks . min(-1) for swimming trials and 129.6 +/- 14.0 kicks . min(-1) for kicking-only trials. There were no marked differences in kick count among 25-m segments in the swimming trials. There was a substantial increase of 10.6%[90% confidence interval (90%CI): 7.3 to 14.0%] in the number of kicks in the kicking-only trials by the fourth 25-m segment. There was a substantial decrease in kick rate by the third 25-m segment for swimming (-12.0%; 90%CI: -12.8 to -11.1%) and kicking-only (-7.3%; 90%CI: -8.6 to -5.9%) trials. The relationship between swimming and kicking-only kick rates was r = 0.67 (0.55 to 0.76; P < 0.001). The temporal patterns of the kick in kicking only differed from those in swimming; increases in kick rate can improve freestyle swimming performance. PMID:19787541

  16. Novel strength test battery to permit evidence-based paralympic classification.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Emma M; Newcombe, Peter; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Connick, Mark J; Tweedy, Sean M

    2014-06-01

    Ordinal-scale strength assessment methods currently used in Paralympic athletics classification prevent the development of evidence-based classification systems. This study evaluated a battery of 7, ratio-scale, isometric tests with the aim of facilitating the development of evidence-based methods of classification. This study aimed to report sex-specific normal performance ranges, evaluate test-retest reliability, and evaluate the relationship between the measures and body mass.Body mass and strength measures were obtained from 118 participants-63 males and 55 females-ages 23.2 years ± 3.7 (mean ± SD). Seventeen participants completed the battery twice to evaluate test-retest reliability. The body mass-strength relationship was evaluated using Pearson correlations and allometric exponents.Conventional patterns of force production were observed. Reliability was acceptable (mean intraclass correlation = 0.85). Eight measures had moderate significant correlations with body size (r = 0.30-61). Allometric exponents were higher in males than in females (mean 0.99 vs 0.30).Results indicate that this comprehensive and parsimonious battery is an important methodological advance because it has psychometric properties critical for the development of evidence-based classification. Measures were interrelated with body size, indicating further research is required to determine whether raw measures require normalization in order to be validly applied in classification. PMID:25068950

  17. Novel strength test battery to permit evidence-based paralympic classification.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Emma M; Newcombe, Peter; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Connick, Mark J; Tweedy, Sean M

    2014-06-01

    Ordinal-scale strength assessment methods currently used in Paralympic athletics classification prevent the development of evidence-based classification systems. This study evaluated a battery of 7, ratio-scale, isometric tests with the aim of facilitating the development of evidence-based methods of classification. This study aimed to report sex-specific normal performance ranges, evaluate test-retest reliability, and evaluate the relationship between the measures and body mass.Body mass and strength measures were obtained from 118 participants-63 males and 55 females-ages 23.2 years ± 3.7 (mean ± SD). Seventeen participants completed the battery twice to evaluate test-retest reliability. The body mass-strength relationship was evaluated using Pearson correlations and allometric exponents.Conventional patterns of force production were observed. Reliability was acceptable (mean intraclass correlation = 0.85). Eight measures had moderate significant correlations with body size (r = 0.30-61). Allometric exponents were higher in males than in females (mean 0.99 vs 0.30).Results indicate that this comprehensive and parsimonious battery is an important methodological advance because it has psychometric properties critical for the development of evidence-based classification. Measures were interrelated with body size, indicating further research is required to determine whether raw measures require normalization in order to be validly applied in classification.

  18. Novel Strength Test Battery to Permit Evidence-Based Paralympic Classification

    PubMed Central

    Beckman, Emma M.; Newcombe, Peter; Vanlandewijck, Yves; Connick, Mark J.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ordinal-scale strength assessment methods currently used in Paralympic athletics classification prevent the development of evidence-based classification systems. This study evaluated a battery of 7, ratio-scale, isometric tests with the aim of facilitating the development of evidence-based methods of classification. This study aimed to report sex-specific normal performance ranges, evaluate test–retest reliability, and evaluate the relationship between the measures and body mass. Body mass and strength measures were obtained from 118 participants—63 males and 55 females—ages 23.2 years ± 3.7 (mean ± SD). Seventeen participants completed the battery twice to evaluate test–retest reliability. The body mass–strength relationship was evaluated using Pearson correlations and allometric exponents. Conventional patterns of force production were observed. Reliability was acceptable (mean intraclass correlation = 0.85). Eight measures had moderate significant correlations with body size (r = 0.30–61). Allometric exponents were higher in males than in females (mean 0.99 vs 0.30). Results indicate that this comprehensive and parsimonious battery is an important methodological advance because it has psychometric properties critical for the development of evidence-based classification. Measures were interrelated with body size, indicating further research is required to determine whether raw measures require normalization in order to be validly applied in classification. PMID:25068950

  19. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... obligation, 86.4(b) Form, 86.4(c) Athletics, ; 86.41 Adjustment period, ; 86.41(d) Contact sport defined, 86... responsible employee”, 86.8(a) (b) H Health and Insurance Benefits and Services, ; 86.39, 86.56...

  20. Constitutive episomal expression of polypeptide IX (pIX) in a 293-based cell line complements the deficiency of pIX mutant adenovirus type 5.

    PubMed Central

    Caravokyri, C; Leppard, K N

    1995-01-01

    The human adenovirus type 5 capsid is composed of a number of distinct polypeptides. It has been shown previously that one of these, polypeptide IX (pIX), is not absolutely required for the production of viable virus. However, viruses lacking this polypeptide have a significantly reduced packaging limit and, in the one case studied, also show a thermolabile virion phenotype. This report describes the use of eukaryotic episomal vectors based on the Epstein-Barr virus replicon to generate cells which stably express pIX. These cells provide pIX that is efficiently incorporated into virions that are genetically pIX-; such enhanced thermostability. These cells have also been used to isolate a genetically pIX- virus having a genome of length some 2.3 kbp in excess of the previously defined packaging limit for pIX- virus; the resulting virions have wild-type thermostability. These cells expand the theoretical capacity of adenovirus vectors for foreign DNA to around 9.2 kbp and may therefore be useful in gene therapy applications in which vector capacity is limiting. PMID:7474071

  1. Australian Institute of Sport and the Australian Paralympic Committee position statement: urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes.

    PubMed

    Compton, Stacey; Trease, Larissa; Cunningham, Corey; Hughes, David

    2015-10-01

    Patients with spinal cord injuries are at increased risk of developing symptomatic urinary tract infections. Current evidence-based knowledge regarding prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in the spinal cord injured population is limited. There are currently no urinary tract infection prevention and management guidelines specifically targeted towards elite spinal cord injured athletes. This position statement represents a set of recommendations intended to provide clinical guidelines for sport and exercise medicine physicians and other healthcare providers for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes. It has been endorsed by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) and the Australian Paralympic Committee (APC). PMID:25869093

  2. Australian Institute of Sport and the Australian Paralympic Committee position statement: urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes.

    PubMed

    Compton, Stacey; Trease, Larissa; Cunningham, Corey; Hughes, David

    2015-10-01

    Patients with spinal cord injuries are at increased risk of developing symptomatic urinary tract infections. Current evidence-based knowledge regarding prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in the spinal cord injured population is limited. There are currently no urinary tract infection prevention and management guidelines specifically targeted towards elite spinal cord injured athletes. This position statement represents a set of recommendations intended to provide clinical guidelines for sport and exercise medicine physicians and other healthcare providers for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes. It has been endorsed by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) and the Australian Paralympic Committee (APC).

  3. Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, and XII

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    This article concludes the series on cranial nerves, with review of the final four (IX–XII). To summarize briefly, the most important and common syndrome caused by a disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve (craniel nerve IX) is glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Also, swallowing function occasionally is compromised in a rare but disabling form of tardive dyskinesia called tardive dystonia, because the upper motor portion of the glossopharyngel nerve projects to the basal ganglia and can be affected by lesions in the basal ganglia. Vagus nerve funtion (craniel nerve X) can be compromised in schizophrenia, bulimia, obesity, and major depression. A cervical lesion to the nerve roots of the spinal accessory nerve (craniel nerve XI) can cause a cervical dystonia, which sometimes is misdiagnosed as a dyskinesia related to neuroleptic use. Finally, unilateral hypoglossal (craniel nerve XII) nerve palsy is one of the most common mononeuropathies caused by brain metastases. Supranuclear lesions of cranial nerve XII are involved in pseudobulbar palsy and ALS, and lower motor neuron lesions of cranial nerve XII can also be present in bulbar palsy and in ALS patients who also have lower motor neuron involvement. This article reviews these and other syndromes related to cranial nerves IX through XII that might be seen by psychiatry. PMID:20532157

  4. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Martin, Rodney Alexander; Waterman, Robert D.; Oostdyk, Rebecca Lynn; Ossenfort, John P.; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The automation of pre-launch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits: improving safety, reducing cost, and reducing launch delays. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype demonstrated anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage Thrust Vector Control and for the associated ground hydraulics while the vehicle was in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and while it was on the launch pad. The prototype combines three existing tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool from Qualtech Systems Inc. for fault isolation and diagnostics. The second tool, SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine), is a rule-based expert system that was developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification, and used the outputs of SHINE as inputs to TEAMS. The third tool, IMS (Inductive Monitoring System), is an anomaly detection tool that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The three tools were integrated and deployed to KSC, where they were interfaced with live data. This paper describes how the prototype performed during the period of time before the launch, including accuracy and computer resource usage. The paper concludes with some of the lessons that we learned from the experience of developing and deploying the prototype.

  5. School Environment and Academic Achievement of Standard IX Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students was probed to find the relationship between School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students. Data for the study were collected using self-made School Environment Scale (SES). The investigator used stratified random sampling technique for…

  6. Tilting the Playing Field: Schools, Sports, Sex and Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavora, Jessica

    This book suggests that Title IX of the Education Amendments is not creating more female athletes but instead eliminating some of the most prestigious men's sports programs in the name of gender equity. It shows how Title IX has affected every aspect of education, from kindergarten through graduate school, making profound changes in areas as…

  7. Cleavage and activation of human factor IX by serine proteases

    SciTech Connect

    Enfield, D.L.; Thompson, A.R.

    1984-10-01

    Human factor IX circulates as a single-chain glycoprotein. Upon activation in vitro, it is cleaved into disulfide-linked light and heavy chains and an activation peptide. After reduction of activated /sup 125/I-factor IX, the heavy and light chains are readily identified by gel electrophoresis. A direct, immunoradiometric assay for factor IXa was developed to assess activation of factor IX for proteases that cleaved it. The assay utilized radiolabeled antithrombin III with heparin to identify the active site and antibodies to distinguish factor IX. After cleavage of factor IX by factor XIa, factor VIIa-tissue thromboplastin complex, or the factor X-activating enzyme from Russell's viper venom, antithrombin III bound readily to factor IXa. Cleavage of /sup 125/I-factor IX by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and granulocyte elastase in the presence of calcium yielded major polypeptide fragments of the sizes of the factor XIa-generated light and heavy chains. When the immunoradiometric assay was used to assess trypsin-cleaved factor IX, the product bound antithrombin III, but not maximally. After digesting with insolubilized trypsin, clotting activity confirmed activation. In evaluating activation of factor IX, physical evidence of activation cleavages does not necessarily correlate with generation of an active site.

  8. A Model Community College Grievance Procedure for Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Roberta L.

    Through a review of the literature, analysis of eleven Title IX grievance plans, and interviews with four compliance officers, twelve criteria essential to an effective grievance procedure for use by students were identified and incorporated into a model Title IX grievance procedure for Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois). The twelve…

  9. A License for Bias: Sex Discrimination, Schools, and Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Susan Ed.

    This report discusses non-sports-related Title IX complaints filed with the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) from 1993-1997. Its purpose is to dispel the popular belief that Title IX is a sports-equity law and to determine the effectiveness of the legislation. The document examines the kinds of complaints filed, the status…

  10. Rape on College Campuses: Reform through Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Terry Nicole

    1991-01-01

    This article first, analyzes the growing problem of campus rape; second, evaluates some college rape reduction programs; third, uses case law to demonstrate that rape should be considered sex discrimination under Title IX; and, fourth, suggests an amendment to Title IX, defining rape as sex discrimination. Appropriate implementation measures by…

  11. Sex Bias in Secondary Schools: The Impact of Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Andrew; Pottker, Janice

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 is the first comprehensive anti-sex discrimination law that covers students. Although most of the attention given to the law since its passage has focused on its impact on colleges, Title IX will have the greatest impact on the elementary and secondary levels of education. All school districts in the…

  12. ARES I-X USS Fracture Analysis Loads Spectra Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Curtis; Mackey, Alden

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development of a set of bounding load spectra for the ARES I-X launch vehicle. These load spectra are used in the determination of the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) of the welds in the ARES I-X upper stage simulator (USS).

  13. 77 FR 64401 - Order of Succession for HUD Region IX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for HUD Region IX AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Assistant Deputy Secretary... Succession for the San Francisco Regional Office and its Field Offices (Region IX). This Order of...

  14. 2 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 200 - Hospital Cost Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... guidance is proposed and implemented for hospitals, the existing principles located at 45 CFR Part 74... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hospital Cost Principles IX Appendix IX to Part 200 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and...

  15. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Martin, Rodney; Waterman, Robert; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Ossenfort, John; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Automating prelaunch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits. First, it potentially improves safety by detecting faults that might otherwise have been missed so that they can be corrected before launch. Second, it potentially reduces launch delays by more quickly diagnosing the cause of anomalies that occur during prelaunch processing. Reducing launch delays will be critical to the success of NASA's planned future missions that require in-orbit rendezvous. Third, it potentially reduces costs by reducing both launch delays and the number of people needed to monitor the prelaunch process. NASA is currently developing the Ares I launch vehicle to bring the Orion capsule and its crew of four astronauts to low-earth orbit on their way to the moon. Ares I-X will be the first unmanned test flight of Ares I. It is scheduled to launch on October 27, 2009. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype is a prototype ground diagnostic system that will provide anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage thrust vector control (TVC) and for the associated ground hydraulics while it is in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and on the launch pad. It will serve as a prototype for a future operational ground diagnostic system for Ares I. The prototype combines three existing diagnostic tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool that is commercially produced by Qualtech Systems, Inc. It uses a qualitative model of failure propagation to perform fault isolation and diagnostics. We adapted an existing TEAMS model of the TVC to use for diagnostics and developed a TEAMS model of the ground hydraulics. The second tool, Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE), is a rule-based expert system developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification. The prototype

  16. Labeled factor IX kinetics in patients with hemophilia-B

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.J.; Thompson, A.R.

    1981-09-01

    Labeled factor IX was infused five time into four patients with hemophilia-B. Ten-minute plasma recovery average 35% (SD +/- 2) and the mean T 1/2 beta-phase elimination was 23 hr (+/- 5). No alteration in the postinfusion 125I-factor-IX could be detected by radioautography of plasma samples run on polyacrylamide gels or on crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Label was excreted into the urine as free 125I-iodide. Kinetics were similar when the labeled preparation was infused alone or with a commercial concentrate containing unlabeled factor IX. Infusion of factor IX in man is best described by a two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model where factor IX is distributed in a space larger than the plasma volume.

  17. Satellite Air Quality Monitoring Before, During and After the Beijing 2008 Olympics and Paralympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Streets, D. G.; Gleason, J. F.; Gille, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In 2001, Beijing, China was awarded the hosting rights to the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Since then, the government has gradually implemented pollution emission control strategies to improve Beijing's air quality in preparation for both games. Long-term industrial and short-term vehicle emission controls have also been enforced upwind of Beijing's neighboring provinces to the south and west. This region is characterized by numerous heavy-polluting industries whose emissions are typically transported towards Beijing, significantly impacting the city's air quality. We examine the efficacy of these emission control measures on tropospheric NO2, SO2, and CO pollution using satellite data from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Terra's Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) from 2004 to the present. During both games, held in August and September 2008, OMI and MOPITT measured significant decreases in all three tracer gases compared to the past three years: NO2 (-43%), SO2 (-13%), and CO (-12%). This decrease in CO and SO2 over northeastern China continues through 2009, reflecting the longer-term nature of emission controls on heavily polluting industries. The global recession is also a likely contributor, as factories have shut down or slowed production due to the decrease in demand for manufactured goods. The tropospheric NO2 column over Beijing returned to typical monthly mean values when controls on vehicle emissions were lifted by the end of September 2008. However, we observe a slight NO2 decrease at the beginning of 2009 relative to 2008 suggesting a decrease in the contribution of industrial emissions of NOx to the overall NO2 column.

  18. Worrying about weird winters.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Winter is a key determinant of biological processes in temperate, alpine, and polar environments. Winters are changing, yet we currently lack the knowledge to adequately predict the impacts of climate change on winter biology, or to link winter conditions to the growing-season performance of most organisms. PMID:27580991

  19. A new surveillance system for undiagnosed serious infectious illness for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Heinsbroek, E; Said, B; Kirkbride, H

    2012-08-02

    A new surveillance system was developed to detect possible new or emerging infections presenting as undiagnosed serious infectious illness (USII) for use during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Designated clinicians in sentinel adult and paediatric intensive care units (ICU/ PICUs) reported USII using an online reporting tool or provided a weekly nil notification. Reported cases were investigated for epidemiological links. A pilot study was undertaken for six months between January and July 2011 to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the system. In this six-month period, 5 adults and 13 children were reported by six participating units (3 ICUs, 3 PICUs). Of these 18 patients, 12 were reported within four days after admission to an ICU/PICU. Nine patients were subsequently diagnosed and were thus excluded from the surveillance. Therefore, only nine cases of USII were reported. No clustering was identified.On the basis of the pilot study, we conclude that the system is able to detect cases of USII and is feasible and acceptable to users. USII surveillance has been extended to a total of 19 sentinel units in London and the south-east of England during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  20. The platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX complex.

    PubMed

    López, J A

    1994-02-01

    The GP Ib-IX complex is part of a conglomerate of polypeptides on the platelet surface that perform several key roles of central importance to the haemostatic function of platelets. When deranged, these interactions can also lead to pathological thrombosis, with potentially disastrous consequences for the organism. In this manuscript, several aspects of the structure and biology of the complex are reviewed, including the structures of its polypeptides and their relationships to other members of a phylogenetically widespread protein family, its topology on the platelet membrane and relationship with cytoskeletal components, peptide sequences involved in binding its ligands, von Willebrand factor and thrombin, its polymorphisms, its biosynthesis, and the organizations of the genes that encode its subunits.

  1. Ares I-X USS Material Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, David S.; Smith, Stephen W.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). Material characterization tests were conducted to quantify the material behavior for use in the CIFS analyses. Fatigue crack growth rate, Charpy impact, and fracture tests were conducted on the parent and welded A516 Grade 70 steel. The crack growth rate tests confirmed that the material behaved in agreement with literature data and that a salt water environment would not significantly degrade the fatigue resistance. The Charpy impact tests confirmed that the fracture resistance of the material did not have a significant reduction for the expected operational temperatures of the vehicle.

  2. Ares I-X Flight Test Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. R.; Tuma, M. L.; Heitzman, K.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the Vision for Space Exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has defined a new space exploration architecture to return humans to the Moon and prepare for human exploration of Mars. One of the first new developments will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support International Space Station (ISS) missions and, later, support lunar missions. As part of Ares I development, NASA will perform a series of Ares I flight tests. The tests will provide data that will inform the engineering and design process and verify the flight hardware and software. The data gained from the flight tests will be used to certify the new Ares/Orion vehicle for human space flight. The primary objectives of this first flight test (Ares I-X) are the following: Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar integrated Ares CLV/Orion CEV using Ares CLV ascent control algorithms; Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between an Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage; Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares CLV-like First Stage element at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics and parachute performance; and Characterize the magnitude of the integrated vehicle roll torque throughout the First Stage (powered) flight. This paper will provide an overview of the Ares I-X flight test process and details of the individual flight tests.

  3. Projected Zika Virus Importation and Subsequent Ongoing Transmission after Travel to the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games - Country-Specific Assessment, July 2016.

    PubMed

    Grills, Ardath; Morrison, Stephanie; Nelson, Bradley; Miniota, Jennifer; Watts, Alexander; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-07-22

    Zika virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae; it is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (e.g., Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) (1). Zika virus has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2). As of June 30, 2016, CDC had issued travel notices for 49 countries and U.S. territories across much of the Western hemisphere (3), including Brazil, where the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (Games of the XXXI Olympiad, also known as Rio 2016; Games) will be hosted in Rio de Janeiro in August and September 2016. During the Games, mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission is expected to be low because August and September are winter months in Brazil, when cooler and drier weather typically reduces mosquito populations (4). CDC conducted a risk assessment to predict those countries susceptible to ongoing Zika virus transmission resulting from introduction by a single traveler to the Games. Whereas all countries are at risk for travel-associated importation of Zika virus, CDC estimated that 19 countries currently not reporting Zika outbreaks have the environmental conditions and population susceptibility to sustain mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus if a case were imported from infection at the Games. For 15 of these 19 countries, travel to Rio de Janeiro during the Games is not estimated to increase substantially the level of risk above that incurred by the usual aviation travel baseline for these countries. The remaining four countries, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Yemen, are unique in that they do not have a substantial number of travelers to any country with local Zika virus transmission, except for anticipated travel to the Games. These four countries will be represented by a projected, combined total of 19 athletes (plus a projected delegation of about 60 persons), a tiny fraction of the 350,000-500,000 visitors expected at the Games.* Overall

  4. Projected Zika Virus Importation and Subsequent Ongoing Transmission after Travel to the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games - Country-Specific Assessment, July 2016.

    PubMed

    Grills, Ardath; Morrison, Stephanie; Nelson, Bradley; Miniota, Jennifer; Watts, Alexander; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae; it is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (e.g., Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) (1). Zika virus has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2). As of June 30, 2016, CDC had issued travel notices for 49 countries and U.S. territories across much of the Western hemisphere (3), including Brazil, where the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (Games of the XXXI Olympiad, also known as Rio 2016; Games) will be hosted in Rio de Janeiro in August and September 2016. During the Games, mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission is expected to be low because August and September are winter months in Brazil, when cooler and drier weather typically reduces mosquito populations (4). CDC conducted a risk assessment to predict those countries susceptible to ongoing Zika virus transmission resulting from introduction by a single traveler to the Games. Whereas all countries are at risk for travel-associated importation of Zika virus, CDC estimated that 19 countries currently not reporting Zika outbreaks have the environmental conditions and population susceptibility to sustain mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus if a case were imported from infection at the Games. For 15 of these 19 countries, travel to Rio de Janeiro during the Games is not estimated to increase substantially the level of risk above that incurred by the usual aviation travel baseline for these countries. The remaining four countries, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Yemen, are unique in that they do not have a substantial number of travelers to any country with local Zika virus transmission, except for anticipated travel to the Games. These four countries will be represented by a projected, combined total of 19 athletes (plus a projected delegation of about 60 persons), a tiny fraction of the 350,000-500,000 visitors expected at the Games.* Overall

  5. ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence in epileptogenic tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleen, Jonathan K.; Valdes, Pablo A.; Harris, Brent T.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2011-03-01

    Astrogliotic tissue displays markedly increased levels of ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence, making it useful for fluorescence-guided resection in glioma surgery. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and corresponding animal models, there are areas of astrogliosis that often co-localize with the epileptic focus, which can be resected to eliminate seizures in the majority of treated patients. If this epileptogenic tissue can exhibit PpIX fluorescence that is sufficiently localized, it could potentially help identify margins in epilepsy surgery. We tested the hypothesis that ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence could visually accentuate epileptogenic tissue, using an established animal model of chronic TLE. An acute dose of pilocarpine was used to induce chronic seizure activity in a rat. This rat and a normal control were given ALA, euthanized, and brains examined post-mortem for PpIX fluorescence and neuropathology. Preliminary evidence indicates increased PpIX fluorescence in areas associated with chronic epileptic changes and seizure generation in TLE, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal areas. In addition, strong PpIX fluorescence was clearly observed in layer II of the piriform cortex, a region known for epileptic reorganization and involvement in the generation of seizures in animal studies. We are further investigating whether ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence can consistently identify epileptogenic zones, which could warrant the extension of this technique to clinical studies for use as an adjuvant guidance technology in the resection of epileptic tissue.

  6. Characterization of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) as an endogenous marker of chronic hypoxia in live human tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vordermark, Dirk . E-mail: vordermark_d@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Kaffer, Anja; Riedl, Susanne; Katzer, Astrid; Flentje, Michael

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: Published clinical studies provide conflicting data regarding the prognostic significance of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) overexpression as an endogenous marker of tumor hypoxia and its comparability with other methods of hypoxia detection. We performed a systematic analysis of CA IX protein levels under various in vitro conditions of tumor hypoxia in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma and FaDu human pharyngeal carcinoma cells. Because sorting of live CA IX positive cells from tumors provides a tool to study the radiosensitivity of chronically hypoxic cells, we modified and tested a CA IX flow cytometry protocol on mixed hypoxic/aerobic suspensions of HT 1080 and FaDu cells. Methods and materials: HT 1080 and FaDu cells were treated with up to 24 h of in vitro hypoxia and up to 96 h of reoxygenation. To test the effect of nonhypoxic stimuli, glucose and serum availability, pH and cell density were modified. CA IX protein was quantified in Western blots of whole-cell lysates. Mixed suspensions with known percentages of hypoxic cells were prepared for CA IX flow cytometry. The same mixtures were assayed for clonogenic survival after 10 Gy. Results: Hypoxia-induced CA IX protein expression was seen after >6 h at {<=}5% O{sub 2}, and protein was stable over 96 h of reoxygenation in both cell lines. Glucose deprivation abolished the hypoxic CA IX response, and high cell density caused CA IX induction under aerobic conditions. Measured percentages of CA IX-positive cells in mixtures closely reflected known percentages of hypoxic cells in HT 1080 and were associated with radioresistance of mixtures after 10 Gy. Conclusion: CA IX is a stable marker of current or previous chronic hypoxia but influenced by nonhypoxic stimuli. Except the time course of accumulation, all properties of this marker resembled our previous findings for hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. A modified flow cytometry protocol provided good separability of CA IX-negative and -positive cells in vitro

  7. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  8. 29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. ITALIAN GARDEN AND NEW PALM HOUSE (DEMOLISHED), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  9. 26. Photocopy of August 1918 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of August 1918 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. ITALIAN GARDEN, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  10. A Winter Survival Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    The article is a condensation of materials from the winter survival unit of a Canadian snow ecology course. The unit covers: cold physiology, frostbite, snowblindness, hypothermia, winter campout, and survival strategies. (SB)

  11. Winter Weather Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  12. Anisotropic Bianchi types VIII and IX locally rotationally symmetric cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Assad, M.J.D.; Soares, I.D.

    1983-10-15

    We present a class of exact cosmological solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations, which are anisotropic and spatially homogeneous of Bianchi types VIII and IX, and class IIIb in the Stewart-Ellis classification of locally rotationally symmetric models. If we take the electromagnetic field equal to zero, a class of Bianchi types VIII/IX spatially homogeneous anisotropic cosmological solutions with perfect fluid is obtained.

  13. Expression of active human factor IX in transfected cells.

    PubMed

    Busby, S; Kumar, A; Joseph, M; Halfpap, L; Insley, M; Berkner, K; Kurachi, K; Woodbury, R

    Factor IX is the precursor of a serine protease that functions in the intrinsic blood clotting pathway. Deficiencies in this plasma glycoprotein result in haemophilia B (or Christmas disease) and occur in about 1 in 30,000 males. Patients are currently treated with fresh frozen plasma or prothrombin complex concentrates prepared from pooled plasma from normal individuals. There are several problems with this method of treatment, including the probable exposure of the patients to contaminants such as the viral agents responsible for hepatitis and AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). As a first step towards an alternative source of pure human factor IX, we report here on the use of recombinant DNA techniques to produce biologically active factor IX in cultured mammalian cells. Stable cell lines were produced by cotransfecting a baby hamster kidney (BHK) cell line with a plasmid containing a gene for factor IX and a plasmid containing a selectable marker. Protein secreted by these cell lines reduces the clotting time of plasma from factor IX-deficient patients. We present additional evidence that this protein is authentic human factor IX.

  14. beta-meso-Phenylbiliverdin IX alpha and N-phenylprotoporphyrin IX, products of the reaction of phenylhydrazine with oxyhemoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, S; Itano, H A

    1981-01-01

    Oxyhemoglobin and oxymyoglobin were allowed to react aerobically with phenylhydrazine and p-tolylhydrazine. The chloroform extract of each reaction mixture, after treatment with H2SO4/methanol, yielded a blue pigment and a green pigment, which were identified by electronic absorption, mass, and proton NMR spectroscopy as the dimethyl esters of beta-meso-arylbiliverdin IX alpha and N-arylprotoporphyrin IX, respectively. N-Phenylprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester formed complexes with Zn2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+ but not with other cations. The proton NMR spectrum of the zinc complex suggested binding of the phenyl group to one of the two pyrrole rings of protoporphyrin IX with a propionic acid substituent. The effectiveness of phenylhydrazine as an inducer of Heinz body formation may be due to destabilization of the hemoglobin molecule by the replacement of heme with phenyl adducts of biliverdin and protoporphyrin. PMID:6946488

  15. Oxygen Availability for Porphyrin Biosynthesis Enzymes Determines the Production of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) during Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shimpei; Matsumoto, Kentaro; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru; Ogura, Shun-Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor of porphyrin, is specifically converted to the fluorescent substance protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumors to be used as a prodrug for photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. Hypoxia, a common feature of solid tumors, decreases the efficacy of ALA-based photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. This decrease results from the excretion of porphyrin precursor coproporphyrinogen III (CPgenIII), an intermediate in the biosynthesis of PpIX. However, the mechanism of CPgenIII excretion during hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we revealed the importance of mitochondrial respiration for the production of PpIX during hypoxia. Porphyrin concentrations were estimated in human gastric cancer cell lines by HPLC. Expression levels of porphyrin biosynthesis genes were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Blockage of porphyrin biosynthesis was an oxygen-dependent phenomenon resulting from decreased PpIX production in mitochondria under hypoxic conditions. PpIX production was increased by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration complexes, which indicates that the enzymes of porphyrin biosynthesis compete with respiration complexes for molecular oxygen. Our results indicate that targeting the respiration complexes is a rationale for enhancing the effect of ALA-mediated treatment and diagnosis. PMID:26717566

  16. Oxygen Availability for Porphyrin Biosynthesis Enzymes Determines the Production of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) during Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Shimpei; Matsumoto, Kentaro; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru; Ogura, Shun-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor of porphyrin, is specifically converted to the fluorescent substance protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumors to be used as a prodrug for photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. Hypoxia, a common feature of solid tumors, decreases the efficacy of ALA-based photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. This decrease results from the excretion of porphyrin precursor coproporphyrinogen III (CPgenIII), an intermediate in the biosynthesis of PpIX. However, the mechanism of CPgenIII excretion during hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we revealed the importance of mitochondrial respiration for the production of PpIX during hypoxia. Porphyrin concentrations were estimated in human gastric cancer cell lines by HPLC. Expression levels of porphyrin biosynthesis genes were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Blockage of porphyrin biosynthesis was an oxygen-dependent phenomenon resulting from decreased PpIX production in mitochondria under hypoxic conditions. PpIX production was increased by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration complexes, which indicates that the enzymes of porphyrin biosynthesis compete with respiration complexes for molecular oxygen. Our results indicate that targeting the respiration complexes is a rationale for enhancing the effect of ALA-mediated treatment and diagnosis. PMID:26717566

  17. Standards of Conditions During Preparations for the Summer Paralympic Games Between 2004 and 2012 Assessed by Polish Athletes.

    PubMed

    Sobiecka, Joanna; Gawroński, Wojciech; Kądziołka, Marta; Kruszelnicki, Paweł; Kłodecka-Różalska, Jadwiga; Plinta, Ryszard

    2015-11-22

    The quality of training conditions affects sporting success, injuries and health. The aim of the work was to present the conditions during the preparations of Polish athletes for the Summer Paralympic Games 2004-2012. The study encompassed 271 paralympians: Athens (91), Beijing (89) and London (91), competing in 13 disciplines. The research was based on a two-part questionnaire by Kłodecka-Różalska adjusted for disabled sports, and was conducted one month before each PG. Part 1 contained 20 closed-ended questions regarding conditions during preparations, while Part 2 concerned socio-demographic and sports-related data. Three levels of conditions: good, satisfactory and poor, were identified. The analysis showed that while the relationships between the athletes were good in all the preparatory periods, the co-operation with the paralympic coaches worsened. The standards of accommodation, food and sports facilities lowered. Personal orthopaedic supply was satisfactory in London; personal sporting equipment was good at all PG. The quality of medical care was the highest in London. The co-operation with physicians, physiotherapists and massage therapists was satisfactory. Consultations with the dietician were sporadic and assessed as poor. Psychological consultations were rare but satisfactory in Beijing and London. Contacts with the mass media were poor at all PG. Although combining private life, work, and education with sport was satisfactory, it was increasingly difficult to manage, particularly before London. The conditions during preparations for the PG 2004-2012 varied. Improvement was noticed only in the quality of medical care and personal orthopaedic supply.

  18. Standards of Conditions During Preparations for the Summer Paralympic Games Between 2004 and 2012 Assessed by Polish Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sobiecka, Joanna; Gawroński, Wojciech; Kądziołka, Marta; Kruszelnicki, Paweł; Kłodecka-Różalska, Jadwiga; Plinta, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The quality of training conditions affects sporting success, injuries and health. The aim of the work was to present the conditions during the preparations of Polish athletes for the Summer Paralympic Games 2004–2012. The study encompassed 271 paralympians: Athens (91), Beijing (89) and London (91), competing in 13 disciplines. The research was based on a two-part questionnaire by Kłodecka-Różalska adjusted for disabled sports, and was conducted one month before each PG. Part 1 contained 20 closed-ended questions regarding conditions during preparations, while Part 2 concerned socio-demographic and sports-related data. Three levels of conditions: good, satisfactory and poor, were identified. The analysis showed that while the relationships between the athletes were good in all the preparatory periods, the co-operation with the paralympic coaches worsened. The standards of accommodation, food and sports facilities lowered. Personal orthopaedic supply was satisfactory in London; personal sporting equipment was good at all PG. The quality of medical care was the highest in London. The co-operation with physicians, physiotherapists and massage therapists was satisfactory. Consultations with the dietician were sporadic and assessed as poor. Psychological consultations were rare but satisfactory in Beijing and London. Contacts with the mass media were poor at all PG. Although combining private life, work, and education with sport was satisfactory, it was increasingly difficult to manage, particularly before London. The conditions during preparations for the PG 2004–2012 varied. Improvement was noticed only in the quality of medical care and personal orthopaedic supply. PMID:26834879

  19. Neutrophil elastase cleavage of human factor IX generates an activated factor IX-like product devoid of coagulant function.

    PubMed

    Samis, J A; Kam, E; Nesheim, M E; Giles, A R

    1998-08-15

    In preliminary studies, the generation of thrombin in vivo was found to induce a 92% loss of functional activity of factor IX (F.IX) despite the detection by Western blotting of a product resembling activated F.IX (F.IXa) and a 25% increase in F.IX antigen levels (Hoogendoorn et al, Thromb Haemost 69:1127, 1993 [abstr]). These changes were associated with evidence of increased elastase availability. To study the possibility that these two observations were related, a detailed physical and functional characterization of the hydrolysis of purified human F.IX by human neutrophil elastase (HNE) was performed in vitro. An activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) clotting assay demonstrated that, although HNE eliminated the potential of F.IX to be activated, it only marginally reduced the F.IXa activity. Reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that HNE treatment of F.IX generated cleavage products of 30 and 20 kD that could not be distinguished from the respective heavy and light chain peptides that were identified in parallel studies when F.IX was activated by activated bovine F.XI (F.XIa), one of its physiological activators. In addition, nonreducing SDS-PAGE demonstrated that HNE-treated F.IX formed no complexes with antithrombin III (ATIII) in the presence of heparin. Furthermore, HNE-treated F.IX was unable to (1) bind the active site probe p-aminobenzamidine; (2) hydrolyze the synthetic peptide substrate CH3SO2-Leu-Gly-Arg-p-nitroanilide; and (3) activate human factor X (F.X). In contrast to dansyl-Glu-Gly-Arg-chloromethyl ketone (dEGR)-inactivated F.IXa, HNE-treated F.IX (0.01 to 10,000 pmol/L) failed to inhibit the clotting activity of F.IXa (10 pmol/L) in the aPTT. NH2-terminal sequencing indicated that HNE cleaved human F.IX at Thr140, Thr144, Ile164, Thr172, and Val181. The cleavages at Thr140/Thr144 and at Thr172/Val181 are both very close to the normal F.XIa alpha-(Arg145) and beta-(Arg180) cleavage sites

  20. Verdohemochrome IX alpha: preparation and oxidoreductive cleavage to biliverdin IX alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, S; Itano, H A

    1982-01-01

    Several studies have shown that both terminal oxygen atoms of biliverdin are derived from molecular oxygen. Since the conversion of verdohemochrome to biliverdin has been assumed to be hydrolytic, these findings seemed to exclude verdohemochrome as an intermediate in the degradation of heme to biliverdin. Coupled oxidation of myoglobin and ascorbate yielded a pure preparation of verdohemochrome IX alpha. The structure and ferrous state of this product were determined from its composition, ligand reactions, 1H NMR spectrum, and conversion to biliverdin IX alpha dimethyl ester. Reaction with ascorbate and 18O2 converted this compound to biliverdin that contained an atom of 18O. Successive treatment of verdohemochrome, first oxidation with H2O2 and then reduction with phenylhydrazine, yielded the iron complex of biliverdin. These results showed that hydrolysis is not an obligatory step in the conversion of verdohemochrome to biliverdin and, moreover, indicated how heme can be converted, with verdohemochrome as an intermediate, into biliverdin in which the two terminal oxygen atoms are derived from different O2 molecules. PMID:6951184

  1. Long-Acting Recombinant Fusion Protein Linking Coagulation Factor IX with Albumin (rIX-FP) in Children

    PubMed Central

    Chambost, Hervé; Male, Christoph; Lambert, Thierry; Halimeh, Susan; Chernova, Tatiana; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Curtin, Julie; Voigt, Christine; Li, Yanyan; Jacobs, Iris; Santagostino, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Summary A global phase 3 study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of a recombinant fusion protein linking coagulation factor IX with albumin (rIX-FP) in 27 previously treated male children (1–11 years) with severe and moderately severe haemophilia B (factor IX [FIX] activity ≤2 IU/dl). All patients received routine prophylaxis once every seven days for up to 77 weeks, and treated any bleeding episodes on-demand. The mean terminal half-life of rIX-FP was 91.4 hours (h), 4.3-fold longer than previous FIX treatment and clearance was 1.11 ml/h/kg, 6.4-fold slower than previous FIX treatment. The median (Q1, Q3) annualised spontaneous bleeding rate was 0.00 (0.00, 0.91) and was similar between the <6 years and ≥6 years age groups, with a weekly median prophylactic dose of 46 IU/kg. In addition, patients maintained a median trough level of 13.4 IU/dl FIX activity on weekly prophylaxis. Overall, 97.2% of bleeding episodes were successfully treated with one or two injections of rIX-FP (95% CI: 92% to 99%), 88.7% with one injection, and 96% of the treatments were rated effective (excellent or good) by the Investigator. No patient developed FIX inhibitors and no safety concerns were identified. These results indicate that rIX-FP is safe and effective for preventing and treating bleeding episodes in children with haemophilia B with weekly prophylaxis. Routine prophylaxis with rIX-FP at treatment intervals of up to 14 days are currently being investigated in children with severe and moderately severe haemophilia B. Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01662531) PMID:27583313

  2. No lasting legacy: no change in reporting of women's sports in the British print media with the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympics

    PubMed Central

    Packer, C.; Geh, D.J.; Goulden, O.W.; Jordan, A.M.; Withers, G.K.; Wagstaff, A.J.; Bellwood, R.A.; Binmore, C.L.; Webster, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The proportion of media sports coverage devoted to women is reported at between 1 and 6%. Our survey examines and compares reporting patterns before and after the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics. Methods We collected data on sports coverage in six national newspapers on 3 weekend days in February and March 2012, and in February 2013; ∼5 months before the opening of the 2012 Olympic Games and 5 months after the closing of the Paralympic Games. Results In 2012, 39 of 876 articles in national newspapers (4.5%) related to women's sports, compared with 22 of 755 (2.9%) in 2013; a non-significant reduction in coverage [difference 1.54%, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.28 to 3.36). In 2012, 24 of 647 pictures (3.7%) related to women's activities, compared with 10 of 738 (1.4%) in 2013; a significant reduction in coverage (difference 2.35%; 95% CI 0.68–4.03). The median area per article was significantly greater for men in both years. Conclusions We found a continuing bias towards men's sport in the media analysed and no evidence of improvement either before or after the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics. Increased support of women's sport in the print media could benefit individuals and influence the health of the population. PMID:24618182

  3. Ares I-X Flight Test - The Future Begins Here

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, will eventually send humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for an April 2009 launch. This paper will discuss the hardware and programmatic progress of the Ares I-X mission. Like the Apollo program, the Ares launch vehicles will rely upon extensive ground, flight, and orbital testing before sending the Orion crew exploration vehicle into space with humans on board. The first flight of Ares I, designated Ares I-X, will be a suborbital development flight test. Ares I-X gives NASA its first opportunity to gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle stack; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the severe stage separation environments that the upper stage engine will experience during future operational flights; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. NASA also will begin modifying the launch infrastructure and fine-tuning ground and mission operations, as the agency makes the transition from the Space Shuttle to the Ares/Orion system.

