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Sample records for iyengari nematoda mermithidae

  1. Host Penetration and Emergence Patterns of the Mosquito-Parasitic Mermithids Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae).

    PubMed

    Sanad, Manar M; Shamseldean, Muhammad S M; Elgindi, Abd-Elmoneim Y; Gaugler, Randy

    2013-03-01

    Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus are mermithid nematodes that parasitize mosquito larvae. We describe host penetration and emergence patterns of Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus in laboratory exposures against Culex pipiens pipiens larvae. The mermithid species differed in host penetration behavior, with R. iyengari juveniles attaching to the host integument before assuming a rigid penetration posture at the lateral thorax (66.7%) or abdominal segments V to VIII (33.3%). Strelkovimermis spiculatus attached first to a host hair in a coiled posture that provided a stable base for penetration, usually through the lateral thorax (83.3%). Superparasitism was reduced by discriminating against previously infected hosts, but R. iyengari's ability to avoid superparasitism declined at a higher inoculum rate. Host emergence was signaled by robust nematode movements that induced aberrant host swimming. Postparasites of R. iyengari usually emerged from the lateral prothorax (93.2%), whereas S. spiculatus emergence was peri-anal. In superparasitized hosts, emergence was initiated by males in R. iyengari and females in S. spiculatus; emergence was otherwise nearly synchronous. Protandry was observed in R. iyengari. The ability of S. spiculatus to sustain an optimal sex ratio suggested superior self-regulation. Mermithid penetration and emergence behaviors and sites may be supplementary clues for identification. Species differences could be useful in developing production and release strategies.

  2. Release of Romanomermis iyengari (Nematoda:Mermithidae) to control Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera:Culicidae) in Punta del Este, Isla de la Juventud, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Santamarina Mijares, A; García Avila, I; Rivera Rosales, J; Solís Montero, A

    1996-07-01

    Preparasites of Romanomermis iyengari Welch were applied at the rate of 1,000 preparasites per square meter of surface area in 5 natural breeding sites in carbonate rock depressions to control Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedeman larvae. Larval parasitism averaged 100, 97, 81, and 80% in 1-4 instars, respectively. Three of 5 sites produced parasitism in excess of 90%. The range of salinity and water depth had little influence on the levels of parasitism. Ae. taeniorhynchus density was reduced from 78 to 96% at the 5 sites 8 d posttreatment.

  3. Efficacy of a mermithid nematode Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in controlling tree hole-breeding mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rubber plantation area of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Paily, K P; Chandhiran, K; Vanamail, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Jambulingam, P

    2013-03-01

    In rubber plantations, tree holes are one of the major types of breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes which transmit dengue and chikungunya. A mermithid nematode, Romanomermis iyengari, was evaluated in tree holes for its efficacy in controlling Aedes albopictus. Infection of mosquito larvae by the nematode was determined through microscopic examination on the next day of application, and evaluation of immature density of mosquito was done on the seventh day. After application of the infective stage of the nematode in a host-parasite ratio of 1:3 or 1:4, the infection rates on the different larval instars of mosquito were similar, 85.7-95.8 % in first to third instars and 79.3 % in fourth instar larvae or 100 and 92.9 %, respectively. Parasite burden varied from 1.1 to 2.4, respectively, among first and third instar larvae applied at 1:3. At 1:4, the parasite burden was between 1.6 (fourth instar) and 4 (second instar). The increase in parasite burden due to parasite density was significant in all the larval instars (P < 0.05). High parasite burden is detrimental to parasite recycling as it can cause premature mortality of the host. Hence, the dosage of 1:3 could be considered as suitable for rubber tree hole habitats. In the nematode-applied tree holes, there was a significant level (P < 0.05) of reduction in the immature density of A. albopictus, especially late instars and pupae, confirming the efficacy of R. iyengari in infecting the mosquito and controlling pupal emergence.

  4. A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Mermithidae (Nematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Nickle, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The genera of the insect parasitic nematode family Mermithidae axe reviewed, and 16 of them axe redescribed and illustrated. Information is given on methods of rearing adult mermithid specimens and on host specificity. The four types of merrnithid life cycles axe described in detail. One figure shows the variety of insects parasitized by merrnithids and the location and size of the nematode within the insect. Several mermithid eggs are illustrated, and their usefulness in identification is discussed. Taxonomically, the primary emphasis is on the adult stages of the merrnithJds with larval and egg characteristics supplementaxy. An emended family diagnosis is given. Merrnis subnigrescens is considered a synonym of M. nigrescens, and M. tahitiensis is synonymized with M. mirabilis. Hydromermis contorta is accepted, leaving the genus Paramermis in an uncertain position. Study of the Steiner collections of Limnornermis bathybia indicates that Limnornerrnis is accepted as a valid genus. The adults of Agamermis decaudata are descried and illustrated for the first time. The genus Gastromermis is limited to the long single-spiculed forms, as it is now apparent that five or more genera have ventrally shifted mouth orifices. Amphirnermis tinyi n. sp. is described from damselflies from Louisiana. The genus Lanceimermis is accepted, and three species in this genus are illustrated. The taxon Reesimermis nielseni has been accepted for this important parasite of more than 20 mosquito species. This nematode previously has been referred to as Romanomermis sp. Romanomermis iyengari is transferred to the genus Reesirnermis. Diximermis peterseni n. gen., n. sp., from anopheline mosquitoes, is described and iUustrated. The adults of Agamomermis culicis which parasitize Aedes sollicitans, are described for the first time, and the species placed in a new genus, Perutilimermis. The new genus Neornesornermis is proposed for Mesomermis flumenalis Welch, 1962. Several problems on mermithid

  5. Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a Parasite of Midges (Chironomus sp. Chironomidae) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    de Doucet, Maria M. A.; Poinar, George O.

    1984-01-01

    Gastromermis kolleonis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the Arroyo Saldan River in Córdoba, Argentina. This species parasitizes midges of the genus Chironomus (Chironomidae: Diptera). It is distinguished from other members of the genus by the presence of six longitudinal chords, vulval flaps, degree of ventral displacement of the mouth, and size and shape of the spicule and amphids. PMID:19294020

  6. Agamermis (Nematoda: Mermithidae) Infection in South Carolina Agricultural Pests

    PubMed Central

    Stubbins, Francesca L.; Agudelo, Paula; Reay-Jones, Francis P. F.; Greene, Jeremy K.

    2016-01-01

    Native and invasive stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and the closely related invasive Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) are agricultural pests in the southeastern United States. Natural enemies, from various phyla, parasitize these pests and contribute to population regulation. We specifically investigated Nematoda infections in pentatomid and plataspid pests in one soybean field in South Carolina in 2015. Nematodes were identified through molecular and morphological methods and assigned to family Mermithidae, genus Agamermis. This study reports mermithid nematode infection in immature M. cribraria for the first time and provides the first mermithid host record for the stink bugs Chinavia hilaris, Euschistus servus, and another Euschistus species, and a grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in South Carolina. The same Agamermis species infected all hosts. The broad host range and prevalence suggests that Agamermis may be an important contributor to natural mortality of pentatomid and plataspid pests. Previous mermithid host records for the Pentatomidae and Plataspidae worldwide are summarized. Further work is needed to assess the impact of infection on populations over a broader range of agricultural fields and geographic localities. PMID:28154435

  7. Anomalomermis ephemerophagis n. g., n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitic in the mayfly Ephemerella maculata Traver (Ephermeroptera: Ephermerellidae) in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George; Walder, Larissa; Uno, Hiromi

    2015-03-01

    A new nematode, Anomalomermis ephemerophagis n. g., n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the mayfly Ephemerella maculata Traver (Ephermeroptera: Ephermerellidae) in California. The new species is characterised by six cephalic papillae and four additional disk papillae located on the head between the cephalic papillae and stoma. Additional diagnostic characters are: a terminal mouth opening; absence of X-fibers in the cuticle of both postparasitic juveniles and adults; paired, curved, medium-sized spicules; a straight barrow-shaped vagina and large eggs. Two infectious agents were present in some specimens. This is the first description of an adult nematode from a mayfly.

  8. New North American records of aquatic insects as paratenic hosts of pheromermis (nematoda : mermithidae).

    SciTech Connect

    Molloy, D. P.; Vinikour, W. S.; Anderson, R. V.; Environmental Assessment; New York State Museum; Western Illinois Univ.

    1999-07-01

    Several species of aquatic insects in Trout Park Nature Preserve (Elgin, IL) were observed to have small, black spots (<0.1 mm diameter) visible within their bodies. Microscopic examination revealed these spots to be coiled juveniles of a mermithid (Nematoda: Mermithidae). Based on host habitat (seepage areas and rivulets), host species (aquatic insects), and size (mean diameter of coiled juveniles = 79 {mu}m), it is likely that these mermithids were in the genus Pheromermis. Since adult mermithids were not found, species determination was not feasible, and the possibility of a new species cannot be ruled out. Pheromermis pachysoma and Pheromermis vesparum, however, are two species known to use aquatic insects as paratenic (i.e., transport) hosts in order to reach their definitive hosts, vespid wasps. Wasp larvae are infected by consuming the flesh of adult aquatic insects that contain the coiled juveniles of these Pheromermis spp. Of the 19 macroinvertebrate species examined in this study, Pheromermis juveniles were found in 4 caddisfly species (Hesperophylax designatus, Lepidostoma liba, Glossosoma intermedium, and Diplectrona modesta) and in 2 stonefly species (Clioperla clio and Amphinemura delosa). In addition to all 6 insect species being new host records for Pheromermis infection, this also represents the first report of nematode infection in stoneflies within the Western Hemisphere and of a Pheromermis sp. in Illinois. Among trophic groups, insect detritivores have been frequently recorded infected with coiled Pheromermis juveniles because of their direct consumption of eggs, and we also observed this for detritivores in our investigation (e.g., L. liba and A. delosa). Because C. clio was intensively infected, however, our study also provided evidence that predatory insects can be paratenic hosts. Coiled juveniles were typically present in muscle and fat body and present in almost all body regions. Not every infected paratenic host had external signs of

  9. Effects of insect growth regulators on the mosquito-parasitic nematode Romanomermis iyengari.

    PubMed

    Suman, Devi Shankar; Brey, Christopher W; Wang, Yi; Sanad, Manar; Shamseldean, Muhammed S M; Gaugler, Randy

    2013-02-01

    Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analogue, diflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, and azadirachtin, an ecdysone agonist, are three insect growth regulators (IGRs) considered as selective and effective insecticides for mosquitoes. Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) is a mosquito-parasitic mermithid that can provide biological control against many medically important mosquito species. The compatibility of these two control tactics was tested by evaluating the sublethal effects of exposure to IGR on nematode developmental stages (preparasitic, parasitic, and preparasitic + parasitic) using Culex pipiens larvae as the host. Sublethal concentrations of IGRs were 90 % emergence inhibition of host mosquito. Preparasitic exposure to pyriproxyfen, azadirachtin, and diflurbenzuron had no effect on infectivity, parasite load, sex ratio, or male size but reduced nematode female length and increased male sex ratio at one parasite/larva. When IGRs treatments were made against the parasitic and preparasitic + parasitic stages, pyriproxyfen and azadirachtin reduced R. iyengari infectivity, parasite load, and male nematode length, whereas pyriproxyfen exposure increased male sex ratio and reduced the female R. iyengari length. Thus, IGRs have significant negative impacts on different stages of mosquito mermithid that can destabilize the balance of host-parasite population interaction. Therefore, IGRs should be used with caution in mosquito habitats where these parasites have established.

  10. A new genus and species of mermithid (Nematoda) emerging from chironomid imagos eclosing from the Mississippi River headwaters area in northern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

    2009-12-01

    Fibromermis roarki n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the hemocoel of chironomid imagos of Ablabesmyia monilis (L.) eclosing from the headwaters of the Mississippi River at Gulsvig Landing in northern Minnesota in the summer of 2007. The new genus is described, distinguished from the most closely related tetrapapillate aquatic mermithid genus, and the new species described. Intensity and sex specificity of infection are recorded from 28 host adult chironomids of a single cohort. The new species represents the fourth tetrapapillate mermithid species described from the area and the third tetrapapillate genus.

  11. First record of a Mermithidae (Nematoda) from the meloid beetle Meloe violaceus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Lückmann, Johannes; Poinar, George O

    2003-05-01

    A new record of nematode parasitism of meloid beetles is reported and all earlier records are summarised. Rates of parasitism could be influenced by the toxic compound cantharidin that these beetles possess.

  12. Field application of Romanomermis culicivorax (Mermithidae: Nematoda) to control anopheline larvae in southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Zaim, M; Ladonni, H; Ershadi, M R; Manouchehri, A V; Sahabi, Z; Nazari, M; Shahmohammadi, H

    1988-09-01

    The efficacy of the parasitic nematode Romanomermis culcivorax in controlling anopheline larvae, including malaria vectors, was studied in Fars and Baluchistan provinces. Twenty sites were treated once with the preparastic stage of R. culicivorax in 1984 with 3,000, 5,000 or 10,000 preparasites per m2 surface area, depending on larval density. The average parasitism of anopheline larvae ranged from 56 to 69% based on 24 hr posttreatment dissections. No correlation was found between the level of parasitism and the density of mosquito larvae present in a site. About 61% parasitism was obtained when different rates of preparasites were released in 14 larval breeding sites in 1985. No apparent difference was observed in the rate of parasitism in 10 sites receiving one treatment compared with four sites receiving two treatments, with a seven day interval between each treatment. Romanomermis culcivorax was established in the release sites but caused only minor reductions in anopheline larval populations. The nematode would be of limited use in antimalaria campaigns in southern Iran.

  13. Divisispiculimermis mirus n. gen., n. sp. (Mermithidae: Nematoda) Parasitizing Midges in Córdoba, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Agüera de Doucet, María M.

    1986-01-01

    Divisispiculimermis mirus n. gen., n. sp., a mermithid parasitizing larvae of Chironomus sp. in the Cajón o Grande Stream, Córdoba, Argentina, is described. The new genus differs from all other mermithid genera in having paired spicules which are separated and divided into proximal and distal sectors. The other diagnostic characters of the genus are medium size, nematodes with the cuticle appearing smooth (lacking cross fibers under the light microscope); head separated from the rest of the body by a slight constriction at the level of the amphids, six cephalic papillae, mouth papillae absent, mouth opening posterior to level of cephalic papillae; six hypodermal chords at midbody; weakly S-shaped vagina; postparasitic juvenile with a tail appendage. PMID:19294174

  14. Thalassomermis megamphis n. gen., n. sp. (Mermithidae: Nemata) from the Bathyal South Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Tchesunov, A.V.; Hope, W. D.

    1997-01-01

    Thalassomermis megamphis n. gen., n. sp. (Mermithidae: Nemata) was extracted from sediment collected off the coast of Brazil at a depth of approximately 1,000 m. Although the food of this new nematode is unknown, the reduction of the stoma and esophagus and presence of a trophosome indicate that it is parasitic in its juvenile stages. Thalassomermis megaraphis n. gen., n. sp. is assigned to Mermithidae because of its similarity to that family in the appearance of the cephalic sensory receptors, the long and tubular vagina, and copulatory muscles of the male extending posteriorly throughout most of the length of the tail. Thalassomermis megamphis n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other members of Mermithidae by the large, lenticular, intracuticular amphidial fovea with coiled, emergent terminal filaments as well as the small amphidial aperture situated over the center of the fovea. PMID:19274181

  15. A new species of mermithid (Nematoda) in chironomids eclosing from a northern Minnesota bog.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

    2008-12-01

    Hydromermis haggardi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the hemocoel of chironomid imagos eclosing from Lake Alice Bog in northern Minnesota in June and July 2007. The species is distinguished from the other 27 described members of the genus by the subventral mouth, tulip shape to anterior end of esophagus, colorless vesicular trophosome, single nonbifurcated spicule, short body lengths of both males and females, structure of the S-shaped vagina, decrease in body width at vulva, brevity of postparasitic stage, and the greater development of a posterior ventral protractor muscle in the males. An anomalous adult male bearing large oval structures in the posterior testis is reported. Evidence is presented for the developmental interaction of the new species with Lanceimermis palustris Johnson and Kleve, 2004.

  16. Reduction of malaria prevalence after introduction of Romanomermis culicivorax (Mermithidae: Nematoda) in larval Anopheles habitats in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, W.; Northup, J.; Gallo, O.; Montoya, A. E.; Montoya, F.; Restrepo, M.; Nimnich, G.; Arango, M.; Echavarria, M.

    1987-01-01

    The worldwide resurgence of malaria has become a major public health problem. New methods of controlling the vectors of the disease are required, and we therefore studied the biological control of Anopheles albimanus by Romanomermis culicivorax in Colombia. The investigation was carried out in El Valle and Nuquí, two towns on the northern Pacific coast of the country. All of the mosquito larval habitats surrounding El Valle were seeded with the eggs and adults of R. culicivorax. The nematode established itself in the new habitat and recycled over 27 months. The larval population of A. albimanus, the only malarial vector detected in the two towns, decreased in El Valle. In contrast, no change in the larval populations of the vector was detected in ponds located near Nuquí, the untreated control town. A rapid and progressive decrease of the prevalence of malaria among schoolchildren in El Valle was observed during the 2-year evaluation period. PMID:3499249

  17. Nematodes (Mermithidae) parasitizing grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in the Pampean region, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, J M; Camino, N B; Achinelly, M F

    2016-07-04

    This work provides the results of a survey of entomonematodes parasites of grasshoppers in grasslands of the Pampean Region, Argentina. Nymphs of Staurorhectus longicornis Giglio-Tos, Laplatacris dispar Rhen, 1939, Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos, 1894 and Metaleptea brevicornis (L.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) were collected. Mermithidae was the only family registered with seven species: Agamermis decaudata Cobb, Steiner and Christie, 1923, Amphimermis bonaerensis Miralles and Camino, 1983, Amphimermis dichroplusi Camino and Lange, 1997, Amphimermis ronderosi Camino and Lange, 1997, Hexamermis coclhearius Stock and Camino, 1992, Hexamermis ovistriata Stock and Camino, 1992, and Longimermis acridophila Camino and Stock, 1989. The values of parasitism ranged between 1-12%, and intensity not overcome the number of 5.0 nematodes per larva. The nematodes observed showed specificity, not registering the same species of parasite in more than one host species. The Pampean region constituted an area with high diversity of mermithids where new species could be consider as bioregulator agents of this troublesome insect pests in agricultural areas of Argentina.

  18. Strelkovimermis rubtsovi n. sp. and Strelkovimermis ozawindibi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing chironomid (Insecta: Diptera) adults eclosing from northern Minnesota glacial lakes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

    2002-10-01

    Two new species of Strelkovimermis are described from chironomid imagoes eclosing from northern Minnesota glacial lakes. The 2 species are distinguished from the other 12 species in the genus by terminal mouths, rounded or nippled posterior ends, short buccal funnels, short terminal limbs of the S-shaped vagina, and presence of a bursal sleeve. Strelkovimermis rubtsovi n. sp. is distinguished from S. ozawindibi n. sp. by the presence of a dorsal protractor. Procladius (Psilotanypus) bellus (Loew) is the host of S. rubtsovi. The chironomid host of S. ozawindibi has not been determined. An artificial key is provided to distinguish the 14 species of the genus.

  19. Mermithids (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing different blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) populations in Quebec: environmental parameters related to their presence or absence in the studied brooks.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Mylène; Charpentier, Guy

    2008-09-01

    Specimens of Isomermis wisconsinensis, Gastromermis viridis, Mesomermis flumenalis, and Mesomermis camdenensis have been found in 14 out of 28 studied sites. Their hosts were the following blackfly species: Cnephia dacotensis, Cnephia mutata, Prosimulium sp., Simulium decorum, Simulium tuberosum, Simulium venustum/verecundum complex, and Simulium vittatum. Superparasitism was observed in several simuliid larvae and, occasionally, with 2 different mermithid species. The prevalence of different mermithid species varies according to seasons: Mesomermis genus is more abundant during winter, whereas Isomermis and Gastromermis are found in higher number during summer. The study of environmental parameters related to mermithid presence or absence shows that only stream depth makes a difference.

  20. High-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution fixation reveal the ultrastructure of immature and mature spermatozoa of the plant-parasitic nematode Trichodorus similis (Nematoda; Triplonchida; Trichodoridae).

    PubMed

    Lak, Behnam; Yushin, Vladimir V; Slos, Dieter; Claeys, Myriam; Decraemer, Wilfrida; Bert, Wim

    2015-10-01

    The spermatozoa from testis and spermatheca of the plant-parasitic nematode Trichodorus similis Seinhorst, 1963 (Nematoda; Triplonchida; Trichodoridae) were studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), being the first study on spermatogenesis of a representative of the order Triplonchida and important to unravel nematode sperm evolution. Comprehensive results could only be obtained using high-pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze-substitution instead of chemical fixation, demonstrating the importance of cryo-fixation for nematode ultrastructural research. The spermatozoa from the testis (immature spermatozoa) are unpolarized cells covered by numerous filopodia. They contain a centrally-located nucleus without a nuclear envelope, surrounded by mitochondria. Specific fibrous bodies (FB) as long parallel bundles of filaments occupy the peripheral cytoplasm. No structures resembling membranous organelles (MO), as found in the sperm of many other nematodes, were observed in immature spermatozoa of T. similis. The spermatozoa from the uterus (mature or activated spermatozoa) are bipolar cells with an anterior pseudopod and posterior main cell body (MCB), which include a nucleus, mitochondria and MO appearing as large vesicles with finger-like invaginations of the outer cell membrane, or as large vesicles connected to the inner cell membrane. The peripheral MO open to the exterior via pores. In the mature sperm, neither FBs nor filopodia were observed. An important feature of T. similis spermatozoa is the late formation of MO; they first appear in mature spermatozoa. This pattern of MO formation is known for several other orders of the nematode class Enoplea: Enoplida, Mermithida, Dioctophymatida, Trichinellida but has never been observed in the class Chromadorea.

  1. The evolution of tyrosine-recombinase elements in Nematoda.

    PubMed

    Szitenberg, Amir; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Blaxter, Mark L; Lunt, David H

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements can be categorised into DNA and RNA elements based on their mechanism of transposition. Tyrosine recombinase elements (YREs) are relatively rare and poorly understood, despite sharing characteristics with both DNA and RNA elements. Previously, the Nematoda have been reported to have a substantially different diversity of YREs compared to other animal phyla: the Dirs1-like YRE retrotransposon was encountered in most animal phyla but not in Nematoda, and a unique Pat1-like YRE retrotransposon has only been recorded from Nematoda. We explored the diversity of YREs in Nematoda by sampling broadly across the phylum and including 34 genomes representing the three classes within Nematoda. We developed a method to isolate and classify YREs based on both feature organization and phylogenetic relationships in an open and reproducible workflow. We also ensured that our phylogenetic approach to YRE classification identified truncated and degenerate elements, informatively increasing the number of elements sampled. We identified Dirs1-like elements (thought to be absent from Nematoda) in the nematode classes Enoplia and Dorylaimia indicating that nematode model species do not adequately represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum. Nematode Pat1-like elements were found to be a derived form of another Pat1-like element that is present more widely in animals. Several sequence features used widely for the classification of YREs were found to be homoplasious, highlighting the need for a phylogenetically-based classification scheme. Nematode model species do not represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum.

  2. The Evolution of Tyrosine-Recombinase Elements in Nematoda

    PubMed Central

    Szitenberg, Amir; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Blaxter, Mark L.; Lunt, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements can be categorised into DNA and RNA elements based on their mechanism of transposition. Tyrosine recombinase elements (YREs) are relatively rare and poorly understood, despite sharing characteristics with both DNA and RNA elements. Previously, the Nematoda have been reported to have a substantially different diversity of YREs compared to other animal phyla: the Dirs1-like YRE retrotransposon was encountered in most animal phyla but not in Nematoda, and a unique Pat1-like YRE retrotransposon has only been recorded from Nematoda. We explored the diversity of YREs in Nematoda by sampling broadly across the phylum and including 34 genomes representing the three classes within Nematoda. We developed a method to isolate and classify YREs based on both feature organization and phylogenetic relationships in an open and reproducible workflow. We also ensured that our phylogenetic approach to YRE classification identified truncated and degenerate elements, informatively increasing the number of elements sampled. We identified Dirs1-like elements (thought to be absent from Nematoda) in the nematode classes Enoplia and Dorylaimia indicating that nematode model species do not adequately represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum. Nematode Pat1-like elements were found to be a derived form of another Pat1-like element that is present more widely in animals. Several sequence features used widely for the classification of YREs were found to be homoplasious, highlighting the need for a phylogenetically-based classification scheme. Nematode model species do not represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum. PMID:25197791

  3. Helminth parasites (Cestoidea: Nematoda) of select herpetofauna from Paraguay.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R; Freed, Paul S

    2010-02-01

    Thirty-four amphibians (6 families, 12 species) and 28 reptiles (5 families, 16 species) from Paraguay were examined for helminths. Fifteen (44%) amphibians and 6 (21%) reptiles were found to harbor at least 1 species of helminth; 4 (12%) amphibians and 2 (7%) reptiles harbored multiple infections. Three species of Cestoidea and 17 species of Nematoda were found in the herptiles surveyed. Fourteen new host and 12 new locality records are documented, including the first report of the filaroid nematode, Macdonaldius grassi (Caballero, 1954) Chabaud and Frank, 1961, from South America.

  4. Euschistus servus (Say): A new host record for Mermithidae (Mermithida)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown stink bug complex (Euschistus spp.) and related hemipterans are key pests of cotton, and fruit and nut crops, affecting yield quality and quanitity. In an ongoing study assessing seasonal abundance of Euschistus servus (Say) (Hempitera: Pentatomidae) and related species in Central Texas, ...

  5. Evolution of plant parasitism in the phylum Nematoda.

    PubMed

    Quist, Casper W; Smant, Geert; Helder, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Within the species-rich and trophically diverse phylum Nematoda, at least four independent major lineages of plant parasites have evolved, and in at least one of these major lineages plant parasitism arose independently multiple times. Ribosomal DNA data, sequence information from nematode-produced, plant cell wall-modifying enzymes, and the morphology and origin of the style(t), a protrusible piercing device used to penetrate the plant cell wall, all suggest that facultative and obligate plant parasites originate from fungivorous ancestors. Data on the nature and diversification of plant cell wall-modifying enzymes point at multiple horizontal gene transfer events from soil bacteria to bacterivorous nematodes resulting in several distinct lineages of fungal or oomycete-feeding nematodes. Ribosomal DNA frameworks with sequence data from more than 2,700 nematode taxa combined with detailed morphological information allow for explicit hypotheses on the origin of agronomically important plant parasites, such as root-knot, cyst, and lesion nematodes.

  6. On the evolution of early development in the Nematoda.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, B

    2001-01-01

    The phylum Nematoda serves as an excellent model system for exploring how development evolves, using a comparative approach to developmental genetics. More than 100 laboratories are studying developmental mechanisms in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and many of the methods that have been developed for C. elegans can be applied to other nematodes. This review summarizes what is known so far about steps in early development that have evolved in the nematodes, and proposes potential experiments that could make use of these data to further our understanding of how development evolves. The promise of such a comparative approach to developmental genetics is to fill a wide gap in our understanding of evolution--a gap spanning from mutations in developmental genes through to their phenotypic results, on which natural selection may act. PMID:11604120

  7. Potential Conservation of Circadian Clock Proteins in the phylum Nematoda as Revealed by Bioinformatic Searches

    PubMed Central

    Romanowski, Andrés; Garavaglia, Matías Javier; Goya, María Eugenia; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel; Golombek, Diego Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Although several circadian rhythms have been described in C. elegans, its molecular clock remains elusive. In this work we employed a novel bioinformatic approach, applying probabilistic methodologies, to search for circadian clock proteins of several of the best studied circadian model organisms of different taxa (Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Neurospora crassa, Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechoccocus elongatus) in the proteomes of C. elegans and other members of the phylum Nematoda. With this approach we found that the Nematoda contain proteins most related to the core and accessory proteins of the insect and mammalian clocks, which provide new insights into the nematode clock and the evolution of the circadian system. PMID:25396739

  8. Potential conservation of circadian clock proteins in the phylum Nematoda as revealed by bioinformatic searches.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Andrés; Garavaglia, Matías Javier; Goya, María Eugenia; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel; Golombek, Diego Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Although several circadian rhythms have been described in C. elegans, its molecular clock remains elusive. In this work we employed a novel bioinformatic approach, applying probabilistic methodologies, to search for circadian clock proteins of several of the best studied circadian model organisms of different taxa (Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Neurospora crassa, Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechoccocus elongatus) in the proteomes of C. elegans and other members of the phylum Nematoda. With this approach we found that the Nematoda contain proteins most related to the core and accessory proteins of the insect and mammalian clocks, which provide new insights into the nematode clock and the evolution of the circadian system.

  9. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  10. Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda) infection in a European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) in Britain.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Katie M; Harris, Eileen; Pocknell, Ann M; John, Shinto K; Macgregor, Shaheed K; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2014-10-01

    A European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) found dead in England had marked blepharitis and periocular alopecia associated with Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda: Aproctidae) and concurrent mixed fungal infections. Aprocta cylindrica should be considered a differential diagnosis in periocular abnormalities of robins and other insectivorous, migratory passerines in Western Europe.

  11. Teaching Population Growth Using Cultures of Vinegar Eels, "Turbatrix aceti" (Nematoda)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is presented that follows the population growth of the common vinegar eel, "Turbatrix aceti" (Nematoda), in a microcosm using a simple culture medium. It lends itself to an exercise in a single semester course. (Contains 4 figures.)

  12. Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgonie, G.; García-Moyano, A.; Litthauer, D.; Bert, W.; Bester, A.; van Heerden, E.; Möller, C.; Erasmus, M.; Onstott, T. C.

    2011-06-01

    Since its discovery over two decades ago, the deep subsurface biosphere has been considered to be the realm of single-cell organisms, extending over three kilometres into the Earth's crust and comprising a significant fraction of the global biosphere. The constraints of temperature, energy, dioxygen and space seemed to preclude the possibility of more-complex, multicellular organisms from surviving at these depths. Here we report species of the phylum Nematoda that have been detected in or recovered from 0.9-3.6-kilometre-deep fracture water in the deep mines of South Africa but have not been detected in the mining water. These subsurface nematodes, including a new species, Halicephalobus mephisto, tolerate high temperature, reproduce asexually and preferentially feed upon subsurface bacteria. Carbon-14 data indicate that the fracture water in which the nematodes reside is 3,000-12,000-year-old palaeometeoric water. Our data suggest that nematodes should be found in other deep hypoxic settings where temperature permits, and that they may control the microbial population density by grazing on fracture surface biofilm patches. Our results expand the known metazoan biosphere and demonstrate that deep ecosystems are more complex than previously accepted. The discovery of multicellular life in the deep subsurface of the Earth also has important implications for the search for subsurface life on other planets in our Solar System.

  13. Mitochondrial genome diversity in dagger and needle nematodes (Nematoda: Longidoridae).

    PubMed

    Palomares-Rius, J E; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C; Archidona-Yuste, A; Blok, V C; Castillo, P

    2017-02-02

    Dagger and needle nematodes included in the family Longidoridae (viz. Longidorus, Paralongidorus, and Xiphinema) are highly polyphagous plant-parasitic nematodes in wild and cultivated plants and some of them are plant-virus vectors (nepovirus). The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the dagger and needle nematodes, Xiphinema rivesi, Xiphinema pachtaicum, Longidorus vineacola and Paralongidorus litoralis were sequenced in this study. The four circular mt genomes have an estimated size of 12.6, 12.5, 13.5 and 12.7 kb, respectively. Up to date, the mt genome of X. pachtaicum is the smallest genome found in Nematoda. The four mt genomes contain 12 protein-coding genes (viz. cox1-3, nad1-6, nad4L, atp6 and cob) and two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), but the atp8 gene was not detected. These mt genomes showed a gene arrangement very different within the Longidoridae species sequenced, with the exception of very closely related species (X. americanum and X. rivesi). The sizes of non-coding regions in the Longidoridae nematodes were very small and were present in a few places in the mt genome. Phylogenetic analysis of all coding genes showed a closer relationship between Longidorus and Paralongidorus and different phylogenetic possibilities for the three Xiphinema species.

  14. Origins of the parasitic habit in the nematoda.

    PubMed

    Clark, W C

    1994-12-01

    Circumstances that probably attended and influenced the adoption and development of the parasitic habit amongst the Nematoda are examined. Features that allowed early terrestrial nematodes to exploit discontinuous habitats such as decomposing organic matter, are considered to have been advantageous to microbivorous Secernentea that became parasites of animals and plants. This development followed the appearance of a land flora and that the Amphibia were the first vertebrate hosts of nematodes. Life cycles involving intermediate hosts were essential in drier environments and in a aquatic ones where intermediate hosts preserve the infective stages; keeps them "in circulation", and makes them attractive to predators. It is concluded that the parasitic habit was adopted repeatedly in both Secernentea and Adenophorea, though the latter did not diversify as much. Convergence is a common feature of nematode evolution, and the typical life history pattern of 5 stadia separated by 4 moults is often greatly modified by suppression, extension and diversification of stages and their roles. There is a need to examine the nematodes, especially of invertebrates in the remaining rain forests of Gondwanaland before they disappear.

  15. Mitochondrial genome diversity in dagger and needle nematodes (Nematoda: Longidoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Palomares-Rius, J. E.; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C.; Archidona-Yuste, A.; Blok, V. C.; Castillo, P.

    2017-01-01

    Dagger and needle nematodes included in the family Longidoridae (viz. Longidorus, Paralongidorus, and Xiphinema) are highly polyphagous plant-parasitic nematodes in wild and cultivated plants and some of them are plant-virus vectors (nepovirus). The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the dagger and needle nematodes, Xiphinema rivesi, Xiphinema pachtaicum, Longidorus vineacola and Paralongidorus litoralis were sequenced in this study. The four circular mt genomes have an estimated size of 12.6, 12.5, 13.5 and 12.7 kb, respectively. Up to date, the mt genome of X. pachtaicum is the smallest genome found in Nematoda. The four mt genomes contain 12 protein-coding genes (viz. cox1-3, nad1-6, nad4L, atp6 and cob) and two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), but the atp8 gene was not detected. These mt genomes showed a gene arrangement very different within the Longidoridae species sequenced, with the exception of very closely related species (X. americanum and X. rivesi). The sizes of non-coding regions in the Longidoridae nematodes were very small and were present in a few places in the mt genome. Phylogenetic analysis of all coding genes showed a closer relationship between Longidorus and Paralongidorus and different phylogenetic possibilities for the three Xiphinema species. PMID:28150734

  16. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in wildlife: A review

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20) given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100–500 larvae) often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna parks where

  17. Species of Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in wildlife: A review.

    PubMed

    Spratt, David M

    2015-08-01

    Twenty-one species of Angiostrongylus plus Angiostrongylus sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) are known currently in wildlife. These occur naturally in rodents, tupaiids, mephitids, mustelids, procyonids, felids, and canids, and aberrantly in a range of avian, marsupial and eutherian hosts including humans. Adults inhabit the pulmonary arteries and right atrium, ventricle and vena cava, bronchioles of the lung or arteries of the caecum and mesentery. All species pass first-stage larvae in the faeces of the host and all utilise slugs and/or aquatic or terrestrial snails as intermediate hosts. Gastropods are infected by ingestion or penetration of first-stage larvae; definitive hosts by ingestion of gastropods or gastropod slime. Transmission of at least one species may involve ingestion of paratenic hosts. Five developmental pathways are identified in these life cycles. Thirteen species, including Angiostrongylus sp., are known primarily from the original descriptions suggesting limited geographic distributions. The remaining species are widespread either globally or regionally, and are continuing to spread. Small experimental doses of infective larvae (ca. 20) given to normal or aberrant hosts are tolerated, although generally eliciting a granulomatous histopathological response; large doses (100-500 larvae) often result in clinical signs and/or death. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are established zoonoses causing neurological and abdominal angiostrongliasis respectively. The zoonotic potential of A. mackerrasae, A. malaysiensis and A. siamensis particularly warrant investigation. Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurs in domestic animals, mammalian and avian wildlife and humans in the metropolitan areas of Brisbane and Sydney, Australia, where it has been suggested that tawny frogmouths and brushtail possums may serve as biosentinels. A major conservation issue is the devastating role A. cantonensis may play around zoos and fauna parks where captive

  18. Two new species of Pharyngodonidae (Nematoda: Oxyuroidea) and other nematodes in Agama caudospina (Squamata: Agamidae) from Kenya, Africa.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R

    2005-06-01

    Parapharyngodon kenyaensis n. sp. and Thelandros samburuensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of the agamid lizard (Agama caudospina) are described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon kenyaensis n. sp. is the 41st species assigned to the genus, and it differs from other species in that genus by possessing 3 pairs of caudal papillae, cloacal lip adornment, and spicules of 112-120 microm in length. Thelandros samburuensis n. sp. is the 31st species assigned to the genus, and it differs from other species in that genus by possessing swollen posterior annulations, 6 caudal papillae, a smooth anterior cloacal lip, and spicules of 43-52 microm in length. In addition to the 2 new nematode species, Abbreviata ortleppi (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) and Strongyluris ornata (Nematoda: Heterakidae) were found.

  19. New genus of Pharyngodonidae (Nematoda: Oxyuridea) and other helminths in Platymantis nexipus (Anura: Ranidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2009-06-01

    Rokroknema novaebritanniae n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of Platymantis nexipus (Anura: Ranidae) is described and illustrated. Rokroknema represents the second Australo-Papuan genus assigned to the family Pharyngodonidae known to infect frogs. It is similar to Parathelandros (the other genus), but it is readily distinguished because the posterior pair of caudal papillae is not in the form of a rosette. Platymantis nexipus also was found to harbor 1 species of Digenea, Opisthioglyphe cophixali, and 5 additional species of Nematoda, adults of Aplectana krausi, Cosmocerca novaeguineae, Falcaustra batrachiensis, Icosiella papuensis, and larvae in cysts of Abbreviata sp., plus unidentified cystacanths of 1 species of acanthocephalan.

  20. Revision of the Australasian genus Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchida), with molecular phylogeny, and descriptions of clades and associated Fergusonina fly larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a mutualistic association with Fergusonina flies, Fergusobia nematodes form galls on Myrtaceous hosts. The genus Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchida) is revised, an emended diagnosis of the genus is presented, and its putative phylogeny is discussed. There is molecular and morphological evidence ...

  1. New species of Spauligodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Lepidodactylus novaeguineae (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2005-04-01

    Spauligodon zweifeli n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestines of a gecko, Lepidodactylus novaeguineae (Sauria: Gekkonidae), is described and illustrated. Prevalence of infection was 57% (mean intensity 8.5, range 1-23). Spauligodon zweifeli n. sp. is the 43rd species to be assigned to this genus and differs from other species in the genus by possessing asymmetrical fusiform eggs in which the ends are extended as digitiform processes. It is the second species to be described from the Australian biogeographical realm.

  2. New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae) from Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles; Drake, Michael; Cole, Rebecca; Sterner Iii, Mauritz; Pinckney, Rhonda; Zieger, Ulrike

    2013-06-01

    Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. is the 48th species assigned to the genus and the 16th species from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus by possessing 4 pairs of caudal papillae, an echinate anterior cloacal lip, and a blunt spicule of 67-104 μm. This is only the second report of R. marina harboring a species of Parapharyngodon.

  3. New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae) from Grenada, West Indies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursey, Charles; Drake, Michael; Cole, Rebecca; Sterner, Mauritz; Pinckney, Rhonda; Zieger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. is the 48th species assigned to the genus and the 16th species from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus by possessing 4 pairs of caudal papillae, an echinate anterior cloacal lip, and a blunt spicule of 67–104 μm. This is only the second report of R. marina harboring a species of Parapharyngodon.

  4. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) in Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Amphibia, Anura) from Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Bursey, Charles R

    2014-03-01

    Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Amphibia, Anura) from Dehradun, India is described and illustrated. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. represents the 21st species assigned to the genus and the 9th species from the Oriental biogeographical region. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. differs from the previously described Oriental species in number and position of rosette papillae; it is the only species possessing 24 or more rosette papillae to have 4 postcloacal papillae. In addition, a list of species assigned to Cosmocercoides is provided; however, C. fotedari Arya, 1992 is removed from the genus and until further study is considered a species inquirenda.

  5. First report of parasitism by Ophidascaris robertsi (Nematoda) in a sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps, Marsupialia).

    PubMed

    Gallego Agúndez, Miguel; Villaluenga Rodríguez, Jose Enrique; Juan-Sallés, Carles; Spratt, David M

    2014-12-01

    Third-stage larvae of Ophidascarsis robertsi (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) were found on necropsy in a female sugar glider, Petaurus breviceps (Marsupialia: Petauridae), two in heart chambers and one free in the peritoneal cavity. The animal was bred in captivity and had previous contact with Australian pythons captured in nature, which could be the source of the infection. The histopathologic diagnosis was intraluminal and perivascular pulmonary hemorrhage possibly due to the parasitosis. It is the first report of parasitism by O. robertsi in a sugar glider.

  6. A new species of Thelastomathidae (Nematoda) a parasite of Neocurtilla claraziana Saussure (Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Camino, Nora B; Maiztegui, Bárbara

    2002-07-01

    Gryllophila cephalobulata n. sp. (Nematoda, Thelastomatidae) a parasite of the mole cricket Neocurtilla claraziana (Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae) isolated in Buenos Aires Province, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by cuticle annulated all along the length of the body; the first ring has 4 lobules, the second one has 14 lobules, the others rings are simple, the stoma is short and has 4 small teeth, the genital papillae are arranged in 5 pairs, of which 3 pairs are preanal and 2 pairs are postanal. The tail appendage of the male is long and filiform.

  7. A new species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) infecting Dermatonotus muelleri (Anura: Microhylidae) from Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araujo Filho, João A; Brito, Samuel V; Almeida, Waltécio De O; Morais, Drausio H; Ávila, Robson W

    2015-09-03

    Parapharyngodon silvoi n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) is described from the large and small intestine of the Muller's termite frog Dermatonotus muelleri (Boettger, 1885) from the biome Caatinga, Exu municipality, Pernambuco State, Brazil, Dermatonotus muelleri is a fossorial species with a specialized termite diet, and feeding and reproductive behavior occurring only during the wet season. The new species is distinguished from other species of the genus Parapharyngodon by showing ovary not coiled around the esophagus, morphology of anterior cloacal lip, spicule size and number of caudal papillae.

  8. HISTOPATHOLOGY OF GASTRIC WALL IN CHINESE ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR SINENSIS INFECTED WITH ORTLEPPASCARIS SINENSIS (NEMATODA: ASCARIDOIDEA).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhong; Wang, Shaosheng; Tu, Genjun; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing; Li, Chaopin

    2015-09-01

    Crocodiles are susceptible to infection with a wide array of external and internal gastrointestinal helminths, yet little is known on the histopathology following infection or the effects of these parasites. The present study was aimed at evaluating the impact of infection by Ortleppascaris sinensis (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) on the stomach of captive Alligator sinensis. The histological examination of the stomach revealed presence of superficial ulcer in mucous layer and granulomatous inflammation in submucous layer at entire gastric walls of the Alligator sinensis. Our findings also confirm that development of Ortleppascaris sinensis is in close association with the wall of the stomach.

  9. New species of Orientatractis (Nematoda: Atractidae), new species of Rondonia (Nematoda: Atractidae) and other helminths in Austrochaperina basipalmata (Anura: Microhylidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2014-03-01

    Two new nematode species, Orientatractis hamabatrachos sp. nov. and Rondonia batrachogena sp. nov. (Nematoda: Atractidae), from the gastrointestinal tract of Austrochaperina basipalmata (Anura: Microhylidae) collected in Papua New Guinea are described. Orientatractis hamabatrachos sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of the cephalic end armed with 4 wellsclerotized structures, consisting of 2 "horns" extending outward and downward and immediately below a single well-sclerotized spine. It differs from 5 congeners in spicule lengths and caudal papillae arrangements. Rondonia batrachogena sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of a female cloaca. It differs from 2 congeners primarily in body size. Orientatractis hamabatrachos sp. nov. and Rondonia batrachogena sp. nov. represent the first species assigned to either genus found to infect anurans or to occur in the Australo-Papuan region.

  10. A new metastrongyloidean species (Nematoda) parasitizing pulmonary arteries of Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora: Felidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C; de Souza Lima, Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Guimarães, Erick V; Luque, José L

    2013-04-01

    Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), parasitic in Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) from the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is described and illustrated herein. Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. differs from all congeneric species by having the anterior extremity with accentuated cuticular expansion and by smaller size of spicules. This study describes for the first time a species of Angiostrongylus in a wild Felidae in Brazil.

  11. On a new species of Aplectana (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) from Kulti, Burdwan, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Sou, Sujan K; Sow, Kanchan K; Nandi, Anadi P

    2014-10-01

    During routine survey for amphibian nematodes from coalfield areas of West Bengal, India 7 male and 12 female nematodes were recovered from the rectum of one out of three Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1899) examined for helminth infection from Kulti, Burdwan. On examination the recovered nematodes were found to belong to a new species of the genus Aplectana (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) and the name Aplectana duttaphryni sp. nov. is proposed for them. This species is most similar to those species which possess gubernaculum but differs from all by distribution pattern of caudal papillae. Aplectana duttaphryni sp. nov. represents 49(th) species assigned to the genus, but only the 4(th) species reported from Oriental realm and second from India.

  12. Microtopography of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae): free-living larval stages.

    PubMed

    Nembo, B; Goudey-Perriere, F; Gayral, P; Perriere, C; Brousse-Gaury, P

    1993-09-01

    Microtopographic features of the various growth stages of the three free-living larval stages of the rat hookworm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda) were surveyed by scanning electron microscopy. These worms have a rounded anterior end and an elongated tail. Cuticular annulations were observed along the body, which also bore two ribbon-like lateral alae. Two rings of six lip-like lappets were observed around the triradiate oral opening in all larval stages. The cephalic space contained two lateral amphidial pits. The excretory pore in the third anterior part was observed in a ventral view of the larvae. No deirids were observed. The anus with a crescent-shape opening was located posteriorly. Phasmidial apertures, only observed in the third-stage larvae, opened on the lateral alae in the tail region.

  13. New species of Falcaustra (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) in Nyctimystes cheesmani (Anura: Hylidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2009-02-01

    Falcaustra batrachiensis n. sp. (Ascaridida, Kathlaniidae) from the large intestine of Nyctimystes cheesmani (Anura, Hylidae) is described and illustrated. Falcaustra batrachiensis represents the fifth Australo-Papuan species assigned to the genus and is distinguished from other Australo-Papuan species by the distribution pattern of the caudal papillae (8 precloacal, 2 adcloacal, 6 postcloacal, and 1 median), length of spicules (1.4-1.6 mm) and presence of pseudosuckers (5 or 6). Nyctimystes cheesmani was found to harbor 7 additional species of Nematoda, adults of Cosmocerca novaeguineae, Maxvachonia ewersi, Meteterakis crombiei, Physalopteroides milnensis, Pseudorictularia dipsarilis, Seuratascaris numidica, larvae in cysts of Abbreviata sp., and 1 species of Acanthocephala, Acanthocephalus bufonis. Nyctimystes cheesmani represents a new host record for each of these helminth species.

  14. First record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Oh, Dae-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2013-08-01

    This study describes the first record of Bourgelatia diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) from wild boars in the Republic of Korea (=South Korea). Gastrointestinal tracts of 87 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted in mountains in the south-western part of South Korea between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. B. diducta, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the large intestine of 47 (54%) wild boars. The average length of adult female worms was 11.3±0.87 mm and the thickest part of the body measured 0.54±0.04 mm in maximum width, while those of males were 9.8±0.72 and 0.45±0.03 mm, respectively. The characteristic J-shaped type II ovejector was observed in females, and the type II dorsal ray with 2 rami on each side of the median fissure was uniquely seen in males. The buccal capsule was small, relatively thin-walled, cylindrical, very short, and ring-shaped. The externodorsal ray arose from a common stem with the dorsal ray. The cervical groove was absent. The anterior extremity was equipped with 20-22 external corona radiata, 4 cephalic papillae and 2 lateral amphids around the mouth. The eggs were 66.0×38.9 µm in average size. By the present study, B. diducta (Nematoda: Chabertiidae) is recorded for the first time in South Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic or taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes related.

  15. The genome of Romanomermis culicivorax: revealing fundamental changes in the core developmental genetic toolkit in Nematoda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genetics of development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been described in exquisite detail. The phylum Nematoda has two classes: Chromadorea (which includes C. elegans) and the Enoplea. While the development of many chromadorean species resembles closely that of C. elegans, enoplean nematodes show markedly different patterns of early cell division and cell fate assignment. Embryogenesis of the enoplean Romanomermis culicivorax has been studied in detail, but the genetic circuitry underpinning development in this species has not been explored. Results We generated a draft genome for R. culicivorax and compared its gene content with that of C. elegans, a second enoplean, the vertebrate parasite Trichinella spiralis, and a representative arthropod, Tribolium castaneum. This comparison revealed that R. culicivorax has retained components of the conserved ecdysozoan developmental gene toolkit lost in C. elegans. T. spiralis has independently lost even more of this toolkit than has C. elegans. However, the C. elegans toolkit is not simply depauperate, as many novel genes essential for embryogenesis in C. elegans are not found in, or have only extremely divergent homologues in R. culicivorax and T. spiralis. Our data imply fundamental differences in the genetic programmes not only for early cell specification but also others such as vulva formation and sex determination. Conclusions Despite the apparent morphological conservatism, major differences in the molecular logic of development have evolved within the phylum Nematoda. R. culicivorax serves as a tractable system to contrast C. elegans and understand how divergent genomic and thus regulatory backgrounds nevertheless generate a conserved phenotype. The R. culicivorax draft genome will promote use of this species as a research model. PMID:24373391

  16. On the Extent and Origins of Genic Novelty in the Phylum Nematoda

    PubMed Central

    Wasmuth, James; Schmid, Ralf; Hedley, Ann; Blaxter, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background The phylum Nematoda is biologically diverse, including parasites of plants and animals as well as free-living taxa. Underpinning this diversity will be commensurate diversity in expressed genes, including gene sets associated specifically with evolution of parasitism. Methods and Findings Here we have analyzed the extensive expressed sequence tag data (available for 37 nematode species, most of which are parasites) and define over 120,000 distinct putative genes from which we have derived robust protein translations. Combined with the complete proteomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae, these proteins have been grouped into 65,000 protein families that in turn contain 40,000 distinct protein domains. We have mapped the occurrence of domains and families across the Nematoda and compared the nematode data to that available for other phyla. Gene loss is common, and in particular we identify nearly 5,000 genes that may have been lost from the lineage leading to the model nematode C. elegans. We find a preponderance of novelty, including 56,000 nematode-restricted protein families and 26,000 nematode-restricted domains. Mapping of the latest time-of-origin of these new families and domains across the nematode phylogeny revealed ongoing evolution of novelty. A number of genes from parasitic species had signatures of horizontal transfer from their host organisms, and parasitic species had a greater proportion of novel, secreted proteins than did free-living ones. Conclusions These classes of genes may underpin parasitic phenotypes, and thus may be targets for development of effective control measures. PMID:18596977

  17. New species of Bakeria (Nematoda; Strongylida; Molineidae), new species of Falcaustra (Nematoda; Ascaridida; Kathlaniidae) and other helminths in Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria; Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Grismer, L Lee

    2014-10-01

    Two new nematode species, Bakeria schadi sp. nov. and Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. from the gastrointestinal tract of McGuire's rock gecko, Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria: Gekkonidae) collected in Peninsular Malaysia are described. The two species now assigned to Bakeria are separated on the bases of male bursa type and location of the excretory pore: type II in B. schadi sp. nov. and type I in B. bakeri; location of excretory pore, anterior to nerve ring in B. schadi sp. nov. and posterior to nerve ring in B. bakeri. Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. is most similar to F. chabaudi, F. concinnae, F. condorcanquii, F. barbi, F. dubia, and F. tchadi in that these 7 species possess 1 pseudosucker, 1 median papilla plus 10 pairs caudal papillae, and spicules with lengths between 1 and 2 mm. F. barbi and F. tchadi lack adcloacal papillae; the remaining 5 species possess 1 pair of adcloacal papillae. Falcaustra chabaudi is known from Nearctic salamanders; F. concinnae from Nearctic turtles; F. condorcanquii from Neotropical frogs, F. dubia from Oriental frogs, and F. malaysiaia sp. nov. from Oriental geckos. Two additional species of Nematoda were found, Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis. Cnemaspis mcguirei represents a new host record for Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis.

  18. Discovery of new Ohbayashinema spp. (nematoda: heligomosomoidea) in Ochotona princeps and O. cansus (lagomorpha: ochotonidae) from western North America and central Asia, with considerations of historical biogeography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp and O. aspeira n. sp. are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiat...

  19. Trichospirura amphibiophila n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) in the frog Eleutherodactylus martinicensis from La Désirade, French Antilles.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Kaiser, H

    1994-02-01

    Trichospirura amphibiophila n. sp. (Nematoda) is described from the abdominal cavity (encapsulated near the liver) of the frog Eleutherodactylus martinicensis (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from the island of La Désirade in the French Antilles. It is characterized by the length of its spicules (459 microns and 90 microns) and their length ratio (1:5), by the presence of deirids and 7 pairs of caudal papillae in the male (2 preanal and 5 postanal), and by the site of localization (abdominal cavity) in the host. Trichospirura amphibiophila is the first known species of the genus parasitizing amphibians.

  20. A new host record of Camelostrongylus mentulatus (Nematoda; Trichostrongyloidea) from abomasum of a giraffe at a zoo in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, S; Uchida, T; Ohbayashi, M; Ikebe, Y; Sasano, S

    1996-12-01

    Camelostrongylus mentulatus (Railliet et Henry, 1909) Orloff, 1933 (Nematoda; Trichostrongyloidea) was found from the abomasum of a three-year-old female cape giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa, born and died in a zoo park in Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan. This is the new host record from Giraffidae and geographical distribution of C. mentulatus. Present case of C. mentulatus might be infected from other ruminants, e.g., camels, antelopes and goats, kept at a same paddock in the zoo. Risk of imported parasitic diseases by the zoo animals from outside of Japan is discussed.

  1. A new genus and species of Heligmonellidae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) parasitic in Delomys dorsalis (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) from Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Digiani, María Celina; Kinsella, John M

    2014-10-01

    Alippistrongylus bicaudatus gen. et sp. n. (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae) is described from the striped Atlantic forest rat, Delomys dorsalis (Hensel) (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae), from the province of Misiones in Argentina. The new genus and species is characterised by a synlophe of 21 unequal ridges in both sexes without a gradient in size, with two ridges weakly sclerotised and oriented perpendicularly in the dorsal left quadrant; males with a highly dissymmetrical bursa with a hypertrophied right lobe, and females with a dorsal conical appendage just posterior to the vulva, conferring a two-tailed appearance to the female worms.

  2. Pterygodermatites (Mesopectines) quentini (Nematoda, Rictulariidae), a parasite of Praomys rostratus (Rodentia, Muridae) in Mali: scanning electron and light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Malick; Quilichini, Yann; Granjon, Laurent; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Pterygodermatites (Mesopectines) quentini n. sp. (Nematoda, Rictulariidae) is described from the murine host Praomys rostratus in the south of the Republic of Mali. It differs from other species of the subgenus by the morphology of the head, which bears four simple cephalic papillae and a nearly axial oral opening, the number of caudal papillae, the number of precloacal cuticular formations, unequal spicules and the ratio of spicule lengths/body length. The use of scanning electron microscopy in combination with conventional light microscopy enabled us to give a detailed description of the morphological characters of this new species.

  3. Pseudascarophis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) parasitic in the Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectatrix (Perciformes: Kyphosidae) from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe Bisaggio; Pereira, Aldenice de Nazaré; Timi, Juan Tomás; Luque, José Luis

    2013-06-01

    A new species of Pseudascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the stomach of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus) (Kyphosidae), off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described. The new species can be differentiated from the other congeners by the presence of lateral alae, distinct but inconspicuous cephalic papillae at the anterior end, three pairs of precloacal and one pair of adcloacal papillae in males, egg morphology and morphometry of glandular oesophagus and spicules. Pseudascarophis tropica is transferred to Ascarophis as Ascarophis tropica (Solov'eva) comb. n. due to its ambiguous diagnosis.

  4. A new species of Cosmocerca (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) and other helminths from Barygenys atra (Anura, Microhylidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2013-03-01

    Cosmocerca oroensis sp. nov. (Ascaridida, Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Barygenys atra (Anura, Microhylidae) is described and illustrated. Cosmocerca oroensis represents the 26th species assigned to the genus and the 7th from the Australo-Papuan biogeographical region. Cosmocerca oroensis sp. nov. differs from the previously described Australo-Papuan species in number of plectanes: C. oroensis with 2 pairs; C. australis, 3-4 pairs; C. archeyi, C. tyleri and C. zugi, 4 pairs; C. limnodynastes and C. novaeguineae, 5 pairs. In addition to the new nematode species, Meteterakis crombiei (Nematoda, Heterakidae) was also found.

  5. A new species of Biacantha (Nematoda: Molineidae), a parasite of the common vampire bat from the Yungas, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Mirna C; Ramallo, Geraldine; Claps, Lucía E; Miotti, M Daniela

    2012-12-01

    A new species of Biacantha Wolfgang, 1954 (Nematoda: Molineidae), is described from the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus Geoffroy and St. Hilaire, 1810, from northwest Argentina. Biacantha normaliae n. sp. Oviedo, Ramallo, and Claps, is characterized by the disposition and number of ridges of the synlophe, the excretory pore located on a knob, 2 lateral processes on the tail of females, the male caudal bursa morphology, and lack of gubernaculum. This is the first species of nematode described in a vampire bat from Argentina.

  6. Evidence of morphine like substance and μ-opioid receptor expression in Toxacara canis (Nematoda: Ascaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Golabi, Mostafa; Naem, Soraya; Imani, Mehdi; Dalirezh, Nowruz

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis (Nematoda: Ascaridae) is an intestinal nematode parasite of dogs, which can also cause disease in humans. Transmission to humans usually occurs because of direct contact with T. canis eggs present in soil contaminated with the feces of infected dogs. This nematode has extraordinary abilities to survive for many years in different tissues of vertebrates, and develop to maturity in the intestinal tract of its definitive host. Survival of parasitic nematodes within a host requires immune evasion using complicated pathways. Morphine-like substance, as well as opioids, which are known as down regulating agents, can modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, and let the parasite survives in their hosts. In the present study, we aimed to find evidences of morphine-like substance and µ-opiate receptor expression in T. canis, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results indicated that T. canis produced morphine-like substances at the level of 2.31± 0.26 ng g-1 wet weight, and expressed µ-opiate receptor as in expected size of 441 bp. According to our findings, it was concluded that T. canis, benefits using morphine-like substance to modulate host immunity. PMID:28144426

  7. Oscheius onirici sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae): a new entomopathogenic nematode from an Italian cave.

    PubMed

    Torrini, Giulia; Mazza, Giuseppe; Carletti, Beatrice; Benvenuti, Claudia; Roversi, Pio Federico; Fanelli, Elena; De Luca, Francesca; Troccoli, Alberto; Tarasco, Eustachio

    2015-03-26

    Oscheius onirici sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) was isolated from a karst cave soil of Central Italy. Molecular and morphological analyses were performed. Total DNA was extracted from individual nematodes and the mitochondrial COI, the ITS containing region, the D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rRNA gene and the 18S rRNA gene were amplified and sequenced. BLAST search at NCBI by using all molecular markers revealed that this taxon is similar to Oscheius species. Phylogenetic trees of ITS, 28S and 18S rDNA revealed that O. onirici sp. n. belongs to Dolichura-group. Oscheius onirici sp. n. is characterized by small body size and stoma rhabditoid type. Female reproductive system is amphidelphic. Males are rare with peloderan bursa, spicules slender and small, nine pairs of papillae of different lengths, arranged in a 1+1+1/3+3 pattern. Entomopathogenicity bioassay revealed that this nematode is capable of infecting larvae of Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Cylicocyclus (Nematoda: Strongylidae) based on nuclear ribosomal sequence data.

    PubMed

    Bu, Yanzhen; Niu, Hongxing; Zhang, Luping

    2013-06-01

    Seven species of Cylicocyclus Ihle, 1922 (Nematoda: Strongylidae) were collected from donkeys from Henan Province, China. Five samples of each species were selected for sequencing. Sixteen different internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences representing the seven species of Cylicocyclus were obtained. Sequence differences in the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) among species was lower than that of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the combined ITS-1 and ITS-2 data sets from the present study and using reference sequences from the GenBank database. The MP and ML trees were similar in topology. The phylogenetic trees were divided into two clades. Clade I included 8 species of Cylicocyclus; within this group, Cylicocyclus leptostomus (Kotlan, 1920) is nested between different samples of Cylicocyclus ashworthi (LeRoux, 1924), suggesting C. ashworthi may represent a species complex. Clade II included Cylicocyclus elongatus (Looss, 1900) and Cylicocyclus ultrajectinus (Ihle, 1920); however, these two species always clustered with the comparative species (Petrovinema poculatum (Looss, 1900) and Poteriostomum imparidentatum Quiel, 1919), suggesting that C. elongatus and C. ultrajectinus represent members of other genera.

  9. Biological responses of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae).

    PubMed

    Manachini, Barbara; Schillaci, Domenico; Arizza, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier 1790) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is becoming a serious problem in Mediterranean areas where it is well-adapted, and now is present even in the United States (California). The infestations are primarily in urban areas where chemical control is not advisable and million of Euros are spent to control it. The effects of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) on mortality, growth, as well as the immune activity of R. ferrugineus larvae, were investigated. R. ferrugineus mortality exhibited a positive trend with the dosage and duration of exposure to S. carpocapsae. The median lethal dose and median lethal time, important to optimize the treatments, were calculated. S. carpocapsae also had a detrimental effect on R. ferrugineus weight. In vivo and in vitro effects of S. carpocapsae on the phagocytic responses of R. ferrugineus hemocytes also were recorded. S. carpocapsae was not encapsulated by R.ferrugineus hemocytes. After 24 h, the number of hemocytes recorded in treated larvae was reduced. To investigate the defensive abilities of R. ferrugineus humoral and cellular immune systems, specifically against the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila (Enterobacteraceae), the minimum inhibitory concentration that inhibits bacterial growth was measured. This is the first time that this technique is applied to entomopathogenic bacteria.

  10. Microtopography of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae): parasitic larval stages and adults.

    PubMed

    Nembo, B; Goudey-Perriere, F; Gayral, P; Perriere, C; Brousse-Gaury, P

    1993-09-01

    Specimens of the rat hookworm, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda) were recovered from lungs (third- and fourth-stage larvae) and intestine (fourth-stage larvae and adults). The following features were studied in the different stages by scanning electron microscopy: cephalic structures, especially sense organs, synlophe, cervical region, and caudal part. The main differences between the third and fourth stages concerned the lip-like structures around the oral aperture, the appearance of the cephalic space with the presence of a cephalic cap in fourth-stage larvae, the pattern of longitudinal ridges, and sexual differentiation. Pore-like papillae, not seen in third-stage larvae, developed in later stages. Deirids were observed only in adults, and phasmids were poorly discerned. Some of these morphological features, such as the cephalic sense organ apertures and cuticle pores and micropores, can be observed only by scanning electron microscopy. The possible functions of these different structures and their relationship with the behavior of the worms during their life cycle are discussed.

  11. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Felix; Manzanell, Ralph; Mathis, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea) can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus) is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids) or biting midges (ceratopogonids). Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25), roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6) and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7), all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland) were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany.

  12. Uncinaria sanguinis sp. n. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) from the endangered Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea (Carnivora: Otariidae).

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Slapeta, Jan; Gray, Rachael

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the identity of hookworms parasitising the Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea (Péron), from three colonies in South Australia, Australia. The Australian sea lion is at risk of extinction because its population is small and genetically fragmented. Using morphological and molecular techniques, we describe a single novel species, Uncinaria sanguinis sp. n. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae). The new species is most similar to hookworms also parasitic in otariid hosts, Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901 and Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Comparative morphometrics offered limited utility for distinguishing between species within this genus whilst morphological features and differences in nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences delineated U. sanguinis sp. n. from named congeners. Male specimens of U. sanguinis sp. n. differ from U. lucasi and U. hamiltoni by relatively shorter anterolateral and externodorsal rays, respectively, and from other congeners by the relative lengths and angulations of bursal rays, and in the shape of the spicules. Female specimens of U. sanguinis sp. n. are differentiated from Uncinaria spp. parasitic in terrestrial mammals by differences in vulval anatomy and the larger size of their eggs, although are morphologically indistinguishable from U. lucasi and U. hamiltoni. Molecular techniques clearly delimited U. sanguinis sp. n. as a distinct novel species. Obtaining baseline data on the parasites of wildlife hosts is important for the investigation of disease and the effective implementation and monitoring of conservation management.

  13. Analysis of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger gene family within the phylum Nematoda.

    PubMed

    He, Chao; O'Halloran, Damien M

    2014-01-01

    Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are low affinity, high capacity transporters that rapidly transport calcium at the plasma membrane, mitochondrion, endoplasmic (and sarcoplasmic) reticulum, and the nucleus. Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are widely expressed in diverse cell types where they contribute homeostatic balance to calcium levels. In animals, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are divided into three groups based upon stoichiometry: Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), Na+/Ca2+/K+ exchangers (NCKX), and Ca2+/Cation exchangers (CCX). In mammals there are three NCX genes, five NCKX genes and one CCX (NCLX) gene. The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains ten Na+/Ca2+ exchanger genes: three NCX; five CCX; and two NCKX genes. Here we set out to characterize structural and taxonomic specializations within the family of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers across the phylum Nematoda. In this analysis we identify Na+/Ca2+ exchanger genes from twelve species of nematodes and reconstruct their phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships. The most notable feature of the resulting phylogenies was the heterogeneous evolution observed within exchanger subtypes. Specifically, in the case of the CCX exchangers we did not detect members of this class in three Clade III nematodes. Within the Caenorhabditis and Pristionchus lineages we identify between three and five CCX representatives, whereas in other Clade V and also Clade IV nematode taxa we only observed a single CCX gene in each species, and in the Clade III nematode taxa that we sampled we identify NCX and NCKX encoding genes but no evidence of CCX representatives using our mining approach. We also provided re-annotation for predicted CCX gene structures from Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Caenorhabditis japonica by RT-PCR and sequencing. Together, these findings reveal a complex picture of Na+/Ca2+ transporters in nematodes that suggest an incongruent evolutionary history of proteins that provide central control of calcium dynamics.

  14. Analysis of the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger Gene Family within the Phylum Nematoda

    PubMed Central

    He, Chao; O'Halloran, Damien M.

    2014-01-01

    Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are low affinity, high capacity transporters that rapidly transport calcium at the plasma membrane, mitochondrion, endoplasmic (and sarcoplasmic) reticulum, and the nucleus. Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are widely expressed in diverse cell types where they contribute homeostatic balance to calcium levels. In animals, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are divided into three groups based upon stoichiometry: Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), Na+/Ca2+/K+ exchangers (NCKX), and Ca2+/Cation exchangers (CCX). In mammals there are three NCX genes, five NCKX genes and one CCX (NCLX) gene. The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains ten Na+/Ca2+ exchanger genes: three NCX; five CCX; and two NCKX genes. Here we set out to characterize structural and taxonomic specializations within the family of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers across the phylum Nematoda. In this analysis we identify Na+/Ca2+ exchanger genes from twelve species of nematodes and reconstruct their phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships. The most notable feature of the resulting phylogenies was the heterogeneous evolution observed within exchanger subtypes. Specifically, in the case of the CCX exchangers we did not detect members of this class in three Clade III nematodes. Within the Caenorhabditis and Pristionchus lineages we identify between three and five CCX representatives, whereas in other Clade V and also Clade IV nematode taxa we only observed a single CCX gene in each species, and in the Clade III nematode taxa that we sampled we identify NCX and NCKX encoding genes but no evidence of CCX representatives using our mining approach. We also provided re-annotation for predicted CCX gene structures from Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Caenorhabditis japonica by RT-PCR and sequencing. Together, these findings reveal a complex picture of Na+/Ca2+ transporters in nematodes that suggest an incongruent evolutionary history of proteins that provide central control of calcium dynamics. PMID:25397810

  15. Prevalence and Morphological Characterization of Cheilospirura hamulosa, Diesing, 1861 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea), from Partridges in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Maryam; Rouhani, Soheila; Mobedi, Iraj; Rostami, Ali; Khazan, Hoshang; Ahoo, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    This study reports data on the prevalence, morphology, and morphometry of the nematode Cheilospirura hamulosa on the basis of light and stereoscopic microscopy and also camera lucida. Specimens were recovered after necropsies of 100 partridges (Alectoris chukar) from Taleqan County in Alborz Province, Iran. The prevalence of C. hamulosa in partridges was of 30% with a mean intensity of 3.9 and range of infection of 1–12. The mean length and width of females were 17.5 ± 2.14 and 0.39 ± 0.04 mm, while those of males were 12.2 ± 0.67 and 0.3 ± 0.06 mm, respectively. The characteristic digitiform tail was observed in females, and the unequal spicules, caudal alae, and ten pairs of caudal papillae were seen in males. The taxonomic characteristic longitudinal cordons and muscular and glandular oesophagus were observed in both sexes. Ratio between cordons and body length in males and females was 1 : 1.33 and 1 : 1.68, respectively. Ratio between long and short spicules in males was 1 : 2.3. The average size of embryonated eggs was 51.25 × 29.5 μm. In the present study, C. hamulosa (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) is recorded for the first time from partridges in Iran. Therefore, the morphological characters described in this study will be useful in the future diagnostic and taxonomic studies of Acuarioidea family. PMID:26693346

  16. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, V. V. S.; Somvanshi, Vishal S.; Bajaj, Harish K.

    2015-01-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b’ = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c’ = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b’ = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c’ = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism. PMID:25861116

  17. The caudal bursa in the Heligmonellidae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina). Characterization and hypothesis on its evolution

    PubMed Central

    Durette-Desset, M.C.; Digiani, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    The different patterns of the caudal bursa of the Heligmonellidae (Nematoda) are redefined, taking into account the grouping of rays 2-6 and the sequence of origin of these rays from their common trunk. The type of symmetry of the caudal bursa is also redefined. The following patterns were observed and characterized: the basic patterns: types 2-3, 2-2-1, 1-3-1 and 1-4 and the intermediary patterns: type 2-3 tending to type 2-2-1, type 2-2-1 tending to type 1-3-1, type 1-3-1 tending to type 1-4 and type 2-2-1 tending to type 1-4. An evolutionary interpretation of the patterns is attempted and seems to follow the direction: 2-3 to 2-2-1 to 1-3-1 to 1-4. Seven atypical patterns are described. The caudal bursae were classified based on their symmetry: subsymmetrical, dissymmetrical and asymmetrical. Independently of the type of symmetry, the two latero-ventral lobes may have the same or different patterns. The type of symmetry, the ratio between the two latero-ventral lobes and a characteristic pattern were utilized to characterize the caudal bursae at the level of the genus and the subfamily. The combination of the right/left ratio and the type of symmetry gives heterogeneous results, with no real association between these characters. The most conspicuous asymmetries and dissymmetries were found among the Nippostrongylinae. The most frequent pattern in the Heligmonellidae is the basic type 2-2-1; types 1-3-1 and 1-4 are less frequent but are characteristic of several genera; type 1-4 is absent from the Heligmonellinae. Whatever the pattern, in the Heligmonellidae rays 4 and 5 are the last to diverge from the common trunk of rays 2-6. PMID:22314236

  18. Phylogenetic relationships between pinworms (Nematoda: Enterobiinae) parasitising the critically endangered orang-utan, according to the characterisation of molecular genomic and mitochondrial markers.

    PubMed

    Foitová, Ivona; Civáňová, Kristína; Baruš, Vlastimil; Nurcahyo, Wisnu

    2014-07-01

    Pinworms (Nematoda: Enterobiinae) include 52 species parasitising primates throughout the world. In the present study, we performed the first ever molecular analysis to investigate the phylogenetic position of recently described pinworms parasitising the Sumatran orang-utan. The phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial CO1 and chromosomal 18S rDNA and ITS1 regions could support the independent status of several Nematoda species. Our molecular data clearly suggest that Enterobius (Colobenterobius) buckleyi and Lemuricola (Protenterobius) pongoi together with Pongobius hugoti form separate clades among other studied species, which significantly supports the hypothesis of recently described new species parasitising the orang-utan (Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus). The phylogenetic tree based on cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) gene variability showed possible close relationships between L. (Protenterobius) pongoi and P. hugoti; thus, we can assume that these species could have initially diverged in sympatry from a common ancestor.

  19. Description of a new species of Chabaudus Inglis and Ogden, 1965 (Nematoda: Seuratoidea) from the frog Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis from Dehrandun, Uttarakhand, India.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Bursey, Charles R; Maity, Pallab

    2016-01-01

    Chabaudus dehradunensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Seuratoidea) from the large intestine of the water skipper, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura, Dicroglossidae), from Dehrandun, India is described and illustrated. Chabaudus dehradunensis sp. nov. is the 6th species assigned to the genus and 1st species reported from India. It is separated from its congeners based upon the number and arrangement of caudal papillae and the length of spicule. Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis is the new host record for the genus Chabaudus.

  20. Two new genera of the pharyngodonidae (Nematoda: Oxyuroidea) found in rhacophorid frogs of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo

    2005-02-01

    Okinawandros goldbergi n. gen., n. sp. and Ataronema sekii n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) are described from rhacophorid frogs of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Okinawandros n. gen. resembles Batracholandros Freitas et Ibañez, 1965 and Synodontisia Petter, Vassiliades et Troncy, 1972 but is readily distinguished from the former in lacking laterally situated genital papillae and by having anteriorly directed vagina and from the latter by having operculated eggs and lacking a spicule. Ataronema n. gen. most closely resembles Parathelandros Baylis, 1930 but is readily distinguished because the posterior pair of caudal papillae is not rosette shaped and the eggs are not operculated. Morphological notes of Pharyngodon polypedatis Yamaguti, 1941 are included.

  1. Redescription of Trichuris pampeana (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from the South American subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum Thomas, 1898 (Rodentia: Octodontidae).

    PubMed

    Rossin, M Alejandra; Malizia, Ana I

    2005-02-01

    Trichuris pampeana Suriano and Navone, 1994 (Nematoda: Trichuridae) is redescribed from voucher specimens from the type host Ctenomys azarae Thomas, 1903 (Rodentia: Octodontidae) and from parasites collected from 2 populations of the subterranean rodent C. talarum Thomas, 1898 from Mar de Cobo and Necochea, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. After a revision of these nematodes, it was confirmed that the following characters were not considered in the original description: bacillary band, cells from the esophagointestinal junction, ejaculatory duct, vas deferens, adanal papillae, vagina, oviduct, and rectum. Additional information about the spicular sheath, vulva, uteri, and ovary is provided. The morphological features given in this redescription allow to confirm the identity of T. pampeana as a valid species and also to distinguish it more clearly from other species of the genus.

  2. Description of Riouxgolvania kapapkamui Sp. N. (Nematoda: Muspiceoidea: Muspiceidae), a peculiar intradermal parasite of bats in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Satô, Masahiko; Maeda, Kishio; Murayama, Yoshiko

    2012-10-01

    Riouxgolvania kapapkamui sp. n. (Nematoda: Muspiceoidea: Muspiceidae), a peculiar intradermal parasite, is described based on gravid adults, eggs, and first-, second-, and third-stage larvae collected from dermal nodules formed in Myotis macrodactylus and Myotis ikonnikovi bats from Hokkaido, Japan. The nematode is readily distinguished from 3 previously described congeners in having a globular body with brown, transverse striae in the anterior region of fully grown females. The third-stage larva is also distinguished from other congeners by having a round tail end. Nucleotide sequences of the analyzed partial SSU rDNA-ITS1 region and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 of mtDNA showed greater similarity to chromadoreans rather than to enopleans. This is the first report of muspiceoid nematodes from Asia.

  3. Maturation feeding and transmission of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) by Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) inoculated with Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes).

    PubMed

    Maehara, Noritoshi; He, Xueyou; Shimazu, Mitsuaki

    2007-02-01

    We examined the amount of maturation feeding and transmission of pinewood nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae), to healthy pine (Pinus spp.) trees by pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) adults infected with Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes). Inoculated beetles fed less than noninoculated beetles, probably because feeding by inoculated beetles began to decrease at about 4 d postinoculation and inoculated beetles ceased to feed for several days before their death. In inoculated beetles carrying >1,000 nematodes, some beetles died before nematode departure. The remaining heavily nematode-infested beetles lived until the beginning of nematode departure, but they had stopped feeding, preventing the nematodes from entering pine twigs. We suggest that microbial control of pine sawyer adults by B. bassiana may be effective in preventing transmission of pine wilt disease to healthy pine trees.

  4. Dracunculus mulbus n. sp. (Nematoda: Spirurida) from the water python Liasis fuscus (Serpentes: Boidae) in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hugh I; Mulder, Eridani

    2007-03-01

    A new species of Dracunculus Reichard, 1759 (Nematoda: Spirurida) is described from the tissues surrounding organs in the body-cavity of the water python Liasis fuscus Peters in northern Australia. One to 14 worms were recovered from 22% (27/120) of pythons examined. Males were located principally around the lungs, liver and heart of the hosts, and females were recovered from peritoneal tissue surrounding the intestines and lining the body-cavity. This species differs from previously described species of Dracunculus in the position of the papillae at the posterior end in males, and in the possession of thick, narrow caudal alae. Submedian cephalic papillae are single in both sexes. Dorsal and ventral anterior cephalic papillae are absent in males. This is the first report of a species of Dracunculus from the Australian region.

  5. Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae), a parasite of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Poinar, George; Vega, Fernando E; Castillo, Alfredo; Chavez, Inti E; Infante, Francisco

    2004-10-01

    Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae) is described from the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in Chiapas, Mexico. This species differs from other members of the genus by its small size, annulated cuticle, lateral fields with 3 ridges, free-living stages with an excretory pore located between the pharyngeal gland orifices, a distinct stylet with basal swellings in free-living females, a postvulval uterine extension, a thin stylet lacking basal swellings in males, 2 separate spicules, a gubernaculum, and a peloderan bursa. Parasitic females are white, with a straight or slightly curved body and are ovoviviparous. Third-stage juveniles emerge from parasitized beetles and molt twice before reaching the adult stage. Because the coffee berry borer is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world and this parasite partially or completely sterilizes female beetles, it is worthy of further investigation as a potential biological control agent.

  6. New genus of Cosmocercidae (Nematoda) and other helminths in Hylarana volkerjane (Anura: Ranidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2012-08-01

    Paraplesiohedruris rinse n. gen., n. sp. (Ascaridida; Cosmocercoidae; Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Hylarana volkerjane (Anura; Ranidae) is described and illustrated. The new genus is assigned to the Cosmocercinae of the Cosmocercidae based on the presence of an esophagus composed of a short pharynx, cylindrical corpus, isthmus, and valved bulb; on the presence in males of paired spicules and numerous caudal papillae; plus the presence in the female of an equatorial vulva, 2 uteri, a short tail, and thin-shelled eggs. The Cosmocercinae now contains 10 genera. Hylarana volkerjane was also found to harbor 6 additional species of Nematoda, adults of Aplectana macintoshii, Icosiella papuensis, Meteterakis crombiei, Paracapillaria spratti, Physalopteroides milnensis, and larvae of Abbreviata sp., as well as 1 species of Acanthocephala, Pseudoacanthocephalus bufonis.

  7. A new species of Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Sooretamys angouya Fischer, 1814 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Robles, María del Rosario; Panisse, Guillermo; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) hugoti n. sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described from the cecum of Sooretamys angouya (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini) captured in Formosa Province, Argentina. The diagnosis of the subgenus is emended, and the new species is separated from eight congeners by the distribution of submedian papillae and amphids, shape of the cephalic plate, presence of deirids, absence of cervical and lateral alae, length of the spicule, structure of the accessory hook of the gubernaculum and distance of excretory pore and vulva from the anterior extremity. The analysis suggests that S. (Se.) oryzomyos should be removed from Seuratoxyuris and redesignated as S. (Syphacia) oryzomyos n. comb. To date, of the species of Syphacia found in South and North American, 7 parasitize Oryzomyini rodents, of which two are distributed in Argentina. The present study constitutes the first record of the subgenus Seuratoxyuris from Argentina and the third record of a Syphacia species from rodents of the tribe Oryzomyini.

  8. Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Maxomys spp. (Rodentia: Muridae) from Sulawesi and Sumatra, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    DEWI, Kartika; HASEGAWA, Hideo; FITRIANA, Yuli Sulistya; ASAKAWA, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The present report describes Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from two species of spiny rats, Maxomys musschenbroekii from Sulawesi and M. whiteheadi from Sumatra. It is characterized by a cephalic plate extending laterally with dorsoventral constriction and stumpy eggs with an operculum rim reaching pole. It is readily distinguishable by the former feature from all of hitherto known representatives of this genus in Indonesia, but it resembles parasites in Murini and Hydromyni rodents in continental Asia and Sahul. This is the first Syphacia species distributed in both the Sunda Shelf and Sulawesi with the exception of Syphacia muris, a cosmopolitan pinworm found in rodents of the of genus Rattus. It is surmised that S. maxomyos is specific to Maxomys and that it was introduced to Sulawesi by dispersal of some Maxomys from the Sunda Shelf. PMID:26062434

  9. Moving towards a complete molecular framework of the Nematoda: a focus on the Enoplida and early-branching clades

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The subclass Enoplia (Phylum Nematoda) is purported to be the earliest branching clade amongst all nematode taxa, yet the deep phylogeny of this important lineage remains elusive. Free-living marine species within the order Enoplida play prominent roles in marine ecosystems, but previous molecular phylogenies have provided only the briefest evolutionary insights; this study aimed to firmly resolve internal relationships within the hyper-diverse but poorly understood Enoplida. In addition, we revisited the molecular framework of the Nematoda using a rigorous phylogenetic approach in order to investigate patterns of early splits amongst the oldest lineages (Dorylaimia and Enoplia). Results Morphological identifications, nuclear gene sequences (18S and 28S rRNA), and mitochondrial gene sequences (cox1) were obtained from marine Enoplid specimens representing 37 genera. The 18S gene was used to resolve deep splits within the Enoplia and evaluate the branching order of major clades in the nematode tree; multiple phylogenetic methods and rigorous empirical tests were carried out to assess tree topologies under different parameters and combinations of taxa. Significantly increased taxon sampling within the Enoplida resulted in a well-supported, robust phylogenetic topology of this group, although the placement of certain clades was not fully resolved. Our analysis could not unequivocally confirm the earliest splits in the nematode tree, and outgroup choice significantly affected the observed branching order of the Dorylaimia and Enoplia. Both 28S and cox1 were too variable to infer deep phylogeny, but provided additional insight at lower taxonomic levels. Conclusions Analysis of internal relationships reveals that the Enoplia is split into two main clades, with groups consisting of terrestrial (Triplonchida) and primarily marine fauna (Enoplida). Five independent lineages were recovered within the Enoplida, containing a mixture of marine and terrestrial species

  10. Syphacia sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in coprolites of Kerodon rupestris Wied, 1820 (Rodentia: Caviidae) from 5,300 years BP in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Mônica Vieira de; Sianto, Luciana; Chame, Marcia; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto

    2012-06-01

    We present the results of paleoparasitological analyses in coprolites of Kerodon rupestris, rodent endemic to rocky areas of Brazil's semiarid region. The coprolites were collected from excavations at the archaeological site of Toca dos Coqueiros, in the National Park of Serra da Capivara, southeastern of state of Piauí. Syphacia sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) eggs were identified in coprolites dated at 5,300 ± 50 years before present. This is the first record of the genus Syphacia in rodent coprolites in the Americas.

  11. Crenosoma brasiliense sp. n. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) parasitic in lesser grison, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil, with a key to species of Crenosoma Molin, 1861.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luis C; de Souza, Lima Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Gonçalves, Pamela R; Luque, José L

    2012-09-01

    This study describes Crenosoma brasiliense (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), a new species parasitic in bronchi and bronchioles of Galictis cuja (Molina) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil. This species differs from other 11 species of Crenosoma by having a cuticular projection at the distal end of the spicules, forming a prominent blade at the tip of the spicule, a vulval cuticular appendage with a triangular shape and prominent vulval lips. There are no previous records of species of Metastrongyloidea in G. cuja or species of Crenosoma in South America. Therefore, the new species represents the first host record and first geographical record of species of Crenosoma in South America.

  12. Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) romani n. sp. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) in notacanthid fishes from the Northeast Atlantic and Western Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Isbert, Wolf; Montero, Francisco Esteban; Carrassón, Maite; González-Solís, David

    2015-05-01

    A new cucullanid, Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) romani n. sp. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae), is described from the digestive tract of two notacanthid fishes, Notacanthus chemnitzii Bloch and N. bonaparte Risso (Notacanthiformes: Notacanthidae), from the Northeast Atlantic and Western Mediterranean. The presence of a precloacal sucker and ten pairs of caudal papillae in males allocates it to the subgenus Cucullanellus Törnquist, 1931. The new species differs from other members of this subgenus in its larger body size, smaller spicule/body length ratio, the distribution of caudal papillae, and the position of deirids and excretory pore. Both notacanthid fishes act as definitive hosts with slightly larger nematode specimens detected in N. chemnitzii. A wide intraspecific variability was found in the distribution of caudal papillae, and in some specimens the position of deirids, excretory pore and length of intestinal caecum also varied. A complete list of all assigned species of the subgenus Cucullanellus is presented and discussed as there are several uncertainties regarding the validity and synonymy of some species. This is the first species of Dichelyne Jägerskiöld, 1902 in a notacanthid fish and one of the only two records in deep-sea fish species.

  13. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae.

  14. Redescription of the females of Hystrignathus rigidus Leidy, 1850 (Nematoda: Hystrignathidae), parasites of Odontotaenius disjunctus (Coleoptera: Passalidae) from eastern USA.

    PubMed

    Morffe, Jans; García, Nayla; Davis, Andrew K

    2015-03-30

    The female of Hystrignathus rigidus Leidy, 1850 (Nematoda: Hystrignathidae) is redescribed on the basis of new material from Odontotaenius disjunctus (Coleoptera: Passalidae) from Athens, Georgia, USA; which also constitutes a new locality record. SEM images are provided for the first time for the species. It is also first shown that H. rigidus presents ridged-shelled eggs. A differential diagnosis is provided. H. rigidus can be differentiated from the rest of the species of this genus by having a short, non inflated first cephalic annule; spines that surpass the level of the oesophagus, an absence of lateral alae, ridged-shelled eggs and its length of the body and tail. The material from the present study differs from a previous redescription by Christie (1934) by its shorter body (2.125-2.950 vs. 2.130-4.200), first cephalic annule (0.003-0.005 vs. 0.012) and oesophagus (0.350-0.430 vs. 0.650-0.670).

  15. Liver histopathology in the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae), induced by Ortleppascaris sp. larvae (Nematoda: Ascarididae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Jefferson P E; da Silva, Djane C B; Melo, Francisco T V; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Santos, Jeannie N

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to parasites is considered to be an important factor in the development of many diseases and histopathologies which are the result of the parasite-host interaction. The present study evaluated the impact of natural infection by larvae of Ortleppascaris sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) in the liver of the cane toad Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758). Larvae were encysted in nodules delimited by collagenous fibers and fibroblasts or freely within the hepatic parenchyma, provoking a clear response from the host. The histological examination of the liver revealed viable larvae in a number of different developmental stages, as well as cysts filled with amorphous material and cell residues and surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue. The infection of the liver by these larvae induces a significant increase in the area occupied by melanomacrophages and a reduction or deficit in the vascularization of the liver, hypertrophy of the hepatocytes, vacuolar bodies, and cytoplasmatic granules. Focal concentrations of inflammatory infiltrates were observed enclosing the unencapsulated early-stage larvae. These results indicate that infection by Ortleppascaris sp. induces severe physiological problems and histopathological lesions in the liver of R. marina .

  16. Two new species of philometrid nematodes (Nematoda: Philometridae) in Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Palm, Harry W

    2013-01-25

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopy, two new species of philometrid nematodes, Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. and Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea: Philometridae) are described from Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the South Bali Sea, Indonesia. Spirophilometra endangae sp. nov. was isolated from the fins of E. coioides. The new species can be distinguished from the most closely related S. eichleri Parukhin, 1971 by a larger total body length and the site of infection in the host. The new species differs from S. centropomi (Caballero, 1974) also in the larger body size of the gravid females and the site of infection in the host. S. en-dangae sp. nov. differs from S. pacifica (Moravec, Santana-Pineros, Gonzales-Solis & Torres-Huerta, 2007) in the struc-ture and arrangement of the spines on the middle part of the body, the infection site of the worm, the type host and the zoogeographical host distribution. Philometra epinepheli sp. nov. differs from all other Philometra spp. congeners so far recorded from Ephinepelus groupers in the total body length and the site of infection. This is the first opercula-infecting species of Philometra described from the fish family Serranidae.

  17. Deep subsurface mine stalactites trap endemic fissure fluid Archaea, Bacteria, and Nematoda possibly originating from ancient seas.

    PubMed

    Borgonie, Gaëtan; Linage-Alvarez, Borja; Ojo, Abidemi; Shivambu, Steven; Kuloyo, Olukayode; Cason, Errol D; Maphanga, Sihle; Vermeulen, Jan-G; Litthauer, Derek; Ralston, Colin D; Onstott, Tullis C; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Van Heerden, Esta

    2015-01-01

    Stalactites (CaCO3 and salt) from water seeps are frequently encountered in ceilings of mine tunnels whenever they intersect water-bearing faults or fractures. To determine whether stalactites could be mineralized traps for indigenous fracture water microorganisms, we analyzed stalactites collected from three different mines ranging in depth from 1.3 to 3.1 km. During sampling in Beatrix gold mine (1.4 km beneath the surface), central South Africa, CaCO3 stalactites growing on the mine tunnel ceiling were collected and observed, in two cases, to contain a living obligate brackish water/marine nematode species, Monhystrella parvella. After sterilization of the outer surface, mineral layers were physically removed from the outside to the interior, and DNA extracted. Based upon 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya in different combinations were detected for each layer. Using CT scan and electron microscopy the inner structure of CaCO3 and salt stalactites were analyzed. CaCO3 stalactites show a complex pattern of lamellae carrying bacterially precipitated mineral structures. Nematoda were clearly identified between these layers confirming that bacteria and nematodes live inside the stalactites and not only in the central straw. Salt stalactites exhibit a more uniform internal structure. Surprisingly, several Bacteria showing highest sequence identities to marine species were identified. This, together with the observation that the nematode M. parvella recovered from Beatrix gold mine stalactite can only survive in a salty environment makes the origin of the deep subsurface colonization enigmatic. The possibility of a Permian origin of fracture fluids is discussed. Our results indicate stalactites are suitable for biodiversity recovery and act as natural traps for microorganisms in the fissure water long after the water that formed the stalactite stopped flowing.

  18. A new species of Potoroxyuris (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from the woylie Bettongia penicillata (Marsupialia: Potoroidae) from southwestern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Russell P; Elliot, Aileen D

    2016-12-01

    Potoroxyuris keninupensis n.sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described based on specimens recovered from the caecum and colon of two woylies, Bettongia penicillata (Marsupialia: Potoroidae) from Western Australia. Only one other species of Potoroxyuris has been described previously, Potoroxyuris potoroo (Johnston and Mawson, 1939) Mawson, 1964, from Potorous tridactylus. The new species is most easily differentiated from P. potoroo by the shape of the pharyngeal lobes. The pharyngeal lobes of P. keninupensis n. sp. are widest at the base while those of P. potoroo are widest at the tip. The genus Potoroxyuris most closely resembles Macropoxyuris based especially on structures of the caudal end of males. The other three genera of oxyurids known to infect Australian marsupials have longer caudal alae, and more caudal papillae than these two genera. The genus Potoroxyuris has previously been defined by the characteristic that the pharyngeal lobes protrude through the oral opening. However, the pharyngeal lobes of P. keninupensis n. sp. do not quite protrude, so the definition of the genus should be modified as follows. The genus Potoroxyuris can be easily differentiated from Macropoxyuris by the following differences in the morphology of the buccal cavity. The pharyngeal lobes of Potoroxyuris almost reach the oral opening, or protrude beyond it, whereas those of Macropoxyuris only reach to about the anterior third of the buccal cavity. The buccal cavity of Potoroxyuris is poorly cuticularized compared to Macropoxyuris and other genera of oxyurids known from Australian marsupials, and does not contain inter-radial lamellae.

  19. Identification and Prevalence of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) among Wild Boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) from Southwestern Regions of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Joo, Kyoung-Woong; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2±0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47±0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52±0.19 and 0.37±0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45±0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study. PMID:26537041

  20. Deep subsurface mine stalactites trap endemic fissure fluid Archaea, Bacteria, and Nematoda possibly originating from ancient seas

    PubMed Central

    Borgonie, Gaëtan; Linage-Alvarez, Borja; Ojo, Abidemi; Shivambu, Steven; Kuloyo, Olukayode; Cason, Errol D.; Maphanga, Sihle; Vermeulen, Jan-G; Litthauer, Derek; Ralston, Colin D.; Onstott, Tullis C.; Sherwood-Lollar, Barbara; Van Heerden, Esta

    2015-01-01

    Stalactites (CaCO3 and salt) from water seeps are frequently encountered in ceilings of mine tunnels whenever they intersect water-bearing faults or fractures. To determine whether stalactites could be mineralized traps for indigenous fracture water microorganisms, we analyzed stalactites collected from three different mines ranging in depth from 1.3 to 3.1 km. During sampling in Beatrix gold mine (1.4 km beneath the surface), central South Africa, CaCO3 stalactites growing on the mine tunnel ceiling were collected and observed, in two cases, to contain a living obligate brackish water/marine nematode species, Monhystrella parvella. After sterilization of the outer surface, mineral layers were physically removed from the outside to the interior, and DNA extracted. Based upon 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya in different combinations were detected for each layer. Using CT scan and electron microscopy the inner structure of CaCO3 and salt stalactites were analyzed. CaCO3 stalactites show a complex pattern of lamellae carrying bacterially precipitated mineral structures. Nematoda were clearly identified between these layers confirming that bacteria and nematodes live inside the stalactites and not only in the central straw. Salt stalactites exhibit a more uniform internal structure. Surprisingly, several Bacteria showing highest sequence identities to marine species were identified. This, together with the observation that the nematode M. parvella recovered from Beatrix gold mine stalactite can only survive in a salty environment makes the origin of the deep subsurface colonization enigmatic. The possibility of a Permian origin of fracture fluids is discussed. Our results indicate stalactites are suitable for biodiversity recovery and act as natural traps for microorganisms in the fissure water long after the water that formed the stalactite stopped flowing. PMID:26441844

  1. Integrated taxonomy: traditional approach and DNA barcoding for the identification of filarioid worms and related parasites (Nematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Emanuele; Barbuto, Michela; Bain, Odile; Galimberti, Andrea; Uni, Shigehiko; Guerrero, Ricardo; Ferté, Hubert; Bandi, Claudio; Martin, Coralie; Casiraghi, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    Background We compared here the suitability and efficacy of traditional morphological approach and DNA barcoding to distinguish filarioid nematodes species (Nematoda, Spirurida). A reliable and rapid taxonomic identification of these parasites is the basis for a correct diagnosis of important and widespread parasitic diseases. The performance of DNA barcoding with different parameters was compared measuring the strength of correlation between morphological and molecular identification approaches. Molecular distance estimation was performed with two different mitochondrial markers (coxI and 12S rDNA) and different combinations of data handling were compared in order to provide a stronger tool for easy identification of filarioid worms. Results DNA barcoding and morphology based identification of filarioid nematodes revealed high coherence. Despite both coxI and 12S rDNA allow to reach high-quality performances, only coxI revealed to be manageable. Both alignment algorithm, gaps treatment, and the criteria used to define the threshold value were found to affect the performance of DNA barcoding with 12S rDNA marker. Using coxI and a defined level of nucleotide divergence to delimit species boundaries, DNA barcoding can also be used to infer potential new species. Conclusion An integrated approach allows to reach a higher discrimination power. The results clearly show where DNA-based and morphological identifications are consistent, and where they are not. The coherence between DNA-based and morphological identification for almost all the species examined in our work is very strong. We propose DNA barcoding as a reliable, consistent, and democratic tool for species discrimination in routine identification of parasitic nematodes. PMID:19128479

  2. Identification and Prevalence of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) among Wild Boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) from Southwestern Regions of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Ahn, Ah-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Joo, Kyoung-Woong; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2±0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47±0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52±0.19 and 0.37±0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45±0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study.

  3. Distribution of Thelastomatoid Nematodes (Nematoda: Oxyurida) in Endemic and Introduced Cockroaches on the Galápagos Island Archipelago, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, Devinn; Carreno, Ramon A; Herrera, Henri

    2015-08-01

    The thelastomatoid pinworm fauna (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) was surveyed in 3 endemic species and 6 introduced species of cockroach hosts (Insecta: Blattaria) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. A total of 658 host specimens were examined from preserved collections that had been collected between 1966 and 2003 from 7 islands in the archipelago. Eight species of pinworms were identified from these cockroach hosts, including the dominant species Cephalobellus ovumglutinosus and a Severianoia sp. as well as Leidynema appendiculata, Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, an unidentified Cephalobellus species resembling Cephalobellus magalhaesi, an unidentified Protrellus species closely resembling Protrellus shamimi, and an undescribed Blattophila sp. Five new host records are identified for C. ovumglutinosus including the endemic Galápagos cockroaches Chorisoneura carpenteri, Ischnoptera snodgrassii, and Ischnoptera santacruzensis. These endemics were also infected with an undescribed Blatticola sp. Other species recorded resemble known pinworms from other hosts around the world. Prevalence between islands and between host species was variable, but total prevalence for individual pinworm species was consistently low (<10%). A single host specimen examined was infected with more than 1 pinworm species; otherwise only a single species was observed in each infected host. At least 1 introduced pinworm species carried to the islands via invasive cockroach hosts was present in endemic host species, but several globally widespread introduced pinworm species were absent from endemic cockroaches. Santa Cruz was inhabited by the greatest number of pinworm species, likely due to a higher rate of invasive host introduction. This survey, the first from this region, showed that the distribution and transmission of pinworms in the Galápagos Islands is complex and may provide future models of invertebrate dispersal and speciation in an ecosystem already rich with examples of

  4. New genus, new species of Cestoda (Anoplocephalidae), new species of Nematoda (Cosmocercidae) and other helminths in Cyrtodactylus louisiadensis (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2005-08-01

    Gekkotaenia novaeguineaensis n. gen., n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from the small intestine and Cosmocerca zugi n. sp. (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of the ring-tailed gecko, Cyrtodactylus louisiadensis (Sauria: Gekkonidae) are described and illustrated. Gekkotaenia novaeguineaensis n. gen., n. sp. is unique among the acraspedote Linstowiinae in possessing a poral female reproductory system. Cosmocerca zugi n. sp. is the 22nd species to be assigned to the genus and differs from other species in the genus by possessing 4 pairs of rosette papillae on plectanes and having a gubernaculum longer than the spicules. It is the fifth species to be described from the Australian biogeographical region. Eight additional helminth species were found: the digenean, Allopharynx macallisteri; 2 cestodes, cysticercoids of Cyclophyllidea gen. sp. and tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides sp.; 5 nematodes, larvae in cysts of Abbreviata sp., Aplectana macintoshii, Oswaldocruzia bakeri, Parapharyngodon maplestonei, and an undescribed species of Physalopteroides. Cyrtodactylus louisiadensis represents a new host record for each of these helminths.

  5. Musserakis sulawesiensis gen. et sp. n. (Nematoda: Heterakidae) collected from Echiothrix centrosa (Rodentia: Muridae), an old endemic rat of Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Dewi, Kartika; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2014-11-04

    Musserakis sulawesiensis gen. et sp. n. (Nematoda: Heterakidae) is described from the large-bodied shrew rat, Echiothrix centrosa, one of the old endemic rats of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Musserakis is readily distinguished from other heterakid genera by having non-recurrent and non-anastomosing cephalic cordons, by lacking papillae between papillae groups around precloacal sucker and cloacal aperture and by lacking teeth in the pharyngeal portion. The spicules are equal but with marked dimorphism among individuals. Heterakids collected from other old endemic murids examined, i.e., Crunomys celebensis, Tateomys macrocercus and Tateomys rhinogradoides, and the new endemic rats of Sulawesi, were Heterakis spumosa Schneider, 1866, a cosmopolitan nematode of various murids. It is suggested that M. sulawesiensis is specific to Echiothrix.

  6. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) spp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae) from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana, including P. (S.) serranochromis n. sp. parasitic in Serranochromis spp. (Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Van As, Liesl L

    2015-02-01

    Three species of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) Baylis, 1923 (Camallanidae) (Nematoda: Camallanidae) were found in the digestive tract of freshwater fishes from the Okavango River, Botswana, i.e. P. (S.) daleneae (Boomker, 1993) from Synodontis vanderwaali Skelton & White (Mochokidae), P. (S.) spiralis Baylis, 1923 from Clarias stappersi Boulenger, C. theodorae Weber (both Clariidae) and Hepsetus odoe (Bloch) (Hepsetidae), and P. (S.) serranochromis n. sp. from Serranochromis macrocephalus (Boulenger) (type-host), S. angusticeps (Boulenger) and S. robustus (Günther) (all Cichlidae). All findings of the two previously known species represent new host records. The specimens were studied using both light and scanning electron microscopy. Spirocamallanus mazabukae Yeh, 1957 is considered a junior synonym of P. (S.) spiralis. A key to the species of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) parasitising fishes of continental Africa is provided.

  7. Three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah; Fajer-Avila, Emma J

    2014-08-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes of the genus Lutjanus Bloch (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico: P. longispicula sp. n. from the ovary of the northern red snapper L. campechanus (Poey) (type host) and silk snapper L. vivanus (Cuvier); P. latispicula sp. n. from the ovary and rarely testes of the grey snapper L. griseus (Linnaeus); and P. synagridis sp. n. (only males available) from the ovary of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus). These species are mainly characterised by the lengths of spicules (378-690 microm, 135-144 microm and 186-219 microm, respectively) and spicule shapes, structure of the distal portion of the gubernaculum and the structure of the male caudal end. These are the first valid, nominal species of gonad-infecting philometrids reported from fishes of the family Lutjanidae in the western Atlantic region.

  8. A review of Gongylonema spp. (Nematoda: Gongylonematidae) in North American rodents with description of a new species from the cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus (Mammalia: Cricetidae).

    PubMed

    Kinsella, John M; Robles, Maria Del Rosario; Preisser, Whitney C

    2016-05-02

    Gongylonema archboldi n. sp. (Nematoda: Gongylonematidae) is described from tunnels in the gastric mucosa of the stomach of the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) from Highlands County, Florida, U.S.A. Measurements are also given for specimens from cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus), oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus), Florida mice (Podomys floridanus), and golden mice (Ochrotomys nuttalli) from the same locality. Additional specimens were collected from the cotton rat and the rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) from Berry Island, San Patricio County, Texas. The new species is differentiated from congeners by a combination of the following characters: length of the left spicule, length and shape of the gubernaculum, distribution of cuticular bosses, length of esophagus, and distance of the vulva from the posterior end. The status of the genus Gongylonema in North American rodents is reviewed.

  9. A new species of Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from Blommersia domerguei (Guibé) (Amphibia: Mantellidae) in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Junker, Kerstin; du Preez, Louis; Bain, Odile

    2013-11-01

    Rhabdias blommersiae sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) is described from the lungs of Domergue's Madagascar frog, Blommersia domerguei (Guibé) (Amphibia: Mantellidae), in Madagascar. The new species differs from congeners parasitizing amphibians in having a smaller body and buccal capsule, six equal lips, large excretory glands of unequal length and a posteriorly inflated body vesicle. A combination of characters distinguishes it from Afromalagasy species of Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905. Rhabdias blommersiae is the third species of the genus described from amphibians in Madagascar. Close similarities in the number and shape of circumoral structures in two Rhabdias species described from mantellid hosts in Madagascar suggest a close relationship and common origin of the two species, with subsequent adaptation to separate hosts within the Mantellidae.

  10. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb. leaf extract on Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) and Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Shyamalima; Yadav, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb. have been traditionally used as an herbal remedy to treat the intestinal helminthic infections in traditional medicine of India. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of C. bonducella leaf extract against Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda) and Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda). Materials and Methods: The in vitro anthelmintic activity of the extract was investigated on adult worms of S. obvelata (Nematoda) and H. diminuta (Cestoda) in terms of physical motility and mortality of parasites. The in vivo study was performed in H. diminuta-rat model and S. obvelata-mice model, by monitoring the egg per gram of feces count and worm count of animals following the treatment with different doses of plant extract. Results: The study recorded significant and dose-dependent anthelmintic effects of the extract on both the parasites. In the in vitro study, 30 mg/ml concentration of extract caused mortality of H. diminuta in 2.5 ± 0.2 h and S. obvelata in 3.57 ± 0.16 h. In the in vivo study, the extract showed a comparatively better efficacy on S. obvelata, where its 800 mg/kg dose revealed 93% reduction of worm load in mice, as compared to 85% worm load reduction of H. diminuta in rats. Conclusions: The findings suggest that leaf extract of C. bonducella possesses significant anthelmintic effects and supports its use as an anthelmintic in traditional medicine. This appears to be the first report of in vivo anthelmintic activity of C. bonducella against these parasites. PMID:27757275

  11. Morphology of Enterobius (Colobenterobius) colobis Vuylstéke, 1964 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) collected from an ashy red colobus, Procolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles (Elliot, 1907) (Primates: Cercopithecidae: Colobinae), in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Greiner, Ellis C; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2008-10-01

    Enterobius (Colobenterobius) colobis Vuylstéke, 1964 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is redescribed based on males and females collected from an ashy red colobus, Procolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles (Elliot, 1907) (Primates: Cercopithecidae: Colobinae), in Uganda. Two morphotypes are recognized among females, which are readily distinguished by tail length, termination level of lateral alae, and egg size. The relative position of cellular wall greatly varied in the ovijector, indicating its limited systematic value. The males possess a much shorter spicule than those in previous descriptions, suggesting the presence of polymorphism.

  12. Morphometric and phylogenetic analyses of Serpentirhabdias viperidicus n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from the lancehead snake Bothrops moojeni Hoge, 1966 (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morais, D H; Aguiar, A; Müller, M I; Narciso, R B; da Silva, L A F; da Silva, R J

    2017-05-01

    Serpentirhabdias viperidicus n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) is described from the lungs of the 'Brazilian lancehead' Bothrops moojeni (Hoge, 1966) from the savannah in São Paulo State, Brazil. The new species is the eighth species of Serpentirhabdias described in the Neotropical region, and differs from other species mainly by a combination of characters: lips slightly notable, presence of fine striations at posterior ends, presence of two parallel lines with intercalated pores, a pore-shaped phasmid situated at the level of the anal aperture and another two in the posterior half of the tail. It is the first species of Serpentirhabdias reported in this snake host and the second species of this genus found parasitizing South American viperidian snakes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis using ribosomal (ITS and 28S partial) genes confirms Serpentirhabdias viperidicus n. sp. as a new species that clustered in the Serpentirhabdias clade, sister taxon to Serpentirhabdias fuscovenosa and Serpentirhabdias elaphe. This is the first description of Serpentirhabdias species from Brazil using molecular approaches and morphological characters to confirm the monophyly of this recent genus.

  13. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Justine, Jean-Lou; Neifar, Lassad

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147-165 μm), the gubernaculum (63-93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97-2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided.

  14. Physaloptera bainae n. sp. (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) parasitic in Salvator merianae (Squamata: Teiidae), with a key to Physaloptera species parasitizing reptiles from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe B; Alves, Philippe V; Rocha, Bárbara M; de Souza Lima, Sueli; Luque, José L

    2014-04-01

    Physaloptera bainae n. sp. (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) from stomach of the large "tegú" lizard Salvator merianae (Squamata: Teiidae), collected in an ecological park that is part of the Atlantic Rainforest biome in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is described. The new species which has females with didelphic uterus, is the only species of the genus exhibiting external teeth in the form of 4 spines that are organized in a cross-shaped pattern at the anterior apical end, with 2 minute adcloacal papillae on the anterior part of cloacal aperture in males and a large cuticular expansion at the anterior end of females. Moreover, P. bainae n. sp. can be differentiated from the other congeners by the combination of other features, e.g., number (23) and pattern of caudal papillae, spicule size (left 554-600; right 589-617) and vulval position (on the first third of body), and because the specimens are particularly large and robust. Physaloptera monodens is considered a junior synonym of P. obtusissima. In addition, a key to Physaloptera species parasitizing reptiles from Brazil is provided.

  15. Description of two free-living nematode species of Halomonhystera disjuncta complex (Nematoda: Monhysterida) from two peculiar habitats in the sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchesunov, Alexei V.; Portnova, Daria A.; van Campenhout, Jelle

    2015-03-01

    Morphological descriptions of two Halomonhystera species (Nematoda, Monhysterida) are presented ( Halomonhystera hermesi and Halomonhystera socialis). Halomonhystera hermesi sp. n. occurs in a dense monospecific and homogeneous population on bacterial mats in the Håkon Mosby mud volcano in the Barents Sea at a depth of 1,280 m. The species is an endemic lineage distinctly separated from other shallow-water cryptotaxa of the Halomonhystera disjucta species complex on the base of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (genetic divergence 19.6-23.8 %) and nuclear genetic markers, and on the base of morphometrics by Van Campenhout et al. (2014). H. socialis (Bütschli 1874) is redescribed on the basis of White Sea specimens. This species dwells in mass on the detached kelp accumulation in the upper sublittoral. H. socialis is differentiated from other species of the Halomonhystera disjuncta complex morphometrically by a larger body size and by genetic divergence in nuclear markers. The genus Halomonhystera Andrássy 2006 is redefined, and its morphospecies list is reviewed. Species H. bathislandica (Riemann 1995) comb. n., H. fisheri (Zekely et al. 2006) comb. n., H. islandica (De Coninck 1943) comb. n. and H. vandoverae (Zekely et al. 2006) comb. n. are transferred to Halomonhystera from Thalassomonhystera; H. paradisjuncta (de Coninck 1943) comb. n., H. rotundicapitata (Filipjev 1922) comb. n. and H. taurica (Tsalolikhin 2007) comb. n. transferred to Halomonhystera from Geomonhystera. Halomonhystera ambiguoides (Bütschli 1874) is considered as species inquirenda because of incompleteness of its diagnosis.

  16. Seven new and four known species of the genus Acantholaimus (Nematoda: Chromadoridae) from the abyssal manganese nodule field (Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, North-Eastern Tropical Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljutina, Maria A.; Miljutin, Dmitry M.

    2012-09-01

    The descriptions of seven new and supplemental descriptions of four known species of the genus Acantholaimus (Nematoda: Chromadoridae) from about 5,000 m depth in the abyssal manganese nodule field of the French Claim of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (north-eastern tropical Pacific) are given. A. arthrochaeta sp. n. differs from other Acantholaimus species in having jointed cephalic setae. A. barbatus sp. n. is characterized by long cephalic setae and the presence of numerous somatic setae at the level of the pharynx. A. cornutus sp. n. possesses strong onchia and rugae and short cephalic setae. A. robustus sp. n. is characterized by a very large body size, two very large onchia, strongly developed rugae, and cervical setae grouped in threes. A. sieglerae sp. n. is a comparatively small species, though with very large onchia. A. tchesunovi sp. n. can be differentiated from the other species by the lateral differentiation of the body cuticle, consisting of 6-7 longitudinal rows of pores. A. veitkoehlerae sp. n. has a narrow elongate anterior end, two cervical setae, and strong onchia. A. angustus and A. occultus were found about 5,200 km from their type localities in the Peru Basin, south-east Pacific. A. iubilus and A. maks were previously found in different parts of the Atlantic and in the Peru Basin.

  17. New host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) in rodents from Argentina with updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Robles, María del Rosario; Kinsella, John M; Galliari, Carlos; Navone, Graciela T

    2016-01-01

    To date, 21 species of the genus Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) have been reported around the world, 15 of which are parasites of rodents. In this study, new host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp in sigmodontine rodents from Argentina, with an updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment, are provided. Records of Angiostrongylus costaricensis from Akodon montensis andAngiostrongylus morerai from six new hosts and geographical localities in Argentina are reported. The gross and histopathologic changes in the lungs of the host species due to angiostrongylosis are described. Published records of the genus Angiostrongylus from rodents and patterns of host specificity are presented. Individual Angiostrongylusspecies parasitise between one-19 different host species. The most frequent values of the specificity index (STD) were between 1-5.97. The elevated number of host species (n = 7) of A. morerai with a STD = 1.86 is a reflection of multiple systematic studies of parasites from sigmodontine rodents in the area of Cuenca del Plata, Argentina, showing that an increase in sampling effort can result in new findings. The combination of low host specificity and a wide geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus spp indicates a troubling epidemiological scenario although, as yet, no human cases have been reported. PMID:26982178

  18. New host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) in rodents from Argentina with updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment.

    PubMed

    Robles, María del Rosario; Kinsella, John M; Galliari, Carlos; Navone, Graciela T

    2016-03-01

    To date, 21 species of the genus Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) have been reported around the world, 15 of which are parasites of rodents. In this study, new host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp in sigmodontine rodents from Argentina, with an updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment, are provided. Records of Angiostrongylus costaricensis from Akodon montensis and Angiostrongylus morerai from six new hosts and geographical localities in Argentina are reported. The gross and histopathologic changes in the lungs of the host species due to angiostrongylosis are described. Published records of the genus Angiostrongylus from rodents and patterns of host specificity are presented. Individual Angiostrongylus species parasitise between one-19 different host species. The most frequent values of the specificity index (STD) were between 1-5.97. The elevated number of host species (n = 7) of A. morerai with a STD = 1.86 is a reflection of multiple systematic studies of parasites from sigmodontine rodents in the area of Cuenca del Plata, Argentina, showing that an increase in sampling effort can result in new findings. The combination of low host specificity and a wide geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus spp indicates a troubling epidemiological scenario although, as yet, no human cases have been reported.

  19. Larval Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in the Great Cormorant [Phalacrocorax carbo (L., 1758)] from north-eastern Poland: a morphological and morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Gerard; Bohdanowicz, Jerzy

    2009-12-03

    Stomachs of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) from north-eastern Poland were found to contain adult nematode Contracaecum rudolphii [Hartwich, G., 1964. Revision der Vogelparasitischen Nematoden Mitteleuropas II. Die Gattung Contracaecum Railliet & Henry, 1912. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 40, 15-53.] sensu lato and nematode larvae which, based on their morphology, were identified as the third (L3) and fourth (L4) stage larvae of Contracaecum sp. Morphology and biometry of the L3 isolated from the Great Cormorant were very similar to those of the L3 of C. rudolphii described by Bartlett [Bartlett, C.M., 1996. Morphogenesis of Contracaecum rudolphii (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea), a parasite of fish-eating birds, in its copepod precursor and fish intermediate hosts. Parasite 4, 367-376.]. In our opinion, L3 and L4 to be larval stages of C. rudolphii. The paper contains detailed descriptions of the L3 and L4 stages of C. rudolphii; the L4 morphology is described in detail for the first time ever. The descriptions are supplemented by drawings and SEM images. Morphology and biometry of larvae were compared with the literature data and discussed.

  20. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147–165 μm), the gubernaculum (63–93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97–2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided. PMID:26956219

  1. Unravelling the Biodiversity and Molecular Phylogeny of Needle Nematodes of the Genus Longidorus (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Olive and a Description of Six New Species.

    PubMed

    Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Longidorus includes a remarkable group of invertebrate animals of the phylum Nematoda comprising polyphagous root-ectoparasites of numerous plants including several agricultural crops and trees. Damage is caused by direct feeding on root cells as well as by transmitting nepoviruses that cause disease on those crops. Thus, correct identification of Longidorus species is essential to establish appropriate control measures. We provide the first detailed information on the diversity and distribution of Longidorus species infesting wild and cultivated olive soils in a wide-region in southern Spain that included 159 locations from which 449 sampling sites were analyzed. The present study doubles the known biodiversity of Longidorus species identified in olives by including six new species (Longidorus indalus sp. nov., Longidorus macrodorus sp. nov., Longidorus onubensis sp. nov., Longidorus silvestris sp. nov., Longidorus vallensis sp. nov., and Longidorus wicuolea sp. nov.), two new records for wild and cultivate olives (L. alvegus and L. vineacola), and two additional new records for wild olive (L. intermedius and L. lusitanicus). We also found evidence of some geographic species associations to western (viz. L. alvegus, L. intermedius, L. lusitanicus, L. onubensis sp. nov., L. vineacola, L. vinearum, L. wicuolea sp. nov.) and eastern distributions (viz. L. indalus sp. nov.), while only L. magnus was detected in both areas. We developed a comparative study by considering morphological and morphometrical features together with molecular data from nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS1, and partial 18S). Results of molecular and phylogenetic analyses confirmed the morphological hypotheses and allowed the delimitation and discrimination of six new species of the genus described herein and four known species. Phylogenetic analyses of Longidorus spp. based on three molecular markers resulted in a general consensus of these species

  2. Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda, Anisakidae) with a new host record from the common sole Solea solea (Soleidae) and its role as a biological indicator of pollution.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Morsy, Kareem; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Saleh, Rehab

    2015-02-01

    Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda, Anisakidae) was isolated from the intestine of the common sole Solea solea (Family, Soleidae) collected from coasts along Alexandria City at the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt, during the period from May to September 2013. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that this nematode parasite belongs to the family Anisakidae in the genus Hysterothylacium. The type species is named H. aduncum, based on the presence of three interlocked lips with the interlabium in between, the presence of cephalic papillae, and large numbers of caudal papillae in males. Body measurements showed that the male worms were smaller than females measuring 13.9-18 mm (16.2 ± 0.2) in length and 0.26-0.34 mm (0.30 ± 0.01) in width. Females measured 20.5-24.5 mm (22.7 ± 0.2) in length and 0.41-0.52 mm (0.45 ± 0.01) in width. The morphological characteristics of this species was confirmed by molecular analysis of 18S rDNA for these parasites followed by comparison between sequence data for them with those obtained from the Genbank showing that H. aduncum is deeply embedded in the genus Hysterothylacium with a sequence similarity between 95.5-94.3 % with close relationships to other H. aduncum specimens and Hysterothylacium sp.. Furthermore, it was shown that this parasitic nematode is able to accumulate larger concentrations of heavy metals such as Fe, Cu, Cd, and Ni within its tissues than of its host fish and thus it can be used as a useful bio-indicator of water pollution.

  3. Experimental studies on lead accumulation in the eel-specific endoparasites Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda) and Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Acanthocephala) as compared with their host, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, S; Sures, B; Taraschewski, H

    1999-08-01

    The effect of salinity and the mode of application (oral versus aqueous) on the lead accumulation in different tissues of the fish host eel (Anguilla anguilla) and its parasites Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda) and Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Acanthocephala) was investigated. Waterborne as well as dietary lead exposure caused an increase in the metal levels of different eel tissues and the parasites. The mode of lead application had a significant influence on the distribution of lead in the fish tissues. No significant difference on the lead concentration due to water salinity was found for the fish tissues. Among the analyzed tissues and helminths, the intestinal acanthocephalan P. ambiguus contained the significantly highest amounts of lead, which were affected by neither the mode of application nor the water salinity. In contrast, the lead level of the nematode A. crassus dwelling in the swim bladder of eels was even below the levels detected for host liver, intestine, and bile. Thus, depending on the mode of lead application, the resulting metal concentrations were approximately 20 to 2,000 times higher in P. ambiguus than in A. crassus. These differences may be due to the different microhabitats and nutrient uptake mechanisms of both parasite species. This study presents important new facts for the use of intestinal fish parasites as biological indicators for water quality, not only in freshwater, but also in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The combination of the results obtained from the host and the parasites could reveal a more detailed tool to ascertain the source of an environmental contamination than a study based on a single species.http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n2p190.html

  4. Two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Mycteroperca spp. (Serranidae) in the North-West Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2016-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from two species of Mycteroperca Gill (Serranidae), marine perciform fishes, in coastal waters off Florida, USA: Philometra deburonae n. sp. from the inner side of operculum of the yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa (L.) and P. incognita n. sp. from the ovary of the gag M. microlepis (Goode & Bean). Philometra deburonae n. sp. is mainly characterised by the body length of males (1.90-2.38 mm), the length of the spicules (78-84 µm) and gubernaculum (54 µm) and the presence of small outer cephalic papillae, a pair of fairly large caudal projections and the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly beyond the nerve-ring in subgravid females. Philometra incognita n. sp. is distinguished by the caudal mound consisting of two lateral reniform parts widely separated dorsally from each other, the absence of a pair of large papillae situated posteriorly to the cloaca, the shape and structure of the distal end of the gubernaculum plus the lengths of the spicules (117-141 µm) and gubernaculum (60-81 µm) in the male, the absence of caudal projections and the comparatively large larvae in the uterus (660-675 µm long) of the gravid female, as well as, the body length of both males (2.45-3.11 mm) and gravid females (120-180 mm). The present descriptions of an additional two new philometrids increases the number of recorded nominal species of Philometra parasitising groupers (Serranidae) in the Gulf of Mexico to nine.

  5. Unravelling the Biodiversity and Molecular Phylogeny of Needle Nematodes of the Genus Longidorus (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Olive and a Description of Six New Species

    PubMed Central

    Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Longidorus includes a remarkable group of invertebrate animals of the phylum Nematoda comprising polyphagous root-ectoparasites of numerous plants including several agricultural crops and trees. Damage is caused by direct feeding on root cells as well as by transmitting nepoviruses that cause disease on those crops. Thus, correct identification of Longidorus species is essential to establish appropriate control measures. We provide the first detailed information on the diversity and distribution of Longidorus species infesting wild and cultivated olive soils in a wide-region in southern Spain that included 159 locations from which 449 sampling sites were analyzed. The present study doubles the known biodiversity of Longidorus species identified in olives by including six new species (Longidorus indalus sp. nov., Longidorus macrodorus sp. nov., Longidorus onubensis sp. nov., Longidorus silvestris sp. nov., Longidorus vallensis sp. nov., and Longidorus wicuolea sp. nov.), two new records for wild and cultivate olives (L. alvegus and L. vineacola), and two additional new records for wild olive (L. intermedius and L. lusitanicus). We also found evidence of some geographic species associations to western (viz. L. alvegus, L. intermedius, L. lusitanicus, L. onubensis sp. nov., L. vineacola, L. vinearum, L. wicuolea sp. nov.) and eastern distributions (viz. L. indalus sp. nov.), while only L. magnus was detected in both areas. We developed a comparative study by considering morphological and morphometrical features together with molecular data from nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (D2–D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS1, and partial 18S). Results of molecular and phylogenetic analyses confirmed the morphological hypotheses and allowed the delimitation and discrimination of six new species of the genus described herein and four known species. Phylogenetic analyses of Longidorus spp. based on three molecular markers resulted in a general consensus of these species

  6. Redescription of Heligmosomoides neopolygyrus, Asakawa and Ohbayashi, 1986 (Nematoda: Heligmosomidae) from a Chinese rodent, Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia: Muridae); with comments on Heligmosomoides polygyrus polygyrus (Dujardin, 1845) and related species in China and Japan.

    PubMed

    Massoni, J; Durette-Desset, M C; Quéré, J P; Audebert, F

    2012-11-01

    Heligmosomoides neopolygyrus, Asakawa and Ohbayashi, 1986 (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) is redescribed from Apodemus peninsulae from Rangtang, Sichuan, China. A morphological review of the Heligmosomoides spp. belonging to the "polygyrus line" proposed by Asakawa (1988) is made using new characters. This enabled us to distinguish two subspecies in Mus musculus (Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri from Japan and H. p. polygyrus from China) and two valid species in Apodemus spp. (H. neopolygyrus from Japan (in A. peninsulae) and from China (in A. agrarius) and H. asakawae from China (in A. uralensis)). Three parasite species of A. agrarius and A. peninsulae, previously identified by Asakawa et al. (1993) as H. neopolygyrus, are considered to be Heligmosomoides incertae sedis. This is the first report of H. neopolygyrus in A. peninsulae from China.

  7. Remarkable Diversity and Prevalence of Dagger Nematodes of the Genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Olives Revealed by Integrative Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Palomares-Rius, Juan E.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Xiphinema includes a remarkable group of invertebrates of the phylum Nematoda comprising ectoparasitic animals of many wild and cultivated plants. Damage is caused by direct feeding on root cells and by vectoring nepoviruses that cause diseases on several crops. Precise identification of Xiphinema species is critical for launching appropriate control measures. We make available the first detailed information on the diversity and distribution of Xiphinema species infesting wild and cultivated olive in a wide-region in southern Spain that included 211 locations from which 453 sampling sites were analyzed. The present study identified thirty-two Xiphinema spp. in the rhizosphere of olive trees, ten species belonging to Xiphinema americanum-group, whereas twenty-two were attributed to Xiphinema non-americanum-group. These results increase our current knowledge on the biodiversity of Xiphinema species identified in olives and include the description of four new species (Xiphinema andalusiense sp. nov., Xiphinema celtiense sp. nov., Xiphinema iznajarense sp. nov., and Xiphinema mengibarense sp. nov.), and two new records for cultivate olives (X. cadavalense and X. conurum). We also found evidence of remarkable prevalence of Xiphinema spp. in olive trees, viz. 85.0% (385 out of 453 sampling sites), and they were widely distributed in both wild and cultivated olives, with 26 and 17 Xiphinema spp., respectively. Diversity indexes (Richness, Hill´s diversity, Hill´s reciprocal of D and Hill´s evenness) were significantly affected by olive type. We also developed a comparative morphological and morphometrical study together with molecular data from three nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S, ITS1, and partial 18S). Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analyses allowed the delimitation and discrimination of four new species of the genus described herein and three known species. Phylogenetic analyses of Xiphinema spp. resulted in a

  8. Influence of parasitism on trace element contents in tissues of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and its parasites Mesocestoides spp. (Cestoda) and Toxascaris leonina (Nematoda).