  4. Carbonic anhydrase IX: regulation and role in cancer.

    PubMed

    Benej, Martin; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2014-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment substantially influences the process of tumorigenesis. In many solid tumors, imbalance between the demand of rapidly proliferating cancer cells and the capabilities of the vascular system generates areas with insufficient oxygen supply. In response to tumor hypoxia, cancer cells modulate their gene expression pattern to match the requirements of the altered microenvironment. One of the most significant adaptations to this milieu is the shift towards anaerobic glycolysis to keep up the energy demands. This oncogenic metabolism is often maintained also in aerobic cells. Lactic acid, its metabolic end-product, accumulates hand-in-hand with carbon dioxide, leading to acidification of the extracellular environment. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is the most widely expressed gene in response to hypoxia. Its crucial role in intracellular pH maintenance represents the means by which cancer cells adapt to the toxic conditions of the extracellular milieu. Furthermore, the activity of CA IX stimulates the migratory pathways of cancer cells and is connected with the increase of the aggressive/invasive phenotype of tumors. CA IX expression in many types of tumors indicates its relevance as a general marker of tumor hypoxia. Moreover, its expression is closely related to prognosis of the clinical outcome in several tumor types. All above mentioned facts support the strong position of CA IX as a potential drug therapy target. Here, we summarize the state-of-the-art knowledge on its regulation and role in cancer development.

  5. Winters fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-27

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  6. Improved murine glioma detection following modified diet and photobleaching of skin PpIX fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Summer L.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Pogue, Brian W.

    2007-02-01

    The Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA) - Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) system is unique in the world of photosensitizers in that the prodrug ALA is enzymatically transformed via the tissue of interest into fluorescently detectable levels of PpIX. This system can be used to monitor cellular metabolism of tumor tissue for applications such as therapy monitoring. Detecting PpIX fluorescence noninvasively has proven difficult due to the high levels of PpIX produced in the skin compared to other tissue both with and without ALA administration. In the current study, methods to decrease skin PpIX autofluorescence and skin PpIX fluorescence following ALA administration have been examined. Use of a purified diet is found to decrease both skin PpIX autofluorescence and skin PpIX fluorescence following ALA administration, while addition of a broad spectrum antibiotic to the water shows little effect. Following ALA administration, improved brain tumor detection is seen when skin PpIX fluorescence is photobleached via blue light prior to transmission spectroscopic measurements of tumor bearing and control animals. Both of these methods to decrease skin PpIX autofluorescence and skin PpIX fluorescence following ALA administration are shown to have a large effect on the ability to detect tumor tissue PpIX fluorescence noninvasively in vivo.

  7. A resolution commemorating the success of Team USA in the past 22 Olympic Winter Games and supporting Team USA in the 2014 Olympic Winter Games and Paralympic Winter Games.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2014-02-06

    02/06/2014 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S834; text as passed Senate: CR S826) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Star Formation Rate in Holmberg IX Dwarf Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andjelic, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we use previously determined Hα fluxes for dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX (Arbutina et al. 2009) to calculate star formation rate (SFR) in this galaxy. We discuss possible contaminations of Hα flux and, for the first time, we take into account optical emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) as a possible source of contamination of Hα flux. Derived SFR for Holmberg IX is 3.4×10-4M_{⊙} yr-1. Our value is lower then in previous studies, due to luminous shock-heated source M&H 9-10, possible hypernova remnant, which we excluded from the total Hα flux in our calculation of SFR.

  9. Ares I-X: First Flight of a New Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X suborbital development flight test demonstrated NASA s ability to design, develop, launch and control a new human-rated launch vehicle (Figure 14). This hands-on missions experience will provide the agency with necessary skills and insights regardless of the future direction of space exploration. The Ares I-X team, having executed a successful launch, will now focus on analyzing the flight data and extracting lessons learned that will be used to support the development of future vehicles.

  10. Immunoaffinity purification of factor IX (Christmas factor) by using conformation-specific antibodies directed against the factor IX-metal complex.

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, H A; Limentani, S A; Furie, B C; Furie, B

    1985-01-01

    Factor IX is a vitamin K-dependent blood clotting zymogen that is functionally defective or absent in patients with hemophilia B. A method of immunoaffinity chromatography has been developed for a one-step high yield purification of factor IX directly from plasma. The technique utilizes conformation-specific antibodies that bind solely to the metal-stabilized factor IX conformer, but not to the conformer of factor IX found in the absence of metal ions. Anti-factor IX-Ca(II) antibodies were immobilized on an agarose matrix. Human plasma in the presence of 7.5 mM MgCl2 was applied to the antibody-agarose column. The factor IX that binds to these antibodies was specifically eluted by metal chelation with EDTA. This immunopurification resulted in a 10,000-fold one-step purification of the fully functional zymogen. Purified factor IX yielded a single band upon gel electrophoresis in Na-DodSO4 and had a specific activity of 120-150 units/mg. The purified factor IX was separated from other vitamin K-dependent blood clotting proteins and hepatitis virus; no activated factor IX was detected. This method has application for the large scale purification of factor IX for the treatment of hemophilia B. Images PMID:2408269

  11. Immunoaffinity purification of factor IX (Christmas factor) by using conformation-specific antibodies directed against the factor IX-metal complex.

    PubMed

    Liebman, H A; Limentani, S A; Furie, B C; Furie, B

    1985-06-01

    Factor IX is a vitamin K-dependent blood clotting zymogen that is functionally defective or absent in patients with hemophilia B. A method of immunoaffinity chromatography has been developed for a one-step high yield purification of factor IX directly from plasma. The technique utilizes conformation-specific antibodies that bind solely to the metal-stabilized factor IX conformer, but not to the conformer of factor IX found in the absence of metal ions. Anti-factor IX-Ca(II) antibodies were immobilized on an agarose matrix. Human plasma in the presence of 7.5 mM MgCl2 was applied to the antibody-agarose column. The factor IX that binds to these antibodies was specifically eluted by metal chelation with EDTA. This immunopurification resulted in a 10,000-fold one-step purification of the fully functional zymogen. Purified factor IX yielded a single band upon gel electrophoresis in Na-DodSO4 and had a specific activity of 120-150 units/mg. The purified factor IX was separated from other vitamin K-dependent blood clotting proteins and hepatitis virus; no activated factor IX was detected. This method has application for the large scale purification of factor IX for the treatment of hemophilia B.

  12. Winter Art Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokela, Timo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the Department of Art Education at the University of Lapland in Finland has developed winter art as a method of environmental and community-based art education. I will focus on the Snow Show Winter Art Education Project, a training project funded by the European Union and the State Provincial Office…

  13. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used...

  17. Differences in Left Ventricular Global Function and Mechanics in Paralympic Athletes with Cervical and Thoracic Spinal Cord Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Katharine D.; West, Christopher R.; Krassioukov, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    Following a spinal cord injury, there are changes in resting stroke volume (SV) and its response to exercise. The purpose of the following study was to characterize resting left ventricular structure, function, and mechanics in Paralympic athletes with tetraplegia (TETRA) and paraplegia (PARA) in an attempt to understand whether the alterations in SV are attributable to inherent dysfunction in the left ventricle. This retrospective study compared Paralympic athletes with a traumatic, chronic (>1 year post-injury), motor-complete spinal cord injury (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A-B). Eight male TETRA wheelchair rugby players (34 ± 5 years, C5-C7) and eight male PARA alpine skiers (35 ± 5 years, T4-L3) were included in the study. Echocardiography was performed in the left lateral decubitus position and indices of left ventricular structure, global diastolic and systolic function, and mechanics were derived from the average across three cardiac cycles. Blood pressure was measured in the supine and seated positions. All results are presented as TETRA vs. PARA. There was no difference in left ventricular dimensions between TETRA and PARA. Additionally, indices of global diastolic function were similar between groups including isovolumetric relaxation time, early (E) and late (A) transmitral filling velocities and their ratio (E/A). While ejection fraction was similar between TETRA and PARA (59 ± 4 % vs. 61 ± 7 %, p = 0.394), there was evidence of reduced global systolic function in TETRA including lower SV (62 ± 9 ml vs. 71 ± 6 ml, p = 0.016) and cardiac output (3.5 ± 0.6 L/min vs. 5.0 ± 0.9 L/min, p = 0.002). Despite this observation, several indices of systolic and diastolic mechanics were maintained in TETRA but attenuted in PARA including circumferential strain at the level of the papillary muscle (−23 ± 4% vs. −15 ± 6%, p = 0.010) and apex (−36 ± 10% vs. −23 ± 5%, p = 0.010) and their corresponding diastolic strain rates

  18. Differences in Left Ventricular Global Function and Mechanics in Paralympic Athletes with Cervical and Thoracic Spinal Cord Injuries.

    PubMed

    Currie, Katharine D; West, Christopher R; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2016-01-01

    Following a spinal cord injury, there are changes in resting stroke volume (SV) and its response to exercise. The purpose of the following study was to characterize resting left ventricular structure, function, and mechanics in Paralympic athletes with tetraplegia (TETRA) and paraplegia (PARA) in an attempt to understand whether the alterations in SV are attributable to inherent dysfunction in the left ventricle. This retrospective study compared Paralympic athletes with a traumatic, chronic (>1 year post-injury), motor-complete spinal cord injury (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A-B). Eight male TETRA wheelchair rugby players (34 ± 5 years, C5-C7) and eight male PARA alpine skiers (35 ± 5 years, T4-L3) were included in the study. Echocardiography was performed in the left lateral decubitus position and indices of left ventricular structure, global diastolic and systolic function, and mechanics were derived from the average across three cardiac cycles. Blood pressure was measured in the supine and seated positions. All results are presented as TETRA vs. PARA. There was no difference in left ventricular dimensions between TETRA and PARA. Additionally, indices of global diastolic function were similar between groups including isovolumetric relaxation time, early (E) and late (A) transmitral filling velocities and their ratio (E/A). While ejection fraction was similar between TETRA and PARA (59 ± 4 % vs. 61 ± 7 %, p = 0.394), there was evidence of reduced global systolic function in TETRA including lower SV (62 ± 9 ml vs. 71 ± 6 ml, p = 0.016) and cardiac output (3.5 ± 0.6 L/min vs. 5.0 ± 0.9 L/min, p = 0.002). Despite this observation, several indices of systolic and diastolic mechanics were maintained in TETRA but attenuted in PARA including circumferential strain at the level of the papillary muscle (-23 ± 4% vs. -15 ± 6%, p = 0.010) and apex (-36 ± 10% vs. -23 ± 5%, p = 0.010) and their corresponding diastolic strain rates

  19. Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Modal Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Templeton, Justin D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Gaspar, James L.; Parks, Russell A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The first test flight of NASA's Ares I crew launch vehicle, called Ares I-X, is scheduled for launch in 2009. Ares IX will use a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Flight test data will provide important information on ascent loads, vehicle control, separation, and first stage reentry dynamics. As part of hardware verification, a series of modal tests were designed to verify the dynamic finite element model (FEM) used in loads assessments and flight control evaluations. Based on flight control system studies, the critical modes were the first three free-free bending mode pairs. Since a test of the free-free vehicle is not practical within project constraints, modal tests for several configurations in the nominal integration flow were defined to calibrate the FEM. A traceability study by Aerospace Corporation was used to identify the critical modes for the tested configurations. Test configurations included two partial stacks and the full Ares I-X launch vehicle on the Mobile Launcher Platform. This paper provides an overview for companion papers in the Ares I-X Modal Test Session. The requirements flow down, pre-test analysis, constraints and overall test planning are described.

  20. Ares I-X Malfunction Turn Range Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the designation given to the flight test version of the Ares I rocket which was developed by NASA (also known as the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) component of the Constellation Program). The Ares I-X flight test vehicle achieved a successful flight test on October 28, 2009, from Pad LC-39B at Kennedy Space Center, Florida (KSC). As part of the flight plan approval for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes. Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could have caused the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path. The effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version II (POST2) simulation tool. The Ares I-X simulation analysis provided output files containing vehicle trajectory state information. These were used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at KSC, and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer in the event of a flight test anomaly of the vehicle. The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study.

  1. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Region IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report represents a detailed summation of existing workforce levels, training programs, career potential, and staffing level projections through 1981 for EPA Region IX. This region serves the states of Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada. The specific pollution programs considered include air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation…

  2. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  3. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle Modal Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Gaspar, James L.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Parks, Russel A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The first test flight of NASA's Ares I crew launch vehicle, called Ares I-X, was launched on October 28, 2009. Ares I-X used a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Flight test data will provide important information on ascent loads, vehicle control, separation, and first stage reentry dynamics. As part of hardware verification, a series of modal tests were designed to verify the dynamic finite element model (FEM) used in loads assessments and flight control evaluations. Based on flight control system studies, the critical modes were the first three free-free bending mode pairs. Since a test of the free-free vehicle was not practical within project constraints, modal tests for several configurations during vehicle stacking were defined to calibrate the FEM. Test configurations included two partial stacks and the full Ares I-X flight test vehicle on the Mobile Launcher Platform. This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test execution and results for the Ares I-X flight test vehicle modal test on the Mobile Launcher Platform. Initial comparisons between pre-test predictions and test data are also presented.

  4. Ares I-X Flight Data Evaluation: Executive Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Waits, David A.; Lewis, Donny L.; Richards, James S.; Coates, R. H., Jr.; Cruit, Wendy D.; Bolte, Elizabeth J.; Bangham, Michal E.; Askins, Bruce R.; Trausch, Ann N.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program (CxP) successfully launched the Ares I-X flight test vehicle on October 28, 2009. The Ares I-X flight was a developmental flight test to demonstrate that this very large, long, and slender vehicle could be controlled successfully. The flight offered a unique opportunity for early engineering data to influence the design and development of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, the Ares Projects Office (APO) established a set of 33 flight evaluation tasks to correlate flight results with prospective design assumptions and models. The flight evaluation tasks used Ares I-X data to partially validate tools and methodologies in technical disciplines that will ultimately influence the design and development of Ares I and future launch vehicles. Included within these tasks were direct comparisons of flight data with preflight predictions and post-flight assessments utilizing models and processes being applied to design and develop Ares I. The benefits of early development flight testing were made evident by results from these flight evaluation tasks. This overview provides summary information from assessment of the Ares I-X flight test data and represents a small subset of the detailed technical results. The Ares Projects Office published a 1,600-plus-page detailed technical report that documents the full set of results. This detailed report is subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and is available in the Ares Projects Office archives files.

  5. Infectious diseases prioritisation for event-based surveillance at the European Union level for the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Economopoulou, A; Kinross, P; Domanovic, D; Coulombier, D

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, London hosted the Olympic and Paralympic Games (the Games), with events occurring throughout the United Kingdom (UK) between 27 July and 9 September 2012. Public health surveillance was performed by the Health Protection Agency (HPA). Collaboration between the HPA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) was established for the detection and assessment of significant infectious disease events (SIDEs) occurring outside the UK during the time of the Games. Additionally, ECDC undertook an internal prioritisation exercise to facilitate ECDC’s decisions on which SIDEs should have preferentially enhanced monitoring through epidemic intelligence activities for detection and reporting in daily surveillance in the European Union (EU). A team of ECDC experts evaluated potential public health risks to the Games, selecting and prioritising SIDEs for event-based surveillance with regard to their potential for importation to the Games, occurrence during the Games or export to the EU/European Economic Area from the Games. The team opted for a multilevel approach including comprehensive disease selection, development and use of a qualitative matrix scoring system and a Delphi method for disease prioritisation. The experts selected 71 infectious diseases to enter the prioritisation exercise of which 27 were considered as priority for epidemic intelligence activities by ECDC for the EU for the Games. PMID:24762663

  6. Infectious diseases prioritisation for event-based surveillance at the European Union level for the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Economopoulou, A; Kinross, P; Domanovic, D; Coulombier, D

    2014-04-17

    In 2012, London hosted the Olympic and Paralympic Games (the Games), with events occurring throughout the United Kingdom (UK) between 27 July and 9 September 2012. Public health surveillance was performed by the Health Protection Agency (HPA). Collaboration between the HPA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) was established for the detection and assessment of significant infectious disease events (SIDEs) occurring outside the UK during the time of the Games. Additionally, ECDC undertook an internal prioritisation exercise to facilitate ECDC’s decisions on which SIDEs should have preferentially enhanced monitoring through epidemic intelligence activities for detection and reporting in daily surveillance in the European Union (EU). A team of ECDC experts evaluated potential public health risks to the Games, selecting and prioritising SIDEs for event-based surveillance with regard to their potential for importation to the Games, occurrence during the Games or export to the EU/European Economic Area from the Games. The team opted for a multilevel approach including comprehensive disease selection, development and use of a qualitative matrix scoring system and a Delphi method for disease prioritisation. The experts selected 71 infectious diseases to enter the prioritisation exercise of which 27 were considered as priority for epidemic intelligence activities by ECDC for the EU for the Games.

  7. Health Risks and Travel Preparation Among Foreign Visitors and Expatriates During the 2008 Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Jentes, Emily S.; Davis, Xiaohong M.; MacDonald, Susan; Snyman, P. Johann; Nelson, Hugh; Quarry, Doug; Lai, Irene; van Vliet, Erik W. N.; Balaban, Victor; Marano, Cinzia; Mues, Katherine; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Marano, Nina

    2010-01-01

    During the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games, we conducted surveillance of illnesses among travelers at six Beijing clinics. Surveys asked about demographic, pre-travel, and vaccination information, and physician-provided diagnoses. Of 807 respondents, 38% and 57% were classified as foreign visitors (FV) and expatriates, respectively. Less than one-half of FV sought pre-travel advice; sources included health-care providers and friends/family. FV vaccination rate was also low; however, most vaccines given were recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The most common FV diagnoses were respiratory, injury/musculoskeletal, and gastrointestinal illnesses; for expatriates, injury/musculoskeletal, respiratory, and dermatologic were the most common illnesses. Respiratory illnesses in expatriates were significantly less in 2008 than during 2004–2007 (χ2 = 10.2; P = 0.0014), suggesting that control programs may have reduced pollutants/respiratory irritants during the 2008 Games. We found no previous studies of health outcomes among expatriates living in cities with mass travel events. These findings highlight the need to continuously disseminate information to health-care providers advising travelers. PMID:20207875

  8. The Winter Is Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Teacher, writer, and naturalist Phyllis S. Busch takes the reader on an early evening woodland walk in March, describing the many changes in plants and animals that are perceptible by sight, smell, and sound as nature awakens from winter. (NEC)

  9. Preparation of factor IX deficient human plasma by immunoaffinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Goodall, A H; Kemble, G; O'Brien, D P; Rawlings, E; Rotblat, F; Russell, G C; Janossy, G; Tuddenham, E G

    1982-03-01

    A murine hybridoma clone is described that grows continuously in culture and produces a monoclonal antibody we have called Royal Free Monoclonal Antibody to factor IX No. 1 (RFF-IX/1). This has high affinity for a coagulation site on factor IX. RFF-IX/1 immobilised on sepharose can be used to deplete factor IX from normal human plasma. This immunoaffinity depleted plasma is indistinguishable from severe Christmas disease plasma and can be used as the substrate in a one stage coagulation assay for factor IX. The affinity column has high capacity and can be regenerated so that large scale production from normal plasma of factor IX deficient plasma as a diagnostic reagent is now feasible.

  10. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  14. Nutrition for winter sports.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered.

  15. The Development of the Ares I-X Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ess, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was created as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight vehicle is an early operational model of Ares, with specific emphasis on Ares I and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. Ares I-X will encompass the design and construction of an entire system that includes the Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) and associated operations. The FTV will be a test model based on the Ares I design. Select design features will be incorporated in the FTV design to emulate the operation of the CLV in order to meet the flight test objectives. The operations infrastructure and processes will be customized for Ares I-X, while still providing data to inform the developers of the launch processing system for Ares/Orion. The FTV is comprised of multiple elements and components that will be developed at different locations. The components will be delivered to the launch/assembly site, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), for assembly of the elements and components into an integrated, flight-ready, launch vehicle. The FTV will fly a prescribed trajectory in order to obtain the necessary data to meet the objectives. Ares I-X will not be commanded or controlled from the ground during flight, but the FTV will be equipped with telemetry systems, a data recording capability and a flight termination system (FTS). The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation representative of the CLV. The in-flight test also includes separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage and recovery of the First Stage. The data retrieved from the flight test will be analyzed

  16. Arabidopsis Lectin Receptor Kinases LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2 Are Functional Analogs in Regulating Phytophthora Resistance and Plant Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Cordewener, Jan H G; America, Antoine H P; Shan, Weixing; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Govers, Francine

    2015-09-01

    L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRK) are potential immune receptors. Here, we characterized two closely-related Arabidopsis LecRK, LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2, of which T-DNA insertion mutants showed compromised resistance to Phytophthora brassicae and Phytophthora capsici, with double mutants showing additive susceptibility. Overexpression of LecRK-IX.1 or LecRK-IX.2 in Arabidopsis and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana increased Phytophthora resistance but also induced cell death. Phytophthora resistance required both the lectin domain and kinase activity, but for cell death, the lectin domain was not needed. Silencing of the two closely related mitogen-activated protein kinase genes NbSIPK and NbNTF4 in N. benthamiana completely abolished LecRK-IX.1-induced cell death but not Phytophthora resistance. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of protein complexes coimmunoprecipitated in planta with LecRK-IX.1 or LecRK-IX.2 as bait, resulted in the identification of the N. benthamiana ABC transporter NbPDR1 as a potential interactor of both LecRK. The closest homolog of NbPDR1 in Arabidopsis is ABCG40, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that ABCG40 associates with LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2 in planta. Similar to the LecRK mutants, ABCG40 mutants showed compromised Phytophthora resistance. This study shows that LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2 are Phytophthora resistance components that function independent of each other and independent of the cell-death phenotype. They both interact with the same ABC transporter, suggesting that they exploit similar signal transduction pathways.

  17. In-vivo fluorescence dosimetry of aminolevulinate-based protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation in human nonmelanoma skin cancers and precancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Christine B.; Lohser, Sara; Chang, Sung; Bailin, Philip A.; Maytin, Edward V.

    2009-06-01

    PDT is clinically useful for precancers (actinic keratoses; AK) of the skin, but the optimal duration for 5-ALA application is still controversial. For basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), cure rates remain inferior to surgical excision. Lack of knowledge about regional levels of PpIX levels within target tissues clearly contribute to these suboptimal results. To investigate PpIX levels achievable in human skin neoplasias in-vivo, a clinical study to monitor PpIX accumulation in vivo was performed. PpIX-fluorescence in patients undergoing ALA-PDT for facial AK was monitored via real-time in-vivo fluorescence dosimetry, with measurements q20 min following application of 5-ALA (Levulan Kerastick). PpIX accumulation followed linear kinetics in nearly all cases. The slopes varied widely, and did not correlate with clinical outcome in all patients. Some patients with a low accumulation of PpIX fluorescence had a good response to therapy, whereas others with high PpIX accumulation required repeat treatment (although not necessarily of the same lesion). PpIX accumulation rates did correlate to a certain degree with the overall amount of erythema. We conclude that unknown factors besides PpIX levels must be critical for the response to treatment. To assess the relationship between PpIX levels in various skin cancers, patients undergoing routine Mohs surgery for BCC or SCC were measured by in-vivo dosimetry at 2 h after 5-ALA application. Overall, a progressive increase in PpIX signal during malignant progression was observed, in the following rank order: Normal skin < AK < SCC ~ BCC.

  18. The Impact of Weather Forecasts of Various Lead Times on Snowmaking Decisions Made for the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Winter Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics were held from 12 to 28 February 2010, and the Paralympic events followed 2 weeks later. During the Games, the weather posed a grave threat to the viability of one venue and created significant complications for the event schedule at others. Forecasts of weather with lead times ranging from minutes to days helped organizers minimize disruptions to sporting events and helped ensure all medal events were successfully completed. Of comparable importance, however, were the scenarios and forecasts of probable weather for the winter in advance of the Games. Forecasts of mild conditions at the time of the Games helped the Games' organizers mitigate what would have been very serious potential consequences for at least one venue. Snowmaking was one strategy employed well in advance of the Games to prepare for the expected conditions. This short study will focus on how operational decisions were made by the Games' organizers on the basis of both climatological and snowmaking forecasts during the pre-Games winter. An attempt will be made to quantify, economically, the value of some of the snowmaking forecasts made for the Games' operators. The results obtained indicate that although the economic value of the snowmaking forecast was difficult to determine, the Games' organizers valued the forecast information greatly. This suggests that further development of probabilistic forecasts for applications like pre-Games snowmaking would be worthwhile.

  19. Hantavirus Prevalence in the IX Region of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Pablo C.; Castillo, Constanza H.; Godoy, Paula M.; Hjelle, Brian; Ferrés, Marcela G.

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiologic and seroprevalence survey was conducted (n=830) to assess proportion of persons exposed to hantavirus in IX Region Chile, which accounts for 25% of reported cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. This region has three geographic areas with different disease incidences and a high proportion of aboriginals. Serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against Sin Nombre virus N antigen by strip immunoblot assay against Sin Nombre, Puumala, Río Mamoré, and Seoul N antigens. Samples from six patients were positive for IgG antibodies reactive with Andes virus; all patients lived in the Andes Mountains. Foresting was also associated with seropositivity; but not sex, age, race, rodent exposure, or farming activities. Exposure to hantavirus varies in different communities of IX Region. Absence of history of pneumonia or hospital admission in persons with specific IgG antibodies suggests that infection is clinically inapparent. PMID:12890323

  20. Ares I-X Thermal Model Correlation and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X vehicle launched and flew successfully on October 28, 2009. This paper will describe the correlation of the vehicle thermal model to both ground testing and flight data. A main purpose of the vehicle model and ground testing was to ensure that the avionics within the vehicle were held within their thermal limits prior to launch and during flight. The correlation of the avionics box temperatures will be shown. Also, the lessons learned in the thermal discipline during the modeling, test, correlation to test, and flight of the Ares I-X flight test vehicle will be described. Lessons learned will cover thermal modeling, as well as management of the thermal discipline, thermal team, and thermal-related actions in design, testing, and flight.

  1. Ares I-X Best Estimated Trajectory Analysis and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Beck, Roger E.; Starr, Brett R.; Derry, Stephen D.; Brandon, Jay; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X trajectory reconstruction produced best estimated trajectories of the flight test vehicle ascent through stage separation, and of the first and upper stage entries after separation. The trajectory reconstruction process combines on-board, ground-based, and atmospheric measurements to produce the trajectory estimates. The Ares I-X vehicle had a number of on-board and ground based sensors that were available, including inertial measurement units, radar, air-data, and weather balloons. However, due to problems with calibrations and/or data, not all of the sensor data were used. The trajectory estimate was generated using an Iterative Extended Kalman Filter algorithm, which is an industry standard processing algorithm for filtering and estimation applications. This paper describes the methodology and results of the trajectory reconstruction process, including flight data preprocessing and input uncertainties, trajectory estimation algorithms, output transformations, and comparisons with preflight predictions.

  2. The gene structure of human anti-haemophilic factor IX.

    PubMed

    Anson, D S; Choo, K H; Rees, D J; Giannelli, F; Gould, K; Huddleston, J A; Brownlee, G G

    1984-05-01

    The mRNA sequence of the human intrinsic clotting factor IX (Christmas factor) has been completed and is 2802 residues long, including a 29 residue long 5' non-coding and a 1390 residue long 3' non-coding region, but excluding the poly(A) tail. The factor IX gene is approximately 34 kb long and we define, by the sequencing of 5280 residues, the presumed promoter region, all eight exons, and some intron and flanking sequence. Introns account for 92% of the gene length and the longest is estimated to be 10 100 residues. Exons conform roughly to previously designated protein regions, but the catalytic region of the protein is coded by two separate exons. This differs from the arrangement in the other characterized serine protease genes which are further subdivided in this region.

  3. Technical Progress on the Ares I-X Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S.R.; Robinson, K.F.; Flynn, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Ares I-X will be NASA's first test flight for a new human-rated launch vehicle since 1981, and the team is well on its way toward completing the vehicle's design and hardware fabrication for an April 2009 launch. This uncrewed suborbital development test flight gives NASA its first opportunities to: gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the stage separation environments during future flight; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) incorporates a mix of flight and mockup hardware. It is powered by a four-segment solid rocket booster, and will be modified to include a fifth, spacer segment; the upper stage, Orion crew exploration vehicle, and launch abort system are simulator hardware to make the FTV aerodynamically similar to the same size, shape, and weight of Ares I. The Ares IX first stage includes an existing Shuttle solid rocket motor and thrust vector control system controlled by an Ascent Thrust Vector Controller (ATVC) designed and built by Honeywell International. The avionics system will be tested in a dedicated System Integration Laboratory located at Lockheed Martin Space Systems (LMSS) in Denver, Colorado. The Upper Stage Simulator (USS) is made up of cylindrical segments that will be stacked and integrated at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for launch. Glenn Research Center is already building these segments, along with their internal access structures. The active Roll Control System (RoCS) includes two thruster units harvested from Peacekeeper missiles. Duty cycle testing for RoCS was conducted, and fuel tanking and detanking tests will occur at KSC in early 2008. This important flight will provide valuable experience for the ground operations team in integrating, stacking, and launching Ares I. Data from Ares I-X will ensure the safety and reliability of America's newest launch vehicle.

  4. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi type IX models

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2010-08-15

    The loop quantum cosmology 'improved dynamics' of the Bianchi type IX model are studied. The action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator is obtained via techniques developed for the Bianchi type I and type II models, no new input is required. It is shown that the big bang and big crunch singularities are resolved by quantum gravity effects. We also present effective equations which provide quantum geometry corrections to the classical equations of motion.

  5. Ares I-X: On the Threshold of Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Askins, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Ares I-X, the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, is less than a year from launch. Ares I-X will test the flight characteristics of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation and recovery. The flight also will demonstrate the computer hardware and software (avionics) needed to control the vehicle; deploy the parachutes that allow the first stage booster to land in the ocean safely; measure and control how much the rocket rolls during flight; test and measure the effects of first stage separation; and develop and try out new ground handling and rocket stacking procedures in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) and first stage recovery procedures at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. All Ares I-X major elements have completed their critical design reviews, and are nearing final fabrication. The first stage--four-segment solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle inventory--incorporates new simulated forward structures to match the Ares I five-segment booster. The upper stage, Orion crew module, and launch abort system will comprise simulator hardware that incorporates developmental flight instrumentation for essential data collection during the mission. The upper stage simulator consists of smaller cylindrical segments, which were transported to KSC in fall 2008. The crew module and launch abort system simulator were shipped in December 2008. The first stage hardware, active roll control system (RoCS), and avionics components will be delivered to KSC in 2009. This paper will provide detailed statuses of the Ares I-X hardware elements as NASA's Constellation Program prepares for this first flight of a new exploration era in the summer of 2009.

  6. Active gamma-carboxylated human factor IX expressed using recombinant DNA techniques.

    PubMed

    de la Salle, H; Altenburger, W; Elkaim, R; Dott, K; Dieterlé, A; Drillien, R; Cazenave, J P; Tolstoshev, P; Lecocq, J P

    Factor IX (Christmas factor), a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein made in the liver, functions in the middle phase of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. A functional deficiency of factor IX underlies haemophilia B, a chromosome X-linked recessive disease for which the major therapeutic approach is replacement treatment using factor IX concentrates. The cloning and characterization of the gene for human factor IX would mean that human factor IX could be produced in greater yield and purity through using recombinant DNA techniques. We have now used a human factor IX cDNA clone, inserted into a vaccinia virus-derived vector, to infect human hepatoma cells which normally produce no factor IX, and mouse fibroblasts. Fully active factor IX was produced by the hepatoma cells, whereas the fibroblasts produced a protein less active than natural factor IX, even in the presence of high levels of vitamin K. Human factor IX is extensively post-translationally modified, and thus represents probably the most complex protein produced in active form by recombinant DNA techniques to date. Our study also illustrates the potential of vaccinia virus-based vectors for expressing significant amounts of complex, clinically useful proteins in eukaryotic cells, in addition to its already demonstrated usefulness for producing live recombinant vaccines.

  7. Prognostic value of serum carbonic anhydrase IX in testicular germ cell tumor patients

    PubMed Central

    Kalavska, Katarina; Chovanec, Michal; Zatovicova, Miriam; Takacova, Martina; Gronesova, Paulina; Svetlovska, Daniela; Baratova, Magdalena; Miskovska, Vera; Obertova, Jana; Palacka, Patrik; Rajec, Jan; Sycova-Mila, Zuzana; Cierna, Zuzana; Kajo, Karol; Spanik, Stanislav; Babal, Pavel; Mardiak, Jozef; Pastorekova, Silvia; Mego, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are one of the most chemosensitive solid tumors, a small proportion of patients fail to be cured following cisplatin-based first line chemotherapy. Upregulation of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) in various solid tumors is associated with poor outcome. The current prospective study investigated the prognostic value of serum CA IX level in TGCTs. In total, 83 patients (16 non-metastatic following orchiectomy with no evidence of disease, 57 metastatic chemotherapy-naïve and 10 metastatic relapsed chemotherapy-pretreated) starting adjuvant and/or new line of chemotherapy and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum CA IX values were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and intratumoral CA IX was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Metastatic chemotherapy-naïve patients had significantly higher mean CA IX serum levels than healthy controls (490.6 vs. 249.6 pg/ml, P=0.005), while there was no difference in serum CA IX levels in non-metastatic or relapsed TGCT patients compared with healthy controls. There was no significant difference in the mean serum CA IX levels between different groups of patients and between the first and second cycle of chemotherapy, nor association with patients/tumor characteristics. Serum CA IX was not prognostic for progression-free survival [hazard ratio (HR)=0.81, P=0.730] or overall survival (HR=0.64, P=0.480). However, there was a significant association between intratumoral CA IX expression and serum CA IX concentration (rho=0.51, P=0.040). These results suggest that serum CA IX level correlates with tumor CA IX expression in TGCT patients, but fails to exhibit either a prognostic value or an association with patients/tumor characteristics. PMID:27698832

  8. Prognostic value of serum carbonic anhydrase IX in testicular germ cell tumor patients

    PubMed Central

    Kalavska, Katarina; Chovanec, Michal; Zatovicova, Miriam; Takacova, Martina; Gronesova, Paulina; Svetlovska, Daniela; Baratova, Magdalena; Miskovska, Vera; Obertova, Jana; Palacka, Patrik; Rajec, Jan; Sycova-Mila, Zuzana; Cierna, Zuzana; Kajo, Karol; Spanik, Stanislav; Babal, Pavel; Mardiak, Jozef; Pastorekova, Silvia; Mego, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are one of the most chemosensitive solid tumors, a small proportion of patients fail to be cured following cisplatin-based first line chemotherapy. Upregulation of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) in various solid tumors is associated with poor outcome. The current prospective study investigated the prognostic value of serum CA IX level in TGCTs. In total, 83 patients (16 non-metastatic following orchiectomy with no evidence of disease, 57 metastatic chemotherapy-naïve and 10 metastatic relapsed chemotherapy-pretreated) starting adjuvant and/or new line of chemotherapy and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum CA IX values were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and intratumoral CA IX was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Metastatic chemotherapy-naïve patients had significantly higher mean CA IX serum levels than healthy controls (490.6 vs. 249.6 pg/ml, P=0.005), while there was no difference in serum CA IX levels in non-metastatic or relapsed TGCT patients compared with healthy controls. There was no significant difference in the mean serum CA IX levels between different groups of patients and between the first and second cycle of chemotherapy, nor association with patients/tumor characteristics. Serum CA IX was not prognostic for progression-free survival [hazard ratio (HR)=0.81, P=0.730] or overall survival (HR=0.64, P=0.480). However, there was a significant association between intratumoral CA IX expression and serum CA IX concentration (rho=0.51, P=0.040). These results suggest that serum CA IX level correlates with tumor CA IX expression in TGCT patients, but fails to exhibit either a prognostic value or an association with patients/tumor characteristics.

  9. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    SciTech Connect

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V.; Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A.

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Winter depression and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Christine R

    2012-12-01

    Depression is a common and often harmful disorder, which is frequently associated with the winter season. Research has shown a link between type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression. Furthermore, diabetics with depression have a higher rate of adverse outcomes. Little has been published regarding the seasonality of depression in diabetics. The case report described in this article concerns a 65-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and a history of winter depression. Current evidence-based management options are reviewed. PMID:23089656

  11. Evidence that biliverdin-IX beta reductase and flavin reductase are identical.

    PubMed Central

    Shalloe, F; Elliott, G; Ennis, O; Mantle, T J

    1996-01-01

    A search of the database shows that human biliverdin-IX beta reductase and flavin reductase are identical. We have isolated flavin reductase from bovine erythrocytes and show that the activity co-elutes with biliverdin-IX beta reductase. Preparations of the enzyme that are electrophoretically homogeneous exhibit both flavin reductase and biliverdin-IX beta reductase activities; however, they are not capable of catalysing the reduction of biliverdin-IX alpha. Although there is little obvious sequence identity between biliverdin-IX alpha reductase (BVR-A) and biliverdin-IX beta reductase (BVR-B), they do show weak immunological cross-reactivity. Both enzymes bind to 2',5'-ADP-Sepharose. PMID:8687377

  12. Expression of active human clotting factor IX from recombinant DNA clones in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Anson, D S; Austen, D E; Brownlee, G G

    Haemophilia B, or Christmas disease, is an inherited X-chromosome-linked bleeding disorder caused by a defect in clotting factor IX and occurs in about 1 in 30,000 males in the United Kingdom. Injection of factor IX concentrate obtained from blood donors allows most patients to be successfully managed. However, because of impurities in the factor IX concentrate presently in use, this treatment involves some risk of infection by blood-borne viruses such as non-A, non-B hepatitis and the virus causing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Because of the recent concern about the increasing incidence of AIDS amongst haemophiliacs, a factor IX preparation derived from a source other than blood is desirable. Here, we report that after introduction of human factor IX DNA clones into a rat hepatoma cell line using recombinant DNA methods, we were able to isolate small amounts of biologically active human factor IX.

  13. Mammals in Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapner, Suzanne

    1985-01-01

    Mammals that tolerate the winter cold and stay active all year exploit the harsh northern climate to their advantage. By simple experiments and observation you can better understand their adaptations which include furry bodies, snowshoe feet, extra blubber, light coloration, and strategically distributed food caches. (JHZ)

  14. The News. Winter 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Ray, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This Winter 2007 quarterly newsletter from the Community College League of California includes: (1) Incumbents: Some Win, Some Lose in November Trustee Elections; (2) Voters Approve $2 Billion in Bonds; (3) Photos from the "Together We Can" conference; (4) Report, Media Criticize Transfer, Completion Rates and Colleges; (5) District Leader…

  15. Teaching Ecology in Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching ecology in the winter. Suggested topic areas or units include snow insulation and density, snowflakes and snow crystals, goldenrod galls, bird behavior, survival techniques, bacteriology and decomposition, trees and keying, biomass and productivity, pollution, and soil organisms. A sample student activity sheet is…

  16. Winter Playscape Dreaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2006-01-01

    Winter, like all seasons, adds a new sense of mystery and discovery to the world of young children. It is the time when they can study snowflakes, find icicles, or observe the birds that share their yards. This article presents ideas and suggestions on how to plan a playscape. A playscape is a man-made seasonal playground for young children. It…

  17. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  18. Winter Here and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Joy

    This book contains a wide variety of winter-oriented ideas and activities that can be adapted to all elementary grade levels and can also be integrated into existing mathematics, science, social studies, and/or art programs. The activities aim to help students develop the skills of observation, appreciation, and problem solving as well as…

  19. Determination of aminolevulinic-acid-induced protoporphyrin IX in mice skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolik, S.; Tomás, S. A.; Ramón-Gallegos, E.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Sánchez-Sinencio, F.

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) production in mice skin was studied by photoacoustic spectroscopy. PpIX was induced in mice by intraperitoneal administration of δ-aminolevulinic acid (δ-ALA) in doses of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg. Mice were sacrificed at specific times within an 8 h interval following δ-ALA administration, and their abdominal skin was excised for the optical measurements. The PpIX content was determined from the photoacoustic amplitude at 410 nm, where PpIX presents its Soret band. For each dose, maximum PpIX was observed at two points. The first maximum occurred at around 15-45 min, depending on the ALA dose, and the second one took place approximately 2 h after δ-ALA administration. These peaks are associated with PpIX production in blood vessels and tissue, respectively. Fluorescence measurements of the PpIX content in plasma extracted intracardiacally confirmed the previous statement. Finally, phase resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy was applied to evaluate the mean depth at which PpIX is generated within the mice skin. This evaluation confirms that the ALA-induced porphyrins in skin are rather produced in the epidermis than in the dermis.

  20. The Structure of Carbonic Anhydrase IX Is Adapted for Low-pH Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Brian P; Bhatt, Avni; Socorro, Lilien; Driscoll, Jenna M; Okoh, Cynthia; Lomelino, Carrie L; Mboge, Mam Y; Kurian, Justin J; Tu, Chingkuang; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Frost, Susan C; McKenna, Robert

    2016-08-23

    Human carbonic anhydrase IX (hCA IX) expression in many cancers is associated with hypoxic tumors and poor patient outcome. Inhibitors of hCA IX have been used as anticancer agents with some entering Phase I clinical trials. hCA IX is transmembrane protein whose catalytic domain faces the extracellular tumor milieu, which is typically associated with an acidic microenvironment. Here, we show that the catalytic domain of hCA IX (hCA IX-c) exhibits the necessary biochemical and biophysical properties that allow for low pH stability and activity. Furthermore, the unfolding process of hCA IX-c appears to be reversible, and its catalytic efficiency is thought to be correlated directly with its stability between pH 3.0 and 8.0 but not above pH 8.0. To rationalize this, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of hCA IX-c to 1.6 Å resolution. Insights from this study suggest an understanding of hCA IX-c stability and activity in low-pH tumor microenvironments and may be applicable to determining pH-related effects on enzymes. PMID:27439028

  1. Cell cycle dependence of protophorphyrin IX generation in 9L rat gliosarcoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shiming; Da, Xing; Chen, Qun

    2006-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer therapy that utilizes optical energy to activate a photosensitizer drug in a target tissue. Always, the curative effect is dependent on the light fluence, the concentration of the photosensitizer and the concentration of the oxygen. To date, Protophorphyrin IX (PpIX) as the only one endogenous photosensitizer is widely used in PDT of brain tumors. Since PpIX is synthesized in intracellular structure, and is likely dependent on the phase of the cell cycle. The cell cycle dependence of PpIX production is thus investigated in the current work in 9L gliosarcoma cells.