    PubMed

    Jankovská, Ivana; Miholová, Daniela; Bejcek, Vladimír; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Sulc, Miloslav; Száková, Jirina; Langrová, Iva

    2010-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc in 56 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their parasites Mesocestoides spp. (Cestoda) and Toxascaris leonina (Nematoda) was studied. The levels of heavy metals were determined in the livers and kidneys of the animals depending on parasitism in the following ranges: Pb, 0.029-3.556; Cd, 0.055-9.967; Cr, 0.001-0.304; Cu, 4.15-41.15; Mn, 1.81-19.94; Ni: 0.037-0.831; Zn, 52.0-212.9 microg/g dry weight (dw). Cd in parasites (0.038-3.678 microg/g dw) were comparable with those in the livers of the host and lower than in the kidneys (0.095-6.032 microg/g dw). Contents of Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn in cestodes were predominantly higher than those in the kidney and liver of the host. Median lead levels in Mesocestoides spp. (45.6 microg/g dw) were 52-fold higher than in the kidney and liver of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) infected by both parasites and median Pb values in T. leonina (8.98 microg/g dw) were 8-fold higher than in the tissues of the parasitized red fox. Bioaccumulation factors of copper, zinc, nickel, and manganese are lower than those of lead and mostly range from 1.9 to 24 for Mesocestoides spp. and from 1.5 to 6 for nematode T. leonina depending on the tissue of host and element. A significant decrease in the content of Pb was found in the kidney of animals infected by T. leonina (0.260 microg/g dw) as well as those infected by Mesocestoides spp. (0.457 microg/g dw) in comparison with the lead content (0.878 microg/g dw) in the kidneys of the nonparasitized red fox. Regardless of a bioaccumulation of copper and manganese in the parasites, a significant increase of the concentrations of Mn and Cu was observed in the host's livers infected predominantly by Mesocestoides spp.

  9. Agamermis unka (Mermithidae) Parasitism of Nilaparvata lugens in Rice Fields in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Ho Yul; Kaya, Harry K.; Kim, Jeong Boo

    1989-01-01

    The mermithid Agamermis unka, a parasite of the brown planthopper (BPH), was found in many rice paddies in Gyeongnam Province, Korea. Nematode parasitism of adult BPH varied from year to year, reaching as high as 50% in paddies not treated with an insecticide. Parasitism was lower in insecticide-treated paddies. Generally, mermithid parasitism was higher in BPH adults collected from the lower part (19%) compared with adults collected from the upper part (8%) of the rice plant and in brachypterous (57%) compared with macropterous forms (8%). No difference in parasitism between first (54%) and second (57%) generation was observed. PMID:19287605

  10. Anisakid nematodes (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the marine fishes Plectropomus laevis Lacépède (Serranidae) and Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae) off New Caledonia, including two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-11-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Hysterothylacium Ward & Magath, 1917 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) are described from the digestive tract of perciform fishes off New Caledonia: H. alatum n. sp. from Plectropomus laevis (Lacépède) (Serranidae) and H. sphyraenae n. sp. from Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger (Sphyraenidae). The former species (H. alatum) is mainly characterised by its large body (male 42.05 mm, gravid females 51.18-87.38 mm long), the shape of the dorsal lip, conspicuously broad cervical alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length of the spicules (925 µm), the number (25 pairs) and distribution of the genital papillae and the tail tip bearing numerous minute cuticular protuberances. The other species (H. sphyraenae) is mainly characterised by the presence of narrow lateral alae, a short caecum and a long ventricular appendix, the length (762-830 µm) and shape of the spicules, the number (37-38 pairs) and arrangement of the genital papillae, and by the tail tip which lacks any distinct cuticular projections visible under the light microscope. In addition, and unidentifiable at the species level, conspicuously large (45.71-66.10 mm long) larvae of Contracaecum Railliet & Henry, 1912, were found in the body cavity of P. laevis, which serves as a paratenic host for this parasite.

  11. Two new gonad-infecting philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus (Serranidae) and the great northern tilefish Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps (Malacanthidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah

    2013-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine perciform fishes in the northern Gulf of Mexico: P. hyporthodi n. sp. from the ovary of the yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus (Poey) (Serranidae) and P. lopholatili n. sp. from the ovary of the great northern tilefish Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps Goode & Bean (Malacanthidae). Philometra hyporthodi is mainly characterised by the body length of both the males (3.62-4.07 mm) and gravid female (105 mm), the length of the spicules (135-138 μm) and the presence of dorsal transverse lamella-like structures on the distal portion of the gubernaculum. Philometra lopholatili is distinguished by the presence of a distinct dorsal protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellated parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, an uninterrupted mound on the male caudal extremity, the length of the spicules (165-189 μm) and the body length of the males (2.19-2.34 mm) and gravid female (280 mm). Philometra lopholatili is the first representative of the genus and the second philometrid species reported from fishes of the family Malacanthidae.

  12. Protostrongylus pulmonalis (Frölich, 1802) and P. oryctolagi Baboš, 1955 (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae), parasites of the lungs of European hare (Lepus europaeus L.) in France: morphological and molecular approaches.

    PubMed

    Lesage, Célia; Jouet, Damien; Patrelle, Cécile; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Decors, Anouk; Ferté, Hubert

    2014-06-01

    Pulmonary protostrongyliasis of hare is a parasitic disease caused by nematodes belonging to the genus Protostrongylus (Nematoda, Protostrongylidae). During survey of wildlife disease in the South-East of France, pathologic examination of lungs from European hares found dead or hunter-killed between 2009 and 2012 was performed. Adult male worms were morphologically characterized and the identification confirmed by molecular biology (D2 domain of the 28S and ITS2 of rDNA). Two different species were identified: the first one, Protostrongylus pulmonalis, is identical with the haplotype previously deposited in GenBank. Based on morphological criteria of copulatory bursa of adult male worms (especially length of spicules and gubernaculum structure), we identified a second species found in France as Protostrongylus oryctolagi. This is the first report of P. oryctolagi in France from European hare and rabbit. P. oryctolagi was isolated from 248 hares and 3 rabbits in the South of France. P. pulmonalis was isolated from four hares found dead in the Northern France and from one hare in the South, which was co-parasitized by P. oryctolagi and P. pulmonalis. It's the first coinfection observed with these two species from a lung of hare in France.

  13. Species of Philometra (Nematoda, Philometridae) from fishes off the Mediterranean coast of Africa, with a description of Philometra rara n. sp. from Hyporthodus haifensis and a molecular analysis of Philometra saltatrix from Pomatomus saltatrix

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) were recorded for the first time from marine perciform fishes off Tunisia and Libya: Philometra rara n. sp. from the rare, deep-water Haifa grouper Hyporthodus haifensis (Serranidae) off Libya and Philometra saltatrix Ramachandran, 1973 from the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Pomatomidae) off Tunisia. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. Light and scanning electron microscope studies of Ph. rara n. sp. showed that it is characterized by the length of spicules (216–219 μm) and the gubernaculum (90–93 μm), the gubernaculum/spicules length ratio (1:2.32–2.43), and mainly by the shape and structure of the distal end of the gubernaculum (shovel-shaped with a wide median smooth field in dorsal view), appearing as having a dorsal protuberance in lateral view, and by the structure of the male caudal mound (dorsally interrupted); large subgravid females (70–137 mm long) are characterized by the presence of four oval submedian cephalic elevations, each of them bearing a pair of cephalic papillae of the outer circle. The finding of Ph. saltatrix off Tunisia confirms that this species is widespread throughout the Mediterranean region. A molecular analysis of our Ph. saltatrix specimens and other available philometrid cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) sequences showed that most species have robust clades. Sequences of Ph. saltatrix from Tunisia diverge from Ph. saltatrix from Brazil and the USA, suggesting that speciation is currently occurring between populations from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. PMID:28287390

  14. Descriptions of Philometra aenei n. sp. and P. tunisiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Epinephelus spp. off Tunisia confirm a high degree of host specificity of gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 in groupers (Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-02-01

    Based on light and electron microscopical studies of males and mature females, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of groupers, Epinephelus spp. (Perciformes; Serranidae), in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Sfax): Philometra aenei n. sp. from the white grouper E. aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) and P. tunisiensis n. sp. from the goldblotch grouper E. costae (Steindachner). Identification of both fish hosts was confirmed by barcoding of the infected fish specimens. Philometra aenei is mainly characterised by the length of conspicuously distended spicules (108-123 µm), the presence of a distinct dorsal barb at the middle region of the gubernaculum and a distinct protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field at its distal tip, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity and by the body length of the males (2.34-3.05 mm). The male of this species was found to possess minute deirids in the cervical region, which is quite exceptional within the Philometridae. Philometra tunisiensis is distinguished from other gonad-infecting congeneric species parasitising serranids by the length of the needle-like spicules and gubernaculum (201-219 and 78-87 µm, respectively), spicule length representing 9-11% of body length, the gubernaculum/spicules length ratio of 1:2.52-2.77, the length of oesophagus in the male comprising 15-16% of the body length, the absence of a dorsal protuberance on the distal lamellar part of the gubernaculum and a pair of large papillae posterior to the cloaca, a dorsally interrupted mound on the male caudal extremity and the body length of the male (2.01-2.42 mm). The presence of three morphologically very different species of Philometra in congeneric hosts in the Mediterranean Sea confirms a high degree of host specificity of these gonad-infecting nematodes parasitising groupers.

  15. A revision of the genus Paracanthonchus (Cyatholaimidae, Nematoda) with a tabular key to species and a description of P. mamubiae sp. n. from the deep North-Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljutina, Maria A.; Miljutin, Dmitry M.

    2015-01-01

    The species-rich genus of marine free-living nematodes, Paracanthonchus Mikoletzky 1924 (Nematoda: Cyatholaimidae), is revised. The genus numbers 72 valid species; twenty are indicated as species inquirenda because of poor descriptions and/or doubtful placement in the genus. Species of the genus were described from all oceans and latitudes. Of valid species, 64 ones (90%) were described from the tidal or upper subtidal zones, four species were recorded from the medium or lower shelf, and three species are abyssal. Thirty one species (43%) are known from Europe and the Northern Africa; 19 and 9 ones were described from South and North America (respectively); 8 ones were recorded from Asia; and 6 ones from the Australian region. The type species, Paracanthonchus caecus Mikoletzky 1924 has been recorded by a number of authors from various oceans around the World, yet many of these specimens have only roughly resembled the type description. Evidently, this species represents a complex of closely related species. Possibly, the same situation is in some other Paracanthonchus species, the repeated findings of which have no strong resemblance to type specimens. A tabular key to species is provided. A new abyssal species Paracanthonchus mamubiae from the Zenkevich Rise (North-Western Pacific, off North Japan, 5350 m depth) is described. The new species is characterized by: the tail, which is long with a thin, cylindrical terminal section; the absence of lateral differentiation of the cuticle; the presence of two groups of lateral pores (level of posterior part of pharynx and in cloacal region); one large dorsal tooth and two pairs of small subventral teeth combined with pharyngostomal cuticular ridges forming two denticles which may appear as a third pair of subventral teeth; 3-5 indistinct tubular preanal supplements; and a massive, proximally paired gubernaculum possessing broad flattened plates on each distal end. Each flattened gubernacular plate bears numerous (50

  16. Pathogenicity Tests on Nine Mosquito Species and Several Non-target Organisms with Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nemata Mermithidae)

    PubMed Central

    Becnel, James J.; Johnson, Margaret A.

    1998-01-01

    Nine species of mosquitoes and several species of non-target aquatic organisms were tested for susceptibility to the mernaithid nematode, Strelkovimermis spiculatus. All species of Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, and Toxorhynchites exposed to S. spiculatus were susceptible. Of the nine mosquito species tested, C. pipiens quinquefasciatus had the greatest tolerance to initial invasion and the highest percent infection of those that survived. High levels of infection were also achieved with Aedes taeniorhynchus and A. albopictus, but these mosquitoes were significantly less tolerant to parasitism than C. pipiens quinquefasciatus. Strelkovimermis spiculatus did not infect or develop in any of the non-target hosts tested. PMID:19274233

  17. Mermithid nematodes found in adult Anopheles from southeastern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over two dozen mermithid nematodes have been described parasitizing mosquitoes worldwide, however, only two species were found in Africa. Mermithid nematodes kill their mosquito host upon emergence, which suggests that they could be developed as biological control agents of mosquitoes. Both Romanomermis culicivorax and Romanomermis iyengari have been reared for mass release to control numerous Anopheles species vector populations, and in one instance this may have led to reduced malaria prevalence in a human population. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected during a malaria study in southeastern Senegal. Two different adult blood fed mosquitoes had a single mermithid nematode emerge from their anus while they were being held post-capture. Primers from the 18 S rDNA were developed to sequence nematode DNA and screen mosquitoes for mermithid DNA. 18 S rDNA from the Senegalese mermithid and other mermithid entries in GenBank were used to create a Maximum Parsimony tree of the Mermithidae family. Results The mermithid was present in 1.8% (10/551) of the sampled adult Anopheles species in our study area. The mermithid was found in An. gambiae s.s., An. funestus, and An. rufipes from the villages of Ndebou, Boundoucondi, and Damboucoye. Maximum parsimony analysis confirmed that the nematode parasites found in Anopheles were indeed mermithid parasites, and of the mermithid sequences available in GenBank, they are most closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of mermithids from adult Anopheles mosquitoes in Senegal. The mermithid appears to infect Anopheles mosquitoes that develop in diverse larval habitats. Although maximum parsimony analysis determined the mermithid was closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus, several characteristics of the mermithid were more similar to the Empidomermis genus. Future mermithid isolations will hopefully allow: formal taxonomic identification

  18. Criconematina (nematoda: tylenchida) from the Aleutian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    A new genus (Cerchnotocriconema) and three new species (C. psephinum, Hemicycliophora anchitkaensis, and Paratylenchus amundseni) are described from Adak and Amchitka Islands in the Aleutian chain. The new genus differs from all other criconematid genera in having irregular, convex sculpturing consisting of small, oval plates on the anterior and posterior regions of each annule, with the mid-annular region minutely punctate or dentate. H. amchitkaensis n. sp. resembles H. sinilis Thorne and H. zuckermani Brzeski, but has only one head annule, instead of two. P. amundseni n. sp., which has a stylet 17 to 19 ..mu..m long, is similar to P. tatea Wu and Townsend and P. labiosus Anderson and Kimpinski, but differs by the presence of males and the possession of conoid-truncate lip region, functional spermatheca, and long male tail (c = 8.5 to 9.5). Seriespinula seymouri Wu (Mehta and Raski), Nothocriconema longulum (Gunhold) De Grisse and Loof, and Macroposthonia xenoplax (Raski) De Grisse and Loof are also reported from the islands.

  19. Shedding patterns of Daubaylia potomaca (Nematoda: Rhabditida).

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael R; Luth, Kyle E; Esch, Gerald W

    2013-12-01

    Daubaylia potomaca is a nematode parasite that exhibits an unusual direct life cycle in planorbid snails in which adult females are the infective stage, after being shed from a definitive host. The present study examined the shedding patterns of this nematode to determine what cues or mechanisms might lead to the parasite leaving its host. A correlation was found between host death and the frequency and number of D. potomaca shed, suggesting that the nematodes can detect that the host is dying and may leave in search of a new host. Furthermore, elevated intensities of D. potomaca in the snail induce shedding earlier, suggesting that competition for space and resources may also play a role in the shedding patterns of the nematode, but not when time to death is controlled. Finally, nematodes shed a longer time before host death were significantly longer and more likely to be gravid than those shed as time to snail death approached, implying that the nematode reaching maturity or being inseminated might also be cues for D. potomaca to leave its snail host. In summary, the shedding patterns of D. potomaca appear to be a complex mix of host death detection, competition, and nematode maturation.

  20. ZYGOTE FORMATION IN ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES (NEMATODA)

    PubMed Central

    Foor, W. Eugene

    1968-01-01

    Ultrastructural observations of the in utero sperm of Ascaris lumbricoides reveal that it consists of a relatively clear, ameboid anterior region and a conical posterior region containing numerous surface membrane specializations, dense mitochondria, a lipid-like refringent body of variable size, and a dense nucleus which lacks an apparent nuclear envelope. No acrosomal complex was observed. Pseudopods emanating from the anterior cytoplasm make first contact with the primary oocytes and appear to be responsible for the localized removal of the extraneous coat covering the oolemma. Subsequently the gamete membranes interdigitate and finally fuse. Because this pseudopodial action appears similar to that reported for the acrosomal filaments in flagellated sperm, the anterior region of the Ascaris sperm is thought to serve an acrosomal function. Following gamete-membrane fusion, the sperm nucleus acquires a particulate appearance and becomes disorganized. Once inside the oocyte, the sperm cytoplasm consists of dense mitochondria, ribosomes, and vesicles derived from the surface membrane specializations. The refringent body, whose contents possibly contribute to the synthesis of ribosomes, is usually absent by the time the sperm cytoplasm attains a central position in the egg. PMID:5678444

  1. Prevalence and Molecular Identification of Nematode and Dipteran Parasites in an Australian Alpine Grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis)

    PubMed Central

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Byatt, Lachlan J.; Hill, Nichola J.; Bartolini, Remo J.; Hose, Grant C.; Herberstein, Marie E.; Power, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    In alpine Australia, Orthoptera are abundant, dominant herbivores, important prey species, and hosts for parasites and parasitoids. Despite the central role of orthopterans in alpine ecosystems, the impact of parasites on orthopteran populations is under-explored. In this study we describe the relationship between parasite prevalence and host sex, body size and year of collection. We accessed an existing, preserved collection of 640 Kosciuscola tristis collected from across its range between 2007 and 2011. Upon dissection we collected juvenile parasites and used molecular tools to identify them to three families (Nematoda; Mermithidae, and Arthropoda: Diptera: Tachinidae and Sarcophagidae). The prevalence of nematodes ranged from 3.5% to 25.0% and dipterans from 2.4% to 20.0%. Contrary to predictions, we found no associations between parasite prevalence and grasshopper sex or size. Although there was an association between prevalence of both nematodes and dipterans with year of collection, this is likely driven by a small sample size in the first year. Our results provide a foundation for future studies into parasite prevalence within the alpine environment and the abiotic factors that might influence these associations. PMID:25919745

  2. Nematoda of Kinosternon scorpioides (Testudines: Kinosternidae) from Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viana, Diego C; Rodrigues, João Fabrício M; Madelaire, Carla B; Clara, Ana; Santos, G; Sousa, Alana L

    2016-02-01

    The scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides) is a small freshwater turtle broadly distributed in South America and commonly consumed in some Brazilian regions. This study aimed to identify the species of helminths that parasitize the digestive tract of K. scorpioides and report infection parameters such as parasite prevalence, mean intensity of the infection, abundance, and the relationship between these nematodes and host body size in this species. We captured 20 adult male K. scorpioides, and 6 animals had nematodes in their gastrointestinal tract. These animals had Serpinema magathi (prevalence = 0.3) and Spiroxys figueiredoi (prevalence = 0.25). There were no correlations between the number of total parasites and carapace length (rs = 0.17, n = 6, P = 0.74) or the length of the gastrointestinal tract (rs = 0.18, n = 6, P = 0.73).

  3. Five new species of the genus Tripylella (Nematoda: Enoplida: Tripylidae).

    PubMed

    Prado-Vera, Ignacio Cid Del; Ferris, Howard; Nadler, Steven A

    2016-05-06

    Five new species of the genus Tripylella are described, two from México, one from Fátima, Portugal, one from Quito, Ecuador, and one from California, USA. Tripylella mexicana sp. n. is characterized by its short body (average 0.74 mm), short pharynx (average 161 μm), short tail (average 117 μm), presence of an excretory pore and small setae distributed sparsely along the body, the presence of body pores, the posterior position of the subventral teeth in relation to the small dorsal tooth with all teeth in contiguous stomal chambers, the finely-striated cuticle with many anastomoses, the non-protruding vulval lips, and the presence of sclerotized pieces in the vulval region. Tripylella muscusi sp. n. is characterized by its body length (average 0.94 mm), pharynx length (average 201 μm), tail length (average 140 μm), the anterior position of the subventral teeth in relation to the small dorsal tooth in a single stomal chamber, the presence of an excretory pore, the presence of body pores and sparse somatic setae, the finely-striated cuticle with sparse anastomoses, protruding vulval lips and sclerotized oval-shaped pieces present in the vulval region. Tripylella quitoensis sp. n. is characterized by the short body length (average 0.72 mm), the short outer labial setae, the short pharynx (average 175 μm), the location of the anterior subventral teeth and posterior dorsal tooth in the same stomal chamber, the short tail (average 98 μm), the apparent absence of an excretory pore, presence of body pores, presence of somatic setae, a finely-striated cuticle, non-protruding vulval lips, and very small oval sclerotized pieces in the vulva. Tripylella fatimaensis sp. n. is characterized by the short body, (average 0.74 mm) long, by the length of the pharynx (average 180 μm), the length of the tail (average 110 μm) and in the length of its reduced diameter portion, 45-58 μm, the presence of an excretory pore, body pores and three pairs of caudal setae (one pair each latero-ventral, latero-dorsal and ventral). Tripylella dentata sp. n. is characterized, and differs from all the species of the genus, by the presence of two adjacent stomal chambers, with two large teeth, one dorsal and one ventral, in the posterior stomal chamber and two subventral teeth in the anterior smaller chamber, short body (average 0.85 mm), pharynx length (average 209 μm), tail length (average 115 μm), the apparent absence of an excretory pore, the presence of two cervical setae in a lateral position, and by the presence of conspicuous pores along the body.

  4. Mitochondrial Genome Supports Sibling Species of Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Goh, Share-Yuan; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chow, Wan-Loo; Chan, Kok-Gan; Abrahams-Sandi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a zoonotic parasitic nematode that causes abdominal or intestinal angiostrongyliasis in humans. It is endemic to the Americas. Although the mitochondrial genome of the Brazil taxon has been published, there is no available mitochondrial genome data on the Costa Rica taxon. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of the Costa Rica taxon and its genetic differentiation from the Brazil taxon. The whole mitochondrial genome was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 13,652 bp, comprising 36 genes (12 protein-coding genes—PCGs, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes) and a control region (A + T rich non-coding region). It is longer than that of the Brazil taxon (13,585 bp). The larger mitogenome size of the Costa Rica taxon is due to the size of the control region as the Brazil taxon has a shorter length (265 bp) than the Costa Rica taxon (318 bp). The size of 6 PCGs and the start codon for ATP6, CYTB and NAD5 genes are different between the Costa Rica and Brazil taxa. Additionally, the two taxa differ in the stop codon of 6 PCGs. Molecular phylogeny based on 12 PCGs was concordant with two rRNA, 22 tRNA and 36 mitochondrial genes. The two taxa have a genetic distance of p = 16.2% based on 12 PCGs, p = 15.3% based on 36 mitochondrial genes, p = 13.1% based on 2 rRNA genes and p = 10.7% based on 22 tRNA genes, indicating status of sibling species. The Costa Rica and Brazil taxa of A. costaricensis are proposed to be accorded specific status as members of a species complex. PMID:26230642

  5. Description of Hoplolaimus magnistylus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae)

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    Hoplolaimus magnistylus n. sp. is described and illustrated. It was found in soil around roots of soybean in Arkansas and Mississippi. It is similar to H. galeatus and H. concaudajuvencus. It differs from H. galeatus in all stages primarily by possession of a longer stylet. It differs from H. concaudajuvencus by the possession of rounded tails in second-stage juveniles vs. conically pointed tails with acute termini, having fewer subdivisions in female basal lip annules, and the greater distance from female anterior end to posterior end of esophageal lobes. Morphometrics and descriptions of second-, third-, and fourth-stage juveniles are given. A paratype female of H. sheri was examined and found to have six esophageal gland nuclei. PMID:19295743

  6. Sectonema caobangense sp. n. from Vietnam (Nematoda, Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae)

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Ortega, Sergio; Duong Nguyen, Thi Anh; Abolafia, Joaquín; Bonkowski, Michael; Peña-Santiago, Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Sectonema caobangense sp. n. from evergreen forest soil in Vietnam is described, including scanning electron micrograph (SEM) observations and D2-D3 LSU rDNA analysis. The new species is characterized by its 3.12 to 5.80 mm long body, lip region offset by deep constriction and 21 to 23 μm broad, mural tooth 13 to 14 μm long at its ventral side, 940 to 1,112 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 61% to 69% of total neck length, uterus a long simple tube-like structure 292 to 363 μm long or 2.7 to 2.9 times the corresponding body diameter, pars refringens vaginae well developed, V = 48 to 56, short (36–51 μm, c = 77–132, c′ = 0.5–0.8) and rounded tail, 87 to 99 μm long spicules, and four or five irregularly spaced ventromedian supplements bearing hiatus. Sectonema caobangense sp. n. differs from the typical pattern of Sectonema in the nature of the stomatal protrusible structure, bearing a mural tooth attached to the ventral side of the stoma. Molecular data obtained and the derived evolutionary trees support a close phylogenetic relationship with other Sectonema species. PMID:27418702

  7. Description of Globodera ellingtonae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of cyst nematode, Globodera ellingtoni, is described from soil collected from a field with a cropping history including potatoes in Oregon. It is characterized in having second-stage juveniles (J2) with a body length of 450 um (365-515), stylet length of 20.9 um (19-22.5) with basal kn...

  8. A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY FOR THE PROTOSTRONGYLIDAE (NEMATODA: METASTRONGYLINA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protostrongylids, a putative monophyletic group among the lungworms (Metastrongylina: Metastrongyloidea), are economically important pathogens infecting domestic and free-ranging ungulate and leporid hosts throughout the world. Here, we reconstruct a molecular phylogeny based on ribosomal DNA (28S) ...

  9. Book review: Systematics of Cyst Nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cyst nematodes are an important group of plant-parasitic nematodes that cause billions of dollars in economic damage to crops every year. This article reviews a recently published, two-volume monograph that describes the morphological and molecular characteristics of these agriculturally signif...

  10. Rapid counting of nematoda in salmon by peptic digestion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, Joseph A.; Chakravarti, Diptiman; Uzmann, Joseph R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1958-01-01

    The population of Anisakis sp., larvae in chum salmon appears to be concentrated in the ventral section of the fish, that is, below the lateral line, which ಟ್ಗ that only the ventral quarters of the fish need to be examined for estimating infection intensity.

  11. Genomics and transcriptomics across the diversity of the Nematoda.

    PubMed

    Blaxter, M; Kumar, S; Kaur, G; Koutsovoulos, G; Elsworth, B

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of biology in nematodes is reflected in the diversity of their genomes. Parasitic species in particular have evolved mechanisms to invade and outwit their hosts, and these offer opportunities for the development of control measures. Genomic analyses can reveal the molecular underpinnings of phenotypes such as parasitism and thus, initiate and support research programmes that explore the manipulation of host and parasite physiologies to achieve favourable outcomes. Wide sampling across nematode diversity allows phylogenetically informed formulation of research hypotheses, identification of core features shared by all species or important evolutionary novelties present in isolated clades. Many nematode species have been investigated through the use of the expressed sequence tag approach, which samples from the transcribed genome. Gene catalogues generated in this way can be explored to reveal the patterns of expression associated with parasitism and candidates for testing as drug targets or vaccine components. Analysis environments, such as NEMBASE facilitate exploitation of these data. The development of new high-throughput DNA-sequencing technologies has facilitated transcriptomic and genomic approaches to parasite biology. Whole genome sequencing offers more complete catalogues of genes and assists a systems approach to phenotype dissection. These efforts are being coordinated through the 959 Nematode Genomes initiative.

  12. Swedish Plectida (Nematoda). Part 9. The genus Leptolaimoides Vitiello, 1971.

    PubMed

    Holovachov, Oleksandr

    2015-05-01

    Three known and two new species of Leptolaimoides are described from bottom sediments collected in Skagerrak off the west coast of Sweden. The following known species are redescribed: Leptolaimoides haploopis Jensen, 1978, L. tubulosus Vitiello, 1971 and L. hexatubulosus Hoang Lai-Phu et al., 2009. Leptolaimoides filicaudatus sp. n. is characterised by the 431-543 µm long body; cephalic sensilla papilliform; amphid 23-26 µm long, located 9-10 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 35-37 µm from anterior end; lateral field simple along most of body, areolated on tail, arising 36-40 µm from anterior end; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male without tubular and without alveolar supplements; spicules arcuate and 16 µm long. Leptolaimoides leptomicron sp. n. is characterised by the 776-847 µm long body; cephalic sensilla papilliform; amphid 15-17 µm long, located 9-13 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 40-46 µm from anterior end; lateral field areolated, arising 26-28 µm from anterior end; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male with three tubular and without alveolar supplements, spicules arcuate and 28-29 µm long. The diagnosis of the genus Leptolaimoides is emended and a tabular compendium and dichotomous identification key to species of the genus Leptolaimoides are provided.

  13. Rapid counting of nematoda in salmon by peptic digestion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, Joseph A.; Chakravarti, Diptiman; Uzmann, J.R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1961-01-01

    The population of Anisakis sp., larvae in chum salmon appears to be concentrated in the ventral section of the fish, that is, below the lateral line, which ಟ್ಗ that only the ventral quarters of the fish need to be examined for estimating infection intensity.

  14. Revision of the Genus Hemicriconemoides Chitwood &Birchfield, 1957 (Nematoda: Criconematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, D. R.; Raski, D. J.; Van Gundy, S. D.

    1969-01-01

    In the present study, evaluations of the nominal species and descriptions (H. parvus, H. intermedius, H. insignis, H. microdoratus and H. brevicaudatus) are made of five new species. H. squamosus is proposed as a species inquirenda; H. mangiferae is judged a valid species. H. litchi and H. birchfieldi are synonymized with H. mangiferae and H. ureshinoensis with H. kanayaensis. H. strictathecatus is considered a valid species. A key to the species of the genus is given. The limitation of use of male diagnostic characters in a mixture of populations of Hemicriconemoides with some other criconematids is discussed. The life cycle of H. chitwoodi has four complete molts; one in the egg, three in soil, two of which have spines. The adult female has a sheath cuticle from an incomplete fifth molt. PMID:19325667

  15. Three new species of heteroderoidea (nematoda) from the Aleutian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, E.C.

    1981-10-01

    Three new species of Heteroderoidea are described from Adak and Amchitka Islands in the Aleutian chain. Second-stage juveniles of Thecavermiculatus crassicrustata, n. sp., differ from those of T. gracililancea Robbins by having longer stylets (40 to 50 ..mu..m vs 19 to 22 ..mu..m). The female of T. crassicrustata has a longer neck, a more posterior excretory pore, and lacks a posterior protuberance. Meloidodera eurytyla, n. sp., differs from other Meloidodera spp. in that second-stage juveniles have longer stylets (32 to 35 ..mu..m) and much more massive styletknobs, while males have a longitudinally striated basal head annule. Meloidogyne subarctica, n. sp., can be separated from other Meloidogyne spp. by combinations of the following characteristics: perineal pattern with large oval areas in the tail region devoid of striae, arch with few unbroken striae; female excretory pore 1.5 to 2.5 x the stylet length from the anterior end; haploid chromosome number = 18; the spermatheca filled with sperm; stylet length of second-stage juveniles 13.5 to 15.4 ..mu..m.

  16. Pathogenesis of Eustrongylides ignotus (Nematoda: Dioctophymatoidea) in Ciconiiformes.

    PubMed

    Spalding, M G; Forrester, D J

    1993-04-01

    Natural (n = 157) and experimental (n = 5) infections with the nematode Eustrongylides ignotus are described for ciconiforms collected in Florida (USA). Larvae perforated the ventriculus in 3 to 5 hr and caused hemorrhage and bacterial peritonitis that sometimes progressed to a fibrous peritonitis with extensive adhesions. Severity of the disease was related inversely to the age of the bird and directly to the number of parasites involved. Some infections in adult birds were resolved. As a consequence of eustrongylidosis, anorexia and behavioral abnormalities resulted in emaciation and may have predisposed birds to traumatic death. Host-parasite adaptations apparently were not adequate for nestling ciconiforms as death of nestlings usually occurred before infections become patent (longer than 14 days, less than 23 days). Patent infections were found in both color morphs of the great blue heron (Ardea herodius), and in great egrets (Casmerodius albus) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula). We propose that birds of the family Ardeidae are the primary definitive hosts.

  17. Four New Species of the Genus Hemicriconemoides (Nematoda:Criconematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pinochet, J.; Raski, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Four new species of the genus Hemicriconemoides (H. californianus n.sp., H. taiwanensis n.sp., H. annulatus n. sp., and H. nitida n.sp.) are described. The range of total length of H. mangiferae is increased on the basis of specimens collected in Israel, Observations on H. mangiferae and H. litchi support the validity of H. litchi as distinct from H. mangiferae. PMID:19308169

  18. Synlophe patterns of the Haemonchinae of ruminants (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea).

    PubMed

    Lichtenfels, J R; Pilitt, P A

    2000-10-01

    The pattern of longitudinal ridges (synlophe) on the external cuticular surface of trichostrongylid nematodes has been shown to be of value for distinguishing species and determining relationships among higher taxa. In the process of studying Mecistocirrus digitatus, the large stomach worm of bovids of Asia that has been imported and established in the Americas, we observed remarkably similar synlophe patterns to those described for 3 species of Haemonchus and to those we examined in a species of Ashworthius. In all 3 genera, the synlophe is absent from the posterior part of the body. Only in Haemonchus does the synlophe extend beyond midbody. In both M. digitatus and Ashworthius sidemi, the synlophe extends posteriorly only about 1/4 of body length. In all 3 genera, the synlophe consists of about 30 ridges in the region of the esophagus with variation among species in specific areas, including additional pairs of subventral and subdorsal ridges and different lengths of sublateral ridges. This information is useful for identifying species and determining relationships among these large stomach worm parasites of cattle, sheep, goats, and farmed and wild cervids.

  19. First report of Xiphinema rivesi (Nematoda, Longidoridae) in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dagger nematode Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso 1969 transmits several viruses in North America and Europe (2), causing severe yield reduction in crops. During a routine survey of cherry orchards suffering from cherry rasp leaf disease caused by Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV) (genus Cheravirus) in Che...

  20. Scanning electron microscopic study on Toxascaris transfuga (Rudolphi, 1819) (Nematoda).

    PubMed

    Tenora, F; Mituch, J; Hovorka, I

    1989-01-01

    The authors present original observations on the species Toxascaris transfuga obtained by means of scanning electron microscopy. Attention was paid to the structure of head end, morphology of papillae of the head and abdominal end, specific morphological traits of cloacae edges and morphology of the egg surface. Presented are morphological criteria which apparently differentiate the species T. transfuga from T. leonina (Linstow, 1902). T. transfuga and T. multipapillata Kreis, 1938 seem to be conspecific.

  1. Criconema proclivus n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematinae) from Woodlands

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, J. K.

    1973-01-01

    Criconema proclivis n. sp. from soil around roots of woodland trees in the northeastern USA is described and illustrated. It is characterized by a total of 67-74 annules, two naked offset head annules, a stylet length of 68.7 -80.7 μ, a sculpted vulval flap, and forward-projecting body annules. The annules at midbody are covered with a continuous fringe of 60-70 spines. PMID:19319323

  2. Description of Bakernema dauniense n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vovlas, Nicola

    1992-01-01

    Bakernema dauniense n. sp., a bisexual species from the rhizosphere of Pinus halepensis Mill. in Italy, is described and illustrated. Primary differentiating characteristics of the female are body annules bearing short, membranous projections 1.4-2.2 μm long, an anterior vulval lip slightly overlapping the posterior, and a linearly arcuate vagina. The juvenile differs markedly from adults by having annules with a beaded margin, which lack membranous projections. Generic and specific relationships of B. dauniense n. sp. are discussed. This occurrence is the first for a species of Bakernema in Europe. PMID:19283202

  3. New species of Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda: Molineoidae), new species of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), and other helminths in Rana cf. forreri (Anura: Ranidae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R

    2005-06-01

    Oswaldocruzia costaricensis n. sp. (Strongylida: Molineidae) from the intestines and Rhabdias savagei n. sp. (Rhabditida: Rhabdiasidae) from the lungs of Rana cf. forreri (Anura: Ranidae) are described and illustrated. Oswaldocruzia costaricensis represents the 77th species assigned to the genus and differs from the other Neotropical species in the genus by possessing a Type II bursa and long cervical alae. Rhabdias savagei represents the 47th species assigned to the genus and differs from other Neotropical species in the genus by possession of 4 lips and a postequatorial vulva. Rana cf. forreri was also found to harbor the trematodes, Haematoloechus parcivitellarius and Megalodiscus temperatus, the nematodes, Aplectana incerta, Aplectana itzocanensis, Cosmocerca podicipinus, Foleyellides striatus, Subulascaris falcaustriformis, and a larva of the nematode Brevimulticaecum sp. Cosmocerca panamaensis is considered to be a synonym of Cosmocerca podicipinus.

  4. Hepatic parasitosis in two wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae), due to Aonchotheca annulosa (Nematoda: Trichuridae), and Eucoleus bacillatus (Nematoda: Trichuridae). Erratic parasitism or post mortem migration?

    PubMed

    Debenedetti, Ángela L; Sáez-Durán, Sandra; Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2014-10-01

    Aonchotheca annulosa and Eucoleus bacillatus are two capillariin nematodes parasitizing the intestinal and stomach mucosa, respectively, of various rodent species, and two, among others, component species of the helminth fauna of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus. A capillariin each was found in the liver parenchyma of two wood mice in a post-fire regeneration enclave in Serra Calderona Natural Park (Valencian Community, Spain). Due to their location, the preliminary identification of the helminths corresponded to Calodium hepaticum, a hepatic capillariin with rodents as its main host. So far, this species had never been found in Serra Calderona. To verify the preliminary identification, a comparative morphometric study between the specimens from Serra Calderona and a preserved individual of C. hepaticum from another enclave was carried out. Morphometric analysis revealed that the adult helminth as well as the eggs found in the liver of the first mouse belonged to A. annulosa, whereas the second one was identified as a male E. bacillatus. Moreover, the liver from both hosts showed a visible pathology, being the consequence of aberrant migration of the parasites. This is the first evidence that A. annulosa and E. bacillatus may migrate erratically and thus produce ectopic foci in other organs.

  5. Pasteuria endospores from Heterodera cajani (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) exhibit inverted attachment and altered germination in cross-infection studies with Globodera pallida (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    PubMed

    Mohan, Sharad; Mauchline, Tim H; Rowe, Janet; Hirsch, Penny R; Davies, Keith G

    2012-03-01

    The Pasteuria group of Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacteria are parasites of invertebrates and exhibit differences in host specificity. We describe a cross-infection study between an isolate of Pasteuria from pigeon pea cyst nematode, Heterodera cajani, which also infects the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, from the United Kingdom. A proportion of the attached endospores, 13% on H. cajani and 22% on G. pallida adhere to the cuticle in an inverted orientation. Inverted and conventionally attached endospores germinated and produced bacillus-like rods that completed their life cycle in < 15 weeks within females of G. pallida. This is the first example in which the life cycle of a Pasteuria population was systematically followed in two different nematode genera. A 1430-base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the Pasteuria isolate from H. cajani revealed 98.6% similarity to the orthologous gene in Pasteuria nishizawae. Additionally, their respective endospore sizes were not significantly different, in contrast their host ranges are. Potential reasons for this remain unclear and are discussed.

  6. Species-specific PCR for the identification of Cooperia curticei (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) in sheep.

    PubMed

    Amarante, M R V; Bassetto, C C; Neves, J H; Amarante, A F T

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural ruminants usually harbour mixed infections of gastrointestinal nematodes. A specific diagnosis is important because distinct species can differ significantly in their fecundity and pathogenicity. Haemonchus spp. and Cooperia spp. are the most important gastrointestinal nematodes infecting ruminants in subtropical/tropical environments. In Brazil, C. punctata is more adapted to cattle than sheep. Additionally, C. spatulata appears to be more adapted to cattle, whereas C. curticei is more adapted to sheep. However, infection of sheep with C. punctata is common when cattle and sheep share the same pasture. Although morphological analyses have been widely used to identify nematodes, molecular methods can overcome technical limitations and help improve species-specific diagnoses. Genetic markers in the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) have been used successfully to detect helminths. In the present study, the ITS-1 region was analysed and used to design a species-specific oligonucleotide primer pair to identify C. curticei. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was sequenced and showed 97% similarity to C. oncophora partial ITS-1 clones and 99% similarity to the C. curticei sequence JF680982. The specificity of this primer pair was corroborated by the analysis of 17 species of helminths, including C. curticei, C. punctata and C. spatulata. Species-specific diagnosis, which has implications for rapid and reliable identification, can support studies on the biology, ecology and epidemiology of trichostrongylid nematodes in a particular geographical location.

  7. First report of parasitism by Hexametra boddaertii (Nematoda: Ascaridae) in Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes: Colubridae).

    PubMed

    Peichoto, María E; Sánchez, Matías N; López, Ariel; Salas, Martín; Rivero, María R; Teibler, Pamela; Toledo, Gislayne de Melo; Tavares, Flávio L

    2016-07-15

    The current study summarizes the postmortem examination of a specimen of Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes, Colubridae) collected in Iguazu National Park (Argentina), and found deceased a week following arrival to the serpentarium of the National Institute of Tropical Medicine (Argentina). Although the snake appeared to be in good health, a necropsy performed following its death identified the presence of a large number of roundworms in the coelomic cavity, with indications of peritonitis and serosal adherence. Additional observations from the necropsy revealed small calcifications in the mesothelium of the coelomic cavity; solid and expressive content in the gallbladder; massive gastrointestinal obstruction due to nematodes; and lung edema and congestion. Histopathological analyses of lung sections also showed proliferative heterophilic and histiocytic pneumonia. Parasites isolated from both the intestine and coelomic cavity were identified as Hexametra boddaertii by a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic examination. Results from this necropsy identify O. guibei as a new host for H. boddaertii, and is the first report of a natural infection by Hexametra in Argentina. Since Hexametra parasites may contribute to several pathological conditions in humans, and with the recent availability of O. guibei specimens through the illegal pet trade, it is necessary to consider the possibility of zoonotic helminth transmission of Hexametra from snake to human.

  8. Genetic divergence and reproductive isolation between Anisakis brevispiculata and Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda: Anisakidae)s.

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, S; Paggi, L; Nascetti, G; Abollo, E; Webb, S C; Pascual, S; Cianchi, R; Bullini, L

    2001-01-01

    In order to assess the taxonomic status of Anisakis brevispiculata Dollfus, 1966 population samples of this taxon from central and south-eastern Atlantic ocean were compared at 22 enzymatic loci with samples belonging to Anisakis physeteris Baylis, 1923 from the Mediterranean sea and central-eastern Atlantic ocean. Very low interpopulational genetic divergence was observed both within A. brevispiculata (average D(Nei) = 0.008) and within A. physeteris (D(Nei) = 0.009) despite the geographic distance among the samples, indicating high levels of gene flow in both taxa. On the other hand, the average genetic distance between A. brevispiculata and A. physeteris was found to be D(Nei) = 0.80, a value generally observed between well differentiated congeneric species. The reproductive isolation between A. brevispiculata and A. physeteris is indicated by the following observations: (1) no F(1) hybrids or recombinant genotypes were until now observed; and (2) the two Anisakis species do not seem to share their definitive hosts. The main definitive host of A. brevispiculata is the pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), while for A. physeteris it is the sperm whale (Physeter catodon). Only adult males differ slightly in spicule length, while females and larval stages are not differentiated morphologically. Both A. brevispiculata and A.physeteris show a type II larva. The correct recognition of A. brevispiculata from A. physeteris and from other Anisakis species studied, in either sexes and at any life stage, is made easy by allozyme markers (e.g. Icdh, Gapdh, Sod-1, Np, Aat-2, Adk-2, fEst-2, PepB, PepC-2, Mpi). Diagnostic keys, which can be used for routine identification in the field of these Anisakis worms, based on genetic markers, are given.

  9. [Parasitism of Ips sexdentatus (Insecta: Scolytidae) by Parasitorhabditis ipsophila (Nematoda: Rhabditidae)].

    PubMed

    Lieutier, F

    1984-01-01

    The study of parasitism percentages and contaminations intensity in Ips sexdentatus parasitized by P. ipsophila as well as the examination of the wormholes in the galleries of the bark beetle gave better insight into certain features of nematode biology. Larvae of I. sexdentatus could be infected, whereas pupae could not. Adults were contaminated from initial stages of maturation and throughout preswarming maturation. Following swarming and installation on a new tree, insects were rapidly decontaminated, but recontamination could occur by the end of oviposition. P. ipsophila larvae were found in the mesenteron before they penetrated into the hind gut. Seemingly, the parasite underwent no evolution within its host. All developmental stages of the nematode could be observed in the galleries of the bark beetle as long as the latter was present. No apparent relation exists between parasitism of the digestive tract by P. ipsophila and parasitism of the body or fat body by Parasitaphelenchus or Contortylenchus diplogaster. P. ipsophila exerts very limited effects on I. sexdentatus populations. A slight delay in swarming and initiation of oviposition, and a very low decrease in density of notches of oviposition and of eggs was observed, but the features of the gallery of oviposition (total length, length before the first notch) showed no alteration. No mortality was detected.

  10. Spatial distribution of subtidal Nematoda communities along the salinity gradient in southern European estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adão, Helena; Alves, Ana Sofia; Patrício, Joana; Neto, João Magalhães; Costa, Maria José; Marques, João Carlos

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of subtidal nematode communities along the salinity gradients of two Portuguese estuaries exposed to different degrees of anthropogenic stress: the Mira and the Mondego. The nematode communities were mainly composed of Sabatieria, Metachromadora, Daptonema, Anoplostoma, Sphaerolaimus and Terschellingia species, closely resembling the communities of Northern European estuaries. In both estuaries, nematode density and community composition followed the salinity gradient, naturally establishing three distinct estuarine sections: (i) freshwater and oligohaline - characterised by the presence of freshwater nematodes, low nematode density and diversity; (ii) mesohaline - dominated by Terschellingia, Sabatieria and Daptonema, with low total density and diversity; and (iii) polyhaline and euhaline - where nematodes reached the highest density and diversity, and Paracomesoma, Synonchiella, and Odontophora were dominant. Despite the similarities in community composition and total nematode density, the proportion of different nematode feeding types were remarkably different in the two estuaries. In Mira, selective deposit feeders were dominant in the oligohaline section, while non-selective deposit feeders were dominant in the other sections. On the contrary, in the Mondego estuary, epigrowth-feeders and omnivores/predators were dominant in the freshwater sections and in the euhaline sector of the southern arm. Differences observed along each estuarine gradient were much stronger than overall differences between the two estuaries. In the Mondego estuary, the influence of anthropogenic stressors seemed not to be relevant in determining the nematodes' spatial distribution patterns, therefore suggesting that mesoscale variability responded essentially to natural stressors, characteristic of estuarine gradients. Nevertheless, the proportion of the different feeding types was different between the two estuaries, indicating that the response of nematode feeding guilds is able to reflect anthropogenic-induced stress and can be useful in assessing biological quality in transitional waters ecosystems.

  11. New species of Falcaustra (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) from Heosemys grandis (Testudines: Emydidae).

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Freeman, Jennifer M

    2005-10-01

    Falcaustra kinsellai n. sp. from the intestines of the turtle Heosemys grandis is described and illustrated. Falcaustra kinsellai represents the 30th Oriental species assigned to the genus and is distinguished from other species by the distribution pattern of caudal papillae (6 precloacal, 6 adcloacal, 10 postcloacal, and 1 median), length of spicules (427-451 microm), presence of a pseudosucker, and presence of a toothed chamber between vestibule and pharynx.

  12. Uncinaria hamiltoni (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Berón-Vera, B; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Pedraza, S N

    2004-08-01

    Thirty-one South American sea lion pups (Otaria flavescens) found dead in Punta León, Argentina, during the summer of 2002, were examined for hookworms (Uncinaria hamiltoni). Parasite parameters were analyzed in 2 locations of the rookery, i.e., a traditional, well-structured breeding area and an expanding area with juveniles and a lax social structure. Prevalence of hookworms was 50% in both localities, and no difference was observed in prevalence between pup sexes (P > 0.05). Hookworms were concentrated in the small intestine. Transmammary transmission is assumed because only adult hookworms were found in the pups. The mean intensity of hookworms per pup was 135; the mean intensity in females (92.78) was significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of males (230.25). No difference (P > 0.05) in intensity was found between the 2 breeding areas, although prevalence was higher in the traditional breeding area than in the other area. Location was the only factor affecting hookworm prevalence (P log-linear model: 0.9552; chi2: 1.5629). No apparent trend between body condition and intensity of hookworms was observed.

  13. Experimental infection of Contracaecum multipapillatum (Nematoda: Anisakinae) from Mexico in the domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Osorio-Sarabia, D; Overstreet, R M

    1994-08-01

    Juveniles of Contracaecum multipapillatum infected the Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) and adults infected the olivaceous cormorant (Phalacrocorax olivaceus) and the great egret (Casmerodius albus) in the coastal lagoon at Celestun, State of Yucatan, Mexico. All are new host records, and, even though the geographic locality record of Mexico for the species has not been published, unidentified but presumably conspecific specimens have been reported from there. When juveniles of C. multipapillatum were fed to a kitten, but not rats, ducks, or chickens, they developed into adults. Measurements and morphological data are provided on the specimens from the kitten. Development of an avian ascaridoid in the intestine of a mammal increases the potential of this widespread species to infect other mammals, including humans.

  14. Introducing Alphitobius diaperinus, (Insecta: Tenebrionidae) as a New Intermediate Host of Hadjelia truncata (Nematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Alborzi, AR; Rahbar, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Hadjelia truncata is a nematode that causes lesions in the gizzard lining of pigeons, which may even lead to death. The aim of this study was to introduce Alphitobius diaperinus as a new intermediate host for Hadjelia truncata. Methods H. truncata infection was identified in a pigeon flock in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, Iran by performing fecal examination and autopsy. Adult and larval stages of beetles were collected from the litter of pigeon houses, and identified morphologically. The beetle larvae were cultured in a medium, containing feces of the infected pigeons. Nematode larval stages from naturally and experimentally (culturally) infected adult beetles were fed to two groups of pigeons Results The collected beetles were identified as Alphitobius diaperinus. Average length and width of the adult beetles were 6.31 mm and 2.88 mm respectively. Infection rates of naturally and experimentally infected beetles with larval stages of the nematode were 66.2% and 45.1% respectively. The adult nematodes collected from gizzards of experimentally infected pigeons were identified as H. truncata. Nematode infection rates in pigeons after feeding the infective larvae collected from naturally and experimentally infected beetles were 44.7% and 32.5% respectively. Conclusion A. diaperinus can serve as a natural intermediate host for H. truncata. PMID:23109952

  15. Phylogenetic confirmation of the genus Robbea (Nematoda: Desmodoridae, Stilbonematinae) with the description of three new species

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Jörg A.; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald R.; Leisch, Nikolaus; Zimmermann, Judith

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Stilbonematinae are a monophyletic group of marine nematodes that are characterized by a coat of thiotrophic bacterial symbionts. Among the ten known genera of the Stilbonematinae, the genus Robbea Gerlach 1956 had a problematic taxonomic history of synonymizations and indications of polyphyletic origin. Here we describe three new species of the genus, R. hypermnestra sp. nov., R. ruetzleri sp. nov. and R. agricola sp. nov., using conventional light microscopy, interference contrast microscopy and SEM. We provide 18S rRNA gene sequences of all three species, together with new sequences for the genera Catanema and Leptonemella. Both our morphological analyses as well as our phylogenetic reconstructions corroborate the genus Robbea. In our phylogenetic analysis the three species of the genus Robbea form a distinct clade in the Stilbonematinae radiation and are clearly separated from the clade of the genus Catanema, which has previously been synonymized with Robbea. Surprisingly, in R. hypermnestra sp. nov. all females are intersexes exhibiting male sexual characters. Our extended dataset of Stilbonematinae 18S rRNA genes for the first time allows the identification of the different genera, e.g. in a barcoding approach. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D37C3F5A-CF2B-40E6-8B09-3C72EEED60B0 PMID:27630534

  16. Congenital Filariasis Caused by Setaria bidentata (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in the Red Brocket Deer (Mazama americana).

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Mayor, Pedro

    2017-02-01

    The filarial nematode Setaria bidentata was found in 10 of 31 fetuses of the red brocket deer ( Mazama americana ) from the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon. A total of 25 specimens were collected and morphologically identified as S. bidentata. Filarial nematodes were found in the peritoneal cavity of 9 deer fetuses and the thoracic cavity of 1 fetus. Most specimens were adult stage. In this report, we provide morphometric data for these filarial specimens. This is the first study to demonstrate prenatal S. bidentata infection in cervid fetuses. Also, the finding of S. bidentata in Peru expands the geographic range of this parasite.

  17. The larval development of Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) affects its intermediate host, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Schuster, Rolf Karl; Sivakumar, Saritha

    2017-02-01

    Although the life cycle of the equid stomach parasite Habronema muscae was disclosed more than 100 years ago, little is known about the effect of the developing nematode larvae in its intermediate host, Musca domestica. In a series of experiments, freshly hatched M. domestica larvae were exposed to H. muscae eggs contained in a faecal sample of a naturally infected horse. In daily intervals, 50 fly larvae were removed and transferred on a parasite-free larval rearing medium where they completed their development. Hatched flies were examined for the presence of Habronema third-stage larvae. In two subsequent control groups, flies spend their entire larval life in contaminated horse faeces and in a parasite-free larval rearing medium, respectively. Out of the 700 fly larvae used in the infection experiments, 304 developed into adult flies of which 281 were infected. The average nematode larval burden rose from 3.6 in the group with the shortest exposure to more than 25 in the groups with the longest exposure. The proportion of larvae that developed into the adult insect fell from 82 % in the uninfected control group to 27 % in the positive control group. The pupae of the positive control group were smaller and lighter than those of the uninfected control group. Lower pupal size and weight in the positive control group as well as a lower insect developing rate might be attributed to the destruction of adipose cells in the maggots by Habronema larvae.

  18. A new species of Falcaustra (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) in Nactus pelagicus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Tanna Island, Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Hamilton, Alison M; Austin, Christopher C

    2010-10-01

    Falcaustra tannaensis n. sp. (Ascaridida: Kathlaniidae) from the large intestine of Nactus pelagicus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) is described and illustrated. Falcaustra tannaensis represents the first species from Oceanica to be assigned to the genus and is distinguished from other species of Falcaustra by the distribution pattern of caudal papillae (8 precloacal, 2 adcloacal, 10 postcloacal, and 1 median), length of spicules (2.43-2.68 mm), and presence of a pseudosucker.

  19. The Esophageal Glands of Pratylenchus Filipjev and Apratylenchoides belli n. gen. n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Sher, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The esophageal glands in the genus Pratylenchus occur in a large, single ventral lobe except for four populations in which a few specimens had the glands located dorsally. Apratylenchoides belli n. gen. n. sp. in the subfamily Radopholinae is proposed for a species having two esophageal glands in a large dorsal lobe and one gland in a smaller, shorter ventral lobe. PMID:19319335

  20. The life cycle of Ohbayashinema erbaevae (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea, Heligmosomidae) in Ochotona rufescens rufescens (Ochotonidae).

    PubMed

    Audebert, F; Cassone, J; Baccam, D; Kerboeuf, D; Durette-Desset, M C

    2001-12-01

    The morphogenesis and the chronology of the life cycle of Ohbayashinema erbaevoe Durette-Desset et al, 2000, a parasite of Ochotona daurica from Buriatia were studied in detail in an experimental host, Ochotona rufescens rufescens. Worm-free pikas were each infected per os with O. erbaevae larvae and were killed at one day post infection (DPI 1) and every 12 hours from 1.5 to 8 days post infection. By DPI 1, all the larvae were exsheathed and in the small intestine. The third moult occurred in 2.5-3.0 days. The last moult occurred in 4.0-4.5 days. The prepatent period was eight days and the patent period lasted between two and 12 weeks. The distribution of O. erbaevae along the small intestine of the pikas was assessed. For each experiment, a morphological description of the different stages of the life cycle was provided. The morphogenesis and the chronology of the life cycle of O. erbaevae appear to be identical with those of two other genera of the family of the Heligmosomidae, Heligmosomum Railliet & Henry, 1909 and Heligmosomoides Hall, 1916. They confirm that the three genera belong to the same family. The presence of an abortive posterior genital branch in the female of O. erbaevae, which represents the posterior part of the genital primordium of the didelphic females, supports the systematic position of the genus Ohbayashinema between the didelphic genus Citellinema Hall, 1916 and the monodelphic genera Heligmosomum and Heligmosomoides.

  1. The Distribution of Lectins across the Phylum Nematoda: A Genome-Wide Search

    PubMed Central

    Bauters, Lander; Naalden, Diana; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2017-01-01

    Nematodes are a very diverse phylum that has adapted to nearly every ecosystem. They have developed specialized lifestyles, dividing the phylum into free-living, animal, and plant parasitic species. Their sheer abundance in numbers and presence in nearly every ecosystem make them the most prevalent animals on earth. In this research nematode-specific profiles were designed to retrieve predicted lectin-like domains from the sequence data of nematode genomes and transcriptomes. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that play numerous roles inside and outside the cell depending on their sugar specificity and associated protein domains. The sugar-binding properties of the retrieved lectin-like proteins were predicted in silico. Although most research has focused on C-type lectin-like, galectin-like, and calreticulin-like proteins in nematodes, we show that the lectin-like repertoire in nematodes is far more diverse. We focused on C-type lectins, which are abundantly present in all investigated nematode species, but seem to be far more abundant in free-living species. Although C-type lectin-like proteins are omnipresent in nematodes, we have shown that only a small part possesses the residues that are thought to be essential for carbohydrate binding. Curiously, hevein, a typical plant lectin domain not reported in animals before, was found in some nematode species. PMID:28054982

  2. Pseudostertagia bullosa (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) in artiodactyl hosts from North America: redescription and comments on systematics.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, E P; Abrams, A

    2005-04-01

    A relationship for Pseudostertagia bullosa within the trichostrongyloids has been enigmatic or unresolved. Studies of the synlophe in males and females of P. bullosa revealed a tapering system anterior to the deirids and a pattern of parallel ridges extending to near the caudal extremity in both lateral and median fields. Structurally, the synlophe differs considerably from that seen among the Cooperiinae and exhibits homoplasy with respect to ridge systems among some Ostertagiinae. Other structural characters due to symplesiomorphy, homoplasy or because they represent autapomorphies do not serve to reveal the putative relationships for P. bullosa with other trichostrongyloids. Although somewhat equivocal, the 2-2-1 pattern of the bursa and position of rays 2 and 3 suggest an association with the Cooperinae, as postulated by Durette-Desset and others. Pseudostertagia bullosa appears to be a species that has survived in the pronghorn, Antilocapra americana, a relictual pecoran artiodactyl that occurs in xeric regions of western North America; pronghorn are the sole remnant of the late Tertiary radiation for Antilocapridae across North America. Pseudostertagia bullosa may occur in mixed infections with a number of ostertagiines in the abomasa of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in regions of sympatry for pronghorn and these artiodactyl hosts.

  3. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Enterobius vermicularis (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in the Prehistoric Americas.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Karl J; Araújo, Adauto; Morrow, Johnica J

    2016-10-01

    Investigations of Enterobius sp. infection in prehistory have produced a body of data that can be used to evaluate the geographic distribution of infection through time in the Americas. Regional variations in prevalence are evident. In North America, 119 pinworm positive samples were found in 1,112 samples from 28 sites with a prevalence of 10.7%. Almost all of the positive samples came from agricultural sites. From Brazil, 0 pinworm positive samples were found in 325 samples from 7 sites. For the Andes region, 22 pinworm positive samples were found in 411 samples from 26 sites for a prevalence of 5.3%. Detailed analyses of these data defined several trends. First, preagricultural sites less frequently show evidence of infection compared to agricultural populations. This is especially clear in the data from North America, but is also evident in the data from South America. Second, there is an apparent relationship between the commonality of pinworms in coprolites and the manner of constructing villages. These analyses show that ancient parasitism has substantial value in documenting the range of human behaviors that influence parasitic infections.

  4. Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) baiomydis n. sp. (Nematoda: Rictulariidae), a parasite of Baiomys taylori (Cricetidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lynggaard, Christina; García-Prieto, Luis; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; Osorio-Sarabia, David

    2014-01-01

    Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) baiomydis n. sp., an intestinal parasite of the northern pygmy mouse, Baiomys taylori (Cricetidae), collected in La Yerbabuena, Colima, Mexico, is described herein. Specimens were studied using light and scanning electronic microscopy. This is the 19th species of the subgenus Paucipectines described worldwide and the fourth collected in Mexico. It is differentiated from the remaining species in the subgenus by having 25 perioral denticles, arranged in a triangle (seven on each lateroventral margin, and eleven on the dorsal margin), and 10 pairs of caudal papillae. PMID:25375029

  5. Two new species of Rhabdochona (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from freshwater fishes in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Yooyen, Thanapon

    2011-09-01

    Two new species ofrhabdochonid nematodes are described from the intestine of freshwater fishes in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand: Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) pseudomysti sp. n. from the catfish Pseudomystus siamensis (Regan) (Bagridae, Siluriformes) in the Fang Brook, a tributary of the Kok River (the Mekong River basin), Fang District and Rhabdochona (Globochona) thaiensis sp. n. from the cyprinid Mystacoleucus marginatus (Valenciennes) (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes) in the Ping River (the Chao Phraya River basin), Muang District. Rhabdochona pseudomysti is mainly characterized by simple, leaf-like oval deirids (a unique feature among Rhabdochona spp.), a prostom with 14 anterior teeth, the presence of basal prostomal teeth, the length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of oesophagus (1:2.1-2.6), an unusually long left spicule (1.10-1.22 mm), length ratio of spicules (1:11.5-14.7), arrangement of genital papillae, and conspicuously elevated vulval lips. Rhabdochona thaiensis differs from other representatives of the subgenus Globochona Moravec, 1972 possessing caudal projections on the tail tip in that it has only 2 claw-shaped projections located ventrally on the tail tip of both males and females; the species is mainly characterized by the presence of distinct pseudolabia, 8 anterior prostomal teeth, absence of basal teeth, bifurcated deirids, length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of oesophagus (1:11.3-11.9), conspicuously short (135-141 microm) left spicule, arrangement of genital papillae, and somewhat elevated vulval lips. Fully developed eggs of R. pseudomysti and R. thaiensis remain unknown. These are the first nominal species of Rhabdochona reported from Thailand.

  6. The Distribution of Lectins across the Phylum Nematoda: A Genome-Wide Search.

    PubMed

    Bauters, Lander; Naalden, Diana; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2017-01-04

    Nematodes are a very diverse phylum that has adapted to nearly every ecosystem. They have developed specialized lifestyles, dividing the phylum into free-living, animal, and plant parasitic species. Their sheer abundance in numbers and presence in nearly every ecosystem make them the most prevalent animals on earth. In this research nematode-specific profiles were designed to retrieve predicted lectin-like domains from the sequence data of nematode genomes and transcriptomes. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that play numerous roles inside and outside the cell depending on their sugar specificity and associated protein domains. The sugar-binding properties of the retrieved lectin-like proteins were predicted in silico. Although most research has focused on C-type lectin-like, galectin-like, and calreticulin-like proteins in nematodes, we show that the lectin-like repertoire in nematodes is far more diverse. We focused on C-type lectins, which are abundantly present in all investigated nematode species, but seem to be far more abundant in free-living species. Although C-type lectin-like proteins are omnipresent in nematodes, we have shown that only a small part possesses the residues that are thought to be essential for carbohydrate binding. Curiously, hevein, a typical plant lectin domain not reported in animals before, was found in some nematode species.

  7. Dioctophyme renale (Nematoda: Dioctophymatoidea) in the abdominal cavity of Rattus norvegicus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Akao, Nobuaki; Ohta, Nobuo

    2011-09-01

    We collected 24 brown rats, Rattus norvegicus, in Kanagawa Prefecture in Japan and found one rat harboring a dioctophymatid nematode. A single male and a female worm were recovered from the abdominal cavity and were identified as Dioctophyme renale based on morphologic features and a BLAST DNA sequence analysis. We describe the morphological features of the adult worms and eggs from this extremely rare case of D. renale infection in a brown rat.

  8. Rhabdias kongmongthaensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from Polypedates leucomystax (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Tkach, Vasyl V; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2005-11-01

    Rhabdias kongmongthaensis sp. n. is described based on specimens found in the lungs of the tree frog Polypedates leucomystax (Gravenhorst) (Amphibia: Rhacophoridae) from Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. The new species is similar to two North-American species, Rhabdias ranae and R. americanus, by presence of two lateral pseudolabia, each with two inner submedian protuberances. R. kongmongthaensis differs from both species by relative length and shape of the tail, and by its distribution and host specificity. Presence of lateral pseudolabia distinguishes the new species from the geographically closest Rhabdias species as well as from those parasitizing other rhacophorid frogs.

  9. The occurance of Pterygodermatites nycticebi (Nematoda: Rictulariidae) in a captive slow loris, Nycticebus coucang

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuggle, B.N.; Beehler, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Adult and immature rictulariid nematodes were recovered at necropsy from the small intestine of an adult slow loris, Nycticebus coucang, from the Milwaukee County Zoo in Wisconsin. The lumen of the entire small intestine was packed with more than 100 nematodes, the intestinal wall appeared thickened and the mucosal surface contained numerous petechial hemorrhagic foci. The cause of death was diagnosed as a septicemia and possible lupus erythematosis.

  10. Redescription of Spirura guianensis (Nematoda: Spiruridae) from a rare South American Gracile Opossum.

    PubMed

    Torres, E J Lopes; Maldonado, A; Anjos, D H da Silva; de Souza, W; Miranda, K

    2015-10-01

    Spirura genus Blanchard, 1849 comprise of nematode parasites that infect primate and marsupial species. Although several taxonomical studies have shown that the infection by this species occurs primarily in the esophagus of primates, evidence for the occurrence of these parasites in other hosts (marsupials, rodents and bats) has become the subject of investigation by several groups. In this work, we describe the presence of Spirura guianensis Ortlepp, 1924 in the marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) found in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state of Brazil. Structural characteristics of this nematode were identified using light microscopy (bright field and fluorescence stereomicroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) approaches. Details of the surface topography such as cephalic projections, ventral boss, details of the caudal papillae and cuticular ornamentations were shown, providing taxonomic characteristics that may help in the establishment of diagnostic protocols. In addition, the presence of this species in a new host and new geographical area of Brazil provide grounds for a revision on the distribution of S. guianensis in South America.

  11. Systematics of Mexiconema cichlasomae (Nematoda: Daniconematidae) based on sequences of SSU rDNA.

    PubMed

    Mejia-Madrid, H H; Aguirre-Macedo, M L

    2011-02-01

    The molecular characterization of the daniconematid dracunculoid Mexiconema cichlasomae Moravec, Vidal, and Salgado-Maldonado, 1992 through the sequencing of SSU rDNA from adult individuals is presented herein. Additionally, preliminary genetic relationships of this nematode are inferred from alignment of sequences generated previously for other dracunculoids. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses recovered identical trees. As anticipated by previous taxonomic work, M. cichlasomae is putatively closely related to skrjabillanid dracunculoids represented by Molnaria intestinalis (Dogiel and Bychovsky, 1934) and Skrjabillanus scardinii Molnár, 1966 SSU rDNA sequences, but the relationships of this newly discovered clade to other dracunculoid clades remain unresolved.

  12. Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in the Ryukyu Islands tree rat (Diplothrix legata).

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Haga, Atsushi; Mizuno, Eriko; Onuma, Manabu; Nakaya, Yumiko; Nagamine, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode with rodents serving as natural definitive hosts. We report A. cantonensis in the Ryukyu Islands tree rat (Diplothrix legata, Thomas, 1906), a native endangered species in Japan. Adult and larvae of A. cantonensis were macroscopically, histologically, and genetically detected in three tree rats collected between August 2011 and January 2012 in the Yambaru area of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Pathologic observations of the lungs of rats showed that infection may be lethal. We also conducted a retrospective genetic survey of helminths parasitic in lung in cryopreserved lung samples of Ryukyu Islands tree rats collected between 2007 and 2011 in the Yambaru area and found A. cantonensis DNA in one of 29 samples, which was collected in December 2010.

  13. Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the critically endangered crocodile Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Hong; Li, Liang; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2015-03-01

    The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia) is considered as one of the most critically endangered species of the 23 extant crocodiles. However, our knowledge of the helminth parasites of this rare animal is completely lacking. During a helminthological survey of reptiles in China, we found a new ascaridoid nematode, Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. from A. sinensis. The morphology of D. gigantea sp. n. was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species was also characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing the small ribosomal DNA (18S) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2).

  14. Two New and Two Recharacterized Species from a Radiation of Pristionchus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J.; Herrmann, Matthias; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Pristionchus, P. lucani n. sp. and P. bulgaricus n. sp., are described from France and Bulgaria, respectively. Additionally, new morphological and morphometric data are provided for two previously described species from Europe, P. brevicauda (Kotlán, 1928) Paramonov, 1952 and P. clavus (von Linstow, 1901) Sudhaus and Fürst von Lieven, 2003. A phylogeny including these four species was inferred from a dataset including 26 ribosomal protein-coding genes, sequences of which are original for P. bulgaricus n. sp. and P. clavus. Relationships support a radiation of all sequenced European Pristionchus species from a single, gonochoristic common ancestor, and current knowledge of species ranges supports “western” and “eastern” clades. Similar diagnostic morphologies reflect the close relationships among the new and recharacterized species, especially P. bulgaricus n. sp., P. brevicauda, and P. clavus, although mating tests as well as genetic and phylogenetic separation support their identities as unique species. Our results show that Pristionchus species in Europe are more diverse than typological characters suggest, and thus biological and molecular profiling will be essential for future delimitation of Pristionchus species from the region. PMID:24644372

  15. Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), an Associate of Dorcus Stag Beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae).

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J

    2014-03-01

    A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from adults of the stag beetle Dorcus ritsemae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that were purchased from a pet shop in Japan. Leptojacobus n. gen. is circumscribed by a very thin, delicate body and by a small stoma with minute armature. A combination of other stomatal characters, namely the division of the cheilostom into adradial plates, the symmetry of the subventral stegostomatal sectors, and the presence of a thin, conical dorsal tooth, further distinguishes Leptojacobus n. gen. from other genera of Diplogastridae. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length SSU rRNA sequences support the new species, together with an isolate identified previously as Koerneria luziae, to be excluded from a clade including all other molecularly characterized diplogastrids with teeth and stomatal dimorphism. Therefore, the new species will be of importance for reconstruction of ancestral character histories in Diplogastridae, a family circumscribed by a suite of feeding-related novelties.

  16. Philometra floridensis (Nematoda: Philometridae) damages ovarian tissue without reducing host (Sciaenops ocellatus) fecundity.

    PubMed

    Bakenhaster, Micah D; Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan; Kiryu, Yasunari; Walters, Sarah; Fajer-Avila, Emma J

    2014-04-03

    The parasitic nematode Philometra floridensis infects the ovary of its only host, the economically important fish species Sciaenops ocellatus, but the factors influencing host susceptibility and potential pathogenic effects are unknown. Here we report new information on these topics from evaluations of infected and uninfected hosts collected from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Fish length and age were evaluated vis-à-vis nematode prevalence to check for ontogenetic differences in host susceptibility. To evaluate health and reproductive consequences of infection, we looked for effects in Fulton's condition factor (K) and batch fecundity estimates (BF), and we evaluated ovarian tissue histologically to check for oocyte atresia and other host responses. We observed localized pathological changes in fish ovarian tissue associated with female nematodes, including leucocytic exudates, granulomatous inflammation, and Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells; the hosts, however, appeared to maintain high fecundity and actually exhibited, on average, better health index scores and higher relative fecundity than did uninfected fish. These differences are likely explained by the parasite's tendency to disproportionately infect the largest, actively spawning fish and by the localization of pathogenic changes, which could have masked effects that otherwise would have been reflected in mass-based health indicators. Although we did not detect negative effects on measures of overall health or reproductive output, further research is needed to better elucidate the relationship between these parasites and other factors affecting host reproductive potential, such as egg quality.

  17. Predicting the potential distribution of Vexillata (Nematoda: Ornithostrongylidae) and its hosts (Mammalia: Rodentia) within America.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Salazar, E A; Escalante, T; Linaje, M; Falcón-Ordaz, J

    2013-12-01

    Species distribution modelling has been a powerful tool to explore the potential distribution of parasites in wildlife, being the basis of studies on biogeography. Vexillata spp. are intestinal nematodes found in several species of mammalian hosts, such as rodents (Geomyoidea) and hares (Leporidae) in the Nearctic and northern Neotropical regions. In the present study, we modelled the potential distribution of Vexillata spp. and their hosts, using exclusively species from the Geomyidae and Heteromyidae families, in order to identify their distributional patterns. Bioclimatic and topographic variables were used to identify and predict suitable habitats for Vexillata and its hosts. Using these models, we identified that temperature seasonality is a significant environmental factor that influences the distribution of the parasite genus and its host. In particular, the geographical distribution is estimated to be larger than that predicted for its hosts. This suggests that the nematode has the potential to extend its geographical range and also its spectrum of host species. Increasing sample size and geographical coverage will contribute to recommendations for conservation of this host-parasite system.

  18. Taxonomic and Molecular Identification of Hemicaloosia, Hemicycliophora, Gracilacus and Paratylenchus Species (Nematoda: Criconematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cordero López, Marco A.; Robbins, Robert T.; Szalanski, Allen L.

    2013-01-01

    Populations of Hemicycliophora epicharoides, H. gigas, H. labiata, H. pruni, H. shepherdi, H. vidua, H. zuckermani, Gracilacus straeleni, and Paratylenchus labiosus were obtained from different geographical areas in the continental United States and characterized morphological and molecularly. Two new species of Hemicycliophorinae: Hemicaloosia uarki n. sp from Pinetree, St. Francis County, Arkansas, and Hemicycliophora wyei n. sp from Wayne County, North Carolina, are also described. Hemicaloosia uarki n. sp. is characterized by having two lip annuli separated from the rest of body and directed anteriorly, a long stylet (106-124 μm), long body length (1,081-1,326 μm) and a single lateral fields demarcated by interruptions of the body annuli. Hemicycliophora wyei n. sp. showed a lateral fields demarked by two faint lines with transverse anastomoses and/or breaks of the striae; an elongated not offset conical tail with distinct annulations and a rounded tip and long vulval lips with a vulval sleeve. The molecular characterizations of the new (H. uarki n. sp. and H. wyei n. sp.) and known species of Criconematidae using the ITS1 rDNA gene sequence and the molecular phylogenetic relationships are provided. PMID:24115782

  19. A Key and Diagnostic Compendium to the Species of the Genus Hoplolaimus Daday, 1905 (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae)

    PubMed Central

    Handoo, Zafar A.; Golden, A. Morgan

    1992-01-01

    An identification key to 29 valid species of Hoplolaimus is given. A compendium of the most important diagnostic characters for use in identification of species is included as a practical alternative and supplement to the key. Diagnosis of Hoplolaimus is emended and lists of species of the genus, their synonymies, species inquirendae, nomina nuda, and species transferred to other genera are given. Hoplolaimus sheri, H. chambus, H. casparus, and H. capensis are recognized as valid species. PMID:19283201

  20. Description and Larval Heteromorphism of Hoplolaimus concaudajuvencus, n. sp. (Nematoda: Hoplolain-lidae)

    PubMed Central

    Golden, A. M.; Minton, N. A.

    1970-01-01

    Hoplolaimus concaudajuvencus n. sp., of the genus Hoplolaimus Daday, 1905, characterized by larval heteromorphism, is described and illustrated as recovered from ryegrass/bermudagrass golf green turf in Florida. Females and males are closely related to H. galeatus (Cobb, 1913) Thorne, 1935, but have longer stylets with more definitely tulip-shaped stylet knobs which anteriorly tend to close upon the stylet shaft more than in H. galeatus. First and second-stage larvae have a conically-pointed tail unlike any known species of the genus. Subsequent stages, including females, have rounded tails essentially similar to other species of the genus and males possess the typical hopolaimid tail and bursa. The first molt was found to occur within the egg. PMID:19322290

  1. Description of Hoplolaimus bachlongviensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) from banana soil in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tien Huu; Bui, Quang Duc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The genus Hoplolaimus Daday, 1905 belongs to the subfamily Hoplolaimine Filipiev, 1934 of family Hoplolaimidae Filipiev, 1934 (Krall 1990). Daday established this genus on a single female of H. tylenchiformis recovered from a mud hole on Banco Island, Paraguay in 1905 (Sher 1963​, Krall 1990). Hoplolaimus species are distributed worldwide and cause damage on numerous agricultural crops (Luc et al. 1990 Robbins et al. 1998​). In 1992, Handoo and Golden reviewed 29 valid species of genus Hoplolaimus Dayday, 1905 (Handoo and Golden 1992). Siddiqi (2000) recognised three subgenera in Hoplolaimus: Hoplolaimus (Hoplolaimus) with ten species, is characterized by lateral field distinct, with four incisures, excretory pore behind hemizonid; Hoplolaimus (Basirolaimus) with 18 species, is characterized by lateral field with one to three incisures, obliterated, excretory pore anterior to hemizonid, dorsal oesophageal gland quadrinucleate; and Hoplolaimus (Ethiolaimus) with four species is characterized by lateral field with one to three incisures, obliterated; excretory pore anterior to hemizonid, dorsal oesophageal gland uninucleate (Siddiqi 2000). Since then, Hoplolaimus puriensis Ali, Shaheen & Pervez, 2009 has been described (​Ali et al. 2009). Up to now, there have been two species of genus Hoplolaimus reported in Vietnam, viz H. seinhorsti and H. chambus (Nguyen and Nguyen 2000). New information Hoplolaimus bachlongviensis sp. n. was isolated from banana soil in Bach Long Vi Island, Vietnam. The female of this species is described and illustrated below. Some diagnostic characters of this species include body slightly curved ventrally, offset lip region exhibiting three to four annules, lateral field reduced, pharyngeal glands with six nuclei, excretory pore anterior to hemizonid, epiptygma absent, intestine not overlapping rectum and male was not found. PMID:26696764

  2. Taxonomic and Molecular Identification of Bakernema, Criconema, Hemicriconemoides, Ogma and Xenocriconemella Species (Nematoda: Criconematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Marco A.; Robbins, Robert T.; Szalanski, Allen L.

    2012-01-01

    Populations of Bakernema inaequale, C. petasum, C. sphagni, C. mutabile, Ogma octangulare, Xenocriconemella macrodora and Hemicriconemoides chitwoodi were identified and re-described from different geographical areas in the continental United States and molecularly characterized. Two new species of spine nematodes Criconema arkaense n. sp. from Washington County and Lee County, Arkansas and Criconema warrenense n. sp from Warren, Bradley County, Arkansas are also described and named. Criconema arkaense is characterize by having a conspicuous lip region offset from the body with two annuli, short rounded tail with a thin cuticular sheath and subterminal anus. Criconema warrenense n. sp. has two lip region annuli about the same width, first annulus directed posteriorly, separated by a narrow neck annulus and a short conoid tail, unilobed non-folded annulus. The molecular characterization of Criconema arkaense and Criconema warrenense using ITS1 rDNA gene sequence and the molecular phylogenetic relationships of these new species along with the known spines nematodes are provided. PMID:23482683

  3. Description and Larval Heteromorphism of Hoplolaimus concaudajuvencus, n. sp. (Nematoda: Hoplolain-lidae).

    PubMed

    Golden, A M; Minton, N A

    1970-04-01

    Hoplolaimus concaudajuvencus n. sp., of the genus Hoplolaimus Daday, 1905, characterized by larval heteromorphism, is described and illustrated as recovered from ryegrass/bermudagrass golf green turf in Florida. Females and males are closely related to H. galeatus (Cobb, 1913) Thorne, 1935, but have longer stylets with more definitely tulip-shaped stylet knobs which anteriorly tend to close upon the stylet shaft more than in H. galeatus. First and second-stage larvae have a conically-pointed tail unlike any known species of the genus. Subsequent stages, including females, have rounded tails essentially similar to other species of the genus and males possess the typical hopolaimid tail and bursa. The first molt was found to occur within the egg.

  4. Global assessment of molecularly identified Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in their teleost intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Thomas; Hailer, Frank; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-05-01

    Here, we present the ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data on 330 larvae of nematodes of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 collected from 26 different bony fish species from 21 sampling locations and different climatic zones. New host records are provided for Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffli Campana-Rouget et Biocca, 1955 from Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) (Santa Barbara, East Pacific), A. typica (Diesing, 1860) from Caesio cuning (Bloch), Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) (Indonesia, West Pacific), A. simplex s.s. from Cololabis saira (Brevoort) (Hawaii, Central Pacific), A. simplex C of Nascetti et al. (1986) from Sebastolobus alascanus Bean (Santa Barbara, East Pacific) and A. physeteris Baylis, 1923 from Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson (Namibia, East Atlantic). Comparison with host records from 60 previous molecular studies of Anisakis species reveals the teleost host range so far recorded for the genus. Perciform (57 species) and gadiform (21) fishes were the most frequently infected orders, followed by pleuronectiforms (15) and scorpaeniforms (15). Most commonly infected fish families were Scombridae (12), Gadidae (10), Carangidae (8) and Clupeidae (7), with Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus) alone harbouring eight Anisakis species. Different intermediate host compositions implicate differing life cycles for the so far molecularly identified Anisakis sibling species.

  5. Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), an Associate of Dorcus Stag Beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J.; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2014-01-01

    A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from adults of the stag beetle Dorcus ritsemae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that were purchased from a pet shop in Japan. Leptojacobus n. gen. is circumscribed by a very thin, delicate body and by a small stoma with minute armature. A combination of other stomatal characters, namely the division of the cheilostom into adradial plates, the symmetry of the subventral stegostomatal sectors, and the presence of a thin, conical dorsal tooth, further distinguishes Leptojacobus n. gen. from other genera of Diplogastridae. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length SSU rRNA sequences support the new species, together with an isolate identified previously as Koerneria luziae, to be excluded from a clade including all other molecularly characterized diplogastrids with teeth and stomatal dimorphism. Therefore, the new species will be of importance for reconstruction of ancestral character histories in Diplogastridae, a family circumscribed by a suite of feeding-related novelties. PMID:24644371

  6. Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from the Brazilian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, C H; Huang, C S; Cares, J E

    1985-07-01

    Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. was found in the rhizospheres of Jatropha curcas, Musa sp., Anona muricata, Cassia tora, Panicum laxum, Paspalum fasciculatum, Aeschynomene sensitiva, Saccharum officinarum, Manihot esculenta, Abelmoschus esculentus, Tamarindus indica, Mangifera indica, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Commelina sp., Cyperus rotundus, Fimbristylis miliacea, Citrus sinensis, and Eichhornia crassipes on the Amazon River island of Xiborena, approximately 40 km southeast of Manaus, capital of the State of Amazonas. The type habitat is flooded annually for about 6 months by the Amazon River. Xiphidorus amazonensis n. sp. differs from the closely related species Xiphidorus yepesara Monteiro, 1976 by the larger size, by a, b, and c values, and by the rounded tail terminus. It also resembles Xiphidorus tucumanensis Chaves and Coomans, 1984, but can be distinguished by its larger size, larger a, b, and c values, more conical female tail, bilobed amphidial pouch, and the presence of a spermatheca full of sperm.

  7. A new molineid (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) parasite of Dasypus hybridus (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Digiani, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2012-12-01

    Delicata abbai n. sp. collected from the small intestine of the southern long-nosed armadillo, Dasypus hybridus, from Argentina is herein described. This new species is characterized by vulvar opening within second half of body length, female tail conical, ending bluntly with a terminal spine, complex spicules, presence of a bursal membrane supported by 2 small rays, and a synlophe with bilateral symmetry and 26 cuticular ridges. By the morphology of the caudal bursa, caudal end of female, and shape of spicules, the new species resembles Delicata cameroni Travassos, 1935 and Delicata variabilis Travassos, 1935 . However, it differs from D. cameroni by having rays 5 and 6 diverging more proximally, rays 8 shorter than the dorsal ray, and spicules with a different shape. Delicata abbai n. sp. is distinguished from D. variabilis mainly by the spicules, which have a different shape and proportion of their constitutive parts. This is the first report of a species of Delicata in Argentina.

  8. The phylogenetic relationships of endemic Australasian trichostrongylin families (Nematoda: Strongylida) parasitic in marsupials and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2015-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera.

  9. Antifilarial activity of Mallotus philippensis Lam. on Setaria cervie (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Singhal, K C; Khan, N U

    1997-10-01

    The effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. was studied on the spontaneous movements of the whole worm and nerve-muscle (n.m.) preparation of Setaria cervi and on the survival of microfilariae in vitro. Both the extracts caused inhibition of spontaneous motility of whole worm and the n.m. preparation of S. Cervi characterized by initial stimulation followed by depression in amplitude. The tone and rate of contractions remained visibly unaffected. Aqueous extract at higher concentration showed immediate reduction in tone. The concentration required to inhibit the movements of n.m. preparation was 1/5th for aqueous and 1/11th for alcoholic extract compared to that for the whole worm, suggesting a cuticular permeability barrier. The stimulatory response of acetylcholine was blocked by aqueous extract on whole worm movements. On the microfilariae the LC50 and LC90 were 18 and 20 ng/ml for aqueous and 12 and 15 ng/ml for alcoholic extracts respectively.

  10. The Enterobiinae subfam. Nov. (Nematoda, Oxyurida) pinworm parasites of primates and rodents.

    PubMed

    Hugot, J P; Gardner, S L; Morand, S

    1996-02-01

    Recent redescriptions of most members of the Oxyuridae Cobbold, 1864 parasitic in primates revealed that they share following derived characters: sexual dimorphism of lateral alae (single-crested in the males, double-crested in the females); in males a second pair of genital papillae always surrounded by strongly cuticularized rings; in females, uterine tube divided into 2 parts by a cellular wall forming a diaphragm. These characters are interpreted as synapomorphies, providing evidence that these taxa represent a monophyletic group, and we propose to classify them in a new subfamily of the Oxyuridae: the Enterobiinae subfam.nov. The Enterobiinae as recognized herein occurs in both Old World and New World Primates and rodents of the family Sciuridae (tribe Sciurini in the Holarctic region and tribe Xerini in the Ethiopian region). The new subfamily includes the following genera: Enterobius Leach, 1853; Colobenterobius Quentin, Betterton & Krishnasamy, 1979; Rodentoxyuris Quentin & Tenora 1974; Xeroxyuris Hugot, 1995; Lemuricola Chabaud & Petter, 1959; Protenterobius Inglis, 1961; Madoxyuris Chabaud, Brygoo & Petter, 1965; Trypanoxyuris Vevers, 1923; Hapaloxyuris Inglis & Cosgrove, 1965 and Paraoxyuronema Artigas, 1936. The genus Paraoxyuronema is revalidated as a subgenus of Trypanoxyuris due to its specialized buccal structures. This genus groups all pinworm nematodes specific for primates of the family Atelidae, including: P. brachytelesi Artigas, 1937 occurring in Brachyteles arachnoides; P. atelis (Cameron, 1929) occurring in Ateles spp., and P. duplicidens (Buckley, 1931) and P. lagothricis (Buckley, 1931), which are parasites of Lagothrix spp. Inglisoxyuris inglisi Chabaud, Petter & Golvan, 1961, included in the monospecific genus Inglisoxyuris and previously classified as a subgenus of the Lemuricola, does not share the characters of the new subfamily and, until its precise classification can be considered with more information, it is proposed to refer to this species as an Oxyuridae sensu lato. A diagnosis and a key of the genera included in the new subfamily are given.

  11. New isolate of Mononchoides composticola Steel, Moens, Scholaert, Boshoff, Houthoofd & Bert, 2011 (Nematoda: Neodiplogasteridae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Shokoohi, Ebrahim; Seddiqi, Elahe; Panahi, Hadi; Abolafia, Joaquín

    2015-11-17

    Mononchoides composticola was isolated during a survey on free living nematodes from vermicompost in Iran. This population of M. composticola is characterised by a dorsal claw-like tooth; 7-9 µm long and 3-5 µm wide, 14-15 finely visible longitudinal ridges on the cuticle, in which each ridge comprises two lines, long spicules (39-45 μm long), a short gubernaculum (15-17 µm or less than half of the spicule length), two pairs of precloacal papillae, five pairs of postcloacal papillae, papillae (v3) comprising three small papillae, and a long filiform tail (418-654 μm in females, 382-455 μm in males). Molecular analysis of M. composticola based on sequence of the 18S rDNA placed it close to M. composticola (GU943511; GU943512; from Belgium) and M. striatus (AY593924; from The Netherlands) in a well supported clade (1.00 posterior probability). Measurements, illustrations, LM and SEM pictures, and the phylogenetic position of M. composticola are given.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae) from Mus musculus in India

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Anshu; Goswami, Urvashi; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

    2016-01-01

    Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae) has generally been infected with a rodent hookworm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. In this report, we present morphological and molecular identification of N. brasiliensis by light and scanning electron microscopy and PCR amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and the protein sequences encoded by cox1 gene, respectively. Despite the use of N. brasiliensis in many biochemistry studies from India, their taxonomic identification was not fully understood, especially at the species level, and no molecular data is available in GenBank from India. Sequence analysis of cox1 gene in this study revealed that the present specimen showed close identity with the same species available in GenBank, confirming that the species is N. brasiliensis. This study represents the first record of molecular identification of N. brasiliensis from India and the protein structure to better understand the comparative phylogenetic characteristics. PMID:28095659

  13. Desiccation tolerance of Muellerius cf. capillaris (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) first-stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Solomon, A; Ilan, P; Itamar, G

    1998-08-01

    Muellerius cf. capillaris is the most common lung worm of wild Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) in the northern Negev desert, Israel. The capacity of the free-living stages (L1) of the parasite to survive extreme desiccation was tested under 2 different dehydration regimes at 23 C: rapid dehydration through direct exposure to 0% relative humidity (RH), and a slow dehydration regime of preconditioning at 33% RH for 7 days prior to exposure to 0% RH for a further 21 days. In direct exposures to 0% and 33% RH, by day 11 survival rates of L1 were significantly higher than when stored in water and in 97% RH (P < 0.05). The slow dehydration regime enhanced the survival of L1 up to 10-fold by day 28 as compared with direct exposure to 0% RH. The same mean numbers of larvae were recovered from the land snail Theba pisana infected with L1 exposed for 21 days at 33% RH and from T. pisana infected with nondesiccated L1 (P > 0.1). L1 surviving after 21 days of desiccation at 0% RH were, on the other hand, less infective to T. pisana. The percentage of such postdesiccated L1 reaching infective stage (L3) was, however, the same as that of the control group. The ability of M. cf. capillaris L1 to survive anhydrobiosis and retain infectivity to land snails after extreme desiccation enables their coexistence with the Nubian ibex in desert habitat.

  14. A New Species and New Combinations of Brevitobrilus Tsalolikhin, 1981 (Nematoda: Tobrilidae) from Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ocaña, A.; Hernández, J. A.; Martín, I.

    1996-01-01

    A new species of Brevitobrilus Tsalolikhin, Brevitobrilus montanus n. sp., found in high mountain lakes and rivers in Granada, Spain, is described. Additional data on Brevitobrilus granatensis (Ocafia &Zullini, 1988) n. comb. are provided. Brevitobrilus raontanus n. sp. is characterized by moderate size (1.3-1.8 mm), amphid aperture width one-quarter the head width, subterminal seta distance from terminus four times the width of the terminal end of the tail, and supplements S5 and S6 separated. Tobrilus granatensis Ocafia &Zullini, 1988; Tobrilus sardus Vinciguerra &Zullini, 1991; and Tobrilus siculus Vinciguerra &Zullini, 1991 are all transferred to Brevitobrilus. Differences among the 13 species of Brevitobrilus are discussed. PMID:19277134

  15. Paragnomoxyala gen. nov. (Xyalidae, Monhysterida, Nematoda) from the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weijun; Huang, Yong

    2015-11-05

    A new genus, Paragnomoxyala gen. nov., and a new species, Paragnomoxyala breviseta sp. nov. are described from the East China Sea. Paragnomoxyala gen. nov. is characterized by having large funnel-shaped buccal cavity with cuticularized walls and extended anteriorly; lips very high; striated cuticle; four cephalic setae, absence of outer labial setae; circular amphidial fovea; straight spicules and absence of gubernaculum; tail conico-cylindrical with three terminal setae; female monodelphic with an anterior outstretched ovary. It differs from similar genera by having a large buccal cavity unique in Xyalidae, straight spicules, lacking gubernaculum, and conico-cylindrical tail with terminal setae. Paragnomoxyala breviseta sp. nov. is characterized by having a large funnel-shaped buccal cavity, with cuticularized walls and extended anteriorly, 1.6-1.8 hd long and 63-79% cbd wide; four cephalic setae 3-4 µm long; circular amphids 6-9 µm in diameter; spicules straight but slightly bent at both ends; absence of gubernaculum and precloacal supplement.

  16. Re-description of Craspodema reflectans (Nematoda, Cyatholaimidae) using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Semprucci, Federica; Burattini, Sabrina

    2015-06-12

    Craspodema reflectans, erected by Gerlach 1964, is here re-described from some specimens recently found in the Maldivian archipelago and the implication of the new findings for the taxonomy of the Craspodema genus is discussed. Accordingly, an emended diagnosis of Craspodema genus and C. reflectans species are proposed. New data are also provided with the aid of the confocal laser scanning microscopy, using the natural fluorescence of the nematodes. The approach described here lays new foundations for the study of Museum collection material and it may be decisive for capture of new morphological details.

  17. Surgical extraction of intraocular Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in a horse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Case Description – A 4-year-old Hanoverian horse from Wisconsin presented for evaluation of a worm-like structure in the anterior chamber of the right eye. Clinical Findings – Ophthalmic examination of the right eye revealed a white, thin, mobile parasite, presumably a nematode, present in the ventr...

  18. Host status and damage potential of Paratrichodorus renifer and Pratylenchus penetrans (Nematoda) to blueberry (Vaccinium spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stubby root nematodes (Paratrichodorus species) and root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus species) have been associated with blueberry in most blueberry-growing regions of North America. Relatively little is known, however, of the host status and pathogenicity of these nematodes to blueberry. We per...

  19. A new species of the genus Discolaimus Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida: Qudsianematidae) from Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Jia; Yan, Lin; Xu, Chun-Ling; Wang, Ke; Jin, Sheng-Ying; Xie, Hui

    2016-03-07

    A new species of the family Qudsianematidae Jairajpuri, 1965 collected from soil from Qinghai Province, China is described as Discolaimus anemaqen n. sp. It is mainly characterized by having a disc-like lip region with six labial sectors separated by six Y-shaped radial grooves; amphid fovea an inverted-stirrup shape; odontostyle aperture 53-59% of its length; anterior part of pharynx with two swellings, basal part expanded gradually with a sheath of tissue visible ventrally and at the base; no groups of large cells observed in cardiac region; female genital system amphidelphic; tail dorsally convex, conoid, with flat ventral side and bluntly rounded terminus, and males not found. The new species is close to D. major Thorne, 1939, D. similis Thorne, 1939 and D. silvicolus Sauer & Annells, 1985 in most measurements, but can be differentiated from them by lip morphology, pharynx structure, body size, and tail shape. A key to the species of Discolaimus is also provided.

  20. COI haplotype groups in Mesocriconema (Nematoda: Criconematidae) and their morphospecies associations.

    PubMed

    Powers, T O; Bernard, E C; Harris, T; Higgins, R; Olson, M; Lodema, M; Mullin, P; Sutton, L; Powers, K S

    2014-07-03

    Without applying an a priori bias for species boundaries, specimen identities in the plant-parasitic nematode genus Mesocriconema were evaluated by examining mitochondrial COI nucleotide sequences, morphology, and biogeography. A total of 242 specimens that morphologically conformed to the genus were individually photographed, measured, and amplified by a PCR primer set to preserve the linkage between specimen morphology and a specific DNA barcode sequence. Specimens were extracted from soil samples representing 45 locations across 23 ecoregions in North America. Dendrograms constructed by neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian Inference using a 721-bp COI barcode were used to group COI haplotypes. Each tree-building approach resulted in 24 major haplotype groups within the dataset. The distinctiveness of these groups was evaluated by node support, genetic distance, absence of intermediates, and several measures of distinctiveness included in software used for the exploration of species boundaries. Five of the 24 COI haplotype groups corresponded to morphologically characterized, Linnaean species. Morphospecies conforming to M. discus, Discocriconemella inarata, M. rusticum, M. onoense, and M. kirjanovae were represented by groups composed of multiple closely related or identical COI haplotypes. In other cases, morphospecies names could be equally applied to multiple haplotype groups that were genetically distant from each other. Identification based on morphology alone resulted in M. curvatum and M. ornatum species designations applied to seven and three groups, respectively. Morphological characters typically used for species level identification were demonstrably variable within haplotype groups, suggesting caution in assigning species names based on published compendia that solely consider morphological characters. Morphospecies classified as M. xenoplax formed a monophyletic group composed of seven genetically distinct COI subgroups. The species Discocriconemella inarata is transferred to Mesocriconema inaratum based on its phylogenetic position on the COI tree as well as previous phylogenetic analyses using 18S, ITS1, and cytochrome b nucleotide sequences. This study indicates that some of the species considered cosmopolitan in their distribution are actually multispecies polyphyletic groupings and an accurate assessment of Mesocriconema species distributions will benefit from molecular determination of haplotype relationships. The groups revealed by COI analysis should provide a useful framework for the evaluation of additional Mesocriconema species and will improve the reliability of designating taxonomic units in studies of nematode biodiversity. 

  1. Paratylenchus shenzhenensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Paratylenchinae) from the rhizosphere soil of Anthurium andraeanum in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Xie, Hui; Li, Yu; Xu, Chun-Ling; Yu, Lu; Wang, Dong-Wei

    2013-12-18

    Paratylenchus shenzhenensis n. sp. was collected from the rhizosphere soil of Anthurium andraeanum in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. The new species is characterized by having a female with a small body (249-302 μm), well developed stylet (17-21 μm), rounded head with four submedian lobes and lip-region with a slight depression at the oral area, small post-vulval uterine sac with a few vestigial cells; male with body dorsally curved behind the cloacal opening, stylet absent, pharynx degenerate, prominent penial sheath; and juveniles with a stylet. It is morphologically similar to P. minutus. The internal transcribed spacer sequences of ribosomal DNA (ITS-rDNA) of the new species only have 72-73% identity with P. minutus, confirming its status as a separate species. The D2/D3 region of 28S ribosomal DNA (28S rDNA) and 18S small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) from P. shenzhenensis n. sp. were also amplified and sequenced in this study. 

  2. Description of Schistonchus altissimus n. sp. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), an associate of Ficus altissima in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yongsan; Ye, Weimin; Huang, Jianghua; Li, Changhui; Giblin-Davis, Robin M

    2013-01-01

    A new nematode species was recovered from the syconia of Ficus altissima from the residential area of Huajingxincheng, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China during a survey of nematode diversity. Schistonchus altissimus n. sp. is characterised by having females with a short post-uterine sac, an ovoid spermatheca and a conoid tail with a mucron in the female, excretory pore located near the lip; and males with amoeboid sperm, a conoid tail without a mucron and three pairs of subventral papillae, no gubernaculum, and hook-shaped spicules with a cucullus and a thorn-shaped rostrum. Schistonchus altissimus n. sp. is typologically differentiated from all other described species in this genus, except for S. microcarpus, by having a spicule with cucullus on the male tail tip. Schistonchus altissimus n. sp. is easily differentiated from other sequenced species by the partial small subunit rRNA gene (SSU), D3 expansion segment of the large subunit rRNA gene (LSU) and mitochondrial DNA subunit I (mtCOI). Phylogenetic analysis with partial SSU sequences suggests that S. altissimus n. sp. is in a highly supported monophyletic clade with two Chinese species (S. microcarpus and S. centerae) and two neotropical species (S. aureus and Schistonchus sp. ex Ficus colubrinae Standl.). Based on inferences using LSU D3 sequence data, S. altissimus n. sp. has a closer relationship with four Chinese species (S. centerae, S. fistulosus, S. guangzhouensis and S. microcarpus) than with S. hirtus and S. superbus, also from China.

  3. Swedish Plectida (Nematoda). Part 4. The genus Leptolaimus de Man, 1876.

    PubMed

    Holovachov, Oleksandr; Boström, Sven

    2013-11-25

    Twelve known and nine new species of Leptolaimus are described from bottom sediments collected in marine habitats of Sweden, including the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay, the Baltic Sea proper, Gullmarn Fjord and the Skagerrak. Three of these species have been previously recorded in Sweden while nine are new records for the Swedish fauna. The following known species are redescribed: Leptolaimus papilliger de Man, 1876, L. cupulatus Lorenzen, 1972, L. danicus Jensen, 1978, L. donsi (Allgén, 1946) comb. n., L. mixtus Lorenzen, 1972, L. pellucidus (Southern, 1914) comb. n., L. venustus Lorenzen, 1972, L. lorenzeni (Boucher & de Bovée, 1972) comb. n., L. alatus Vitiello, 1971, L. macer Lorenzen, 1972, L. septempapillatus Platt, 1973, L. elegans (Schuurmans Stekhoven & De Coninck, 1933) Gerlach, 1958. Leptolaimus primus sp. n. is characterised by the 319-472 µm long body; rounded labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 1.5-2.0 µm long; amphid located 7.0-11.5 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 18.5-28.0 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 35 µm from anterior end; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male without tubular and with four alveolar supplements, alveolar supplements without sclerotized inner ring; spicules arcuate and 13.5-16.0 µm long. Leptolaimus secundus sp. n. is characterised by the 576-645 µm long body; rounded labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 2.0 µm long; amphid located 6.5-7.0 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 23.0-28.5 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 18.0-23.0 µm from anterior end; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male with single tubular and 9-15 alveolar supplements, tubular supplement weakly arcuate with blunt tips, alveolar supplements with sclerotized lining; spicules arcuate and 23.0-26.5 µm long. Leptolaimus tertius sp. n. is characterised by the 576-579 µm long body; rounded labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 2 µm long; amphid located 4-5 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 21.0-23.5 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 26-29 µm from anterior end; male with four tubular and 7-10 alveolar supplements, tubular supplements weakly arcuate with blunt tips, alveolar supplements with sclerotized inner ring; spicules arcuate and 25-26 µm long. Leptolaimus quartus sp. n. is characterised by the 597-686 mm long body; rounded labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 2.0-3.5 µm long; amphid located 5.0-7.0 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 23.5-27.0 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 19.0-27.0 µm from anterior end; male with three tubular and 8-9 alveolar supplements, tubular supplements straight with blunt expanded tips, alveolar supplements with sclerotized inner ring; spicules arcuate and 23.0-25.0 µm long. Leptolaimus quintus sp. n. is characterised by the 443-528 µm long body; rounded labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 1.0-2.0 µm long; amphid located 7.0-10.0 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 18.0-28.5 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 25.0-41.0 µm from anterior end; female with two tubular supplements (one just posterior to cardia and one in front of anus), vagina without pars refringens, vulva right-sublateral; male with 8-10 tubular and without alveolar supplements, tubular supplements weakly arcuate with anchor-like tips; spicules arcuate and 17.0-22.0 µm long. Leptolaimus sextus sp. n. is characterised by the 626-728 µm long body; truncated labial region offset from body contour; cephalic setae 1.5-2.0 µm long; amphid located 8.0-12.0 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 41.0-48.5 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 28.0-41.0 µm from anterior end; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male with five (rarely six) tubular and without alveolar supplements, tubular supplements weakly S-shaped with bifid tips; spicules arcuate and 39.0-46.0 µm long. Leptolaimus septimus sp. n. is characterised by the 679-850 µm long body; truncate labial region offset from body contour; cephalic setae 2.5-3.5 µm long; amphid located 8.5-11.5 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 37.0-44.0 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 26.5-37.0 µm from anterior end; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male with four (rarely five) tubular and without alveolar supplements, tubular supplements weakly S-shaped, with bifid or blunt tips; spicules arcuate and 31.0-33.5 µm long. Leptolaimus octavus sp. n. is characterised by the 541-638 µm long body; truncate labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 1.5-2.0 µm long; amphid located 8.5-12.0 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 31.5-41.0 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 26.0-40.0 µm from anterior end and expanding into bursa-like structures along the tail; female without supplements, vagina without pars refringens, vulva midventral; male with four tubular and without alveolar supplements, tubular supplements weakly S-shaped with dentate tips; spicules arcuate and 30.0-31.5 µm long. Leptolaimus nonus sp. n. is characterised by the 403-633 µm long body; rounded labial region continuous with body contour; cephalic setae 1.5-3.0 µm long; amphid located 8.0-10.0 µm from anterior end; first body pore located 16.5-29.0 µm from anterior end; lateral field originating 47.0-99.0 µm from anterior end and expanding into bursa-like structures along the proximal part of the tail; female without supplements, vagina with bacilliform pars refringens, vulva right-subventral; male with 4-5 tubular and without alveolar supplements, tubular supplements weakly arcuate with dentate tips; spicules arcuate and 17.0-26.0 µm long. The following nomenclatorial changes are proposed: Eutelolaimus donsi Allgén, 1947 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus, as L. donsi (Allgén, 1947) comb. n.; Halaphanolaimus cangionensis Gagarin & Nguyen Vu Thanh, 2007 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus, as L. cangionensis (Gagarin & Nguyen Vu Thanh, 2007) comb. n.; Halaphanolaimus harpaga Boucher & de Bovée, 1972 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus, as L. harpaga (Boucher & de Bovée, 1972) comb. n.; Halaphanolaimus lorenzeni Boucher & de Bovée, 1972 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus, as L. lorenzeni (Boucher & de Bovée, 1972) comb. n.; Halaphanolaimus pellucidus Southern, 1914 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus, as L. pellucidus (Southern, 1914) comb. n.; Halaphanolaimus rivalis Gagarin & Nguyen Vu Thanh, 2007 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus, as L. rivalis (Gagarin & Nguyen Vu Thanh, 2007) comb. n.; Halaphanolaimus marinus Kamran, Nasira & Shahina, 2010 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus as L. marinus (Kamran, Nasira & Shahina, 2010) comb. n. and considered a junior synonym of Leptolaimus rivalis (Gagarin & Nguyen Vu Thanh, 2007) comb. n.; Halaphanolaimus sergeevae Ürkmez & Brennan, 2013 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus as L. sergeevae (Ürkmez & Brennan, 2013) comb. n.; Leptolaimus vitielloi nom. nov. is proposed for Leptolaimus minutus Vitiello, 1971 nec L. minutus (Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1942) comb. n.; Polylaimium exile Cobb, 1920 is transferred to the genus Leptolaimus, as L. exilis (Cobb, 1920) comb. n. and is considered species inquirendae. A taxonomic review, tabular compendium and identification key for species of the genus Leptolaimus are also given. 

  4. New Cyst Nematode, Heterodera sojae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Soybean in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Heonil; Eun, Geun; Ha, Jihye; Kim, Yongchul; Park, Namsook; Kim, Donggeun; Choi, Insoo

    2016-01-01

    A new soybean cyst nematode Heterodera sojae n. sp. was found from the roots of soybean plants in Korea. Cysts of H. sojae n. sp. appeared more round, shining, and darker than that of H. glycines. Morphologically, H. sojae n. sp. differed from H. glycines by fenestra length (23.5–54.2 µm vs. 30–70 µm), vulval silt length (9.0–24.4 µm vs. 43–60 µm), tail length of J2 (54.3–74.8 µm vs. 40–61 µm), and hyaline part of J2 (32.6–46.3 µm vs. 20–30 µm). It is distinguished from H. elachista by larger cyst (513.4–778.3 µm × 343.4–567.1 µm vs. 350–560 µm × 250–450 µm) and longer stylet length of J2 (23.8–25.3 µm vs. 17–19 µm). Molecular analysis of rRNA large subunit (LSU) D2–D3 segments and ITS gene sequence shows that H. sojae n. sp. is more close to rice cyst nematode H. elachista than H. glycines. Heterodera sojae n. sp. was widely distributed in Korea. It was found from soybean fields of all three provinces sampled. PMID:28154434

  5. Description of Sectonema septentrionale sp. n. (Nematoda: Dorylaimida: Aporcelaimidae) from Northern Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Peña-Santiago, Reyes; Álvarez-Ortega, Sergio

    2015-04-17

    A new species of the genus Sectonema, collected from natural forests in the Spanish provinces of León and Palencia, is described and illustrated with line drawings and LM pictures. Sectonema septentrionale sp. n. is characterized by its 5.59-6.90 mm long body, lip region 25-29 μm broad and offset by deep constriction, mural tooth 18-19 μm long at its ventral side and occupying most of the stomatal lumen, pharyngeal expansion 618-926 μm long or 60-73% of total neck length, uterus tripartite and 370-493 μm long or 2.9-4.3 times the corresponding body diameter, V = 48-52, tail short and rounded (40-62 μm, c = 108-146, c' = 0.6-0.8), spicules 100-145 μm long, and 5-11 irregularly spaced ventromedian supplements with hiatus. It is very close to S. demani, but differs both in the nature of the mural tooth and of the uterus.

  6. Lanzavecchia mangrovi sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) from mangroves of Red River Estuary, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2014-02-12

    A new nematode species found in the Red River Estuary of Vietnam is described. Lanzavecchia mangrovi sp. n. is morphologically close to L. coomansi Nicholas, Stewart, 1984, but differs in its longer body (L = 2.71-3.76 µm versus L = 2.2-2.9 µm), shorter spicules (63-65 mm versus 72-88), longer prerectum (500-675 mm versus 262-310 µm) and shorter distal portion of tail in relation to the proximal portion (0.6-0.8 versus 0.9-2.3).

  7. Cattiena fansipanis n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhigonematida: Carnoyidae) from a millipede (Myriapoda: Diplopoda: Spirobolida) in North Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Malysheva, Svetlana V; Van Luc, Pham

    2012-02-01

    A new species of Cattiena Hunt & Spiridonov, 2001 from a diplopod (Spirobolida: Pseudospirobolellidae Brolemann) collected near Sa Pa, Lao Cai Province, Vietnam, is described. Females of Cattiena fansipanis n. sp. are closely related to females of two other known species of the genus, C. trachelomegali Hunt & Spiridonov, 2001 and C. trigoniuli Hunt & Spiridonov, 2001, but can be distinguished by the distinctly more anterior position of the vulva, abrupt constriction of the body at the vulval level, presence of two swollen portions of the oviducts, and longer body and tail. Males of new species differ by having a rounded cephalic region followed by 13-14 annules which are larger than those which follow them, a different size and shape of the spicules and gubernaculum, and body and tail length. Three size groups of juveniles were found in the host gut lumen, presumably representing second, third and fourth juvenile stages. The morphology of the juvenile stages is described.

  8. A new species of free-living marine nematode (Nematoda: Chromadoridae) from the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Chunming, Wang; Liguo, An; Yong, Huang

    2015-04-15

    A new species of free-living marine nematodes, Ptycholaimellus longibulbus sp. nov., is described from the East China Sea. Ptycholaimellus longibulbus sp. nov. is characterized by having body length of about 1100-1400 μm, cephalic seta 9 µm long (half a head diameter), a relatively long double posterior pharyngeal bulb occupying 44-49% of pharyngeal length, a voluminous ventral gland with a large ampulla, cuticle with transverse rows of punctations and lateral differentiation with two longitudinal rows of thick dots, relatively long spicules 45-55 μm long, an arcuate gubernaculum 25 µm long, and a conico-cylindrical tail with a distinct long finger-like spinneret. A key to species of Ptycholaimellus is given.

  9. Heth impalutiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Ransomnematoidea: Hethidae) a millipede parasite from Central Mindanao, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Malysheva, Svetlana V; Mohagan, Alma B; Spiridonov, Sergei E

    2015-03-04

    The nematode Heth impalutiensis n. sp. is described from an unidentified spirostreptid millipede (Harpagophoridae) from the Bukidnon Province of Mindanao, the Philippines. Based on morphological characters, H. impalutiensis n. sp. is closest to Asian-Pacific representatives of the genus. Females of H. impalutiensis n. sp. are close to H. dimorphum and H. vietnamensis in body size and form of the lateral lappets, but can be distinguished by the significantly longer tail. Males of H. impalutiensis n. sp. strongly resemble that of H. xaniophora by the presence of such a rare character combinations as mammiform papillae and a bursa-like cuticular fold, but can be easily differentiated by the numbers of genital papillae (7 vs 6 pairs, respectively). Heth impalutiensis n. sp. can be distinguished from all nominal species by hypertrophy of the anterior anal lip in females which overlaps the anal aperture. Phylogenetic analysis based on the newly obtained set of sequences did not provide an evidence of infraorder Rhigonematomorpha monophyly as two superfamilies Ransomnematoidea and Rhigonematoidea formed independent clades in the frames of ascaridid-spirurid-oxyurid super clade (Clade III of Nadler et al., 2007).

  10. Steinernema poinari sp. n. (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) a new entomopathogenic nematode from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Mráček, Zdeněk; Nermuť, Jiří

    2014-02-03

    A new steinernematid nematode, herein described as Steinernema poinari sp. n., was recovered by baiting soil samples with the last instar wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella in three localities of southwest Bohemia, Czech Republic. Morphological and molecular data confirmed this nematode as a new species which belongs to the affine/intermedium group. S. poinari sp. n. was characterized by male, female and infective juvenile morphological observations. Male spicules are robust with a pointed tip, SW% = 109 (98-123) and GS% = 70 (58-87). The tail terminus of the first generation have a papillated mucron, whereas in the second generation a short filamentous mucron sometimes develops. Females of the first generation have a moderately protruding vulva, postanal swelling absent or slightly developed. Second generation females have a long filamentous mucron on the tail tip. Infective juvenile have a body length of 768 µm, lateral field formula 2, 5, 6, 5, 2, 1, ratio D% of 46 (40-55), E% of 84 (76-95) and H% of 50 (43-56). The new species was characterized by sequences of ITS and D2D3 regions of ribosomal DNA. S. poinari sp. n. can also be separated from S. affine and S. intermedium by cross-breeding tests.

  11. Two new species of Parasaveljevia Wieser, 1953 (Thoracostomopsidae, Nematoda) from Argentinean coasts (Chubut, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Pastor, Catalina; Lo Russo, Virginia; Villares, Gabriela

    2015-10-06

    Two new Parasavaljevia species are described, one from Puerto Madryn, and one from El Límite beach, San Jorge Gulf, Chubut Province, Argentina. The two species are characterised by a combination of characters. Parasavaljevia uncinoa n. sp. is characterised by having a long rectangular cirrus, positioned at the level of the inner labial setae, rectangular mandibles with prominent lateral hooks bearing denticles in three lines of nine each, and six cephalic setae of the same length, inserted at the anterior end of a small head capsule. Parasavaljevia limitense n. sp. is characterized by having a cirrus posterior positioned, between the labial and cephalic setae, rectangular-arched mandibles bearing denticles in five lines of ten each in a gradient of sizes; a small buccal cavity, small cephalic capsule and abundant cervical setae (4+10). An emendation of the genus diagnosis and a new key are given and discussed.

  12. Two new species of free-living marine nematodes (Nematoda: Oncholaimida: Enchelidiidae) from Maemul Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jung-Ho; Lee, Wonchoel

    2014-04-04

    Two new species of the family Enchelidiidae Filipjev, 1918 were collected from marine sediments near Maemul Island in South Korea: a new species of Abelbolla Huang & Zhang, 2004 and a new species of Ledovitia Filipjev, 1927. Abelbolla maemulensis sp. nov. is characterized by its small size (1,493 × 38 µm, body length × maximum body diameter); the presence of a circular amphid; the gubernacular apophysis with swollen distal tip; and the complex structure of the gubernaculum. It is close to Abelbolla huanghaiensis Huang & Zhang, 2004, but differs by the structure of gubernacular apophysis and body length (1,493 vs 2,303 µm). Ledovitia brevis sp. nov. can be separated from its congeners by its small size of body, the length of gubernacular apophysis, and the length of the spicules. It is close to Ledovitia pharetrata Wieser, 1953a, but differs by the length of the body (1,699 vs 2,640 µm) and the spicules (40 vs 100 µm).

  13. The diet of Enoplus brevis (Nematoda) in a supralittoral salt marsh of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwig-Armonies, Monika; Armonies, Werner; Lorenzen, Sievert

    1991-09-01

    The gut content of nearly 2000 specimens of Enoplus brevis was quantitatively analysed. E. brevis is an opportunistic omnivore. Main food categories found were cyanobacteria, diatoms, oligochaetes, nematodes, and rotifers. With a few exceptions, the diet of females and males was identical. Predominantly, juveniles fed on cyanobacteria and adults on animal prey. Experiments revealed that living oligochaetes are attacked and preyed upon. The quantities of the food categories eaten by Enoplus varied according to their ambient abundance, both temporarily and spatially on a small scale. At least the nematode prey was strongly selected: some species were significantly preferred and others avoided.

  14. Revision of the species complex Amidostomum acutum (Lundahl, 1848) (Nematoda: Amidostomatidae) by use of molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Polasik, Daniel; Dzierzba, Emil; Jędrzejczak, Małgorzata; Kalisińska, Elżbieta; Rząd, Izabella

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is to confirm the species differentiation of the nematodes of the Amidostomatidae family: Amidostomoides acutum (Lundahl, 1848) Lomakin, 1991; Amidostomoides monodon (Linstow, 1882) Lomakin, 1991, and Amidostomoides petrovi (Shakhtahtinskaya, 1956) Lomakin, 1991, which still are used in the parasitological literature as synonyms of Amidostomum acutum (Lundahl, 1848). The research material consisted of nematodes isolated from gizzards of dabbling ducks from the north-west of Poland. To confirm the species differentiation, DNA from the nematodes was isolated and approximately 630bp of the 28S rRNA gene were sequenced. The obtained DNA sequences were tabulated and then phylogenetic analysis were conducted using the UPGMA method. The results of the research distinctly diversify the nematodes of the genus Amidostomoides at the DNA level, which together with morphological and ecological differences among them (hosts from different systematic groups) enables to classify them into the separate species.

  15. Two new species of Chromadoridae (Chromadorida: Nematoda) from the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Gao, Qun

    2016-07-26

    Two new species of Chromadoridae, a family of free-living marine nematodes, are described from intertidal sediments of the East China Sea. Ptycholaimellus pirus sp. nov. is characterized by having a cuticle with six longitudinal rows of double dots and long somatic setae, relatively long cephalic setae, a pear-shaped terminal pharyngeal bulb occupying less than 30% of pharyngeal length, and an elongate conical tail. The new species is distinguished from all related species by the unique character of the cuticle, with six longitudinal rows of horizontal double dots, and the pear-shaped terminal pharyngeal bulb. Hypodontolaimus ventrapophyses sp. nov. is characterized by having a cylindrical body with a slightly expanded anterior end and a conical tail, a homogeneous cuticle with lateral differentiation of two longitudinal rows of larger dots, a well developed pharynx with oval-shaped buccal bulb and terminal bulb, and a large ventral gland. Males have slender, strongly curved spicules and a gubernaculum with a ventral apophysis, and precloacal supplements are absent. The new species differs from all related species in this genus by the structure of the gubernaculum, which has a ventral apophysis.

  16. Heterorhabditis pakistanense n. sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) a new entomopathogenic nematode from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shahina, F; Tabassum, K A; Salma, J; Mehreen, G; Knoetze, R

    2017-03-01

    A new entomopathogenic nematode species of Heterorhabditis, described as H. pakistanense n. sp., was isolated from soil samples around the roots of grass at Malir, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. The new species is characterized morphologically by features of males: body size 819 μm (720-1013 μm), D% ((distance from anterior end to excretory pore divided by pharynx length) × 100) 119 (110-126), SW% ((spicule length divided by anal body diameter) × 100) 156 (144-191), GS% ((gubernaculum length divided by spicule length) × 100) 58 (48-65) and variations in the number of bursal papillae of the terminal group: 8th and 9th papillae sometimes absent on both sides, sometimes eight papillae present on the right side whereas six papillae present on the left side. On the right side the arrangement of papillae is 1 + 2 + 3 + 2 whereas on the left side it is 1 + 2 + 3. The hermaphrodite has a prominent post-anal swelling and a conoid tail 82 μm (64-95 μm) long with a pointed terminus. Hermaphrodites of H. pakistanense n. sp. can be distinguished from all species of Heterorhabditis except H. downesi by having a mucronate tail. Infective juveniles have a medium-sized body (581 μm (558-624 μm)), long pharynx (117 μm (113-125 μm)), ensheathed tail (99 μm (95-110 μm)) and E% ((distance from anterior end to excretory pore divided by tail length) × 100) 100 (95-107). The new species can be distinguished from all species of Heterorhabditis by the absence of the 7th, 8th and 9th bursal papillae. Heterorhabditis pakistanense is further characterized by the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the D2D3 region of the 28S rDNA gene. The closest species H. indica, H. gerrardi, H. amazonensis and H. noenieputensis being separated by 9, 7, 66 and 15 bp, respectively, in the ITS region. Molecular phylogenetic trees based on sequences of ITS rDNA, D2D3 regions and the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene support the description of H. pakistanense as a new species.

  17. Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a high lip region with three annuli, stylet mean length of 16 micrometers with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, l...

  18. A new method for loading Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) on adult Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Togashi, Katsumi

    2004-06-01

    A new method was developed for loading the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle, on the beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope. Postdiapause beetle larvae were sterilized with 70 and 99.9% aqueous ethanol and placed singly in flasks where B. xylophilus reproduced on the fungus Ophiostoma minus (Hedgcock) H. et P. Sydow that had been grown on autoclaved barley grain and Pinus densifiora Sieb. et Zucc. wood chips. The fungus produced a large nematode population that developed to a high proportion of third-stage dispersal juveniles that molted to the fourth-stage dispersal juveniles. The survival rate was 80%, and the mean nematode load was 10,096. It took a mean of 5 wk to obtain the nematode-infested beetles after the initiation of nematode rearing.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) on B. xylophilus Boarding Adult Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Jikumaru, Shota; Togashi, Katsumi

    2004-03-01

    Inhibitory effects of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus on the number of B. xylophilus carried by an adult Monochamus alternatus were investigated using artificial pupal chambers. When pupal chambers were infested with either B. xylophilus or B. mucronatus, the load of B. xylophilus onto the beetle was greater (P < 0.001) than that of B. mucronatus. However, within the pupal chamber there was no difference in the abundance of the third-stage dispersal juveniles, which would molt to the fourth-stage dispersal juveniles to board beetles. The nematode load on beetles that emerged from pupal chambers infested with both Bursaphelenchus species was smaller (P = 0.015) than that of beetles with B. xylophilus alone but greater (P < 0.001) than that of beetles with B. mucronatus alone, suggesting an inhibitory effect of B. mucronatus. As a result of this study, the rate of inhibition of B. mucronatus on molting of third-stage dispersal juveniles of B. xylophilus to fourth-stage dispersal juveniles was 0.65, which resulted in great inhibition on boarding beetles at a rate of 0.7.

  20. A new species of Pterygodermatites (Nematoda: Rictulariidae) from the Incan shrew opossum, Lestoros inca.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, F Agustín; Patterson, Bruce D

    2012-06-01

    Pterygodermatites ( Paucipectines ) hymanae n. sp. (Rictulariidae) collected from the Incan shrew opossum, Lestoros inca , from Peru is described herein. These nematodes show a subapical, slightly dorsal oral opening and a laterally compressed buccal capsule with 2 conspicuous lateral walls and a dorsal wall. Each lateroventral wall possesses 4 relatively large denticles, and the dorsal wall has 6 denticles. Females are characterized by a conspicuously large postvulvar 37th spine, which may reach 1 mm. This is the first record of endoparasites in the Incan shrew opossum and the fifth species of Pterygodermatites recorded in New World marsupials.

  1. Photomicrographic images of some features of Uncinaria spp (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) from otariid pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L

    2005-03-01

    Photomicrographs of several morphologic features of hookworms (Uncinaria spp) from northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups are presented. The main purpose is to show and describe some physical characteristics of hookworms from the two hosts; it is not to decide from these attributes whether the Uncinaria spp are the same species. The number of species of Uncinaria in pinnipeds is uncertain and specimens need to be examined from the various infected seals and sea lions before the taxonomy of these parasites can be clarified. Information in the present paper should aid in this determination.

  2. Trichinella patagoniensis n. sp. (Nematoda), a new encapsulated species infecting carnivorous mammals in South America.

    PubMed

    Krivokapich, Silvio J; Pozio, Edoardo; Gatti, Graciana M; Prous, Cinthia L Gonzalez; Ribicich, Mabel; Marucci, Gianluca; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Confalonieri, Viviana

    2012-09-01

    Until a few years ago, Trichinella spiralis was the only taxon of the genus Trichinella detected in both domestic and wild animals of South America. Recently, a new genotype, named Trichinella T12, was identified in cougars (Puma concolor) from Argentina, on the basis of molecular studies using mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal markers. In the present study, cross-breeding experiments indicated that Trichinella T12 is reproductively isolated from all other encapsulated Trichinella spp. and suggested that it is biologically more similar to Trichinella britovi and Trichinella murrelli than to the other encapsulated species/genotypes. Biological assays revealed that the reproductive capacity index of Trichinella T12 was ~4 and >2000 times lower than those of T. spiralis in mice and rats, respectively. The reproductive capacity index of Trichinella T12 in domestic pigs ranged from 0.0 to 0.05. Larvae parasitising the muscles of carnivores were infective to mice after freezing at -5°C for 3 months, but they lost infectivity after freezing at -18°C for 1 week. The region within the rDNA, known as the expansion segment V, showed a unique sequence which differs from those of all other known Trichinella spp./genotypes. The biological, geographical and molecular data support the classification of the genotype Trichinella T12 as a new species widespread in the Neotropical region, for which we propose the name Trichinella patagoniensis n. sp.