  2. Evaluation of PpIX formation in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia I (CIN) using widefield fluorescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Fortunato, Thereza C.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Vollet Filho, José D.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    Optical techniques has been described as auxiliary technology for screening of neoplasia because shows the potential for tissues differentiation in real-time and it is a noninvasive detection and safe. However, only endogenous fluorophores presents the lesion may be insufficient and needed of the administration of the fluorophores synthesized, such as, precursor molecule of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced by 5- aminolevulinic acid and your derivatives. Topical application of methylaminolevulinate (MAL), induces formation of the endogenous photosensitizer, PpIX in tissues where carcinogenesis has begun. The PpIX tend to accumulate in premalignant and malignant tissues and the illumination with light with appropriate wavelength beginning to excitation of PpIX fluorescence, which helps to localize PpIX-rich areas and identify potentially malignant tissues. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of PpIX in the cervix with CIN I through of the fluorescence images captured after 1 hour of cream application. It was possible to visualize PpIX fluorescence in cervix and it was possible to observe the selectivity in fluorescence in squamous-columnar junction, which a pre-cancerous condition (CIN) and usually is localized. Through the image processing it was possible to quantify the increase of red fluorescence. For the CIN I the increase of red fluorescence was approximately of 4 times indicating a good PpIX formation.

  3. Saccharin: a lead compound for structure-based drug design of carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Brian P; Hendon, Alex M; Driscoll, Jenna M; Rankin, Gregory M; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Supuran, Claudiu T; McKenna, Robert

    2015-02-15

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a key modulator of aggressive tumor behavior and a prognostic marker and target for several cancers. Saccharin (SAC) based compounds may provide an avenue to overcome CA isoform specificity, as they display both nanomolar affinity and preferential binding, for CA IX compared to CA II (>50-fold for SAC and >1000-fold when SAC is conjugated to a carbohydrate moiety). The X-ray crystal structures of SAC and a SAC-carbohydrate conjugate bound to a CA IX-mimic are presented and compared to CA II. The structures provide substantial new insight into the mechanism of SAC selective CA isoform inhibition.

  4. Mg-Protoporphyrin IX Signals Enhance Plant’s Tolerance to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Wu, Zi-Li; Feng, Ling-Yang; Dong, Li-Hua; Song, An-Jun; Yuan, Ming; Chen, Yang-Er; Zeng, Jian; Chen, Guang-Deng; Yuan, Shu

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between Mg-protoporphyrin IX (Mg-Proto IX) signals and plant’s tolerance to cold stress is investigated. Arabidopsis seedlings grown for 3 weeks were pretreated with 2 mM glutamate (Glu) and 2 mM MgCl2 for 48 h at room temperature to induce Mg-Proto IX accumulation. Then cold stress was performed at 4°C for additional 72 h. Glu + MgCl2 pre-treatments alleviated the subsequent cold stress significantly by rising the leaf temperature through inducing Mg-Proto IX signals. The protective role of Glu + MgCl2 treatment was greatly compromised in the mutants of Mg-Proto IX synthesis, Mg-Proto IX signaling, and cyanide-resistant respiration. And the enhancement of cold-responsive gene expression was greatly compromised in the mutants of Mg-Proto IX synthesis, Mg-Proto IX signaling and ABA signaling, but not in the mutant of cyanide-resistant respiration. Cold stress promoted cyanide-resistant respiration and leaf total respiration exponentially, which could be further induced by the Glu + MgCl2 treatment. Mg-Proto IX signals also activate antioxidant enzymes and increase non-enzymatic antioxidants [glutathione but not ascorbic acid (AsA)] to maintain redox equilibrium during the cold stress. PMID:27803706

  5. Mice lacking alpha 1 (IX) collagen develop noninflammatory degenerative joint disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fässler, R; Schnegelsberg, P N; Dausman, J; Shinya, T; Muragaki, Y; McCarthy, M T; Olsen, B R; Jaenisch, R

    1994-01-01

    Type IX collagen is a nonfibrillar collagen composed of three gene products, alpha 1(IX), alpha 2(IX), and alpha 3(IX). Type IX molecules are localized on the surface of type II-containing fibrils and consist of two arms, a long arm that is crosslinked to type II collagen and a short arm that projects into the perifibrillar space. In hyaline cartilage, the alpha 1(IX) collagen transcript encodes a polypeptide with a large N-terminal globular domain (NC4), whereas in many other tissues an alternative transcript encodes an alpha 1(IX) chain with a truncated NC4 domain. It has been proposed that type IX molecules are involved in the interaction of fibrils with each other or with other components of the extracellular matrix. To test this hypothesis, we have generated a mouse strain lacking both isoforms of the alpha 1(IX) chain. Homozygous mutant mice are viable and show no detectable abnormalities at birth but develop a severe degenerative joint disease resembling human osteoarthritis. Images PMID:8197187

  6. Roundhouse (RND) Mountain Top Research Site: Measurements and Uncertainties for Winter Alpine Weather Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultepe, I.; Isaac, G. A.; Joe, P.; Kucera, P. A.; Theriault, J. M.; Fisico, T.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to better understand and summarize the mountain meteorological observations collected during the Science of Nowcasting Winter Weather for the Vancouver 2010 Olympics and Paralympics (SNOW-V10) project that was supported by the Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling (FRAM) project. The Roundhouse (RND) meteorological station was located 1,856 m above sea level that is subject to the winter extreme weather conditions. Below this site, there were three additional observation sites at 1,640, 1,320, and 774 m. These four stations provided some or all the following measurements at 1 min resolution: precipitation rate (PR) and amount, cloud/fog microphysics, 3D wind speed (horizontal wind speed, U h; vertical air velocity, w a), visibility (Vis), infrared (IR) and shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes, temperature ( T) and relative humidity with respect to water (RHw), and aerosol observations. In this work, comparisons are made to assess the uncertainties and variability for the measurements of Vis, RHw, T, PR, and wind for various winter weather conditions. The ground-based cloud imaging probe (GCIP) measurements of snow particles using a profiling microwave radiometer (PMWR) data have also been shown to assess the icing conditions. Overall, the conclusions suggest that uncertainties in the measurements of Vis, PR, T, and RH can be as large as 50, >60, 50, and >20 %, respectively, and these numbers may increase depending on U h, T, Vis, and PR magnitude. Variability of observations along the Whistler Mountain slope (~500 m) suggested that to verify the models, model space resolution should be better than 100 m and time scales better than 1 min. It is also concluded that differences between observed and model based parameters are strongly related to a model's capability of accurate prediction of liquid water content (LWC), PR, and RHw over complex topography.

  7. Comparison in different species of biliary bilirubin-IX alpha conjugates with the activities of hepatic and renal bilirubin-IX alpha-uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed Central

    Fevery, J; Van de Vijver, M; Michiels, R; Heirwegh, K P

    1977-01-01

    The bilrubin-IXalpha conjugates in bile and the activities of bilirubin-IX alpha--UDP-glycosyltransferases in liver and kidney were determined for ten species of mammals and for the chicken. 1. In the mammalian species, bilirubin-IX alpha glucuronide was the predominant bile pigment. Excretion of neutral glycosides was unimportant, except in the cat, the mouse, the rabbit and the dog, where glucose and xylose represented 12--41% of total conjugating groups bound to bilirubin-IX alpha. In chicken bile, glucoside and glucuronide conjugates were of equal importance. They probably represent only a small fraction of the total bile pigment. 2. The transferase activities in liver showed pronounced species variation. This was also apparent with regard to activation by digitonin, pH optimum and relative activities of transferases acting on either UDP-glucuronic acid or neutral UDP-sugars. 3. Man, the dog, the cat and the rat excrete bilirubin-IX alpha largely as diconjugated derivatives. In general, diconjugated bilirubin-IX alpha could also be synthesized in vitro with liver homogenate, bilirubin-IX alpha and UDP-sugar. In contrast, for the other species examined, bilirubin pigments consisted predominantly of monoconjugated bilirubin-IX alpha. Synthesis in vitro with UDP-glucuronic acid, UDP-glucose or UDP-xylose as the sugar donor led exclusively to the formation of monoconjugated bilirubin-IX alpha. 4. The transferase activities in the kidney were restricted to the cortex and were important only for the rat and the dog. No activity at all could be detected for several species, including man. 5. Comparison of the transferase activities in liver with reported values of the maximal rate of excretion in bile suggests a close linkage between conjugation and biliary secretion of bilirubin-IX alpha. PMID:407905

  8. The Transmembrane Domains of β and IX Subunits Mediate the Localization of the Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX Complex to the Glycosphingolipid-enriched Membrane Domain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guofeng; Shang, Dan; Zhang, Zuping; Shaw, Tanner S; Ran, Yali; López, José A; Peng, Yuandong

    2015-09-01

    We have previously reported that the structural elements of the GP Ib-IX complex required for its localization to glycosphingolipid-enriched membranes (GEMs) reside in the Ibβ and IX subunits. To identify them, we generated a series of cell lines expressing mutant GP Ibβ and GP IX where 1) the cytoplasmic tails (CTs) of either or both GP Ibβ and IX are truncated, and 2) the transmembrane domains (TMDs) of GP Ibβ and GP IX were swapped with the TMD of a non-GEMs associating molecule, human transferrin receptor. Sucrose density fractionation analysis showed that the removal of either or both of the CTs from GP Ibβ and GP IX does not alter GP Ibα-GEMs association when compared with the wild type. In contrast, swapping of the TMDs of either GP Ibβ or GP IX with that of transferrin receptor results in a significant loss (∼ 50%) of GP Ibα from the low density GEMs fractions, with the largest effect seen in the dual TMD-replaced cells (> 80% loss) when compared with the wild type cells (100% of GP Ibα present in the GEMs fractions). Under high shear flow, the TMD-swapped cells adhere poorly to a von Willebrand factor-immobilized surface to a much lesser extent than the previously reported disulfide linkage dysfunctional GP Ibα-expressing cells. Thus, our data demonstrate that the bundle of GP Ibβ and GP IX TMDs instead of their individual CTs is the structural element that mediates the β/IX complex localization to the membrane GEMs, which through the α/β disulfide linkage brings GP Ibα into the GEMs. PMID:26203189

  9. Titan's Winter Polar Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not

  10. Deciduous Plant Twigs in Winter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise

    1977-01-01

    Describing, via illustration and narrative, the winter twigs found in the U.S., this article presents a sophisticated discussion of: beech, white ash, aspen, sycamore, red oak, butternut, and other winter twigs. (JC)

  11. Constellation's First Flight Test: Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    On October 28, 2009, NASA launched Ares I-X, the first flight test of the Constellation Program that will send human beings to the Moon and beyond. This successful test is the culmination of a three-and-a-half-year, multi-center effort to design, build, and fly the first demonstration vehicle of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, the successor vehicle to the Space Shuttle. The suborbital mission was designed to evaluate the atmospheric flight characteristics of a vehicle dynamically similar to Ares I; perform a first stage separation and evaluate its effects; characterize and control roll torque; stack, fly, and recover a solid-motor first stage testing the Ares I parachutes; characterize ground, flight, and reentry environments; and develop and execute new ground hardware and procedures. Built from existing flight and new simulator hardware, Ares I-X integrated a Shuttle-heritage four-segment solid rocket booster for first stage propulsion, a spacer segment to simulate a five-segment booster, Peacekeeper axial engines for roll control, and Atlas V avionics, as well as simulators for the upper stage, crew module, and launch abort system. The mission leveraged existing logistical and ground support equipment while also developing new ones to accommodate the first in-line rocket for flying astronauts since the Saturn IB last flew from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1975. This paper will describe the development and integration of the various vehicle and ground elements, from conception to stacking in KSC s Vehicle Assembly Building; hardware performance prior to, during, and after the launch; and preliminary lessons and data gathered from the flight. While the Constellation Program is currently under review, Ares I-X has and will continue to provide vital lessons for NASA personnel in taking a vehicle concept from design to flight.

  12. Extremity War Injuries IX: Reducing Disability Within the Military.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Col Romney C; Schmidt, Andrew H; Fitzgerald, Capt Brian T; Tintle, Lcdr Scott M; Helgeson, Maj Melvin D; Lehman, Ltc Ronald A; Davila, Col Jeffrey N; Potter, Benjamin K; Burns, Maj Travis C; Swiontkowski, Marc F; Ficke, Col James R

    2015-08-01

    Extremity War Injury Symposium IX focused on reducing disability within the military, centering on cartilage defects, amputations, and spinal cord injury. Many areas of upper and lower extremity trauma and disability were discussed, including segmental nerve injuries, upper extremity allotransplantation, and the importance of patient-reported functional outcomes compared with the traditionally reported measures. Strategic planning addressed progression toward clinical solutions by setting clear objectives and goals and outlining pathways to address the "translation gap" that often prevents bridging of basic science to clinical application.

  13. Spectral hole burning study of protoporphyrin IX substituted myoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Zollfrank, J; Friedrich, J; Parak, F

    1992-01-01

    Protoporphyrin IX substituted myoglobin reveals excellent hole burning properties. We investigated the frequency shift of persistent spectral holes under isotropic pressure conditions in a range from 0 to 2.4 MPa. In this range, the protein behaves like an elastic solid. The shift of the holes under pressure shows a remarkable frequency dependence from which the compressibility of the protein can be determined. The compressibility, in turn, allows for an estimation of the equilibrium volume fluctuations. Within the frame of the model used to interpret the pressure data, it is possible to determine the absorption frequency of the isolated chromophore and the associated solvent shift in the protein environment. PMID:1504243

  14. Factor IX molecular defects in diagnosing hemophilia B: a review.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, M

    1989-07-01

    The past several years have seen an explosive growth in the application of recombinant DNA methods to study the molecular pathology of various inherited disorders. As a consequence, molecular defects responsible for the disease have been identified at the sequence level. In this review, I briefly describe the recent progress in the uses of factor IX gene probes in clinical diagnosis of hemophilia B (Christmas disease) carriers, as well as their use for analyzing the structural gene abnormalities that are responsible for the disease.

  15. Winter Wilderness Travel and Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilchrest, Norman

    Knowledge and skill are needed for safe and enjoyable travel and camping in the wilderness in winter. The beauty of snow and ice, reduced human use, and higher tolerance of animals toward humans make the wilderness attractive during winter. The uniqueness of winter travel presents several challenges that are not present in other seasons. Safety is…

  16. Optimization of a Novel Peptide Ligand Targeting Human Carbonic Anhydrase IX

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Shoaib; Nissen, Felix; Marr, Annabell; Markert, Annette; Altmann, Annette; Mier, Walter; Debus, Juergen; Haberkorn, Uwe; Askoxylakis, Vasileios

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-regulated transmembrane protein over-expressed in various types of human cancer. Recently, a new peptide with affinity for human carbonic anhydrase IX (CaIX-P1) was identified using the phage display technology. Aim of the present study is to characterize the binding site in the sequence of CaIX-P1, in order to optimize the binding and metabolic properties and use it for targeting purposes. Methodology/Principal Findings Various fragments of CaIX-P1 were synthesized on solid support using Fmoc chemistry. Alanine scanning was performed for identification of the amino acids crucial for target binding. Derivatives with increased binding affinity were radiolabeled and in vitro studies were carried out on the CA IX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52 and the CA IX negative human pancreatic carcinoma cell line BxPC3. Metabolic stability was investigated in cell culture medium and human serum. Organ distribution and planar scintigraphy studies were performed in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted SKRC 52 tumors. The results of our studies clearly identified amino acids that are important for target binding. Among various fragments and derivatives the ligand CaIX-P1-4-10 (NHVPLSPy) was found to possess increased binding potential in SKRC 52 cells, whereas no binding capacity for BxPC3 cells was observed. Binding of radiolabeled CaIX-P1-4-10 on CA IX positive cells could be inhibited by both the unlabeled and the native CaIX-P1 peptide but not by control peptides. Stability experiments indicated the degradation site in the sequence of CaIX-P1-4-10. Biodistribution studies showed a higher in vivo accumulation in the tumor than in most healthy tissues. Conclusions Our data reveal modifications in the sequence of the CA IX affine ligand CaIX-P1 that might be favorable for improvement of target affinity and metabolic stability, which are necessary prior to the use of the ligand in

  17. Ares I-X Separation and Reentry Trajectory Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Starr, Brett R.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle was launched on October 28, 2009 and was the first and only test flight of NASA s two-stage Ares I launch vehicle design. The launch was successful and the flight test met all of its primary and secondary objectives. This paper discusses the stage separation and reentry trajectory analysis that was performed in support of the Ares I-X test flight. Pre-flight analyses were conducted to assess the risk of stage recontact during separation, to evaluate the first stage flight dynamics during reentry, and to define the range safety impact ellipses of both stages. The results of these pre-flight analyses were compared with available flight data. On-board video taken during flight showed that the flight test vehicle successfully separated without any recontact. Reconstructed trajectory data also showed that first stage flight dynamics were well characterized by pre-flight Monte Carlo results. In addition, comparisons with flight data indicated that the complex interference aerodynamic models employed in the reentry simulation were effective in capturing the flight dynamics during separation. Finally, the splash-down locations of both stages were well within predicted impact ellipses.

  18. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Residual Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Brust, Frederick W.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Cheston, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. The results of this effort served as one of the critical load inputs required to perform a CIFS assessment of the same segment.

  19. Rules of the game change for comparing IX to RO

    SciTech Connect

    Stoebenau, H.P.

    1995-08-01

    This article examines how modern packed-bed demineralization with reverse-flow regeneration counters the notion that reverse osmosis is superior to ion exchange, the classical method for treating powerplant makeup water. Recently published articles argue that demineralization for industrial water treatment is steadily becoming the domain of membrane processes based on reverse osmosis (RO). For some experts, the economic crossover pint at which RO outperforms ion exchange (IX) for makeup-water demineralization occurs at a total dissolved solids (TDS) level of 75 ppm. However, three developments during the past five years have completely changed the basis for the IX-vs-RO debate, even at TDS levels as high as 400 to 500 ppm. These are: (1) An improved understanding of the operating characteristics of RO. (2) The application of jetted-resin technology for producing uniform-particle-size (UPS) resin. (3) Refinement of the packed-bed, reverse-flow (RF) demineralization technique, greatly reducing operating and capital costs.

  20. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for Ca IX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landi, E.; Bhatia, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ca IX. We include in the calculations the 33 lowest configurations in the n = 3, 4, 5 complexes, corresponding to 283 fine structure levels in the 3l3l ', 3l4l'' and 3l4l''' configurations, where l,l' = s, p, d, l '' = s, p, d, f and l''' = s, p, d, f, g. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions: 5.8, 13.6, 24.2, 38.6 and 57.9 Ry above the threshold of each transition. An additional energy, very close to the transition threshold, has been added, whose value is between 0.0055 Ry and 0.23 Ry depending on the levels involved. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code and the distorted wave approximation. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates calculated in the present work, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the 10(exp 8)-10(exp 14)/cubic cm range and at an electron temperature of log T(sub e)(K)=5.8, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ca IX. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed.

  1. The PhIX High Intensity Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulding, R. H.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Rapp, J.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Biewer, T. M.; Canik, J. M.; Chen, G.; Diem, S. J.; Meitner, S. J.; Owen, L. W.

    2012-10-01

    The Physics Integration eXperiment (PhIX) is a linear high-intensity rf plasma source presently being constructed at ORNL that combines a high density helicon plasma generator with an electron heating section. It will be used to explore the physics related to heating an overdense, streaming plasma in a linear geometry by whistler waves and Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW), including optimization of heating efficiency and maximization of particle flux. Interactions between the plasma production and heating regions, and the source and a downstream target, will also be investigated. Experiments using the device will provide data for the design of an rf powered high particle flux (˜10^24/m^2- s), high heat flux(˜10 MW /m^2) steady-state linear plasma-materials test station (PMTS). In preparatory experiments, the helicon device has operated at power levels up to 90 kW, producing high plasma densities in He (6 x10^19 m-3) and D (> 4 x10^19 m-3), and has also operated at high magnetic field strength up to 0.5 T. Separate ECH experiments have demonstrated both whistler and EBW coupling at 6 GHz to an overdense plasma. A review of these experiments will be presented, as well as an overview of PhIX and its status.

  2. Not Second-Class: Title IX, Equity, and Girls' High School Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, David L.; Surface, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Title IX is designed to protect students from discrimination based on sex in any educational institution that receives financial assistance. This article focuses on Title IX as it applies to high school athletic programs by considering the trial of a high school district in California. A federal court found considerable inequalities between boys…

  3. "What Do I Think about Title IX?" Voices from a University Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paule-Koba, Amanda L.; Harris, Othello; Freysinger, Valeria J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the apparent benefits of Title IX, the implementation of the law remains controversial, and there are divergent beliefs regarding its impact on collegiate sport. The purpose of this study was to examine how members of a university community, whose intercollegiate sport programs have changed, perceive and make sense of Title IX and the…

  4. Perceptions of Women's Teams Coaches Regarding Gender Equity and Title IX Compliance in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Title IX was enacted over 40 years ago, and although there have been marked increases in the number of girls and women participating in athletics at every level, gender equity in athletics continues to be a concern. This is especially evident at the community college level. Title IX requires equity in the areas of opportunities for participation,…

  5. Derivation of a triple mosaic adenovirus based on modification of the minor capsid protein IX

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Yizhe; Le, Long P.; Matthews, Qiana L.; Han Tie; Wu Hongju; Curiel, David T.

    2008-08-01

    Adenoviral capsid protein IX (pIX) has been shown to be a potential locale to insert targeting, imaging-related and therapeutic modalities by genetic modification. Recent evidences suggested that capsid protein mosaicism could be a promising strategy for improving the utility of Ad vector. In this study, we explored a method to genetically generate triple pIX mosaic Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) displaying three types of pIX on a single virion. pIXs were modified at their carboxy termini with a Flag sequence, a hexahistidine sequence (His{sub 6}) or a monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1), respectively. Western blotting analysis and fluorescence microscopy of the purified recombinant viruses indicated that all three modified pIXs were incorporated into the viral particles. Immuno-gold electron microscopy (EM) further confirmed that three types of pIX indeed co-existed on an individual virion. These results firstly validated a triple mosaic capsid configuration on pIX, and demonstrated the possibility of further radical design.

  6. Summary of the Regulation for Title IX Education Amendments of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    Title IX of the Education Amendemtns of 1972 bars sex discrimination in any academic, extracurricular, research, occupational training or other educational program operated by an organization or agency that receives or benefits from federal aid. The regulation (45 CFR Part 86) for Title IX summarized in this document falls into five categories:…

  7. Sex Discrimination Against Students: Implications of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkle, Margaret C.; Sandler, Bernice

    1974-01-01

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 mandates that sex discrimination be eliminated in federally assisted education programs. Although a few issues such as competitive athletics have generated wide interest, Title IX has significant implications for a variety of less publicized issues including recruiting, admissions, financial aid,…

  8. Modelling topical photodynamic therapy treatment including the continuous production of Protoporphyrin IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, C. L.; Brown, C. T. A.; Wood, K.; Moseley, H.

    2016-11-01

    Most existing theoretical models of photodynamic therapy (PDT) assume a uniform initial distribution of the photosensitive molecule, Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This is an adequate assumption when the prodrug is systematically administered; however for topical PDT this is no longer a valid assumption. Topical application and subsequent diffusion of the prodrug results in an inhomogeneous distribution of PpIX, especially after short incubation times, prior to light illumination. In this work a theoretical simulation of PDT where the PpIX distribution depends on the incubation time and the treatment modality is described. Three steps of the PpIX production are considered. The first is the distribution of the topically applied prodrug, the second in the conversion from the prodrug to PpIX and the third is the light distribution which affects the PpIX distribution through photobleaching. The light distribution is modelled using a Monte Carlo radiation transfer model and indicates treatment depths of around 2 mm during daylight PDT and approximately 3 mm during conventional PDT. The results suggest that treatment depths are not only limited by the light penetration but also by the PpIX distribution.

  9. Title IX: What It Means and Doesn't Mean to Athletic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkle, Margaret C.

    This document examines equal opportunity for women in athletic programs--one of the most closely scrutinized and least understood issues of Title IX. Areas considered are: (1) basic provisions of Title IX; (2) the self-evaluation requirement; (3) grievance procedures; (4) the "adjustment period"; (5) overall equal athletic opportunity; (6) student…

  10. Ongoing advances in quantitative PpIX fluorescence guided intracranial tumor resection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Jonathan D.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Bravo, Jaime J.; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2016-03-01

    Aminolevulinc-acid induced protoporphyrin IX (ALA-PpIX) is being investigated as a biomarker to guide neurosurgical resection of brain tumors. ALA-PpIX fluorescence can be observed visually in the surgical field; however, raw fluorescence emissions can be distorted by factors other than the fluorophore concentration. Specifically, fluorescence emissions are mixed with autofluorescence and attenuated by background absorption and scattering properties of the tissue. Recent work at Dartmouth has developed advanced fluorescence detection approaches that return quantitative assessments of PpIX concentration, which are independent of background optical properties. The quantitative fluorescence imaging (qFI) approach has increased sensitivity to residual disease within the resection cavity at the end of surgery that was not visible to the naked eye through the operating microscope. This presentation outlines clinical observations made during an ongoing investigation of ALA-PpIX based guidance of tumor resection. PpIX fluorescence measurements made in a wide-field hyperspectral imaging approach are co-registered with point-assessment using a fiber optic probe. Data show variations in the measured PpIX accumulation among different clinical tumor grades (i.e. high grade glioma, low grade glioma), types (i.e. primary tumors. metastases) and normal structures of interest (e.g. normal cortex, hippocampus). These results highlight the contrast enhancement and underscore the potential clinical benefit offered from quantitative measurements of PpIX concentration during resection of intracranial tumors.

  11. Expression of cancer-related carbonic anhydrases IX and XII in normal skin and skin neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, Leo; Luukkaala, Tiina; Leppilampi, Mari; Kallioinen, Matti; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir; Waheed, Abdul; Sly, William S; Parkkila, Seppo; Karttunen, Tuomo

    2014-09-01

    Purpose of the study was to evaluate the presence of hypoxia-inducible, tumour-associated carbonic anhydrases IX and XII in normal skin and a series of cutaneous tumours. Human tumour samples were taken during surgical operations performed on 245 patients and were immunohistochemically stained. A histological score value was calculated for statistical analyses which were performed using SPSS for Windows, versions 17.0 and 20.0. In normal skin, the highest expression of CA IX was detected in hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and basal parts of epidermis. CA XII was detected in all epithelial components of skin. Both CA IX and CA XII expression levels were significantly different in epidermal, appendigeal, and melanocytic tumour categories. Both CA IX and XII showed the most intense immunostaining in epidermal tumours, whereas virtually all melanocytic tumours were devoid of CA IX and XII immunostaining. In premalignant lesions, CA IX expression significantly increased when the tumours progressed to more severe dysplasia forms. Both CA IX and XII are highly expressed in different epithelial components of skin. They are also highly expressed in epidermal tumours, in which CA IX expression levels also correlate with the dysplasia grade. Interestingly, both isozymes are absent in melanocytic tumours.

  12. Improved in vitro and in vivo cutaneous delivery of protoporphyrin IX from PLGA-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carolina L; Del Ciampo, José O; Rossetti, Fábia C; Bentley, Maria V L B; Pierre, Maria B R

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of D, L lactic co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based nanoparticles (NPs) for topical delivery of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a photosensitizer (PS), in treatments like photodynamic therapy (PDT) of skin cancers. PpIX-NPs were obtained in ~75.0% yield, encapsulation efficiency of 67.7%, drug content of 50.3 μg mg(-1), average diameter of 290 nm maintained up to 30 days and a zeta potential of 32.3 mV. Sustained in vitro release of PpIX through artificial membranes following Higuchi kinetics was kept up to 10 days. In vitro retentions of PpIX both in stratum corneum (SC) and epidermis + dermis ([EP + D]) were higher from NPs (23.0 and 10.0 times, respectively) compared to control solutions at all times. Quantification of PpIX by extraction, after in vivo skin application of NPs-PpIX on hairless mice, showed higher retention of the PS both in SC and in [EP + D] (3.0 and 2.0 times, respectively) compared to control solutions. Taken together, the results indicate that NPs are suitable for PpIX encapsulation showing minimal permeation through the skin and a localized effect, characteristics of a potential and promising delivery system for PDT-associated treatments of skin cancers, photodiagnosis and their off-label uses.

  13. Title IX Compliance at Two-Year Colleges: An Analysis of Perceived Barriers and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causby, Cory Scott

    2010-01-01

    Although Title IX legislation has been in effect since 1972 and has created unprecedented positive change on intercollegiate athletics, educational institutions have still had difficulty meeting the basic requirements set forth by Title IX and ensuring gender equity in their athletic programs. Additionally, specific research has been largely…

  14. A Place on the Team: The Triumph and Tragedy of Title IX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2006-01-01

    "A Place on the Team" is the inside story of how Title IX revolutionized American sports. The federal law guaranteeing women's rights in education, Title IX opened gymnasiums and playing fields to millions of young women previously locked out. Journalist Welch Suggs chronicles both the law's successes and failures-the exciting opportunities for…

  15. 45 CFR 83.5 - Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. 83.5 Section 83.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... Purposes; Definitions; Coverage § 83.5 Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972....

  16. 45 CFR 83.5 - Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. 83.5 Section 83.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... Purposes; Definitions; Coverage § 83.5 Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972....

  17. 45 CFR 83.5 - Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. 83.5 Section 83.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... Purposes; Definitions; Coverage § 83.5 Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972....

  18. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle: Stack 5 Modal Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Gaspar, James L.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Parks, Russel A.; Lazor, Danel R.

    2010-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first flight test vehicle used in the development of NASA's Ares I crew launch vehicle. The Ares I-X used a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Three modal tests were defined to verify the dynamic finite element model of the Ares I-X flight test vehicle. Test configurations included two partial stacks and the full Ares I-X flight test vehicle on the Mobile Launcher Platform. This report focuses on the first modal test that was performed on the top section of the vehicle referred to as Stack 5, which consisted of the spacecraft adapter, service module, crew module and launch abort system simulators. This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test operations and data analysis for the Ares I-X Stack 5 modal test.

  19. Collagen type IX from human cartilage: a structural profile of intermolecular cross-linking sites.

    PubMed Central

    Diab, M; Wu, J J; Eyre, D R

    1996-01-01

    Type IX collagen, a quantitatively minor collagenous component of cartilage, is known to be associated with and covalently cross-linked to type II collagen fibrils in chick and bovine cartilage. Type IX collagen molecules have also been shown to form covalent cross-links with each other in bovine cartilage. In the present study we demonstrate by structural analysis and location of cross-linking sites that, in human cartilage, type IX collagen is covalently cross-linked to type II collagen and to other molecules of type IX collagen. We also present evidence that, if the proteoglycan form of type IX collagen is present in human cartilage, it can only be a minor component of the matrix, similar to findings with bovine cartilage. PMID:8660302

  20. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle:Stack 1 Modal Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Gaspar, James L.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Parks, Russel A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first flight test vehicle used in the development of NASA s Ares I crew launch vehicle. The Ares I-X used a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Three modal tests were defined to verify the dynamic finite element model of the Ares I-X flight test vehicle. Test configurations included two partial stacks and the full Ares I-X flight test vehicle on the Mobile Launcher Platform. This report focuses on the second modal test that was performed on the middle section of the vehicle referred to as Stack 1, which consisted of the subassembly from the 5th segment simulator through the interstage. This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test operations and data analysis for the Ares I-X Stack 1 modal test.

  1. Gene deletions in patients with haemophilia B and anti-factor IX antibodies.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, F; Choo, K H; Rees, D J; Boyd, Y; Rizza, C R; Brownlee, G G

    Christmas disease, or haemophilia B, is an inherited X-linked haemorrhagic disease which at present occurs in 798 known cases in the United Kingdom, corresponding to a frequency of about 1 in 30,000 males. Patients are deficient in the intrinsic clotting factor IX and are treated by replacement of this protein prepared from pooled plasma obtained from normal individuals. Occasionally treatment is complicated by the appearance of specific anti-factor IX antibodies. It seemed to us that this might be due to the absence of 'self' factor IX causing the immune system to regard the infused normal factor IX as foreign. The absence of all or part of the factor IX gene was an obvious possible reason for this, which we have now tested using our previously isolated gene probe. We have found four patients with gross gene defects.

  2. Molecular cloning of the gene for human anti-haemophilic factor IX.

    PubMed

    Choo, K H; Gould, K G; Rees, D J; Brownlee, G G

    1982-09-01

    A functional deficiency of factor IX, one of the coagulation factors involved in blood clotting, leads to the bleeding disorder known as Christmas disease, or haemophilia B. Both this disease and haemophilia A (factor VIII (C) deficiency) are X chromosome-linked and together occur at a frequency of approximately 1 in 10,000 males. The molecular basis for the functional alteration of factor IX in Christmas disease is not clearly understood. As a first step towards the elucidation of the molecular events involved, we have attempted molecular cloning of the factor IX gene. We used a bovine factor IX cDNA clone, isolated using synthetic oligonucleotides as probes, to screen a cloned human gene library. Here we report the isolation and partial characterization of a lambda recombinant phage containing the human factor IX gene.

  3. The decomposition of protoporphyrin IX by ultrasound is dependent on the generation of hydroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haobo; Sun, Xin; Yao, Jianting; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Haibo; Dan, Juhua; Tian, Zhen; Tian, Ye

    2015-11-01

    The ultrasound activation of certain drugs, such as porphyrins, could cause synergistic cytotoxic effects on cells. Both sonomechanical and sonochemical effects occur and the latter play a critical role because antioxidant agents could exert significant protective effects against the cytotoxicity. To investigate the reactive oxygen species involved in the sonochemical effects, aqueous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) solutions were characterized under ultrasound sonication in this study. Inertial cavitation was indirectly evaluated using terephthalic acid dosimetry. The fluorescence intensity of the PpIX was measured using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. The effects of PpIX concentration, ultrasound parameters and free radical scavengers on the PpIX activation by ultrasound were investigated. Our results showed that the increase in PpIX decomposition was significantly correlated with cavitation activities (R=0.9874, p<0.05), and the decomposing effect increases with ultrasound intensity (0.6-1.5 W/cm(2)), initial PpIX concentration (1-5 μM), duty cycle (10-100%) and the sonication duration (2-10 min). The fluorescence and absorption spectra of PpIX showed a decrease in the peak intensity without spectral shifts or new peak build-up after sonication. The PpIX decomposition was significantly inhibited by hydroxyl radical scavengers, histidine, mannitol, acetone, methanol and ethanol, but the decomposition was not inhibited by sodium azide, catalase or superoxide dismutase. These results suggest that the decomposition of protoporphyrin IX by ultrasound is dependent on the generation of hydroxyl radicals, which sheds some light on the sonochemical effects of the interaction between ultrasound and porphyrins.

  4. Winter Frost and Fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog.

    Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  5. 12 CFR 900.3 - Terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. As used throughout this chapter, the following terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX have the... used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. 900.3 Section 900.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE...

  6. 12 CFR 900.3 - Terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. 900.3 Section 900.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD... to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. As used throughout this chapter, the following terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX have...

  7. 12 CFR 900.3 - Terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. 900.3 Section 900.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD... to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. As used throughout this chapter, the following terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX have...

  8. 12 CFR 900.3 - Terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. 900.3 Section 900.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD... to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. As used throughout this chapter, the following terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX have...

  9. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  10. An Up-Close Look at Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, Bart

    2010-01-01

    On October 28, 2009, one day later than the originally planned launch date, the Ares I-X suborbital test flight roared into the Florida sky. Flying its preplanned parabolic arc over the Atlantic, the development test vehicle for the Ares I crew launch vehicle performed as advertised, executing a perfect liftoff, 90-degree roll maneuver, ascent, and separation before its upper and lower stages descended into the ocean 150 miles downrange. This test flight, while carrying no astronauts, marked a major milestone for NASA, which had not flown a test launch of a human-rated rocket since the first flight of the Space Shuttle in 1981. During the flight, over 700 sensors collected over 900 measurements, which NASA will apply to validating the engineering models they used to design the vehicle in the first place. That data, telemetered to the ground and stored in a flight recorder onboard, was the primary "payload" of the mission.

  11. Flavobacterium gliding motility and the type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    McBride, Mark J; Nakane, Daisuke

    2015-12-01

    Cells of Flavobacterium johnsoniae crawl rapidly over surfaces in a process called gliding motility. These cells do not have flagella or pili but instead rely on a novel motility machine composed of proteins that are unique to the phylum Bacteroidetes. The motility adhesins SprB and RemA are propelled along the cell surface by the still poorly-defined gliding motor. Interaction of these adhesins with a surface results in translocation of the cell. SprB and RemA are delivered to the cell surface by the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T9SSs are confined to but common in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Transmembrane components of the T9SS may perform roles in both secretion and gliding motility. PMID:26461123

  12. Protoporphyrin IX binding and transport by recombinant mouse PBR.

    PubMed

    Wendler, Gregor; Lindemann, Peter; Lacapère, Jean-Jacques; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2003-11-28

    The mitochondrial 18kDa peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a high affinity cholesterol binding protein, has been shown to interact with protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and this interaction was assumed to be involved in the regulation of heme biosynthesis and porphyrin-based photodynamic therapy in cancer. In order to test this hypothesis recombinant mouse PBR was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant gene product showed in E. coli protoplasts specific affinity for PPIX binding. PPIX could displace PK 11195 binding. Moreover, induced PBR protein expression in E. coli protoplasts caused an uptake of PPIX that could be completely inhibited by cholesterol and to a lesser extent inhibited by PK 11195 and Ro5-4864. These results suggest that PBR, in addition to its role in cholesterol and coproporphyrinogen III transport, is also directing the mitochondrial PPIX import, a function that can be ascribed to the 18kDa PBR protein alone.

  13. Photodynamic action of protoporphyrin IX derivatives on Trichophyton rubrum*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rogério Rodrigo; Kozusny-Andreani, Dora Inês; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchôa; Baptista, Mauricio da Silva

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dermatophytes are filamentous keratinophilic fungi. Trichophyton rubrum is a prevalent infectious agent in tineas and other skin diseases. Drug therapy is considered to be limited in the treatment of such infections, mainly due to low accessibility of the drug to the tissue attacked and development of antifungal resistance in these microorganisms. In this context, Photodynamic Therapy is presented as an alternative. OBJECTIVE Evaluate, in vitro, the photodynamic activity of four derivatives of Protoporphyrin IX by irradiation with LED 400 nm in T. rubrum. METHOD Assays were subjected to irradiation by twelve cycles of ten minutes at five minute intervals. RESULT Photodynamic action appeared as effective with total elimination of UFCs from the second irradiation cycle. CONCLUSION Studies show that the photodynamic activity on Trichophyton rubrum relates to a suitable embodiment of the photosensitizer, which can be maximized by functionalization of peripheral groups of the porphyrinic ring. PMID:27192510

  14. Latex carrier for improving protoporphyrin IX for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Bui, Brian; Liu, Li; Chen, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Attachment of Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) to poly (styrene-co-4-vinylpyridine) (PS4VP) nanobeads was carried out to improve its properties in aqueous solutions. After using an oil-in-water heated emulsion polymerization technique to synthesize PS4VP, PPIX was bonded to the particles via the carboxylic acid of PPIX hydrogen-bonding to the nitrogen at the surface of PS4VP, thereby preventing self-reactions between the carboxyl groups and the porphyrin core. Refraining the two parts from interacting while attached to the nanobeads prevented PPIX from aggregating, which then increased water solubility, enhanced luminescence and singlet oxygen production. Attachment also improved cell uptake and cell destruction by photodynamic activity. This shows that PS4VP-PPIX may help improve aspects of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer. PMID:27020668

  15. Long-acting recombinant coagulation factor IX albumin fusion protein (rIX-FP) in hemophilia B: results of a phase 3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Martinowitz, Uri; Lissitchkov, Toshko; Pan-Petesch, Brigitte; Hanabusa, Hideji; Oldenburg, Johannes; Boggio, Lisa; Negrier, Claude; Pabinger, Ingrid; von Depka Prondzinski, Mario; Altisent, Carmen; Castaman, Giancarlo; Yamamoto, Koji; Álvarez-Roman, Maria-Teresa; Voigt, Christine; Blackman, Nicole; Jacobs, Iris

    2016-01-01

    A global phase 3 study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of recombinant fusion protein linking coagulation factor IX with albumin (rIX-FP) in 63 previously treated male patients (12-61 years) with severe hemophilia B (factor IX [FIX] activity ≤2%). The study included 2 groups: group 1 patients received routine prophylaxis once every 7 days for 26 weeks, followed by either 7-, 10-, or 14-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 50, 38, or 51 weeks, respectively; group 2 patients received on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes for 26 weeks and then switched to a 7-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 45 weeks. The mean terminal half-life of rIX-FP was 102 hours, 4.3-fold longer than previous FIX treatment. Patients maintained a mean trough of 20 and 12 IU/dL FIX activity on prophylaxis with rIX-FP 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks, respectively. There was 100% reduction in median annualized spontaneous bleeding rate (AsBR) and 100% resolution of target joints when subjects switched from on-demand to prophylaxis treatment with rIX-FP (P < .0001). The median AsBR was 0.00 for all prophylaxis regimens. Overall, 98.6% of bleeding episodes were treated successfully, including 93.6% that were treated with a single injection. No patient developed an inhibitor, and no safety concerns were identified. These results indicate rIX-FP is safe and effective for preventing and treating bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia B at dosing regimens of 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT0101496274. PMID:26755710

  16. Long-acting recombinant coagulation factor IX albumin fusion protein (rIX-FP) in hemophilia B: results of a phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Santagostino, Elena; Martinowitz, Uri; Lissitchkov, Toshko; Pan-Petesch, Brigitte; Hanabusa, Hideji; Oldenburg, Johannes; Boggio, Lisa; Negrier, Claude; Pabinger, Ingrid; von Depka Prondzinski, Mario; Altisent, Carmen; Castaman, Giancarlo; Yamamoto, Koji; Álvarez-Roman, Maria-Teresa; Voigt, Christine; Blackman, Nicole; Jacobs, Iris

    2016-04-01

    A global phase 3 study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of recombinant fusion protein linking coagulation factor IX with albumin (rIX-FP) in 63 previously treated male patients (12-61 years) with severe hemophilia B (factor IX [FIX] activity ≤2%). The study included 2 groups: group 1 patients received routine prophylaxis once every 7 days for 26 weeks, followed by either 7-, 10-, or 14-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 50, 38, or 51 weeks, respectively; group 2 patients received on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes for 26 weeks and then switched to a 7-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 45 weeks. The mean terminal half-life of rIX-FP was 102 hours, 4.3-fold longer than previous FIX treatment. Patients maintained a mean trough of 20 and 12 IU/dL FIX activity on prophylaxis with rIX-FP 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks, respectively. There was 100% reduction in median annualized spontaneous bleeding rate (AsBR) and 100% resolution of target joints when subjects switched from on-demand to prophylaxis treatment with rIX-FP (P< .0001). The median AsBR was 0.00 for all prophylaxis regimens. Overall, 98.6% of bleeding episodes were treated successfully, including 93.6% that were treated with a single injection. No patient developed an inhibitor, and no safety concerns were identified. These results indicate rIX-FP is safe and effective for preventing and treating bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia B at dosing regimens of 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT0101496274.