  3. Molecular and morphological characterization of Contracaecum pelagicum (Nematoda) parasitizing Spheniscus magellanicus (Chordata) from Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Borges, Juliana Novo; Santos, Helena Lúcia Carneiro; Brandão, Martha Lima; dos Santos, Everton Gustavo Nunes; de Miranda, Daniele Ferreira; Balthazar, Daniel de Almeida; Luque, José Luis; Santos, Cláudia Portes

    2014-03-01

    Three new sequences of Mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit 2 (mtDNA cox-2) from C. pelagicum parasite of Spheniscus magellanicus, the Magelanicus penguin, were determined from Brazilian waters. The sequences presented 99 and 98% of similarity with C. pelagicum sequences from Argentina, deposited on GenBank for the same genetic region and with a strong statistical support inferred from the phylogenetic tree. The morphological and ultrastructural studies that were carried out confirmed the genetic analysis.

  4. [Experimental infection of 2 species of laboratory rodents with invasive larvae of Elaphostrongylus cervi (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea)].

    PubMed

    Demiaszkiewicz, A W

    1989-01-01

    Single doses (from 300 to 1000 larvi per an animal) of invasive larvae E. cervi Cameron, 1931, obtained from experimentally infected snails Helix pomatia L. were given to 17 guinea pigs and 17 golden hamsters. Clinical nervous symptoms in the form of paresis and paralysis of limbs occurred only in the guinea pigs which were given a dose of 1000 larvi. These animals died in the period from the 75th to 117th day of infection. From their central nervous system single adult males and females of E. cervi were isolated. In the lungs and mesenteries of 2 dead pigs live larvae of E. cervi were found. This fact proves that the guinea pig can fulfil the role of a final and a paratenic host of E. cervi. No clinical symptoms were noticed in any hamster. In hamsters dissected on the 7th day of infection live larvae of E. cervi were found in the mesentery and in the fleshy part of the diaphgram. After 14 days the larvae found both in the mesentery and in the diaphragm were dead and surrounded by cellular infiltration. A strong tissue reaction of the hamster after the administration of E. cervi larvae is responsible for the larvae destruction and resorption.

  5. Pseudolella major sp. nov. (Axonolaimidae, Nematoda) from the intertidal zone of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunming; Huang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    A new species of free-living nematode, Pseudolella major sp. nov. is described from the intertidal mudflats of Ximen Island in the East China Sea. Pseudolella major sp. nov. is characterized as follows: body length ~1 300 μm; short cephalic setae, 2-3 μm long; amphidial fovea loop-shaped with elongated ventral branch; ventral branch 50-60 μm long and extending past the base of buccal cavity; buccal cavity cylindrical with arching or spherical base; three heavy outwardly-curving odontia with blunt tips located at anterior of buccal cavity; pharynx short with posterior bulb; ventral gland cell elongate oval-shaped, located posterior to pharyngo-intestinal junction; excretory pore situated at the level of the middle of buccal cavity; tail conical to cylindrical; spicules arched, with double-cephalate proximal end; gubernaculum with a strong dorsal caudal apophysis.

  6. A new species of Parodontophora (Nematoda: Axonolaimidae) from the intertidal zone of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haixia; Huang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    This study described a new species of free-living nematode discovered in the intertidal mudflat of Ximen Island, East China Sea. The new species, designated Parodontophora longiamphidata sp. nov., was characterized by a cylindrical body with tapering extremeties; cuticle smooth without somatic setae; four short cephalic setae; cylindrical buccal cavity with six clawlike teeth at the top of stoma; pharynx cylindrical with widened base; amphidial fovea crook-shaped with elongated scalariform branch extending past level of base of pharynx and ventral gland; ventral gland cell long-oval shaped located posterior to pharyngo-intestinal junction; excretory pore at level of middle of buccal cavity; tail conico-cylindrical with enlarged tip; three caudal gland cells, male spicules arched with cephalic proximal end and tapered distal end; gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophysis; female with two opposed outstretched ovaries; and vulva at slightly post-midpoint of body length. This new species was close to P. wuleidaowanensis Zhang, 2005 and P. polita Gerlach, 1955 in terms of long amphidial fovea branch. The newly found species was easily distinguishable from the two documented; its amphidial fovea branch (255-290 µm versus 72-106 and 125-150 µm) was obviously longer. Key to the Parodontophora species with a longer amphidial fovea branch was given.

  7. Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) mexicana n. sp. (Nematoda: Rictulariidae), a parasite of Balantiopteryx plicata (Chiroptera) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A new species of nematode, Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) mexicana n. sp., is described based on specimens recovered from the intestine of the gray sac-winged bat, Balantiopteryx plicata (Chiroptera, Emballonuridae), from the Biosphere Reserve “Sierra de Huautla” in the state of Morelos, Mexico. This is the second species in the genus described from bats in the New World, since most of the rictaluriids reported in these hosts belong to the closely related genus Rictularia Froelich, 1802. However, members of Rictularia possess only a single oesophageal tooth at the base of the buccal capsule, whereas in the current nematodes three conspicuous oesophageal teeth are present. They are therefore included in Pterygodermatites Wedl, 1861. The new species is characterized by the presence of 23 small denticles on the periphery of the buccal capsule and by the presence of 40 and 66 pairs of cuticular processes in males and females, respectively. Additionally, males possess 3–4 ventral precloacal fan-like processes, and the cuticular processes of females are divided into 40 pairs of comb-like and 26 pairs of spine-like processes; the vulva opens on the level of approximately pair 40. The dorsally directed stoma and the 40 prevulvar cuticular processes makes it difficult to place the species in any of the subgenera present in the New World, yet characters correspond with the diagnosis of Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) in the Mediterranean region and North Africa. PMID:24267823

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Rice White Tip Nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Danlei; Wang, Zhiying; Dong, Airong; Chen, Qiaoli; Liu, Xiaohan

    2014-01-01

    Background The rice white tip nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi, a devastating nematode whose genome has not been sequenced, is distributed widely throughout almost all the rice-growing regions of the world. The aims of the present study were to define the transcriptome of A. besseyi and to identify parasite-related, mortality-related or host resistance-overcoming genes in this nematode. Methodology and Principal Findings Using Solexa/Illumina sequencing, we profiled the transcriptome of mixed-stage populations of A. besseyi. A total of 51,270 transcripts without gaps were produced based on high-quality clean reads. Of all the A. besseyi transcripts, 9,132 KEGG Orthology assignments were annotated. Carbohydrate-active enzymes of glycoside hydrolases (GHs), glycosyltransferases (GTs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs) and carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) were identified. The presence of the A. besseyi GH45 cellulase gene was verified by in situ hybridization. Given that 13 unique A. besseyi potential effector genes were identified from 41 candidate effector homologs, further studies of these homologs are merited. Finally, comparative analyses were conducted between A. besseyi contigs and Caenorhabditis elegans genes to look for orthologs of RNAi phenotypes, neuropeptides and peptidases. Conclusions and Significance The present results provide comprehensive insight into the genetic makeup of A. besseyi. Many of this species' genes are parasite related, nematode mortality-related or necessary to overcome host resistance. The generated transcriptome dataset of A. besseyi reported here lays the foundation for further studies of the molecular mechanisms related to parasitism and facilitates the development of new control strategies for this species. PMID:24637831

  9. Redescription of Raphidascaris gigi Fujita, 1928 (Nematoda: Anisakidae), a parasite of freshwater fishes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2002-07-01

    A redescription is given of Raphidascaris gigi Fujita, 1928 based on newly collected specimens from the intestine of masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou (Brevoort) in the Kinu River in Japan. The species is characterised by the absence of interlabia and lateral alae, by the presence of lips without lateral membranous flanges and by numerous pre-anal and postanal papillae in the male. Although the general morphology of this species resembles that of Ichthyascaris spp. as defined by Bruce (1990), who transferred R. biwakoensis (= R. gigi) to this genus, the absence of the alae uniting close the ventrolateral lips shows clearly that it belongs to Raphidascaris Railliet & Henry, 1915. Ichthyascaris Wu, 1949 is here considered a subgenus of Raphidascaris, and two species described in the former genus are transferred to the latter as R. gymnocraniae (Bruce, 1990) n. comb. and R. sillagoides (Bruce, 1990) n. comb. The finding of R. gigi in O. masou represents a new host record.

  10. Illustrated identification keys to strongylid parasites (Strongylidae: Nematoda) of horses, zebras and asses (Equidae).

    PubMed

    Lichtenfels, J Ralph; Kharchenko, Vitaliy A; Dvojnos, Grigory M

    2008-09-15

    The Equidae (the horse, Equus caballus, the ass, Equus asinus, zebras and their hybrids) are hosts to a great variety of nematode parasites, some of which can cause significant morbidity or mortality if individual hosts are untreated. Worldwide the nematode parasites of horses belong to 7 suborders, 12 families, 29 genera and 83 species. The great majority (19 of 29 genera and 64 of 83 species) are members of the family Strongylidae, which includes the most common and pathogenic nematode parasites of horses. Only the Strongylidae are included in this treatise. The Strongylidae (common name strongylids) of horses--nematodes with a well-developed buccal capsule, a mouth collar with two leaf-crowns, and a strongyloid (common name of superfamily Strongyloidea) copulatory bursa--can be separated into two subfamilies: Strongylinae (common name strongylins), usually large or medium-sized with a globular or funnel-shaped buccal capsule; and Cyathostominae (common name cyathostomins), usually small to medium-sized with a cylindrical buccal capsule. The increased attention to strongylid nematode parasites of horses has resulted in the need for updated diagnostic keys to these parasites using readily recognizable characters and the most recent literature on their systematics. Because the cyathostomins have been historically difficult to identify, and because they have emerged as the most significant nematode pathogens of horses, we provide a brief nomenclatural and taxonomic history and an introduction to the morphology of this group. This treatise is intended to serve as a basic working tool--providing easy identifications to genus and species of adult strongylid nematodes of equids. All strongylid nematodes normally parasitic in horses, the ass (and their hybrids), and zebras are included. The keys are illustrated with line drawings and halftone photomicrographs of each species. A short discussion of the systematics of the genus and species is provided for each genus following the species descriptions. Species diagnoses and a synonymy of each species is provided. Geographic distribution, prevalence, and location in host are also given for each species.

  11. Pathology and morphometry of Hystrichis acanthocephalicus (Nematoda) from Phimosus infuscatus (Pelecaniformes) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Simone; Macedo, Márcia Raquel Pegoraro; Soares, Mauro Pereira; Schramm, Camila Costa; Muller, Gertrud

    2017-01-26

    Species of Hystrichis are parasite nematodes of the digestive tract of aquatic birds in South America, Europe and Asia. In Brazil, Hystrichis acanthocephalicus has been reported in Phimosus infuscatus. There are few data on the morphometry of this species and there are no reports on pathological conditions that it causes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to report morphometric data from H. acanthocephalicus and describe the pathological effects of this parasite on the Phimosus infuscatus proventriculus. Thirty gastrointestinal tracts of P. infuscatus were examined to search for nematodes and H. acanthocephalicus occurred in 83% of hosts. Were measured the total length and body width of males and females, and of their respective cuticular spines, esophagus, spicules and eggs, and the internal and external diameter of copulatory bursa. Histopathological examination revealed parasitic structures in the proventriculus from the lumen (anterior end) to the outer layers of the organ (intermediate and posterior parts), in which we observed inflammatory reaction with infiltration of heterophils, hemorrhage and hemosiderin. The results of this study of histopathology, morphometry and parasitological indices are the first ones reported to H. acanthocephalicus and should contribute to the identification and recognition in cases of outbreaks in the Neotropical region.

  12. Stepwise and Canonical Discriminant Analysis of Longidorus Species (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from Arkansas

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Weimin; Robbins, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    During a 1998-to-2001 survey from Arkansas, nine distinct species of Longidorus were found including five new species. Morphometrics of these nine species were used in a stepwise and canonical discrimination to select a subset of characteristics that best identified each species. Student's t test was applied to compare Longidorus breviannulatus Norton &Hoffman, 1975; L. crassus Thorne, 1974; L. diadecturus Eveleigh &Allen, 1982; L. fragilis Thorne, 1974; L. biformis Ye &Robbins, 2004; L. glycines Ye &Robbins, 2004; L. grandis Ye &Robbins, 2003; L. paralongicaudatus Ye &Robbins, 2003; and L. paravineacola Ye &Robbins, 2003 to examine interspecies variation and test for the most useful morphometric characters in species discrimination. Most of the morphometric characters were useful to differentiate species, but species identification could not be based on a single character because the morphometric character ranges often overlap. Stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that the guide ring position, head width, tail length, body length, odontostyle length, and anal body width were the most important variables. These were used to generate canonical variables in discriminating the species. The first three canonical variables accounted for 95% of the total variance. The scatterplots by the first three canonical variables grouped and separated the Longidorus species from Arkansas. Stepwise and canonical discriminant analyses were useful for examining the groupings and morphometric relationships of the nine Longidorus species. PMID:19262825

  13. Survey of entomopathogenic nematodes from the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae (Nematoda: Rhabditida) in Colima, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in the Families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae was conducted on the coast of the State of Colima, Mexico, to determine their occurrence, recovery frequency, and predominant plant species in disturbed and undisturbed habitats. Nineteen soil samples...

  14. Soboliphyme occidentalis sp. nov. (Nematoda, Soboliphymidae) from the Iberian mole Talpa occidentalis (Insectivora, Talpidae) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ribas, Alexis; Casanova, Joan Carles

    2004-08-01

    A new species of Soboliphyme from the endemic Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis) is described. Soboliphyme occidentalis sp. nov. can be readily distinguished from all of its congeners primarily by the position of the vulva, which clearly shows a posterior oesophageal location, and the number of male caudal papillae. S. occidentalis sp. nov. is the only species that has four pairs of caudal papillae. S. abei, S. caucasica and S. jamesoni can be distinguished from S. occidentalis sp. nov. by not having a notched sucker, the anterior position of the vulva and two polar plugs in the eggs. S. jamesoni has an armate oral sucker and longer spicule; S. caucasica a longer spicule and shorter eggs, and S. abei has shorter eggs, which separate these species from S. occidentalis sp. nov. In the rest of the species with a notched oral sucker, S. baturini and S. hirudiniformis are differentiated from S. occidentalis sp. nov. by the anterior position of the vulva, two polar plugs in the egg and the spicule length in S. baturini and S. hirudiniformis and the size of eggs in S. baturini and S. hirudiniformis. S. ataahai, S. soricis and S. urotrichi have the vulva at the oesophago-intestinal junction, 9-10 male caudal papillae (S. ataahai and S. urotrichi), absence of male caudal papillae (S. soricis), armate oral sucker and long spicule in S. ataahai and one row of six circumoral spines in S. urotrichi. A key to the species of Soboliphyme is presented.

  15. Four events of host switching in Aspidoderidae (Nematoda) involve convergent lineages of mammals.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, F Agustín; Gardner, Scott L; Navone, Graciela; Ortí, Guillermo

    2012-12-01

    The Great American Interchange resulted in the mixing of faunistic groups with different origins and evolutionary trajectories that underwent rapid diversification in North and South America. As a result, groups of animals of recent arrival converged into similar habits and formed ecological guilds with some of the endemics. We present a reconstruction of the evolutionary events in Aspidoderidae, a family of nematodes that infect mammals that are part of this interchange, i.e., dasypodids, opossums, and sigmodontine, geomyid, and hystricognath rodents. By treating hosts as discrete states of character and using parsimony and Bayesian inferences to optimize these traits into the phylogeny of Aspidoderidae, we reconstructed Dasypodidae (armadillos) as the synapomorphic host for the family. In addition, 4 events of host switching were detected. One consisted of the switch from dasypodids to hystricognath rodents, and subsequently to geomyid rodents. The remaining set of events consisted of a switch from dasypodids to didelphid marsupials and then to sigmodontine rodents. The reconstruction of the ancestral distribution suggests 3 events of dispersal into the Nearctic. Two of these invasions would suggest that 2 different lineages of dasypodid parasites entered the Northern Hemisphere at different times, which is consistent with the presence of 2 lineages of armadillos in Mexico.

  16. Cosmopolitanism and Biogeography of the Genus Manganonema (Nematoda: Monhysterida) in the Deep Sea.

    PubMed

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Vanreusel, Ann; Danovaro, Roberto

    2011-09-05

    Spatial patterns of species diversity provide information about the mechanisms that regulate biodiversity and are important for setting conservation priorities. Present knowledge of the biogeography of meiofauna in the deep sea is scarce. This investigation focuses on the distribution of the deep-sea nematode genus Manganonema, which is typically extremely rare in deep-sea sediment samples. Forty-four specimens of eight different species of this genus were recorded from different Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. Four out of the eight species encountered are new to science. We report here that this genus is widespread both in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. These new findings together with literature information indicate that Manganonema is a cosmopolitan genus, inhabiting a variety of deep-sea habitats and oceans. Manganonema shows the highest diversity at water depths >4,000 m. Our data, therefore, indicate that this is preferentially an abyssal genus that is able, at the same time, to colonize specific habitats at depths shallower than 1,000 m. The analysis of the distribution of the genus Manganonema indicates the presence of large differences in dispersal strategies among different species, ranging from locally endemic to cosmopolitan. Lacking meroplanktonic larvae and having limited dispersal ability due to their small size, it has been hypothesized that nematodes have limited dispersal potential. However, the investigated deep-sea nematodes were present across different oceans covering macro-scale distances. Among the possible explanations (hydrological conditions, geographical and geological pathways, long-term processes, specific historical events), their apparent preference of colonizing highly hydrodynamic systems, could suggest that these infaunal organisms are transported by means of deep-sea benthic storms and turbidity currents over long distances.

  17. Efficacy of different treatment regimes against setariosis (Setaria tundra, Nematoda: Filarioidea) and associated peritonitis in reindeer

    PubMed Central

    Laaksonen, Sauli; Oksanen, Antti; Orro, Toomas; Norberg, Harri; Nieminen, Mauri; Sukura, Antti

    2008-01-01

    Background When a severe peritonitis outbreak in semi-domesticated reindeer was noticed in 2003 in Finland, the concerned industry urged immediate preventive actions in order to avoid detrimental effects of S. tundra and further economical losses. A research programme was swiftly initiated to study S. tundra and its impact on the health and wellbeing of reindeer. Methods The ultimate aim of this study was to test the efficacy of different treatment regimes against S. tundra and associated peritonitis in reindeer. The timing of the trials was planned to be compatible with the annual rhythm of the reindeer management; (1) the treatment of calves in midsummer, during routine calf ear marking, with ivermectin injection prophylaxis and deltamethrin pour-on solution as a repellent against insect vectors, (2) the treatment of infected calves in early autumn with ivermectin injection, and (3) ivermectin treatment of breeding reindeer in winter. The results were assessed using the post mortem inspection data and S. tundra detection. Finally, to evaluate on the population level the influence of the annual (late autumn-winter) ivermectin treatment of breeding reindeer on the transmission dynamics of S. tundra, a questionnaire survey was conducted. Results In autumn, ivermectin treatment was efficient against peritonitis and in midsummer had a slight negative impact on the degree of peritonitis and positive on the fat layer, but deltamethrin had none. Ivermectin was efficient against adult S. tundra and its smf. All the reindeer herding cooperatives answered the questionnaire and it appeared that antiparasitic treatment of reindeer population was intense during the study period, when 64–90% of the animals were treated. In the southern part of the Finnish reindeer husbandry area, oral administration of ivermectin was commonly used. Conclusion Autumn, and to a lesser degree summer, treatment of reindeer calves with injectable ivermectin resulted in decreased severity of peritonitis and perihepatitis in reindeer calves due to setariosis. In the case of necessity for animal welfare reasons, treatment during early autumn round ups should be considered. On the population level, massive and routinely applied antiparasitic treatments can improve the health of breeding reindeer and decrease the mortality and the number of carriers but during the outbreak could not prevent its movement and expansion to the North. PMID:19087262

  18. Morphology of the excretory system of Hysterothylacium haze (Nematoda: Anisakidae: Raphidascaridinae).

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, T; Ogawa, K; Wakabayashi, H

    1989-10-01

    The morphology of the excretory system of Hysterothylacium haze was examined by serial histological sections. The excretory system was H-shaped and glandular, consisting of lateral filaments and a commissure, with the exretory pore opening posterior to the nerve ring. A large excretory nucleus was present in the left filament. The cuticularized excretory duct was confined to the left side of the commissure. The glandular excretory system is rare among the Raphidascaridinae.

  19. Seasonal dynamics of cyathostomin (Nematoda - Cyathostominae) infective larvae in Brachiaria humidicola grass in tropical southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Claudia N; de Souza, Luciene S; Quinelato, Simone B; do Couto, Melissa C M; Pinheiro, Jairo; Rodrigues, M Lurdes de A

    2011-08-25

    The ecology of cyathostomin larvae was evaluated in different seasons, from July 2007 to June 2008, in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. Samples of feces and grass were collected every 15 days at 8 AM and 5 PM and the infective larvae were recovered by the Baermann technique. Leaves of the grass Brachiaria humidicola were cut to 20 cm, which is the length containing most of the larvae. The highest number of larvae was recorded at 8 AM the winter (8300 L(3)kg(-1)dm) and spring (5300 L(3)kg(-1)dm). These results demonstrate that climate conditions can affect the recovery of larvae and that rain and temperature contributed to the migration and survival of the larvae, which were available throughout the year in the study area.

  20. New morphological data of Litomosoides chagasfilhoi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) parasitizing Nectomys squamipes in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Muniz-Pereira, Luís Cláudio; Gonçalves, Paula Araujo; Guimarães, Erick Vaz; Fonseca, Fábio de Oliveira; Santos, José Augusto Albuquerque Dos; Maldonado-Júnior, Arnaldo; Moraes, Antonio Henrique Almeida de

    2016-01-01

    Litomosoides chagasfilhoi, originally described by Moraes Neto, Lanfredi & De Souza (1997) parasitizing the abdominal cavity of the wild rodent, Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887), was found in the abdominal cavity of Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827), from the municipality of Rio Bonito, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. This study led to addition of new morphological data and a new geographical distribution for this filarioid in Brazil. Several characters were detailed and emended to previous records of L. chagasfilhoi in N. squamipes, and confirming the original description in A. cursor: buccal capsule longer than wide with walls thinner than the lumen, right spicule slightly sclerotized, with membranous distal extremity slender, with a small tongue-like terminal portion, left spicule with handle longer than the blade, whose edges form large membranous wings folded longitudinally.

  1. Thubunaea eleodori sp. nov. (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) from Liolaemus eleodori (Sauria: Liolaemidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramallo, Geraldine; Goldberg, Stephen; Bursey, Charles; Castillo, Gabriel; Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Thubunaea eleodori sp. nov. is described from the stomach of Liolaemus eleodori (Sauria: Liolaemidae) from San Guillermo National Park, Province of San Juan, Argentina. T. eleodori is most similar to those species lacking spicules, T. cnemidophorus, T. fitsimonsi, T. parkeri, T. schukurovi, and T. smogorzhewskii. T. eleodori is separated from these species based on the papilla pattern. T. eleodori has 12 pedunculate papillae and 14 sessile papillae, T. smogorzhewskii lacks pedunculate papillae, T. fitsimonsi and T. parkeri lack sessile papillae, and T. cnemidophorus has14-16 pedunculate papillae and 12 sessile papillae. T. eleodori represents the first member of the genus to be reported from Argentina.

  2. Dioctophyme renale (Nematoda: Enoplida) in domestic dogs and cats in the extreme south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rappeti, Josaine Cristina da Silva; Mascarenhas, Carolina Siqueira; Perera, Soliane Carra; Müller, Gertrud; Grecco, Fabiane Borelli; Silva, Luísa Mariano Cerqueira da; Sapin, Carolina da Fonseca; Rausch, Stella Falkenberg; Cleff, Marlete Brum

    2016-12-01

    Dioctophyme renale is a zoonotic nematode that parasites the kidneys of wild and domestic carnivores, and it has been reported frequently in Brazil. The aim here was to register the number of cases of dogs and cats diagnosed with dioctophymosis by necropsy (1981 to 2014) and ultrasound examination (2010 to 2015) in Pelotas-RS. In this context, a survey was conducted on dioctophymosis cases diagnosed at the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory (LPV) and Veterinary Clinical Hospital (HCV) of the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), and at a specialist veterinary imaging diagnostics clinic. In total, 95 cases were registered. The high series of the disease in dogs can be related to the presence of a large number of stray and semi-domestic dogs in the city, and also due to the ingestion of intermediate hosts of D. renale parasitized with the infective larvae. Thus, it can be concluded that Pelotas is a city with favorable conditions for the occurrence of dioctophymosis with high rate of disease in recent years.

  3. Toxocara cati (Nematoda: Ascarididae) in Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) from Brazil: a case of pseudoparasitism.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Melo, Alan Lane de

    2014-01-01

    Eggs of Toxocara cati were found in the feces of Didelphis albiventris from a peridomestic urban environment in Brazil. Negative fecal tests following short-term captivity of the opossums, as well as the absence of ascaridids during necropsy, suggest the occurrence of pseudoparasitism. Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed.

  4. Oncholaimus zhangi sp. nov. (Oncholaimidae, Nematoda) from the intertidal zone of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qun; Huang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    A new species of free-living marine nematode is described from intertidal sediment of the East China Sea. The new species belongs to the Oncholaimidae family. Oncholaimus zhangi sp. nov. is characterized by males having a large ventral swelling situated just posterior to the middle of the tail, no precloacal papilla, and a row of 6-7 ventral genital setae. The tails of both males and females are similar, being conico-cylindrical in shape. The new species is distinguished from other closely related species by the presence of a prominent ventral swelling at the tail of males and a similar tail shape in both sexes. About 110 valid species in this genus have been recorded to date.

  5. Preferential host switching and codivergence shaped radiation of bark beetle symbionts, nematodes of Micoletzkya (Nematoda: Diplogastridae).

    PubMed

    Susoy, V; Herrmann, M

    2014-05-01

    Host-symbiont systems are of particular interest to evolutionary biology because they allow testable inferences of diversification processes while also providing both a historical basis and an ecological context for studies of adaptation. Our investigations of bark beetle symbionts, predatory nematodes of the genus Micoletzkya, have revealed remarkable diversity of the group along with a high level of host specificity. Cophylogenetic analyses suggest that evolution of the nematodes was largely influenced by the evolutionary history of beetles. The diversification of the symbionts, however, could not be attributed to parallel divergence alone; our results indicate that adaptive radiation of the nematodes was shaped by preferential host shifts among closely related beetles along with codivergence. Whereas ecological and geographic isolation have played a major role in the diversification of Micoletzkya at shallow phylogenetic depths, adaptations towards related hosts have played a role in shaping cophylogenetic structure at a larger evolutionary scale.

  6. Taxonomy and Morphology of Axonchium (Nematoda: Belondiroidea), and a description of A. thornei n. sp.

    PubMed Central

    Hechler, H. C.

    1969-01-01

    Useful diagnostic characters in the nematode genus A xonchium include: lip shape, styler length, shape of the esophageal constriction, presence or absence of spiral musculature in the esophageal sheath, proportion of the esophageal length occupied by the esophageal expansion, length and shape of cardia, shape of the vulva and vaginal cuticularization, development of the anterior gonad, shape of the posterior uterus, subcuticle thickness at mid-body, tail shape, number and arrangement of supplements and caudal pores, and body measurements. A. thornei n. sp. is separated from A. choristum by its thinner subcuticle at mid-body, number of supplements, and shorter spicules, from A. solitare by presence of males, and from both species by the female tail shape and shorter stylet. A. saccatum is synonymized with A. gossypii and A. nitidum is synonymized with A. bulbosum. A. leptocephalum, A. Iongicollis, A. magnicollis, and A. tenuicollis are made species inquirendae. A key to 25 species of Axonchium is given. PMID:19325694

  7. Screening for haplotypic variability within Oesophagostomum bifurcum (Nematoda) employing a single-strand conformation polymorphism approach.

    PubMed

    de Gruijter, J M; Polderman, A M; Zhu, X Q; Gasser, R B

    2002-06-01

    Genetic markers in the mitochondrial genome have proven useful for population genetic studies because of their maternal inheritance and relatively high evolutionary rates. In this study, we exploited the high resolution capacity of PCR-coupled single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) to screen for sequence variation in part of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (p cox 1) among individuals of the parasitic nematode, Oesophagostomum bifurcum from human or Mona monkey hosts from Africa. SSCP analysis revealed distinct profiles among some of the individuals, and subsequent sequence analysis of representative samples defined 10 different haplotypes. For comparative purposes, the p cox 1 sequences for representatives of four other species of Oesophagostomum from livestock were included. While there were high levels (11.5-13.7%) of sequence difference among the latter species, there was no fixed nucleotide difference between O. bifurcum individuals from humans and those from monkeys. The data support the proposal that O. bifurcum from the two primate hosts represents a single species and that the haplotypic variability in p cox 1 represents population variation. The results reinforce the usefulness of the SSCP-sequencing approach for studying genetic variation in nematode populations using mitochondrial markers.

  8. Pan-Nematoda Transcriptomic Elucidation of Essential Intestinal Functions and Therapeutic Targets With Broad Potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Rosa, Bruce A; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-09-01

    The nematode intestine is continuous with the outside environment, making it easily accessible to anthelmintics for parasite control, but the development of new therapeutics is impeded by limited knowledge of nematode intestinal cell biology. We established the most comprehensive nematode intestinal functional database to date by generating transcriptional data from the dissected intestines of three parasitic nematodes spanning the phylum, and integrating the results with the whole proteomes of 10 nematodes (including 9 pathogens of humans or animals) and 3 host species and 2 outgroup species. We resolved 10,772 predicted nematode intestinal protein families (IntFams), and studied their presence and absence within the different lineages (births and deaths) among nematodes. Conserved intestinal cell functions representing ancestral functions of evolutionary importance were delineated, and molecular features useful for selective therapeutic targeting were identified. Molecular patterns conserved among IntFam proteins demonstrated large potential as therapeutic targets to inhibit intestinal cell functions with broad applications towards treatment and control of parasitic nematodes.

  9. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Enterobius vermicularis (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in the Prehistoric Americas

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, Karl J.; Araújo, Adauto; Morrow, Johnica J.

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of Enterobius sp. infection in prehistory have produced a body of data that can be used to evaluate the geographic distribution of infection through time in the Americas. Regional variations in prevalence are evident. In North America, 119 pinworm positive samples were found in 1,112 samples from 28 sites with a prevalence of 10.7%. Almost all of the positive samples came from agricultural sites. From Brazil, 0 pinworm positive samples were found in 325 samples from 7 sites. For the Andes region, 22 pinworm positive samples were found in 411 samples from 26 sites for a prevalence of 5.3%. Detailed analyses of these data defined several trends. First, preagricultural sites less frequently show evidence of infection compared to agricultural populations. This is especially clear in the data from North America, but is also evident in the data from South America. Second, there is an apparent relationship between the commonality of pinworms in coprolites and the manner of constructing villages. These analyses show that ancient parasitism has substantial value in documenting the range of human behaviors that influence parasitic infections. PMID:27853116

  10. The Behavior Response of Amphipods Infected by Hedruris suttonae (Nematoda) and Pseudocorynosoma sp. (Acanthocephala).

    PubMed

    Casalins, Laura M; Brugni, Norma L; Rauque, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    The manipulation of intermediate host behavior may increase chances of parasite transmission to the definitive host. In freshwater environments of the Neotropical Region, studies on behavioral manipulations by parasites are rare, and the majority of these consider only a single parasite species and/or 1 life stage of a particular parasite species. In Andean Patagonian lakes of Argentina, the amphipod Hyalella patagonica is infected by larvae of the fish nematode Hedruris suttonae and by the bird acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma sp. The 3 objectives of the present study were to determine whether H. suttonae and Pseudocorynosoma sp. differ in their effects on behavior of H. patagonica , whether such modification is associated with parasite development, and to assess the associations between behavioral traits. From naturally parasitized amphipods, activity (swimming levels) and phototaxis (light preference) was measured. Only in phototaxis trials did larvae of H. suttonae induce significantly higher levels of photophilia, suggesting that they are manipulative. Scores of activity and phototaxis were positive and significantly related for non-parasitized female amphipods and for amphipods parasitized by larvae of Pseudocorynosoma sp. but were not associated in amphipods parasitized with larvae of H. suttonae (infective and non-infective), suggesting that infection separated the relationship between these variables.

  11. Molecular phylogeny of the Tylenchina and evolution of the female gonoduct (Nematoda: Rhabditida).

    PubMed

    Bert, Wim; Leliaert, Frederik; Vierstraete, Andy R; Vanfleteren, Jacques R; Borgonie, Gaetan

    2008-08-01

    Tylenchina are a morphologically and functionally diverse group of nematode species that range from free-living bacteriovores, over transitory grazing root-hair feeders to highly specialized plant-parasites with complex host associations. We performed phylogenetic analyses of small subunit rDNA sequences from 97 species including an analysis that account for the RNA secondary structure in the models of evolution. The present study confirms the sister relationship of the bacteriovore Cephalobidae with the predominantly plant-parasitic Tylenchomorpha. All analyses appoint the fungal-feeding Aphelenchidae and Aphelenchoididae as being polyphyletic but the morphology based hypothesis of their monophyly could not be significantly rejected. Within the Tylenchomorpha, the families that exclusively parasitize higher plants are joined in a single clade. However, only the monophyletic position of the (super)families Hoplolaimidae and Criconematoidea were supported; Anguinidae, Tylenchidae, Belonolaimidae and Pratylenchidae appeared to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic. Parsimony and likelihood ancestral state reconstruction revealed that burrowing endoparasitism and sedentary endoparasitism each evolved, respectively, at least six and at least three times independently, mostly from migratory ectoparasitic ancestors. Only root-knot nematodes have evolved from burrowing endoparasitic nematodes. Traditional classifications are partially misled by this convergent evolution of feeding type and associated morphology. Contrastingly, mapping attributes of the gonoduct cellular architecture, including newly obtained data of 18 species belonging to the Aphelenchoidea, Criconematoidea, Anguinidae and Panagrolaimidae, revealed a broad congruence of the gonoduct characters and the molecular phylogenetic hypothesis. Yet, the presence of an offset spermatheca and proliferation of uterus cells has evolved multiple times, the latter associated with derived endoparasitic feeding specialization and resulting reproduction mode. Ancestral state reconstruction further revealed that the gonoduct of the morphologically and ecologically dissimilar tylenchid and cephalobid nematodes evolved from a common ancestor.

  12. A new species of Sciurodendrium (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae) in Sciurus aureogaster (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from Morelos, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Falcón-Ordaz, Jorge; Lamothe-Argumedo, Marcos Rafael

    2006-06-01

    Sciurodendrium bravohollisae n. sp. (Heligmonellidae) is described as an intestinal parasite of 2 squirrels, Sciurus aureogaster Cuvier, 1829, collected from Los Robles, Municipio de Tlalnepantla, Morelos State, Mexico. The new species differs from all other congeners in possessing a very well-developed and sacciform genital cone. This is the seventh species described for the genus and the first one recorded in Mexico.

  13. Species composition and morphology of protostrongylids (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) in ruminants from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Panayotova-Pencheva, Mariana Stancheva

    2011-10-01

    Lungs of 52 ruminants from different regions of Bulgaria, 16 from goats (Capra aegagrus f. domestica L.), 15 from sheep (Ovis ammon f. domestica L.), 11 from mouflons (Ovis musimon L.), and 10 from chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra L.), were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of small lungworms in these hosts. The obtained results are summarized with those of previous studies, and a picture of the present status of the species composition of protostrongylids in ruminants from Bulgaria is forwarded. Morphometric data about the species Muellerius capillaris, Cystocaulus ocreatus, Neostrongylus linearis, Protostrongylus brevispiculum, and Protostrongylus rufescens are presented. The data on the morphology of these five species are supplied for the first time both for Bulgaria and the south-east part of the European continent.

  14. The first report of Angiostrongylus vasorum (Nematoda; Metastrongyloidea) in Poland, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Kuligowska, Izabela; Lachowicz, Jacek

    2014-10-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum belongs to the superfamily of Metastrongyloidea. This nematode occurs in foxes, dogs and other predators. The Nematode A. vasorum place themselves in the pulmonary artery and its branches, and in the right ventricle and atrium of the heart. Numerous species of land snails are the intermediate hosts of the parasite. In 2013, lungs and hearts of 76 foxes shot in the Forest District Głęboki Bród in Augustowska Primeval Forest were parasitologically necropsied. Four of the examined foxes were infected with the nematode A. vasorum, a prevalence of 5.2%. In one fox pericardium there were 6 male and 6 female nematodes. In the remaining three foxes nematodes were localized in the pulmonary artery. In two foxes 2 specimens of nematodes were detected (male and female, and two females) while 1 female was detected in the other fox. This is the first report of the presence of the nematode A. vasorum in fox in Poland.

  15. Srivastavanema cynocephali n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Heligmosomoidea), a parasite of a dermopteran from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Durette-Desset, M C; Purwaningsih, E

    1999-03-01

    Srivastavanema cynocephali n. sp., a parasite of Cynocephalus variegatus (Dermoptera) from Indonesia, is described. This species is closely related to S. yapi Durette-Desset & Lim Boo Liat, 1975, in the characters of the synlophe at the mid-body and in the shape of the caudal bursa, but it is distinguished by the pattern of the synlophe in the posterior part of the body, very long, thin rays 2 and 3, a less developed genital cone, the absence of a membrane between left and right rays 6, and longer spicules. Its morphology is slightly less specialised than the four previously known species of the genus, which are all parasites of petauristines. The genus Srivastavanema (Singh, 1962) has a systematic position between the Heligmonellinae and the Brevistriatinae. Therefore, it may be a parasite of the Dermoptera which could have secondarily evolved within the Petauristinae. The Dermoptera may have played an important role in the evolution of the Heligmonellinae.

  16. Characterization of a Caenorhabditis elegans glc seven-like phosphatase (gsp) orthologue from Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bronwyn E; Rabelo, Elida M; Hofmann, Andreas; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B

    2010-08-01

    A full-length complementary DNA (cDNA; designated Hc-stp-1) encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase (Hc-STP-1) was isolated from Haemonchus contortus, a strongylid nematode parasite of small ruminants. Hc-stp-1 was shown to be transcribed in males of both adults and fourth-stage larvae, but not in females, early larval stages or eggs. The full-length gene (2854 bp) contained ten exons and nine introns, and encoded a cDNA of 951 bp. Comparisons of the conceptually translated protein (316 amino acids, estimated at approximately 35 kDa) with serine/threonine phosphatases (STPs) from other organisms revealed the presence of the conserved motif LRGNHE. Structural analysis, by comparative modelling, confirmed strict conservation of residues and features involved in catalytic activity, and variation in the ligand-binding interface. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequence data revealed that Hc-STP-1 clustered with STPs from other nematodes (including Caenorhabditis elegans, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascaris suum and Brugia malayi) to the exclusion of STPs from other organisms. The protein was inferred to be most closely related to the PP1 class of STPs of C. elegans, within a group containing STPs encoded, amongst others, by the genes gsp-3 and gsp-4 in this free-living nematode. The functions of proteins GSP-3 and GSP-4 are known to be central to spermatogenesis and other male-specific processes in C. elegans. The findings from the present and previous studies support the proposal that Hc-stp-1 and its product play a significant role in reproductive and/or developmental processes in maturing or adult male H. contortus.

  17. Fecundity of various species of strongylids (Nematoda: Strongylidae)--parasites of domestic horses.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, T A; Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Dzeverin, I I; Kharchenko, V A

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the study were to determine fecundity of several strongylid species parasitizing domestic horses and analyze possible relations between numbers of eggs in female uteri and size of both the eggs and the nematodes as well as the influence of fecundity on proportion of species in the strongylid community. Twenty-five specimens from each of 15 strongylid species (Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, Triodontophorus serratus, Triodontophorus brevicauda, Triodontophorus tenuicollis, Cyathostomum catinatum, Coronocyclus coronatus, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicocyclus insigne, Cylicocyclus leptostomus, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cylicostephanus minutus, and Poteriostomum imparidentatum) collected after necropsy were studied. The reproductive system was extracted from the female body; all eggs were removed, counted, and measured under a light microscope. Significant differences in number of eggs in female uteri of various strongylid species were observed (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.001); the least numbers of eggs were registered in C. longibursatus (average = 49) and C. leptostomus (63) and the largest number in S. edentatus (5,918). Significant correlation between nematode body size and number of eggs was observed (p < 0.001). Correlation between size of eggs and body size was insignificant (Spearman R = 0.11, p = 0.70). Negative correlation was observed between number of eggs in female uteri and proportion of these species in strongylid community (Spearman R = -0.78, p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression of species proportion in the community on three predictors (number of eggs, body size, and egg size) was not significant (p > 0.05). However, the question on influence of fecundity on proportion of species in strongylid community needs further studies.

  18. Development of Ascarophis sp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) to maturity in Gammarus deubeni (Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Appy, Ralph G; Butterworth, Eric W

    2011-12-01

    Experimentally transmitted Ascarophis sp. (Spirurida) developed to adult worms in the invertebrate host, Gammarus deubeni (Amphipoda), collected in the intertidal zone in Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, Canada. The morphological development and growth of larval stages is very similar to other cystidicolids, which are found as adults in fish. Unlike virtually all other Spirurida, which require a vertebrate definitive host, infective larvae of Ascarophis sp. migrate from the invertebrate host musculature into the hemocoel where they molt twice to become adults. Gravid females appear at 80 days and 69 days post-infection at 10-12 C and 18-20 C, respectively. While there is little evident host reaction to the parasite within the muscle tissue, within the hemocoel there is hemocytic reaction to shed nematode cuticles, released eggs, and sometimes the worm itself, including some melanization. The worms are morphologically similar to Ascarophis sp. from G. oceanicus in the Baltic and White seas and among Ascarophis species from fish is most similar to A. arctica. It is suggested that Ascarophis sp. no longer requires a vertebrate host and is transmitted between amphipods either through death and disintegration of infected amphipods and dispersal of the nematode eggs, or more likely through cannibalism or necrophagy.

  19. Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) Versus Rhabdias paraensis (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae): Expanding the View on a Natural Infection.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos; da Silva, Djane Clarys Baia; Feitosa, Lucas Aristóteles das Neves; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; de Vasconcelos Melo, Francisco Tiago

    2016-06-01

    Amphibian and reptile lungs are frequently infected with Rhabdias parasites, and this condition ultimately leads to reduced survival, performance, and growth because of granulomatous inflammation, nodule formation, and nematodal pneumonia onset. Here we investigate the histopathological features of naturally infected Rhinella marina by the lung nematode Rhabdias paraensis. A total of 10 host animals were captured in peridomiciliar areas in the eastern Brazilian Amazon, and anatomic-histological analyses were performed on both the infected and non-infected lungs of these amphibians. Helminths were usually found within the secondary and primary septa of infected lungs whereas parasites were not detected within vessels or adhering to tissues. In addition, we observed discrete erythrocytes, diapedesis foci, few granulocytes and erythrocytes in the interseptal spaces, discrete cell infiltration, and a small number of melanomacrophages, and no granulomas or cysts were observed. New aspects related to changes in tissue and helminth-host interactions are discussed for the relationship of R. paraensis × Rhi. marina from the Amazon region.

  20. Nematicidal Activity of Cassia and Cinnamon Oil Compounds and Related Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Sang-Myung; Moon, Yil-Seong; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-01-01

    The nematicidal activity of two cassia, Cinnamomum cassia, oils (Especial and true), four cinnamon, Cinnamomum zey-lanicum, oils (technical, #500, bark and green leaf), and their compounds (e.g., trans-cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamic acid) toward adult Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was examined by a direct contact bioassay. Results were compared with those of 34 related compounds. As judged by 24-hour LC50 values, two cassia oils (0.084–0.085 mg/ml) and four cinnamon oils (0.064–0.113 mg/ml) were toxic toward adult B. xylophilus. Of 45 test compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.061 mg/ml) was the most active nematicide, followed by ethyl cinnamate, α-methyl-trans-cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate and allyl cinnamate (0.114–0.195 mg/ml). Potent nematicidal activity was also observed with 4-methoxycinnamonitrile, trans-4-methoxycinnamaldehyde, trans-2-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde, ethyl α-cyanocinnamate, cinnamonitrile and cinnamyl bromide (0.224–0.502 mg/ml). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, saturation and carbon skeleton, appear to play a role in determining the toxicities to adult B. xylophilus. Cassia and cinnamon oils and test compounds described merit further study as potential nematicides or leads for the control of pine wilt disease caused by B. xylophilus. PMID:19259472

  1. Description of Pratylenchus gutierrezi n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Coffee in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Golden, A. Morgan; López Ch., Róger; Vílchez R., Hernán

    1992-01-01

    A lesion nematode, Pratylenchus gutierrezi n. sp., collected from the roots of coffee in the Central Plateau of Costa Rica, is described and illustrated. Its relationships to Pratylenchus flakkensis, P. similis, and P. gibbicaudatus, the only other species of the genus having two head annules, males, or spermatheca with sperm, and an annulated tail terminus, is discussed. Other distinctive characters are its posterior vulva (mean of 80%); its prominently rounded stylet knobs, low head, and subcylindrical tail. SEM observations provide additional details of females and males, especially face views, which show for the first time sexual dimorphism. PMID:19282999

  2. Taxonomic and Molecular Identification of Mesocriconema and Criconemoides Species (Nematoda: Criconematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Marco A.; Robbins, Robert T.; Szalanski, Allen L.

    2012-01-01

    Populations of Mesocriconema curvatum, M. kirjanovae, M. onoense, M. ornatum, M. sphaerocephala, M. surinamense, M. vadense, M. xenoplax, and Criconemoides informis from different geographical areas in the continental United States were characterized morphologically and molecularly. A new ring nematode from Washington County, Arkansas, is also described and named Mesocriconema ozarkiense n. sp., This new species is characterized by females with small flattened submedian lobes, lower than or at the same level as the labial disc, vagina straight, very well developed spermatheca without sperm, no more than one anastomoses, L=379-512 μm, V=89-93, stylet length = 49-61 μm, R=107-119, annuli with slightly crenate margins on tail portion and a simple anterior vulval lip. The molecular characterization of M. ozarkiense n. sp. using the ITS rRNA gene sequence and the phylogenesis relationship of this new species with the ring nematodes included in this study are provided. PMID:23482878

  3. Genetic diversity and population genetics of large lungworms (Dictyocaulus, Nematoda) in wild deer in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Ács, Zoltán; Hayward, Alexander; Sugár, László

    2016-09-01

    Dictyocaulus nematode worms live as parasites in the lower airways of ungulates and can cause significant disease in both wild and farmed hosts. This study represents the first population genetic analysis of large lungworms in wildlife. Specifically, we quantify genetic variation in Dictyocaulus lungworms from wild deer (red deer, fallow deer and roe deer) in Hungary, based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequence data, using population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. The studied Dictyocaulus taxa display considerable genetic diversity. At least one cryptic species and a new parasite-host relationship are revealed by our molecular study. Population genetic analyses for Dictyocaulus eckerti revealed high gene flow amongst weakly structured spatial populations that utilise the three host deer species considered here. Our results suggest that D. eckerti is a widespread generalist parasite in ungulates, with a diverse genetic backround and high evolutionary potential. In contrast, evidence of cryptic genetic structure at regional geographic scales was observed for Dictyocaulus capreolus, which infects just one host species, suggesting it is a specialist within the studied area. D. capreolus displayed lower genetic diversity overall, with only moderate gene flow compared to the closely related D. eckerti. We suggest that the differing vagility and dispersal behaviour of hosts are important contributing factors to the population structure of lungworms, and possibly other nematode parasites with single-host life cycles. Our findings are of relevance for the management of lungworms in deer farms and wild deer populations.

  4. One new and three known species of Geocenamus Thorne & Malek, 1968
    (Nematoda: Merliniidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Reza; Karegar, Akbar

    2016-02-11

    Soil samples collected from different plants and localities in Iran yielded one new and three known species of the genus Geocenamus with tessellated cuticle. Geocenamus conicaudatus n. sp. is characterised by a hemispherical cephalic region, set-off from the rest of body by a constriction, a slender stylet 17-20 µm long with laterally directed knobs, coarsely annulated cuticle with 32-34 longitudinal striae and a conical tail with smooth, finely rounded terminus. Morphological and molecular studies on the populations of G. paniculoides and G. tartuensis indicated that G. paniculoides may be considered as a valid species. Intraspecific variability of some characters of 30 Iranian populations of G. rugosus were studied. An identification key to 32 valid species of the genus Geocenamus is given.

  5. Laimaphelenchus hyrcanus n. sp. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), a new species from northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Miraeiz, Esmaeil; Heydari, Ramin; Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Bert, Wim

    2015-02-05

    Laimaphalenchus hyrcanus n. sp., from bark samples of cypress (Cupressus sp.) and jujube (Ziziphus jujube Miller) from Gorgan, Golestan province in northern Iran, is described and illustrated based on morphological and molecular characters. The new species is characterized by females with 670-870 μm body length, slender stylet of 11-12 µm, six-lobed cephalic region not divided by ribs, three incisures in the lateral field with slightly areolated outer lines in the posterior region, cuticular vulval flap, males with two pairs of caudal papillae, and subcylindrical tail in both sexes ending in a single stalk-like terminus with four pedunculate tubercles bearing 9-10 finger-like projections. The new species most closely resembles L. persicus and L. penardi but it can be differentiated by its having three incisures in the lateral field and two pairs of caudal papillae in males. Molecular analysis of the D2/D3 region of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene indicates a sister-taxon relationship with L. penardi (Steiner, 1914) Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941 and L. deconincki Elmiligy & Geraert, 1972. 

  6. Rotylenchus castilloi n. sp. (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae), a new species with long stylet from northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Talezari, Atefeh; Pourjam, Ebrahim; Kheiri, Ahmad; Liébanas, Gracia; Aliramaji, Farzad; Pedram, Majid; Rezaee, Saeed; Atighi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-03-11

    Rotylenchus castilloi n. sp., a new bisexual species is described and illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular data. The new species is characterised by having a hemispherical, continuous lip region with an irregular corncob-like appearance under SEM, very long stylet (62-68 µm), vulva located at 49.7-62.2% of body length from anterior end, with a protruding double epiptygma, a rounded to convex-conoid (rarely bi-lobed) tail with 8-12 annuli and specific sequences of D2-D3 segments of 28S and ITS1-rRNA genes. Differences between the new species and four other species of the genus (R. mesorobustus, R. cazorlaensis, R. magnus and R. jaeni) are discussed. Morphologically, the new species can be separated from these species mostly by its body length, lip region characters, stylet length and location of phasmid. Phylogenetic analyses using 721 bp partial sequences of D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S and 590 bp ITS1-rRNA genes revealed the new species forming a clade with two isolates of R. eximius and two isolates of R. unisexus, two morphologically unrelated species.

  7. Does scavenging extend the host range of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Steinernematidae)?

    PubMed

    Půza, Vladimír; Mrácek, Zdenĕk

    2010-05-01

    Living and freeze-killed natural and laboratory hosts, with different susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes, were exposed to the larvae of Steinernema affine and Steinernema kraussei in two different experimental arenas (Eppendorf tubes, Petri dishes), and the success of the colonisation and eventual progeny production were observed. Both nematodes were able to colonise both living and dead larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera) and adult Blatella germanica (Blattodea) even though the progeny production in dead hosts was lower on average. Living carabid beetles, Poecilus cupreus, and elaterid larvae (Coleoptera) were resistant to the infection, however, both nematodes were able to colonise and multiply in several dead P. cupreus and in a majority of dead elaterid larvae. By scavenging, EPNs can utilise cadavers of insects that are naturally resistant to EPN infection, and so broaden their host range.

  8. Occurrence and identification of Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) isolated from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Setyobudi, Eko; Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Lee, Cheul-Ho; Seong, Ki-Baik; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2011-03-01

    The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) from the Namdae River, the east coast of Korea, were investigated. In total, 8,358 larvae were collected from 120 fish samples (male = 58 fish, female = 62 fish) in 2008. Fish samples were collected during October and November 2008. All the chum salmon samples (120/120, 100%) caught were infected with anisakid larvae with a high intensity (69.65 ± 48.58 larvae/host). They were mostly found in muscles (98.00%). Based on the morphological and the molecular analysis of PCR-RFLP and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA cox2 gene markers, these nematodes were identified as Anisakis simplex (sensu stricto) third-stage larvae. This is the first report on the molecular identification of anisakid worms from salmonid fishes in Korea. The high occurrence of anisakid worms in chum salmon may pose considerable food safety problems if they were consumed as raw or undercooked, although their commercial value is relatively lower than other salmonid species.

  9. Meloidogyne polycephannulata n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitizing carrot in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Charchar, João M.; Vieira, Jairo V.; Fonseca-Boiteux, Maria Esther de N.; Boiteux, Leonardo S.

    2009-01-01

    Meloidogyne polycephannulata n. sp. is described from specimens collected from an area cultivated with carrot cv. Brasilia, in the city of Rio Paranaíba, in the region of Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The perineal pattern of the female is circular to ovoid with a high dorsal arch that has widely spaced, coarse annulations. The lateral field may have a deep furrow separating the dorsal and ventral arches. The medial lips are short and wide, whereas the lateral lips are large and triangular. The female stylet is 15-16 μm long with wide knobs, distinctly divided by an indentation in the center. Its tip is slightly curved dorsally. The excretory pore opens 34-65 μm from the anterior end. Females retain eggs and second-stage juveniles in their body cavity, similar to that of the cyst-forming nematodes. Males are 1.3-1.7 mm long and have a high head cap that is rounded and slopes posteriorly. The labial disc is fused to the medial lips. The head region has several irregular annulations that are similar in appearance to the first or second body annules that are likewise irregular, making the head region appear to be extremely large. The stylet of the male is 21-24 μm long; it is slender, and has small, rounded knobs, that are distinctly indented medially and appear heart-shaped. The shaft has several tiny projections throughout its length. Mean second-stage juvenile length is 411.7 μm. The juvenile head cap is elevated, the medial lips are small, and the lateral lips are elongate to triangular-shaped. The head region has several short, incomplete and irregular transverse annulations. The juvenile stylet is 14-23 μm long with small, rounded, and sloping knobs. The thin tail ends with a short hyaline portion that is variable in size (16-26 μm) and with a small, rounded tip. Isozyme profiles of esterases from Meloidogyne javanica show 3 strong bands (SB) at Rm 46, 59, and 66; profiles of M. polycephannulata n. sp. show a SB at Rm 47 and a weak band (WB) at Rm 52; M. petuniae has two SB at Rm 44 and 53; M. phaseoli has a SB at 53, 58, and 64 Rm; M. brasilensis has three SB at Rm 40, 58, and 66 and a WB at Rm 71; M. pisi has a SB at Rm 40, 60, and 64 and two WB at 46 and 50 Rm. Data from sequencing the 18S rDNA region of M. polycephannulata n. sp. confirms that it is different from M. arabicida, M. arenaria, M. ethiopica, M. incognita, M. javanica, M. paranaensis, and M. thailandica. Sequence identity among these eight species ranged between 85 to 93.4%. Meloidogyne polycephannulata n. sp. reproduces very well on carrot and tomato; poorly on pepper; and not at all on cotton, peanut, tobacco, watermelon, and sweet corn. PMID:22736812

  10. Pan-Nematoda Transcriptomic Elucidation of Essential Intestinal Functions and Therapeutic Targets With Broad Potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Rosa, Bruce A.; Jasmer, Douglas P.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    The nematode intestine is continuous with the outside environment, making it easily accessible to anthelmintics for parasite control, but the development of new therapeutics is impeded by limited knowledge of nematode intestinal cell biology. We established the most comprehensive nematode intestinal functional database to date by generating transcriptional data from the dissected intestines of three parasitic nematodes spanning the phylum, and integrating the results with the whole proteomes of 10 nematodes (including 9 pathogens of humans or animals) and 3 host species and 2 outgroup species. We resolved 10,772 predicted nematode intestinal protein families (IntFams), and studied their presence and absence within the different lineages (births and deaths) among nematodes. Conserved intestinal cell functions representing ancestral functions of evolutionary importance were delineated, and molecular features useful for selective therapeutic targeting were identified. Molecular patterns conserved among IntFam proteins demonstrated large potential as therapeutic targets to inhibit intestinal cell functions with broad applications towards treatment and control of parasitic nematodes. PMID:26501106

  11. Pathology and frequency of Cheilospirura hamulosa (Nematoda, Acuarioidea) in Galliformes hosts from backyard flocks.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Tortelly, Rogério; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Pinto, Roberto Magalhães

    2003-04-01

    This investigation reports data on frequency and pathology related to the nematode Cheilospirura hamulosa in 28 ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and 30 domestic chickens (Gallus g. domesticus) from backyard flocks of five localities of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The prevalence of C. hamulosa in pheasants was of 14.3%, with a mean intensity of 1.5 and range of infection of 1-2. In chickens these values were of 26.7%, 4 and 1-12, respectively. Parasitized birds did not present with clinical signs. In spite of the low parasite burdens, the lesions induced by C. hamulosa were severe in the two species of investigated hosts, causing severe gross lesions in the gizzard such as haemorrhages, ulcers and thickening of the mucosa and cuticle, and single yellowish nodules on the caudoventral muscle. The microscopic lesions, also severe, were characterized by chronic diffuse inflammatory processes and ulcers in the mucosa, and granulomas in the muscular, submucosa and serosa layers of this organ.

  12. Lagochilascaris minor (Nematoda: Ascarididae) from a Wild Cougar ( Puma concolor ) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Falcón-Ordaz, Jorge; Iturbe-Morgado, José Carlos; Rojas-Martínez, Alberto Enrique; García-Prieto, Luis

    2016-07-01

    We document parasitation of a wild cougar ( Puma concolor ) by the nematode Lagochilascaris minor in Hidalgo State, Mexico. This finding contributes to our understanding of the epidemiology of this zoonotic agent in Mexico.

  13. Molecular and morphological comparison of two different types of Habronema muscae (Nematoda: Habronematidae) in horse.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Shayegh, Hossein; Ahmadi, Amin

    2014-12-01

    Habronema muscae is a spirurid nematode that undergoes developmental stages in the stomach of equids, causing chronic catarrhal gastritis. Despite preceding investigations have developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays for molecular diagnosis, we aimed to assess the applicability of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequences to identify the H. muscae infection and to assess the level of intraspecific variations in this parasite obtained from affected horses in Southern Iran. According to the morphological characterizations, two different isolates of H. muscae were identified. Although the majority of the recovered specimens had normal characterizations of H. muscae, a number of parasites showed an abnormal feature as large, asymmetrical, and thick cuticular extensions was observed at their anterior end (head region) in gross and histologic examinations. Unexpectedly, molecular assay disclosed that both morphologically distinct samples were completely identical to each other based on cox1 sequence. Multiple alignment of the cox1 amino acid sequences showed that all polymorphism sites were silent. Also, phylogenetic analysis provided strong support that H. muscae form a sister group to Spirocerca lupi and Thelazia callipaeda.

  14. Description of Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) from Jammu and Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ali Asghar; Vaid, Shavish; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Rakeeb

    2015-01-01

    Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. from humus in Jammu and Kashmir, India, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by a small body; slightly setoff labial region; long tubular gymnostom; prominently cuticularized cheilostom; absence of glottoid apparatus; monoprodelphic reproductive system; vulva (V) = 81 to 84; spicules with trifurcated distal ends, simple gubernaculum, peloderan bursa with eight pairs of bursal papillae arranged in 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 arrangement. PMID:26941466

  15. Emended Description of Litomosoides molossi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) and First Records of Litomosoides Species Parasitizing Argentinean Bats.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Mirna C; Notarnicola, Juliana; Miotti, M Daniela; Claps, Lucía E

    2016-08-01

    :  During a long-term study on biodiversity of bats in the Yungas and Entre Ríos provinces, 1,304 specimens of bats included in the families Noctilionidae, Phyllostomidae, Vespertilionidae, and Molossidae were collected and checked for filarioids. Litomosoides molossi Esslinger, 1973 was recovered from the thoracic and abdominal cavities of Molossus molossus (prevalence [P] = 6.4%); Litomosoides chandleri Esslinger, 1973 from Artibeus planirostris (P = 6.9%), Sturnira oporaphilum (P = 66.6%), Sturnira erythromos (P = 23.8%), Sturnira lilium (P = 7.2%), and Eumops perotis (P = 50%); and Litomosoides saltensis n. sp. was collected from Eptesicus furinalis (P = 1.7%). In this paper, we emend the description of L. molossi; describe a new species, Litomosoides saltensis n. sp., on the basis of 1 female specimen; and report for the first time L. molossi and L. chandleri parasitizing Argentinean bats, expanding the host and locality records. Litomosoides molossi exhibits a slender buccal capsule, with an anterior segment transparent, and the posterior chitinous portion displays 2 thickenings in the first third; possesses 1 dorsal prominent cephalic papilla and 4 labial papillae distributed around the mouth; cuticle with lateral punctuations all along the hypodermic chords in both sexes; and male with area rugosa and tail without cloacal papillae. In L. chandleri, the lateral punctuations are distributed on the posterior extremity of the body in both sexes. Litomosoides saltensis n. sp. displays a thick buccal capsule with a posterior segment well cuticularized, possessing 2 thickenings in the anterior half; 4 labial and 2 ventral cephalic papillae; a globular vulva located anterior to the esophagus-intestine junction; cuticle with lateral punctuations in the posterior extremity of the body; and tail with salient phasmids. We also provide a taxonomic key for the identification of the Litomosoides sp. of bat dwelling. Long-term studies and large sample sizes are needed to detect the presence of Litomosoides sp. in bats, in contrast to the findings in cricetid rodents, which seem to be more frequently collected.

  16. Molecular phylogeny and host specificity of the larval Eustrongylides (Nematoda: Dioctophmidae) from freshwater fish in China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fan; Li, Wen X; Wu, Shan G; Zou, Hong; Wang, Gui T

    2013-02-01

    The nematodes Eustrongylides spp. collected from different fish species in China were examined for their intra- and interspecific evolutionary variations using the molecular markers mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA regions. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that Eustrongylides species are divided into 3 well-supported clades. The ITS divergence between the clades suggested that clades 2 and 3 might represent the same species, whereas clade 1 represent another cryptic species. The host specificity of these nematodes was analyzed according to prevalence data, host range, and phylogenetic information. Clade 1 was found in 4 fish species, i.e., Odontobutis obscurus, Silurus asotus, Culter mongolicus, and Acanthogobius flavimanus, but was predominant in the 2 perciform species, O. obscurus and A. flavimanus. Clade 2 was found in 3 fish species, Monopterus albus, Channa argus, and Channa asiatica, but was predominant in M. albus, reported to feed primarily on oligochaetes, the first intermediate host of Eustrongylides sp. Clade 3 was found in 9 species, but its low prevalence suggests accidental infection in all species. Although the larval nematode presented low host specificity, it exhibited some host preference.

  17. Pathological lesions in European bison (Bison bonasus) with infestation by Ashworthius sidemi (Nematoda, Trichostrongylidae).

    PubMed

    Osińska, B; Demiaszkiewicz, A W; Lachowicz, J

    2010-01-01

    Asworthius sidemi Schulz, 1933 is a blood sucking gastrointestinal nematode, primarily typical for Asiatic deer. It was found for the first time in Poland in European bison in 1997. To estimate the level of invasion of A. sidemi and histopathological changes connected with the presence of the parasite in the years 2004-2007 parasitological and histopathological examinations of 54 European bison from Białowieza Forest were carried out. Parasitological examination was carried out by the sedimentation method and A. sidemi were diagnosed under a binocular microscope. Samples for histological examination were collected from the abomasum and duodenum walls as well as from regional lymph nodes. Tissue samples were then fixed with 10% buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, cut in to 5 microm thick sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Parasitological examinations showed the presence of fourth stage larvae and juvenile forms of A. sidemi. The maximal intensity of invasion rose systematically from 4470 A. sidemi nematodes in 2004/2005 to 44310 in 2006/2007. Histopathological examinations showed infiltrations of inflammatory cells in the walls of abomasa and duodena at various levels of intensity (mainly lymphoid cells and eosinophils), hyperemiae, oedemae and lesions of mucosa and proliferation of lymphatic follicles. In individual cases of dysplasia of epithelial cells, atrophy or hyperplasia of glands and the presence of parasites in the lumen or walls of the abomasum/duodenum were observed. In one case, parasitic nodules were found. In regional lymph nodes proliferation of lymphatic follicles, presence of eosinophils and desolation of reproduction centers were observed. Intensification of histopathological changes was connected to a considerable degree with the developmental stage of A. sidemi as shown by parasitological examination.

  18. Expansion of the Asiatic parasite Ashworthius sidemi (Nematoda, Trichostrongylidae) in wild ruminants in Polish territory.

    PubMed

    Dród, Jan; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Lachowicz, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    The abomasa of 40 wild ruminants (18 red deer, 9 roe deer, 13 European bison) shot in the Bieszczady Mountains and another 8 European bison shot in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, were examined for worms. Ashworthius sidemi was found in all of the animals from the Bieszczady Mountains, and the intensity of infection was usually massive. In Bialowieza Forest few specimens of A. sidemi were noted among three bison. Wild ruminants were infected by A. sidemi from June to September. The nematodes originating from this infection only attained sexual maturity in June of the following year, and from September the process of expelling the parasites of that generation began. From June to autumn, two generations of nematodes, one consisting of mature individuals from the previous year and the other of the current year comprising fourth stage larvae as well as juveniles, occur in these hosts. In the winter and spring periods until June, only one generation of the parasite, arrested fourth-stage larvae and juveniles, occurs in the hosts.

  19. Ashworthius sidemi (Nematoda, Trichostrongylidae) in wild ruminants in Białowieza Forest.

    PubMed

    Demiaszkiewicz, A W; Lachowicz, J; Osińska, B

    2009-01-01

    Between 2003-2007, abomasa of 91 European bison (Bison bonasus), 4 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and 2 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) shot in the Białowieza Primeval Forest (Poland) were examined for worms presence. All the animals examined were infected with nematodes A. sidemi with an exception of one bison, that was shot in year 2003. There was much higher average intensity of invasion in bison (5529), than in red deer (85) and in roe deer (1837). The animals were shot in a period from December to March, and the nematodes found in them were fourth stage larvae and immature adult specimens. In the following years of examinations, a gradual increase in average intensity of infection was observed. In 2007, it reached in bison 10814 nematodes. Maximum intensity of invasion was found in this year as well and it reached 44310 nematodes in one bison. Pathological changes such as an oedema, hyperaemia and effusion in the abomasum and duodenum mucosa were most clearly seen in the calves that were highly infected. These changes probably lead to chronic diarrhoea, deterioration and deaths of young animals.

  20. Species of Typhlophoros von Linstow, 1906 (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) in Old World crocodilians.

    PubMed

    Sprent, J F

    1999-07-01

    A new species of the genus Typhlophoros von Linstow, 1906, T. spratti, is described from the freshwater crocodile Crocodylus johnstoni and the saltwater crocodile C. porosus in northern Australia. Specimens of the new species could not be compared with the type-species, T. lamellaris, as no preserved specimens of the latter species are known to exist. The new species differs from the descriptions of von Linstow (1906) and Maplestone (1930) in the number of interlabial ridges, the form of the ventriculus and absence of lateral alae. The taxonomic status and affinities of Typhlophoros are discussed.

  1. Swedish Plectida (Nematoda). Part 6. Neocamacolaimus parasiticus gen. n., sp. n.

    PubMed

    Holovachov, Oleksandr; Boström, Sven

    2014-06-25

    A new genus Neocamacolaimus gen. n., with one new species N. parasiticus gen. n., sp. n. is described from the benthic polychaete Sphaerosyllis cf. hystrix collected in the Skagerrak off the west coast of Sweden. Neocamacolaimus gen. n. is placed in the family Camacolaimidae and is particularly characterised by having annulated cuticle with lateral alae; setiform cephalic sensilla located at level with amphids; amphidial fovea ventrally spiral; buccal cavity without armament; pharynx muscular; nerve ring located at base of pharynx; male reproductive system diorchic with outstretched testes; spicules weakly arcuate with straight manubrium; gubernaculum absent; alveolar supplements located in the pharyngeal region; tubular supplements absent; tail conoid; caudal glands and spinneret present. Juveniles of this genus are particularly characterised by their parasitic lifestyle and the following unique morphological features: lips form a dorso-ventrally elongated perioral disc with internal sclerotizations: one midventral and two dorsosublateral (right and left); cephalic sensilla setiform, subventral sensilla are noticeably longer than the subdorsal ones; intestine extends posterior to rectum and anal opening, forming a post-anal pouch.

  2. Proteolytic activity in Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Anisakidae), a fish gastrointestinal parasite of worldwide distribution.

    PubMed

    Malagón, David; Benítez, Rocío; Adroher, Francisco Javier; Díaz-López, Manuel

    2011-12-29

    Proteases have a significant role in the life cycle of parasites and the pathogen-host relationship, being regarded as important virulence factors. In the parasitic nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum proteolytic activity was measured during in vitro development from third larval stage (L3) to mature adult, using DQ red casein as a fluorogenic substrate. Proteolytic activity was detected in all the developmental stages studied and at all pH values within the range employed (2.0-7.5). The assay with specific inhibitors permitted the determination of metalloprotease activity, and, to a lesser extent, that of aspartate- and cysteine-protease. Serine-protease activity was the lowest of those studied. In L3 recently collected from the host fish (L3-0 h), the greatest activity was found at an optimum pH of 4.0 and was mainly inhibited by 1,10-phenathroline (metalloprotease inhibitor). This metalloprotease activity in L3-0 h (infective stage) may be related to the invasion of the host tissues by this larva. In the other developmental stages, the greatest protease activity was found at pH 5.5, although at pH 4.0 a lower activity peak was detected. On the other hand, our data show that the proteolytic activity of the nematode varies according to the presence of pepsin (an aspartic-protease) in the culture medium. Thus, at pH 4.0, activity was greater in the absence of pepsin, with increasing aspartic-protease activity. Together with the detection of aspartic-, cysteine- and metallo-protease (enzymes involved in digestion in invertebrates) in all the developmental stages of the parasite taking place in the digestive tract of the host fish, this allows us to suggest that the pepsin in the culture medium mimics the predigestion conditions in the habitat of the worm within the host and that the activity detected may have, amongst others, a digestive function.

  3. Collagenolytic activity related to metalloproteases (and serine proteases) in the fish parasite Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Anisakidae).

    PubMed

    Malagón, David; Adroher, Francisco Javier; Díaz-López, Manuel; Benítez, Rocío

    2010-06-11

    Proteases play a vital role in both the life cycle of parasites and the parasite-host relationship and are considered important virulence factors. In the present study, the presence of proteases with collagenolytic activity was investigated in the fish nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum during in vitro development. Collagenolytic activity was found in all studied developmental stages of the nematode (third [L3] and fourth [L4] larval stages and adults). In L3, the activity was maximum at pH 6.5 and, in the other stages, at 7.0. Pepsin is known to favour in vitro development of the worm, but, in this study, collagenolytic activity was shown to be significantly greater when no pepsin was added to the culture medium (at pH 6.5, p = 0.011). At pH 7.0, most activity was observed in the immature adult, after the final moult, suggesting that the collagenolytic activity may be involved in remodelling of the cuticle and in sexual maturity. On the other hand, at pH 6.5, activity may be related to tissue migration by L3 within the host. Using specific inhibitors, it was demonstrated that most of the collagenolytic activity detected in all the developmental stages was due to metalloproteases (40 to 100%), although serine proteases were also detected in L4 and adults (10 to 30%).

  4. Some factors which influence the in vitro maintenance of Anisakis simplex (Nematoda).

    PubMed

    Iglesias, L; Valero, A; Adroher, F J

    1997-01-01

    Several culture media as well as some factors that may affect the in vitro development of the nematode Anisakis simplex Rudolphi, 1809 have been studied. After testing six media and four temperatures, the conditions for the in vitro culture selected were as follows: RPMI-1640 + 20% (v/v) heat-inactived fetal bovine serum or Meyer's M3 (without agar) media, at 37 degrees C, under 5% CO2 in air atmosphere, and renewal of the medium twice a week. The average survival rates of the larvae were significantly increased when the pH of the culture medium was increased (from 4.0 to 7.2) or decreased (from 7.2 to 4.0) after L3 to L4 moulting. The length of the larvae at the onset of culture affected the survival and moulting of themselves, but these were culture medium-dependent. On the other hand, we have observed that several L3 and L4 were attached, by means of a brown unknown substance apparently secreted by themselves, to the bottom of the substratum. Frequently, when a larva was spontaneously detached, a "cap" of the brown substance blocked, apparently, its mouth. The possible absorption of nutrients through the L3 larvae cuticle of A. simplex is discussed.

  5. Larval anisakids (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) in horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) from the fish market in Granada (Spain).

    PubMed

    Adroher, F J; Valero, A; Ruiz-Valero, J; Iglesias, L

    1996-01-01

    Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) from the fish market in Granada, South Spain, were surveyed for anisakid nematodes. The fish came from fishing ports all over the country. Larval anisakids were found in 39.4% of the fish examined. In all, 26.1% were infected with third-stage larvae (L3s) of Anisakis simplex; 0.3%, with A. physeteris L3s; 31.1%, with Hysterothylacium aduncum L3s; and 1.7%, with fourth-stage larvae (L4s) of Hysterothylacium sp. Horse mackerel from Mediterranean Sea coast ports (South and Southeast Spain) had the lowest levels of infection and those from Cantabrian Sea coast ports (North Spain) had the highest levels. Variations in infection levels with host size (age) and season of capture were surveyed.

  6. Steinernema biddulphi n. sp., a New Entomopathogenic Nematode (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cimen, Harun; Půža, Vladimír; NermuŤ, JiŘí; Hatting, Justin; Ramakuwela, Tshima; Hazir, Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    A new species of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), Steinernema biddulphi n. sp., was isolated from a maize field in Senekal, Free State Province of South Africa. Morphological and molecular studies indicated the distinctness of S. biddulphi n. sp. from other Steinernema species. Steinernema biddulphi n. sp. is characterized IJs with average body length of 663 μm (606–778 μm), lateral fields with six ridges in mid-body region forming the formula 2,6,2. Excretory pore located anterior to mid-pharynx (D% = 46). Hyaline layer occupies approximately half of tail length. Male spicules slightly to moderately curved, with a sharp tip and golden brown in color. The first generation of males lacking a mucron on the tail tip while the second generation males with a short filamentous mucron. Genital papillae with 11 pairs and one unpaired preanal papilla. The new species is further characterized by sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S regions (D2-D3) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Phylogenetic data show that S. biddulphi n. sp. belongs to the “bicornutum” clade within the Steinernematidae family. PMID:27765988

  7. Phasmarhabditis bonaquaense n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae), a new slug-parasitic nematode from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Nermuť, Jiří; Půža, Vladimír; Mekete, Tesfamariam; Mráček, Zdeněk

    2016-10-31

    Phasmarhabditis bonaquaense n. sp. is described and illustrated from the body of Malacolimax tenellus, from the locality of České Švýcary near the village of Dobrá Voda, the Czech Republic. Females are characterized by a body length of 2349 (1878-2626) µm and a cupola shaped tail with a long hyaline hair-like tail tip. Extremely prominent papilla-like phasmids present. Males 1829 (1414-2121) µm long. Peloderan bursa with nine pairs of rays (papillae), 1/1/1/2/1/3. One non-paired apparent papilla-like structure located near the ventral appendage anterior to the cloaca. Prominent papilla-like phasmids located close to the tail tip. Small subunit (18S), ITS, and D2-D3 expansion segments of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of sequenced species in the genus Phasmarhabditis and other closely related species. Phasmarhabditis bonaquaense n. sp. varied from other related nematodes both in morphological characterizations and phylogenetic analysis. The life cycle of the newly described species is not well known but it is probably a facultative, mollusc-parasitic nematode able to survive permanently in the saprobic phase on decaying organic matter.

  8. Pathogenicity of Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema glaseri (Nematoda:Steinernematidae) to Ixodes Scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhioua, E.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Aeschliman, A.

    1995-01-01

    The entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and S. glaseri (Steiner) are pathogenic to engorged adult, blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis (Say), but not to unfed females, engorged nymphs, or engorged larvae. Nematodes apparently enter the tick through the genital pore, thus precluding infection of immature ticks. The timing of tick mortality, and overall mortality after 17 d, did not differ between infections by S. carpocapsae and S. glaseri. These nematodes typically do not complete their life cycles or produce infective juveniles in I. scapularis. However, both species successfully produced infective juveniles when the tick body was slit before nematode infection. Mortality of engorged I. scapularis females infected by S. carpocapsae was greater than uninfected controls, but did not vary significantly with nematode concentration (50-3,000 infective juveniles per 5-cm-diameter petri dish). The LC50 was 347.8 infective juveniles per petri dish (5 ticks per dish). Hatched egg masses of infected ticks weighed less than those of uninfected controls. Mortality of infected ticks was greatest between 20 and 30?C, and was lower at 15?C.

  9. Description and SEM Observations of Meloidogyne sasseri n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), Parasitizing Beachgrasses

    PubMed Central

    Handoo, Zafar A.; Huettel, Robin N.; Golden, A. Morgan

    1993-01-01

    Meloidogyne sasseri n. sp. is described and illustrated from American beachgrass (Ammophila breviliffulata) originally collected from Henlopen State Park and Fenwick Island near the Maryland state line in Delaware, United States (6). Its relationship to M. graminis, M. spartinae, and M. californiensis is discussed. Primary distinctive characters of the female perineal pattern were a high to rounded arch with shoulders, widely spaced lateral lines interrupting transverse striations, a sunken vulva and anus, and coarse broken striae around the anal area. Second-stage juvenile body length was 554 μm (470-550), stylet length 14 μm (13-14.5), tail length 93 μm (83-115), tapering to a finely rounded terminus. Male stylet length 20 μm (19-21.5), spicule length 33 μm (30-36). Scanning electron microscope observations provided additional details of perineal patterns and face views of the female, male, and J2 head. Wheat, rice, oat, Ammophila sp., Panicum sp., bermudagrass, zoysiagrass and St. Augustinegrass were tested as hosts. Distribution of the species was the coasts of Delaware and Maryland. The common name "beachgrass root-knot" is proposed for M. sasseri n. sp. PMID:19279820

  10. Rhabditis pellio Schneider (Nematoda) from the Earthworm, Aporrectodea trapezoides Duges (Annelida)

    PubMed Central

    Poinar, G. O.; Thomas, G. M.

    1975-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the behak, ior of the nematode, Rhabditis pellio, in the earthworm, Aporrectodea trapezoides, from southern California. Juvenile and adult nematodes were found in the bladders and tubules of the metanephridia of the host. Similar nematodes that entered the coelom were encapsulated and incorporated into multiple capsules ("brown bodies"). It was demonstrated that this host response is an effective defense reaction since dead and dying nematodes, as well as living forms, were found in the capsules. PMID:19308185

  11. Effect of Soil Depth and Moisture on the Vertical Distribution of Steinernema riobrave (Nematoda: Steinernematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gouge, Dawn H.; Smith, Kirk A.; Lee, Linda L.; Henneberry, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of soil moisture on the distribution of Steinernema riobrave in a sand column was determined. Larvae of Pectinophora gossypiella were used to detect S. riobrave infective juveniles (IJ) in each 2.5-cm section of 30-cm-long soil columns. Soil moisture was determined for each section and related to the numbers of nematodes recovered from infected insect baits. Infective juveniles of S. riobrave applied on the sand column surface showed some degree of positive geotaxis. IJ in soil columns with a consistent moisture gradient grouped in the upper 12.7 cm within a water potential range of ¯40 to ¯0.0055 MPa (2% to 14% moisture). Nematodes in sand columns that were gradually dehydrating moved down the soil column, aggregating on the 28th day between 15-23 cm in depth. Nematode redistribution over time allowed IJ to remain within a water potential range of ¯0.1 to ¯0.012 MPa (5.2% to 9.5% moisture). PMID:19270970

  12. Dracunculus brasiliensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Dracunculidae) from the anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Ophidia: Boidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Santos, C P

    2009-02-01

    Dracunculus brasiliensis sp. n. (Dracunculidae), is described based on a single female specimen found in the body cavity of the anaconda, Eunectes murinus (L.) (Ophidia: Boidae), from the Mexiana Island, Amazon River delta, Brazil and one female previously recorded from the subcutaneous tissue of this host species imported from South America into Europe (ZOO in the Czech Republic). The new species is characterised mainly by markedly large, anteriorly protruding dorsal and ventral double papillae of the internal circle and small lateral papillae of the same circle, a widely rounded caudal end, the excretory pore situated just posterior to the nerve ring, a distinctly transversely striated cuticle and by the length (396-429 mum) of larvae from uterus. This is the first species of Dracunculus described from reptiles in South America.

  13. [Fecundity of Thominx neopulchra (Nematoda:Capillariidae) from bats of the genus Myotis (Chiroptera:Vespertilionidae)].

    PubMed

    Kirillova, N Iu; Kirillov, A A; Evlanov, I A

    2011-01-01

    Variability of absolute fecundity of nematode Thominx neopulchra from three species of genus Myotis was studies on the territory Zhiguli State Reserve in 2007, 2008. Significant differences in the fecundity of the nematode females depending on host species and sex, size of the parasite, number of the helminthes in a given host, and season of year were revealed.

  14. Biological Survey Along the St. Lawrence River for the St. Lawrence Seaway. Additional Locks and other Navigation Improvements Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    only one month (Table 6). Nine phylums were represented - Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes , Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Firyozoa, Annel-ida...Hydroids) - colonies Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Turbellaria (Flatworms) Phylum Nematoda (Roundworms) Phylum Nematomorpha (Horsehair worms) Phylum

  15. Potentialities of Mermithid Nematodes for the Biocontrol of Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae)--A Review,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    population of blackflies . The taxonomy of the Mermithidae has been only partially evaluated and the taxonomic status of many representatives is...Mermithids cause pathogenic effects upon several blackfly tissues, although no information is available concerning physiological manifestations of mermithid...parasitism in blackflies . A brief review of the present state of knowledge of simuliid taxonomy and bionomics is presented. (Modified author abstract)

  16. Genome-Wide Analyses of Individual Strongyloides stercoralis (Nematoda: Rhabditoidea) Provide Insights into Population Structure and Reproductive Life Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Myo Pa Pa Thet Hnin Htwe; Afrin, Tanzila; Nagayasu, Eiji; Tanaka, Ryusei; Higashiarakawa, Miwa; Win, Kyu Kyu; Hirata, Tetsuo; Htike, Wah Win; Fujita, Jiro; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    The helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, which is transmitted through soil, infects 30–100 million people worldwide. S. stercoralis reproduces sexually outside the host as well as asexually within the host, which causes a life-long infection. To understand the population structure and transmission patterns of this parasite, we re-sequenced the genomes of 33 individual S. stercoralis nematodes collected in Myanmar (prevalent region) and Japan (non-prevalent region). We utilised a method combining whole genome amplification and next-generation sequencing techniques to detect 298,202 variant positions (0.6% of the genome) compared with the reference genome. Phylogenetic analyses of SNP data revealed an unambiguous geographical separation and sub-populations that correlated with the host geographical origin, particularly for the Myanmar samples. The relatively higher heterozygosity in the genomes of the Japanese samples can possibly be explained by the independent evolution of two haplotypes of diploid genomes through asexual reproduction during the auto-infection cycle, suggesting that analysing heterozygosity is useful and necessary to infer infection history and geographical prevalence. PMID:28033376

  17. Paraphyletic genus Ditylenchus Filipjev (Nematoda, Tylenchida), corresponding to the D. triformis-group and the D. dipsaci-group scheme

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yuejing; Yu, Qing; Badiss, Ahmed; Zaidi, Mohsin A.; Ekaterina Ponomareva; Hu, Yuegao; Ye, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Ditylenchus has been divided into 2 groups: the Ditylenchus triformis-group, and the Ditylenchus dipsaci-group based on morphological and biological characters. A total of 18 populations belong to 5 species of Ditylenchus was studied: Ditylenchus africanus, Ditylenchus destructor, Ditylenchus myceliophagus and dipsaci, Ditylenchus weischeri, the first 3 belong to the Ditylenchus triformis-group, the last 2 the Ditylenchus dipsaci-group. The species of Ditylenchus triformis-group were cultured on fungi, while the species from Ditylenchus dispaci-group cultured on excised roots of plant hosts in petri dish. DNA sequences of regions of the nuclear ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) and the small subunit 18S were PCR amplified, sequenced and the phylogenetic analyses also including the sequences of the closely related species from the GenBank. The randomly amplified polymorphisms of genomic DNA (RAPD) were also generated. Two clusters or clades corresponding to the 2 groups were consistently observed with significant statistical support from the 3 datasets. The phylogenetic analysis also revealed that the genus is paraphyletic, separating the 2 groups by species of Anguina and Subanguina. PMID:27103870

  18. Two new Huffmanela species, H. japonica n. sp. and H. shikokuensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae), from marine fishes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Koudela, B; Ogawa, K; Nagasawa, K

    1998-06-01

    Two new species of trichuroid nematodes. Huffmanela japonica n. sp. and Huffmanela shikokuensis n. sp., are established on the basis of their egg morphology and biological characters; the eggs of both species occur in the musculature of marine fishes from the Inland Sea of Japan. The dark-shelled eggs of H. japonica are found locally in masses ("black spots") in the flesh of Upeneus bensasi (Temminck et Schlegel) (Mullidae, Perciformes) and are characterized mainly by their shape and size (58-69 x 26-30 microm), an aspinose superficial transparent envelope enclosing the egg proper, relatively small polar plugs, and by their thick egg wall (4-5 microm). The eggs of H. shikokuensis are also dark-colored and are found evenly distributed in the musculature of Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Temminck et Schlegel) (Monacanthidae, Tetraodontiformes); they are characterized mainly by their shape and size (78-90 X 36-45 microm), by a very thin and aspinose superficial transparent envelope, large polar plugs, and relatively thin egg wall (3 microm). Histological sections of the host's infected musculature showed the presence of H. shikokuensis nematodes inside the muscle cells and in the intercellular spaces. A key to Huffmanela species based on egg morphology is provided.

  19. Description, microhabitat selection and infection patterns of sealworm larvae (Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex, nematoda: ascaridoidea) in fishes from Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Third-stage larvae of the Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex (also known as sealworms) have been reported in at least 40 marine fish species belonging to 21 families and 10 orders along the South American coast. Sealworms are a cause for concern because they can infect humans who consume raw or undercooked fish. However, despite their economic and zoonotic importance, morphological and molecular characterization of species of Pseudoterranova in South America is still scarce. Methods A total of 542 individual fish from 20 species from the Patagonian coast of Argentina were examined for sealworms. The body cavity, the muscles, internal organs, and the mesenteries were examined to detect nematodes. Sealworm larvae were removed from their capsules and fixed in 70% ethanol. For molecular identification, partial fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) were amplified for 10 isolates from 4 fish species. Morphological and morphometric data of sealworms were also obtained. Results A total of 635 larvae were collected from 12 fish species. The most infected fish was Prionotus nudigula, followed by Percophis brasiliensis, Acanthistius patachonicus, Paralichthys isosceles, and Pseudopercis semifasciata. Sequences obtained for the cox1 of sealworms from A. patachonicus, P. isosceles, P. brasiliensis and P. nudigula formed a reciprocally monophyletic lineage with published sequences of adult specimens of Pseudoterranova cattani from the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, and distinct from the remaining 5 species of Pseudoterranova. A morphological description, including drawings and scanning electron microscopy photomicrographs of these larvae is provided. Sealworms collected from Argentinean fishes did not differ in their diagnostic traits from the previously described larvae of P. cattani. However a discriminant analysis suggests that specimens from P. nudigula were significantly larger than those from other fishes. Most of the sealworms were collected encapsulated from the muscles and, to a lesser degree, from the mesenteries and the liver. Conclusions We provided the first molecular identification, morphological description and microhabitat characterization of sealworm larvae from the Argentinean Patagonian coast. We also reported the infection levels of sealworms on 20 fish species in order to elucidate the life cycle of these nematodes in this area. PMID:23988009

  20. Molecular systematics of pinniped hookworms (Nematoda: Uncinaria): species delimitation, host associations and host-induced morphometric variation.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Steven A; Lyons, Eugene T; Pagan, Christopher; Hyman, Derek; Lewis, Edwin E; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Bell, Cameron M; Castinel, Aurelie; Delong, Robert L; Duignan, Padraig J; Farinpour, Cher; Huntington, Kathy Burek; Kuiken, Thijs; Morgades, Diana; Naem, Soraya; Norman, Richard; Parker, Corwin; Ramos, Paul; Spraker, Terry R; Berón-Vera, Bárbara

    2013-12-01

    Hookworms of the genus Uncinaria have been widely reported from juvenile pinnipeds, however investigations of their systematics has been limited, with only two species described, Uncinaria lucasi from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and Uncinaria hamiltoni from South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Hookworms were sampled from these hosts and seven additional species including Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus), New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri), southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), and the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus). One hundred and thirteen individual hookworms, including an outgroup species, were sequenced for four genes representing two loci (nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences recovered seven independent evolutionary lineages or species, including the described species and five undescribed species. The molecular evidence shows that U. lucasi parasitises both C. ursinus and E. jubatus, whereas U. hamiltoni parasitises O. flavescens and A. australis. The five undescribed hookworm species were each associated with single host species (Z. californianus, A. pusillus, P. hookeri, M. leonina and M. monachus). For parasites of otarids, patterns of Uncinaria host-sharing and phylogenetic relationships had a strong biogeographic component with separate clades of parasites from northern versus southern hemisphere hosts. Comparison of phylogenies for these hookworms and their hosts suggests that the association of U. lucasi with northern fur seals results from a host-switch from Steller sea lions. Morphometric data for U. lucasi shows marked host-associated size differences for both sexes, with U. lucasi individuals from E. jubatus significantly larger. This result suggests that adult growth of U. lucasi is reduced within the host species representing the more recent host-parasite association. Intraspecific host-induced size differences are inconsistent with the exclusive use of morphometrics to delimit and diagnose species of Uncinaria from pinnipeds.

  1. Description of Uncinaria lyonsi n. sp. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) from the California sea lion Zalophus californianus Lesson (Carnivora: Otariidae).

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Kuzmin, Yuriy

    2015-02-01

    A new species of hookworm, Uncinaria lyonsi n. sp., is described based on morphological studies of the nematodes collected by Dr. E. T. Lyons from the California sea lion Zalophus californianus (Lesson) on San Miguel Island, California, USA. The new species is morphologically similar to three other species of the genus Uncinaria Frölich, 1789 parasitising pinnipeds, U. lucasi Stiles, 1901, U. hamiltoni Baylis, 1933 and U. sanguinis Marcus, Higgins, Šlapeta & Gray, 2014, in the body dimensions, the structure of the buccal capsule, the shape and structure of the male caudal bursa and female genital system. Uncinaria lyonsi n. sp. is differentiated from U. lucasi by having longer spicules and gubernaculum, larger buccal capsule and more slender oesophagus. The new species differs from U. hamiltoni and U. sanguinis in having shorter spicules and narrower buccal capsule. The latter two species also occur in the Southern Hemisphere and are geographically separated from U. lyonsi n. sp. The present study confirms the existence of a host-specific species of Uncinaria in the California sea lion, previously revealed by molecular and biological investigations.

  2. Occurrence of Terranova larval types (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Australian marine fish with comments on their specific identities

    PubMed Central

    Suthar, Jaydipbhai

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoterranovosis is a well-known human disease caused by anisakid larvae belonging to the genus Pseudoterranova. Human infection occurs after consuming infected fish. Hence the presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in the flesh of the fish can cause serious losses and problems for the seafood, fishing and fisheries industries. The accurate identification of Pseudoterranova larvae in fish is important, but challenging because the larval stages of a number of different genera, including Pseudoterranova, Terranova and Pulchrascaris, look similar and cannot be differentiated from each other using morphological criteria, hence they are all referred to as Terranova larval type. Given that Terranova larval types in seafood are not necessarily Pseudoterranova and may not be dangerous, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Terranova larval types in Australian marine fish and to determine their specific identity. A total of 137 fish belonging to 45 species were examined. Terranova larval types were found in 13 species, some of which were popular edible fish in Australia. The sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2 respectively) of the Terranova larvae in the present study showed a high degree of similarity suggesting that they all belong to the same species. Due to the lack of a comparable sequence data of a well identified adult in the GenBank database the specific identity of Terranova larval type in the present study remains unknown. The sequence of the ITS regions of the Terranova larval type in the present study and those of Pseudoterranova spp. available in GenBank are significantly different, suggesting that larvae found in the present study do not belong to the genus Pseudoterranova, which is zoonotic. This study does not rule out the presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in Australian fish as Pseudoterranova decipiens E has been reported in adult form from seals in Antarctica and it is known that they have seasonal presence in Australian southern coasts. The genetic distinction of Terranova larval type in the present study from Pseudoterranova spp. along with the presence of more species of elasmobranchs in Australian waters (definitive hosts of Terranova spp. and Pulchrascaris spp.) than seals (definitive hosts of Pseudoterranova spp.) suggest that Terranova larval type in the present study belong to either genus Terranova or Pulchrascaris, which are not known to cause disease in humans. The present study provides essential information that could be helpful to identify Australian Terranova larval types in future studies. Examination and characterisation of further specimens, especially adults of Terranova and Pulchrascaris, is necessary to fully elucidate the identity of these larvae. PMID:27014510

  3. Description of Rhabdochona (Globochona) rasborae sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the freshwater cyprinid fish Rasbora paviana Tirant in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Kamchoo, Kanda

    2012-09-01

    A new nematode species, Rhabdochona (Globochona) rasborae sp. n. (Rhabdochonidae), is described from the intestine of the freshwater cyprinid fish (sidestripe rasbora) Rasbora paviana Tirant in the Bangbaimai Subdistrict, Muang District, Surat Thani Province, southern Thailand. It differs from other representatives of the subgenus Globochona Moravec, 1972 which possess eggs provided with lateral swellings in having a spinose formation at the tail tip of both sexes and in some other morphological features, such as the body length of gravid female (8.6-23.7 mm), presence of two-three swellings on the egg, eight anterior prostomal teeth, length ratio of spicules (1:5.3-6.7) and arrangement of male genital papillae. This is the third nominal species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 and the second species of the subgenus Globochona reported from fishes in Thailand. The three species of Rhabdochona recently described from fishes in Pakistan, viz. R. annai Kakar, Bilqees et Khan, 2012, R. bifurcatum [sic] Kakar et Bilqees, 2012, and R. pakistanica Kakar, Bilqees et Khan, 2012, are considered to be species inquirendae.

  4. Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina): A Mycetophagous and Entomoparasitic Nematode in Infested Coconut Fruits from Balochistan, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Nasira, K.; Shahina, F.; Firoza, K.

    2013-01-01

    Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. was isolated from infested coconut fruits in Winder, Balochistan, Pakistan. Descriptions are given of the entomophagous (insect-parasitic females) and mycetophagous (fungus-feeding) free-living females, males, and juveniles. The new species D. cocophilus resembles those species in which the excretory pore is situated anterior to the hemizonid, namely, D. apopkaetus Chitambar, 1991; D. leptosoma Gagarin, 2001; D. ipini Massey, 1974; D. laricis (Blinova and Korentchenko, 1986) Ebsarry, 1991; D. (siricidicola) canii Bedding, 1974; D. (s) imperialis Bedding, 1974; D. nevexii Bedding, 1974; D. (wilsoni) proximus Bedding, 1974; D. (s) rudyi Bedding, 1974; D. (s) siricidicola Bedding, 1968; D. (wilsoni) wilsoni Bedding, 1968 and D. minimus Chizhov and Sturhan, 1998. The new species differs from D. ipini in the absence of a post uterine sac vs. present; a = 17 to 30 vs. 35 to 40; stylet = 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm and vulva-anus = 21 to 28 vs. 35 to 48 μm. From D. apopkaetus it differs in tail length in female 22 to 28 vs. 31 to 43 μm and in the male it is 24 to 32 vs. 30 to 46 μm. It differs from D. leptosoma in the c ratio in females, c = 21 to 37 vs. 16 to 22, presence of 6 lines in lateral field vs. 10 lines and slightly longer spicules 16 to 18 vs. 15 to 16 μm. From D. laricis it differs in a shorter stylet length 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm; in the c ratio in males 16 to 22 vs. 22 to 35 and hemizonid from anterior end 76 to 90 vs. 90 to 119 μm. It also differs from the following species: D. (siricidicola) canii; D. (s) imperialis; D. nevexii; D. (wilsoni) proximus; D. (s) rudyi; D. (s) siricidicola; D. (wilsoni) wilsoni and D. minimus in having shorter tail length, lower values of a,b,c ratios and a slightly anteriorly located vulva in females. PMID:23833325

  5. Ecotoxicological assessment of aquatic sediments with Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) -- A method for testing liquid medium and whole-sediment samples

    SciTech Connect

    Traunspurger, W.; Haitzer, M.; Hoess, S.; Beier, S.; Ahlf, W.; Steinberg, C.

    1997-02-01

    The authors present a method using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to assess toxicity in liquid medium and whole-sediment setups. Test duration is 72 h; endpoints are body length, number of eggs inside worms, percentage of gravid worms, and number of offspring per worm. The effect of CdCl{sub 2} on C. elegans in liquid-phase exposures is described as an example. Results from a field study with cadmium polluted sediments from the River Elbe (Germany) suggest that nematodes may be useful organisms in assessing toxicity of sediments in the whole phase.

  6. A survey of the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa for the presence of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    PubMed

    Knoetze, Rinus; Swart, Antoinette

    2014-12-09

    A survey was performed to detect the presence of cyst nematodes in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Soil was collected in the rhizosphere of the dominant plant species within blocks of indigenous vegetation and cysts were extracted from them. A total of 81 blocks of indigenous vegetation were sampled as described. Cysts were detected in 7 of these samples, representing 6 different vegetation types. One set of primers was used to amplify the ITS regions from these cysts, including the 5.8S ribosomal gene, as well as short parts of the 18S and 28S ribosomal genes. ITS-rDNA sequences from the indigenous isolates were aligned with selected sequences of other species from the Heteroderidae. Phylogenetic analyses to resolve the relationships between indigenous isolates and selected representatives of the Heteroderidae were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony method. The consensus tree resulting from alignment of the circumfenestrate cysts revealed that isolates SK18, WK1 and WK26 are included in a clade of Globodera species that parasitise non-solanaceous plants, forming a monophyletic group with G. millefolii, G. artemisiae, and an unidentified Globodera sp. from Portugal. In a tree resulting from the alignment of the Heterodera spp., isolates OK14 and WK2 are included in the Afenestrata group, forming a monophyletic group with H. orientalis.This survey unearthed at least four potentially new species of cyst nematodes, which may prove invaluable for the study of the evolution and biogeography of the group.

  7. Pathogenicity of the gill artery worm Philometra obturans (Nematoda) in northern pike (Esox lucius) in southwest Finland.

    PubMed

    Kåll, S; Fagerholm, H P; Sarvala, J

    2004-02-01

    The pathogenicity of female Philometra obturans (Prenant, 1886) was investigated. Fish samples were taken in May and June 2001 from Lake Littoistenjärvi, in southwest Finland. The intensity of infection varied between 1 and 4 worms, these being found in the afferent artery of the 2 outermost gill arches. The prevalence was 33.9% (n = 59). Host condition and tissue reactions were investigated through dissection and analysis of histopathology. The parasites obstructed the gill arteries, and the arterial wall was stretched around intact worms. Hypertrophy of the arterial wall was observed, especially when only disintegrating remains of the parasites were present. Infected pike were in a poorer condition after catch, transportation, and holding in aquaria and thus less tolerant to stress than uninfected pike. This was correlated with the number of infected gill arteries (P < 0.05). The results show that infection with this nematode has a detrimental effect on the host when combined with environmental or physiological stress and may result in host mortality.

  8. Simuliid blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and ceratopogonid midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as vectors of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Shelley, A J; Coscarón, S

    2001-05-01

    Mansonella ozzardi, a relatively nonpathogenic filarial parasite of man in Latin America, is transmitted by either ceratopogonid midges or simuliid blackflies. In the only known focus of the disease in north-western Argentina the vectors have never been incriminated. This study investigated the potential vectors of M. ozzardi in this area. The only anthropophilic species of these Diptera families biting man at the time of the investigation were Simulium exiguum, S. dinellii, Culicoides lahillei and C. paraensis. Using experimentally infected flies S. exiguum and both species of Culicoides allowed full development of microfilariae to the infective stage, with C. lahillei being a more competent host than S. exiguum. Based on these data, biting rates and natural infectivity rates it is probable that at the begininning of the wet season C. lahillei is the main vector of M. ozzardi and both C. paraensis and S. exiguum secondary vectors. Additionally, it was found that a single dose of ivermectin was ineffectual in eradicating M. ozzardi from infected individuals in this area.

  9. Eustrongylides sp. (Nematoda: Dioctophymatoidea) from the stomach of a Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Junker, K; Bain, O; Boomker, J

    2006-12-01

    During a study conducted between 2003 and 2005 on the diet of Nile crocodiles in Botswana, two young adult nematodes, one male and one female, belonging to the genus Eustrongylides Jägerskiöld, 1909 were recovered from the stomach contents of one of these animals. The caudal bursa of the male is present and the ejaculatory duct could be identified, but the spicule could not be seen. The vulva of the female has opened and the anus is situated on a terminal protruberance. Measurements and drawings of these specimens are provided, together with some data on the occurrence and life-cycles of members of the genus Eustrongylides in crocodilians world-wide and in African hosts in particular. Piscivorous birds are the usual final hosts of these nematodes. It is probable that the specimens described herein had developed in a paratenic fish host, and that the latter had been eaten by the crocodile.

  10. Characterization and Sequence Variation in the rDNA Region of Six Nematode Species of the Genus Longidorus (Nematoda)

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, F.; Reyes, A.; Grunder, J.; Kunz, P.; Agostinelli, A.; De Giorgi, C.; Lamberti, F.

    2004-01-01

    Total DNA was isolated from individual nematodes of the species Longidorus helveticus, L. macrosoma, L. arthensis, L. profundorum, L. elongatus, and L. raskii collected in Switzerland. The ITS region and D1-D2 expansion segments of the 26S rDNA were amplified and cloned. The sequences obtained were aligned in order to investigate sequence diversity and to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the six Longidorus species. D1-D2 sequences were more conserved than the ITS sequences that varied widely in primary structure and length, and no consensus was observed. Phylogenetic analyses using the neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods were performed with three different sequence data sets: ITS1-ITS2, 5.8S-D1-D2, and combining ITS1-ITS2+5.8S-D1-D2 sequences. All multiple alignments yielded similar basic trees supporting the existence of the six species established using morphological characters. These sequence data also provided evidence that the different regions of the rDNA are characterized by different evolution rates and by different factors associated with the generation of extreme size variation. PMID:19262800

  11. Stomatal Ultrastructure, Molecular Phylogeny, and Description of Parasitodiplogaster laevigata n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), a Parasite of Fig Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Ye, Weimin; Kanzaki, Natsumi; Williams, Donna; Morris, Krystalynne; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2006-01-01

    Parasitodiplogaster comprises a potentially large radiation of nematode species that appear to be parasitically bound to their Agaonid fig wasp hosts, which are mutualistically associated in the syconia (figs) of the diverse plant genus Ficus. Parasitodiplogaster laevigata n. sp. is described and illustrated as an associate of the fig wasp, Pegoscapus sp. from Ficus laevigata from southern Florida. It is the first species of Parasitodiplogaster reported from North America and is closest to P. trigonema from F. trigonata from Panama. Parasitodiplogaster laevigata n. sp. can be differentiated from all described species of Parasitodiplogaster based on stomatal morphology (presence of a large dorsal and a right subventral tooth) in the adults of both sexes, molecular comparisons of two expansion segments (D2,D3) of the large subunit (LSU) rRNAgene, and fig-fig wasp host affinities. The ultrastructure of P. laevigata n. sp. was elucidated using TEM and SEM for comparisons with other species of Parasitodiplogaster. The stoma of P. laevigata n. sp. possesses a nonsegmented cheilostomal ring that connects to the longitudinal body musculature per- and interradially, a claw-like dorsal tooth, a right subventral tooth, and telostegostomatal apodemes arising from the dorsal side of each subventral sector. The unification of the pro-, meso-, and metastegostom with the gymnostom in P. laevigata n. sp. and further simplification in other described species may be due to derived adaptations associated with the internal parasitism of fig wasps. PMID:19259439

  12. Host specificity of North American Rhabdias spp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae): combining field data and experimental infections with a molecular phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Langford, Gabriel J; Janovy, John

    2013-04-01

    Lungworms of the cosmopolitan genus Rhabdias are among the most common parasites of amphibians and squamate reptiles. The present study used experimental infections, field studies, and a molecular phylogeny to determine the host specificity of 6 Rhabdias spp. that infect snakes and anurans from North America. The molecular phylogeny suggests Rhabdias ranae from Nebraska and Mississippi may represent separate, cryptic species. In addition, the phylogeny strongly supports separate clades for anuran and snake lungworms. Field studies and experimental infections indicate that snake lungworms are generalist snake parasites; however, laboratory experiments also suggest that lizards can be infected under some environmental conditions. Lungworms from anurans were found not to infect salamanders or reptiles, in nature or in the laboratory; anuran lungworm species ranged from strict host specificity, e.g., R. ranae from Nebraska, to relative generalist, e.g., Rhabdias joaquinensis from Nebraska. Overall, host specificity for species of Rhabdias does not provide support for the evolution of progressive specialization over time. For most species of lungworms, host specificity in nature appears to be limited by both ecological and physiological factors, which vary between species and their hosts. Furthermore, some lungworms, e.g., Rhabdias bakeri from Missouri, appear to be tracking host resources instead of host phylogenies, an example of ecological fitting.

  13. Histopathology and ultrastructure of Platichthys flesus naturally infected with Anisakis simplex s.l. larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae).

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, Bahram S; Pironi, Flavio; Shinn, Andrew P; Manera, Maurizio; Giari, Luisa

    2007-12-01

    The histopathology, ultrastructure, and immunohistochemistry of the alimentary canal of flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), naturally infected with the nematode Anisakis simplex s.l. (Rudolphi 1809) from the River Forth (Scotland), were investigated and described. Eight of the 16 flounders were infected with A. simplex s.l. larvae (L3); parasites were encapsulated by serosa on the external surface of the host's digestive tract (intensity of infection 1-8 parasites per host), although nematode larvae were found encysted under the peritoneal visceral serosa of the host spleen and liver and, occasionally, in the liver parenchyma (intensity of infection 3-10 parasites per host). In all sites, different structural elements were recognized within the capsule surrounding larvae. Among the epithelial cells of the intestine of 5 flounders with larvae encysted on external surface of the gut, the presence of several rodlet cells (RCs) was observed. Furthermore, often the occurrence of macrophage aggregates (MAs) was noticed in infected liver and spleen, mainly around the parasite larvae. Eight neuropeptide antisera were tested with immunohistochemistry methods on gut sections of 4 P. flesus infected with extraintestinal nematodes. Sections from the gut of 5 uninfected flounder were used for comparative purposes. In the tunica mucosa of parasitized P. flesus, several endocrine epithelial cells were immunoreactive to anti-CCK-39 (cholecystokinin 39) and -NPY (neuropeptide Y) sera; furthermore, in the myenteric plexus, a high number of neurons were immunoreactive to antibombesin, -galanin, and several to -NPY and -PHI (peptide histidine isoleucine) sera.

  14. Revision of the paraphyletic genus Koerneria Meyl, 1960 and resurrection of two other genera of Diplogastridae (Nematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recent inferences of phylogeny from molecular characters, as well as a reexamination of morphological and biological characters, reject the monophyly of the nematode genus Koerneria Meyl, 1960 (Diplogastridae). Here, Koerneria sensu lato is revised. The genus, which previously consisted of 40 species, is separated into three genera. Almost all of the transferred species are moved to the resurrected genus Allodiplogaster Paramonov & Sobolev in Skrjabin et al. (1954). Koerneria and Allodiplogaster are distinguished from each other by a weakly vs. clearly striated body surface, an undivided vs. divided stomatal cheilostom, and arrangement of the terminal ventral triplet of male genital papillae, namely in that v5 and v6 are paired and separated from v7 vs. v5–v7 being close to each other. Allodiplogaster is further divided into two groups of species, herein called the henrichae and striata groups, based on both morphological and life-history traits. The henrichae group is characterized by papilliform labial sensilla and male genital papillae, a conical tail in both males and females, and an association with terrestrial habitats and insects, whereas the striata group is characterized by setiform labial sensilla and male genital papillae, an elongated conical tail in both sexes, and an association with aquatic habitats. A second genus, Anchidiplogaster Paramonov, 1952, is resurrected to include a single species that is characterized by its miniscule stoma and teeth, unreflexed testis, and a distinct lack of male genital papillae or stomatal apodemes. Lastly, one further species that was previously included in Koerneria sensu lato is transferred to the genus Pristionchus Kreis, 1932. The revision of Koerneria sensu lato is necessitated by the great variability in its subordinate taxa, which occupy a variety of habitats, in addition to the increased attention to Diplogastridae as a model system for comparative mechanistic biology. PMID:25349487

  15. Acanthocheilonema delicata n. sp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma): description, molecular identification, and Wolbachia screening.

    PubMed

    Uni, Shigehiko; Bain, Odile; Suzuki, Kazuo; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Harada, Masashi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Martin, Coralie; Lefoulon, Emilie; Fukuda, Masako; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-02-01

    Acanthocheilonema delicata n. sp. (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae: Onchocercinae) is described based on adult filarioids and microfilariae obtained from subcutaneous connective tissues and skin, respectively, of Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma) in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. No endemic species of the genus had been found in Japan. Recently, some filarioids (e.g., Acanthocheilonema reconditum, Dirofilaria spp., and Onchocerca spp.) have come to light as causative agents of zoonosis worldwide. The new species was readily distinguished from its congeners by morphologic characteristics such as body length, body width, esophagus length, spicule length, and the length of microfilariae. Based on the molecular data of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, A. delicata n. sp. was included in the clade of the genus Acanthocheilonema but differed from two other congeneric species available for study, A. viteae and A. reconditum. Acanthocheilonema delicata n. sp. did not harbor Wolbachia. It is likely that the fauna of filarioids from mammals on the Japanese islands is characterized by a high level of endemicity.

  16. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  17. Redescription of Echinocoleus hydrochoeri (Travassos, 1916) (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from Hydrochoeris hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia: Caviidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Robles, María del Rosario; Eberhardt, María Ayelen Teresita; Bain, Odile; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín

    2013-08-01

    Twenty-eight Capillariinae species have been recorded in rodents; 1 of these species was reported from a caviomorph rodent, Hydrochoeris hydrochaeris (capybara), and placed in the genus Echinocoleus by Moravec (1982). However, both original description and subsequent contributions of Echinocoleus hydrochoeri are poor and incomplete. In this paper, this species is redescribed, and a new geographical distribution is reported. The redescription is based on morphologic and morphometrical features; intestine ends in a cloaca beside ejaculatory duct, caudal bursa composed of 2 large ventrolateral lobes with a fleshy internal part and a membranous external part (they are not united dorsally with a membrane), 1 pair of caudal papillae, terminal part of cylindrical cirrus ornamented with thin and thick spines (and particular pattern distribution), sclerotized spicule in male, and vulvar appendage in female, and 3 bacillary bands (1 ventral and 2 lateral). Generic and specific analyses were performed to establish new standards for future studies on the systematic position of Capillariinae species. This study presents new morphological information and a new record of a capillariid species from Argentina.

  18. Ultrastructure of Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) is a common parasite of various galliform birds worldwide. Although A. galli has been extensively studied by many author, knowledge of the morphology of this species in detail is still insufficient. In the present paper, the detailed morphology of A. galli was further studied using light and scanning electron microscopy, based on specimens collected from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in China. The results revealed some erroneous and previously unreported morphological features, including the lips lacking real denticles, the lateral alae beginning at some distance posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips and the caudal papillae with 4 different morphotypes. The present morphological and morphometric data complement previous descriptions and enable us to recognize this species more precisely.

  19. Spray Nozzles, Pressures, Additives and Stirring Time on Viability and Pathogenicity of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) for Greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; Batista, Elder Simões de Paula; Campos, Henrique Borges Neves; Lemos, Raphael Emilio; Ferreira, Marcelo da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004), three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa), four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin) and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae) viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed. PMID:23755280

  20. Litomosoides anguyai n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) from Oxymycterus misionalis (Rodentia: Muridae) in the rain forest of Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, Juliana; Bain, Odile; Navone, Graciela

    2002-06-01

    A new species of Litomosoides is described from sigmodontine murids occurring in the rain forests of Misiones, Argentina. Litomosoides anguyai n. sp., a parasite of the abdominal cavity of Oxymycterus misionalis, belongs to the sigmodontis group and is closely related to L. legerae and L. oxymycteri. The new species is differentiated by the salient amphids, an asymmetrical annular thickening of the buccal capsule, by the arrangement of the head and tail papillae, and the shape and size of the microfilaria.

  1. A new species, Litomosoides odilae n. sp (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) from Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia: Muridae) in the rainforest of Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, Juliana; Navone, Graciela

    2002-10-01

    A new species of Litomosoides was collected from the abdominal cavity of Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia: Muridae) in a semideciduous secondary rainforest of Misiones, Argentina. Litomosoides odilae n. sp. belongs to the carinii group and is characterized by the amphids displaced dorsally; buccal capsule with an anterior segment transparent and an annular asymmetrical thickening; esophagus divided, with the posterior glandular portion slightly wider than the muscular; male cloacal aperture strongly protruded; and microfilaria sheathed with an attenuated tail. The morphology of the new species, which is similar to that of L petteri, a parasite of marsupials in Brazil, suggests that host-switching events may have occurred in the diversification of this genus.

  2. Infective larvae of Cercopithifilaria spp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) from hard ticks (Ixodidae) recovered from the Japanese serow (Bovidae)

    PubMed Central

    Uni, Shigehiko; Bain, Odile; Fujita, Hiromi; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Fukuda, Masako; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Hard ticks taken from the Japanese serow, Capricornis crispus, in Yamagata Prefecture, Honshu, harboured infective larvae of onchocercid filariae after incubation from the 22nd to the 158th day. Haemaphysalis flava and H. japonica contained one to eight filarial larvae; females, males and a nymph of the ticks were infected. The 44 infective larvae recovered were 612–1,370 μm long, and 11 of them, 930–1,340 μm long, were studied in detail. The larvae possessed the morphologic characteristics of the larvae of the genus Cercopithifilaria, namely an oesophagus with a posterior glandular part, no buccal capsule and a long tail with three terminal lappets. Five types (A to E) of infective larvae were identified based on the morphologic characteristics. While to date five species of Cercopithifilaria have been described from the Japanese serow, a specific identification of the larvae found in this study was generally not possible. Only type E larvae could be tentatively assigned to Cercopithifilaria tumidicervicata, as they had a cervical swelling similar to that of the adults of this species. A key for the identification of the five larval types is presented. The study presents circumstantial evidences indicating that H. flava and H. japonica may transmit Cercopithifilaria spp. to Japanese serows. It also suggests the possibility that such filarial larvae will be found in hard ticks anywhere, because Cercopithifilaria is distributed worldwide, though this genus generally goes unnoticed, as its microfilariae occur in the skin, not in the blood, of host animals. PMID:23340227

  3. A new species of Cyclobulura (Nematoda: Subuluridae) from Zaedyus pichiy and Chaetophractus vellerosus (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Navone, Graciela T; Ezquiaga, María C; Notarnicola, Juliana; Jiménez, F Agustín

    2010-12-01

    Cyclobulura superinae n. sp. collected from Zaedyus pichiy and Chaetophractus vellerosus is herein described as the second species in Cyclobulura Quentin, 1977, and the first subulurid in armadillos. The species is unique in the spur-like structures present at the tip of both spicules, yet they conform to the description of Cyclobulura in the structure of the buccal parts. Specimens of the new species show longer chordal lobes and more conspicuous radial lobes and are smaller than specimens of C. lainsoni. In addition, males of C. superinae exhibit a spur-like process in the distal end of the spicules and a shorter tail (170 vs. 300 µm) with no spine. Finally, the eggs of C. superinae are smaller (60-89 × 45-71 vs. 95-100 × 80-85). To our knowledge, the new species is the first subulurid nematode found in an armadillo.

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Oesophagostomum dentatum (Nematoda) during Larval Transition, and the Effects of Hydrolase Inhibitors on Development

    PubMed Central

    Ondrovics, Martina; Silbermayr, Katja; Mitreva, Makedonka; Young, Neil D.; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Gasser, Robin B.; Joachim, Anja

    2013-01-01

    In this study, in vitro drug testing was combined with proteomic and bioinformatic analyses to identify and characterize proteins involved in larval development of Oesophagostomum dentatum, an economically important parasitic nematode. Four hydrolase inhibitors ο-phenanthroline, sodium fluoride, iodoacetamide and 1,2-epoxy-3-(pnitrophenoxy)-propane (EPNP) significantly inhibited (≥90%) larval development. Comparison of the proteomic profiles of the development-inhibited larvae with those of uninhibited control larvae using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and subsequent MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis identified a down-regulation of 12 proteins inferred to be involved in various larval developmental processes, including post-embryonic development and growth. Furthermore, three proteins (i.e. intermediate filament protein B, tropomyosin and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase) inferred to be involved in the moulting process were down-regulated in moulting- and development-inhibited O. dentatum larvae. This first proteomic map of O. dentatum larvae provides insights in the protein profile of larval development in this parasitic nematode, and significantly improves our understanding of the fundamental biology of its development. The results and the approach used might assist in developing new interventions against parasitic nematodes by blocking or disrupting their key biological pathways. PMID:23717515

  5. Species discovery and diversity in Lobocriconema (Criconematidae: Nematoda) and related plant-parasitic nematodes from North American ecoregions.

    PubMed

    Powers, T O; Bernard, E C; Harris, T; Higgins, R; Olson, M; Olson, S; Lodema, M; Matczyszyn, J; Mullin, P; Sutton, L; Powers, K S

    2016-03-03

    There are many nematode species that, following formal description, are seldom mentioned again in the scientific literature. Lobocriconema thornei and L. incrassatum are two such species, described from North American forests, respectively 37 and 49 years ago. In the course of a 3-year nematode biodiversity survey of North American ecoregions, specimens resembling Lobocriconema species appeared in soil samples from both grassland and forested sites. Using a combination of molecular and morphological analyses, together with a set of species delimitation approaches, we have expanded the known range of these species, added to the species descriptions, and discovered a related group of species that form a monophyletic group with the two described species. In this study, 148 specimens potentially belonging to the genus Lobocriconema were isolated from soil, individually measured, digitally imaged, and DNA barcoded using a 721 bp region of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI). One-third of the specimens were also analyzed using amplified DNA from the 3' region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18SrDNA) and the adjacent first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1). Eighteen mitochondrial haplotype groups, falling into four major clades, were identified by well-supported nodes in Bayesian and maximum likelihood trees and recognized as distinct lineages by species delimitation metrics. Discriminant function analysis of a set of morphological characters indicated that the major clades in the dataset possessed a strong morphological signal that decreased in comparisons of haplotype groups within clades. Evidence of biogeographic and phylogeographic patterns was apparent in the dataset. COI haplotype diversity was high in the southern Appalachian Mountains and Gulf Coast states and lessened in northern temperate forests. Lobocriconema distribution suggests the existence of phylogeographic patterns associated with recolonization of formerly glaciated regions by eastern deciduous forest, but definitive glacial refugia for this group of plant parasitic nematodes have yet to be identified. Unlike agricultural pest species of plant-parasitic nematodes, there is little evidence of long-distance dispersal in Lobocriconema as revealed by haplotype distribution. Most haplotype groups were characterized by low levels of intragroup genetic variation and large genetic distances between haplotype groups. The localization of nematode haplotypes together with their characteristic plant communities could provide insight into the historical formation of these belowground biotic communities.

  6. Chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), maintained for more than twenty years in captive chimpanzees in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Udono, Toshifumi

    2007-08-01

    The chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916), was found in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, reared in Kumamoto Primate Research Park, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Kumamoto, Japan, in 2006. Because the chimpanzees in this institution originated from chimpanzees imported from Africa before 1984, it is considered that E. anthropopitheci infection has persisted for more than 20 yr in the chimpanzees. Analysis of pinworm specimens preserved in the institution revealed that transition of predominant pinworm species occurred, responding to the change of anthelmintics used for pinworm treatment. Present dominance of E. anthropopitheci is surmised to be caused by fenbendazole, which has been adopted from 2002. Scarcity of mixed infection with E. anthropopitheci and Enterobius vermicularis suggests interspecific competition between the pinworms.

  7. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Aphelenchoides fuchsi sp. n. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) Isolated from Pinus eldarica in Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Mehrab; Heydari, Ramin; Ziaie, Mozhgan; Gu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Aphelenchoides fuchsi sp. n. is described and illustrated from bark and wood samples of a weakened Mondell pine in Kermanshah Province, western Iran. The new species has body length of 332 to 400 µm (females) and 365 to 395 µm (males). Lip region set off from body contour. The cuticle is weakly annulated, and there are four lines in the lateral field. The stylet is 8 to 10 μm long and has small basal swellings. The excretory pore is located ca one body diam. posterior to metacorpus valve or 51 to 62 μm from the head. The postuterine sac well developed (60–90 µm). Spicules are relatively short (15–16 μm in dorsal limb) with apex and rostrum rounded, well developed, and the end of the dorsal limb clearly curved ventrad like a hook. The male tail has usual three pairs of caudal papillae (2+2+2) and a well-developed mucro. The female tail is conical, terminating in a complicated step-like projection, usually with many tiny nodular protuberances. The new species belongs to the Group 2 sensu Shahina, category of Aphelenchoides species. Phylogenetic analysis based on small subunit (SSU) and partial large subunit (LSU) sequences of rRNA supported the morphological results. PMID:27168651

  8. A new Huffmanela species, H. schouteni sp. n. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae) from flying fishes in Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Campbell, B G

    1991-01-01

    A new nematode species, Huffmanela schouteni sp. n., has been established on the basis of its egg morphology and biological characters (adult nematodes are unknown). The dark-shelled eggs of this histozoic parasite occur in masses in the abdominal cavity, serose covers of internal organs and in the liver of the flying fishes Hirundichthys affinis Günther (type host) and Cypselurus cyanopterus Cuvier et Valenciennes in Curaçao. The eggs of H. schouteni sp. n. differ from those in other congeneric species mainly in the absence of small spines on the surface of the transparent envelope enclosing the egg proper, measurements (size of eggs 0.069-0.075 x 0.027-0.030 mm) and their localization in the host. A key to Huffmanela species based on egg morphology has been provided.

  9. Redescription and genetic characterization of Cucullanus dodsworthi (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the checkered puffer Sphoeroides testudineus (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Mejía-Madrid, Hugo H; Aguirre-Macedo, María Leopoldina

    2011-08-01

    Cucullanus dodsworthi Barreto, 1922 was originally described from the checkered puffer fish, Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus), from Brazilian waters. New material of this nematode species was recovered from the same type host species from Mexican waters off the Yucatán Peninsula. This material was compared with Brazilian specimens. Although Mexican material closely resembles the original description of C. dodsworthi in general appearance, previously undescribed characters, as observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, are described for the first time in this species from both Brazilian and Mexican specimens. These characters include lateral body alae or conspicuous lateral fields that begin in the cervical region and end anterior to first pair of adcloacal papillae in males and at the anus level in females, cephalic and caudal alae absent; presence of pseudobuccal capsule with simple buccal frame well sclerotized with dorsal arrow structures, lateral structures, and lateral reniform structures; deirids, excretory pore, and postdeirids; slight anal protuberance in both sexes, unpaired precloacal papilla in males, phasmids near pair 10 in males and near tail tip in females; female with protruding vulvar lips and smooth eggs. In the absence of better descriptions of this genus, it can be concluded that C. dodsworthi is the only species of marine Cucullanus from the Americas that possesses lateral body alae. Molecular characterization of C. dodsworthi with SSU (18S) and ITS2 rDNA genes is included. A preliminary genetic comparison between SSU rDNA of C. dodsworthi , Truttaedacnitis truttae (Fabricius, 1794), and Dichelyne mexicanus Caspeta-Mandujano, Moravec and Salgado-Maldonado, 1999 places C. dodsworthi as a putative sister taxon to T. truttae . The finding of C. dodsworthi in Mexican marine waters also represents a new geographical record.

  10. Huffmanela hamo sp. n. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae: Huffmanelinae) from the dagger-tooth pike conger Muraenesox cinereus off Japan.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Iwaki, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    Huffmanela hamo sp. n. is described from eggs only, which were found in black spots in the somatic musculature of a dagger-tooth pike conger, Muraenesox cinereus (Forsskål), caught off Japan. The eggs are 66-77 microm (mean 72 microm) in length and 33-38 microm (mean 35 microm) in width. The surface of the eggs is smooth and bears neither envelope nor filaments. The species is distinguished from other members of the genus by the dimensions of its eggs and the characteristics of their surface. This is the first species of Huffmanela Moravec, 1987 to be described from an anguilliform fish, and the twentieth nominal species in the genus. Similar black spots with eggs were reported four times in ten years from this fish caught off Japan; although eggs could not be examined, it is likely that the same species was involved in all cases.