  17. Exosite-mediated substrate recognition of factor IX by factor XIa. The factor XIa heavy chain is required for initial recognition of factor IX.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Taketoshi; Verhamme, Ingrid M; Sun, Mao-Fu; Bock, Paul E; Gailani, David

    2005-06-24

    Studies of the mechanisms of blood coagulation zymogen activation demonstrate that exosites (sites on the activating complex distinct from the protease active site) play key roles in macromolecular substrate recognition. We investigated the importance of exosite interactions in recognition of factor IX by the protease factor XIa. Factor XIa cleavage of the tripeptide substrate S2366 was inhibited by the active site inhibitors p-aminobenzamidine (Ki 28 +/- 2 microM) and aprotinin (Ki 1.13 +/- 0.07 microM) in a classical competitive manner, indicating that substrate and inhibitor binding to the active site was mutually exclusive. In contrast, inhibition of factor XIa cleavage of S2366 by factor IX (Ki 224 +/- 32 nM) was characterized by hyperbolic mixed-type inhibition, indicating that factor IX binds to free and S2366-bound factor XIa at exosites. Consistent with this premise, inhibition of factor XIa activation of factor IX by aprotinin (Ki 0.89 +/- 0.52 microM) was non-competitive, whereas inhibition by active site-inhibited factor IXa beta was competitive (Ki 0.33 +/- 0.05 microM). S2366 cleavage by isolated factor XIa catalytic domain was competitively inhibited by p-aminobenzamidine (Ki 38 +/- 14 microM) but was not inhibited by factor IX, consistent with loss of factor IX-binding exosites on the non-catalytic factor XI heavy chain. The results support a model in which factor IX binds initially to exosites on the factor XIa heavy chain, followed by interaction at the active site with subsequent bond cleavage, and support a growing body of evidence that exosite interactions are critical determinants of substrate affinity and specificity in blood coagulation reactions. PMID:15829482

  18. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Ca IX

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, E.; Bhatia, A.K.

    2014-11-15

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths, and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ca IX. We include in the calculations the 33 lowest configurations in the n=3,4, and 5 complexes, corresponding to 283 fine-structure levels in the 3l3l{sup ′}, 3l4l{sup ″}, and 3l5l{sup ‴} configurations, where l,l{sup ′}=s,p,d, l{sup ″}=s,p,d,f and l{sup ‴}=s,p,d,f,g. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions: 5.8, 13.6, 24.2, 38.6, and 57.9 Ry above the threshold of each transition. An additional energy, very close to the transition threshold, has been added, whose value is between 0.0055 Ry and 0.23 Ry depending on the levels involved. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code and the distorted wave approximation. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates calculated in the present work, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10{sup 8}–10{sup 14}  cm{sup −3} and at an electron temperature of logT{sub e}(K)=5.8, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ca IX. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed.

  19. Ares I-X Range Safety Flight Envelope Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Brett R.; Olds, Aaron D.; Craig, Anthony S.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first test flight of NASA's Constellation Program's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle designed to provide manned access to low Earth orbit. As a one-time test flight, the Air Force's 45th Space Wing required a series of Range Safety analysis data products to be developed for the specified launch date and mission trajectory prior to granting flight approval on the Eastern Range. The range safety data package is required to ensure that the public, launch area, and launch complex personnel and resources are provided with an acceptable level of safety and that all aspects of prelaunch and launch operations adhere to applicable public laws. The analysis data products, defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual 91-710, Volume 2, consisted of a nominal trajectory, three sigma trajectory envelopes, stage impact footprints, acoustic intensity contours, trajectory turn angles resulting from potential vehicle malfunctions (including flight software failures), characterization of potential debris, and debris impact footprints. These data products were developed under the auspices of the Constellation's Program Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel and its Range Safety Trajectory Working Group with the intent of beginning the framework for the operational vehicle data products and providing programmatic review and oversight. A multi-center NASA team in conjunction with the 45th Space Wing, collaborated within the Trajectory Working Group forum to define the data product development processes, performed the analyses necessary to generate the data products, and performed independent verification and validation of the data products. This paper outlines the Range Safety data requirements and provides an overview of the processes established to develop both the data products and the individual analyses used to develop the data products, and it summarizes the results of the analyses required for the Ares I-X launch.

  20. Ares I-X Range Safety Analyses Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Brett R.; Gowan, John W., Jr.; Thompson, Brian G.; Tarpley, Ashley W.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first test flight of NASA's Constellation Program's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle designed to provide manned access to low Earth orbit. As a one-time test flight, the Air Force's 45th Space Wing required a series of Range Safety analysis data products to be developed for the specified launch date and mission trajectory prior to granting flight approval on the Eastern Range. The range safety data package is required to ensure that the public, launch area, and launch complex personnel and resources are provided with an acceptable level of safety and that all aspects of prelaunch and launch operations adhere to applicable public laws. The analysis data products, defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual 91-710, Volume 2, consisted of a nominal trajectory, three sigma trajectory envelopes, stage impact footprints, acoustic intensity contours, trajectory turn angles resulting from potential vehicle malfunctions (including flight software failures), characterization of potential debris, and debris impact footprints. These data products were developed under the auspices of the Constellation's Program Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel and its Range Safety Trajectory Working Group with the intent of beginning the framework for the operational vehicle data products and providing programmatic review and oversight. A multi-center NASA team in conjunction with the 45th Space Wing, collaborated within the Trajectory Working Group forum to define the data product development processes, performed the analyses necessary to generate the data products, and performed independent verification and validation of the data products. This paper outlines the Range Safety data requirements and provides an overview of the processes established to develop both the data products and the individual analyses used to develop the data products, and it summarizes the results of the analyses required for the Ares I-X launch.

  1. Characterization and standardization of tissue-simulating protoporphyrin IX optical phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marois, Mikael; Bravo, Jaime; Davis, Scott C.; Kanick, Stephen Chad

    2016-03-01

    Optical devices for measuring protoporphryin IX (PpIX) fluorescence in tissue are routinely validated by measurements in optical phantoms. Yet there exists limited data to form a consensus on the recipe for phantoms that both mimic the optical properties found in tissue and yield a reliable and stable relationship between PpIX concentration and the fluorescence remission intensity. This study characterizes the influence of multiple phantom components on PpIX fluorescence emission intensity, using Intralipid as the scattering source, bovine whole blood as the background absorber, and Tween as a surfactant to prevent PpIX aggregation. Optical measurements showed a linear proportionality (r>0.99) between fluorescence intensity and PpIX concentration (0.1 to 10 μg/mL) over a range of Intralipid (1 to 2%) and whole blood (0.5 to 3%) for phantoms containing low surfactant (≤0.1%), with fluorescence intensities and scattering and absorption properties stable for 5 h after mixing. The role of surfactant in PpIX phantoms was found to be complex, as aggregation was evident in aqueous nonturbid phantoms with no surfactant (0% Tween), and avoided in phantoms containing Intralipid as the scattering source with no additional or low amounts of added surfactant (≤0.1% Tween). Conversely, phantoms containing higher surfactant content (>0.1% Tween) and whole blood showed interactions that distorted the fluorescence emissions.

  2. Characterization and standardization of tissue-simulating protoporphyrin IX optical phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marois, Mikael; Bravo, Jaime; Davis, Scott C.; Kanick, Stephen Chad

    2016-03-01

    Optical devices for measuring protoporphryin IX (PpIX) fluorescence in tissue are routinely validated by measurements in optical phantoms. Yet there exists limited data to form a consensus on the recipe for phantoms that both mimic the optical properties found in tissue and yield a reliable and stable relationship between PpIX concentration and the fluorescence remission intensity. This study characterizes the influence of multiple phantom components on PpIX fluorescence emission intensity, using Intralipid as the scattering source, bovine whole blood as the background absorber, and Tween as a surfactant to prevent PpIX aggregation. Optical measurements showed a linear proportionality (r>0.99) between fluorescence intensity and PpIX concentration (0.1 to 10 μg/mL) over a range of Intralipid (1 to 2%) and whole blood (0.5 to 3%) for phantoms containing low surfactant (≤0.1%), with fluorescence intensities and scattering and absorption properties stable for 5 h after mixing. The role of surfactant in PpIX phantoms was found to be complex, as aggregation was evident in aqueous nonturbid phantoms with no surfactant (0% Tween), and avoided in phantoms containing Intralipid as the scattering source with no additional or low amounts of added surfactant (≤0.1% Tween). Conversely, phantoms containing higher surfactant content (>0.1% Tween) and whole blood showed interactions that distorted the fluorescence emissions.

  3. Title IX and Pregnancy Discrimination in Higher Education: The New Frontier.

    PubMed

    Mason, Mary Ann; Younger, Jaclyn

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy discrimination is a little known area covered by Title IX. According to the Title IX regulations, areas of prohibited discrimination include: admissions; hiring; coursework accommodations and completion; pregnancy leave policies and status protection upon return from leave; and health insurance coverage. These regulations will soon get more attention as the Obama Administration insists on Title IX dissemination and compliance in an effort to stop the leaky pipeline for women in the STEM fields. Research shows that pregnancy and childbirth are the major reasons why women drop out of research science in much greater numbers than men; this dropout is most likely to occur among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who are in their peak childbearing years. A similar pattern of dropout can be seen in all fields, including related professional schools. Research also reveals that there are currently few established policies in higher education which adequately address pregnancy and childbirth in formal policies for students. This article will address new efforts by the United States Department of Education and the federal agencies to begin to seek compliance relating to Title IX and pregnancy discrimination in educational institutions. It will discuss the recent successful efforts of the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights in investigating and settling pregnancy discrimination claims as well as the lessons learned in private action lawsuits under Title IX. Title IX private action suits have transformed athletics for women, and more recently Title IX has been applied in sexual harassment cases. Pregnancy discrimination is now the new frontier.

  4. Sonodynamic therapy induces apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells in the presence of protoporphyrin IX.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Yang, Shuang; Liu, Quanhong; Leung, Albert W; Xu, Chuanshan; Wang, Pan

    2016-04-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is expected to be a novel therapeutic strategy for tumor. The protoporphyrin IX disodium salt (PpIX), a photosensitizer, can be activated by ultrasound. The present study aims to investigate apoptosis of HL-60 cells induced by PpIX-mediated SDT. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was adopted to examine cell toxicity. Apoptosis was detected using Annexin V-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) double staining. Detection of apoptotic bodies was examined by Hoechst33342 (HO) staining. Western blotting was used to analyze the protein of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by a flow cytometer after exposures. Compared with PpIX alone and ultrasound alone groups, the synergistic cytotoxicity of PpIX plus ultrasound were significantly boosted. In addition, as determined by Annexin V-PE/7-AAD staining, SDT significantly induced HL-60 cell apoptosis, the obvious nuclear condensation was also found with HO staining at 4 hours post-SDT treatment. Furthermore, Western blotting showed visible enhancement of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage in this process. Besides, intracellular ROS production was significantly enhanced after SDT. Our findings demonstrate that PpIX-mediated SDT could induce apoptosis on HL-60 cells, suggesting that apoptosis is an important mechanism of cell death induced by PpIX-mediated SDT. PMID:26891272

  5. Kinetics of the Factor XIa catalyzed activation of human blood coagulation Factor IX

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, P.N.; Bradford, H.; Sinha, D.; Piperno, J.R.; Tuszynski, G.P.

    1984-05-01

    The kinetics of activation of human Factor IX by human Factor XIa was studied by measuring the release of a trichloroacetic acid-soluble tritium-labeled activation peptide from Factor IX. Initial rates of trichloroacetic acid-soluble /sup 3/H-release were linear over 10-30 min of incubation of Factor IX (88 nM) with CaCl/sub 2/ (5 mM) and with pure (greater than 98%) Factor XIa (0.06-1.3 nM), which was prepared by incubating human Factor XI with bovine Factor XIIa. Release of /sup 3/H preceded the appearance of Factor IXa activity, and the percentage of /sup 3/H released remained constant when the mole fraction of /sup 3/H-labeled and unlabeled Factor IX was varied and the total Factor IX concentration remained constant. A linear correlation (r greater than 0.98, P less than 0.001) was observed between initial rates of /sup 3/H-release and the concentration of Factor XIa, measured by chromogenic assay and by radioimmunoassay and added at a Factor IX:Factor XIa molar ratio of 70-5,600. Kinetic parameters, determined by Lineweaver-Burk analysis, include K/sub m/ (0.49 microM) of about five- to sixfold higher than the plasma Factor IX concentration, which could therefore regulate the reaction. The catalytic constant (k/sub cat/) (7.7/s) is approximately 20-50 times higher than that reported by Zur and Nemerson for Factor IX activation by Factor VIIa plus tissue factor. Therefore, depending on the relative amounts of Factor XIa and Factor VIIa generated in vivo and other factors which may influence reaction rates, these kinetic parameters provide part of the information required for assessing the relative contributions of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways to Factor IX activation, and suggest that the Factor XIa catalyzed reaction is physiologically significant.

  6. Evaluation of ALA-induced PpIX as a photosensitizer for PDT in cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucroy, Michael D.; Edwards, Benjamin F.; Peavy, George M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Griffey, Stephen M.; Madewell, Bruce R.

    1998-07-01

    Given exogenously, ALA defeats intrinsic regulatory feedback mechanisms allowing intracellular accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a highly efficient photosensitizer. In vivo, PpIX synthesis in neoplastic mammary tissues averages 20-fold higher than in normal mammary tissues. PpIX is retained intracellularly, unlike perivascular localization of other photosensitizers, and it is then cleared quickly from the body. In vitro, ALA induced PpIX production in our laboratory in 6 cell lines tested, including an established feline kidney cell line and dermal fibroblasts from primary skin biopsy explant, resulting in photosensitization. Fluorescent microscopy confirmed PpIX production in skin adnexae following ALA administration in a normal cat. To evaluate toxicity, three cats were treated with a single i.v. dose of ALA (either 100, 200, of 400 mg/kg) and followed for 7 days. Cats receiving 100 or 200 mg/kg ALA i.v. had elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin within 24 hours. Histopathology revealed hydropic changes in the liver and renal fibrosis. The cat receiving 400 mg/kg ALA intravenously had cutaneous flush, bradycardia and apnea associated with ALA administration; within 24 hours the cat was lethargic, anorectic and icteric. ALT, AST and bilirubin concentrations had increased significantly. At necropsy the liver had a prominent lobular pattern; histopathology revealed severe periportal hepatitis and splenic necrosis. Systemically administered ALA induces PpIX production, but toxicity may preclude its clinical application in the cat. PpIX levels seem to be more time dependent than those dependent at these three ALA doses and they are well beyond the saturation point for adequate PpIX conversion. The literature is scant regarding toxicity associated with parenteral administration of ALA.

  7. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  8. Winter Clouds Over Mie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 March 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) red wide angle image shows late winter clouds over the 104 km (65 mi) diameter crater, Mie. Cellular clouds occur in the lower martian atmosphere, surrounding Mie Crater. Their cloudtops are at an altitude that is below the crater rim. Higher than the crater rim occurs a series of lee wave clouds, indicating air circulation moving from west/northwest (left) toward the east/southeast (right). Mie Crater is located in Utopia Planitia, not too far from the Viking 2 landing site, near 48.5 N, 220.4 W. Sunlight illuminates this January 2004 scene from the lower left.

  9. Winter Survival: A Consumer's Guide to Winter Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet discusses a variety of topics to help consumers prepare for winter. Tips for the home include: winterizing the home, dealing with a loss of heat or power failure, and what you need to have on hand. Another section gives driving tips and what to do in a storm. Health factors include suggestions for keeping warm, signs and treatment for…

  10. Hardware and Programmatic Progress on the Ares I-X Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will execute the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle; which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle (Figure 1), will eventually send humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and, in some cases, already fabricating vehicle hardware in preparation for an April 2009 launch. This paper will discuss the hardware and programmatic progress of the Ares I-X mission.

  11. Ares I-X Flight Test--The Future Begins Here

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Heitzman, Keith

    2007-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, will eventually send humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for a 2009 launch. This paper will discuss the hardware and programmatic progress of the Ares I-X mission.

  12. Delayed diagnosis of congenital factor IX deficiency (Christmas disease) in a girl with Turner's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, G; Monagle, P; Barnes, C

    2006-10-01

    Patients with Turner's syndrome are at risk of X-linked recessive disorders. We report a case of a young girl with Turner's syndrome with persistent mildly abnormal coagulation studies associated with a mild to moderate bleeding diathesis. The abnormalities were initially attributed to intrahepatic cholestasis and were partially responsive to vitamin K. After an interval of several years an episode of unexplained iron deficiency anaemia prompted re-investigation of the mild coagulopathy. Disproportionate reduction in the factor IX concentration and restoration of haemostasis with factor IX concentrate lead to a revised provisional diagnosis of mild haemophilia B which was subsequently confirmed by sequencing the factor IX gene.

  13. Type IX collagen knock-out mouse shows progressive hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuyoshi; Asamura, Kenji; Kikuchi, Yasutake; Takumi, Yutaka; Abe, Satoko; Imamura, Yasutada; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Aszodi, Attila; Fässler, Reinhard; Usami, Shin-ichi

    2005-03-01

    Type IX collagen is one of the important components, together with type II, V, and XI collagens, in the tectorial membrane of the organ of Corti. To confirm the significance of type IX collagen for normal hearing, we assessed the detailed morphological and electrophysiological features of type IX collagen knock-out mice, which have recently been reported as a deafness model. Through assessment by auditory brainstem response (ABR), knock-out mice were shown to have progressive hearing loss. At the light microscopic level, the tectorial membrane of knock-out mice was found to be abnormal in shape. These morphological changes started in the basal turn and were progressive toward the apical turn. Electron microscopy confirmed disturbance of organization of the collagen fibrils. These results suggest that mutations in type IX collagen genes may lead to abnormal integrity of collagen fibers in the tectorial membrane.

  14. A comparison of human prothrombin, factor IX (Christmas factor), factor X (Stuart factor), and protein S.

    PubMed

    Di Scipio, R G; Hermodson, M A; Yates, S G; Davie, E W

    1977-02-22

    Human prothrombin, factor IX, and factor X have been idolated in high yield and characterized as the their amino-terminal sequence, molecular weight, amino acid composition, and migration in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. An additional human plasma protein, called protein S, has also been purified and its properties have been compared with those of prothrombin, factor IX, and factor X. Prothrombin (mol wt 72 000), factor IX (mol wt 57 000), and protein S (mol wt 69 000) are single-chain glycoproteins, while factor X (mol wt 59 000) is a glycoprotein composed of two polypeptide chains held together by a disulfide bond(s). The amino-terminal sequence of the light chain of human factor X is homologous with prothrombin, factor IX, and protein S. The heavy chain of human factor X is slightly larger than the heavy chain of bovine factor X and differs from bovine factor X in its amino-terminal sequence.

  15. Effect of stanozolol on factors VIII and IX and serum aminotransferases in haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Greer, I A; Greaves, M; Madhok, R; McLoughlin, K; Porter, N; Lowe, G D; Preston, F E; Forbes, C D

    1985-06-24

    The treatment of haemophilia has been dramatically improved since the introduction of factor VIII and IX concentrates, however these concentrates have brought new problems such as hepatitis and A.I.D.S. An oral agent which could raise endogenous levels of factor VIII and IX would be of great benefit. Danazol, an anabolic steroid, has recently been shown to increase levels of factors VIII and IX in haemophilia. We therefore studied the effect of stanozolol, a closely related anabolic steroid, in 15 patients with haemophilia A or Christmas disease over a 2-4 week period. There was no consistent change in factor VIIIc or factor IX, and fibrinolysis was significantly enhanced. No effect was apparent on the incidence of spontaneous bleeds. However serum aminotransferases which were abnormal in 11 of the 15 patients at the start of the study fell significantly with stanozolol therapy. This raises the interesting possibility that anabolic steroids may be beneficial in patients with chronic liver diseases.

  16. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  17. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-27

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysis, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day, 30-Day and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  18. Protoporphyrin IX-β-cyclodextrin bimodal conjugate: nanosized drug transporter and potent phototoxin.

    PubMed

    Aggelidou, Chrysie; Theodossiou, Theodossis A; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina

    2013-01-01

    Topical or systemic administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and its esters results in increased production and accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in cancerous lesions allowing effective application of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The large concentrations of exogenous ALA practically required to bypass the negative feedback control exerted by heme on enzymatic ALA synthesis and the strong dimerization propensity of ALA are shortcomings of the otherwise attractive PpIX biosynthesis. To circumvent these limitations and possibly enhance the phototoxicity of PpIX by adjuvant chemotherapy, covalent bonding of PpIX with a drug carrier, β-cyclodextrin (βCD) was implemented. The resulting PpIX + βCD product had both carboxylic termini of PpIX connected to the CD. PpIX + βCD was water soluble, was found to preferentially localize in mitochondria rather than in lysosomes both in MCF7 and DU145 cell lines while its phototoxiciy was comparable to that of PpIX. Moreover, PpIX + βCD effectively solubilized the breast cancer drug tamoxifen metabolite N-desmethyltamoxifen (NDMTAM) in water. The PpIX + βCD/NDMTAM complex was readily internalized by both cell lines employed. Furthermore, the multimodal action of PpIX + βCD was demonstrated in MCF7 cells: while it retains the phototoxic profile of PpIX and its fluorescence for imaging purposes, PpIX + βCD can efficiently transport tamoxifen citrate intracellularly and confer cell death through a synergy of photo- and chemotoxicity. PMID:23819797

  19. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle Similitude to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Smith, R. Marshall; Campbell, John R., Jr.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle is the first in a series of flight test vehicles that will take the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle design from development to operational capability. The test flight is scheduled for April 2009, relatively early in the Ares I design process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review. Because of the short time frame (relative to new launch vehicle development) before the Ares I-X flight, decisions about the flight test vehicle design had to be made in order to complete analysis and testing in time to manufacture the Ares I-X vehicle hardware elements. This paper describes the similarities and differences between the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle and the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle. Areas of comparison include the outer mold line geometry, aerosciences, trajectory, structural modes, flight control architecture, separation sequence, and relevant element differences. Most of the outer mold line differences present between Ares I and Ares I-X are minor and will not have a significant effect on overall vehicle performance. The most significant impacts are related to the geometric differences in Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle at the forward end of the stack. These physical differences will cause differences in the flow physics in these areas. Even with these differences, the Ares I-X flight test is poised to meet all five primary objectives and six secondary objectives. Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I as well as what the test will not provide is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I.

  20. Activation of factor IX bound to cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, D M; Drillings, M; Kisiel, W; Nawroth, P; Nossel, H L; LaGamma, K S

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that factor IX and its activated form, factor IXa, bind to cultured vascular endothelial cells and that cell-bound factor IXa retains its procoagulant activity. The present studies provide evidence that factor IX bound to cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells can be activated. Factor IX activation was assessed by finding cleavage of the factor IX molecule on NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by the generation of procoagulant activity as assessed by thrombin-treated factor VIII-dependent generation of factor Xa activity. Cell-bound factor IX (0.8 micrograms per 4 X 10(8) cells per ml) could be activated by factor XIa (5 micrograms/ml) or by factor VIIa (0.1 micrograms/ml) without exogenous tissue factor when endothelial cells were treated with phorbol ester and acquired tissue factor-like procoagulant activity. Regardless of how factor IX was activated, the cell-bound factor IXa required thrombin-treated factor VIII and calcium, but not exogenous phospholipid, to activate factor X. In further experiments, factor X bound to endothelial cells specifically and reversibly with a dependence on calcium and with a lower affinity (half-maximal at 480 nM) than factor IX. At saturation, 9.1 X 10(6) factor X molecules were bound per cell. After activation of factor X by factor IXa, approximately 50% of the factor Xa formed could be eluted from the cells by 10 mM EDTA, suggesting that the factor Xa was cell associated. These observations indicate that endothelial cells can bind and promote the activation of factors IX and X in the absence of platelets or exogenous phospholipid. PMID:6608105

  1. A Perspective on Development Flight Instrumentation and Flight Test Analysis Plans for Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Richards, James S.; Brunty, Joseph A.; Smith, R. Marshall; Trombetta, Dominic R.

    2009-01-01

    NASA. s Constellation Program will take a significant step toward completion of the Ares I crew launch vehicle with the flight test of Ares I-X and completion of the Ares I-X post-flight evaluation. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle is an ascent development flight test that will acquire flight data early enough to impact the design and development of the Ares I. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, Ares I has been the major driver in the definition of the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI). This paper focuses on the DFI development process and the plans for post-flight evaluation of the resulting data to impact the Ares I design. Efforts for determining the DFI for Ares I-X began in the fall of 2005, and significant effort to refine and implement the Ares I-X DFI has been expended since that time. This paper will present a perspective in the development and implementation of the DFI. Emphasis will be placed on the process by which the list was established and changes were made to that list due to imposed constraints. The paper will also discuss the plans for the analysis of the DFI data following the flight and a summary of flight evaluation tasks to be performed in support of tools and models validation for design and development.

  2. Protoporphyrin IX nanoparticle carrier: preparation, optical properties, and singlet oxygen generation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Liane M; Silva, Paulo R; Vono, Lucas L R; Fernandes, Adjaci U; Tada, Dayane B; Baptista, Maurício S

    2008-11-01

    The present study is focused on developing a nanoparticle carrier for the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX for use in photodynamic therapy. The entrapment of protoporphyrin IX (Pp IX) in silica spheres was achieved by modification of Pp IX molecules with an organosilane reagent. The immobilized drug preserved its optical properties and the capacity to generate singlet oxygen, which was detected by a direct method from its characteristic phosphorescence decay curve at near-infrared and by a chemical method using 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran to trap singlet oxygen. The lifetime of singlet oxygen when a suspension of Pp IX-loaded particles in acetonitrile was excited at 532 nm was determined as 52 micros, which is in good agreement with the value determined for methylene blue in acetonitrile solution under the same conditions. The Pp IX-loaded silica particles have an efficiency of singlet oxygen generation (eta Delta) higher than the quantum yield of free porphyrins. This high efficiency of singlet oxygen generation was attributed to changes on the monomer-dimer equilibrium after photosentisizer immobilization. PMID:18834155

  3. In vitro carboxylation of a blood coagulation factor IX precursor produced by recombinant-DNA technology.

    PubMed

    Soute, B A; Balland, A; Faure, T; de la Salle, H; Vermeer, C

    1989-04-25

    Blood coagulation factor IX (Christmas factor) is a plasma protein which is required for normal haemostasis. A functional deficiency of factor IX results in haemophilia B, a bleeding disorder which is generally treated by infusions of factor IX concentrates prepared from pooled human plasma. The use of human blood products is connected with the risk of transmitting viral agents responsible for diseases such as hepatitis B and AIDS. Recombinant DNA techniques may provide the means to produce the required proteins without exposing the patients to these risks and at lower costs. One of the problems which has to be overcome before recombinant factor IX can be used for therapeutical purposes is related to the vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of its 12 NH2-terminal glutamate residues. In cell cultures this carboxylation, which is required to render the protein its procoagulant activity, is far from complete, especially at high expression levels. In this paper we describe the in vitro carboxylation of non and/or partly carboxylated recombinant factor IX produced by transformed Chinese hamster ovary cells. The identity of the newly formed Gla residues was verified and it could be demonstrated that all carboxyl groups had been incorporated into the recombinant factor IX.

  4. Winter Anomaly 1982/83 in Comparison with Earlier Winters (1960-82)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lastovicka, J.

    1984-01-01

    The winter anomaly in the winter of 1982/83 is compared with the winter anomalies of earlier winters (1960-82) from the point of view of amplitude and timing of the winter anomaly, and geomagnetic and dynamic activity influences. Some evidence of a negative influence of sudden stratospheric warnings on the winter anomaly is given.

  5. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu; Yen, Chon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa). The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX). The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk. PMID:24955355

  6. Finite Element Model Calibration Approach for Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Lazor, Daniel R.; Gaspar, James L.; Parks, Russel A.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Ares I-X is a pathfinder vehicle concept under development by NASA to demonstrate a new class of launch vehicles. Although this vehicle is essentially a shell of what the Ares I vehicle will be, efforts are underway to model and calibrate the analytical models before its maiden flight. Work reported in this document will summarize the model calibration approach used including uncertainty quantification of vehicle responses and the use of nonconventional boundary conditions during component testing. Since finite element modeling is the primary modeling tool, the calibration process uses these models, often developed by different groups, to assess model deficiencies and to update parameters to reconcile test with predictions. Data for two major component tests and the flight vehicle are presented along with the calibration results. For calibration, sensitivity analysis is conducted using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). To reduce the computational burden associated with ANOVA calculations, response surface models are used in lieu of computationally intensive finite element solutions. From the sensitivity studies, parameter importance is assessed as a function of frequency. In addition, the work presents an approach to evaluate the probability that a parameter set exists to reconcile test with analysis. Comparisons of pre-test predictions of frequency response uncertainty bounds with measured data, results from the variance-based sensitivity analysis, and results from component test models with calibrated boundary stiffness models are all presented.

  7. Finite Element Model Calibration Approach for Area I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Gaspar, James L.; Lazor, Daniel R.; Parks, Russell A.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Ares I-X is a pathfinder vehicle concept under development by NASA to demonstrate a new class of launch vehicles. Although this vehicle is essentially a shell of what the Ares I vehicle will be, efforts are underway to model and calibrate the analytical models before its maiden flight. Work reported in this document will summarize the model calibration approach used including uncertainty quantification of vehicle responses and the use of non-conventional boundary conditions during component testing. Since finite element modeling is the primary modeling tool, the calibration process uses these models, often developed by different groups, to assess model deficiencies and to update parameters to reconcile test with predictions. Data for two major component tests and the flight vehicle are presented along with the calibration results. For calibration, sensitivity analysis is conducted using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). To reduce the computational burden associated with ANOVA calculations, response surface models are used in lieu of computationally intensive finite element solutions. From the sensitivity studies, parameter importance is assessed as a function of frequency. In addition, the work presents an approach to evaluate the probability that a parameter set exists to reconcile test with analysis. Comparisons of pretest predictions of frequency response uncertainty bounds with measured data, results from the variance-based sensitivity analysis, and results from component test models with calibrated boundary stiffness models are all presented.

  8. Thermal Model Development for Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; DelCorso, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Thermal analysis for the Ares I-X vehicle has involved extensive thermal model integration, since thermal models of vehicle elements came from several different NASA and industry organizations. Many valuable lessons were learned in terms of model integration and validation. Modeling practices such as submodel, analysis group and symbol naming were standardized to facilitate the later model integration. Upfront coordination of coordinate systems, timelines, units, symbols and case scenarios was very helpful in minimizing integration rework. A process for model integration was developed that included pre-integration runs and basic checks of both models, and a step-by-step process to efficiently integrate one model into another. Extensive use of model logic was used to create scenarios and timelines for avionics and air flow activation. Efficient methods of model restart between case scenarios were developed. Standardization of software version and even compiler version between organizations was found to be essential. An automated method for applying aeroheating to the full integrated vehicle model, including submodels developed by other organizations, was developed.

  9. The lower cranial nerves: IX, X, XI, XII.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, J-L; Toulgoat, F; Benoudiba, F

    2013-10-01

    The lower cranial nerves innervate the pharynx and larynx by the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and vagus (CN X) (mixed) nerves, and provide motor innervation of the muscles of the neck by the accessory nerve (CN XI) and the tongue by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). The symptomatology provoked by an anomaly is often discrete and rarely in the forefront. As with all cranial nerves, the context and clinical examinations, in case of suspicion of impairment of the lower cranial nerves, are determinant in guiding the imaging. In fact, the impairment may be located in the brain stem, in the peribulbar cisterns, in the foramens or even in the deep spaces of the face. The clinical localization of the probable seat of the lesion helps in choosing the adapted protocol in MRI and eventually completes it with a CT-scan. In the bulb, the intra-axial pathology is dominated by brain ischemia (in particular, with Wallenberg syndrome) and multiple sclerosis. Cisternal pathology is tumoral with two tumors, schwannoma and meningioma. The occurrence is much lower than in the cochleovestibular nerves as well as the leptomeningeal nerves (infectious, inflammatory or tumoral). Finally, foramen pathology is tumoral with, outside of the usual schwannomas and meningiomas, paragangliomas. For radiologists, fairly hesitant to explore these lower cranial pairs, it is necessary to be familiar with (or relearn) the anatomy, master the exploratory technique and be aware of the diagnostic possibilities.

  10. Function of carbonic anhydrase IX in glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Proescholdt, Martin A; Merrill, Marsha J; Stoerr, Eva-Maria; Lohmeier, Annette; Pohl, Fabian; Brawanski, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX is over-expressed in glioblastoma; however, its functions in this context are unknown. Metabolically, glioblastomas are highly glycolytic, leading to a significant lactic acid load. Paradoxically, the intracellular pH is alkaline. We hypothesized that CAIX contributes to the extrusion of hydrogen ions into the extracellular space, thereby moderating intra- and extracellular pH and creating an environment conductive to enhanced invasion. We investigated the role of CAIX as a prognostic marker in patients with glioblastoma and its biological function in vitro. CAIX expression was analyzed in 59 patients with glioblastoma by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels were correlated to overall survival. In vitro, U251 and Ln 18 glioblastoma cells were incubated under hypoxia to induce CAIX expression, and RNA interference (RNAi) was used to examine the function of CAIX on cell attachment, invasion, intracellular energy transfer, and susceptibility to adjuvant treatment. High CAIX expression was identified as an independent factor for poor survival in patients with glioblastoma. In vitro, cell attachment and invasion were strongly reduced after knockdown of CAIX. Finally, the effects of radiation and chemotherapy were strongly augmented after CAIX interference and were accompanied by a higher rate of apoptotic cell death. CAIX is an independent prognostic factor for poor outcome in patients with glioblastoma. Cell attachment, invasion, and survival during adjuvant treatment are significantly influenced by high CAIX expression. These results indicate that inhibition of CAIX is a potential metabolic target for the treatment of patients with glioblastoma. PMID:23074198

  11. Ares I-X In-Flight Modal Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkowicz, Theodore J.; James, George H., III

    2011-01-01

    Operational modal analysis is a procedure that allows the extraction of modal parameters of a structure in its operating environment. It is based on the idealized premise that input to the structure is white noise. In some cases, when free decay responses are corrupted by unmeasured random disturbances, the response data can be processed into cross-correlation functions that approximate free decay responses. Modal parameters can be computed from these functions by time domain identification methods such as the Eigenvalue Realization Algorithm (ERA). The extracted modal parameters have the same characteristics as impulse response functions of the original system. Operational modal analysis is performed on Ares I-X in-flight data. Since the dynamic system is not stationary due to propellant mass loss, modal identification is only possible by analyzing the system as a series of linearized models over short periods of time via a sliding time-window of short time intervals. A time-domain zooming technique was also employed to enhance the modal parameter extraction. Results of this study demonstrate that free-decay time domain modal identification methods can be successfully employed for in-flight launch vehicle modal extraction.

  12. Learners in Action, Winter 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This Winter 2005 issue of "Learners in Action" contains the following: (1) Proud Dad Turns Family Life Around (Nick Prince); (2) Learners Make a Great Impression at Conference; (3) The Story behind the Story; and (4) Learner Resources.

  13. The Challenge of Winter Backpacking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Michael; Mapes, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Tips and techniques for safe and enjoyable winter backpacking are offered. Topics covered include cross county skis, snowshoes, clothing, footwear, shelter, sleeping bags, food, hypothermia prevention, as well as general rules and requirements. (CO)

  14. Subsurface PpIX imaging in vivo with ultrasound-guided tomographic spectroscopy: reconstruction vs. born-normalized data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Brendan P.; D'Souza, Alisha V.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Maytin, Edward; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Topically applied ALA promotes PpIX production preferentially in tumors, and many strategies have been developed to increase PpIX distribution and PDT treatment efficacy at depths > 1mm is not fully understood. While surface imaging techniques provide useful diagnosis, dosimetry, and efficacy information for superficial tumors, these methods cannot interrogate deeper tumors to provide in situ insight into spatial PpIX distributions. We have developed an ultrasound-guided, white-light-informed, tomographics spectroscopy system for the spatial measurement of subsurface PpIX. Detailed imaging system specifications, methodology, and optical-phantom-based characterization will be presented separately. Here we evaluate preliminary in vivo results using both full tomographic reconstruction and by plotting individual tomographic source-detector pair data against US images.

  15. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence for enhanced photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy in murine models of skin and breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollakanti, Kishore Reddy

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizing agent derived from aminolevulinic acid. PpIX accumulates specifically within target cancer cells, where it fluoresces and produces cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Our aims were to employ PpIX fluorescence to detect squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin (Photodynamic diagnosis, PDD), and to improve treatment efficacy (Photodynamic therapy, PDT) for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous breast cancer. Hyperspectral imaging and a spectrometer based dosimeter system were used to detect very early SCC in UVB-irradiated murine skin, using PpIX fluorescence. Regarding PDT, we showed that low non-toxic doses of vitamin D, given before ALA application, increase tumor specific PpIX accumulation and sensitize BCC and breast cancer cells to ALA-PDT. These optical imaging methods and the combination therapy regimen (vitamin D and ALA-PDT) are promising tools for effective management of skin and breast cancer.

  16. Factor IX levels in patients with hemophilia B (Christmas disease) following transfusion with concentrates of factor IX or fresh frozen plasma (FFP).

    PubMed

    Zauber, N P; Levin, J

    1977-05-01

    There has been no systematic re-examination of variables that may affect the level and duration of response of patients with hemophilia B (Christmas disease) to transfusion. Therefore, 49 of our transfusion episodes and 171 previously reported transfusions were evaluated. Mean calculated initial increase of Factor IX levels (delta %/unit (U) of procoagulant activity infused/kg) was 0.82 +/- 0.09% (mean +/-S.E.) in previously reported cases and 1.01 +/- 0.13% in our patients, after transfusion of concentrate; but only 0.05 +/- 0.11% after fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Response was not altered by acute hemorrhage, baseline Factor IX levels, or body weight. Proplex (Hyland) and Konyne (Cutter) produced similar responses. Following transfusion, the disappearance curve was biphasic. The mean T1/2 for the second component was 27.5 hrs, but the direct T1/2 was only 6.4 +/- 1.0 hr. Regardless of common clinical variables, increase of Factor IX following transfusion of American concentrates is 1.0% (or 0.01 U)/1 administered/kg. Appropriate frequency of transfusion depends upon an understanding of the biphasic disappearance of Factor IX. Importantly, the initial frequency of transfusion therapy should be based on a direct T1/2 of only 6 to 8 hrs.

  17. Histopathological Determinants of Tumor Resistance: A Special Look to the Immunohistochemical Expression of Carbonic Anhydrase IX in Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ilardi, G.; Zambrano, N.; Merolla, F.; Siano, M.; Varricchio, S.; Vecchione, M.; De Rosa, G.; Mascolo, M.; Staibano, S.

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsic and acquired drug resistance of tumor cells still causes the failure of treatment regimens in advanced human cancers. It may be driven by intrinsic tumor cells features, or may also arise from micro environmental influences. Hypoxia is a microenvironment feature associated with the aggressiveness and metastasizing ability of human solid cancers. Hypoxic cancer cells overexpress Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CA IX). CA IX ensures a favorable tumor intracellular pH, while contributing to stromal acidosis, which facilitates tumor invasion and metastasis. The overexpression of CA IX is considered an epiphenomenon of the presence of hypoxic, aggressive tumor cells. Recently, a relationship between CA IX overexpression and the cancer stem cells (CSCs) population has been hypothesized. CSCs are strictly regulated by tumor hypoxia and drive a major non-mutational mechanism of cancer drug-resistance. We reviewed the current data concerning the role of CA IX overexpression in human malignancies, extending such information to the expression of the stem cells markers CD44 and nestin in solid cancers, to explore their relationship with the biological behavior of tumors. CA IX is heavily expressed in advanced tumors. A positive trend of correlation between CA IX overexpression, tumor stage/grade and poor outcome emerged. Moreover, stromal CA IX expression was associated with adverse events occurrence, maybe signaling the direct action of CA IX in directing the mesenchymal changes that favor tumor invasion; in addition, membranous/cytoplasmic co-overexpression of CA IX and stem cells markers were found in several aggressive tumors. This suggests that CA IX targeting could indirectly deplete CSCs and counteract resistance of solid cancers in the clinical setting. PMID:23992304

  18. Health and Safety Issues for Travelers Attending the World Cup and Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games in Brazil, 2014 to 2016

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Joanna; Sotir, Mark J.; Cunningham, Timothy J.; Harvey, Kira A.; Virginia Lee, C.; Stoney, Rhett J.; Gershman, Mark D.; Brunette, Gary W.; Kozarsky, Phyllis E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Travelers from around the globe will attend the 2014 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup and the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Brazil. Travelers to these mass gathering events may be exposed to a range of health risks, including a variety of infectious diseases. Most travelers who become ill will present to their primary care physicians, and thus it is important that clinicians are aware of the risks their patients encountered. OBJECTIVE To highlight health and safety concerns for people traveling to these events in Brazil so that health care practitioners can better prepare travelers before they travel and more effectively diagnose and treat travelers after they return. EVIDENCE REVIEW We reviewed both peer-reviewed and gray literature to identify health outcomes associated with travel to Brazil and mass gatherings. Thirteen specific infectious diseases are described in terms of signs, symptoms, and treatment. Relevant safety and security concerns are also discussed. FINDINGS Travelers to Brazil for mass gathering events face unique health risks associated with their travel. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Travelers should consult a health care practitioner 4 to 6 weeks before travel to Brazil and seek up-to-date information regarding their specific itineraries. For the most up-to-date information, health care practitioners can visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Travelers’ Health website (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel) or review CDC’s Yellow Book online (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/yellowbook-home-2014). PMID:24887552

  19. Ares I-X Flight Test - On the Fast Track to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2008-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, will send humans to the Moon and beyond. Personnel from the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for an April 2009 launch. Ares I-X will be a suborbital development flight test that will gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle stack; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the severe stage separation environments that the upper stage engine will experience during future flights; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. NASA also will modify the launch infrastructure and ground and mission operations. The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) will incorporate flight and mockup hardware similar in mass and weight to the operational vehicle. It will be powered by a four-segment Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), which is currently in Shuttle inventory, and will include a fifth spacer segment and new forward structures to make the booster approximately the same size and weight as the five-segment SRB. The Ares I-X flight profile will closely approximate the flight conditions that the Ares I will experience through Mach 4.5, up to approximately130,OOO feet and through maximum dynamic pressure ("Max Q") of approximately 800 pounds per square foot. Data from the Ares I-X flight will support the Ares I Critical Design Review (CDR), scheduled for 2010. Work continues on Ares I-X design and hardware fabrication. All of the individual elements are undergoing CDRs, followed by an integrated vehicle CDR in March 2008. The various hardware elements are on schedule to begin deliveries to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in early September 2008.

  20. A New Peptide Ligand for Targeting Human Carbonic Anhydrase IX, Identified through the Phage Display Technology

    PubMed Central

    Askoxylakis, Vasileios; Garcia-Boy, Regine; Rana, Shoaib; Krämer, Susanne; Hebling, Ulrike; Mier, Walter; Altmann, Annette; Markert, Annette; Debus, Jürgen; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a transmembrane enzyme found to be overexpressed in various tumors and associated with tumor hypoxia. Ligands binding this target may be used to visualize hypoxia, tumor manifestation or treat tumors by endoradiotherapy. Methods Phage display was performed with a 12 amino acid phage display library by panning against a recombinant extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase IX. The identified peptide CaIX-P1 was chemically synthesized and tested in vitro on various cell lines and in vivo in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted tumors. Binding, kinetic and competition studies were performed on the CAIX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52, the CAIX negative human renal cell carcinoma cell line CaKi 2, the human colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 and on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Organ distribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying SKRC 52 tumors. RNA expression of CAIX in HCT 116 and HUVEC cells was investigated by quantitative real time PCR. Results In vitro binding experiments of 125I-labeled-CaIX-P1 revealed an increased uptake of the radioligand in the CAIX positive renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52. Binding of the radioligand in the colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 increased with increasing cell density and correlated with the mRNA expression of CAIX. Radioligand uptake was inhibited up to 90% by the unlabeled CaIX-P1 peptide, but not by the negative control peptide octreotide at the same concentration. No binding was demonstrated in CAIX negative CaKi 2 and HUVEC cells. Organ distribution studies revealed a higher accumulation in SKRC 52 tumors than in heart, spleen, liver, muscle, intestinum and brain, but a lower uptake compared to blood and kidney. Conclusions These data indicate that CaIX-P1 is a promising candidate for the development of new ligands targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX. PMID:21209841

  1. The novel CA IX inhibition antibody chKM4927 shows anti-tumor efficacy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ayami; Usami, Katsuaki; Shimabe, Munetake; Hasegawa, Kazumasa; Asada, Masao; Motoki, Kazuhiro; Tahara, Tomoyuki; Masuda, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is an attractive target for cancer therapy. Many anti-CA IX antibodies have been reported but few have been shown to possess inhibition activity. Furthermore, effective use of CA IX-inhibition antibodies for cancer immunotherapy has not been well-validated since data are mainly limited to in vitro assays. In this study, we established that chKM4927, an anti-CA IX chimeric antibody, recognizes CA IX and has CA IX-specific inhibition activity. ChKM4927 also retains antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity against CA IX-expressing cancer cells. Compared to controls, chKM4927 treatment (10 mg/kg) showed anti-tumor activity in the VMRC-RCW xenograft model in vivo. ChKM4927-attenuated ADCC activity showed equally effective anti-tumor activity. These results suggest that the CA IX-inhibition antibody chKM4927 has an anti-tumor effect in the VMRC-RCW xenograft model via an ADCC-independent mechanism. PMID:25862852

  2. Spontaneous disappearance of an IgA anti-factor IX inhibitor in a child with Christmas disease.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R R; Panush, R S; Kitchens, C S

    1984-10-01

    The few inhibitors to blood coagulation factor IX in patients with Christmas disease (hemophilia B) that have been studied have been shown to belong to the IgG class of immunoglobulins. We report the first case in which a factor IX inhibitor was of the IgA class. Additionally, he appears to be the youngest patient with hemophilia B to have developed an inhibitor. His inhibitor complicated treatment of the patient for several years because of its anamnestic rise following factor IX concentrate administration. It then spontaneously vanished and has not returned in spite of repeated factor IX complex administration.

  3. Ares I-X Roll Control System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, Ronald J.; Massey, Edmund C.

    2009-01-01

    Project Managers often face challenging technical, schedule and budget issues. This presentation will explore how the Ares I-X Roll Control System Integrated Product Team (IPT) mitigated challenges such as concurrent engineering requirements and environments and evolving program processes, while successfully managing an aggressive project schedule and tight budget. IPT challenges also included communications and negotiations among inter- and intra-government agencies, including the US Air Force, NASA/MSFC Propulsion Engineering, LaRC, GRC, KSC, WSTF, and the Constellation Program. In order to successfully meet these challenges it was essential that the IPT define those items that most affected the schedule critical path, define early mitigation strategies to reduce technical, schedule, and budget risks, and maintain the end-product focus of an "unmanned test flight" context for the flight hardware. The makeup of the IPT and how it would function were also important considerations. The IPT consisted of NASA/MSFC (project management, engineering, and safety/quality) and contractors (Teledyne Brown Engineering and Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, who supplied heritage hardware experience). The early decision to have a small focused IPT working "badgelessly" across functional lines to eliminate functional stove-piping allowed for many more tasks to be done by fewer people. It also enhanced a sense of ownership of the products, while still being able to revert back to traditional roles in order to provide the required technical independence in design reviews and verification closures. This presentation will highlight several prominent issues and discuss how they were mitigated and the resulting Lessons Learned that might benefit other projects.

  4. Characterization of the clotting activities of structurally different forms of activated factor IX. Enzymatic properties of normal human factor IXa alpha, factor IXa beta, and activated factor IX Chapel Hill.

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, M J; Breitkreutz, L; Trapp, H; Briet, E; Noyes, C M; Lundblad, R L; Roberts, H R

    1985-01-01

    Two structurally different forms of activated human Factor IX (Factor IXa alpha and IXa beta) have been previously reported to have essentially identical clotting activity in vitro. Although it has been shown that activated Factor IX Chapel Hill, an abnormal Factor IX isolated from the plasma of a patient with mild hemophilia B, and normal Factor IXa alpha are structurally very similar, the clotting activity of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill is much lower (approximately fivefold) than that of normal Factor IXa beta. In the present study we have prepared activated Factor IX by incubating human Factor IX with calcium and Russell's viper venom covalently bound to agarose. Fractionation of the activated Factor IX by high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated the presence of both Factors IXa alpha and IXa beta. On the basis of active site concentration, determined by titration with antithrombin III, the clotting activities of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill and IXa alpha were similar, but both activities were less than 20% of the clotting activity of Factor IXa beta. Activated Factor IX activity was also measured in the absence of calcium, phospholipid, and Factor VIII, by determination of the rate of Factor X activation in the presence of polylysine. In the presence of polylysine, the rates of Factor X activation by activated Factor IX Chapel Hill, Factor IXa alpha, and Factor IXa beta were essentially identical. We conclude that the clotting activity of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill is reduced when compared with that of Factor IXa beta but essentially normal when compared with that of Factor IXa alpha. PMID:3871202

  5. Fluorescence dynamics of ALA-induced PpIX in normal and malignant skin cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, Caroline D.; Stringer, Mark R.; Cruse-Sawyer, Janet E.; Brown, Stanley B.

    2003-10-01

    We have applied a spectroscopic system capable of monitoring the fluorescence dynamics of photosensitiser at micron-scale locations within individual cells. This report shows that the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) within the nucleus of formalin-fixed keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and a metastatic squamous carcinoma cell line, following incubation with 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), is dependent upon both incubation time and cell proliferation status. We demonstrate that the process of photobleaching can be monitored via the depletion in PpIX fluorescence emission during exposure to 532 nm laser light. All spectra show a progressive reduction of the 634 nm PpIX peak - following a bi-exponential decay which is consistent with a singlet oxygen mediated process. The rate of photobleaching, when plotted as a function of light dose, increases with reduced incident laser power. The generation of the hydroxyaldehyde-chlorin photoproduct, as monitored by the increase in fluorescence emission centred on 672 nm, is also greatest when the lowest laser power is applied. When light is delivered in two fractions, there is evidence of PpIX fluorescence recovery during the dark period, and an increase in bleaching rate at the onset of the second exposure. These results are in qualitative agreement with measurements performed in vivo which demonstrate that the photodynamic dose is dependent upon fluence-rate and oxygen status.

  6. Techniques for fluorescence detection of protoporphyrin IX in skin cancers associated with photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rollakanti, Kishore R.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Davis, Scott C.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that uses a specific photosensitizing agent, molecular oxygen, and light of a particular wavelength to kill cells targeted by the therapy. Topically administered aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is widely used to effectively treat cancerous and precancerous skin lesions, resulting in targeted tissue damage and little to no scarring. The targeting aspect of the treatment arises from the fact that ALA is preferentially converted into protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in neoplastic cells. To monitor the amount of PpIX in tissues, techniques have been developed to measure PpIX-specific fluorescence, which provides information useful for monitoring the abundance and location of the photosensitizer before and during the illumination phase of PDT. This review summarizes the current state of these fluorescence detection techniques. Non-invasive devices are available for point measurements, or for wide-field optical imaging, to enable monitoring of PpIX in superficial tissues. To gain access to information at greater tissue depths, multi-modal techniques are being developed which combine fluorescent measurements with ultrasound or optical coherence tomography, or with microscopic techniques such as confocal or multiphoton approaches. The tools available at present, and newer devices under development, offer the promise of better enabling clinicians to inform and guide PDT treatment planning, thereby optimizing therapeutic outcomes for patients. PMID:25599015

  7. Ares I-X Overview - The First Chapter in the Next Great Adventure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Ares I-X is the first flight of NASA's new Constellation Program. Ares I-X is a development test flight to provide engineering data to inform the design of the Ares I prior to CDR. Ares I will replace the Space Shuttle which is scheduled for 2010 retirement . Ares I-X is an uncrewed, sub-orbital development flight test . Ares I-X will provide opportunity to test ground facilities and operations at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Ares I-X is on track for May 2009 launch date. Objectives include: (1) Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar, integrated Ares I/Orion, using Ares I relevant ascent control algorithms; (2) Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between a Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage; (3) Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares I-like First Stage element at KSC; (4) Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics, and parachute performance; and (5) Characterize magnitude of integrated vehicle roll torque throughout First Stage flight.

  8. Nuclear winter attracts additional scrutiny

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.

    1984-07-06

    Prodded by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Congress has asked the Pentagon to provide what amounts to an environmental impact statement on the potential for nuclear weapons explosions to create enough soot and dust to cause a nuclear winter. The request has implications for arms control and civil defense as well as for weapons procurement and deployment. Little attention was given to the atmospheric and climatic effects of nuclear war until the nuclear winter concept was introduced in October of 1983. Only the Navy and the DOE took steps to follow up until pressure was put on Congress and the Pentagon for further study. Pentagon criticism of the nuclear winter presentation argues that the scenario assumptions that cities will be targeted and that a conflict will involve 5000-6500 megatons are incorrect.

  9. Isolation of a human anti-haemophilic factor IX cDNA clone using a unique 52-base synthetic oligonucleotide probe deduced from the amino acid sequence of bovine factor IX.

    PubMed

    Jaye, M; de la Salle, H; Schamber, F; Balland, A; Kohli, V; Findeli, A; Tolstoshev, P; Lecocq, J P

    1983-04-25

    A unique 52mer oligonucleotide deduced from the amino acid sequence of bovine Factor IX was synthesized and used as a probe to screen a human liver cDNA bank. The Factor IX clone isolated shows 5 differences in nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence as compared to a previously isolated clone. In addition, precisely one codon has been deleted.Images

  10. Materials for Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) Separations of Pertechnetate Ion

    SciTech Connect

    Stender, Matthias; Hubler, Timothy L.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Smyrl, William H.

    2004-03-29

    Many contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) exist as anions (e.g. chromate, pertechnetate and nitrate). The objective of this study is to develop Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) materials. Such materials can be used to separate pertechnetate ion from radioactive wastes located at DOE sites while limiting the amount of secondary wastes generated. We have developed a synthetic strategy to prepare vinyl-bipyridyl and -terpyridyl ligands which allow incorporation of ion-selective architectures with a polymerizable handle. Fe complexes formed with these ligands provide the working core of the electroactive polymers. The polymers can be directly used as materials for EaIX or they can be incorporated into porous composite materials that are then used for EaIX.

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new family of anti-benzylanilinosulfonamides as CA IX inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Anne; Delayen, Aurélie; Goossens, Laurence; Houssin, Raymond; Ledecq, Marie; Frankart, Aurélie; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Wouters, Johan; Supuran, Claudiu T; Hénichart, Jean-Pierre; Masereel, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    We report the synthesis and the pharmacological evaluation of a new class of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) inhibitors prepared regio- and stereoselectively by reacting sulfanilamide with ethyl trans-phenylglycidate in the presence of cobalt(II) chloride. Various derivatizations of the ester moiety in the parent compound led to a small library of derivatives (2R,3R and 2S,3S) which displayed interesting inhibitory activities towards the human tumor-associated isoform CA IX. One of the new compounds shows high selectivity in inhibiting hCA IX compared to the two physiologically relevant, cytosolic isozymes hCA I and hCA II. A molecular modeling study was conducted in order to simulate the binding mode of this new family of enzyme inhibitors within the active sites of hCA IX and hCA II. PMID:18479784

  12. Interactions between collagen IX and biglycan measured by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.-H.; Yeh, M.-L.; Geyer, Mark; Wang, Gwo-Jaw; Huang, M.-H.; Heggeness, Michael H.; Hoeoek, Magnus; Luo, Z.-P. . E-mail: luo@bcm.tmc.edu

    2006-01-06

    The stability of the lattice-like type II collagen architecture of articular cartilage is paramount to its optimal function. Such stability not only depends on the rigidity of collagen fibrils themselves, but more importantly, on their interconnections. One known interconnection is through type IX and biglycan molecules. However, the mechanical properties of this interaction and its role in the overall stability remain unrevealed. Using atomic force microscopy, this study directly measured the mechanical strength (or the rupture force) of a single bond between collagen IX and biglycan. The results demonstrated that the rupture force of this single bond was 15 pN, which was significantly smaller than those of other known molecule interactions to date. This result suggested that type IX collagen and biglycan interaction may be the weak link in the cartilage collagen architecture, vulnerable to abnormal joint force and associated with disorders such as osteoarthritis.

  13. Membrane skeleton orchestrates the platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex clustering and signaling.

    PubMed

    Shang, Dan; Zhang, Zuping; Wang, Qian; Ran, Yali; Shaw, Tanner S; Van, John N; Peng, Yuandong

    2016-10-01

    Platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX complex is affixed to the membrane skeleton through interaction with actin binding protein 280 (ABP-280). We find that removal of the ABP-280 binding sites in GP Ibα cytoplasmic tail has little impact on the complex clustering induced by antibody crosslinking. However, large truncation of the GP Ibα cytoplasmic tail allows the formation of larger patches of the complex, suggesting that an ABP-280 independent force may exist. Besides, we observe that the signaling upon GP Ib-IX clustering is elicited in both membrane lipid domain dependent and independent manner, a choice that relies on how the membrane skeleton interacts with the complex. Our findings suggest a more complex mechanism for how the membrane skeleton regulates the GP Ib-IX function. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):823-829, 2016. PMID:27634617

  14. Membrane skeleton orchestrates the platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex clustering and signaling.

    PubMed

    Shang, Dan; Zhang, Zuping; Wang, Qian; Ran, Yali; Shaw, Tanner S; Van, John N; Peng, Yuandong

    2016-10-01

    Platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX complex is affixed to the membrane skeleton through interaction with actin binding protein 280 (ABP-280). We find that removal of the ABP-280 binding sites in GP Ibα cytoplasmic tail has little impact on the complex clustering induced by antibody crosslinking. However, large truncation of the GP Ibα cytoplasmic tail allows the formation of larger patches of the complex, suggesting that an ABP-280 independent force may exist. Besides, we observe that the signaling upon GP Ib-IX clustering is elicited in both membrane lipid domain dependent and independent manner, a choice that relies on how the membrane skeleton interacts with the complex. Our findings suggest a more complex mechanism for how the membrane skeleton regulates the GP Ib-IX function. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):823-829, 2016.

  15. PREFACE: The IX Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amore, Paolo; Aranda, Alfredo; Bashir, Adnan; Mondragón, Myriam; Raya, Alfredo

    2006-05-01

    The IX Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields was held in the beautiful city of Colima, in the South-West of Mexico, from 17-22 November 2003. The proceedings of the Workshop were delayed due to problems with a previous publisher, we are very grateful that Journal of Physics: Conference Series kindly agreed to publish the proceedings rapidly at this late stage. The Workshop aimed to cover, through invited lectures delivered by internationally known experts, the most recent developments in the field. There was also a series of short seminars as well as a poster session, which allowed the whole community to participate with their most recent research results. A special session was dedicated to awarding the Division Medal to Professor Benjamin Grinstein, from The University of California, San Diego, for his outstanding contributions to the field. This volume contains the written version of the material presented at the Workshop. The Workshop was attended by more than 100 participants, including faculty members, postdocs and graduate students. It was organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society, and generously sponsored by several institutions: Universidad de Colima, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Conacyt). The Local Organizing Committee was integrated by Paolo Amore, Alfredo Aranda, Carlos Moisés Hernóndez Suórez (Director of the Physics Faculty), Arturo Gonzólez Larios, Enrique Farías Martínez, and Myriam Cruz Calvario, all from the University of Colima. The members of the National Organizing Committee were Adnan Bashir (IFM-UMSHN), Jens Erler (IF-UNAM), Heriberto Castilla Valdés (CINVESTAV-U.Zacatenco), Gabriel López Castro (CINVESTAV-U.Zacatenco), Myriam Mondragón (IF-UNAM) and Luis Villaseñ or (IFM-UMSHN). We gratefully acknowledge the help given by

  16. Properties and environment of the molecular complex near Holmberg IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, F.; Brouillet, N.; Hüttemeister, S.; Henkel, C.; Braine, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Herpin, F.; Banhidi, Z.; Albrecht, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is aimed at providing new insight into the nature and origin of the molecular complex situated near the line of sight toward Holmberg IX in the M 81 group of galaxies. The first high resolution CO maps of the complex as well as single dish 13CO(1-0), 12CO(3-2) and millimeter continuum observations and the results of a survey of 12CO in the region are presented. These data together with the available HI, optical and X-ray observations are analyzed to study the properties and environment of the complex. We confirm there is no unobscured massive star formation inside the complex, and from the millimeter constraint on the extinction it must have a low star formation rate or be forming only low mass stars. According to the CO line ratios the abundances and physical conditions could be similar to that of cold gas in spirals. We find from its dynamics (no rotation) and its mass (2-6 million solar masses) that it resembles a massive GMC. Also, re-inspecting N-body simulations of the M 81 group and the H I data we find that it might be located inside the extreme outer disk of M 81 and be cospatial with the H I feature known as Concentration I. The negative result of the CO survey suggests that the complex is unique in this region and calls for a peculiar local formation process. We find that the distribution of the CO emission in the data cube is asymmetrical in a way similar to a cometary object. The optical observations of the nearby supershell MH9/10 suggest the existence of an outflow toward the complex. We consider the possibility that the molecular complex is related to this hypothetical outflow. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and 30 m telescope, the 10 m Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope (HHT), and the NRAO 12 m telecsope. IRAM (Institut de Radio-Astronomie Millimétrique) is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain). The HHT was operated by the Submillimeter Telescope Observatory on behalf of

  17. Winter Outdoor Education Activities: Snowshoes and Exploring the Winter Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.; And Others

    Designed as a resource base upon which elementary school educators can build outdoor learning experiences, this resource packet contains a basic, multidisciplinary snowshoeing lesson plan, pre- and post-trip suggestions, and suggestions for further winter outdoor study on snowshoes. Specifically, there are narratives and illustrations addressed at…

  18. Initial Assessment of the Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Upper Stage to Vibroacoustic Flight Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larko, Jeffrey M.; Hughes, William O.

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle will be NASA s first new launch vehicle since 1981. Currently in design, it will replace the Space Shuttle in taking astronauts to the International Space Station, and will eventually play a major role in humankind s return to the Moon and eventually to Mars. Prior to any manned flight of this vehicle, unmanned test readiness flights will be flown. The first of these readiness flights, named Ares I-X, is scheduled to be launched in April 2009. The NASA Glenn Research Center is responsible for the design, manufacture, test and analysis of the Ares I-X upper stage simulator (USS) element. As part of the design effort, the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X launch vehicle to its vibroacoustic flight environments must be analyzed. The launch vehicle will be exposed to extremely high acoustic pressures during its lift-off and aerodynamic stages of flight. This in turn will cause high levels of random vibration on the vehicle's outer surface that will be transmitted to its interior. Critical flight equipment, such as its avionics and flight guidance components are susceptible to damage from this excitation. This study addresses the modelling, analysis and predictions from examining the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X upper stage to its vibroacoustic excitations. A statistical energy analysis (SEA) model was used to predict the high frequency response of the vehicle at locations of interest. Key to this study was the definition of the excitation fields corresponding to lift off acoustics and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure fluctuations during flight. The predicted results will be used by the Ares I-X Project to verify the flight qualification status of the Ares I-X upper stage components.

  19. An intraoperative spectroscopic imaging system for quantification of Protoporphyrin IX during glioma surgery (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo-Rodríguez, Leticia M.; Laurence, Audrey; Jermyn, Michael; Sheehy, Guillaume; Sibai, Mira; Petrecca, Kevin; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Wilson, Brian C.; Leblond, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Cancer tissue often remains after brain tumor resection due to the inability to detect the full extent of cancer during surgery, particularly near tumor boundaries. Commercial systems are available for intra-operative real-time aminolevulenic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence imaging. These are standard white-light neurosurgical microscopes adapted with optical components for fluorescence excitation and detection. However, these instruments lack sensitivity and specificity, which limits the ability to detect low levels of PpIX and distinguish it from tissue auto-fluorescence. Current systems also cannot provide repeatable and un-biased quantitative fluorophore concentration values because of the unknown and highly variable light attenuation by tissue. We present a highly sensitive spectroscopic fluorescence imaging system that is seamlessly integrated onto a neurosurgical microscope. Hardware and software were developed to achieve through-microscope spatially-modulated illumination for 3D profilometry and to use this information to extract tissue optical properties to correct for the effects of tissue light attenuation. This gives pixel-by-pixel quantified fluorescence values and improves detection of low PpIX concentrations. This is achieved using a high-sensitivity Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) with a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter (LCTF) whereby spectral bands are acquired sequentially; and a snapshot camera system with simultaneous acquisition of all bands is used for profilometry and optical property recovery. Sensitivity and specificity to PpIX is demonstrated using brain tissue phantoms and intraoperative human data acquired in an on-going clinical study using PpIX fluorescence to guide glioma resection.

  20. Ares I-X Flight Test--The Future Begins Here

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2008-01-01

    In less than one year, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, will send humans to the Moon and beyond. Personnel from the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for a 2009 launch. Ares I-X will be a suborbital development flight test that will gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle stack; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the severe stage separation environments that the upper stage engine will experience during future flights; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. NASA also will modify the launch infrastructure and ground and mission operations. The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) will incorporate flight and mockup hardware similar in mass and weight to the operational vehicle. It will be powered by a four-segment Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), which is currently in Shuttle inventory, and will include a fifth spacer segment and new forward structures to make the booster approximately the same size and weight as the five-segment SRB. The Ares I-X flight profile will closely approximate the flight conditions that the Ares I will experience through Mach 4.5, up to approximately 130,000 feet (39,600 meters (m)) and through maximum dynamic pressure ('Max Q') of approximately 800 pounds per square foot (38.3 kilopascals (kPa)). Data from the Ares I-X flight will support the Ares I Critical Design Review (CDR), scheduled for 2010. Work continues on Ares I-X design and hardware fabrication. All of the individual elements are undergoing CDRs, followed by a two-part integrated vehicle CDR in March and July 2008. The various hardware elements are on schedule to begin deliveries to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in early September 2008. Ares I-X is the first step in

  1. Lacerations to Zones VIII and IX: It Is Not Just a Tendon Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Charla R.; Tang, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Extensor tendon injuries are widely believed to be straightforward problems that are relatively simple to manage. However, these injuries can be complex and demand a thorough understanding of anatomy to achieve the best functional outcomes. When lacerations occur in the forearm as in Zones VIII and IX injury, the repair of the extensor tendon and muscle, and posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) is often challenging. A review of the literature shows little guidance and attention for these injuries. We present four patients with injuries to Zones VIII and IX as well as a review of surgical technique, postoperative rehabilitation, and pearls that may be of benefit to those managing these injuries. PMID:21991409

  2. Organization within the cranial IX-X complex in ranid frogs: a horseradish peroxidase transport study.

    PubMed

    Stuesse, S L; Cruce, W L; Powell, K S

    1984-01-20

    Cranial nerves IX and X in frogs have been described as originating from a nuclear group referred to as the IX-X complex. We studied the central nervous system components of this complex in Rana pipiens and R. catesbiana by labeling peripheral branches of cranial nerves IX and X and identifying the central nervous system contributions of these branches. Various peripheral nerves (IX and the cardiac, gastric, pulmonary, and laryngeal branches of X) were identified and soaked in horseradish peroxidase (HRP). One to 2 weeks later, the frogs were killed and processed for HRP by the tetramethylbenzidine method. Glossopharyngeal efferents originated from a small ventrolateral cell group found at the level of IX root exit. Vagal efferents formed a single column of cells in a ventrolateral position from the level of the brainstem exist of the vagus nerve (approximately 2,000 micrometers above the obex) to 200 micrometers below the obex (values given are for an 80-g frog). This cell group was separate from and just caudal to efferent cells of the glossopharyngeal nerve. Within the vagal portion of the column, cells projecting through the gastric branch were found throughout the rostral-caudal extent of the nucleus. "Cardiac" cells tended to be more rostral than "pulmonary" cells, and both groups of cells were located in the middle of the nucleus. "Laryngeal" cells were located more caudally in the nucleus. This peripheral representation within the vagal nucleus corresponds more closely to the organization found in the mammalian nucleus ambiguus, rather than to the apparent lack of organization found in the mammalian dorsal motor nucleus. Afferents of IX and X entered slightly rostral to the ventral roots of their respective nerves and descended in two tracts. The majority entered the tractus solitarius and descended in a medial position to cervical spinal cord. A portion of the afferents from the vagus nerve crossed the midline in the lower myelencephalon just dorsal to the

  3. Concurrent acquired inhibitors to factor VIII and IX, a laboratory artifact: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Doma, Saša Anžej; Hillarp, Andreas; Pajič, Tadej; Andoljšek, Dušan; Černelč, Peter; Preldžnik Zupan, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Acquired inhibitors to coagulation factors other than factor VIII are extremely rare. We describe a case of a 59-year-old woman with abnormal bleeding, diagnosed with concurrent inhibitor antibodies to factor VIII and IX by Bethesda testing. We demonstrate that anti-FVIII antibodies of a very high titre are capable of disturbing the aPTT-based Bethesda assay, resulting in falsely-positive antibodies to factor IX. The case also illustrates the usefulness of the immunological assay (ELISA) in complementing the inhibitor diagnosis. PMID:27346976

  4. Collaborative study for the establishment of replacement batches for human coagulation factor IX concentrate reference standards.

    PubMed

    Gray, E; Pickering, W; Hockley, J; Rigsby, P; Weinstein, M; Terao, E; Buchheit, K-H

    2008-12-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) batch 1, the World Health Organisation (WHO) 3rd International Standard, Human (IS, 96/854) and the FDA Standard for human blood coagulation Factor IX concentrate have been available since 1996, following their establishment by a common collaborative study. Due to dwindling stocks of all three standards, a new WHO-EDQM-FDA tri-partite collaborative study was launched to establish replacement batches. Thirty laboratories from fourteen countries took part in the collaborative study to assign potency values to candidate preparations. Three candidates, one of recombinant and two of human plasma-derived origins, were assayed against the 3rd IS for Blood Coagulation Factor IX, Concentrate, Human (96/854). The 3rd IS for Blood Coagulation Factors II, VII, IX and X, Plasma, Human (99/826) was also included to evaluate the relationship between the factor IX plasma and concentrate unitage. Thirty-two sets of clotting assay results and two sets of chromogenic assay data were analysed. There was a significant difference in potency estimates by these two methods for the recombinant candidate (sample B) and the plasma IS (sample P). Similar potency values were obtained for the plasma derived products (monoclonal antibody- and chromatography-purified factor IX, samples C and D) by clotting and chromogenic assays. For the clotting assays, intra-laboratory variability (GCV) was found to range from 0.5 - 21.7%, with the GCV for the majority of laboratories being less than 10%. Good inter-laboratory agreement, with the majority of the GCV being less than 10% (GCV range = 4.7 - 10.6 %) was also obtained. The mean potency values estimated by the clotting assay using plasma as pre-diluent (as directed by the Ph. Eur. general chapter method) did not differ from values obtained using buffer. Taking into account the preliminary stability data, the intra- and inter-laboratory variability, and the differences

  5. In-flight motor torque estimates for the second-stage Strypi IX launch vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Edmunds, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper documents the results of a study to determine the character of body fixed torques generated by the Anteres IIA motor, during second-stage burn of the Strypi IX launch vehicle. The Strypi IX is a two-stage spin-stabilized solid-propellant launch vehicle designed to boost a variety of payloads to reentry environment conditions. The torque estimates were determined from postflight analysis of Euler angle telemetry data. Principal axis misalignments, and thrust misalignments were also estimated. Data was analyzed from two separate launches; a Precursor and a Prime flight. 21 figs.

  6. An investigation of three patients with Christmas disease due to an abnormal type of factor IX.

    PubMed

    Denson, K W; Biggs, R; Mannucci, P M

    1968-03-01

    Three patients with Christmas disease whose plasma was shown to have a prolonged one-stage prothrombin time with ox brain thromboplastin have been investigated. These patients have an inhibitor for the reaction between factor X, factor VII, and ox brain extract. The abnormal constituent responsible for this inhibitor appears to be factor IX whuch is functionally inactive but antigenically indistinguishable from normal factor IX. It is proposed that patients might be classified into haemophilia B(+) for patients with this defect (Christmas disease(+)) and haemophilia B(-) (Christmas disease(-)) for patients who have classical Christmas disease.

  7. A comparison of bovine prothrombin, factor IX (Christmas factor), and factor X (Stuart factor).

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, K; Coan, M H; Enfield, D L; Titani, K; Ericsson, L H; Davie, E W

    1974-02-01

    A comparison has been made of the electrophoretic behavior, chemical composition, amino-terminal sequence, and immunological properties of bovine prothrombin, factor IX (Christmas factor), and factor X (Stuart factor). Some immunological crossreactivity was found between the antibody to prothrombin and factor X although prothrombin and factor X differ substantially in amino-acid and carbohydrate composition. Considerable amino-acid sequence homology was found in the amino-terminal portion of prothrombin, factor IX, and the light chain of factor X. These data provide further evidence to support the hypothesis that at least three of the vitamin K-dependent clotting factors have evolved from a common ancestral gene.

  8. Inhibitor-neutralisation assay and electro-immuno assay of human factor IX (Christmas factor).

    PubMed

    Bertina, R M; van der Linden, I K

    1977-06-15

    A rabbit antibody specifically precipitating human factor IX has been used in the assay of factor IX antigen. The results obtained with two different methods (inhibitor-neutralisation assay and electro-immunoassay) have been compared in a group of healthy individuals and in a group of hemophilia B patients and carriers. In general, identical results are obtained with both methods, except in some hemophilia B+ carriers and patients, where the electroimmuno assay gives 1.5-2.0 times higher levels. Results obtained by electroimmuno assay are more accurate and reproducible than those obtained by inhibitor-neutralisation assay, which is of importance for its potential use in carrier detection.

  9. "To Study the Relationship of Academic Stress and Socio-Economic Status among IX Standard Students of Raipur City"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Suhail Ahmed; Ayyub, Khan Farhat

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between academic stress and socio-economic status among IX standard students. The research was carried out in Raipur City (Chhattisgarh) on a sample of 600 IX standard students of English and Hindi medium schools. Academic Stress was measured by Stress Inventory for School Students prepared by Seema Rani…

  10. Clearance of protoporphyrin IX from mouse skin after topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid and its methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juzenas, Petras; Sorensen, Roar; Iani, Vladimir; Moan, Johan

    1999-02-01

    The clearance of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) from the skin of hairless BALB/c mice after topical application of 5- aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and its methyl ester (ALA-Me) was investigated. Creams containing 2 or 20% of ALA or ALA-Me were topically applied on spots of approximately 1 cm2 for 12 hours. The PpIX fluorescence was detected by the means of a Perkin Elmer LS50B luminescence spectrometer equipped with a fiber-optic probe. The emission spectrum was identical with that of cell-bound PpIX. After 12 hours application of ALA and ALA-Me similar amounts of PpIX were found. After creme removal the ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence decayed with a half-life of about 20 hours (20% ALA cream). The ALA-Me-induced PpIX was faster cleared from the skin than ALA-induced PpIX, and had a half-life of about 7 hours (20% ALA-Me cream).

  11. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 86 - Experimentally Determining the R-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures IX Appendix IX to Part 86 Protection of Environment... the R-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures The R-Factor is the catalyst thermal reactivity coefficient used in the bench aging time (BAT) equation . Manufacturers may determine the value of...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 86 - Experimentally Determining the R-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures IX Appendix IX to Part 86 Protection of Environment...-Factor for Bench Aging Durability Procedures The R-Factor is the catalyst thermal reactivity coefficient used in the bench aging time (BAT) equation . Manufacturers may determine the value of R...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS...

  14. 78 FR 79498 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Open-IX Association

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Association Notice is hereby given that, on December 3, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National... Association (``Open-IX'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and the... and principal place of business of the standards development organization is: Open-IX...

  15. Somatic mosaicism and female-to-female transmission in a kindred with hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.A.M.; Deugau, K.V.; Lillicrap, D.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Studies have shown that hemophilia B (Christmas disease; factor IX deficiency) results from many different mutations in the factor IX gene, of which {gt}95% are single nulceotide substitutions. This study has identified a previously unreported form of hemophilia B in a patient who was a somatic mosaic for a guanine-to-cytosine transversion at nucleotide 31,170 in the factor IX gene. This point mutation changes the codon for residue 350 in the catalytic domain of factor IX from a cysteine to a serine. The authors used differential termination of primer extension to confirm and measure the degree of mosaicism. The study shows that a varying proportion of cells from hepatic, renal, smooth muscle, and hematopoietic populations possessed normal as well as mutant factor IX sequences. These results indicate that the mutation in this patient occurred either as an uncorrected half-chromatid mutation in the female gamete or as a replication or postreplication error in the initial mitotic divisions of the zygote preceding implantation. In addition, this kindred also contains two females in successive generations who have moderately severe factor IX deficiency. The molecular pathogenesis of this latter phenomenon has been studied and seems to relate to the unaccompanied expression of the mutant factor IX gene consequent upon a second, as yet undefined, genetic event that has prevented inactivation of sequences including the mutant factor IX gene on the X chromosome inherited from the affected male.

  16. 77 FR 34033 - American River Power IX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...--Hydroelectric Water Power Project (Peoria Dam Project or project) to be located at the U.S. Army Corps of... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power IX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, American River Power IX, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section...

  17. Somatic mosaicism and female-to-female transmission in a kindred with hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency).

    PubMed

    Taylor, S A; Deugau, K V; Lillicrap, D P

    1991-01-01

    Studies have shown that hemophilia B (Christmas disease; factor IX deficiency) results from many different mutations in the factor IX gene, of which greater than 95% are single nucleotide substitutions. This study has identified a previously unreported form of hemophilia B in a patient who was a somatic mosaic for a guanine-to-cytosine transversion at nucleotide 31,170 in the factor IX gene. This point mutation changes the codon for residue 350 in the catalytic domain of factor IX from a cysteine to a serine. We used differential termination of primer extension to confirm and measure the degree of mosaicism. Our study shows that a varying proportion of cells from hepatic, renal, smooth muscle, and hematopoietic populations possessed normal as well as mutant factor IX sequences. These results indicate that the mutation in this patient occurred either as an uncorrected half-chromatid mutation in the female gamete or as a replication or postreplication error in the initial mitotic divisions of the zygote preceding implantation. In addition, this kindred also contains two females in successive generations who have moderately severe factor IX deficiency. The molecular pathogenesis of this latter phenomenon has been studied and seems to relate to the unaccompanied expression of the mutant factor IX gene consequent upon a second, as yet undefined, genetic event that has prevented inactivation of sequences including the mutant factor IX gene on the X chromosome inherited from the affected male.

  18. Isolation and characterization of human factor IX cDNA: identification of Taq I polymorphism and regional assignment.

    PubMed

    Jagadeeswaran, P; Lavelle, D E; Kaul, R; Mohandas, T; Warren, S T

    1984-09-01

    Hemophilia B or Christmas disease is an X-linked condition caused by absent or reduced levels of functional coagulation factor IX. Based upon the peptide sequence of bovine factor IX, we synthesized a 17-base pair oligonucleotide probe to screen a human liver cDNA library. A recombinant clone was identified with a 917-nucleotide insert whose sequence corresponds to 70% of the coding region of human factor IX. This factor IX cDNA was used to probe restriction endonuclease digested human DNA to identify a Taq I polymorphism associated with the genomic factor IX gene as well as to verify that there is a single copy of this gene per haploid genome. The factor IX cDNA was also used to map the locus for factor IX to a region from Xq26 to Xqter. The cloning of human factor IX cDNA and identification of a Taq I polymorphism and its regional localization will provide a means to study the molecular genetics of hemophilia B and permit linkage analysis with nearby loci.

  19. Distribution patterns during winter and fidelity to wintering areas of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution patterns during winter of American black ducks were compared among age-sex classes using band recivery data. In addition, fidelity to wintering areas was compared between sexes and between coastal and inland wintering sites.

  20. No effect of arm-crank exercise on diaphragmatic fatigue or ventilatory constraint in Paralympic athletes with cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bryan J; West, Christopher R; Romer, Lee M

    2010-08-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) results in a decrease in the capacity of the lungs and chest wall for pressure, volume, and airflow generation. We asked whether such impairments might increase the potential for exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue and mechanical ventilatory constraint in this population. Seven Paralympic wheelchair rugby players (mean + or - SD peak oxygen uptake = 16.9 + or - 4.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) with traumatic CSCI (C(5)-C(7)) performed arm-crank exercise to the limit of tolerance at 90% of their predetermined peak work rate. Diaphragm function was assessed before and 15 and 30 min after exercise by measuring the twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (P(di,tw)) response to bilateral anterolateral magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerves. Ventilatory constraint was assessed by measuring the tidal flow volume responses to exercise in relation to the maximal flow volume envelope. P(di,tw) was not different from baseline at any time after exercise (unpotentiated P(di,tw) = 19.3 + or - 5.6 cmH(2)O at baseline, 19.8 + or - 5.0 cmH(2)O at 15 min after exercise, and 19.4 + or - 5.7 cmH(2)O at 30 min after exercise; P = 0.16). During exercise, there was a sudden, sustained rise in operating lung volumes and an eightfold increase in the work of breathing. However, only two subjects showed expiratory flow limitation, and there was substantial capacity to increase both flow and volume (<50% of maximal breathing reserve). In conclusion, highly trained athletes with CSCI do not develop exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue and rarely reach mechanical ventilatory constraint. PMID:20489038

  1. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this experience,…

  2. Reducing winter injury in blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the combination of primocane training and cane positioning techniques using a rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covering plants in winter to protect buds and canes from freezing temperatures in ‘Apache’, ‘Boysenberry’, ‘Siskiyou’, and ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry. After tying p...

  3. Alprolix (recombinant Factor IX Fc fusion protein): extended half-life product for the prophylaxis and treatment of hemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Ducore, Jonathan M; Miguelino, Maricel G; Powell, Jerry S

    2014-10-01

    Hemophilia B is a genetic disease caused by mutation of the gene for coagulation protein Factor IX. When severe, the disease leads to spontaneous life-threatening bleeding episodes. Current therapy requires frequent intravenous infusions of therapeutic recombinant or plasma-derived protein concentrates containing Factor IX. Alprolix™ (recombinant Factor IX Fc fusion protein), is a therapeutic Factor IX preparation that has been engineered for a prolonged half-life in circulation, has completed pivotal clinical trials and has been approved recently in the USA, Canada, Australia and Japan for use in the clinic for patients with hemophilia B. This promising therapy should allow patients to use fewer infusions to maintain appropriate Factor IX activity levels in all clinical settings, and its use may be indicated in both on demand and prophylactic treatments.