  11. Intimate sex-biased relationships between flies and nematodes in the Fergusonina-Fergusobia mutualism (Diptera: Fergusoninidae; Nematoda: Neotylenchidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All known species of Fergusonina flies (Fergusoninidae) participate in an obligate mutualism with Fergusobia nematode worms (Neotylenchidae). From dissections, it is believed that all adult and late-instar larval female flies carry nematodes internally, while male adults and late-instar larvae do no...

  12. Vittatidera zeaphila (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a new genus and species of cyst nematode parasitic on corn (Zea mays)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species of cyst nematode, Vittatidera zeaphila, is described from Tennessee. The new genus is superficially similar to Cactodera but is distinguished from other cyst-forming taxa in having a persistent lateral field in females and cysts, persistent vulval lips covering a circumfenes...

  13. Two new species of the genus Aporcelinus Andrássy, 2009 (Nematoda, Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae) from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Anh Duong; Abolafia, Joaquín; Bonkowski, Michael; Peña-Santiago, Reyes

    2016-04-18

    Two new species of Aporcelinus from Vietnamese natural habitats are studied, described and illustrated, including line drawings and light microscope (LM) pictures. Aporcelinus paramamillatus sp. n. is characterized by its 1.71-2.14 mm long body, lip region 21-22 μm broad, odontostyle 22-24 μm long at its ventral side, neck 451-503 μm long, uterus tripartite and 71-94 µm long, V = 53-54, tail conical with finely rounded tip, ending in a short peg-like terminus, occasionally slightly re-curved dorsad (24-34 μm, c = 50-77, c' = 0.6-0.9) and unknown male. Aporcelinus paraseychellensis sp. n. is distinguished by its 1.20-1.46 mm long body, lip region 16-18 μm broad, odontostyle 20 μm long at its ventral side, neck 354-368 μm long, uterus tripartite and 176-241 µm long, V = 52-54, tail conical with acute tip and hardly re-curved dorsad, spicules 62 μm long, and 12 regularly spaced ventromedian supplements lacking hiatus.

  14. Nonparasitic Nematoda provide evidence for a linear response of functionally important soil biota to increasing livestock density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Christian; Dijkstra, Jan B.; Setälä, Heikki

    2005-07-01

    Soil acidity, nutrient availability and livestock density have a major influence on the belowground ecological community. As fast decomposition rates are due mostly to bacterial-based pathways and slower decomposition rates mostly to fungal-based pathways, it is helpful to condense empirical information in the so-called Nematode Channel Ratio (NCR). The NCR is shown to be a good indicator of efficiency in soil decomposition processes. We argue that in intensive agroecosystems, other fungivore members of the decomposer food web may outcompete the hyphal-feeding nematodes. We demonstrate how the NCR can be used to set ecological standards for sustainable use of the soil in agroecosystems. To summarize the interactions between the microbial resources and the decomposer nematofauna according to increasing land management, we propose the use of the fifth percentile as proxy for a sustainable environmental quality of grasslands on sandy soils, and the NCR mean as the upper threshold for low-stocked farms.

  15. Two new species of nematodes (Nematoda) from highly mineralized rivers of Lake El'ton basin, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gusakov, Vladimir A; Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2016-09-05

    Two new nematode species, Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. and Allodiplogaster media sp. n., from the highly mineralized rivers of the El'ton Lake basin (Russia) are described and illustrated from numerous mature females and males. Mesodorylaimus rivalis sp. n. is similar to M. vulvapapillatus Bagaturia & Eliava, 1966, but differs from it in the longer body, shorter spicules and longer female prerectum. Allodiplogaster media sp. n. resembles A. lupata (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014 and A. mordax (Shoshin, 1989) Kanzaki, Ragsdale & Giblin-Davis, 2014, but differs from the first species in having a shorter pharynx, shorter outer labial setae, longer spicules and different ratio between anterior and posterior pharynx sections, and from A. mordax in the thinner body, shorter pharynx and longer spicules.

  16. Free-living nematode species (Nematoda) dwelling in hydrothermal sites of the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchesunov, Alexei V.

    2015-12-01

    Morphological descriptions of seven free-living nematode species from hydrothermal sites of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are presented. Four of them are new for science: Paracanthonchus olgae sp. n. (Chromadorida, Cyatholaimidae), Prochromadora helenae sp. n. (Chromadorida, Chromadoridae), Prochaetosoma ventriverruca sp. n. (Desmodorida, Draconematidae) and Leptolaimus hydrothermalis sp. n. (Plectida, Leptolaimidae). Two species have been previously recorded in hydrothermal habitats, and one species is recorded for the first time in such an environment. Oncholaimus scanicus (Enoplida, Oncholaimidae) was formerly known from only the type locality in non-hydrothermal shallow milieu of the Norway Sea. O. scanicus is a very abundant species in Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike and Lost City hydrothermal sites, and population of the last locality differs from other two in some morphometric characteristics. Desmodora marci (Desmodorida, Desmodoridae) was previously known from other remote deep-sea hydrothermal localities in south-western and north-eastern Pacific. Halomonhystera vandoverae (Monhysterida, Monhysteridae) was described and repeatedly found in mass in Snake Pit hydrothermal site. The whole hydrothermal nematode assemblages are featured by low diversity in comparison with either shelf or deep-sea non-hydrothermal communities. The nematode species list of the Atlantic hydrothermal vents consists of representatives of common shallow-water genera; the new species are also related to some shelf species. On the average, the hydrothermal species differ from those of slope and abyssal plains of comparable depths by larger sizes, diversity of buccal structures, presence of food content in the gut and ripe eggs in uteri.

  17. Meteterakis saotomensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heterakidae) from Schistometopum thomense (Bocage) (Gymnophiona: Dermophiidae) on São Tomé Island.

    PubMed

    Junker, Kerstin; Mariaux, Jean; Measey, G John; Mutafchiev, Yasen

    2015-10-01

    Meteterakis saotomensis n. sp. is described from Schistometopum thomense (Bocage), a gymnophionan endemic to the oceanic island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea. The specimens were assigned to Meteterakis Karve, 1930, based on the possession of a head with three rounded lips, not set-off from the body, the absence of interlabia and cordons, females with a long vagina and males with a preanal sucker, surrounded by a cuticularised rim and caudal alae that are supported by fleshy papillae. The new species is characterised by: body length 4.2-4.5 mm (males) and 5.1-6.4 mm (females); total length of oesophagus, including pharyngeal portion and oesophageal bulb, 820-856 µm (males) and 898-1,070 µm (females); length of pharynx 57-58 µm (males) and 65-68 µm (females); spicules equal, 410-521 µm long, with tessellated ornamentation throughout their length and alae, and with bevelled tip; gubernaculum or 'gubernacular mass' absent; tail length 164-176 µm (males) and 214-239 µm (females), with elongated tip; vulva at 2.3-2.8 mm from anterior end, with anterior lip forming small flap. This is the second species of Meteterakis reported from gymnophionan hosts and the first from the Afrotropical region. Selected comparative morphological data for Meteterakis spp. are presented, and data on host range and geographic distribution are updated. The name M. striaturus Oshmarin & Demshin, 1972 is corrected to M. striatura to reflect the female gender of the genus name.

  18. New species of Dorcopsinema and Paralabiostrongylus (Nematoda: Chabertiidae: Cloacininae) from Indonesia, with a key to species of Dorcopsinema.

    PubMed

    Purwaningsih, Endang; Smales, Lesley R

    2014-09-01

    Two new species of nematodes (Chabertiidae: Labiostrongylinea) from Dorcopsis muelleri in Raja Ampat Island, Papua, were described and figured. Dorcopsinema longispicularis sp.nov.is most similar to D. simile, but can be distinguished from it in being a smaller worm with longer spicules and a relatively longer oesophagus, as well as in the form of the posterior lip of the genital cone, the form of the spicule tips and the spiked tip of the female tail. Paralabiostrongylus rajampatensis sp. nov. differs from its congener, P. bicollaris, in having the deirids and excretory pore at about the same level, and in the form of the dorsal ray, with lateral branches proximal to the bifurcation of the dorsal trunk, the relatively longer spicule with ala extending to the tip and the form of the posterior lip of the genital cone. 

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of species within the tribe Labiostrongylinea (Nematoda: Cloacinidae) from Australian marsupials based on ribosomal DNA spacer sequence data.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Beveridge, Ian; Smales, Lesley R; Gasser, Robin B; Andrews, Ross H

    2011-12-01

    Parasitic nematodes of the tribe Labiostrongylinea (Family Cloacinidae) occur in the stomachs of a wide variety of potoroid and macropodid marsupials in Australia, Papua Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The aim of the present study was to infer the evolutionary relationships of the five genera of labiostrongyline nematodes that occur in Australian potoroids and macropodids using sequence data of the nuclear first and second internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA. The phylogenetic analyses resulted in the separation of the Labiostrongylinea into two major groups reflecting coevolution between hosts and parasites. Two nematode species belonging to the genus Potorostrongylus formed a sister group to the remaining species of the Labiostrongylinea. This genus occurs exclusively in potoroid marsupials, which are considered to be basal to the macropodid marsupials. The second major group included species of Labiostrongylus, Labiosimplex, Labiomultiplex and Parazoniolaimus, all of which occur in macropodids. These species formed two distinct clades, one predominating in the host genera Thylogale and Onychogalea, and the second in the genus Macropus, which includes the more recent macropodids. However, there is also evidence of colonisation by both nematode clades of relatively unrelated hosts. In addition, genetic differences among individuals of Lm. eugenii from geographically isolated populations of M. eugenii, and among Ls. longispicularis from different subspecies of M. robustus suggest the existence of sibling species that may have arisen by allopatric speciation. The broad coevolutionary relationship between the labiostrongyline nematodes and their marsupial hosts therefore represents a mixture of potential cospeciation and colonisation events.

  20. A re-description of Physocephalus dromedarii stat. nov. (Nematoda: Spirocercidae), an abomasal nematode of dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Schuster, R K; Wibbelt, G; Kinne, J

    2014-12-01

    Physocephalus dromedarii stat. nov. was found in the abomasum of two adult female dromedaries originating from a farm in Dubai. Previously, this nematode has been misidentified as a subspecies of Ph. sexalatus but morphological differences are striking enough for it to be upgraded to a species. Physocephalus dromedarii is larger than Ph. sexalatus and has longer spicules. There are 20-22 oblique crests at the ventral surface between the caudal alae of the male compared to 7-8 in the case of Ph. sexalatus. The most significant differences are the presence of two pairs of papillae between cloaca and postcloacal plate of the male and the existence of a swelling in the second half of the female body formed by loops of both uterine horns.

  1. Laoxyuris laonasti n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Syphaciinae) parasite of Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia: Diatomyidae): morphology, biology, taxonomy, phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Hugot, Jean Pierre; Feliu, Carlos; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Ribas, Alexis

    2013-06-01

    A new Oxyurid genus and species are described in a rodent recently discovered in Lao PDR: Laonastes aenigmamus which happens to be the single survivor of the Diatomyidae, a family considered to be extinct since the Miocene. The morphological characters of the new parasite species allow classifying it within the Syphaciinae Railliet, 1916, a subfamily whose members are exclusively parasites of Lagomorpha and Rodents. Male Syphaciinae have developed several types of ventral cuticular ornamentation used to firmly grip the female during mating. The ornamental characters observed in the new species include a finger like appendix, which, until now, has not been described in the subfamily. The originality of this apparatus justifies the creation of a new genus and a new species for the pinworm parasite of Laonastes. Using morphological characters, the new species is analyzed phylogenetically to describe its affinities with representatives of the main groups distinguished within the Syphaciinae. The phylogenetic study produces a cladogram similar to the phylogeny recently proposed for the hosts of the subfamily and in agreement with a close association of the Diatomyidae with the Ctenodactylidae. Such a phenomenon of cophylogeny is interpreted as the result of the existence of a strict specificity between the Syphaciinae and their respective hosts, due to the very close adaptation of their life cycle with the behaviors of their hosts. In Lagomorpha and Rodents, caecotrophy and grooming activities allow a direct transmission of the parasite eggs and favor successive self-infestations, increasing the chances for the parasite to maintain itself in the same host species but decreasing the probability of host switching. The resulting high host specificity allowed the Syphaciinae to out-compete other pinworms and maintain themselves in their specific host over millions of years.

  2. Studies on the genus Aporcelaimellus Heyns, 1965 (Nematoda, Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae). Four typical species with simple uterus from Southern Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ortega, Sergio; Abolafia, Joaquín; Peña-Santiago, Reyes

    2013-02-07

    Three new and one known species of the genus Aporcelaimellus with simple uterus and typical caudal region, mainly col-lected in natural areas of southeastern Iberian Peninsula, are studied, including descriptions, measurements, line illustrations and LM pictures. Aporcelaimellus baeticus sp. n. is characterized by a body length of 1.96-2.95 mm, lip region offset by constriction and 17-20 μm broad, odontostyle 17-22 μm long, neck 510-635 μm long, pharyngeal expansion 250-335 μm long, a dorsal cell mass at level of anterior end of intestine, uterus 60-150 μm long or 0.9-1.7 times the corresponding body diameter, vulva transverse (V = 48-54), tail convex conoid with broadly rounded terminus (30-46 μm, c = 47-80, c' = 0.7-1.1), spicules 99-103 μm long, and 18-21 irregularly spaced ventromedian supplements which lack hiatus. Aporcelaimellus brevicaudatus sp. n. is characterized by a body length of 1.54-2.14 mm long, lip region offset by a more or less distinct constriction and 14-16 μm broad, odontostyle 13-15 μm long, neck 512 μm long, pharyngeal expansion 255 μm long, uterus 39-57 μm long or 0.9-1.0 times the corresponding body diameter, V = 50-55, tail short and rounded to hemispherical (24-27 μm, c = 66-82, c' = 0.6-0.7) with inner core hardly reaching the middle of tail length, and male unknown. Aporcelaimellus rotundus sp. n. is characterized by its body 2.01-2.58 mm long, lip region offset by constriction and 19-20 μm broad, odontostyle 22-23 μm long, neck 455-579 μm long, pharyngeal expansion 226-316 μm long, a dis-tinct dorsal cell mass present at cardia level, uterus 28-74 μm long or 0.5-0.9 times the corresponding body diameter, V = 47-52, female tail short and conoid to rounded (27-33 μm, c = 64-90, c' = 0.7-0.9), and males unknown. New data, including SEM pictures, sequences and taxonomic comments, are provided for A. waenga.

  3. Revision of the genus Campylaimus (Diplopeltidae, Nematoda) with description of four new species from the Sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Fadeeva, Natalia; Mordukhovich, Vladimir; Zograf, Julia

    2016-05-02

    Four new Campylaimus species are described from the deep-sea sediments of the Sea of Japan at depths of about 500‒3400 m. Campylaimus orientalis sp. nov. is characterized by having a body of moderate length, clearly annulated cuticle, a small rhomboid mouth opening which is displaced on the dorsal side of body, a gap between the unequal limbs of the amphid, prominent narrow longitudinal alae and cephalated spicules. Campylaimus minutus sp. nov. is characterized by having a cylindrical body, very weak annulations, amphids with a short dorsal limb (25-44% of pharynx length) and a ventral limb completely fused with lateral alae of equal width; and lateral alae extending from the base of the amphid to the tail tip. Campylaimus amphidialis sp. nov. is characterized by having the combination of a very long amphidial fovea occupying nearly the entire length of the pharynx; and a well defined boundary between the ventral amphid limb and lateral alae. The distinctive feature of Campylaimus pulcher sp. nov. is the elongated loop-shaped amphid with nearly equal parallel limbs and prominent narrow longitudinal alae; and cephalated spicules without a gubernaculum. The diagnosis of the genus Campylaimus is emended and an identification key to species, based mainly on form and length of amphidial fovea, width of lateral alae, and copulatory apparatus is given. The genus Campylaimus now includes nineteen valid species. Two species are considered as species inquirendae, mainly because of incomplete descriptions.

  4. HAMULONEMA GEN. NOV. FOR OSTERTAGIA KENYENSIS AND TELADORSAGIA HAMATA IN THE OSTERTAGIINE FAUNA (NEMATODA: TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA) FROM AFRICAN UNGULATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Hamulonema gen. nov. is proposed for Teladorsagia hamata and Ostertagia kenyensis in the ostertagiine nematode fauna found in artiodactyl hosts from Africa. Monomorphic species representing this genus are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical and parallel synlophe in males and females, a 2-...

  5. Re-description of three species of the genus Sectonema Thorne, 1930 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida: Aporcelaimidae) originally studied by E. Altherr.

    PubMed

    Peña-Santiago, R; Álvarez-Ortega, S

    2014-11-03

    Three species of the genus Sectonema, namely S. demani, S. heynsi and S. macrospiculum, originally described by E. Altherr, are re-described on the basis of type material. Detailed descriptions, morphometrics and illustrations, including line drawings and/or LM pictures, diagnoses and remarks about their identity and later reports are provided for each species. Sectonema demani is characterized by its 6.78-7.24 mm long body, lip region 27-28 µm broad, mural tooth 19-20 µm long at its ventral side, pharyngeal expansion 834-875 µm long or 68-69% of total neck length, uterus a simple tube-like structure 2.1-2.2 times the corresponding body diameter, V = 49-52, tail short and rounded conoid (51-55 µm, c = 123-143, c' = 0.7-0.8), and male unknown. Sectonema heynsi is distinguished by its body 6.45 mm long, lip region 28 μm broad, circumoral area bearing cilia- or seta-like structures, mural tooth-like structure 20 μm long, pharyngeal expansion 856 μm long or 68% of total neck length, uterus a tube-like structure ?1.7 times the corresponding body diameter, V = 50, tail short and rounded to conoid (54 μm, c = 120, c' = 0.7), and male unknown. And S. macrospiculum is characterized by its 4.07-5.06 mm long body, lip region 27-28 μm broad, ventral side of the odontostyle 15 μm long, pharyngeal expansion 555-640 μm long or 67-68% of total neck length, uterus a simple tube-like structure 1.9-2.1 times the corresponding body diameter, V = 53, female tail short and convex conoid with rounded terminus (62 μm, c = 82, c' = 0.7), male tail more conoid than that of female and with the ventral side visibly more straight (58 μm, c = 71, c' = 0.8), spicules 107 μm long, and eight irregularly spaced ventromedian supplements bearing hiatus.

  6. Lungworm (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) infection in wild and domestic ruminants from Małopolska region of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Jerzy; Kornaś, Sławomir; Nosal, Paweł; Basiaga, Marta; Wajdzik, Marek; Skalska, Marta; Wyrobisz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The conducted study has focused on domestic, as well as wild ruminant species. The post mortem examination was carried out on 68 animals, including three wild species: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (25 indyviduals), red deer (Cervus elaphus) (6), fallow deer (Dama dama) (5) and two domestic: sheep (Ovis aries) (14) and cattle (Bos taurus) (18). Some of the species have also been investigated in the field by the coproscopical analyses. The faecal samples from roe deer (27), fallow deer (20), red deer (36) and moose (Alces alces) (10) were collected from the environment, while from sheep (10) and goat (Capra hircus) (10)--per rectum. Based on the obtained results the following values were calculated: prevalence, mean intensity and intensity range. The post mortem examination did not reveal pulmonary nematodes neither in domestic nor in wild ungulates, however, the larvae of aforementioned parasites were often stated in the stool samples taken from the environment. All wild species, except fallow deer were infected. Consequently, six species of lungworms have been identified. The first stage larvae of Varestrongylus capreoli occurred in 11 samples of roe deer and Varestrongylus alces in one moose. The larvae of Elaphostrongylus cervi were found in 19 red deer and Varestrongylus sagittatus in 3. Furthermore, Elaphostrongylus alces larvae were noted in 6 moose. Within domestic ruminants only one sheep and two goats were infected by Muellerius capillaris.

  7. Two new species of the genus Dorylaimopsis Ditlevsen, 1918 (Nematoda: Adenophora, Comesomatidae) from the Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhinan, Zhang

    1992-03-01

    Two nematode species of the genus Dorylaimopsis (Family Comesometidae) from the Bohai Sea are described. Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi n. sp. similar to D. punctata Ditlevsen, 1918 from which it can be separated by the small size, short and simple spicules without ventral apophyses or joint line. Dorylaimopsis turneri n. sp. differs from the closest species Dorylaimopsis angelae (Inglis, 1967) by its higher values of de Man ratio ‘a’, much shorter spicules and higher ratio of gubernacular to spicules length. A key to species of the genus based on the key by Jensen (1979) is given.

  8. Taxonomic revision of the Nippostrongylinae (Nematoda, Heligmonellidae) arasitic in Oriental Muridae. The genus Paraheligmonelloides Fukumoto, Kamiya & Suzuki, 1980.

    PubMed

    Digiani, Maria Celina; Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude

    2014-11-12

    The genus Paraheligmonelloides Fukumoto, Kamiya and Suzuki, 1980 (Nippostrongylinae) is revised and split into four genera, mainly based on characters of the synlophe not previously considered at the supraspecific level. These characters mainly include the homology of the left ridge with ridge 1', the relative size of the right ridge to the left ridge and to ridge 1' and the distribution of the largest ridges. Paraheligmonelloides sensu stricto, characterized by the homology of the left ridge with ridge 1', contains only the type species, Paraheligmonelloides kenyensis Fukumoto, Kamiya and Suzuki, 1980, parasitic in a lagomorph from Kenya. Krishnasamyos n. gen., characterized by ridge 1' forming a comarete, two minute left ventral ridges and ridge 1 larger than other dorsal ridges, only includes the species Krishnasamyos triangulus n. comb., parasitic in Malaysian murids. Hughjonestrongylus n. gen., characterized by numerous ridges markedly unequal in size, with the largest ridges grouped in relation to the lateral fields, includes Hughjonestrongylus ennisae n. comb., Hughjonestrongylus amplicaudae n. comb., Hughjonestrongylus mirzai n. comb., and Hughjonestrongylus singauwaensis n. comb., all parasitic in murids from Papua Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Syafruddinema n. gen., characterized by ridge 1 as long as other dorsal ridges and a gap associated with the left lateral field, between ridges 2' and 3', includes Syafruddinema paruromyos n. comb., Syafruddinema annandalei n. comb., and Syafruddinema eropeplios n. comb., parasitic in murids from Malaysia and Indonesia. A key to the proposed genera is provided.

  9. Morphology and molecular analysis of Paratylenchus nanjingensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Paratylenchinae) from the rhizosphere soil of Pinus massoniana in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, K; Xie, H; Li, Y; Wu, W J; Xu, C L

    2016-03-01

    Paratylenchus nanjingensis n. sp. was obtained from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. This new species is characterized by having a female with a slender, vermiform body (243-279 μm), head with distinct submedian lobes, slender and long stylet (64-68 μm), anchor-shaped stylet knobs, excretory pore anterior to the level of the stylet knobs, small lateral vulval flaps and lateral field with four lines; and male with more distinct body annuli, stylet lacking and pharynx degenerate. The internal transcribed spacer sequences of ribosomal RNA (ITS rRNA) gene of the new species were amplified and sequenced in this study. The phylogenetic relationships of the new species with other Paratylenchus species using the ITS rRNA gene sequences are given.

  10. Cucullanus egyptae sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cucullanidae) infecting the European eel Anguilla anguilla in Egypt. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Morsy, Kareem; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mohammed, Sanna

    2014-09-01

    A total of 80 specimens of the European eel Anguilla anguilla were collected during the period from February 2013 to March 2014 at the coast of the Gulf of Suez (Red Sea, Egypt). A new species of parasitic nematodes was recovered and described as Cucullanus egyptae. It was found in the eel's intestine with a prevalence of 68.7%. The morphology of the recovered parasite was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The adult worms had a wide cephalic extremity with a slit-like oral aperture being surrounded by a cuticular ring and delimited internally by a row of small teeth in addition to four sub-median cephalic papillae and one pair of lateral amphids. Body measurements showed that the male worms were smaller than females measuring 7.5-8.9 mm (8.3 ± 0.2) in length and 1.6-1.9 mm (1.8 ± 0.1) in width. Females measured 12.9-13.5 mm (13.1 ± 0.2) in length and 2.9-3.2 mm (3.1 ± 0.1) in width. The posterior end of the males is provided with ten pairs of caudal papillae and two long spicules which are slightly sclerotized, equal in size measuring 0.59-0.65 mm (0.62 ± 0.01) in length. Comparing the present worms with other species of the genus Cucullanus, several similarities were observed. However, peculiar new characteristics such as the precloacal sucker (especially the spicula length), the arrangement and the distribution of the post-cloacal papillae, and the position of the excretory pore make it reasonable to describe a new species. The sequence data of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) obtained from the present nematode supported its taxonomic position within the genus Cucullanus. The new species is closely related to the first clade of Spirurina and even more closely related to Cucullanus dodsworthi as a sister taxon with a high percentage of identity. The sequence of the recorded SSU rDNA of this parasite is deposited in the GenBank with the accession no. KF681520. It is proposed to name the new species C. egyptae as the first representative of Cucullanidae in Egypt with a new host record.

  11. New data on Longidorus aetnaeus Roca, Lamberti, Agostinelli & Vinciguerra, 1986 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from Iran and Ajaria (Georgia).

    PubMed

    Amrei, Shahrbanou Bakhshi; Pedram, Majid; Pourjam, Ebrahim; Elshishka, Milka; Ghaemi, Razieh; Peneva, Vlada

    2013-06-01

    Longidorus aetnaeus Roca, Lamberti, Agostinelli & Vinciguerra, 1986 is reported for the first time from Iran and Ajaria (Georgia). Morphological and morphometric data are provided for two Iranian and one Ajarian populations. The D2-D3 region of 28S rDNA for both Iranian populations was sequenced for the first time and the data reported. A detailed study of juveniles of L. aetnaeus from Iran, Georgia and Bulgaria demonstrated that this species develops through three juvenile stages. Furthermore, phylogenetic studies inferred from sequences for the D2-D3 region of 28S rRNA gene revealed that L. aetnaeus is most closely related to L. leptocephalus.

  12. Observation of Early Cleavage in Animal Development: A Simple Technique for Obtaining the Eggs of Rhabditis (Nematoda)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the advantages of using the readily available eggs of the nematode Rhabditis in studying the early cleavage stages of animal development. Discusses the identification and life history of Rhabditis, how to culture and examine the organism, the cleavage stages and cell lineage, and sources of visual aids. (JR)

  13. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Xiphinema macroacanthum Lamberti, Roca & Agostinelli, 1989 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from olive orchards in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Francesca; Lazarova, Stela; Troccoli, Alberto; Vovlas, Nicola; Peneva, Vlada

    2013-06-01

    A population of Xiphinema macroacanthum Lamberti, Roca & Agostinelli, 1989 originating from olive orchards in Brindisi, Italy and containing both adults and all juvenile stages, is described and illustrated. The first juvenile stage is reported for the first time. Molecular characterisation of this species, using the D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rDNA and ITS region, was carried out. PCR-RFLP analyses of the ribosomal gene regions determined species-specific patterns that clearly differentiate X. macroacanthum. Sequences of the D2-D3 domains and the partial 18S-ITS1 rRNA genes were analysed using several methods for inferring phylogeny to reconstruct the relationships between X. macroacanthum and other Xiphinema species.

  14. Subsphaerolaimus minor sp. n. and Micromicron cephalatum Cobb, 1920 (Nematoda) from the Yen River Estuary of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Nguyen, Vu Thanh

    2015-08-03

    Two nematode species found in Yen River Estuary of Vietnam are described and illustrated. Subsphaerolaimus minor sp. n. is similar to S. lamasus Gerlach, 1956, but differs from it in the shorter body, comparatively shorter pharynx and shorter cephalic setae. A pictorial key for determination of valid species in the genus Subsphaerolaimus Lorenzen, 1978 is given. Micromicron cephalatum Cobb, 1920 is redescribed and reillustrated based on numerous males and females. The genus Micromicron Cobb, 1920 is confirmed as a valid genus with type and only species, M. cephalatum Cobb, 1920.

  15. Pelecitus tercostatus (Molin, 1960) (Nematoda, Onchocercidae) in Amazona vinacea (Aves, Psittaciformes) from Argentina: morphological details and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Julia I; Di Nucci, Dante L; Falzone, Martín P; Demergassi, Natalia M; Fernanda Lois, M; Zalazar, Raúl O; Navone, Graciela T; Gachen, Gustavo G

    2012-06-01

    Pelecitus tercostatus (Molin, 1860) (Onchocercidae, Dirofilariinae) was found in the leg of a Vinaceous-breasted Parrot Amazona vinacea (Aves, Psittaciformes) from Misiones, Argentina. The present report enlarges the host distribution of the species and represents the first record of any nematode in A. vinacea. The macroscopic lesions produced in the bird are also described.

  16. Cucullanin nematodes from coral reef fishes of French Polynesia, with a description of Cucullanus faliexae n. sp. (Nematoda: Chitwoodchabaudiidae).

    PubMed

    Morand, S; Rigby, M C

    1998-12-01

    Cucullanus faliexae n. sp. is described from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus (Muraenidae) collected in Rangiroa (Tuamotu Islands, French Polynesia) in the South Pacific and is reported from the same host collected in Moorea (Society Islands, French Polynesia). This nematode is distinguished from its congeners by its protrubant anus and the presence of a single pair of subdorsal postanal papillae. Cucullanus faliexae resembles C. laurotravassosi from which it is distinguished by the farther anterior position of the first pair of male caudal preanal papillae and by the greater size of its spicules. Cucullanus bourdini Petter and Le Bel, 1992 is reported from the coral reef fishes Balistapus undulatus (Balistidae), Lutjanus gibbus (Lutjanidae), and Myripristis kuntee (Holocentridae) from French Polynesia. Additionally, Cucullanus sp. is reported from the coral reef fish Sufflamen bursa (Balistidae) in Moorea and Rangiroa. Given that C. faliexae and C. bourdini have been found in widely disparate locations between which their definitive hosts cannot migrate, it would seem likely that the life cycles of these worms include an intermediate or transport host that has a greater capability for dispersal.

  17. Early Embryogenesis and Anterior-Posterior Axis Formation in the White-Tip Nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae)

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kohei; Hasegawa, Koichi; Mochiji, Nobuo; Miwa*, Johji

    2009-01-01

    We followed the early embryogenesis of Aphelenchoides besseyi from fertilization to the 4-cell stage under Nomarski optics and examined the chromosome number and structure by DAPI staining. After an oocyte is fertilized by a sperm, the eggshell forms and the male and female pronuclei are reconstructed. The male pronucleus moves toward the female pronucleus, which is located at the center of the egg. They meet, rotate 90°, and fuse. The embryo then divides unequally into a larger anterior AB cell and a smaller posterior P1 cell. The site of sperm entry into the oocyte seems to become the future anterior pole of the embryo, and thus the formation of an anterior-posterior axis formation is the same as that for Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, but opposite to that for Caenorhabditis elegans. From immunostaining, the fertilizing sperm appears to bring the centrosome into the oocyte. The chromosome structure during the pronuclear meeting as observed by DAPI staining suggests that a haploid sperm (N = 3) fertilizes a haploid oocyte (N = 3) to form a diploid embryo (2N = 6) and that all chromosomes appear to be of a similar size. Unlike C. elegans does, the P1 cell first divides anterior-posteriorly followed by the AB anterior-posteriorly. These divisions produced the 4-cell stage embryo with 4 cells arranged in a linear fashion, again in contrast to that for C. elegans or B. xylophilus configured in a rhomboid shape. PMID:22661773

  18. Observations on two Rhabdochona species (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from freshwater fishes in Argentina, including description of Rhabdochona fabianae n. sp.

    PubMed

    Ramallo, Geraldine

    2005-04-01

    Helminthological examination of specimens of the freshwater fishes Bryconamericus iheringi Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae) and Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842) (Anablepidae), collected from Medina River, Province of Tucuman, Argentina, revealed the presence of 2 species of parasitic nematodes, Rhabdochona fabianae n. sp. and Rhabdochona acuminata (Molin, 1860) (Rhabdochonidae). Rhabdochona fabianae n. sp. was characterized by the presence of 16 anterior teeth in the prostom and filamented eggs in females. Rhabdochona acuminata was recorded for the first time in the north of Argentina.

  19. Morphological variability and molecular identification of Uncinaria spp. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) from grizzly and black bears: new species or phenotypic plasticity?

    PubMed

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; van Paridon, Bradley; Pagan, Christopher A; Wasmuth, James D; Tizzani, Paolo; Duignan, Pádraig J; Nadler, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    The hookworms Uncinaria rauschi Olsen, 1968 and Uncinaria yukonensis ( Wolfgang, 1956 ) were formally described from grizzly ( Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears ( Ursus americanus ) of North America. We analyzed the intestinal tracts of 4 grizzly and 9 black bears from Alberta and British Columbia, Canada and isolated Uncinaria specimens with anatomical traits never previously documented. We applied morphological and molecular techniques to investigate the taxonomy and phylogeny of these Uncinaria parasites. The morphological analysis supported polymorphism at the vulvar region for females of both U. rauschi and U. yukonensis. The hypothesis of morphological plasticity for U. rauschi and U. yukonensis was confirmed by genetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Two distinct genotypes were identified, differing at 5 fixed sites for ITS-1 (432 base pairs [bp]) and 7 for ITS-2 (274 bp). Morphometric data for U. rauschi revealed host-related size differences: adult U. rauschi were significantly larger in black bears than in grizzly bears. Interpretation of these results, considering the historical biogeography of North American bears, suggests a relatively recent host-switching event of U. rauschi from black bears to grizzly bears which likely occurred after the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. Phylogenetic maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of the concatenated ITS-1 and ITS-2 datasets strongly supported monophyly of U. rauschi and U. yukonensis and their close relationship with Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884), the latter a parasite primarily of canids and felids. Relationships among species within this group, although resolved by ML, were unsupported by MP and bootstrap resampling. The clade of U. rauschi, U. yukonensis, and U. stenocephala was recovered as sister to the clade represented by Uncinaria spp. from otariid pinnipeds. These results support the absence of strict host-parasite co-phylogeny for Uncinaria spp. and their carnivore hosts. Phylogenetic relationships among Uncinaria spp. provided a framework to develop the hypothesis of similar transmission patterns for the closely related U. rauschi, U. yukonensis, and U. stenocephala.

  20. Redescription of Paraleptus chiloscyllii Yin et Zhang, 1983 (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) from the Arabian carpetshark Chiloscyllium arabicum (Chondrichthyes: Hemiscylliidae) off Iraq.

    PubMed

    González-Solís, David; Ali, Atheer H

    2015-12-01

    The nematode Paraleptus chiloscyllii Yin et Zhang, 1983 (Physalopteridae) is redescribed on the basis of new material collected from the stomach of the Arabian carpetshark Chiloscyllium arabicum Gubanov (Hemiscylliidae) from marine waters off Iraq. Originally, P. chiloscyllii was found in C. plagiosum (Anonymous [Bennett]) from Fujian, China, but its description was rather poor and some important morphological features, such as deirids, shape and number of structures surrounding mouth, ventral unpaired papilla on the anterior cloacal lip, among others, were overlooked. It differs from its congeners in the shape of spicules and body length, although is very similar to the type species, P. scyllii Wu, 1927, only differing in the inequality of spicules. The generic diagnosis of Paraleptus was amended. Paraleptus minnanensis (Damin et Heqing, 2001) is considered a junior synonym of P. chiloscyllii and some morphological details of the posterior end of a male of P. australis Johnston et Mawson, 1943 are provided. The present finding of P. chiloscyllii in C. arabicum from off Iraq represents new host and geographical records.

  1. Terranova galeocerdonis (Thwaite, 1927) (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Carcharias taurus (Chondrichthyes: Odontaspididae) off Argentina, with comments on some related species.

    PubMed

    Tanzola, Ruben D; Sardella, Norma H

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to study and redescribe Terranova galeocerdonis (Thwaite, 1927) from Carcharias taurus off Argentina. Its fourth larval stage was described, measured and illustrated for the first time. The host and geographical range of this species is extended into the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. When the present material was compared with T. rochalimai (Pereira, 1935) and T. ginglymostomae Olsen, 1952, it was considered that both morphological and morphometrical differences between the three species did not justify differentiation at the specific level. As a result, T. rochalimai and T. ginglymostomae are considered to be junior synonyms of T. galeocerdonis.

  2. Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) hypsibarbi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the freshwater cyprinid fish Hypsibarbus wetmorei (Smith) in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Pachanawan, Adithepchaikarn; Kamchoo, Kanda

    2013-04-01

    A new nematode species, Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) hypsibarbi n. sp. (Rhabdochonidae), is described from the intestine of the freshwater cyprinid fish Hypsibarbus wetmorei (Smith) in the Mekong River, Nakhon Phanom Province, northeast Thailand. It is mainly characterized by medium-sized, bifurcate deirids, the presence of 14 anterior prostomal teeth and distinct basal teeth, length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of esophagus (1:6-9), length of the left spicule (669-774 μm), absence of a dorsal barb on the right spicule, length ratio of spicules (1:4.9-6.0), arrangement of genital papillae, and smooth eggs without filaments or swellings. In addition, specifically unidentified fourth-stage larvae of Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) sp., morphologically similar to R. hypsibarbi, were recorded from the red-tailed tinfoil Barbonymus altus (Günther) (Cyprinidae) in the Mekong River, Nakhon Phanom Province, northeast Thailand. Rhabdochona hypsibarbi is the fourth nominal species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 reported from fishes in Thailand and the second species of the nominotypical subgenus found in this country.

  3. Morphological and genetic identification of Anisakis paggiae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima from Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Di Azevedo, Maria Isabel N; Knoff, Marcelo; Carvalho, Vitor L; Mello, Wildon N; Lopes Torres, Eduardo J; Gomes, Delir C; Iñiguez, Alena M

    2015-03-09

    Anisakid nematodes have been identified in a wide variety of fish and marine mammal species. In Brazil, Anisakis physeteris, A. insignis, A. typica, A. nascetti, and those of the A. simplex complex have been reported infecting fishes and cetaceans. In this study, specimens collected from a dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima (Owen, 1866) stranded on the northeastern coast of Brazil were identified through morphological and genetic analyses as A. paggiae. Anisakids were examined through differential interference contrast light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological and morphometric analysis revealed that these specimens belonged to Anisakis sp. clade II and more specifically to A. paggiae, exhibiting a violin-shaped ventriculus and 3 denticulate caudal plates, which are taxonomic characters considered unique to this species. Genetic analysis based on the mtDNA cox2 gene confirmed our identification of A. paggiae. Phylogenetic trees using both maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods revealed a strongly supported monophyletic clade (bootstrap support = 100%) with all available A. paggiae sequences. Integrative taxonomic analysis allowed the identification of A. paggiae for the first time in Brazilian waters, providing new data about their geographical distribution. Moreover, here we present the first SEM images of this species.

  4. Post-embryonic development of Camallanus cotti (Nematoda: Camallanidae), with emphasis on growth of some taxonomically important somatic characters.

    PubMed

    Levsen, Arne; Berland, Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the quantitative post-embryonic development of the Asian freshwater fish nematode Camallanus cotti Fujita, 1927, is described. Larval and adult morphometrics were obtained by following the parasite's life cycle experimentally using copepods Macrocyclops albidus (Jurine) as intermediate host and guppies Poecilia reticulata (Peters), southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther) and paradise fish Macropodus opercularis (L.) as definitive host. Additionally, adult worms were obtained from heavily infected paradise fish imported from Singapore. It is suggested that the gradual change in proportions of the worm's somatic body parts reflects the specific ecological role of each developmental stage. The free-living infective first-stage larva seems to be adapted for transmission, as indicated by its relatively long tail, designed to generate host-attracting movements, and its non-functional intestine. The second- and third-stage larvae from the copepod intermediate host seem mainly to invest in trophic functionality, i.e., the development of the buccal capsule and the oesophagus, which are crucial structures for the worm's successful establishment in the definitive fish host. Once in the fish intestine, the larvae enter a period of considerable growth. After the fourth (i.e., last) moult, a 72% increase in average female body length occurs. This is accompanied by doubling the average vulva-tail tip distance and the average tail length. The length of the female hind body expands in an accelerating allometric fashion, and seems to be closely linked to the posterior-wards expansion of the uterus. In the males however, growth seems to cease after the final moult. We conclude that female post-maturational body size, but especially the length of the hind body and the tail, are closely related to reproductive state, i.e., the developmental stage of the offspring in the uterus, and, probably, the worms' age. Any future taxonomical studies of camallanids in general, and C. cotti in particular, should thus be aware of the reproductive state of the females used.

  5. Morphological redescription and molecular characterization of three species of Travassosinematidae (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) from Gryllotalpa africana Beauv (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).

    PubMed

    Singh, Neetu; Chaudhary, Anshu; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

    2013-01-01

    Binema mirzaia (Basir, 1942a) Basir, 1956, Cameronia nisari (Parveen and Jairajpuri, 1985) Adamson and Van Waerebeke, 1992a and Mirzaiella meerutensis Singh and Malti, 2003 are redescribed morphologically along with molecular identification from the intestine of mole cricket Gryllotalpa africana. Molecular characterization was carried out using the D2-D3 expansion domains of the 18S ribosomal DNA region. This study first time presents molecular data for the above three nematode species.

  6. Description of Meloidogyne nataliei n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) from Grape (Vitis labrusca) in Michigan, with SEM Observations

    PubMed Central

    Golden, A. Morgan; Rose, Lindy M.; Bird, George W.

    1981-01-01

    Meloidogyne nataliei n. sp. is described and illustrated from grape (Vitis labrusca) in a declining vineyard at Mattawan, Michigan, USA. Infected grape roots exhibit no hyperplastic symptoms. Females protrude from the roots and are surrounded by a massive egg sac containing many eggs. This new species is distinguishable from other species of the genus especially by its large, striking perineal pattern with, usually, two ropelike separated striae on each side extending laterally from the vulval and anal areas. Among other diagnostic characters are the location of the female excretory pore adjacent to or near the base of the head and the heavy larval stylet averaging about 22 μm in length. Examination of males, females, and larvae with the scanning electron microscope confirmed observations made by optical microscopy and revealed diagnostic and other structures in greater detail. Of particular significance was the nature of the male head, with a massive circular labial disc on which is located a rectangular structure surrounding the oral opening, and the six distinct lips appearing as a rosette in en face view. The known distribution of this new species is presently limited to its original location in Michigan. PMID:19300781

  7. Morphological and molecular genetic diversity of Strongyluris calotis (Nematoda: Ascaridida: Heterakidae) in South East and East Asian lizards.

    PubMed

    Tran, Binh Thi; Ong, An Vinh; Luc, Pham Van; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Strongyluris calotis is a heterakid nematode in the large intestine of agamid lizards (Reptilia: Sauria: Agamidae) from the Oriental Region. The standard light microscopic definition of the species counts the "caudal papillae" as 10 pairs on male worms. However, previous work from our group using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the heterakid from agamid lizards in Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore revealed that this counting contained a pair of phasmids and that two pairs of postcloacal papillae were completely fused to form a pair of united papillae, thus resulting in "10 pairs." In the present study, we examined S. calotis specimens from the Emma Gray's forest lizard, Calotes emma (Agamidae), living in the plain forest at low altitude, and the Vietnam false bloodsucker, Pseudocalotes brevipes (Agamidae), living in the mountainous forest at high altitude in the northern part of Vietnam. Using SEM, the arrangement of caudal papillae in male worms from an Emma Gray's forest lizard was found to be comparable to classical S. calotis specimens from agamid lizards collected in Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore. However, male worms from Vietnam false bloodsuckers did not have a pair of united papillae but had 10 pairs of independent caudal papillae with a pair of phasmids. Molecular genetic analyses of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) of worms of the classical S. calotis morphotype from Japan and Singapore and two S. calotis morphotypes from Vietnam demonstrated absolutely identical nucleotide sequences of partial 18S rDNA (at least 1764 base pairs (bp)) and 5.8S rDNA (158 bp). However, intraspecific differences were detected in other regions of the rDNA, related to the geographical distribution of hosts regardless of morphotype: 97.8-98.5 % identity (443-446 bp/453 bp) in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 region, 96.6-98.0 % identity (425-431 bp/440 bp) in the ITS-2 region, and 99.6-99.7 % identity (1149-1151 bp/1154 bp) in the 28S rDNA. Thus, in the future, taxonomic relationships of S. calotis distributed widely in the Oriental Region as well as other nominal Oriental Strongyluris spp., currently six in number, need to be extensively explored based on molecular genetic analyses in addition to intensive morphological characterization.

  8. New Record of Schistorophus cirripedesmi (Nematoda: Acuariidae) from a Bar-Tailed Godwit, Limosa lapponica baueri (Charadriformes: Scolopacidae) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Seongjun; Kim, Hyun; Lim, Junsik; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Heejong; Kim, Youngjun; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-06-01

    In July 2014, a nematode species, Schistorophus cirripedesmi Rhizhikov and Khokhlova, 1964, was recovered from a bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica baueri that was stored in a -20˚C freezer in the Chungnam Wild Animal Rescue Center. The bird was collected in 2012 from the coastal region of Pyeongtaek-si (City), Gyeonggi-do (Province) in the Republic of Korea, although the exact date is not clear. At necropsy, 9 nematodes were found in the gizzard of the bird. The parasites had 4 horn-like cephalic cuticular ornamentations. After morphometric comparison and morphological observations, including scanning electron microscopy, the nematodes were identified as S. cirripedesmi. This is the first description of a nematode species in a shorebird in Korea. This is also the first time this genus and species have been found in Korea.

  9. Description of Sclerorhabditis miniata n. sp. and First Description of Male of Diploscapter coronatus Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Rhabditidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ali Asghar

    2015-01-01

    A population of Sclerorhabditis miniata n. sp. is described and illustrated from Poonch district of Jammu and Kashmir State, India. The new species is characterized by small body size, with an annulated cuticle, offset labial region, crown shaped, strongly sclerotized lips, thin lateral lips, membranous, stegostom without glottoid apparatus, cheilostom rod shaped, sclerotized, spicules free, strong and thick, gubernaculum simple, bent proximally, bursa open, peloderan with seven pairs of bursal papillae in 1+1/1+1+2+1 pattern. The males of Diploscapter coronatus are described for the first time. They are usually smaller than the females and have labial region similar to females. Spicules separate, with a small dorsal velum, gubernaculum simple, almost straight, bursa open, pseudopeloderan with seven pairs of bursal papillae in 1+1/1+2+1+1 pattern. PMID:26170478

  10. Prevalence and molecular identification of the sinus worm Skrjabingylus petrowi (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) from Martes spp. in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heddergott, M; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2015-06-01

    The nematodes of the genus Skrjabingylus (family Metastrongylidae) can parasitise the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of different carnivore species. Until recently, Skrjabingylus petrowi Bageanov & Petrov, 1941, has mainly been described in pine martens (Martes martes Linnaeus, 1758) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758) sampled in the European part of the former Soviet Union. Newer finds in the stone marten (Martes foina Erxleben, 1777) and from different parts of Europe suggest, however, that the species might have a broader host-species range than previously assumed and be geographically more widespread as well. Since most S. petrowi records have resulted from chance discoveries rather than systematic surveys, very little is known about the prevalence of S. petrowi in marten populations. Here, we report results of a 20-year extensive survey of fresh marten skulls, where we tested 1.059 marten carcasses originating from 248 localities in Germany for the presence of S. petrowi. We identified an infestation in only four M. martes individuals and one M. foina, despite using a reliable identification method. Based on the spicule lengths of the male nematodes, the parasites were identified as S. petrowi and genetic barcoding confirmed the identification of the samples. In a phylogenetic analysis, S. petrowi and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842), formed a sister clade to all the other members of the family Metastrongylidae. The low prevalence of S. petrowi is possibly due to its parasitising in the two marten species that are either not very common (M. martes) or predominantly live in urban habitat (M. foina).

  11. A New Root-Knot Nematode Parasitizing Sea Rocket from Spanish Mediterranean Coastal Dunes: Meloidogyne dunensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae)

    PubMed Central

    Palomares Rius, J. E.; Vovlas, N.; Troccoli, A.; Liébanas, G.; Landa, B. B.; Castillo, P.

    2007-01-01

    High infection rates of European sea rocket feeder roots by an unknown root-knot nematode were found in a coastal dune soil at Cullera (Valencia) in central eastern Spain. Morphometry, esterase and malate dehydrogenase electrophoretic phenotypes and phylogenetic trees demonstrated that this nematode species differs clearly from other previously described root-knot nematodes. Studies of host-parasite relationships showed a typical susceptible reaction in naturally infected European sea rocket plants and in artificially inoculated tomato (cv. Roma) and chickpea (cv. UC 27) plants. The species is herein described and illustrated and named as Meloidogyne dunensis n. sp. The new root-knot nematode can be distinguished from other Meloidogyne spp. by: (i) perineal pattern rounded-oval, formed of numerous fine dorsal and ventral cuticle striae and ridges, lateral fields clearly visible; (ii) female excretory pore at the level of stylet knobs, EP/ST ratio 1.6; (iii) second-stage juveniles with hemizonid located 1 to 2 annuli anteriorly to excretory pore and long, narrow, tapering tail; and (iv) males with lateral fields composed of four incisures anteriorly and posteriorly, while six distinct incisures are observed for large part at mid-body. Phylogenetic trees derived from distance and maximum parsimony analyses based on 18S, ITS1–5.8S-ITS2 and D2-D3 of 28S rDNA showed that M. dunensis n. sp. can be differentiated from all described root-knot nematode species, and it is clearly separated from other species with resemblance in morphology, such as M. duytsi, M. maritima, M. mayaguensis and M. minor. PMID:19259488

  12. Vittatidera zeaphila (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a new genus and species of cyst nematode parasitic on corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Bernard, Ernest C; Handoo, Zafar A; Powers, Thomas O; Donald, Patricia A; Heinz, Robert D

    2010-06-01

    A new genus and species of cyst nematode, Vittatidera zeaphila, is described from Tennessee. The new genus is superficially similar to Cactodera but is distinguished from other cyst-forming taxa in having a persistent lateral field in females and cysts, persistent vulval lips covering a circumfenestrate vulva, and subventral gland nuclei of the female contained in a separate small lobe. Infective juveniles (J2) are distinguished from all previously described Cactodera spp. by the short stylet in the second-stage juvenile (14-17 μm); J2 of Cactodera spp. have stylets at least 18 μm long. The new species also is unusual in that the females produce large egg masses. Known hosts are corn and goosegrass. DNA analysis suggests that Vittatidera forms a separate group apart from other cyst-forming genera within Heteroderinae.

  13. Phylogenetic Relationships and Genetic Variation in Longidorus and Xiphinema Species (Nematoda: Longidoridae) Using ITS1 Sequences of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Weimin; Szalanski, Allen L.; Robbins, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic analyses using DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS1 were conducted to determine the extent of genetic variation within and among Longidorus and Xiphinema species. DNA sequences were obtained from samples collected from Arkansas, California and Australia as well as 4 Xiphinema DNA sequences from GenBank. The sequences of the ITS1 region including the 3' end of the 18S rDNA gene and the 5' end of the 5.8S rDNA gene ranged from 1020 bp to 1244 bp for the 9 Longidorus species, and from 870 bp to 1354 bp for the 7 Xiphinema species. Nucleotide frequencies were: A = 25.5%, C = 21.0%, G = 26.4%, and T = 27.1%. Genetic variation between the two genera had a maximum divergence of 38.6% between X. chambersi and L. crassus. Genetic variation among Xiphinema species ranged from 3.8% between X. diversicaudatum and X. bakeri to 29.9% between X. chambersi and X. italiae. Within Longidorus, genetic variation ranged from 8.9% between L. crassus and L. grandis to 32.4% between L. fragilis and L. diadecturus. Intraspecific genetic variation in X. americanum sensu lato ranged from 0.3% to 1.9%, while genetic variation in L. diadecturus had 0.8% and L. biformis ranged from 0.6% to 10.9%. Identical sequences were obtained between the two populations of L. grandis, and between the two populations of X. bakeri. Phylogenetic analyses based on the ITS1 DNA sequence data were conducted on each genus separately using both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis. Among the Longidorus taxa, 4 subgroups are supported: L. grandis, L. crassus, and L. elongatus are in one cluster; L. biformis and L. paralongicaudatus are in a second cluster; L. fragilis and L. breviannulatus are in a third cluster; and L. diadecturus is in a fourth cluster. Among the Xiphinema taxa, 3 subgroups are supported: X. americanum with X. chambersi, X. bakeri with X. diversicaudatum, and X. italiae and X. vuittenezi forming a sister group with X. index. The relationships observed in this study correspond to previous genera and species defined by morphology. PMID:19262783

  14. Distribution and Morphology of Longidorus breviannulatus Norton &Hoffman, 1975 and Longidorus fragilis Thorne, 1974 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from North America

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Weimin; Robbins, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    In a survey of ecotypes for longidorids, primarily from the rhizosphere hardwood trees growing in sandy soil along stream banks, 828 soil samples were collected from 37 Arkansas counties in 1999-2001. Eight populations of Longidorus breviannulatus were identified from the Arkansas survey samples. A total of 19 populations from California, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, and Wisconsin were identified from the collection of the second author. A few males were found in New York and Nebraska populations and are described herein. Seven populations of L. fragilis were identified in the Arkansas survey samples, and one population was found from Indiana. Four juvenile stages of L. fragilis are present, and data are given for them herein. PMID:19262810

  15. Graphidioides subterraneus n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) from the South American subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum Thomas, 1898 (Rodentia: Octodontidae).

    PubMed

    Rossin, M A; Timi, J T; Malizia, A I

    2005-06-01

    A new nematode species, Graphidioides subterraneus n. sp., found in the stomach of C. talarum from Argentina is described. The new species more closely resembles G. mazzai Lent & Freitas, 1935, parasite of Galea leucoblephara from Argentina, and G. kravetzi Sutton & Durette-Desset, 1995, parasite of Holochilus brasiliensis from Uruguay. It can be distinguished by shorter spicules, by the shape of the gubernaculum, by shorter uterine branches, and by a different number of ridges of the synlophe all along the body.

  16. Study of types of some species of "Filaria" (Nematoda) parasites of small mammals described by Von Linstow and Molin.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R; Bain, O

    2011-05-01

    Parasitic nematodes from the Berlin (ZMB) and Vienna (NMW) Museum collections referred to the genus Filaria Mueller, 1787 by von Linstow or Molin were studied. Three samples were in good condition and the specimens redescribed. Litomosa hepatica (von Linstow, 1897) n. comb., sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa 3368, from the megachiropteran Pteropus neohibernicus, Bismarck Archipelago, resembles L. maki Tibayrenc, Bain & Ramanchandran, 1979, from Pteropus vampyrus, in Malaysia, but the buccal capsule differs. Both species display particular morphological characters which differ from species of Litomosa parasitic in microchiropterans. The remaining material originates from Brazil. The spicule morphology of Litomosoides circularis (von Linstow, 1899) Chandler, 1931, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa 1059 from Hesperomys spec. (= Holochilus brasiliensis), Porto Alegre, confirms that it belongs to the sigmodontis group; the microfilaria presents characters of the genus Litomosoides, e.g. body attenuated at both extremities and salient cephalic hook. Taxonomic discussions by others confirm that species of Litomosoides belonging to the sigmodontis group and described subsequently are distinct from L. circularis. Litomosoides serpicula (Molin, 1858) Guerrero, Martin, Gardner & Bain, 2002, is redescribed, sample NMW 6323 from the bat Phyllostoma spiculatum (= Sturnira lilium), Ypanema. It is very close to L. brasiliensis Almeida, 1936, type host Moytis sp., but distinguished by a single ring in the buccal capsule, rather than two, supporting previous conclusions that the taxon L. brasiliensis, as generally regarded, may represent a complex of species. Samples NMW 6322 and NMW 6324, from other bats and also identified by Molin (1858) as Filaria serpicula, contain unidentifiable fragments of Litomosoides incertae sedis. Filaria hyalina von Linstow, 1890, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa Q 3905 from Sorer vulgaris (= Sorex araneus), is incertae sedis because it contains two unidentifiable posterior parts of male, which might be an acuarid, Stammerinema sp. Filaria vesperuginis von Linstow, 1885, sample ZMB Vermes Entozoa Q 3929, from the bat Vesperugo serotinus (= Eptesicus serotinus), contains encysted nematode larvae and is a nomen dubium.

  17. Two Androdioecious and One Dioecious New Species of Pristionchus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae): New Reference Points for the Evolution of Reproductive Mode

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J.; Herrmann, Matthias; Susoy, Vladislav

    2013-01-01

    Rhabditid nematodes are one of a few animal taxa in which androdioecious reproduction, involving hermaphrodites and males, is found. In the genus Pristionchus, several cases of androdioecy are known, including the model species P. pacificus. A comprehensive understanding of the evolution of reproductive mode depends on dense taxon sampling and careful morphological and phylogenetic reconstruction. In this article, two new androdioecious species, P. boliviae n. sp. and P. mayeri n. sp., and one gonochoristic outgroup, P. atlanticus n. sp., are described on morphological, molecular, and biological evidence. Their phylogenetic relationships are inferred from 26 ribosomal protein genes and a partial SSU rRNA gene. Based on current representation, the new androdioecious species are sister taxa, indicating either speciation from an androdioecious ancestor or rapid convergent evolution in closely related species. Male sexual characters distinguish the new species, and new characters for six closely related Pristionchus species are presented. Male papillae are unusually variable in P. boliviae n. sp. and P. mayeri n. sp., consistent with the predictions of “selfing syndrome.” Description and phylogeny of new androdioecious species, supported by fuller outgroup representation, establish new reference points for mechanistic studies in the Pristionchus system by expanding its comparative context. PMID:24115783

  18. First Record of Anisakis simplex Third-Stage Larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae) in European Hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus in Egyptian Water

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Rahma, Yasmin; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Kamal Ahmed, Amira

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in European hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus from Hurghada City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, were investigated. Fish samples were collected during the period of February and November 2014. Twenty-two (36.66%) out of sixty examined fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with Anisakis type I larvae mostly found as encapsulated larvae in visceral organs. There was a positive relationship between host length/weight and prevalence of infection. Based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses, these nematodes were identified as third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. The present study was considered as the first report of anisakid larvae from European hake in the Egyptian water. PMID:26925257

  19. Ultrastructure study of the excretory system and the genital primordium of the infective stage of Onchocerca volvulus (Nematoda:Filarioidea).

    PubMed

    Strote, G; Bonow, I

    1995-01-01

    The electron microscopic investigation of the anterior part of the infective third-stage juvenile of Onchocerca volvulus provides first insights into the structure of the excretory system of this developmental stage of the parasite. The most anterior part of this system consists of a cell process of the syncytial excretory cells. At this height the excretory cells enclose the cuticle-lined excretory channel. The channel is in the process of elongation in the anterior-posterior direction, indicated by cell division in this region. More posteriad an ampulla-like structure is forming in the cytoplasm of the excretory cells. The inner surface of this ampulla is lined with a small number of single microvilli. In this part of the system the cytoplasm of the excretory cells is rich in Golgi bodies and endocytic vesicles. The ampulla has direct access to the exterior by the excretory duct. The excretory duct is a cuticle-lined structure surrounded by supporting fibres of an additional cell. This duct cell connects the excretory duct to the body-wall cuticle at the excretory pore. Adjacent to the region of the excretory system a cell is found that resembles a gland cell. This cell is in close contact to the ventral nerve cord. The genital primordia of the third-stage juvenile consist of several dividing cells. The female genital primordium is seen at the junction of the muscular with the glandular oesophagus and the male primordium can be found at the junction of the glandular oesophagus with the gut.

  20. The fine structure of the excretory system in adult Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda) and a suggested function for the 'excretory glands'.

    PubMed

    Lee, D L

    1970-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the excretory system, including the subventral glands, of the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis has been described. The walls of the lateral excretory canals contain canaliculi which open into the lumen of the canal. It is suggested that these canals play a role in osmoregulation and excretion. The sub-ventral glands contain two types of secretory granule and contain non-specific esterase, cholinesterase and aminopeptidase. It is suggested that these glands are not excretory but play an important role in feeding.

  1. Nematodes of amphibians from Java, Indonesia, with a description of
    new species, Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. (Nematoda : Heterakoidea).

    PubMed

    Purwaningsih, Endang; Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2015-06-24

    During a survey on the parasites of amphibians of Indonesia, toads (30 Bufo melanostictus) and 246 frogs (213 Fejervarya cancrivora, 11 F. limnocharis, 22 Rana macrodon from West Java and 68 F. cancrivora from Central Java) were examined for parasitic nematodes. Three species of nematodes were found and described, i.e. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. from Fejervaria cancrivora; Meteterakis japonica from Bufo melanostictus, F. cancrivora and F. limnocharis; and Chabaudus sp. from F. cancrivora, F. limnocharis and Rana macrodon. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. is distinguished from other species of the genus by the length and shape of spicules, the number of caudal papillae, the presence of gubernaculum in male and the presence of vulval flap in female. Bufo melanostictus and Java are recorded as new host and locality for M. japonica, respectively.

  2. Integrative taxonomy of Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae (Nematoda) in Paralichthys patagonicus and Xystreurys rasile (Pisces: Teleostei) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Michelle Cristie Gonçalves da; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Di Azevedo, Maria Isabel N; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de

    2016-10-17

    Thirty-six Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to investigate the presence of anisakid and raphidascaridid nematodes. Anisakis typica, Terranova sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. were identified using integrative taxonomy of morphological and genetic data. Morphological and morphometric analysis was conducted using bright field microscopy with scanning electron microscopy for topographic characterization of the cuticular surface. Phylogenetic analysis, using ITS and cox2 molecular targets, clearly demonstrated the species identification of A. typica and H. deardorffoverstreetorum and the high diversity of H. deardorffoverstreetorum. This is the first report of A. typica, H. deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. parasitizing P. patagonicus and X. rasile.

  3. Morphological and Ultrastructural Changes in Tissues of Intermediate and Definitive Hosts Infected by Protostrongylid Lungworms (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellular and sub-cellular mechanisms involved in tissue responses to larval and adult lungworms (Protostrongylidae) were respectively explored through experimental and natural infections in molluscan intermediate (Xeropicta candacharica) and ruminant definitive hosts (Ovis aries). Reaction to develo...

  4. The influence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae) infection on the aerobic metabolism of Biomphalaria straminea and Biomphalaria tenagophila (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Lima, Mariana G; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius M; Gaudêncio, Fabrício N; Martins, Florence G; Castro, Rosane N; Thiengo, Silvana C; Garcia, Juberlan S; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2016-12-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is considered the main agent responsible for human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. This parasite has low specificity for mollusk hosts and it can also use aquatic snails as auxiliary hosts. Studies based on the metabolic profile of Biomphalaria spp. infected by A. cantonensis have been conducted to observe parasite-host interactions. In the present study, the glucose content in the hemolymph and glycogen content in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea experimentally infected by A. cantonensis were evaluated, along with the activity of LDH. The snails were dissected from 6 to 21days after infection to collect the hemolymph and separate the tissues. Decreases of 96% and 6.4% in the glucose content triggered a transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism in the two infected snail species, B. straminea and B. tenagophila, respectively. That finding was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography. These results indicate that when infected, these snails are able to change their metabolic profile, suggesting a strategy to maintain their homeostatic balance.