  4. A novel mouse PKC{delta} splice variant, PKC{delta}IX, inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jung D.; Seo, Kwang W.; Lee, Eun A.; Quang, Nguyen N.; Cho, Hong R.; Kwon, Byungsuk

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel PKC{delta} isoform, named PKC{delta}IX, that lacks the C1 domain and the ATP-binding site is ubiquitously expressed. {yields} PKC{delta}IX inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis. {yields} PKC{delta}IX may function as an endogenous dominant negative isoform for PKC{delta}. -- Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) {delta} plays an important role in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The catalytic fragment of PKC{delta} generated by caspase-dependent cleavage is essential for the initiation of etoposide-induced apoptosis. In this study, we identified a novel mouse PKC{delta} isoform named PKC{delta}IX (Genebank Accession No. (HQ840432)). PKC{delta}IX is generated by alternative splicing and is ubiquitously expressed, as seen in its full-length PKC{delta}. PKC{delta}IX lacks the C1 domain, the caspase 3 cleavage site, and the ATP binding site but preserves an almost intact c-terminal catalytic domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The structural characteristics of PKC{delta}IX provided a possibility that this PKC{delta} isozyme functions as a novel dominant-negative form for PKC{delta} due to its lack of the ATP-binding domain that is required for the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. Indeed, overexpression of PKC{delta}IX significantly inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, an in vitro kinase assay showed that recombinant PKC{delta}IX protein could competitively inhibit the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. We conclude that PKC{delta}IX can function as a natural dominant-negative inhibitor of PKC{delta}in vivo.

  5. Xanthophyll cycle pigment and antioxidant profiles of winter-red (anthocyanic) and winter-green (acyanic) angiosperm evergreen species.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicole M; Burkey, Kent O; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Smith, William K

    2012-03-01

    Leaves of many angiosperm evergreen species change colour from green to red during winter, corresponding with the synthesis of anthocyanin pigments. The ecophysiological function of winter colour change (if any), and why it occurs in some species and not others, are not yet understood. It was hypothesized that anthocyanins play a compensatory photoprotective role in species with limited capacity for energy dissipation. Seasonal xanthophyll pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf nitrogen, and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) of five winter-red and five winter-green angiosperm evergreen species were compared. Our results showed no difference in seasonal xanthophyll pigment content (V+A+Z g(-1) leaf dry mass) or LMWA between winter-red and winter-green species, indicating red-leafed species are not deficient in their capacity for non-photochemical energy dissipation via these mechanisms. Winter-red and winter-green species also did not differ in percentage leaf nitrogen, corroborating previous studies showing no difference in seasonal photosynthesis under saturating irradiance. Consistent with a photoprotective function of anthocyanin, winter-red species had significantly lower xanthophyll content per unit chlorophyll and less sustained photoinhibition than winter-green species (i.e. higher pre-dawn F(v)/F(m) and a lower proportion of de-epoxidized xanthophylls retained overnight). Red-leafed species also maintained a higher maximum quantum yield efficiency of PSII at midday (F'(v)/F'(m)) during winter, and showed characteristics of shade acclimation (positive correlation between anthocyanin and chlorophyll content, and negative correlation with chlorophyll a/b). These results suggest that the capacity for photon energy dissipation (photochemical and non-photochemical) is not limited in red-leafed species, and that anthocyanins more likely function as an alternative photoprotective strategy to increased VAZ/Chl during winter.

  6. Wintering ecology of adult North American ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.

  7. Winter movement dynamics of Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John

    2007-01-01

    Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998-Mar 2000) using capture-recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.

  8. Syntheses of protoporphyrin-IX derivatives bearing extended propionate side-chains.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Robert T; Lu, Jianming; Mwakwari, Celinah; Smith, Kevin M

    2009-05-29

    In order to investigate the relationship between depth within membranes of singlet oxygen generation and effectiveness of photodynamic therapy of tumors, analogs of protoporphyrin-IX 1 bearing five 4 and seven 5 carbon atoms (in place of the 3-carbon atom chain in 1) were synthesized from monopyrrole precursors.

  9. Decision Making in Intercollegiate Athletics: One Institution's Journey to Maintain Title IX Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The allocation of resources and participation opportunities in intercollegiate athletics has been a debate among researchers for nearly 40 years. Title IX and traditionally male-dominated budgeting practices continue to be opposing forces that shape the financial and gender makeup of university athletic departments. In fact, the need to be Title…

  10. User's Guide to Developing Student Interest Surveys Under Title IX. NCES 2005-173

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a guide for conducting a survey of student interest in order to satisfy Part 3 the Three-Part Test established in the 1979 Policy Interpretation of the intercollegiate athletic provisions of Title IX of the Higher Education Act of 1972. To lay the foundation for the guide, NISS conducted an historical…

  11. Title IX, Girls' Sports Participation, and Adult Female Physical Activity and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and…

  12. African Swine Fever Virus p72 Genotype IX in Domestic Pigs, Congo, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Anchuelo, Raquel; Pelayo, Virginia; Poudevigne, Frédéric; Leon, Tati; Nzoussi, Jacques; Bishop, Richard; Pérez, Covadonga; Soler, Alejandro; Nieto, Raquel; Martín, Hilario; Arias, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    African swine fever virus p72 genotype IX, associated with outbreaks in eastern Africa, is cocirculating in the Republic of the Congo with West African genotype I. Data suggest that viruses from eastern Africa are moving into western Africa, increasing the threat of outbreaks caused by novel viruses in this region. PMID:21801650

  13. Flourescence analysis of ALA-induced Protoporphyrin IX in psoriatic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, Mark R.; Robinson, Dominic J.; Collins, P.

    1996-01-01

    The success reported for the treatment of superficial skin carcinomas by photodynamic therapy (PDT), following topical application of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), has therapeutic implications for the treatment of other skin disorders. This presentation describes the accumulation of the photosensitizing agent protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in areas of psoriatic plaque, by monitoring the fluorescence emission induced by low-intensity laser excitation at 488 nm. We present the results from 15 patients, with a total of 42 plaques. These results show that PpIX fluorescence increases in intensity within the 6 hour period following application of ALA, which implies there is a potential for PDT. The emission is localized to the area of ALA application and the effect of occlusion appears insignificant. Also, the rate of increase, and maximum intensity of fluorescence emission, is not directly related to the applied quantity of ALA. The variability of the fluorescence intensity is as great between plaques at different sites on the same patient as between different patients. We also present measurements of the depletion in intensity of fluorescence emission during PDT treatment, using white light, at an irradiance of 25 mW cm-2, that is a consequence of the molecular photo-oxidation of PpIX. The use of fluorescence measurements in predicting the therapeutic effect of treating plaque psoriasis by ALA-PDT is discussed.

  14. A Title IX Perspective on the Schools' Response to Teenage Pregnancy and Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.

    Title IX mandates that pregnant students, regardless of marital status, have the same rights and responsibilities as other students. Because social pressures on pregnant and parenting students to leave school still exists, schools have been required to develop responses to their needs. To examine these responses and subsequent programs from the…

  15. Use of proteomics for validation of the isolation process of clotting factor IX from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Clifton, James; Huang, Feilei; Gaso-Sokac, Dajana; Brilliant, Kate; Hixson, Douglas; Josic, Djuro

    2010-01-01

    The use of proteomic techniques in the monitoring of different production steps of plasma-derived clotting factor IX (pd F IX) was demonstrated. The first step, solid-phase extraction with a weak anion-exchange resin, fractionates the bulk of human serum albumin (HSA), immunoglobulin G, and other non-binding proteins from F IX. The proteins that strongly bind to the anion-exchange resin are eluted by higher salt concentrations. In the second step, anion-exchange chromatography, residual HSA, some proteases and other contaminating proteins are separated. In the last chromatographic step, affinity chromatography with immobilized heparin, the majority of the residual impurities are removed. However, some contaminating proteins still remain in the eluate from the affinity column. The next step in the production process, virus filtration, is also an efficient step for the removal of residual impurities, mainly high molecular weight proteins, such as vitronectin and inter-alpha inhibitor proteins. In each production step, the active component, pd F IX and contaminating proteins are monitored by biochemical and immunochemical methods and by LC-MS/MS and their removal documented. Our methodology is very helpful for further process optimization, rapid identification of target proteins with relatively low abundance, and for the design of subsequent steps for their removal or purification.

  16. Title IX and Retaliation: The Impact of "Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education" on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melear, Kerry Brian

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the United States Supreme Court rendered a closely divided opinion that extends the protections against discrimination provided by Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 to include a private cause of action for retaliation in "Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education." Therefore, "whistleblowers," or employees who report allegedly…

  17. Specific immunohistochemical pattern of carbonic anhydrase IX is helpful for the diagnosis of CNS hemangioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Tina; Bode, Markus; Berlis, Ansgar; Frühwald, Michael C; Lichtmannegger, Ines; Endhardt, Katharina; Märkl, Bruno

    2015-07-01

    Hemangioblastomas are rare capillary-rich tumors predominantly found in the CNS. The histological appearance of these tumors varies across a broad spectrum. Several entities show considerable histomorphological similarities to hemangioblastomas. Therefore, morphological evaluation can be challenging. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic utility of immunohistochemistry using antibodies against carbonic anhydrase IX and cytokeratin staining. Within our files, we identified 20 hemangioblastomas. A collection of 46 other tumors relevant to the differential diagnosis (12 pilocytic astrocytomas, 11 meningiomas, one pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, one angiomatous fibrous histiocytoma, 14 carcinoma metastases and seven gliomas grades II-IX) served as control. The pattern of strong, diffuse expression of carbonic anhydrase IX with membranous accentuation in combination with keratin negativity was considered diagnostic for hemangioblastomas. It was found in 18 out of 20 (90%) hemangioblastomas and in none of the control cases (P < 0.001). This resulted in a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. The positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 96%, respectively. Carbonic anhydrase IX with cytokeratin is thus a highly sensitive and specific marker combination for hemangioblastomas. It is therefore very helpful in the diagnosis of these tumors and in their discrimination from other entities. PMID:25888144

  18. Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Modal Test Measurements and Data Quality Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, Justin D.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Gaspar, James L.; Parks, Russell A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X modal test program consisted of three modal tests conducted at the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA s Kennedy Space Center. The first test was performed on the 71-foot 53,000-pound top segment of the Ares I-X launch vehicle known as Super Stack 5 and the second test was performed on the 66-foot 146,000- pound middle segment known as Super Stack 1. For these tests, two 250 lb-peak electro-dynamic shakers were used to excite bending and shell modes with the test articles resting on the floor. The third modal test was performed on the 327-foot 1,800,000-pound Ares I-X launch vehicle mounted to the Mobile Launcher Platform. The excitation for this test consisted of four 1000+ lb-peak hydraulic shakers arranged to excite the vehicle s cantilevered bending modes. Because the frequencies of interest for these modal tests ranged from 0.02 to 30 Hz, high sensitivity capacitive accelerometers were used. Excitation techniques included impact, burst random, pure random, and force controlled sine sweep. This paper provides the test details for the companion papers covering the Ares I-X finite element model calibration process. Topics to be discussed include test setups, procedures, measurements, data quality assessments, and consistency of modal parameter estimates.

  19. Einstein-Weyl field equations in a Bianchi type-IX space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Kolassis, C.A.; Le Denmat, G.

    1984-07-15

    It is proved that there exists no solution of the combined gravitational-neutrino field equations in general relativity if the space-time metric admits a group of isometries of Bianchi type IX and the neutrino field has geodesic and shearfree rays.

  20. Effectiveness of CAI Package on Achievement in Physics of IX Standard Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheswari, I. Uma; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an experimental one in nature, to find out the effectiveness of CAI package on in Physics of IX std. students. For this purpose a CAI package was developed and validated. The validated CAI package formed an independent variable of this study. The dependent variable is students' achievements in physics content. In order to find…

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN USEPA REGION IX R-EMAP STUDY AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury distribution within U .S. EP A Region IX Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (R-EMAP) study units is associated with geology and land-use practices. Stream water and sediment data indicate mercury is mobilized from weathering of ore bearing rock, and ...

  2. Ares I-X Flight Evaluation Tasks in Support of Ares I Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Richards, James S.; Coates, Ralph H., III; Cruit, Wendy D.; Ramsey, Matthew N.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program successfully launched the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle on October 28, 2009. The Ares I-X flight was a development flight test that offered a unique opportunity for early engineering data to impact the design and development of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, the Ares Projects Office established a set of 33 flight evaluation tasks to correlate fight results with prospective design assumptions and models. Included within these tasks were direct comparisons of flight data with pre-flight predictions and post-flight assessments utilizing models and modeling techniques being applied to design and develop Ares I. A discussion of the similarities and differences in those comparisons and the need for discipline-level model updates based upon those comparisons form the substance of this paper. The benefits of development flight testing were made evident by implementing these tasks that used Ares I-X data to partially validate tools and methodologies in technical disciplines that will ultimately influence the design and development of Ares I and future launch vehicles. The areas in which partial validation from the flight test was most significant included flight control system algorithms to predict liftoff clearance, ascent, and stage separation; structural models from rollout to separation; thermal models that have been updated based on these data; pyroshock attenuation; and the ability to predict complex flow fields during time-varying conditions including plume interactions.

  3. The spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infection in patients with factor IX deficiency (Christmas disease)

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, J M; Variakojis, D; Phair, J P; Green, D

    1987-06-01

    Early reports suggested that hemophiliacs with factor IX deficiency (Christmas Disease) may be at less risk for developing the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) than patients with classic hemophilia. We evaluated 12 factor IX deficient patients for clinical and immunologic abnormalities related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antibody to HIV was not detected in these patients prior to 1982. By 1985, 66 percent (eight of 12) patients were seropositive. All three concentrates available commercially before 1985 were associated with seropositivity. Furthermore, seropositive hemophiliacs had received on average significantly more factor IX concentrate than seronegative hemophiliacs (27,825 +/- 17,976 (S.D.) versus 1,250 +/- 1,500 factor units/year, (p less than 0.02). Half of the seropositive individuals had generalized lymphadenopathy with splenomegaly. Two seropositive patients have developed AIDS, one with cryptococcal meningitis and another with a large cell immunoblastic lymphoma. Infection with HIV has occurred with high frequency in hemophiliacs who received unmodified factor IX concentrates.

  4. Syntheses of protoporphyrin-IX derivatives bearing extended propionate side-chains.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Robert T; Lu, Jianming; Mwakwari, Celinah; Smith, Kevin M

    2009-05-29

    In order to investigate the relationship between depth within membranes of singlet oxygen generation and effectiveness of photodynamic therapy of tumors, analogs of protoporphyrin-IX 1 bearing five 4 and seven 5 carbon atoms (in place of the 3-carbon atom chain in 1) were synthesized from monopyrrole precursors. PMID:20161404

  5. GOES Satellite Movie of 2014 Winter Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    This new animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery shows the movement of winter storms from January 1 to March 24 making for a snowier-than-normal winter along the U.S. East coast and Midwest...

  6. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open...

  7. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open...

  8. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open...

  9. Winter cover crops influence Amaranthus palmeri establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops were evaluated for their effect on Palmer amaranth (PA) suppression in cotton production. Cover crops examined included rye and four winter legumes: narrow-leaf lupine, crimson clover, Austrian winter pea, and cahaba vetch. Each legume was evaluated alone and in a mixture with rye...

  10. Hierarchical coassembly of DNA–triptycene hybrid molecular building blocks and zinc protoporphyrin IX

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Rina; Singh, Sumit; Monisha, Mohan; Bhowmick, Sourav; Roy, Anindya

    2016-01-01

    Summary Herein, we describe the successful construction of composite DNA nanostructures by the self-assembly of complementary symmetrical 2,6,14-triptycenetripropiolic acid (TPA)–DNA building blocks and zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn PpIX). DNA–organic molecule scaffolds for the composite DNA nanostructure were constructed through covalent conjugation of TPA with 5′-C12-amine-terminated modified single strand DNA (ssDNA) and its complementary strand. The repeated covalent conjugation of TPA with DNA was confirmed by using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF). The biologically relevant photosensitizer Zn PpIX was used to direct the hybridization-mediated self-assembly of DNA–TPA molecular building blocks as well as a model guest molecule within the DNA–TPA supramolecular self-assembly. The formation of fiber-like composite DNA nanostructures was observed. Native PAGE, circular dichroism (CD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been utilized for analyzing the formation of DNA nanofibers after the coassembly. Computational methods were applied to discern the theoretical dimension of the DNA–TPA molecular building block of the nanofibers. A notable change in photocatalytic efficiency of Zn PpIX was observed when it was inside the TPA–DNA scaffold. The significant increase in ROS generation by Zn PpIX when trapped in this biocompatible DNA–TPA hybrid nanofiber may be an effective tool to explore photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications as well as photocatalytic reactions. PMID:27335759

  11. Time Domain Tool Validation Using ARES I-X Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hough, Steven; Compton, James; Hannan, Mike; Brandon, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The ARES I-X vehicle was launched from NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on October 28, 2009 at approximately 11:30 EDT. ARES I-X was the first test flight for NASA s ARES I launch vehicle, and it was the first non-Shuttle launch vehicle designed and flown by NASA since Saturn. The ARES I-X had a 4-segment solid rocket booster (SRB) first stage and a dummy upper stage (US) to emulate the properties of the ARES I US. During ARES I-X pre-flight modeling and analysis, six (6) independent time domain simulation tools were developed and cross validated. Each tool represents an independent implementation of a common set of models and parameters in a different simulation framework and architecture. Post flight data and reconstructed models provide the means to validate a subset of the simulations against actual flight data and to assess the accuracy of pre-flight dispersion analysis. Post flight data consists of telemetered Operational Flight Instrumentation (OFI) data primarily focused on flight computer outputs and sensor measurements as well as Best Estimated Trajectory (BET) data that estimates vehicle state information from all available measurement sources. While pre-flight models were found to provide a reasonable prediction of the vehicle flight, reconstructed models were generated to better represent and simulate the ARES I-X flight. Post flight reconstructed models include: SRB propulsion model, thrust vector bias models, mass properties, base aerodynamics, and Meteorological Estimated Trajectory (wind and atmospheric data). The result of the effort is a set of independently developed, high fidelity, time-domain simulation tools that have been cross validated and validated against flight data. This paper presents the process and results of high fidelity aerospace modeling, simulation, analysis and tool validation in the time domain.

  12. CLVTOPS Liftoff and Separation Analysis Validation Using Ares I-X Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Ben; Schwarz, Kristina; Kim, Young

    2011-01-01

    CLVTOPS is a multi-body time domain flight dynamics simulation tool developed by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for a space launch vehicle and is based on the TREETOPS simulation tool. CLVTOPS is currently used to simulate the flight dynamics and separation/jettison events of the Ares I launch vehicle including liftoff and staging separation. In order for CLVTOPS to become an accredited tool, validation against other independent simulations and real world data is needed. The launch of the Ares I-X vehicle (first Ares I test flight) on October 28, 2009 presented a great opportunity to provide validation evidence for CLVTOPS. In order to simulate the Ares I-X flight, specific models were implemented into CLVTOPS. These models include the flight day environment, reconstructed thrust, reconstructed mass properties, aerodynamics, and the Ares I-X guidance, navigation and control models. The resulting simulation output was compared to Ares I-X flight data. During the liftoff region of flight, trajectory states from the simulation and flight data were compared. The CLVTOPS results were used to make a semi-transparent animation of the vehicle that was overlaid directly on top of the flight video to provide a qualitative measure of the agreement between the simulation and the actual flight. During ascent, the trajectory states of the vehicle were compared with flight data. For the stage separation event, the trajectory states of the two stages were compared to available flight data. Since no quantitative rotational state data for the upper stage was available, the CLVTOPS results were used to make an animation of the two stages to show a side-by-side comparison with flight video. All of the comparisons between CLVTOPS and the flight data show good agreement. This paper documents comparisons between CLVTOPS and Ares I-X flight data which serve as validation evidence for the eventual accreditation of CLVTOPS.

  13. Measurement and modelling of protoporphyrin IX photo-oxidation during superficial PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Dominic J.; Stringer, Mark R.; Crum, William R.; Collins, P.

    1996-12-01

    The oxidation of photosensitizers during photodynamic therapy (PDT) has important implications for their therapeutic and diagnostic potential. The reduction in sensitizer concentration during illumination progressively reduces the effectiveness of therapy and, ultimately, limits the destruction of the host tissue. In the course of our studies of the effects of PDT upon superficial skin disorders, following topical application of 5- aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), we routinely record the surface fluorescence emission of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) before, during, and after therapy, in order to monitor the sensitizer photo-oxidation. It is important, therefore, to establish that measurements made in this way are representative of the variation in sensitizer concentration throughout the illuminated volume. We have developed a time- dependent Monte-Carlo model to simulate PpIX photo-oxidation during either low intensity laser (488 nm) or white light irradiation of plaque psoriasis. We have assessed the effect of differences in the optical properties of tissue at sites on different patients prior to treatment, and the effect of these variations on the surface fluorescence signal detected during treatment, at sites within the same plaque. The results show that the PpIX fluorescence intensity recorded from plaque psoriasis is an accurate indicator of the relative concentration of the sensitizer and can be used as a direct comparison between different sites and different patients. Also, the reduction in fluorescence emission during PDT is an effective measure of the depletion in sensitizer concentration throughout the illuminated volume. These results illustrate that the light dose required to achieve significant PpIX photo-oxidation is significantly lower than that often adopted for the treatment of superficial skin conditions.

  14. Ares I-X Flight Test Development Challenges and Success Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Bruce; Davis, Steve; Olsen, Ronald; Taylor, James

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program's Ares I-X rocket launched successfully on October 28, 2009 collecting valuable data and providing risk reduction for the Ares I project. The Ares I-X mission was formulated and implemented in less than four years commencing with the Exploration Systems Architecture Study in 2005. The test configuration was founded upon assets and processes from other rocket programs including Space Shuttle, Atlas, and Peacekeeper. For example, the test vehicle's propulsion element was a Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor. The Ares I-X rocket comprised a motor assembly, mass and outer mold line simulators of the Ares I Upper Stage, Orion Spacecraft and Launch Abort System, a roll control system, avionics, and other miscellaneous components. The vehicle was 327 feet tall and weighed approximately 1,800,000 pounds. During flight the rocket reached a maximum speed of Mach 4.8 and an altitude of 150,000 feet. The vehicle demonstrated staging at 130,000 feet, tested parachutes for recovery of the motor, and utilized approximately 900 sensors for data collection. Developing a new launch system and preparing for a safe flight presented many challenges. Specific challenges included designing a system to withstand the environments, manufacturing large structures, and re-qualifying heritage hardware. These and other challenges, if not mitigated, may have resulted in test cancellation. Ares I-X succeeded because the mission was founded on carefully derived objectives, led by decisive and flexible management, implemented by an exceptionally talented and dedicated workforce, and supported by a thorough independent review team. Other major success factors include the use of proven heritage hardware, a robust System Integration Laboratory, multi-NASA center and contractor team, concurrent operations, efficient vehicle assembly, effective risk management, and decentralized element development with a centralized control board. Ares I-X was a technically complex test that

  15. Zinc protoporphyrin IX enhances chemotherapeutic response of hepatoma cells to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang-Sui; Li, Huan-Song; Qi, Dun-Feng; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Xin-Chun; Shi, Kui; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xin-Hui

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of zinc protoporphyrin IX on the response of hepatoma cells to cisplatin and the possible mechanism involved. METHODS: Cytotoxicity was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was determined by a flow cytometric assay. Western blotting was used to measure protein expression. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 activity was measured by determining the level of bilirubin generated in isolated microsomes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored by flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity was measured with a colorimetric assay kit. Mice were inoculated with 1 × 107 tumor cells subcutaneously into the right flanks. All mice were sacrificed 6 wk after the first treatment and tumors were weighed and measured. RESULTS: Overexpression of HO-1 in HepG2 cell line was associated with increased chemoresistance to cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin; CDDP) compared to other cell lines in vitro. Inhibition of HO-1 expression or activity by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP IX) markedly augmented CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity towards all liver cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, induction of HO-1 with hemin increased resistance of tumor cells to CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, cells treated with ZnPP IX plus CDDP exhibited marked production of intracellular ROS and caspase-3 activity, which paralleled the incidence of cell apoptosis, whereas hemin decreased cellular ROS and caspase-3 activity induced by CDDP. CONCLUSION: ZnPP IX increases cellular sensitivity and susceptibility of liver cancer cell lines to CDDP and this may represent a mechanism of increasing ROS. PMID:25024611

  16. Avidin-based targeting and purification of a protein IX-modified, metabolically biotinylated adenoviral vector.

    PubMed

    Campos, Samuel K; Parrott, M Brandon; Barry, Michael A

    2004-06-01

    While genetic modification of adenoviral vectors can produce vectors with modified tropism, incorporation of targeting peptides/proteins into the structural context of the virion can also result in destruction of ligand targeting or virion integrity. To combat this problem, we have developed a versatile targeting system using metabolically biotinylated adenoviral vectors bearing biotinylated fiber proteins. These vectors have been demonstrated to be useful as a platform for avidin-based ligand screening and vector targeting by conjugating biotinylated ligands to the virus using high-affinity tetrameric avidin (K(d) = 10(-15) M). The biotinylated vector could also be purified by biotin-reversible binding on monomeric avidin (K(d) = 10(-7) M). In this report, a second metabolically biotinylated adenovirus vector, Ad-IX-BAP, has been engineered by fusing a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) to the C-terminus of the adenovirus pIX protein. This biotinylated vector displays twice as many biotins and was markedly superior for single-step affinity purification on monomeric avidin resin. However, unlike the fiber-biotinylated vector, Ad-IX-BAP failed to retarget to cells with biotinylated antibodies including anti-CD71 against the transferrin receptor. In contrast, Ad-IX-BAP was retargeted if transferrin, the cognate ligand for CD71, was used as a ligand rather than the anti-CD71. This work demonstrates the utility of metabolic biotinylation as a molecular screening tool to assess the utility of different viral capsid proteins for ligand display and the biology and compatibility of different ligands and receptors for vector targeting applications. These results also demonstrate the utility of the pIX-biotinylated vector as a platform for gentle single-step affinity purification of adenoviral vectors.

  17. Winter mortality and its causes.

    PubMed

    Keatinge, W R

    2002-11-01

    In the 1970s scientific research focussed for the first time on dramatic rises in mortality every winter, and on smaller rises in unusually hot weather. Following the recent decline in influenza epidemics, approximately half of excess winter deaths are due to coronary thrombosis. These peak about two days after the peak of a cold spell. Approximately half the remaining winter deaths are caused by respiratory disease, and these peak about 12 days after peak cold. The rapid coronary deaths are due mainly to haemoconcentration resulting from fluid shifts during cold exposure; some later coronary deaths are secondary to respiratory disease. Heat related deaths often result from haemoconcentration resulting from loss of salt and water in sweat. With the possible exception of some tropical countries, global warming can be expected to reduce cold related deaths more than it increases the rarer heat related deaths, but statistics on populations in different climates suggest that, given time, people will adjust to global warming with little change in either mortality. Some measures may be needed to control insect borne diseases during global warming, but current indications are that cold will remain the main environmental cause of illness and death. Air pollution in cities may also still be causing some deaths, but these are hard to differentiate from the more numerous deaths due to associated cold weather, and clear identification of pollution deaths may need more extensive data than is currently available.

  18. Expression of human factor IX in rat capillary endothelial cells: Toward somatic gene therapy for hemophilia B

    SciTech Connect

    Shounan Yao; Wilson, J.M.; Nabel, E.G.; Kurachi, Sumiko; Hachiya, H.L.; Kurachi, Kotoku )

    1991-09-15

    In aiming to develop a gene therapy approach for hemophilia B, the authors expressed and characterized human factor IX in rat capillary endothelial cells (CECs). Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived retrovirus vectors that contain human factor IX cDNA linked to heterologous promoters and the neomycin-resistant gene were constructed and employed to prepare recombinant retroviruses. Rat CECs and NIH 3T3 cells infected with these viruses were selected with the neomycin analogue, G418 sulfate, and tested for expression of factor IX. A construct with the factor IX cDNA under direct control by long terminal repeat gave the highest level of expression as quantitated by immunoassays as well as clotting activity assays. A single RNA transcript of 4.4 kilobases predicted by the construct and a recombinant factor IX were found. The recombinant human factor IX produced showed full clotting activity, demonstrating that CECs have an efficient mechanism for posttranslational modifications, including {gamma}-carboxylation, essential for its biological activity. These results, in addition to other properties of the endothelium, including large number of cells, accessibility, and direct contact with the circulating blood, suggest that CECs can serve as an efficient drug delivery vehicle producing factor IX in a somatic gene therapy for hemophilia B.

  19. Use of Cre/loxP recombination to swap cell binding motifs on the adenoviral capsid protein IX

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, Kathy L.; Tong, Grace; Vorobyova, Olga; Pool, Madeline; Kothary, Rashmi; Parks, Robin J.

    2011-11-25

    We used Cre/loxP recombination to swap targeting ligands present on the adenoviral capsid protein IX (pIX). A loxP-flanked sequence encoding poly-lysine (pK-binds heparan sulfate proteoglycans) was engineered onto the 3'-terminus of pIX, and the resulting fusion protein allowed for routine virus propagation. Growth of this virus on Cre-expressing cells removed the pK coding sequence, generating virus that could only infect through alternative ligands, such as a tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA)-binding motif engineered into the capsid fibre protein for enhanced infection of neuronal cells. We used a similar approach to swap the pK motif on pIX for a sequence encoding a single-domain antibody directed towards CD66c for targeted infection of cancer cells; Cre-mediated removal of the pK-coding sequence simultaneously placed the single-domain antibody coding sequence in frame with pIX. Thus, we have developed a simple method to propagate virus lacking native viral tropism but containing cell-specific binding ligands. - Highlights: > We describe a method to grow virus lacking native tropism but containing novel cell-binding ligands. > Cre/loxP recombination was used to modify the adenovirus genome. > A targeting ligand present on capsid protein IX was removed or replaced using recombination. > Cre-loxP was also used to 'swap' the identity of the targeting ligand present on pIX.

  20. Hypoxia-induced carbonic anhydrase IX as a target for cancer therapy: from biology to clinical use.

    PubMed

    Pastorek, Jaromir; Pastorekova, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    The tumor microenvironment includes a complicated network of physiological gradients contributing to plasticity of tumor cells and heterogeneity of tumor tissue. Hypoxia is a key component generating intratumoral oxygen gradients, which affect the cellular expression program and lead to therapy resistance and increased metastatic propensity of weakly oxygenated cell subpopulations. One of the adaptive responses of tumor cells to hypoxia involves the increased expression and functional activation of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), a cancer-related cell surface enzyme catalyzing the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate ion and proton. Via its catalytic activity, CA IX participates in regulation of intracellular and extracellular pH perturbations that result from hypoxia-induced changes in cellular metabolism producing excess of acid. Through the ability to regulate pH, CA IX also facilitates cell migration and invasion. In addition, CA IX has non-catalytic function in cell adhesion and spreading. Thus, CA IX endows tumor cells with survival advantages in hypoxia/acidosis and confers an increased ability to migrate, invade and metastasize. Accordingly, CA IX is expressed in a broad range of tumors, where it is associated with prognosis and therapy outcome. Its expression pattern and functional implications in tumor biology make CA IX a promising therapeutic target, which can be hit either by immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies or with compounds inhibiting its enzyme activity. The first strategy has already reached the clinical trials, whereas the second one is still in preclinical testing. Both strategies indicate that CA IX can become a clinically useful anticancer target, but urge further efforts toward better selection of patients for immunotherapy and deeper understanding of tumor types, clinical situations and synthetic lethality interactions with other treatment approaches.

  1. Enhancement and optimization of PpIX-based photodynamic therapy of skin cancer: translational studies from bench to clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Baran, Christine; Honari, Golara; Lohser, Sara; Kyei, Angela; Bailin, Philip; Pogue, Brian W.

    2009-02-01

    Nonmelanoma skin carcinomas are the most common of all human cancers. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been used to treat these tumors, but has shown variable results. We are pursuing a multifaceted approach toward optimizing tumor responsiveness. First, a new paradigm is being developed in which tumors are pretreated with differentiation-inducing agents, e.g. methotrexate or Vitamin D, to enhance synthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and improve tumor cell killing upon exposure to 635 nm light. This principle was first elucidated in cell culture studies, and has now been shown to hold true for murine skin tumors, and for a human subcutaneous tumor model (A431 cells injected in nude mice). Clinical trials to test methotrexate and Vitamin D as augmenting agents for ALA-PDT of nonmelanoma skin cancer are being designed. Second, better methods to measure PpIX in patients' skin tumors in real time are being developed. In a clinical study to measure PpIX in patients with dysplastic skin lesions, in vivo fluorescence dosimetry was used to measure the accumulation of PpIX over time, and revealed that intralesional PpIX may reach clinically-useful levels earlier than previously thought for the treatment of actinic keratoses. In a second clinical study to examine depth of PpIX production in nonmelanoma skin cancer, the depth of PpIX within BCC tumors was found at relatively deep levels (>1 mm) in some tumor nests, but not in others. Production of PpIX in deep squamous cell carcinoma was very low. In summary, molecular approaches such as differentiation therapy to enhance ALA-PDT for individual patients may ultimately be needed to help to improve skin cancer responses to this modality.

  2. An unusual complication in a gravida with factor IX deficiency: case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Guy, G P; Baxi, L V; Hurlet-Jensen, A; Chao, C R

    1992-09-01

    Factor IX deficiency (hemophilia B, Christmas disease) is an X-linked recessive coagulation disorder. It occurs in one out of every 25,000-30,000 male births and requires even rarer genetic circumstances for phenotypic expression in females. We report the occurrence of a large, late-trimester subchorionic hematoma in a gravida with factor IX deficiency and with laboratory evidence of consumptive coagulopathy during treatment. The patient was managed conservatively and had a successful outcome at term. The only four reported cases of antepartum management of factor IX deficiency in the English literature are reviewed.

  3. A resolution congratulating the athletes from the State of Washington and across the United States who are set to participate in the 2014 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games in Sochi, Russia.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Murray, Patty [D-WA

    2014-02-06

    02/06/2014 Referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (text of measure as introduced: CR S824) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  5. Condensation during Titan's Polar Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kok, Remco; Irwin, P. G.; Teanby, N. A.; Fletcher, L. N.; Howett, C. J.; Calcutt, S. B.; Bowles, N. E.; Taylor, F. W.

    2007-10-01

    Titan is currently experiencing winter in its northern hemisphere and the lower atmosphere of its north polar region has been in prolonged darkness since the solstice in October 2002. As a result, the north polar region is currently characterised by cold stratospheric temperatures and there is enrichment of trace gases due to downward atmospheric motion (e.g. Teanby et al., Icarus 181 pp. 243-255, 2006). These conditions make the polar winter very suitable for cloud formation in the stratosphere. A simple transport and condensation model has been made to explore condensation processes in Titan's northern stratosphere. In the model, the atmosphere is advected downwards and clouds are formed as the saturation pressure of various gases is reached. Upper limits of the gases C4N2 and propionitrile (C2H5CN) were determined from Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer data to assess scenarios of chemical disequilibrium where the gas phase is far less abundant than the solid phase. The upper limit for C4N2 is 9e-9, which discounts the massive C4N2 build-up in the polar winter proposed by Samuelson et al. (PSS 45, pp. 941-948, 1997) to explain the observed C4N2 cloud at the Voyager epoch. The propionitrile upper limit is 8e-9, which is several orders of magnitude less than needed to create the condensate feature at 220 cm-1 of Khanna (Icarus 177, pp. 116-121) and de Kok et al. (Icarus, in press), assuming it is propionitrile ice, under the steady-state conditions explored by the aformentioned model. HCN ice seems to play an important role in the formation of a massive polar cloud (Haze B in de Kok et al., Icarus, in press), because of the unavailability of sufficient condensable gas other than HCN (and possibly HC3N) to produce the condensate features seen in far-infrared spectra at 220 cm-1.

  6. Exact solutions of the Bianchi types V and IX via time-dependent quasi-Maxwell equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavari, Morteza

    2014-02-01

    The exact solutions of the Einstein field equations for the Bianchi types V and IX in presence of a perfect fluid via the time-dependent quasi-Maxwell (TQM) equations are investigated by using the threading formalism.

  7. Assessment of ALA-induced PpIX production in porcine skin pretreated with microneedles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Phamilla Gracielli Sousa; Campos de Menezes, Priscila Fernanda; Fujita, Alessandra Keiko Lima; Escobar, André; Barboza de Nardi, Andrigo; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S

    2015-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for skin treatments of premalignant and cancer lesions and recognized as a non-invasive technique that combines tissue photosensitization and subsequent exposure to light to induce cell death. However, it is limited to the treatment of superficial lesions, mainly due to the low cream penetration. Therefore, the improvement of transdermal distribution of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is needed. In this study, the kinetics and homogeneity of production of ALA-induced PpIX after the skin pre-treatment with microneedles rollers of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mm length were investigated. An improvement in homogeneity and production of PpIX was shown in a porcine model. Widefield fluorescence imaging three hours after the topical application of ALA-cream in the combined treatment with microeedles rollers. PMID:25319567

  8. Operational Lessons Learned from the Ares I-X Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X flight test, launched in 2009, is the first test of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. This development flight test evaluated the flight dynamics, roll control, and separation events, but also provided early insights into logistical, stacking, launch, and recovery operations for Ares I. Operational lessons will be especially important for NASA as the agency makes the transition from the Space Shuttle to the Constellation Program, which is designed to be less labor-intensive. The mission team itself comprised only 700 individuals over the life of the project compared to the thousands involved in Shuttle and Apollo missions; while missions to and beyond low-Earth orbit obviously will require additional personnel, this lean approach will serve as a model for future Constellation missions. To prepare for Ares I-X, vehicle stacking and launch infrastructure had to be modified at Kennedy Space Center's Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) as well as Launch Complex (LC) 39B. In the VAB, several platforms and other structures designed for the Shuttle s configuration had to be removed to accommodate the in-line, much taller Ares I-X. Vehicle preparation activities resulted in delays, but also in lessons learned for ground operations personnel, including hardware deliveries, cable routing, transferred work and custodial paperwork. Ares I-X also proved to be a resource challenge, as individuals and ground service equipment (GSE) supporting the mission also were required for Shuttle or Atlas V operations at LC 40/41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. At LC 39B, several Shuttle-specific access arms were removed and others were added to accommodate the in-line Ares vehicle. Ground command, control, and communication (GC3) hardware was incorporated into the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP). The lightning protection system at LC 39B was replaced by a trio of 600-foot-tall towers connected by a catenary wire to account for the much greater height of the vehicle. Like Shuttle

  9. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IX and XII with Schiff's bases incorporating iminoureido moieties.

    PubMed

    Singasane, Namrata; Kharkar, Prashant S; Ceruso, Mariangela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Toraskar, Mrunmayee P

    2015-12-01

    A series of new Schiff's bases was obtained from the sulfanilamide semicarbazone (4-aminosulfonylphenyl semicarbazide) and aromatic/heterocyclic aldehydes. The new compounds were designed to incorporate moieties known to induce effective inhibitory activity against carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms involved in crucial physiologic or pathologic processes such as the cytosolic CA I and II or the transmembrane, tumor-associated CA IX and XII: the compounds were medium potency - weak CA I inhibitors, highly effective, low nanomolar CA II inhibitors, but few of them inhibited effectively CA IX and XII. This may probably due to the long spacer between the sulfamoylphenyl and imine fragments of the molecules, which probably induces a highly flexible conformation of the inhibitor bound to the active site of the enzyme, with destabilizing effects for the adduct. The detailed structure activity relationship for this class of inhibitors is discussed. PMID:25744513

  10. In Vivo Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B: Sustained Partial Correction in Factor IX-Deficient Dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Mark A.; Rothenberg, Steven; Landen, Charles N.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Leland, Frances; Toman, Carol; Finegold, Milton; Thompson, Arthur R.; Read, M. S.; Brinkhous, Kenneth M.; Woo, Savio L. C.

    1993-10-01

    The liver represents a model organ for gene therapy. A method has been developed for hepatic gene transfer in vivo by the direct infusion of recombinant retroviral vectors into the portal vasculature, which results in the persistent expression of exogenous genes. To determine if these technologies are applicable for the treatment of hemophilia B patients, preclinical efficacy studies were done in a hemophilia B dog model. When the canine factor IX complementary DNA was transduced directly into the hepatocytes of affected dogs in vivo, the animals constitutively expressed low levels of canine factor IX for more than 5 months. Persistent expression of the clotting. factor resulted in reductions of whole blood clotting and partial thromboplastin times of the treated animals. Thus, long-term treatment of hemophilia B patients may be feasible by direct hepatic gene therapy in vivo.

  11. SULFUR IX TO XIII SPECTRAL MEASURMENTS BETWEEN 170 AND 500 A

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z. H.; Zhang, B. L.; Wang, W.; Yu, D.Y.; Cai, X. H.; Du, S. B.; Zeng, X. T.; Chang, H. W.

    2009-04-15

    This paper reports laboratory measurements of the spectrum of highly ionized sulfur. The spectrum of S IX-S XIII has been observed in the wavelength range 170-500 A. A total of 54 lines have been measured. Forty-two of them have been classified as 2s {sup 2}2p{sup k} -2s2p{sup k} {sup +1} and 2s2p{sup k} -2p{sup k} {sup +1} transitions. Twelve other lines have been ascribed to 2s-2p, 4p-5s, 5p-6s, 5d-6p, and 6p-8d transitions. These spectral lines have been identified, among which 22 are new and accurately measured. The analysis of the spectra was based on a comparison with other experimental results and calculated values.

  12. Genetic algorithm prediction of crystal structure of metastable Si-IX phase

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Yangang; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2013-12-14

    We performed genetic algorithm search for the atomic structure of the long Lime unsolved Si-IX phase. We found two new structures with space groups of P4(2)/m and P-4, respectively, which have lattice parameters in excellent agreement with the experimental data. The phonon calculations showed that the P4(2)/m structure exhibits a soft phonon mode, while the P-4 structure is dynamically stable. Our calculation also showed that the P-4 structure is a meta-stable structure in a pressure range from 0 to 40 GPa, The Si-IX phase could be a mixed phase consisting of the P4(2)/m and the P-4 structures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Ares I-X Best Estimated Trajectory and Comparison with Pre-Flight Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Beck, Roger E.; Derry, Stephen D.; Brandon, Jay M.; Starr, Brett R.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X trajectory reconstruction produced best estimated trajectories of the flight test vehicle ascent through stage separation, and of the first and upper stage entries after separation. The trajectory reconstruction process combines on-board, ground-based, and atmospheric measurements to produce the trajectory estimates. The Ares I-X vehicle had a number of on-board and ground based sensors that were available, including inertial measurement units, radar, air- data, and weather balloons. However, due to problems with calibrations and/or data, not all of the sensor data were used. The trajectory estimate was generated using an Iterative Extended Kalman Filter algorithm, which is an industry standard processing algorithm for filtering and estimation applications. This paper describes the methodology and results of the trajectory reconstruction process, including flight data preprocessing and input uncertainties, trajectory estimation algorithms, output transformations, and comparisons with preflight predictions.

  14. Ares I-X First Stage Internal Aft Skirt Re-Entry Heating Data and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Craig P.; Tashakkor, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    The CLVSTATE engineering code is being used to predict Ares-I launch vehicle first stage reentry aerodynamic heating. An engineering analysis is developed which yields reasonable predictions for the timing of the first stage aft skirt thermal curtain failure and the resulting internal gas temperatures. The analysis is based on correlations of the Ares I-X internal aft skirt gas temperatures and has been implemented into CLVSTATE. Validation of the thermal curtain opening models has been accomplished using additional Ares I-X thermocouple, calorimeter and pressure flight data. In addition, a technique which accounts for radiation losses at high altitudes has been developed which improves the gas temperature measurements obtained by the gas temperature probes (GTP). Updates to the CLVSTATE models are shown to improve the accuracy of the internal aft skirt heating predictions which will result in increased confidence in future vehicle designs

  15. Characterisation of organic matter in IX and PACl treated wastewater in relation to the fouling of a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane.

    PubMed

    Myat, Darli T; Mergen, Max; Zhao, Oliver; Stewart, Matthew B; Orbell, John D; Gray, Stephen

    2012-10-15

    Extensive organic characterisation of a wastewater using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array and fluorescence spectroscopy (Method A), and UV(254) and organic carbon detector (Method B) was undertaken, as well as with fluorescence excitation emission spectroscopy (EEM). Characterisation was performed on the wastewater before and after ion exchange (IX) treatment and polyaluminium chlorohydrate (PACl) coagulation, and following microfiltration of the wastewater and pre-treated wastewaters. Characterisation by EEM was unable to detect biopolymers within the humic rich wastewaters and was not subsequently used to characterise the MF permeates. IX treatment preferentially removed low molecular weight (MW) organic acids and neutrals, and moderate amounts of biopolymers in contrast to a previous report of no biopolymer removal with IX. PACl preferentially removed moderate MW humic and fulvic acids, and large amounts of biopolymers. PACl showed a great preference for removal of proteins from the biopolymer component in comparison to IX. An increase in the fluorescence response of tryptophan-like compounds in the biopolymer fraction following IX treatment suggests that low MW neutrals may influence the structure and/or inhibit aggregation of organic compounds. Fouling rates for IX and PACl treated wastewaters had high initial fouling rates that reduced to lower fouling rates with time, while the untreated Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP) wastewater displayed a consistent, high rate of fouling. The results for the IX and PACl treated wastewaters were consistent with the long-term fouling rate being determined by cake filtration while both pore constriction and cake filtration contributed to the higher initial fouling rates. Higher rejection of biopolymers was observed for PACl and IX waters compared to the untreated ETP water, suggesting increased adhesion of biopolymers to the membrane or cake layer may lead to the higher rejection.

  16. Carbonic anhydrase IX, a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the pH regulating machinery in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sedlakova, Olga; Svastova, Eliska; Takacova, Martina; Kopacek, Juraj; Pastorek, Jaromir; Pastorekova, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Acidic tissue microenvironment contributes to tumor progression via multiple effects including the activation of angiogenic factors and proteases, reduced cell-cell adhesion, increased migration and invasion, etc. In addition, intratumoral acidosis can influence the uptake of anticancer drugs and modulate the response of tumors to conventional therapy. Acidification of the tumor microenvironment often develops due to hypoxia-triggered oncogenic metabolism, which leads to the extensive production of lactate, protons, and carbon dioxide. In order to avoid intracellular accumulation of the acidic metabolic products, which is incompatible with the survival and proliferation, tumor cells activate molecular machinery that regulates pH by driving transmembrane inside-out and outside-in ion fluxes. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the bicarbonate import arm of this machinery. Through its catalytic activity, CA IX directly participates in many acidosis-induced features of tumor phenotype as demonstrated by manipulating its expression and/or by in vitro mutagenesis. CA IX can function as a survival factor protecting tumor cells from hypoxia and acidosis, as a pro-migratory factor facilitating cell movement and invasion, as a signaling molecule transducing extracellular signals to intracellular pathways (including major signaling and metabolic cascades) and converting intracellular signals to extracellular effects on adhesion, proteolysis, and other processes. These functional implications of CA IX in cancer are supported by numerous clinical studies demonstrating the association of CA IX with various clinical correlates and markers of aggressive tumor behavior. Although our understanding of the many faces of CA IX is still incomplete, existing knowledge supports the view that CA IX is a biologically and clinically relevant molecule, exploitable in anticancer strategies aimed at targeting adaptive responses to hypoxia and/or acidosis

  17. Proposal and demonstration of lambda-based internet exchange (IX) point using GMPLS protocols and photonic cross-connect (PXC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuritani, Takehiro; Okamoto, Shuichi; Ogino, Nagao; Otani, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2004-10-01

    This paper proposes an architecture of a next-generation Internet eXchange (IX) based on the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) technologies and the photonic cross-connect (PXC), hereafter referred to a Lambda-IX. At first, we investigate a basic Lambda-IX model where the PXC provides a GMPLS-controlled lambda label-switched path (LSP) to interconnect different ISPs' border routers. We verify that the proposed Lambda-IX model can achieve the lambda-based and resilient interconnection for the ISPs, thanks to the PXC's bit-rate insensitive operation as well as fast restoration operation. In addition, once GMPLS functionalities are introduced on the border routers as well as the PXC, very flexible interconnection can be achieved such as demand-based creation and deletion of lambda LSPs. Next, we initiatively demonstrate an experimental Lambda-IX using a PXC and IP/MPLS routers. A Lambda-LSP with OC-192 bandwidth can be successfully created by using the GMPLS RSVP-TE signaling protocol via a control plane, and an EGP session of Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4) can be established over the Lambda-LSP created between the GMPLS-enabled border routers via a data plane. We also evaluate the fault recovery operation in the case where such Lambda-IXs are consisted of several PXCs and demonstrate that the Lambda-LSP as well as the corresponding BGP session can be restored with a fast recovery time of less than 1s. Through these investigation and demonstration, it is revealed that the Lambda-IX can be put to practical use aiming at inter-exchanging a large traffic in a near future, while enriching the functions of IX.

  18. Calibration and Flight Results for the Ares I-X 5-Hole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Brandon, Jay M.

    2011-01-01

    Flight and calibration results are presented for the Ares I-X 5-hole probe. The probe is calibrated by using a combination of wind tunnel, CFD, and other numerical modeling techniques. This is then applied to the probe flight data and comparisons are made between the vanes and 5-hole probe. Using this and other data it is shown the probe was corrupted by water rendering that measurement unreliable.

  19. Activation of clotting factors XI and IX in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Minnema, M C; Peters, R J; de Winter, R; Lubbers, Y P; Barzegar, S; Bauer, K A; Rosenberg, R D; Hack, C E; ten Cate, H

    2000-11-01

    In acute coronary events, plaque rupture and the subsequent formation of the catalytic tissue factor-factor VIIa complex is considered to initiate coagulation. It is unknown whether clotting factors XI and IX are activated in acute coronary events. Therefore, we prospectively investigated the activation of clotting factors XI and IX as well as activation of the contact system and the common pathway in 50 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), in 50 patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP), and in 50 patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP). Factor XIa-C1 inhibitor complexes, which reflect acute activation of factor XI, were detected in 24% of the patients with AMI, 8% of the patients with UAP, and 4% of the patients with SAP (P<0.05), whereas factor XIa-alpha(1)-antitrypsin complexes, which reflect chronic activation, were observed equally in all 3 study groups. Factor IX peptide levels were significantly higher in the patients with AMI and UAP compared with the patients with SAP (P<0.01). No differences regarding markers of the common pathway were demonstrated. Fibrinopeptide A levels were elevated in patients with AMI compared with patients with UAP and those with SAP (P<0.01). Factor XIIa- or kallikrein-C1 inhibitor complexes were not increased. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration of the activation of clotting factors XI and IX in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Because these clotting factors are considered to be important for continuous thrombin generation and clot stability, their activation might have clinical and therapeutic consequences.

  20. Monochromatic observations of Comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka 1969g /1969IX/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahe, J.; Mccracken, C. M.; Hallam, K. L.; Donn, B. D.

    1976-01-01

    Isophotes have been determined from 10 narrow-band filter photographs of Comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka 1969g (1969IX) taken between Feb. 11 and 14, 1970. The five interference filters used were centered on the CN band sequence at 3383A, the C2 band sequence at 4737A and 5165A, the C3 sequence at 4050A, and the continuum at 5300A. Gradients of intensity in various directions from the nucleus have been derived from the isophotes.

  1. A New Resin Glycoside, Muricatin IX, from the Seeds of Ipomoea muricata.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masateru; Taketomi, Saki; Kakiki, Yuichi; Yasuda, Shin; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    A new resin glycoside, named muricatin IX (1), was isolated from the seeds of Ipomoea muricata (L.) JACQ. (Convolvulaceae). The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as chemical evidence. Compound 1 is the first representative of resin glycosides in which an organic acid connects the sugar moiety and the aglycone moiety to form macrocyclic ester ring. PMID:27581646

  2. Christmas factor: dosage compensation and the production of blood coagulation factor IX.

    PubMed

    FROTA-PESSOA, O; GOMES, E L; CALICCHIO, T R

    1963-01-25

    The amount of factor IX (Christmas factor) for different genotypic classes was determined by means of a variant of the thromboplastin generation test. The mean value for females heterozygous for the Christmas gene was about half the mean values for normal males and for normal homozygous females; means for the latter two groups were about equal. This dosage compensation is interpreted as evidence in support of Lyon's hypothesis, according to which one X chromosome is inactive in mammalian females.

  3. Dual-channel red/blue fluorescence dosimetry with broadband reflectance spectroscopic correction measures protoporphyrin IX production during photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanick, Stephen Chad; Davis, Scott C.; Zhao, Yan; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.; Pogue, Brian W.; Chapman, M. Shane

    2014-07-01

    Dosimetry for aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis was examined with an optimized fluorescence dosimeter to measure PpIX during treatment. While insufficient PpIX generation may be an indicator of incomplete response, there exists no standardized method to quantitate PpIX production at depths in the skin during clinical treatments. In this study, a spectrometer-based point probe dosimeter system was used to sample PpIX fluorescence from superficial (blue wavelength excitation) and deeper (red wavelength excitation) tissue layers. Broadband white light spectroscopy (WLS) was used to monitor aspects of vascular physiology and inform a correction of fluorescence for the background optical properties. Measurements in tissue phantoms showed accurate recovery of blood volume fraction and reduced scattering coefficient from WLS, and a linear response of PpIX fluorescence versus concentration down to 1.95 and 250 nM for blue and red excitations, respectively. A pilot clinical study of 19 patients receiving 1-h ALA incubation before treatment showed high intrinsic variance in PpIX fluorescence with a standard deviation/mean ratio of >0.9. PpIX fluorescence was significantly higher in patients reporting higher pain levels on a visual analog scale. These pilot data suggest that patient-specific PpIX quantitation may predict outcome response.

  4. A sucrose-binding site provides a lead towards an isoform-specific inhibitor of the cancer-associated enzyme carbonic anhydrase IX.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Melissa A; Aggarwal, Mayank; Mahon, Brian P; Tu, Chingkuang; McKenna, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) isoform IX (CA IX) is an extracellular zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3(-), thereby playing a role in pH regulation. The majority of normal functioning cells exhibit low-level expression of CA IX. However, in cancer cells CA IX is upregulated as a consequence of a metabolic transition known as the Warburg effect. The upregulation of CA IX for cancer progression has drawn interest in it being a potential therapeutic target. CA IX is a transmembrane protein, and its purification, yield and crystallization have proven challenging to structure-based drug design, whereas the closely related cytosolic soluble isoform CA II can be expressed and crystallized with ease. Therefore, we have utilized structural alignments and site-directed mutagenesis to engineer a CA II that mimics the active site of CA IX. In this paper, the X-ray crystal structure of this CA IX mimic in complex with sucrose is presented and has been refined to a resolution of 1.5 Å, an Rcryst of 18.0% and an Rfree of 21.2%. The binding of sucrose at the entrance to the active site of the CA IX mimic, and not CA II, in a non-inhibitory mechanism provides a novel carbohydrate moiety binding site that could be further exploited to design isoform-specific inhibitors of CA IX.

  5. A sucrose-binding site provides a lead towards an isoform-specific inhibitor of the cancer-associated enzyme carbonic anhydrase IX.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Melissa A; Aggarwal, Mayank; Mahon, Brian P; Tu, Chingkuang; McKenna, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) isoform IX (CA IX) is an extracellular zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3(-), thereby playing a role in pH regulation. The majority of normal functioning cells exhibit low-level expression of CA IX. However, in cancer cells CA IX is upregulated as a consequence of a metabolic transition known as the Warburg effect. The upregulation of CA IX for cancer progression has drawn interest in it being a potential therapeutic target. CA IX is a transmembrane protein, and its purification, yield and crystallization have proven challenging to structure-based drug design, whereas the closely related cytosolic soluble isoform CA II can be expressed and crystallized with ease. Therefore, we have utilized structural alignments and site-directed mutagenesis to engineer a CA II that mimics the active site of CA IX. In this paper, the X-ray crystal structure of this CA IX mimic in complex with sucrose is presented and has been refined to a resolution of 1.5 Å, an Rcryst of 18.0% and an Rfree of 21.2%. The binding of sucrose at the entrance to the active site of the CA IX mimic, and not CA II, in a non-inhibitory mechanism provides a novel carbohydrate moiety binding site that could be further exploited to design isoform-specific inhibitors of CA IX. PMID:26457530

  6. Formation of protoporphyrin IX in mouse skin after topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid and its methyl esther

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Roar; Juzenas, Petras; Iani, Vladimir; Moan, Johan

    1999-02-01

    Normal skin of nude mice (Balb/c) was treated topically with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and its methyl ester (ALA-Me) for 24 hours. Approximately 0.1 gram of freshly prepared cream was applied to a spot of 1 cm2 on the flank of the mice, which was then covered with a transparent dressing. The ALA induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) was studied by means of a noninvasive fiber-optic fluorescence probe connected to a luminescence spectrometer. The excitation wavelength was 407 nm, and the emission wavelength was 637 nm. For the first hour a slight lag in PpIX production was observed for the mice treated with ALA-Me compared to the mice treated with ALA. After approximately 12 hours the ALA and the ALA-Me treated mice showed the same PpIX fluorescence intensity. From 12 hours until 24 hours the PpIX fluorescence intensity decreased for both treatment modalities, even though ALA and ALA-Me were continuously present. At 24 hours ALA-Me-treated mice had less than half the amount of PpIX in their skin compared with ALA- treated mice.

  7. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase IX expression and extracellular pH in B-cell lymphoma cell line models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liu Qi; Howison, Christine M.; Spier, Catherine; Stopeck, Alison T.; Malm, Scott W.; Pagel, Mark D.; Baker, Amanda F.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA IX) and it’s relation to acidosis in lymphomas has not been widely studied. We investigated the protein expression of CA IX in a human B-cell lymphoma tissue microarray, and in Raji, Ramos, and Granta 519 lymphoma cell lines and tumor models, while also investigating the relation with hypoxia. An imaging method, acidoCEST MRI, was used to estimate lymphoma xenograft extracellular pH (pHe). Our results showed that clinical lymphoma tissues and cell line models in vitro and in vivo had moderate CA IX expression. Although in vitro studies showed that CA IX expression was induced by hypoxia, in vivo studies did not show this correlation. Untreated lymphoma xenograft tumor pHe had acidic fractions, and an Acidity Score was qualitatively correlated with CA IX expression. Therefore, CA IX is expressed in B-cell lymphomas and is qualitatively correlated with extracellular acidosis in xenograft tumor models. PMID:25130478

  8. In-vitro study on ALA-induced endogenous protoporphyrin IX as photosensitizer for photodynamic tumor diagnosis and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueberriegler, K.; Fiedler, D.; Verwanger, Thomas; Schnitzhofer, Gerlinde; Banieghbal, E.; Krammer, Barbara E.

    1998-07-01

    Photodynamic tumor diagnosis and therapy is efficiently carried out by endogenous protoporphyrin IX as photosensitizer, induced by external addition of the precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). In the present study, PpIX localization and photodynamically induced damage was investigated in normal and transformed human fibroblasts. PpIX formation reaches its maximum after incubation for at least 20 h with 700 (mu) g/m1 ALA, and increases with the pH- value. ALA has to be given 20-30 times more than external PpIX in order to produce the same cytotoxic damage. As detected by Low Light Imaging, PpIX is generated in the mitochondria, released to the cytoplasm and distributed to cytoplasma and nuclear membranes.The nucleus is not stained. Intracellular targets of PpIX damage after irradiation are mainly mitochondria, ER and nuclear membrane. The organelles show a decomposition pattern, which resembles apoptotic morphology and occurs faster in the co-cultivated transformed than in the normal cells. ALA-treated hepatocytes produce micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations, which indicates some mutagenic potential. Expression studies of the (proto)oncogenes c-myc and bcl-2 sublethally treated fibroblasts by quantitative RT-PCR show high deviations from the constitutive expression level, which are accompanied by cell cycle disturbances, indicating a possible precursor role to apoptosis introduction.

  9. Construction and radiolabeling of adenovirus variants that incorporate human metallothionein into protein IX for analysis of biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Rogers, Buck E; Aladyshkina, Natalia; Cheng, Bing; Lokitz, Stephen J; Curiel, David T; Mathis, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Using adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors is a promising strategy for novel cancer treatments; however, current tracking approaches in vivo are limited. The C-terminus of the Ad minor capsid protein IX (pIX) can incorporate heterologous reporters to monitor biodistribution. We incorporated metallothionein (MT), a low-molecular-weight metal-binding protein, as a fusion to pIX. We previously demonstrated 99mTc binding in vitro to a pIX-MT fusion on the Ad capsid. We investigated different fusions of MT within pIX to optimize functional display. We identified a dimeric MT construct fused to pIX that showed significantly increased radiolabeling capacity. After Ad radiolabeling, we characterized metal binding in vitro. We explored biodistribution in vivo in control mice, mice pretreated with warfarin, mice preimmunized with wild-type Ad, and mice that received both warfarin pretreatment and Ad preimmunization. Localization of activity to liver and bladder was seen, with activity detected in spleen, intestine, and kidneys. Afterwards, the mice were euthanized and selected organs were dissected for further analysis. Similar to the imaging results, most of the radioactivity was found in the liver, spleen, kidneys, and bladder, with significant differences between the groups observed in the liver. These results demonstrate this platform application for following Ad dissemination in vivo. PMID:25060486

  10. Comparison between two portable devices for widefield PpIX fluorescence during cervical intraepithelial neoplasia treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia Mayumi; Lombardi, Welington; Cossetin, Natália Fernandez; Varoto, Cinthia; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2015-06-01

    The use of portable electronic devices, in particular mobile phones such as smartphones is increasing not only for all known applications, but also for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring treatments like topical Photodynamic Therapy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of the photosensitizer Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) after topical application of a cream containing methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) in the cervix with diagnosis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) through the fluorescence images captured after one and three hours and compare the images using two devices (a Sony Xperia® mobile and an Apple Ipod®. Was observed an increasing fluorescence intensity of the cervix three hours after cream application, in both portable electronic devices. However, because was used a specific program for the treatment of images using the Ipod® device, these images presented better resolution than observed by the Sony cell phone without a specific program. One hour after cream application presented a more selective fluorescence than the group of three hours. In conclusion, the use of portable devices to obtain images of PpIX fluorescence shown to be an effective tool and is necessary the improvement of programs for achievement of better results.

  11. Type XII collagen. A large multidomain molecule with partial homology to type IX collagen.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M K; Gerecke, D R; Dublet, B; van der Rest, M; Olsen, B R

    1989-11-25

    Three overlapping cDNAs encoding alpha 1 (XII) collagen have been isolated and sequenced. The DNAs define five sequence domains within the chain. Three domains are nontriple-helical; two are relatively short triple-helical regions. The amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides derived from 16- and 10-kDa pepsin-resistant fragments isolated from tendon extracts are in full agreement with the deduced sequences of the triple-helical regions. Two of the five sequence domains in alpha 1 (XII), one triple-helical and one nontriple-helical, show a high degree of similarity to regions in type IX collagen chains. In addition, examination of seven exons in the alpha 1 (XII) gene shows that the gene is, in part, similar to the structure of type IX collagen genes. Therefore, collagen types IX and XII are partially homologous. The alpha 1 (XII) sequence data predict an asymmetric structure for type XII collagen molecules, fully consistent with the rotary shadowing images. These images show a triple-helical 75-nm tail attached through a central globule to three finger-like structures, each 60 nm long (Dublet, B., Oh, S., Sugrue, S. P., Gordon, M. K., Gerecke, D. R., Olsen, B. R., and van der Rest, M. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13150-13156).

  12. [Geriatric rehabilitation from the perspective of Book 9 of the German social code, SGB IX].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, H

    2007-10-01

    The legal foundations for provision and realization of geriatric rehabilitation benefits are contained in particular in Book 9 of the German social code, SGB IX (covering rehabilitation and participation of people with disabilities). This paper discusses claims foundations and benefit prerequisites of geriatric rehabilitation taking into consideration the relations between Book 5 (on health insurance) and Book 9 of the social code. The article includes a definition of "geriatric rehabilitation" in light of the SGB IX, describes the benefit carriers' obligations as well as the procedure in place for determining geriatric rehab need, in this context appraising the designation as "geriatric patient" in terms of its appropriateness as an identifying criterion in determining need. Provision of geriatric rehab benefits is contingent on a potential for attaining rehab goals as specified by SGB IX as well as on fulfillment of the benefit prerequisites. Responsibility for the content, extent and quality of geriatric rehabilitation lies with the benefit carriers, as is the case for the obligation to secure availability of the required numbers and quality of rehabilitation facilities and services. The article specifies the legal foundations of the various benefit types (ambulatory, mobile rehab, under a Personal Budget, integrated benefit provision, or early rehab), and discusses geriatric rehabilitation in the framework of an insurance-based medical care system as well as of activating care. PMID:17955397

  13. Role of enhanced half-life factor VIII and IX in the treatment of haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Ali J; Obaji, Samya G; Collins, Peter W

    2015-06-01

    Treatment of congenital haemophilia with factor VIII and IX concentrates often requires frequent infusions. This has obvious implications in establishing effective administration strategies and, in turn, adherence. To overcome these issues, three main technologies--polyethylene-glycol, Fc-neonatal IgG1 and albumin fusion products--have emerged into various stages of clinical development. Published data indicates an approximately 1·5- and fivefold increase in half-life of factor VIII and IX, respectively, compared to standard recombinant concentrates. Studies into efficacy and safety are starting to be published. Monitoring and optimal use of these new concentrates remains unknown. Weekly factor IX prophylaxis appears to be a feasible prophylactic regimen in haemophilia B patients. Weekly longer-acting FVIII is unlikely to provide adequate prophylaxis in most patients with haemophilia A but may reduce the frequency of infusions. Ongoing clinical trials and real life experience will help shape how these products can be used in practice and their cost effectiveness. The drive for convenience however should not overshadow the ultimate goal of prophylaxis, namely, preventing bleeding and arthropathy.

  14. Soluble diamagnetic model for malaria pigment: coordination chemistry of gallium(III)protoporphyrin-IX.

    PubMed

    Bohle, D Scott; Dodd, Erin L; Pinter, Tyler B J; Stillman, Martin J

    2012-10-15

    The facile axial ligand exchange properties of gallium(III) protoporphyrin IX in methanol solution were utilized to explore self-association interactions by NMR techniques. Structural changes were observed, as well as competitive behavior with the ligands acetate and fluoride, which differed from that seen with the synthetic analogue gallium(III) octaethylporphyrin which lacks acid groups in its side-chains and has less solution heterogeneity as indicated by absorption and MCD spectroscopies. The propionic acid side chains of protoporphyrin IX are implicated in all such interactions of PPIX, and both dynamic metal-propionic interactions and the formation of propionate-bridged dimers are observed. Fluoride coordination provides an unusual example of slow ligand exchange, and this allows for the identification of a fluoride bridged dimer in solution. An improved synthesis of the chloride and hydroxide complexes of gallium(III) protoporphyrin IX is reported. An insoluble gallium analogue of hematin anhydride is described. In general, the interactions between solvent and the metal are found to confer very high solubility, making [Ga(PPIX)](+) a useful model for ferric heme species.

  15. Leishmania major possesses a unique HemG-type protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Zwerschke, Dagmar; Karrie, Simone; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania major was proposed to either utilize haem from its host or partially synthesize the tetrapyrrole from host provided precursors. However, only indirect evidence was available for this partial late haem biosynthetic pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the LMJF_06_1280 gene of L. major encodes a HemG-type PPO (protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase) catalysing the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX. Interestingly, trypanosomatids are currently the only known eukaryotes possessing HemG-type enzymes. The LMJF_06_1280 gene forms a potential transcriptional unit with LMJF_06_1270 encoding CPO (coproporphyrinogen III oxidase) and with LMJF_06_1290 for a cytochrome b5. In vivo function of the L. major hemG gene was shown by the functional complementation of the Escherichia coli ΔhemG strain LG285. Restored haem formation in E. coli was observed using HPLC analyses. Purified recombinant L. major HemG revealed PPO activity in vitro using different ubiquinones and triphenyltetrazolium as electron acceptors. FMN was identified as the L. major HemG cofactor. Active site residues were found to be essential for HemG catalysis. These data in combination with the solved crystal structures of L. major CPO and the physiological proof of a ferrochelatase activity provide clear-cut evidence for a partial haem biosynthetic pathway in L. major. PMID:24962471

  16. [Geriatric rehabilitation from the perspective of Book 9 of the German social code, SGB IX].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, H

    2007-10-01

    The legal foundations for provision and realization of geriatric rehabilitation benefits are contained in particular in Book 9 of the German social code, SGB IX (covering rehabilitation and participation of people with disabilities). This paper discusses claims foundations and benefit prerequisites of geriatric rehabilitation taking into consideration the relations between Book 5 (on health insurance) and Book 9 of the social code. The article includes a definition of "geriatric rehabilitation" in light of the SGB IX, describes the benefit carriers' obligations as well as the procedure in place for determining geriatric rehab need, in this context appraising the designation as "geriatric patient" in terms of its appropriateness as an identifying criterion in determining need. Provision of geriatric rehab benefits is contingent on a potential for attaining rehab goals as specified by SGB IX as well as on fulfillment of the benefit prerequisites. Responsibility for the content, extent and quality of geriatric rehabilitation lies with the benefit carriers, as is the case for the obligation to secure availability of the required numbers and quality of rehabilitation facilities and services. The article specifies the legal foundations of the various benefit types (ambulatory, mobile rehab, under a Personal Budget, integrated benefit provision, or early rehab), and discusses geriatric rehabilitation in the framework of an insurance-based medical care system as well as of activating care.

  17. A computational study of ligand binding affinities in iron(III) porphine and protoporphyrin IX complexes.

    PubMed

    Durrant, Marcus C

    2014-07-01

    The search for novel anti-malarial drugs that can disrupt biomineralization of ferriprotoporphyrin IX to haemozoin requires an understanding of the fundamental chemistry of the porphyrin's iron(iii) centre at the water-lipid interface. Towards this end, the binding affinities for a diverse set of 31 small ligands with iron(iii) porphine have been calculated using density functional theory, in the gas phase and also with implicit solvent corrections for both water and n-octanol. In addition, the binding of hydroxide, chloride, acetate, methylamine and water to ferriprotoporphyrin IX has been studied, and very similar trends are observed for the smaller and larger models. Anionic ligands generally give stronger binding than neutral ones; the strongest binding is observed for RO(-) and OH(-) ligands, whilst acetate binds relatively weakly among the anions studied. Electron-rich nitrogen donors tend to bind more strongly than electron-deficient ones, and the weakest binding is found for neutral O and S donors such as oxazole and thiophene. In all cases, ligand binding is stronger in n-octanol than in water, and the differences in binding energies for the two solvents are greater for ionic ligands than for neutrals. Finally, dimerization of ferriprotoporphyrin IX by means of iron(iii)-carboxylate bond formation has been modelled. The results are discussed in terms of haemozoin crystal growth and its disruption by known anti-malarial drugs.

  18. SOLPS modeling of the ORNL helicon and PhIX experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, L. W.; Peng, Y. K. M.; Caughman, J. B.; Goulding, R. H.; Bonnin, X.

    2012-10-01

    The ORNL helicon experiment has produced large cross section plasmas (12cm) at high densities (up to 4x10^19/m^3 in D and 6x10^19/m^3 in He) at high powers (up to 90kW). The Physics Integration eXperiment (PhIX) will investigate adding electron heating with Whistler waves (18GHz) and EBW (18GHz) to the helicon source plasma in order to increase Te. Interpretative analyses of the helicon discharges in D and He with the SOLPS transport code show that 2D heating profiles based on resonant power absorption calculations reproduce the main features of the measured density and temperature distributions. The PhIX plasma column, including the helicon and RF heated mirror cell, has diameter 12-15 cm and length 3 m. Predictive SOLPS simulations of PhIX, with additional EBW and Whistler power absorption profiles from the GENRAY-C code, indicate a doubling of Te in the mirror cell. With plasma fueling by an upstream gas puff, calculations indicate 2:1 power split between the downstream and upstream targets.

  19. Factor IX gene mutations in haemophilia B: a New Zealand population-based study.

    PubMed

    VAN DE Water, N S; Williams, R; Berry, E W; Ockelford, P A; Browett, P J

    1996-01-01

    Haemophilia B (Christmas disease) is an X-linked bleeding disorder resulting from an inherited deficiency of coagulation factor IX activity. Due to the heterogeneity of mutations within the factor IX gene there is a marked clinical variability in disease severity. By applying techniques of mutational analysis and direct sequencing of PCR products it is now potentially possible to determine the pathogenic gene defect in entire haemophilia B populations. We report here characterization of the factor IX gene defect in all the haemophilia B patients in New Zealand as part of a nationwide approach towards providing efficient and cost-effective haemophilia B genetic counselling services for these families. Twenty-six different mutations were identified in 32 unrelated haemophilia B families. Three defects at nucleotide positions +8,6659 and 17696 are novel mutations which have not been reported by other laboratories. A PCR-based diagnostic screening test for direct mutational analysis could be performed in most cases; 17 of the 26 mutations altered a restriction enzyme recognition sequence and, with the exception of the total gene deletion, base changes not affecting a restriction enzyme site could be detected by allele-specific PCR.

  20. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Robock, A.; Mao, J.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  1. Winter leaf reddening in 'evergreen' species.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicole M

    2011-05-01

    Leaf reddening during autumn in senescing, deciduous tree species has received widespread attention from the public and in the scientific literature, whereas leaf reddening in evergreen species during winter remains largely ignored. Winter reddening can be observed in evergreen herbs, shrubs, vines and trees in Mediterranean, temperate, alpine, and arctic regions, and can persist for several months before dissipating with springtime warming. Yet, little is known about the functional significance of this colour change, or why it occurs in some species but not others. Here, the biochemistry, physiology and ecology associated with winter leaf reddening are reviewed, with special focus on its possible adaptive function. Photoprotection is currently the favoured hypothesis for winter reddening, but alternative explanations have scarcely been explored. Intraspecific reddening generally increases with sunlight incidence, and may also accompany photosynthetic inferiority in photosynthetically 'weak' (e.g. low-nitrogen) individuals. Red leaves tend to show symptoms of shade acclimation relative to green, consistent with a photoprotective function. However, winter-red and winter-green species often cohabitate the same high-light environments, and exhibit similar photosynthetic capacities. The factors dictating interspecific winter leaf colouration therefore remain unclear. Additional outstanding questions and future directions are also highlighted, and possible alternative functions of winter reddening discussed.

  2. Characterization of a factor IX variant with a glycine207 to glutamic acid mutation.

    PubMed

    Lin, S W; Lin, C N; Hamaguchi, N; Smith, K J; Shen, M C

    1994-09-15

    Factor IXTaipei9 is a factor IX variant from a hemophilia B patient with reduced levels of circulating protein molecules (cross-reacting material reduced, CRM). This variant contained a glycine (Gly) to glutamic acid (Glu) substitution at the 207th codon of mature factor IX. The functional consequences of the Gly-->Glu mutation in factor IXTaipei9 (IXG207E) were characterized in this study. Plasma-derived IXG207E exhibited a mobility similar to that of normal factor IX on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its specific activity was estimated to be 3.5% that of the purified normal factor IX in a one-stage partial thromboplastin time assay (aPTT). Cleavage of factor IXG207E by factor XIa or factor VIIa-tissue factor complex appeared to be normal. When the calcium-dependent conformational change was examined by monitoring quenching of intrinsic fluorescence, both normal factor IX and IXG207E exhibited equivalent intrinsic fluorescence quenching. Activated factor IXG207E (IXaG207E) also binds antithrombin III equally as well as normal factor IXa. However, aberrant binding of the active site probe p-aminobenzamidine was observed for factor XIa-activated factor IXG207E, indicating that the active site pocket of the heavy chain of factor IXaG207E was abnormal. Moreover, the rate of activation of factor X by factor IXaG207E, as measured in a purified system using chromogenic substrates, was estimated to be 1/40 of that of normal factor IXa. A computer-modeled heavy-chain structure of factor IXa predicts a hydrophobic environment surrounding Gly-207 and this Gly forms a hydrogen bound to the active site serine-365. The molecular mechanism of the Gly-->Glu mutation in factor IXTaipei9 might result in the alteration of the microenvironment of the active site pocket which renders the active site serine-365 inaccessible to its substrate. PMID:7915915

  3. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA coding for human factor IX.

    PubMed

    Kurachi, K; Davie, E W

    1982-11-01

    A cDNA library prepared from human liver has been screened for factor IX (Christmas factor), a clotting factor that participates in the middle phase of blood coagulation. The library was screened with a single-stranded DNA prepared from enriched mRNA for baboon factor IX and a synthetic oligonucleotide mixture. A plasmid was identified that contained a cDNA insert of 1,466 base pairs coding for human factor IX. The insert is flanked by G-C tails of 11 and 18 base pairs at the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. It also included 138 base pairs that code for an amino-terminal leader sequence, 1,248 base pairs that code for the mature protein, a stop codon, and 48 base pairs of noncoding sequence at the 3' end. The leader sequence contains 46 amino acid residues, and it is proposed that this sequence includes both a signal sequence and a pro sequence for the mature protein that circulates in plasma. The 1,248 base pairs code for a polypeptide chain composed of 416 amino acids. The amino-terminal region for this protein contains 12 glutamic acid residues that are converted to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in the mature protein. These glutamic acid residues are coded for by both GAA and GAG. The arginyl peptide bonds that are cleaved in the conversion of human factor IX to factor IXa by factor XIa were identified as Arg145-Ala146 and Arg180-Val181. The cleavage of these two internal peptide bonds results in the formation of an activation peptide (35 amino acids) and factor IXa, a serine protease composed of a light chain (145 amino acids) and a heavy chain (236 amino acids), and these two chains are held together by a disulfide bond(s). The active site residues including histidine, aspartate, and serine are located in the heavy chain at positions 221, 270, and 366, respectively. These amino acids are homologous with His57, Asp102, and Ser195 in the active site of chymotrypsin. Two potential carbohydrate binding sites (Asn-X-Thr) were identified in the activation peptide, and

  4. International scientists on nuclear winter

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, T.F.

    1985-12-01

    A report by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) leads new support to the warning of extreme climatic disruptions that would follow a nuclear war. The two-volume report does not deal explicitly with public policy questions, but focuses on scientific knowledge of physical effects and biological responses. The author reviews studies made since the warning of a nuclear winter began in 1982, and evaluates the new report. He finds the message of the report to be a clear warning that a major nuclear war would threaten the entire world. He hopes it will be a catalyst to world opinion in the same way that the public responded to the incident of radioactive fallout striking a Japanese fishing vessel in 1954.

  5. Zika is not a reason for missing the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro: response to the open letter of Dr Attaran and colleagues to Dr Margaret Chan, Director - General, WHO, on the Zika threat to the Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Codeço, Claudia; Villela, Daniel; Gomes, Marcelo F; Bastos, Leonardo; Cruz, Oswaldo; Struchiner, Claudio; Carvalho, Luis Max; Coelho, Flavio

    2016-06-01

    Attaran and colleagues in an open letter to WHO expressed their concern about the upcoming Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and the threat posed by the Zika epidemic (Attaran 2016). We agree that Zika virus is of great public health concern and much remains to be known about this disease. Care should be taken to reduce the risk of infection, especially to pregnant women. However, we argue that this is not sufficient reason for changing the original plans for the Games, in particular because of the time of the year when they will take place. The present article outlines several scientific results related to Zika and mosquito-borne infectious diseases dynamics that we believe ratify the current position of WHO in not endorsing the postponing or relocation of the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (WHO 2016). PMID:27304097

  6. Zika is not a reason for missing the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro: response to the open letter of Dr Attaran and colleagues to Dr Margaret Chan, Director - General, WHO, on the Zika threat to the Olympic and Paralympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Codeço, Claudia; Villela, Daniel; Gomes, Marcelo F; Bastos, Leonardo; Cruz, Oswaldo; Struchiner, Claudio; Carvalho, Luis Max; Coelho, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Attaran and colleagues in an open letter to WHO expressed their concern about the upcoming Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and the threat posed by the Zika epidemic (Attaran 2016). We agree that Zika virus is of great public health concern and much remains to be known about this disease. Care should be taken to reduce the risk of infection, especially to pregnant women. However, we argue that this is not sufficient reason for changing the original plans for the Games, in particular because of the time of the year when they will take place. The present article outlines several scientific results related to Zika and mosquito-borne infectious diseases dynamics that we believe ratify the current position of WHO in not endorsing the postponing or relocation of the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (WHO 2016). PMID:27304097

  7. Zika is not a reason for missing the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro: response to the open letter of Dr Attaran and colleagues to Dr Margaret Chan, Director - General, WHO, on the Zika threat to the Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Codeço, Claudia; Villela, Daniel; Gomes, Marcelo F; Bastos, Leonardo; Cruz, Oswaldo; Struchiner, Claudio; Carvalho, Luis Max; Coelho, Flavio

    2016-06-01

    Attaran and colleagues in an open letter to WHO expressed their concern about the upcoming Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and the threat posed by the Zika epidemic (Attaran 2016). We agree that Zika virus is of great public health concern and much remains to be known about this disease. Care should be taken to reduce the risk of infection, especially to pregnant women. However, we argue that this is not sufficient reason for changing the original plans for the Games, in particular because of the time of the year when they will take place. The present article outlines several scientific results related to Zika and mosquito-borne infectious diseases dynamics that we believe ratify the current position of WHO in not endorsing the postponing or relocation of the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (WHO 2016).

  8. Introducing winter canola to the winter wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers in the low-rainfall, winter wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest are in need of an alternative crop to diversify their markets, manage pests, and increase wheat yields. Winter canola may be a viable crop option for growers in the region. However, agronomic research for winter canol...

  9. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of...

  10. In vitro mutagenesis study of two critical glutamic acids in the calcium binding loop of the factor IX heavy chain.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, N; Stafford, D

    1994-12-01

    We investigated the structural and functional significance of calcium binding in the factor IXa heavy chain by introducing point mutations into the probable calcium binding site (residues 235 and 245). According to factor IXa computer modelling based on trypsin x-ray structure, side chains of two glutamic acid residues, 235 and 245, together with backbone carbonyl groups of residues 237 and 240, bind a calcium ion. Factor IX clotting activity decreased approximately 25 percent on substitution of glutamic acid 235 with lysine. Activity decreased more than 90 percent on substitution of glutamic acid 245 with lysine. Activity also decreased more than 90 percent on substitution of both glutamic acids by lysines. Factor XIa cleavage of factor IXGlu235Lys and factor IXGlu245Lys appeared normal by polyacrylamide gel analysis. (Factor IXGlu235Lys: Factor IX with Lysine substituted for Glutamic acid at residue 235. Factor IXGlu245Lys: Factor IX with Lysine substituted for Glutamic acid at residue 245. Factor IXGlu235&245Lys: Factor IX with Lysine substituted for Glutamic acid at residues 235 and 245.) Activated factor IXGlu235Lys bound the fluorescent active site probe, p-aminobenzamidine, normally, while factor XIa cleaved factor IXGlu245Lys and factor IXGlu235&245Lys failed to bind p-aminobenzamidine. Plasma purified factor IX titrated with terbium showed an increase in luminescence; however, factor IXGlu235Lys and factor IXGlu245Lys had no effect on terbium luminescence. Radioimmunoassays indicate that in calcium's absence, factor IXGlu245Lys adopts a conformation similar to normal factor IX in the presence of calcium. By contrast, factor IXGlu245Lys's conformation in the presence of calcium is similar to that of plasma purified factor IX in the absence of calcium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7740454

  11. The serological relationship between Brucella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica serotype IX and Salmonella serotypes of Kauffmann-White group N.

    PubMed Central

    Corbell, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The serological relationship between Brucella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica IX, and the group N salmonella serotypes S. godesberg, S. landau, S. morehead, S. neusdorf, S. soerenga and S. urbana was examined using agglutination, antiglobulin, complement fixation, immunodiffusion and fluorescent antibody methods. Antisera to the group N salmonella serotypes all reacted to significant titres in agglutination and complement fixation, but not antiglobulin or immunodiffusion tests with smooth brucella antigens. These antisera also reacted in agglutination, but not antiglobulin, tests with Y. enterocolitica IX. They did not react significantly in any tests with rough brucella antigens. Conversely, antisera to smooth Brucella spp. agglutinated group N salmonellas to low titre and Y. enterocolitica IX to titres similar to those given against the homologous strain. Antiserum to Y. enterocolitica IX on the other hand reacted with smooth brucella antigens to high titre in agglutination, complement fixation and antiglobulin tests, and with the group N salmonella antigens to substantial titres in agglutination tests. In direct fluorescent antibody tests, smooth Brucella strains and Y. enterocolitica IX reacted strongly with FITC-labelled antibody to Br. abortus whereas the group N salmonella strains reacted weakly. In tests with monospecific antisera to the A and M determinants of Br. abortus and Br. melitensis respectively, Y. enterocolitica IX reacted only with the antiserum to the A determinant whereas group N salmonellas reacted to low titre with both A and M antisera. The results of cross-absorption tests confirmed this relationship and suggested that the O30 antigens of group N salmonella serotypes contained antigenic determinants similar to, but not identical with, the antigenic structure shared by smooth Brucella spp. and Y. enterocolitica IX. PMID:807618

  12. Stem rust resistance in 'Jagger' winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Jagger" has been utilized widely as a parent to develop hard red winter wheat varieties throughout the U.S. southern Great Plains. Jagger has resistance to stem rust pathogen race TTTTF, which is virulent to many winter wheat cultivars, yet the genetic basis of this resistance remains unknown. Mark...

  13. The Winter Environment. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Winter seems to hold more mysteries than any other season. It changes the behavior of wildlife and also brings about drastic changes in plant life. This unit, designed around the following two ideas: (1) to develop an appreciation and understanding of the winter season and (2) to understand how plants and wildlife are affected by the winter…

  14. Animals in Winter. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sairigne, Catherine

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the habits of a variety of animals during the winter. Topics include: (1) surviving during winter, including concepts such as migration, hibernation, and skin color change; (2) changing…

  15. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  16. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Winter activities. 1002.19 Section 1002.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding,...

  17. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 1002.19 Section 1002.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding,...

  18. Does cold winter weather produce depressive symptoms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Michael J.; Goodes, Mike; Furlong, Candy; Tollefson, Gary D.

    1988-06-01

    To examine whether harsh winter weather is associated with depressive symptoms, 45 healthy subjects from Minnesota were compared to 42 subjects from California near the end of the winter season. No differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms were found between the two groups.

  19. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Winter activities. 2.19 Section 2.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing,...

  20. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Winter activities. 2.19 Section 2.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing,...

  1. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 2.19 Section 2.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing,...

  2. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Winter activities. 2.19 Section 2.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing,...

  3. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Winter activities. 2.19 Section 2.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing,...

  4. Dexamethasone alone and in combination with desipramine, phenytoin, valproic acid or levetiracetam interferes with 5-ALA-mediated PpIX production and cellular retention in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Johnathan E; Steele, Christopher J; Rovin, Richard A; Belton, Robert J; Winn, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Extent of resection of glioblastoma (GBM) correlates with overall survival. Fluorescence-guided resection (FGR) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) can improve the extent of resection. Unfortunately not all patients given 5-ALA accumulate sufficient quantities of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) for successful FGR. In this study, we investigated the effects of dexamethasone, desipramine, phenytoin, valproic acid, and levetiracetam on the production and accumulation of PpIX in U87MG cells. All of these drugs, except levetiracetam, reduce the total amount of PpIX produced by GBM cells (p < 0.05). When dexamethasone is mixed with another drug (desipramine, phenytoin, valproic acid or levetiracetam) the amount of PpIX produced is further decreased (p < 0.01). However, when cells are analyzed for PpIX cellular retention, dexamethasone accumulated significantly more PpIX than the vehicle control (p < 0.05). Cellular retention of PpIX was not different from controls in cells treated with dexamethasone plus desipramine, valproic acid or levetiracetam, but was significantly less for dexamethasone plus phenytoin (p < 0.01). These data suggest that medications given before and during surgery may interfere with PpIX accumulation in malignant cells. At this time, levetiracetam appears to be the best medication in its class (anticonvulsants) for patients undergoing 5-ALA-mediated FGR.

  5. Short winters threaten temperate fish populations

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Troy M.; Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Dabrowski, Konrad; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Although climate warming is expected to benefit temperate ectotherms by lengthening the summer growing season, declines in reproductive success following short, warm winters may counter such positive effects. Here we present long-term (1973–2010) field patterns for Lake Erie yellow perch, Perca flavescens, which show that failed annual recruitment events followed short, warm winters. Subsequent laboratory experimentation and field investigations revealed how reduced reproductive success following short, warm winters underlie these observed field patterns. Following short winters, females spawn at warmer temperatures and produce smaller eggs that both hatch at lower rates and produce smaller larvae than females exposed to long winters. Our research suggests that continued climate warming can lead to unanticipated, negative effects on temperate fish populations. PMID:26173734

  6. EPS Workshop on Nuclear Winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, D. H.

    1988-01-01

    This workshop was held in Geneva in October 1986 and was attended by invited delegates from both East (14) and West (13), members of the ACPS (5) and the President. Relevant disciplines as well as Physics were represented which lead to comprehensive discussions. The factors which have a bearing on the probabilities of a nuclear winter were reviewed using the SCOPE-ENUWAR studies as a basis. These covered the nature of a possible nuclear war; the quantities of dust and smoke thrown into the atmosphere, its particle size, height and lifetime; the resulting effects on sunlight and temperature; and the consequences for vegetation and animal life both terrestrial and marine. There are many uncertainties in such analyses. Much more work is needed on many facets. The more important were highlighted as further topics for East-West collaboration. Never the less it was concluded that:- Climatic effects involving temperature falls of only three or four degrees below normal combined with a large fall in light intensity during the growing season of cereal crops would have disastrous consequences.

  7. Veterans Paralympic Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Boozman, John [R-AR

    2013-04-10

    06/12/2013 Committee on Veterans' Affairs. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 113-111. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.1402, which became Public Law 113-59 on 12/20/2013. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. The effect of air cooling pain relief on protoporphyrin IX photobleaching and clinical efficacy during dermatological photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, J; Campbell, S M; Curnow, A

    2011-04-01

    Methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) is utilized to successfully treat licensed indications (e.g. actinic keratosis (AK), superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) and Bowen's disease (BD)) in the UK. Air cooling devices (ACD) are commonly utilized as a method of pain relief, however the effect of this on treatment outcome has never been extensively investigated. This non-randomized, retrospective observational controlled study investigated whether the application of the ACD limited photosensitiser (protoporphyrin IX - PpIX) photobleaching during irradiation and/or subsequent clinical outcome. Patients utilizing the ACD throughout treatment were observed to undergo significantly less PpIX photobleaching than the control group (P<0.001) and complete clinical clearances observed at 3 months were also reduced within the ACD group. Separate analysis of the different lesion types indicated that significantly less photobleaching occurred in AK lesions with ACD and all lesion types failed to fully utilize the accumulated PpIX when ACD was employed. The application of the ACD as pain relief during light irradiation therefore resulted in lower PpIX photobleaching which corresponded to a reduction in the efficacy of PDT treatment. Whilst the ACD is an effective method of dermatological PDT analgesia it should be utilized as sparingly as possible to minimize any deleterious effects on treatment outcome.

  9. Long-term in vivo clearance of gadolinium-based AGuIX nanoparticles and their biocompatibility after systemic injection.

    PubMed

    Sancey, Lucie; Kotb, Shady; Truillet, Charles; Appaix, Florence; Marais, Arthur; Thomas, Eloïse; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Klein, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Blandine; Cottier, Michèle; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Panczer, Gérard; Lux, François; Perriat, Pascal; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Tillement, Olivier

    2015-03-24

    We previously reported the synthesis of gadolinium-based nanoparticles (NPs) denoted AGuIX (activation and guiding of irradiation by X-ray) NPs and demonstrated their potential as an MRI contrast agent and their efficacy as radiosensitizing particles during X-ray cancer treatment. Here we focus on the elimination kinetics of AGuIX NPs from the subcellular to whole-organ scale using original and complementary methods such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), intravital two-photon microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). This combination of techniques allows the exact mechanism of AGuIX NPs elimination to be elucidated, including their retention in proximal tubules and their excretion as degraded or native NPs. Finally, we demonstrated that systemic AGuIX NP administration induced moderate and transient effects on renal function. These results provide useful and promising preclinical information concerning the safety of theranostic AGuIX NPs.

  10. Dexamethasone downregulates expression of carbonic anhydrase IX via HIF-1α and NF-κB-dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Simko, Veronika; Takacova, Martina; Debreova, Michaela; Laposova, Katarina; Ondriskova-Panisova, Elena; Pastorekova, Silvia; Csaderova, Lucia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2016-01-01

    Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid frequently used to suppress side-effects of anticancer chemotherapy. In the present study, we showed that dexamethasone treatment leads to concentration-dependent downregulation of cancer-associated marker, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), at the level of promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression in 2D and 3D cancer cell models. The effect of dexamethasone on CA IX expression under hypoxic conditions is predominantly mediated by impaired transcriptional activity and decreased protein level of the main hypoxic transcription factor HIF-1α. In addition, CA9 downregulation can be caused by protein-protein interactions between activated glucocorticoid receptors, major effectors of glucocorticoid action, and transcription factors that trigger CA9 transcription (e.g. AP-1). Moreover, we identified a potential NF-κB binding site in the CA9 promoter and propose the involvement of NF-κB in the dexamethasone-mediated inhibition of CA9 transcription. As high level of CA IX is often linked to aggressive tumor behavior, poor prognosis and chemo- and radiotherapy resistance, uncovering its reduction after dexa-methasone treatment and implication of additional regulatory mechanisms can be relevant for the CA IX-related clinical applications. PMID:27431580

  11. Long-term in vivo clearance of gadolinium-based AGuIX nanoparticles and their biocompatibility after systemic injection.

    PubMed

    Sancey, Lucie; Kotb, Shady; Truillet, Charles; Appaix, Florence; Marais, Arthur; Thomas, Eloïse; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Klein, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Blandine; Cottier, Michèle; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Panczer, Gérard; Lux, François; Perriat, Pascal; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Tillement, Olivier

    2015-03-24

    We previously reported the synthesis of gadolinium-based nanoparticles (NPs) denoted AGuIX (activation and guiding of irradiation by X-ray) NPs and demonstrated their potential as an MRI contrast agent and their efficacy as radiosensitizing particles during X-ray cancer treatment. Here we focus on the elimination kinetics of AGuIX NPs from the subcellular to whole-organ scale using original and complementary methods such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), intravital two-photon microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). This combination of techniques allows the exact mechanism of AGuIX NPs elimination to be elucidated, including their retention in proximal tubules and their excretion as degraded or native NPs. Finally, we demonstrated that systemic AGuIX NP administration induced moderate and transient effects on renal function. These results provide useful and promising preclinical information concerning the safety of theranostic AGuIX NPs. PMID:25703068

  12. Comparison of Ares I-X Wind-Tunnel Derived Buffet Environment with Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piatak, David J.; Sekula, Martin K.; Rausch, Russ D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV), launched in October 2009, carried with it over 243 buffet verification pressure sensors and was one of the most heavily instrumented launch vehicle flight tests. This flight test represented a unique opportunity for NASA and its partners to compare the wind-tunnel derived buffet environment with that measured during the flight of Ares I-X. It is necessary to define the launch vehicle buffet loads to ensure that structural components and vehicle subsystems possess adequate strength, stress, and fatigue margins when the vehicle structural dynamic response to buffet forcing functions are considered. Ares I-X buffet forcing functions were obtained via wind-tunnel testing of a rigid buffet model (RBM) instrumented with hundreds of unsteady pressure transducers designed to measure the buffet environment across the desired frequency range. This paper discusses the comparison of RBM and FTV buffet environments, including fluctuating pressure coefficient and normalized sectional buffet forcing function root-mean-square magnitudes, frequency content of power-spectral density functions, and force magnitudes of an alternating flow phenomena. Comparison of wind-tunnel model and flight test vehicle buffet environments show very good agreement with root-mean-square magnitudes of buffet forcing functions at the majority of vehicle stations. Spectra proved a challenge to compare because of different wind-tunnel and flight test conditions and data acquisition rates. However, meaningful and promising comparisons of buffet spectra are presented. Lastly, the buffet loads resulting from the transition of subsonic separated flow to supersonic attached flow were significantly over-predicted by wind-tunnel results.

  13. Ares I-X: Lessons for a New Era of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2005, the Ares Projects at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. On October 28, 2009, the first development flight test of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, Ares I-X, lifted off from a launch pad at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on successful suborbital flight. Despite the President s intention to cancel the Constellation Program of which Ares is a part, this historic flight has produced a great amount of data and numerous lessons learned for any future launch vehicles. This paper will describe the accomplishments of Ares I-X and the lessons that other programs can glean from this successful mission. Ares I was designed to carry up to four astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS). It also was designed to be used with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle for a variety of missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The Ares I-X development flight test was conceived in 2006 to acquire early engineering and environment data during liftoff, ascent, and first stage recovery. The test achieved the following primary objectives: Demonstrated control of a dynamically similar, integrated Ares I/Orion, using Ares I relevant ascent control algorithms. Performed an in-flight separation/staging event between a Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage. Demonstrated assembly and recovery of a new Ares I-like First Stage element at KSC. Demonstrated First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics, and parachute performance. Characterized the magnitude of integrated vehicle roll torque throughout First Stage flight.

  14. Ares I-X First Stage Separation Loads and Dynamics Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demory, Lee; Rooker, BIll; Jarmulowicz, Marc; Glaese, John

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X flight test provided NASA with the opportunity to test hardware and gather critical data to ensure the success of future Ares I flights. One of the primary test flight objectives was to evaluate the environment during First Stage separation to better understand the conditions that the J-2X second stage engine will experience at ignition [1]. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the stage separation motors. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle was successfully launched on October 29, 2009, achieving most of its primary and secondary test objectives. Ground based video camera recordings of the separation event appeared to show recontact of the First Stage and the Upper Stage Simulator followed by an unconventional tumbling of the Upper Stage Simulator. Closer inspection of the videos and flight test data showed that recontact did not occur. Also, the motion during staging was as predicted through CFD analysis performed during the Ares I-X development. This paper describes the efforts to reconstruct the vehicle dynamics and loads through the staging event by means of a time integrated simulation developed in TREETOPS, a multi-body dynamics software tool developed at NASA [2]. The simulation was built around vehicle mass and geometry properties at the time of staging and thrust profiles for the first stage solid rocket motor as well as for the booster deceleration motors and booster tumble motors. Aerodynamic forces were determined by models created from a combination of wind tunnel testing and CFD. The initial conditions such as position, velocity, and attitude were obtained from the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET), which is compiled from multiple ground based and vehicle mounted instruments. Dynamic loads were calculated by subtracting the inertial forces from the applied forces. The simulation results were compared to the Best Estimated Trajectory, accelerometer flight data, and to ground based video.

  15. Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by chalepin and pseudane IX isolated from Ruta angustifolia leaves.

    PubMed

    Wahyuni, Tutik Sri; Widyawaruyanti, Aty; Lusida, Maria Inge; Fuad, Achmad; Soetjipto; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Aoki, Chie; Hotta, Hak

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among global populations, with an estimated number of infected patients being 170 million. Approximately 70-80% of patients acutely infected with HCV will progress to chronic liver disease, such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. New therapies for HCV infection have been developed, however, the therapeutic efficacies still need to be improved. Medicinal plants are promising sources for antivirals against HCV. A variety of plants have been tested and proven to be beneficial as antiviral drug candidates against HCV. In this study, we examined extracts, their subfractions and isolated compounds of Ruta angustifolia leaves for antiviral activities against HCV in cell culture. We isolated six compounds, chalepin, scopoletin, γ-fagarine, arborinine, kokusaginine and pseudane IX. Among them, chalepin and pseudane IX showed strong anti-HCV activities with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of 1.7 ± 0.5 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μg/ml, respectively, without apparent cytotoxicity. Their anti-HCV activities were stronger than that of ribavirin (2.8 ± 0.4 μg/ml), which has been widely used for the treatment of HCV infection. Mode-of-action analyses revealed that chalepin and pseudane IX inhibited HCV at the post-entry step and decreased the levels of HCV RNA replication and viral protein synthesis. We also observed that arborinine, kokusaginine and γ-fagarine possessed moderate levels of anti-HCV activities with IC₅₀ values being 6.4 ± 0.7, 6.4 ± 1.6 and 20.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml, respectively, whereas scopoletin did not exert significant anti-HCV activities at 30 μg/ml.

  16. Observations of the bright novalike variable IX Velorum with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Knox S.; Wade, Richard A.; Blair, William P.; Davidsen, Arthur F.; Hubeny, Ivan

    1994-01-01

    The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope, an experiment flown on the Space Shuttle as part of the Astro-1 mission, was used to obtain a spectrum of the novalike variable IX Vel (= CPD -48 deg 1577) in the wavelength range 830-1860 A. The observation revealed a rich absorption-line and continuum spectrum that peaks near 1050 A at a flux of 1.6 x 10(exp -11) ergs/sq cm/s/A. In the sub-Lyman-alpha region, some of the more prominent absorption lines are S VI lambda lambda-933, 945, C III lambda-977, Lyman-beta, O VI lambda lambda-1032, 1038, P V lambda lambda-1118, 1128, and C III lambda-1176. No emission was detected below the Lyman limit. The overall continuum shape of IX Vel in the FUV can be approximated using models of an optically thick accretion disk in which the integrated spectrum has been constructed by summing model stellar atmospheres or proper disk model spectra. However, if the distance to IX Vel is approximately 95 pc, standard disk models without reddening cannot simultaneously reproduce the color and flux in the UV. While interstellar reddening can reconcile this difference, the amount of reddening appears inconsistent with the absence of a 2200 A bump in the spectrum and the very low H I column density measured along the line of sight. Improved fits to the data can be obtained by modifying the accretion disk stucture within three white dwarf radii. None of the models reproduces the profiles of the Li- and Na-like ions, which are observed as strong but relatively narrow absorption lines, and which are almost surely due to a wind above the disk.

  17. Wavelengths and levels of the Na I isoelectronic sequence from K IX through Mn XV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, L.; Behring, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    The seven spectra K IX through Mn XV have been analyzed and the series limits determined. We present the adopted wavelengths and the derived energy levels and term splittings. The highly ionized atoms were produced in a spark source and recorded mainly on a 3 m grazing incidence spectrograph. Many new lines have been identified and many previously given wavelengths have been revised. All wavelengths have been examined for consistency by least-squares-fitting procedures and other tests. These procedures indicated misidentified lines and incorrect wavelengths which we corrected when possible. A discussion of the errors is given.

  18. NASA Aerosciences Perspective on Proposed De-Scope of Ares I-X Development Flight Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, David M.

    2009-01-01

    This position paper is written as a result of a number of emails and a presentation that have recently been circulated concerning the potential reduction of Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) to be included on the Ares I-X flight test vehicle. A reduction in instrumentation has been proposed presumably to reduce project costs and relieve project schedule pressures. This proposal has generated a significant amount of discussion on both sides of the issue, primarily from those within the project. The intention here is to provide a perspective on this issue from outside the mainline project.

  19. How far can we go? Quantum-chemical investigations of oxidation state +IX.

    PubMed

    Himmel, Daniel; Knapp, Carsten; Patzschke, Michael; Riedel, Sebastian

    2010-03-15

    The highest known oxidation state of any element is +VIII. After the recent discovery of Ir(VIII)O(4) under cryogenic conditions, we have investigated the stability of cationic species [MO(4)](+) (M=Rh,Ir,Mt). Such compounds would formally represent the new oxidation state +IX, which is experimentally unknown so far for the whole periodic table. [IrO(4)](+) is predicted to be the most promising candidate. The calculated spin-orbit (SO) coupling shows only minor effects on the stability of the iridium species, whereas SO-coupling increases enormously for the corresponding Eka-Iridium (Meitnerium) complexes and destabilizes these.

  20. How far can we go? Quantum-chemical investigations of oxidation state +IX.

    PubMed

    Himmel, Daniel; Knapp, Carsten; Patzschke, Michael; Riedel, Sebastian

    2010-03-15

    The highest known oxidation state of any element is +VIII. After the recent discovery of Ir(VIII)O(4) under cryogenic conditions, we have investigated the stability of cationic species [MO(4)](+) (M=Rh,Ir,Mt). Such compounds would formally represent the new oxidation state +IX, which is experimentally unknown so far for the whole periodic table. [IrO(4)](+) is predicted to be the most promising candidate. The calculated spin-orbit (SO) coupling shows only minor effects on the stability of the iridium species, whereas SO-coupling increases enormously for the corresponding Eka-Iridium (Meitnerium) complexes and destabilizes these. PMID:20127784

  1. Explaining unusual winter lightning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, Takatoshi; Ishii, Masaru; Williams, Earle

    2011-11-01

    Third International Symposium on Winter Lightning; Sapporo, Japan, 15-16 June 2011 Japan's meteorological setting in winter is unusual: It is an island in a relatively warm sea frequently overswept by colder air from Siberia. This sets up appreciable atmospheric instability in the fringe of the land adjacent to the Sea of Japan. Heavy snowstorms overlap the edge of the island and produce extraordinarily energetic lightning flashes that initiate from points on the ground (known as ground-to-cloud (GC) strokes) and wreak havoc on power lines and, more recently, wind turbines. These troublesome and costly conditions set the stage for the third in a series of conferences on winter lightning.

  2. Nutrient content of some winter grouse foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Treichler, R.R.; Stow, R.W.; Nelson, A.L.

    1946-01-01

    Seventeen preferred grouse foods were collected during the late winter and analyzed for nutrient content. The results include moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, nitrogenfree extract, ash, calcium, phosphorus, and gross energy content expressed both on moisture free and fresh bases.....The preferred winter foods of grouse are characterized by a high content of dry substance and of nitrogen-free extract......On the basis of nutrient content, the foods examined are well qualified as sources of energy and other essential nutrients required for maintenance of grouse during the winter season.

  3. Kinetic and docking studies of cytosolic/tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isozymes I, II and IX with some hydroxylic compounds.

    PubMed

    Durdagi, Serdar; Korkmaz, Neslihan; Işık, Semra; Vullo, Daniela; Astley, Demet; Ekinci, Deniz; Salmas, Ramin E; Senturk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    A series of hydroxylic compounds (1-10, NK-154 and NK-168) have been assayed for the inhibition of three physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase isozymes, the cytosolic isozymes I, II and tumor-associated isozyme IX. The investigated compounds showed inhibition constants in the range of 0.068-4003, 0.012-9.9 and 0.025-115 μm at the hCA I, hCA II and hCA IX enzymes, respectively. In order to investigate the binding mechanisms of these inhibitors, in silico studies were also applied. Molecular docking scores of the studied compounds are calculated using scoring algorithms, namely Glide/induced fit docking. The inhibitory potencies of the novel compounds were analyzed at the human isoforms hCA I, hCA II and hCA IX as targets and the KI values were calculated.

  4. Intracellular localization analysis of npAu-PpIX in HeLa cells using specific dyes and confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roblero-Bartolón, Victoria Gabriela; Maldonado-Alvarado, Elizabeth; Galván-Mendoza, José Iván; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva

    2012-10-01

    Cervical carcinoma (CC) represents the second leading cause of cancer death in Mexican women. No conventional treatments are being developed such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), involving the simultaneous presence of a photosensitizer (Ps), light of a specific wavelength and tissue oxygen. On the other hand, it has seen that the use of gold nanoparticles coupled to protoporphyrin IX increases the effectiveness of PDT. The aim of this study was to determine the site of accumulation of the conjugate npAu-PpIX in cells of cervical cancer by the use of specific dyes and confocal microscopy. The results indicate that the gold nanoparticles coupled to protoporphyrin IX are accumulated in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of HeLa cells.

  5. Kinetic and docking studies of cytosolic/tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isozymes I, II and IX with some hydroxylic compounds.

    PubMed

    Durdagi, Serdar; Korkmaz, Neslihan; Işık, Semra; Vullo, Daniela; Astley, Demet; Ekinci, Deniz; Salmas, Ramin E; Senturk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    A series of hydroxylic compounds (1-10, NK-154 and NK-168) have been assayed for the inhibition of three physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase isozymes, the cytosolic isozymes I, II and tumor-associated isozyme IX. The investigated compounds showed inhibition constants in the range of 0.068-4003, 0.012-9.9 and 0.025-115 μm at the hCA I, hCA II and hCA IX enzymes, respectively. In order to investigate the binding mechanisms of these inhibitors, in silico studies were also applied. Molecular docking scores of the studied compounds are calculated using scoring algorithms, namely Glide/induced fit docking. The inhibitory potencies of the novel compounds were analyzed at the human isoforms hCA I, hCA II and hCA IX as targets and the KI values were calculated. PMID:26634620

  6. Nonacog gamma, a novel recombinant factor IX with low factor IXa content for treatment and prophylaxis of bleeding episodes.

    PubMed

    Turecek, Peter L; Abbühl, Brigitt; Tangada, Srilatha D; Chapman, Miranda; Gritsch, Herbert; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter; Schrenk, Gerald; Mitterer, Artur; Dietrich, Barbara; Höllriegl, Werner; Schiviz, Alexandra; Horling, Frank; Reipert, Birgit M; Muchitsch, Eva-Maria; Pavlova, Borislava G; Scheiflinger, Friedrich

    2015-03-01

    Nonacog gamma is a new recombinant factor IX to treat factor IX deficiency. It is indicated for control of bleeding episodes, perioperative management and routine prophylaxis to prevent or reduce the frequency of bleeding episodes in adults and children with hemophilia B. Nonacog gamma was first approved in the USA in June 2013 under the trade name RIXUBIS followed by market approvals in Australia and the EU in 2014, and marketing authorization decision is pending in Japan. Nonacog gamma is derived from a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line using a state of the art biotechnological manufacturing process. Recombinant factor IX is produced by Baxter's protein-free fermentation technology, which was first developed for ADVATE. The product is purified and formulated in the absence of any human or animal-derived protein. Nonacog gamma was characterized both in comprehensive in vitro and in vivo non-clinical studies as well as in an extensive clinical trial program. PMID:25660348

  7. Physical characteristics of Eurasian winter temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Son, Seok-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the on-going global warming, recent winters in Eurasian mid-latitudes were much colder than average. In an attempt to better understand the physical characteristics for cold Eurasian winters, major sources of variability in surface air temperature (SAT) are investigated based on cyclostationary EOF analysis. The two leading modes of SAT variability represent the effect of Arctic amplification (AA) and the Arctic oscillation (AO), respectively. These two modes are distinct in terms of the physical characteristics, including surface energy fluxes and tropospheric circulations, and result in significantly different winter SAT patterns over the Eurasian continent. The AA-related SAT anomalies are dipolar with warm Arctic, centered at the Barents–Kara Seas, and cold East Asia. In contrast, the negative AO-related SAT anomalies are characterized by widespread cold anomalies in Northern Eurasia. Relative importance of the AA and the negative AO contributions to cold Eurasian winters is sensitive to the region of interest.

  8. How to Find Insects Weathering the Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Jane

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how and where to find insects and other invertebrates in winter, as well as how to collect samples in order to watch those animals reappear in spring. Includes crickets, honey bees, mosquitoes, house flies, and butterflies and moths. (MA)

  9. Ares I-X First Flight Loss of Vehicle Probability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark A.; Cross, Robert B.; Osborn, John H.; Li, Yunnhon

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Constellation (Cx) Program development effort, several test flights were planned to prove concepts and operational capabilities of the new vehicles being developed. The first test, involving the Eastern Test Range, is the Ares I-X launched in 2009. As part of this test, the risk to the general public was addressed to ensure it is within Air Force requirements. This paper describes the methodology used to develop first flight estimates of overall loss of vehicle (LOV) failure probability, specifically for the Ares I-X. The method described in this report starts with the Air Force s generic failure probability estimate for first flight and adjusts the value based on the complexity of the vehicle as compared to the complexity of a generic vehicle. The results estimate a 1 in 9 probability of failure. The paper also describes traditional PRA methods used in this assessment, which were then combined with the updated first flight risk methodology to generate inputs required by the malfunction turn analysis to support estimate of casualty (Ec) calculations as part of the Final Flight Data Package (FFDP) delivered to the Eastern Range for Final Flight Plan Approval.

  10. N-Methyl Mesoporphyrin IX Inhibits Phycocyanin, but Not Chlorophyll Synthesis in Cyanidium caldarium1

    PubMed Central

    Beale, Samuel I.; Chen, Nancy C.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMMP) to block heme synthesis by specifically inhibiting enzymic iron insertion into protoporphyrin IX was exploited to test whether heme is a precursor of the bilin chromophore of phycocyanin (PC). A strain of the unicellular rhodophyte Cyanidium caldarium which forms normal amounts of both chlorophyll (Chl) and PC in the dark was employed to avoid phototoxic effects of exogenous porphyrins. Relative Chl and PC content were assayed spectrophotometrically on whole cell suspensions. When cells were grown in the dark on a glucose-based heterotrophic medium at 42°C, neither division rate nor Chl synthesis was affected by NMMP up to 3.0 micromolar and for as long as 72 hours. NMMP had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on PC synthesis. PC to Chl absorbance ratios, relative to control cell values, were 100%, 89%, 86%, and 50% in cells grown for 48 hours with 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 10.0 micromolar NMMP, respectively. NMMP also caused the accumulation of intracellular protoporphyrin. The ability of NMMP to cause intracellular accumulation of protoporphyrin and to block PC synthesis specifically while allowing normal Chl formation is consistent with its action as a specific inhibitor of enzymic iron chelation, and supports the role of heme as a precursor to the phycobilins. PMID:16662815

  11. Targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor with mesoporphyrin IX-peptide conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Fontenot, Krystal R.; Ongarora, Benson G.; LeBlanc, Logan E.; Zhou, Zehua; Jois, Seetharama D.; Vicente, M. Graça H.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and in vitro evaluation of four mesoporphyrin IX-peptide conjugates designed to target EGFR, over-expressed in colorectal and other cancers, are reported. Two peptides with known affinity for EGFR, LARLLT (1) and GYHWYGYTPQNVI (2), were conjugated to mesoporphyrin IX (MPIX, 3) via one or both the propionic side chains, directly (4, 5) or with a triethylene glycol spacer (7, 8). The conjugates were characterized using NMR, MS, CD, SPR, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. Energy minimization and molecular dynamics suggest different conformations for the conjugates. SPR studies show that conjugate 4, bearing two LARLLT with no PEG spacers, has the greatest affinity for binding to EGFR, followed by conjugate 7 with two PEG and two LARLLT sequences. Molecular modeling and docking studies suggest that both conjugates 4 and 7 can bind to monomer and dimer EGFR in open and closed conformations. The cytotoxicity and cellular targeting ability of the conjugates were investigated in human HEp2 cells over-expressing EGFR. All conjugates showed low dark- and photo-toxicities. The cellular uptake was highest for conjugates 4 and 8 and lowest for 7 bearing two LARLLT linked via PEG groups, likely due to decreased hydrophobicity. Among the conjugates investigated 4 is the most efficient EGFR-targeting agent, and therefore the most promising for the detection of cancers that over-express EGFR. PMID:27738394

  12. Ares I-X Range Safety Simulation Verification and Analysis Independent Validation and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merry, Carl M.; Tarpley, Ashley F.; Craig, A. Scott; Tartabini, Paul V.; Brewer, Joan D.; Davis, Jerel G.; Dulski, Matthew B.; Gimenez, Adrian; Barron, M. Kyle

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Ares I-X vehicle launched on a suborbital test flight from the Eastern Range in Florida on October 28, 2009. To obtain approval for launch, a range safety final flight data package was generated to meet the data requirements defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual 91-710 Volume 2. The delivery included products such as a nominal trajectory, trajectory envelopes, stage disposal data and footprints, and a malfunction turn analysis. The Air Force s 45th Space Wing uses these products to ensure public and launch area safety. Due to the criticality of these data, an independent validation and verification effort was undertaken to ensure data quality and adherence to requirements. As a result, the product package was delivered with the confidence that independent organizations using separate simulation software generated data to meet the range requirements and yielded consistent results. This document captures Ares I-X final flight data package verification and validation analysis, including the methodology used to validate and verify simulation inputs, execution, and results and presents lessons learned during the process

  13. No Evidence for Protoplanetary Disk Destruction By OBS Stars in the MYStIX Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richert, Alexander J. W.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Kuhn, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    Hubble Space Telescope images of proplyds in the Orion Nebula, as well as submillimeter/radio measurements, show that the dominant O7 star {θ }1Ori C photoevaporates nearby disks around pre-main-sequence stars. Theory predicts that massive stars photoevaporate disks within distances of the order of 0.1 pc. These findings suggest that young, OB-dominated massive H ii regions are inhospitable to the survival of protoplanetary disks and, subsequently, to the formation and evolution of planets. In the current work, we test this hypothesis using large samples of pre-main-sequence stars in 20 massive star-forming regions selected with X-ray and infrared photometry in the MYStIX survey. Complete disk destruction would lead to a deficit of cluster members with an excess in JHKS and Spitzer/IRAC bands in the vicinity of O stars. In four MYStIX regions containing O stars and a sufficient surface density of disk-bearing sources to reliably test for spatial avoidance, we find no evidence for the depletion of inner disks around pre-main-sequence stars in the vicinity of O-type stars, even very luminous O2-O5 stars. These results suggest that massive star-forming regions are not very hostile to the survival of protoplanetary disks and, presumably, to the formation of planets.

  14. The avian cell line AGE1.CR.pIX characterized by metabolic flux analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In human vaccine manufacturing some pathogens such as Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara, measles, mumps virus as well as influenza viruses are still produced on primary material derived from embryonated chicken eggs. Processes depending on primary cell culture, however, are difficult to adapt to modern vaccine production. Therefore, we derived previously a continuous suspension cell line, AGE1.CR.pIX, from muscovy duck and established chemically-defined media for virus propagation. Results To better understand vaccine production processes, we developed a stoichiometric model of the central metabolism of AGE1.CR.pIX cells and applied flux variability and metabolic flux analysis. Results were compared to literature dealing with mammalian and insect cell culture metabolism focusing on the question whether cultured avian cells differ in metabolism. Qualitatively, the observed flux distribution of this avian cell line was similar to distributions found for mammalian cell lines (e.g. CHO, MDCK cells). In particular, glucose was catabolized inefficiently and glycolysis and TCA cycle seem to be only weakly connected. Conclusions A distinguishing feature of the avian cell line is that glutaminolysis plays only a minor role in energy generation and production of precursors, resulting in low extracellular ammonia concentrations. This metabolic flux study is the first for a continuous avian cell line. It provides a basis for further metabolic analyses to exploit the biotechnological potential of avian and vertebrate cell lines and to develop specific optimized cell culture processes, e.g. vaccine production processes. PMID:25077436

  15. Ares I-X Range Safety Simulation and Analysis IV and V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merry, Carl M.; Brewer, Joan D.; Dulski, Matt B.; Gimenez, Adrian; Barron, Kyle; Tarpley, Ashley F.; Craig, A. Scott; Beaty, Jim R.; Starr, Brett R.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Ares I-X vehicle launched on a suborbital test flight from the Eastern Range in Florida on October 28, 2009. NASA generated a Range Safety (RS) product data package to meet the RS trajectory data requirements defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual (AFSPCMAN) 91-710. Some products included were a nominal ascent trajectory, ascent flight envelopes, and malfunction turn data. These products are used by the Air Force s 45th Space Wing (45SW) to ensure public safety and to make flight termination decisions on launch day. Due to the criticality of the RS data, an independent validation and verification (IV&V) effort was undertaken to accompany the data generation analyses to ensure utmost data quality and correct adherence to requirements. As a result of the IV&V efforts, the RS product package was delivered with confidence that two independent organizations using separate simulation software generated data to meet the range requirements and yielded similar results. This document captures the Ares I-X RS product IV&V analysis, including the methodology used to verify inputs, simulation, and output data for certain RS products. Additionally a discussion of lessons learned is presented to capture advantages and disadvantages to the IV&V processes used.

  16. Homoclinic chaos in axisymmetric Bianchi-IX cosmological models with an ad hoc quantum potential

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, G. C.; Stuchi, T. J.; Joras, S. E.

    2010-04-15

    In this work we study the dynamics of the axisymmetric Bianchi-IX cosmological model with a term of quantum potential added. As it is well known, this class of Bianchi-IX models is homogeneous and anisotropic with two scale factors, A(t) and B(t), derived from the solution of Einstein's equation for general relativity. The model we use in this work has a cosmological constant and the matter content is dust. To this model we add a quantum-inspired potential that is intended to represent short-range effects due to the general relativistic behavior of matter in small scales and play the role of a repulsive force near the singularity. We find that this potential restricts the dynamics of the model to positive values of A(t) and B(t) and alters some qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the dynamics studied previously by several authors. We make a complete analysis of the phase space of the model finding critical points, periodic orbits, stable/unstable manifolds using numerical techniques such as Poincare section, numerical continuation of orbits, and numerical globalization of invariant manifolds. We compare the classical and the quantum models. Our main result is the existence of homoclinic crossings of the stable and unstable manifolds in the physically meaningful region of the phase space [where both A(t) and B(t) are positive], indicating chaotic escape to inflation and bouncing near the singularity.

  17. Spitzer IRAC Observations of IR Excess in Holmberg IX X-1: A Circumbinary Disk or a Variable Jet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudik, R. P.; Berghea, C. T.; Roberts, T. P.; Grisé, F.; Singh, A.; Pagano, R.; Winter, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    We present Spitzer Infrared Array Camera photometric observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX, X-1) in Holmberg IX. We construct a spectral energy distribution (SED) for Holmberg IX X-1 based on published optical, UV, and X-ray data combined with the IR data from this analysis. We modeled the X-ray and optical data with disk and stellar models; however, we find a clear IR excess in the ULX SED that cannot be explained by fits or extrapolations of any of these models. Instead, further analysis suggests that the IR excess results from dust emission, possibly a circumbinary disk, or a variable jet.

  18. In Vitro Comparison of Hypericin and 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Derived Protoporphyrin IX for Photodynamic Inactivation of Medulloblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Rainer; Scheidle, Christian; Noell, Susan; Roser, Florian; Schenk, Martin; Dietz, Klaus; Strauss, Wolfgang S. L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypericin (HYP) is a naturally occurring photosensitizer. Cellular uptake and photodynamic inactivation after incubation with this photosensitizer have neither been examined in medulloblastoma cells in vitro, nor compared with 5-aminolevulinic acid-derived protoporphyrin IX (5-ALA-derived PpIX). Methods In 3 medulloblastoma cell lines (D283 Med, Daoy, and D341 Med) the time- and concentration-dependent intracellular accumulation of HYP and 5-ALA-derived PpIX was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (FM) and FACS. Photocytotoxicity was measured after illumination at 595 nm (HYP) and 635 nm (5-ALA-derived PpIX) in D283 Med cells and compared to U373 MG glioma cells. Results All medulloblastoma cell lines exhibited concentration- and time-dependent uptake of HYP. Incubation with HYP up to 10 µM resulted in a rapid increase in fluorescence intensity, which peaked between 2 and 4 hours. 5-ALA-derived PpIX accumulation increased in D283 Med cells by 22% over baseline after 5-ALA incubation up to 1.2 mM. Photocytotoxicity of 5-ALA-derived PpIX was higher in D283 Med medulloblastoma compared to U373MG glioma. The [lethal dose (light dose that is required to reduce cell survival to 50% of control)] of 5-ALA-derived PpIX was 3.8 J/cm2 in D283 Med cells versus 5.7 J/cm2 in U373MG glioma cells. Photocytotoxicity of HYP in D283 Med cells was determined at 2.5 µM after an incubation time of 2 h and an illumination wavelength of 595 nm. The value was 0.47 J/cm2. Conclusion By its 5-fold increase in fluorescence over autofluorescence levels HYP has excellent properties for tumor visualization in medulloblastomas. The high photocytotoxicity of HYP, compared to 5-ALA-derived PpIX, is convincingly demonstrated by its 8- to 13-fold lower . Therefore HYP might be a promising molecule for intraoperative visualization and photodynamic treatment of medulloblastomas. PMID:23251668

  19. A highly selective space-folded photo-induced electron transfer fluorescent probe for carbonic anhydrase isozymes IX and its applications for biological imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenyi; Yang, Chunmei; Lu, Weiqiang; Huang, Jin; Zhu, Weiping; Li, Honglin; Xu, Yufang; Qian, Xuhong

    2011-08-01

    The first highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probe Z1 for detection of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) over isoforms CA I and CA II was developed. As demonstrated, Z1 worked effectively in both enzymatic systems and living hypoxia cells.

  20. Noninvasive fluorescence monitoring of protoporphyrin IX production and clinical outcomes in actinic keratoses following short-contact application of 5-aminolevulinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Christine B.; Lohser, Sara; Wene, Lauren C.; Pogue, Brian W.; Bailin, Philip L.; Maytin, Edward V.

    2010-09-01

    Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is widely used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of actinic keratoses (AK), a type of premalignant skin lesion. However, the optimal time between ALA application and exposure to light has not been carefully investigated. Our objective is to study the kinetics of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation in AK after short contact ALA and relate this to erythemal responses. Using a noninvasive dosimeter, PpIX fluorescence measurements (5 replicates) were taken at 20-min intervals for 2 h following ALA application, in 63 AK in 20 patients. Data were analyzed for maximal fluorescent signal obtained, kinetic slope, and changes in erythema. Our results show that PpIX accumulation was linear over time, becoming statistically higher than background in 48% of all lesions by 20 min, 92% of lesions by 1 h, and 100% of lesions by 2 h. PpIX accumulation was roughly correlated with changes in lesional erythema post-PDT. We conclude that significant amounts of PpIX are produced in all AK lesions by 2 h. The linear kinetics of accumulation suggest that shorter ALA application times may be efficacious in many patients. Noninvasive fluorescence monitoring of PpIX may be useful to delineate areas of high PpIX accumulation within precancerous areas of the skin.