  5. Biochemical profile of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae).

    PubMed

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Amaral, Ludimila Santos; Mota, Esther Maria; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Garcia, Juberlan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of experimental infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode, Metastrongylidae) on the activities of the aminotransferases and concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of total proteins in the exposed snails to 5000 or more larvae. This change was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of urea and uric acid in the hemolymph, suggesting a higher rate of deamination of the amino acids. Besides this, variations in the activities of the aminotransferases were also observed, with the highest values recorded in the groups exposed to greater parasite load. These results suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities. Infection was verified by the fact that L3 larvae recovered from the snails was proportion to the exposure dose of L1 larvae. Histopathological results also indicated presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate, favoring an increase of both transaminases.

  6. Characterization of Xenorhabdus isolates from La Rioja (Northern Spain) and virulence with and without their symbiotic entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Steinernematidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Herrera, R; Tailliez, P; Pagès, S; Ginibre, N; Gutiérrez, C; Boemare, N E

    2009-10-01

    Eighteen Xenorhabdus isolates associated with Spanish entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema were characterized using a polyphasic approach including phenotypic and molecular methods. Two isolates were classified as Xenorhabdus nematophila and were associated with Steinernema carpocapsae. Sixteen isolates were classified as Xenorhabdus bovienii, of which fifteen were associated with Steinernema feltiae and one with Steinernema kraussei. Two X. bovienii Phase II were also isolated, one instable phase isolated from S. feltiae strain Rioja and one stable phase from S. feltiae strain BZ. Four representative bacterial isolates were chosen to study their pathogenicity against Spodoptera littoralis with and without the presence of their nematode host. The four bacterial isolates were pathogenic for S. littoralis leading to septicemia 24h post-injection and killing around 90% of the insect larvae 36 h post-injection, except for that isolated from S. kraussei. After 48 h of injection, this latter isolate showed a lower final population in the larval hemolymph (10(7) instead of 10(8)CFU per larvae) and a lower larval mortality (70% instead of 95-100%). The virulence of the nematode-bacteria complexes against S. littoralis showed similar traits with a significant insect larvae mortality (80-90%) 5 days post-infection except for S. kraussei, although this strain reached similar of larval mortality at 7 days after infection.

  7. WITHDRAWN: Alterations in the mitochondrial physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after experimental infection by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastongylidae).

    PubMed

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Teixeira Santos, Anderson; Dos Santos Bonfim, Tatiane Cristina; da Silva Garcia, Juberlan; Maldonado, Arnaldo; da-Silva, Wagner Seixas; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2016-05-27

    This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.

  8. Calcaridorylaimus castaneae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimidae) from Bulgaria with an identification key to the species of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Nedelchev, Sevdan; Elshishka, Milka; Lazarova, Stela; Radoslavov, Georgi; Hristov, Peter; Peneva, Vlada

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An unknown species belonging to the genusCalcaridorylaimus Andrássy, 1986 was collected from the litter of broadleaf forests dominated by Castanea sativa Mill. and mixed with Quercus daleshampii Ten. and Fagus sylvatica L. on Belasitsa Mountain, south-western Bulgaria. Calcaridorylaimus castaneae sp. n. is characterised by its long body (1.4–2.1 mm), lip region practically not offset, vulva transverse, short odontostyle (14.5–16 μm) and tail (75.5–110.5 μm, c=14.7–23.6; c’=2.9–4.4) in females and 38–46 μm long spicules with small spur before their distant end in males. It is most similar to C. andrassyi Ahmad & Shaheen, 2004, but differs in having transverse vs pore-like vulva and shorter spicules (38–46 μm vs 52–57 μm). An identification key to the species of the genus Calcaridorylaimus is proposed. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on 18S and D2-D3 expansion domains of 28S rRNA genes by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The phylograms inferred from 18S sequences showed closest relationships of the new species with some species belonging to the genus Mesodorylaimus. However, insufficient molecular data for members of both genera do not allow the phylogenetic relationships of Calcaridorylaimus and the new species described herein to be elucidated. PMID:24899849

  9. Morphological and molecular characterization of Paractinolaimus sahandi n. sp. (Nematoda: Actinolaimidae) from the Sahand Mountains in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pedram, M; Niknam, G; Vinciguerra, M T; Ye, W; Robbins, R T

    2011-09-01

    Paractinolaimus sahandi n. sp., found in wet soil samples collected from the rhizosphere of grasses of Sahand Mountains, Iran, is described. This new species is characterized by its long body (3.5-4.7 mm), high a value (74.5-88.5), anterior location of posterior subventral nuclei, occupying 62.5-68.0% of glandularium distance, the presence of 1-4 pre- and 1-3 post-vulval papillae and numerous tiny, not innervated papillae in front and behind the vulva in the outer layer of cuticle; common functional males in the population, with 62.5-81.3 μm long spicules and 15-17 ventromedian supplements. The new species, which is the only one in the genus showing the advulval cuticular tiny papillae and is unusually slender, is compared to four species of Paractinolaimus, namely P. macrolaimus, P. longidrilus, P. spanithelus and P. rafiqi. The ribosomal 18S rDNA (1246 bp sequenced) and 28S rDNA D2/D3 region (844 bp sequenced) of P. sahandi n. sp. were sequenced for molecular characterization. Sequences of the 18S and 28S D2/D3 of P. sahandi n. sp. have distinct differences from those of the only sequenced P. macrolaimus, with 6 bp differences in 18S and 38 bp differences and five gaps in 28S. This is the first report of the occurrence of members of Actinolaimidae in Iran.

  10. Cucullanus pargi sp. n. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the grey snapper Lutjanus griseus off the southern coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Solís, David; Tuz-Paredes, Vielka M; Quintal-Loria, Miguel A

    2007-09-01

    A new nematode species, Cucullanus pargi sp. n., is described from the intestine and pyloric caeca of the grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus), off the southern Quintana Roo coast, Mexico. This species shows similar morphological features as cucullanids occurring in marine and brackish-water fishes; however, it differs from all other species in the length of spicules, arrangement and number of caudal papillae, position of the excretory pore and deirids. Cucullanus pargi is the third species of this genus described from fishes in Mexico and the second one from Mexican marine fishes.

  11. Levels of infection, pathology and nodule size of Onchocerca flexuosa (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in red deer (Cervus elaphus) from northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, M R; Martínez, A; Carreño, R A; González, S; Ferreras, M C; Díez, N

    2015-05-01

    Between 2005 and 2007, the presence of Onchocerca flexuosa (Wedl, 1856) was discovered and investigated in 110 red deer (Cervus elaphus) shot in the Riaño Regional Hunting Reserve, in the province of León (north-western Spain). Nodules containing O. flexuosa were located in the dorsal region and flanks of the deer. These were collected and measured, and some adult parasites were extracted from the nodules and identified by morphology and by obtaining mitochondrial 12S rDNA sequences, which were identical to those of previously published sequences for O. flexuosa. Some nodules were prepared for histology, embedded in paraffin, sectioned and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Histologically, the worms were found in several compartments separated by an infiltrated fibrous tissue. These compartments were inhabited by several females and males, surrounded by a fibrous capsule. A total of 85.45% (95% confidence interval (CI): 78.86-92.04%) of red deer were parasitized, with a mean intensity of 9.53 ± 12.27 nodules/host, ranging between 1 and 74 nodules/deer. Significant differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between young and adult red deer, and also between seasons. However, no significant differences between males and females were observed. Five hundred and ninety-seven nodules were measured (15.81 ± 3.94 mm) and classified by sizes into small ( < 10 mm), medium (10-20 mm) and large (>20 mm). No relation was found between the size of the nodules and the time of infection. The high values found in the studied parameters show that northern Spain is an area of high-intensity infection for deer.

  12. Spray nozzles, pressures, additives and stirring time on viability and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (nematoda: rhabditida) for greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; Batista, Elder Simões de Paula; Campos, Henrique Borges Neves; Lemos, Raphael Emilio; Ferreira, Marcelo da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004), three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa), four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin) and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae) viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed.

  13. Calodium hepaticum (Nematoda: Capillaridae) in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Italy with scanning electron microscopy of the eggs.

    PubMed

    Macchioni, Fabio; Chelucci, Luca; Guardone, Lisa; Mignone, Walter; Prati, Maria Cristina; Magi, Marta

    2013-05-01

    Calodium hepaticum (Bancroft, 1893) Moravec, 1982 (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a cosmopolitan capillariid nematode, infecting mainly rodents and occasionally other mammals, including humans. Reports of C. hepaticum in canids are rare and the present one is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus) in Italy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of the eggs of C. hepaticum allowed a precise description of the egg morphology, which is one of the most relevant specific characteristics of capillariid nematodes. The egg shell showed a fibrous beam-like network which differs from that of the eggs of closely related trichinelloid species. This characteristic can be useful especially in case of spurious infection, when misdiagnosis among different trichinelloids species can occur.

  14. Dracograllus trukensis sp. nov. (Draconematidae: Nematoda) from a seagrass bed ( Zostera spp.) in Chuuk Islands, Micronesia, Central Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Wongi; Kim, Dongsung; Decraemer, Wilfrida; Rho, Hyun Soo

    2016-09-01

    A new species of free-living marine draconematid nematode, Dracograllus trukensis sp. nov., is described based on the specimens collected from the sediments of a intertidal seagrass bed from Chuuk Islands, Micronesia. Dracograllus trukensis sp. nov. differs from other species of the genus by the combination of the following characteristics: the presence of numerous minute spiny ornamented body cuticular annules in both sexes, eight cephalic adhesion tubes inserted on the head capsule in both sexes, the presence of stiff posteriorly directed setae anterior to posterior adhesion tubes in both sexes, the shape (large, elongated, open loop-shaped in male and large, elongated, closed loop-shaped in female) and position (longer ventral arm extending to the first body annule in male) of amphideal fovea, shorter spicule length (34-42 μm), the presence of sexual dimorphism in shape and length of the non-annulated tail terminus, and number of posterior sublateral adhesion tubes (10 in male and 13-15 in female) and posterior subventral adhesion tubes (8-10 in male and 9-11 in female). A comparative table on the biogeographical and ecological characteristics of the species of Dracograllus is presented. This is the first taxonomic report on the genus Dracograllus from Chuuk Islands, Micronesia, central western Pacific Ocean.

  15. Chapiniella variabilis (Nematoda) parasitizing Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus (Testudinidae) in the state of Piauí.

    PubMed

    Freire, Simone Mousinho; Leal, Anangela Ravena da Silva; Knoff, Marcelo; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Silva, Reinaldo José da; Mendonça, Ivete Lopes

    2017-03-16

    Chapiniella variabilis (Chapin, 1924), a strongylid nematode, was collected parasitizing the large intestine of the tortoises Chelonoidis carbonarius (Spix, 1824) (Cc) and C. denticulatus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Cd) in the Zoobotanical Park of the municipality of Teresina, state of Piauí, Brazil. The taxonomic identification was based on morphological and morphometric features, using bright-field and scanning electron microscopy. The present study adds new observations on the morphology, mainly relating to the mouth papillae, external and internal leaf-crown elements, excretory pore, deirids and male and female posterior end. The parasitic indices of prevalence (P), mean intensity (MI), mean abundance (MA) and range of infection (RI) of C. variabilis in these two tortoise species were: P = 100%, MI = 833.3, MA = 833.3, RI = 500-1,500 (Cc); P = 100%, MI = 472.2, MA = 472.2, RI = 333-500 (Cd). This record expands occurrences of C. variabilis to a new host, C. carbonarius, and to another state in Brazil, in the Neotropical region of South America. Adjustment to host management with the aim of improving hygiene and health conditions is suggested.

  16. Morphological characterization of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Nematoda, Dioctophymatoidea) parasite of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Melo, Caroline do Socorro Barros; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-06-07

    Absctract Eustrongylides spp. nematodes have birds as final hosts and uses other vertebrates as intermediate/paratenic host (fish, amphibians and reptiles) and have zoonotic potential. In amphibians, the larvae may be located in the subcutaneous tissues, liver and mesentery, between the muscle fibres, especially in the lower limbs. Rhinella marina, which is widely observed in Brazil, has exhibited complex diversity in its helminth fauna, reflecting the unique habitat of the Amazon biome. For the first time, this study describes the morphological aspects of third-stage larvae of Eustrongylides sp. in Rhinella marina from Santa Cruz do Ararí, Marajó Archipelago, Eastern Amazonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy.

  17. A new species of philometrid parasite (Nematoda, Philometridae) and histopathological lesions in juvenile whitemouth croakers, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest).

    PubMed

    Montes, M M; Plaul, S E; Martorelli, S R

    2016-09-01

    A new species of nematode parasite, Philometroides tahieli sp. nov. is described. The juvenile whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri Desmarest, was collected during the spring and summer of the years 2008-2010 from estuarial environments of Argentina. During investigations of the parasite fauna a nematode encapsulated in the musculature of the operculum was found. The nematodes were removed from the host's muscle tissue and slide-mounted in lactophenol solution to clarify the specimens. Opercular muscle with the parasite was processed for histopathological examination. Philometroides tahieli sp. nov. can be identified by the location of gravid females in the host, presence of anterior oesophageal bulb, bosses on the surface of the body, presence of transversal mounds and 14 cephalic papillae in two circular rows. The pathogenicity of the parasite is low in the natural environment, but lesions are consistent with a chronic process. The appearance of caseous necrosis suggests the presence of a locally acting substance. Philometroides tahieli sp. nov. is the second species of this genera described from brackish waters, and since the discovery of Philometroides maplestoni in 1928, is the first species of this genus recorded for South America.

  18. Molecular and epidemiological data on Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in commercial fish caught off northern Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Piras, M C; Tedde, T; Garippa, G; Virgilio, S; Sanna, D; Farjallah, S; Merella, P

    2014-06-16

    Anisakiasis is a fish-borne zoonosis caused by third stage larvae of the nematode Anisakis sp. present in fish or cephalopods. This is the first contribution to the molecular identification and epidemiology of Anisakis spp. in commercial fish from the Gulf of Asinara (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea). Between April 2006 to November 2011, 777 specimens of 10 fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides, Sardina pilchardus, Sardinella aurita, Scomber colias, Sphyraena viridensis, Trachurus mediterraneus, Trachurus trachurus) were examined for Anisakis sp. larvae. A total of 1286 larvae were found in 218 fish. The great majority of larvae were located in the body cavity, and only a small part (60, 4.7%) in the muscle. All the Type I larvae (1272) were identified as Anisakis pegreffii and all the Type II (14) as Anisakis physeteris, confirming that A. pegreffii is the dominant species and the most important agent of human anisakiasis in the western Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Four new species of free-living marine nematodes of the family Comesomatidae (Nematoda: Araeolaimida) from coast of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G

    2013-01-24

    Specimens of four new nematode species of the family Comesomatidae were isolated from the sediments of littoral zone of South China Sea at the coast of Vietnam and described and illustrated. Sabatieria curvispiculata sp. n. is characterized by the long and slender tail, short cephalic setae and strongly curved spicules in males. Setosabatiera orientalis sp. n. is close to S. australis Riera, Nunez, Brito, 2006, but differs from it in the comparatively shorter and more slender tail, small-er number of amphidial fovea turns, greater number of precloacal supplements in males and shape and structure of spic-ules. Dorylaimopsis intermedia sp. n. is morphologically closest to D. mediterranea Grimaldi-de Zio, 1968 and D. magellanense Chen, Vincx, 1968, but differs from both species in the longer outer labial setae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. D. brevispiculata sp. n. is similar to D. turneri Zhang, 1992 and D. coomansi Muthumbi, Soetaert, Vincx, 1977, but differs from both species in the shape of outer labial sensillae and absence of precloacal supplements in males. A pictorial key for determination of valid species in the genus Setosabatieria Rouville, 1903 is given.

  20. Morphological and molecular characterization of Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) from the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J H; Wang, S S; Tu, G J; Zhou, Y K; Wu, X B

    2016-05-01

    A new nematode species, Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel, 1879 (Crocodilian: Alligatoridae) in the National Nature Reserve of Chinese Alligator (Chinese Crocodile Lake) in Anhui Province, China. This is the first description of O. sinensis sp. nov. in both China and this crocodile host, increasing its distribution in South Asia as well as expanding the number of helminths known to infect this crocodile. The detailed description of O. sinensis sp. nov., based on light and scanning electron microscopic examination, provides new taxonomic data for this species, and we also report sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS), small subunit DNA segments (18S) and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.

  1. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Phasmarhabditis huizhouensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae), a New Rhabditid Nematode from South China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ren-E; Ye, Weimin; Ren, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Zhongying

    2015-01-01

    The genus Phasmarhabditis is an economically important group of rhabditid nematodes, to which the well-known slug-parasite P. hermaphrodita belongs. Despite the commercial use of Phasmarhabditis species as an attractive and promising approach for pest control, the taxonomy and systematics of this group of rhabditids are poorly understood, largely because of the lack of diagnostic morphological features and DNA sequences for distinguishing species or inferring phylogenetic relationship. During a nematode sampling effort for identifying free-living relatives of Caenorhabditis elegans in Huizhou City, Guangdong, China, a novel species belonging to the genus Phasmarhabditis was isolated from rotting leaves. Detailed morphology of the gonochoristic P. huizhouensis sp. nov. was described and illustrated. The adult female has a robust body, a relatively short and wide buccal capsule conjoined by a rhabditiform pharynx. Females are characterized by a short cupola-shaped tail end bearing a slender pointed tip, with the junction flanked by a pair of ‘rod-like’ phasmids. Males have an open peloderan bursa that is supported by 9 pairs of genital papillae and 1 terminal pair of phasmids. P. huizhouensis sp. nov. is morphologically very similar to the type species Phasmarhabditis papillosa but is distinguishable by its male caudal traits. The new species is readily differentiated from other taxa in the genus by its female tail shape. Molecular phylogenetic inferences based on small subunit (SSU) and the D2-D3 domain of large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA genes reveal that P. huizhouensis sp. nov. forms a unique branch in both phylogenies which is genetically related to P. hermaphrodita and other parasites such as Angiostoma spp. The host associations of P. huizhouensis sp. nov. and its ability to parasitize slugs are unknown. PMID:26674768

  2. Description of Meloidogyne christiei n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) from Oak with SEM and Host-Range Observations

    PubMed Central

    Golden, A. Morgan; Kaplan, David T.

    1986-01-01

    Meloidogyne christiei n. sp. is described and illustrated from turkey oak (Quercus laevis) in Sanlando Park, Altamonte Springs, Florida. This new nematode species has a distinctive perineal pattern commonly with a high, squarish arch and coarse broken striae which tend to diverge at various angles, especially in and above the anal area. Female labial disc is indented, forming four points or prongs, unlike other species. Eggs are deposited inside the gall in a tubular, coiled manner. Vaginal muscles are exceptionally prominent and dense. SEM observations provided further detail of the perineal pattern and details of the head of females, males, and second-stage juveniles. Galls on the root commonly occur singly, but sometimes in small clusters, and appear as discrete nodules on the side of the root and without adjacent swelling. In general, only one female is found in each gall but occasionally two are present. In greenhouse tests, citrus, tobacco, cotton, pepper, watermelon, peanut, and tomato were not hosts. This nematode occurs throughout central Florida commonly on Q. laevis, the only known host. PMID:19294223

  3. New record of Pelecitus sp. (Nematoda, Onchocercidae) as a parasite of Athene cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae) in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Tarcísio Macedo; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Silva, Lidiane Aparecida Firmino da; Smaniotto, Bruna Domeneghetti; Silva, Reinaldo José da; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the burrowing owl Athene cunicularia as a new host for the filarid nematode Pelecitus sp. in southeastern Brazil for the first time, as well as reporting the occurrence of this nematode species in the body cavity, near the cervical air sac and lung region. This study contributes towards knowledge of parasitism in Brazilian wild birds and an anatomical region of the host as an infection site for Pelecitus sp.

  4. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37-3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126-141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae.

  5. Microscopic and molecular characterization of Hepatozoon domerguei (Apicomplexa) and Foleyella furcata (Nematoda) in wild endemic reptiles from Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Maia, João P.; Crottini, Angelica; Harris, David James

    2014-01-01

    Madagascar is one of the world’s top twelve “megadiversity” hot spots hosting unique and threatened flora and fauna. Parasites are a major component of biodiversity but remain largely uncharacterized in wildlife. In this study we combine microscopic and molecular assessment of hemoparasites in endemic reptile species from Madagascar. We detected three distinct parasites: the apicomplexans Hepatozoon and Sarcocystis, and filarial nematodes. The prevalence and intensity of these apicomplexans were low overall, while microfilarial infections in chameleons were relatively high. We detected mixed infections of two Hepatozoon haplotypes in Madagascarophis colubrinus, and of Hepatozoon and microfilariae in a Furcifer sp. Phylogenetic analyses of Hepatozoon showed evidence of prey-predator transmission, with identical sequences found in the snakes M. colubrinus and Ithycyphus oursi, and their prey Furcifer sp. Based on previous studies regarding the life cycle of Hepatozoon domerguei Landau, Chabaud, Michel, and Brygoo, 1970 in these hosts and due to their morphological similarity, we propose that this Hepatozoon haplotype is Hepatozoon domerguei. Future studies, including the examination of invertebrate hosts, are needed to verify this preliminary taxonomic identification. A distinct hemogregarine haplotype was found in Oplurus sp., which displayed morphologically different gametocytes, some of which were apparently inside leukocytes. The Sarcocystis identified from Tracheloptychus petersi was identical to that reported in a North African snake, indicating that the same lineage is found in geographically distinct regions. By combining morphological and genetic information, Foleyella furcata (Linstow, 1899) filarial nematodes were identified in several Furcifer chameleons. This study provides insights into the distribution, diversity and host-parasite interactions of hemoparasites in wild reptile populations from Madagascar. PMID:25224723

  6. A Nearctic parasite in a Palearctic host: Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae) infecting semi-domesticated reindeer in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Verocai, Guilherme G.; Lejeune, Manigandan; Finstad, Greg L.; Kutz, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Parelaphostrongylus andersoni is a muscle-dwelling protostrongylid nematode that infects caribou and white-tailed deer across North America, and can cause significant muscular and pulmonary pathology in these species. We collected 44 fecal samples from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) from the Kakarak herd of western Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA. This herd has no record of historical contact and extremely limited possibility of contemporary contact with native Grant’s caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) of the Western Arctic herd. Fecal samples were processed using the Baermann technique, and 22.7% (n = 10) were positive for protostrongylid dorsal-spined larvae (DSL). Genomic DNA extracted from individual DSL from each of the ten positive reindeer (total of 48 DSL) was amplified by PCR targeting the ITS-2 region of ribosomal RNA. Forty of 48 DSL were successfully sequenced and confirmed as P. andersoni and one representative sequence for each of the ten positive samples was deposited in GenBank. No other protostrongylids, including Varestrongylus sp., presumed to be widespread across caribou range, and Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, which could have been introduced with reindeer from Eurasia, were detected in these samples. P. andersoni is likely widespread among introduced reindeer in Alaska, potentially causing subtle but deleterious effects with negative economic impacts on commercial herding activities. PMID:24533324

  7. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Gracilacus wuae n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematoidea) Associated with Cow Parsnip (Heracleum maximum) in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qing; Ye, Weimin; Powers, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Gracilacus wuae n. sp. from soil associated with cow parsnip in Ontario, Canada is described and illustrated. Morphologically, females have a long stylet ranging from 80 to 93 µm long, the lip region not offset from the body contour, without lateral lips but with large and flat submedian lobes, the mouth opening slit-like elongated laterally and surrounded by lateral flaps, the excretory pore is anterior to the knobs of the stylet; males without stylet and the pharynx degenerated. The fourth-stage juveniles lack a stylet, the pharynx degenerated, and can be differentiated into preadult females and males based on the position of the genital primordia. The third-stage juveniles are similar to females but smaller. Phylogenetic studies using the rDNA small subunit 18S, large subunit 28S D2/D3, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences collectively provide evidence of a grouping with other Gracilacus and some species of Paratylenchus with stylet length of females longer than 41 µm deposited in GenBank. PMID:27765994

  8. A new species of Trichuris Roederer, 1761 (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from Heteromys gaumeri Allen & Chapman (Rodentia: Heteromyidae) in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Panti-May, Jesús Alonso; Robles, María Del Rosario

    2016-09-01

    In Mexico, four species of Trichuris Roederer, 1761 have been recorded in wild rodents belonging to the family Heteromyidae. In the present paper, we describe a new species based on specimens collected from Heteromys gaumeri Allen & Chapman (Heteromyidae: Heteromyinae) in the tropical forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Trichuris silviae n. sp. can be differentiated from the congeners described in North and South American rodents by morphological and morphometric features, such as the possession of a wide spicular tube, a thicker proximal cloacal tube, a shorter distal cloacal tube and a cylindrical spicular sheath. This is the first description of a Trichuris spp. from heteromyid rodents in Mexico and the fourth in North America. Despite the broad distribution of Heteromys spp., few cases of Trichuris infection have been reported. Further studies are necessary to verify if the new species is present in other heteromyid rodents in order to increase our knowledge about its geographical and host distribution.

  9. A new species of Skrjabingylus Petrov, 1927 (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) from the frontal sinuses of the hooded skunk, Mephitis macroura (Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Carreno, Ramon A; Reif, Kathryn E; Nadler, Steven A

    2005-02-01

    Skrjabingylus santaceciliae n. sp. is described based on specimens from the frontal sinuses of a hooded skunk, Mephitis macroura, collected from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Skrjabingylus santaceciliae n. sp. differs from the other 5 species in the genus in having pointed spicule tips that lack a rounded or lobed formation and by lacking a prominent distal projection at the tail tip. Morphometric comparisons show that S. santaceciliae n. sp. is much smaller than the only other valid species from Mephitis, Skrjabingylus chitwoodorum Hill, 1939. Likewise, morphometric comparisons also distinguish S. santaceciliae n. sp. from other described Skrjabingylus species.

  10. First record of Cylicospirura (Cylicospirura) felineus (Chandler, 1925) Sandground, 1933 (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) from a domestic cat in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Junker, K; Vorster, J H; Boomker, J

    2006-12-01

    Cylicospirura (Cylicospirura) felineus (Chandler, 1925) Sandground, 1933 is reported from a cat in South Africa for the first time. The nematode was present in a gastric parasitic nodule in a male domestic cat, and three males were recovered as well as the anterior parts of three and the posterior parts of two gravid females. The heads of two specimens of undetermined sex were also found. Part of the removed parasitic nodule was processed for histopathological examination. The parasitic nodule was located in the submucosa and slightly expanded into the muscular layer. In its centre were small necrotic areas containing debris of inflammatory cells, adult nematodes and numerous bacterial colonies. Neutrophils, eosinophils, plasma cells and lymphocytes, as well as fibroblasts, were the predominant cell types. The serosal surface of the stomach remained unaffected. Some comparative morphological as well as ecological data concerning Cylicospirura (Cylicospirura) Vevers, 1922 in other feline hosts, mainly from Australia, India and North America, are included.

  11. Occurrence of Parasites of the Genus Eustrongylides spp. (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae) in Fish Caught in Trasimeno Lake, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Branciari, Raffaella; Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Valiani, Andrea; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Urbani, Eleonora; Lo Vaglio, Giovanni; Pascucci, Luisa; Franceschini, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Eustrongylides spp. is considered a freshwater fish zoonotic nematode. In the present study, the prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. in six edible fish (European perch - Perca fluviatilis, goldfish - Carassius auratus, largemouth black bass - Micropterus salmoides, tench- Tinca tinca, carp - Cyprinus carpio and sand smelt - Atherina boyeri) of Trasimeno lake was surveyed. The investigations were conducted from October 2014 to September 2015 and 384 specimens per species for each season were caught in Trasimeno lake and examined for the presence of larvae in the abdominal cavity and muscle. The presence of nematodes in the abdominal cavity and musculature was revealed in three fish species. The prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. infection was 6.84, 1.89 and 0.13% in perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt, respectively. The number of parasites per fish was only one in largemouth black bass and sand smelt and ranged from one up to three in perch. This study states that the European perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt of Trasimeno lake are infected with zoonotic parasites; therefore, food business operators have to take appropriate measures to guarantee the health of consumers. PMID:28058245

  12. Two new species of Parapharyngodon parasites of Sceloporus pyrocephalus, with a key to the species found in Mexico (Nematoda, Pharyngodonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Garduño-Montes de Oca, Edgar Uriel; Mata-López, Rosario; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Parapharyngodon collected from the intestine of the Mexican boulder spiny lizard Sceloporus pyrocephalus are described. This study increases to 49 the number of valid species assigned to Parapharyngodon worldwide, 11 of them distributed in Mexico. Males of the two new species share the presence of four pairs of caudal papillae, an anterior echinate cloacal lip and the presence of lateral alae; however, both differ from each other in lateral alae extension and echinate cloacal anterior lip morphology. Females of both species have a prebulbar uterus and eggs shell punctuate with pores, characteristics shared with few other species of Parapharyngodon. Both new species differ from other congeneric species in the papillar arrangement, the anterior cloacal lip morphology, the lateral alae extension and total length/spicule ratio. A taxonomic key for the species of Parapharyngodon distributed in Mexico is provided. PMID:27006602

  13. [VARIABILITY AND DETERMINING FACTORS OF THE BODY SIZE STRUCTURE OF THE INFRAPOPULATION OF COSMOCERCA ORNATA (NEMATODA: COSMOCERCIDAE) IN MARSH FROGS].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Variability of the body size in females of the Cosmocerca ornata (Dujardin, 1845), a parasite of marsh frogs, is studied. The influence of both biotic (age, sex and a phenotype of the host, density of the parasite population) and abiotic (a season of the year, water temperature) factors on the formation of the body size structure in the C. ornata hemipopulation (infrapopulation) is demonstrated. The body size structure of the C. ornata hemipopulation is characterized by the low level of individual variability as within certain subpopulation groups of amphibians (sex, age and phenotype), so within the population of marsh frogs as a whole. The more distinct are the differences in biology and ecology of these host subpopulations, the more pronounced is the variability in the body size of C ornata.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Meloidogyne christiei Golden and Kaplan, 1986 (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae) Topotype Population Infecting Turkey Oak (Quercus laevies) in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Brito, J. A.; Subbotin, S. A.; Han, H.; Stanley, J. D.; Dickson, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Meloidogyne christiei isolated from turkey oak, Quercus laevies, from the type locality in Florida was characterized using isozyme profiles and ribosomal and mitochondrial gene sequences. The phenotype N1a detected from a single egg-laying female of M. christiei showed one very strong band of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity; however, no esterase (EST) activity was identified from macerate of one or even 20 females per well. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Meloidogyne as inferred from Bayesian analysis of partial 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), D2-D3 of 28S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA, and cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII)-16S rRNA of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene fragments showed that M. christiei formed a separate lineage within the crown group of Meloidogyne and its relationships with any of three Meloidogyne clades were not resolved. PMID:26527837

  15. New species of Pseudabbreviata (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) and other helminths in two species of Hypsilurus (Sauria: Agamidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2009-08-01

    Pseudabbreviata novaeguineaensis n. sp. from the stomach of Hypsilurus modestus (Agamidae) from Papua New Guinea is described and illustrated. The new species was also found in the stomach of Hypsilurus papuensis from Papua New Guinea. Pseudabbreviata novaeguineaensis n. sp. represents the sixth species assigned to the genus and the first from the Australo-Papuan Region. The new species differs from other species assigned to Pseudabbreviata by the vulva position in the female and pedunculate papillae arrangement in the male tail morphology. In addition to the new species, H. modestus harbored Meteterakis crombiei, Strongyluris gonyocephali, and larvae of Abbreviata sp. (in cysts).

  16. New morphological data on Cheilospirura hamulosa (Nematoda, Acuarioidea) by means of bright-field and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Vicente, Joaquim Júlio; Lanfredi, Reinalda Marisa; Pinto, Roberto Magalhães

    2004-02-01

    This study reports on the morphology and morphometry of the nematode Cheilospirura hamulosa on the basis of bright-field and scanning electron microscopy. Specimens were recovered after necropsies of 28 Brazilian ring-necked pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus) and 30 domestic chickens ( Gallus g. domesticus) from backyard flocks. Measurements relate to the buccal capsule in the males and the distance of the excretory pore from the anterior end in both sexes, while the vulva and ovijector are studied for the first time. The most important taxonomic characters for the diagnosis of this nematode are the four long, longitudinal cordons which are neither anastomosed nor recurrent. They are composed of a groove with margins formed by cuticular specializations that change in appearance and width backward along the body and which run backward from the cephalic region ending near the posterior end as a cuticular depression. According to their morphology, these cordons could probably have nutritional, attachment and/or sensory functions.

  17. A Streamlined System for Species Diagnosis in Caenorhabditis (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) with Name Designations for 15 Distinct Biological Species

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Marie-Anne; Braendle, Christian; Cutter, Asher D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid pace of species discovery outstrips the rate of species description in many taxa. This problem is especially acute for Caenorhabditis nematodes, where the naming of distinct species would greatly improve their visibility and usage for biological research, given the thousands of scientists studying Caenorhabditis. Species description and naming has been hampered in Caenorhabditis, in part due to the presence of morphologically cryptic species despite complete biological reproductive isolation and often enormous molecular divergence. With the aim of expediting species designations, here we propose and apply a revised framework for species diagnosis and description in this group. Our solution prioritizes reproductive isolation over traditional morphological characters as the key feature in delineating and diagnosing new species, reflecting both practical considerations and conceptual justifications. DNA sequence divergence criteria help prioritize crosses for establishing patterns of reproductive isolation among the many species of Caenorhabditis known to science, such as with the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) DNA barcode. By adopting this approach, we provide new species name designations for 15 distinct biological species, thus increasing the number of named Caenorhabditis species in laboratory culture by nearly 3-fold. We anticipate that the improved accessibility of these species to the research community will expand the opportunities for study and accelerate our understanding of diverse biological phenomena. PMID:24727800

  18. Microscopic and molecular characterization of Hepatozoon domerguei (Apicomplexa) and Foleyella furcata (Nematoda) in wild endemic reptiles from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Maia, João P; Crottini, Angelica; Harris, David James

    2014-01-01

    Madagascar is one of the world's top twelve "megadiversity" hot spots hosting unique and threatened flora and fauna. Parasites are a major component of biodiversity but remain largely uncharacterized in wildlife. In this study we combine microscopic and molecular assessment of hemoparasites in endemic reptile species from Madagascar. We detected three distinct parasites: the apicomplexans Hepatozoon and Sarcocystis, and filarial nematodes. The prevalence and intensity of these apicomplexans were low overall, while microfilarial infections in chameleons were relatively high. We detected mixed infections of two Hepatozoon haplotypes in Madagascarophis colubrinus, and of Hepatozoon and microfilariae in a Furcifer sp. Phylogenetic analyses of Hepatozoon showed evidence of prey-predator transmission, with identical sequences found in the snakes M. colubrinus and Ithycyphus oursi, and their prey Furcifer sp. Based on previous studies regarding the life cycle of Hepatozoon domerguei Landau, Chabaud, Michel, and Brygoo, 1970 in these hosts and due to their morphological similarity, we propose that this Hepatozoon haplotype is Hepatozoon domerguei. Future studies, including the examination of invertebrate hosts, are needed to verify this preliminary taxonomic identification. A distinct hemogregarine haplotype was found in Oplurus sp., which displayed morphologically different gametocytes, some of which were apparently inside leukocytes. The Sarcocystis identified from Tracheloptychus petersi was identical to that reported in a North African snake, indicating that the same lineage is found in geographically distinct regions. By combining morphological and genetic information, Foleyella furcata (Linstow, 1899) filarial nematodes were identified in several Furcifer chameleons. This study provides insights into the distribution, diversity and host-parasite interactions of hemoparasites in wild reptile populations from Madagascar.

  19. Cylicospirura species (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) and stomach nodules in cougars (Puma concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jayde A; Woodberry, Karen; Gillin, Colin M; Jackson, DeWaine H; Sanders, Justin L; Madigan, Whitney; Bildfell, Robert J; Kent, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    The stomachs and proximal duodena of 160 cougars (Puma concolor) and 17 bobcats (Lynx rufus), obtained throughout Oregon during 7 yr, were examined for Cylicospirura spp. and associated lesions. Prevalence in cougars was 73%, with a range in intensity of 1-562 worms. The mean diameter of nodules was 1.2 cm (SD=0.5), and many extended through the submucosa to the muscularis. About 83% of cougars had nodules; most nodules contained worms, but 14% of the smaller nodules (<0.2 cm) contained porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. A mean of 12.4 worms/nodule (SD=34.1) was observed, with a maximum of 340 worms/nodule. Prevalence in bobcats was 53%, with an intensity of 1-25 worms. About 65% of bobcats had nodules, which were slightly smaller than those in cougars but appeared to involve similar layers of gastrointestinal tissue. One to 25 Cylicospirura sp. were found in all but two small nodules in bobcats. Cougars killed for livestock damage or safety concerns had a significantly higher median worm intensity than did those that died of other causes. Also, the median worm intensity of older cougars was higher than that of younger lions. There were more males than females killed for livestock damage or safety concerns. The cylicospirurid from cougars was Cylicospirura subaequalis, and that of bobcats was Cylicospirura felineus. These two similar species were separated morphologically by differences in tooth and sex organ morphology. They were also differentiated by DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Worm sequences from cougars differed from those from bobcats by 11%, whereas essentially no difference was found among worms from the same host. Phylogenetic analysis showed that within the order Spirurida, both cylicospirurids were most closely related to Spirocerca lupi, based on this gene sequence.

  20. Onchocerca takaokai n. sp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Japanese wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax): Description and molecular identification of intradermal females.

    PubMed

    Uni, Shigehiko; Fukuda, Masako; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Bain, Odile; Otsuka, Yasushi; Nakatani, Jun; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Harada, Masashi; Omar, Hasmahzaiti; Ramli, Rosli; Hashim, Rosli; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Human zoonotic onchocercosis is caused by Onchocerca dewittei japonica, parasitic in wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) in Japan. Previously, microfilariae longer than those of Onchocerca dewittei japonica were observed in skin snips from wild boars during the study of O. dewittei japonica. Moreover, the third-stage larvae (L3) of these longer microfilariae were obtained from the blackfly Simulium bidentatum after experimental injections. Based on morphometric and molecular studies, similar L3 were found in blackflies during fieldwork in Oita, Japan. However, except for O. dewittei japonica, adult worms of Onchocerca have not been found in wild boars. In this study, we discovered adult females of a novel Onchocerca species in the skin of a wild boar in Oita, and named it Onchocerca takaokai n. sp. Females of this new species had longer microfilariae and differed from O. dewittei japonica in terms of their morphological characteristics and parasitic location. The molecular characteristics of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 12S rRNA genes of the new species were identical to those of the longer microfilariae and L3 previously detected, but they differed from those of O. dewittei japonica at the species level. However, both species indicated a close affinity among their congeners and Onchocerca ramachandrini, parasitic in the warthog in Africa, was basal in the Suidae cluster of the 12S rRNA tree.

  1. Seven new species and one new species record of Sabatieria (Nematoda: Comesomatidae) from the continental slope of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Sabatieria is the most abundant nematode genus on the upper continental slope of New Zealand but no Sabatieria species have yet been recorded/described from the region's deep-sea habitats. The present study describes seven new and one known species of this genus from the continental margin of New Zealand. S. bitumen Botelho et al. 2007 was originally described from the South Atlantic Ocean, and is recorded from the first time in the Pacific Ocean. Sabatieria challengerensis sp. n. is characterised by a combination of short cephalic setae, large fovea amphidialis with 3 turns, short arcuate spicules without distal hook, and short tail with cylindrical proximal portion and blunt, rounded distal portion. Sabatieria parapraedatrix sp. n. is characterised by having a slender body, cuticle with striations resulting from fusion of every second lateral row of dots,fovea amphidialis with 2.0-2.5 turns, spicules with distal hook, and short conico-cylindrical tail. Sabatieria bubulba sp. n. is characterised by the presence of a large muscular pharyngeal bulb, secretory-excretory system with large ventral gland at level of intestine and with cuticularised pore opening. Sabatieria exculta sp. n. is characterised by having a slender body, cuticle with faint annulations resulting from fusion of every second or third lateral row of dots, short cephalic setae, a large ventral gland, and long, narrow gubernacular apophyses. Sabatieria balbutiens sp. n. is characterised by having a dorsally-directed mouth opening and assymetrical mouth cavity and spicules with small distal hook. Sabatieria pumila sp. n. is characterised by the combination of short body length, short cephalic setae, spicules with distal hook and short distal lamella, and 8-9 precloacal supplements. Sabatieria bathycopia sp. n. is characterised by having a stout body, short cephalic setae, curved gubernaculum, and spicules with swollen, lightly cuticularised distal tip.

  2. New species of Moravecia (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) from body cavity of marine perciform fish Percophis brasiliensis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Braicovich, Paola; Moravec, Frantisek; Timi, Juan T

    2007-04-01

    A new species of dracunculoid nematode, Moravecia argentinensis n. sp. (Guyanemidae), is described from the blood vessels and body cavity of Brazilian flathead, Percophis brasiliensis Quoy et Gaimard (Perciformes: Percophidae), from off the coast of Argentina. The new species differs from the only other congeneric species, Moravecia australiensis Ribu et Lester, 2004, mainly in the number (14) of cephalic papillae, the length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of esophagus (1:1-2), more numerous (3-5 pairs) genital papillae in the male, and the presence of a sclerotized copulatory plate. This is the second known species of Moravecia Ribu et Lester, 2004 and the first species of this genus reported from South American waters.

  3. First report of Seuratascaris numidica Seurat, 1917 (Nematoda: Ascarididae) and other helminths from amphibians of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Sou, Sujan K; Bursey, Charles R

    2017-03-01

    Studies on nematode parasites from anuran hosts from Eastern India, particularly West Bengal, are rare. To our knowledge, there is a report of larvae of Monhysterides sp. (a fish parasite) from cysts within the body cavity and musculature of Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus and Euphlyctis hexadactylus as well as descriptions of Aplectana duttaphryni from D. melanostictus, Aplectana dubrajpuri from H. tigerinus, Cosmocerca microhylae from Microhyla rubra and Rhabdias bulbicauda from D. melanostictus. Here, we report mature individuals of typical anuran parasites, Diplodiscus amphichrus and Seuratascaris numidica, from H. tigerinus and larvae of Acuariidae (a bird parasite) from Fejervarya limnocharis collected in Kulti, West Bengal.

  4. A new species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from endemic goodeids (Cyprinodontiformes) from two Mexican lakes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Alvarez, A; García-Prieto, L; Pérez-Ponce de León, G

    1998-08-01

    A new species of Rhabdochona from 2 species of freshwater fishes, Alloophorus robustus and Goodea atripinnis, is described from 2 lakes of the Mesa Central of Mexico. Rhabdochona lichtenfelsi n. sp. belongs to a group of species possessing inconspicuous bifurcated deirids and a prostom armed with 10 large teeth. It is distinguished from them because the left spicule is shorter, the tip is bifurcate, and both spicules lack a reflected dorsal barb. The new species most closely resembles Rhabdochona catostomi and Rhabdochona milleri but differs from them because the former possesses a left spicule tip with ventral barb, right spicule with reflected distal barb, and 5 pairs of postanal papillae, whereas R. milleri has 14 prostomal teeth, eggs rounded, and left spicule with slightly outlined bifurcation and right with a dorsal barb. Previous records of R. milleri in Mexico must be referred to R. lichtenfelsi.

  5. Description of Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; da Costa, Paulo André Ferreira Borges; Maschio, Gleomar Fabiano; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    A new lung-dwelling nematode species is described from the common lancehead Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) in the Brazilian Amazon Region. The species is assigned to the genus Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on the presence of six lips arranged in two lateral groups, the absence of prominent cuticular inflations, and lung parasitism in snakes. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. differs from other species of the genus mainly by details of the morphology of the anterior end: cuticularised ring surrounding the anterior part of the buccal cavity and six minute onchia present in the oesophastome. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. is the seventh species of the genus known from the Neotropical Realm and the second species described from viperid snakes.

  6. Status and origin of Haemonchinae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) in deer: a survey conducted in France from 1985 to 1998.

    PubMed

    Ferté, H; Cléva, D; Depaquit, J; Gobert, S; Léger, N

    2000-07-01

    During our investigations on helminthofauna in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in France (1985-1998) we isolated nematodes not only of the genus Haemonchus Cobb, 1898 but also of the genus Ashworthius Le Roux 1930, both of which belong to the same subfamily of Haemonchinae. The prevalence of Ashworthius was 22% (65/294) in roe deer and 40% (10/25) in red deer. H. contortus was not found in red deer, whereas its prevalence was only 3% (9/294) in roe deer. These data contrast with those observed in other European countries. The presence of A. sidemi in red and roe deers in France suggests a case of parasitism imported via sika deer. A hypothesis of their spread is proposed.

  7. Epidemiology and molecular identification of Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in the horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus from northern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Abattouy, N; López, A Valero; Maldonado, J Lozano; Benajiba, M H; Martín-Sánchez, J

    2014-09-01

    Anisakis infection parameters were studied in horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) taken from two areas of northern Morocco (Tetouan and Tangier), which showed a mean prevalence of 54.9%. Identification of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 fragment by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) showed A. pegreffii to be the dominant species; no A. simplex s.s. were detected. The presence of A. pegreffii in horse mackerel was not influenced by the sex (P = 0.46) or catch area (Atlantic versus Mediterranean, P = 0.52) of the fish, but was significantly related to their length, weight, liver weight and gonad weight, and to the season of their capture (P < 0.05). A low prevalence (8.6%) and mean intensity (1.0) was detected in the muscle, probably related to the reduced ability of A. pegreffii to penetrate muscle. The risk of the presence of A. pegreffii in the muscle was fivefold higher in fish caught during the summer than during any other season. Susceptible members of the human population can minimize the risk of infection by avoiding the consumption of larger horse mackerel specimens during the summer.

  8. Two new species of Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from anuran amphibians in Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Vasconcelos Melo, Francisco Tiago de; Filho, Heriberto Figueira da Silva; Nascimento Dos Santos, Jeannie

    2016-05-03

    Two new lung-dwelling nematode species of the genus Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 were discovered in Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará state, Brazil. Rhabdias galactonoti sp. n. was found in a dendrobatid frog Adelphobates galactonotus (Steindachner). The species is characterised by the regularly folded inner surface of the anterior part of the buccal capsule seen in apical view, flask-shaped oesophageal bulb and narrow, elongated tail. Rhabdias stenocephala sp. n. from two species of leptodactylid frogs, Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti) (type host) and L. paraensis (Heyer), is characterised by a narrow anterior end that is separated from the remaining body by a constriction. Both species possess six small but distinct lips, a cuticle that is inflated along the whole body, a doliiform buccal capsule separated into a longer anterior and a shallow, ring-shaped posterior part, lateral pores in the body cuticle and zones of spermatogenesis in the syngonia. Rhabdias galactonoti sp. n. is the first species of the genus found in Dendrobatidae; R. stenocephala sp. n. is the second species described from Leptodactylidae in eastern Amazonia.

  9. Population biology of Contracaecum rudolphii sensu lato (Nematoda) in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) from northeastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Gerard

    2011-04-01

    Parameters related to the occurrence, aggregation, and population structure of the nematode Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 , in the great cormorant ( Phalacrocorax carbo ) from northeastern Poland were analyzed. A total of 491 birds of different ages (adults, immatures, and nestlings) was examined; the cormorants studied were taken from both fresh- and brackish water habitats. Contracaecum rudolphii were found in stomachs of 454 birds (92.5%); the 46,244 nematodes included third- (L3) and fourth-stage larvae (L4), and sub-adult and adult females and males. The distribution of nematodes in the host population were highly aggregated. The occurrence of C. rudolphii was significantly dependent on the host's age and habitat, as well as on season; the proportion of development stages differed significantly depending on birds' age and season (the latter only in adult birds). The infrapopulations of C. rudolphii in the adult cormorants showed distinct density-dependent correlations: that is, as the infrapopulation size increased, the number of adult females C. rudolphii decreased, and the proportion of larvae and sub-adult females increased. A higher proportion of larvae and sub-adult females characterized the component population structure of the nematodes in the cormorant nestlings, compared with adult birds, probably because of immune system deficiency in the immature birds, coupled with the development of the nematode population. Seasonal changes in the C. rudolphii population, observed in the adult cormorants, were not related to seasonality of the L3 occurrence in food; instead, the changes are believed to have resulted from independent processes of elimination of the oldest nematodes and their replacement by larval stages that subsequently matured.

  10. Capillariid nematodes (Nematoda: Capillariidae) parasitic in the common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), with redescription of Baruscapillaria carbonis (Dubinin et Dubinina, 1940).

    PubMed

    Frantová, D

    2001-01-01

    Two species of the genus Baruscapillaria Moravec, 1982 are known to parasitise the small intestine of the common cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo (L.): Baruscapillaria carbonis (Dubinin et Dubinina, 1940) and B. rudolphii Moravec, Scholz et Nasincová, 1994. A redescription of the former species, based on specimens collected from common cormorants shot in South Bohemia, Czech Republic, is provided. Morphological features distinguishing B. carbonis and B. rudolphii are specified. B. carbonis is characterised mainly by the well-developed membranous bursa in the male, composed of five distinct lobes (four lateral and one spur-shaped dorsal); the length of the spicule is 1.9-2.3 mm; gravid females are provided with a long vulvar appendage. Males of B. rudolphii have reduced, bi-lobed membranous bursa and the spicule is 0.9-1.3 mm long; the vulvar appendage is absent in gravid females. This is the first record of B. carbon is in the Czech Republic.

  11. In vitro cultivation of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from 3rd-stage larvae to egg-laying adults.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, L; Valero, A; Gálvez, L; Benítez, R; Adroher, F J

    2002-11-01

    This is the first demonstration of the in vitro development of the 3rd-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium aduncum to the adult. This was achieved in a semi-defined medium that is easy to prepare and to reproduce. The L3, collected from the peritoneal cavity of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), were individually inoculated into RPMI-1640 medium +20% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (IFBS). It has been demonstrated that the optimum temperature for development is around 13 degrees C and is stimulated by the presence of 5% CO2 in the growth atmosphere, increasing the percentage moulting to the 4th larval stage (L4) by 1.9-fold (from 44 to 82%) and the average survival of the nematodes by 1.6 times (from 60 to 96 days). When the larvae were grown at different pHs, optimum development occurred at pH 4.0. Under these conditions, all the larvae moulted to the L4 and more than two-thirds transformed to the adult stage--in which 25-30% of the females laid eggs--and reached an average survival of over 4 months. When this medium was supplemented with 1% (w/v) of commercial pepsin, all the larvae reached the adult stage, at least 45% of the females oviposited, laying around 12-fold more eggs per female than in the medium without pepsin. The mean size of the eggs (non-fertilized) obtained was 56.8 x 47.6 microm. The mean length of the adult males obtained was between 3.2 and 5.2 cm and the females were between 3.0 and 6.5 cm. The adult specimens were morphologically identified as Hysterothylacium aducum aduncum. This culture medium (RPMI-1640+20% (v/v) IFBS+1 commercial pepsin, at pH 4.0, 13 degrees C and 5% CO2 in air) could facilitate the identification of at least some of the larvae of the genus Hysterothylacium--and perhaps other anisakids--for which the specific identification and the biological study of these parasites is often difficult.

  12. Larval anisakids (Nematoda:Ascaridoidea) in horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) from the fish market in Granada, Spain.

    PubMed

    Adroher, F J; Valero, A; Ruiz-Valero, J; Iglesias, L

    1996-01-01

    Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) from the fish market in Granada, southern Spain, were surveyed for anisakid nematodes. The fish came from fishing ports all over the country. Larval anisakids were found in 39.4% of the fish examined; 26.1% were infected with third-stage larvae (L3s) of Anisakis simplex; 0.3%, with A. physeteris L3s; 31.1%, with Hysterothylacium aduncum L3s; and 1.7%, with fourth-stage larvae (L4s) of Hysterothylacium sp. Horse mackerel from Mediterranean Sea coastal ports (South and South-east Spain) had the lowest levels of infection, and those from Cantabrian Sea coastal ports (North Spain) had the highest. The variation in infection levels with host size (age) and season of capture are surveyed.

  13. The systematic position of some Ethiopian Nippostrongylinae (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Heligmosomoidea) from the National Collection of Animal Helminths, Onderstepoort, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Durette-Desset, M C; Digiani, M C

    2005-03-01

    The taxonomic status of some nippostrongyline nematodes deposited in the National Collection of Animal Helminths, Onderstepoort, is revised. Heligmonina boomkeri n. sp. is described from Aethomys chrysophilus from South Africa. The most closely related species by the body measurements and the pattern of the caudal bursa is Heligmonina bignonensis Diouf, Bâ & Durette-Desset, 1997, a parasite of Mastomys erythroleucus from Senegal. It differs from the new species mainly in the number of ventral cuticular ridges at mid-body (four versus five) and the left ala in the male is shorter than the body diameter. The systematic position of Heligmonina spira (Ortlepp, 1939) and Neoheligmonella capensis (Ortlepp, 1939) is confirmed here through their synlophe, which was not previously studied.

  14. Description of Longidorus cholevae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida) from a riparian habitat in the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Peneva, Vlada K.; Lazarova, Stela S.; Luca, Francesca De; Brown, Derek J. F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A description is provided of Longidorus cholevae sp. n., a bisexual species associated with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) from the Rila Mountains, Bulgaria. The position of L. cholevae sp. n. among other species of the genus was elucidated by using morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses were performed of D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rRNA and the partial ITS1 containing regions by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The species is characterised by a female body length of 6.1–8.1 mm; long odontostyle (106–129 μm); lip region wide (21.5–24 μm) rounded and continuous with the body profile; amphidial pouches short and wide, funnel-shaped; a posteriorly situated guide ring (30–37 μm); normal arrangement of pharyngeal glands, and short bluntly rounded to hemispherical tail. Four juvenile stages indentified, first stage with elongate conoid tail. Males with 2–4 adanal pairs and a row of 11–13 single ventromedian supplements, spicules 96–120 μm long. Based both on morphological and molecular data the new species appearred to be the most similar witha group of species distributed in Europe sharing common charcters such as amphidial fovea, lip region and tail shapes, and having similar odontostyle and body length: L. poessneckensis, L. caespiticola, L. macrososma, L. helveticus, L. carniolensis and L. pius. An updated list of Longidorus species and a partial polytomous keys to the Longidorus species with long odontostyle (code A45) and short tail (code H1) are provided. PMID:24146553

  15. New Record of Schistorophus cirripedesmi (Nematoda: Acuariidae) from a Bar-Tailed Godwit, Limosa lapponica baueri (Charadriformes: Scolopacidae) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Seongjun; Kim, Hyun; Lim, Junsik; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Heejong; Kim, Youngjun; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2016-01-01

    In July 2014, a nematode species, Schistorophus cirripedesmi Rhizhikov and Khokhlova, 1964, was recovered from a bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica baueri that was stored in a -20˚C freezer in the Chungnam Wild Animal Rescue Center. The bird was collected in 2012 from the coastal region of Pyeongtaek-si (City), Gyeonggi-do (Province) in the Republic of Korea, although the exact date is not clear. At necropsy, 9 nematodes were found in the gizzard of the bird. The parasites had 4 horn-like cephalic cuticular ornamentations. After morphometric comparison and morphological observations, including scanning electron microscopy, the nematodes were identified as S. cirripedesmi. This is the first description of a nematode species in a shorebird in Korea. This is also the first time this genus and species have been found in Korea. PMID:27417093

  16. Crosses prior to parthenogenesis explain the current genetic diversity of tropical plant-parasitic Meloidogyne species (Nematoda: Tylenchida).

    PubMed

    Fargette, Mireille; Berthier, Karine; Richaud, Myriam; Lollier, Virginie; Franck, Pierre; Hernandez, Adan; Frutos, Roger

    2010-08-01

    The tropical and subtropical parthenogenetic plant-parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne are polyphagous major agricultural pests. Implementing proper pest management approaches requires a good understanding of mechanisms, population structure, evolutionary patterns and species identification. A comparative analysis of the mitochondrial vs nuclear diversity was conducted on a selected set of Meloidogyne lines from various geographic origins. Mitochondrial co2-16S sequences and AFLP markers of total DNA were applied because of their ability to evidence discrete genetic variation between closely related isolates. Several distinct maternal lineages were present, now associated with different genetic backgrounds. Relative discordances were found when comparing mitochondrial and nuclear diversity patterns. These patterns are most likely related to crosses within one ancestral genetic pool, followed by the establishment of parthenogenesis. In this case, they mirror the genetic backgrounds of the original individuals. Another aspect could be that species emergence was recent or on process from this original genetic pool and that the relatively short time elapsed since then and before parthenogenesis settlement did not allow for lineage sorting. This could also be compatible with the hypothesis of hybrids between closely related species. This genetic pool would correspond to a species as defined by the species interbreeding concept, but also including the grey area of species boundaries. This complex process has implications on the way genotypic and phenotypic diversity should be addressed. The phenotype of parthenogenetic lines is at least for part determined by the ancestral amphimictic genetic background. A direct consequence is, therefore, in terms of risk management, the limited confidence one can have on the direct association of an agronomic threat to a simple typing or species delineation. Risk management strategies and tools must thus consider this complexity when designing quarantine implementation, resistance breeding programmes or molecular diagnostic.

  17. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) is associated with the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Matthias; Mayer, Werner E; Hong, Ray L; Kienle, Simone; Minasaki, Ryuji; Sommer, Ralf J

    2007-09-01

    Pristionchus pacificus has been developed as a nematode satellite organism in evolutionary developmental biology. Detailed studies of vulva development revealed multiple differences in genetic and molecular control in P. pacificus compared to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. To place evolutionary developmental biology in a comprehensive evolutionary context, such studies have to be complemented with ecology. In recent field studies in western Europe and eastern North America we found 11 Pristionchus species that are closely associated with scarab beetles and the Colorado potato beetle. However, P. pacificus was not commonly found in association with scarab beetles in these studies. Here, we describe the results of a similar survey of scarab beetles in Japan. Pristionchus pacificus was the most common Pristionchus species on scarab beetles in Japan, with 40 out of 43 (93%) isolates. The other Pristionchus isolates represent three novel species, which we refer to as Pristionchus sp. 11, Pristionchus sp. 14, and Pristionchus sp. 15. Thirty-seven of the established P. pacificus strains were found on the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis. Laboratory studies with the sex pheromone (Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one of the oriental beetle revealed that P. pacificus shows strong olfactory attraction to the beetle's sex pheromone, which provides a potential mechanism for the recognition and interaction of P. pacificus and E. orientalis. Together, this study identifies P. pacificus as the most common Pristionchus nematode in field studies in Japan, identifies E. orientalis as an important host species, and provides the basis for the ecology of P. pacificus.

  18. Trichodorus petrusalberti n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichodoridae) from Rice with Additional Notes on the Morphology of T. sanniae and T. rinae

    PubMed Central

    De Waele, D.

    1988-01-01

    A new species in the family Trichodoridae, from the rhizosphere of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Northern Natal, South Africa, is described and illustrated. Trichodorus petrusalberti n. sp. resembles T. taylori De Waele, Mancini, Roca, and Lamberti, 1982, T. hooperi Loof, 1973, and T. complexus Rahman, Jairajpuri, and Ahmad, 1985, from which it is distinguished by the shape of the spicules. It is distinguished from the former two species by the nonthickened terminal cuticle in the males and by the shape and sclerotization of the vulval-vaginal region in lateral view in the females. Additional morphological details are given for T. sanniae Vermeulen and Heyns, 1985 and T. rinae Vermeulen and Heyns, 1985. PMID:19290188

  19. Ecology and Disease Transmission Potential in the Colombian Amazon Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    BRAZIL, *DISEASE VECTORS, *PARASITIC DISEASES, COLOMBIA, ECOLOGY, COLOMBIA, COLOMBIA, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, DIPTERA, HUMANS, EQUINES, BOVINES, REPTILES, TICKS, ANNELIDA, NEMATODA, PLATYHELMINTHES , FILARIAE.

  20. Four new species of Epacanthion Wieser, 1953 (Nematoda: Thoracostomopsidae) in intertidal sediments of the Nanji Islands from the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Shi, Benze; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-03-04

    Four new species of Epacanthion are described from intertidal sandy sediments in the Nanji Islands National Marine Natural Reserve from the East China Sea. Males of all four new species have short spicules (< 2 anal body diameter) and a characteristic cervical circle of distinctly short and densely arranged setae at the pharyngeal region: Epacanthion hirsutum sp. nov. with a cervical circle of a single row of setae posterior to the nerve ring; E. longicaudatum sp. nov. with a cervical circle of 16 bundles each composed of six setae in two longitudinal rows posterior to the nerve ring; E. fasciculatum sp. nov. with a cervical circle of 18 bundles each composed of about 10 setae posterior to the nerve ring; and E. sparsisetae sp. nov. with a cervical circle of eight bundles each composed of about 10 setae anterior to the nerve ring. Among the known species of Epacanthion, only two species possess these features: E. quadridisci and E. gorgonocephalum. Epacanthion quadridiscus has six bundles of setae situated at the same level of the nerve ring, while E. gorgonocephalum has distinctly dense setae forming a wide band at the pharyngeal region. Epacanthion hirsutum sp. nov. differs from all congeners by the cervical circle composed of a single row of setae. Epacanthion sparsisetae sp. nov. is unique in having the cervical circle of bundles anterior to the nerve ring. Epacanthion longicaudatum sp. nov. differs from E. fasciculatum sp. nov. by the body size and the structure of the cervical circle. An updated diagnostic key to 28 valid species of Epacanthion is proposed.

  1. Checklist of the subfamily Adoncholaiminae Gerlach and Riemann, 1974 (Nematoda: Oncholaimida: Oncholaimidae) of the world: genera, species, distribution, and reference list for taxonomists and ecologists

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Adoncholaiminae is one of the seven subfamilies in the free-living aquatic nematode family Oncholaimidae. Nematodes in Adoncholaiminae are found from various water environment of the world. However, a checklist of all Adoncholaiminae species including full literature, especially information of experimental (not taxonomic) works, has not been updated for more than 40 years. New information A revised checklist of the subfamily Adoncholaiminae of the world is provided. It contains 31 valid and 13 invalid species names in four genera with synonyms, collection records, and full literature from 1860's to 2015 for each species. A literature survey of total 477 previous papers was conducted in this work, and 362 of them are newly added to checklist. PMID:26929708

  2. New data on two remarkable Antarctic species Amblydorylaimusisokaryon (Loof, 1975) Andrássy, 1998 and Pararhyssocolpusparadoxus (Loof, 1975), gen. n., comb. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida).

    PubMed

    Elshishka, Milka; Lazarova, Stela; Radoslavov, Georgi; Hristov, Petar; Peneva, Vlada K

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic position of two antarctic dorylaimid species Amblydorylaimusisokaryon (Loof, 1975) Andrássy, 1998 and Pararhyssocolpusparadoxus (Loof, 1975), gen. n., comb. n. are discussed on the basis of morphological, including SEM study, morphometric, postembryonic and sequence data of 18S rDNA and the D2-D3 expansion fragments of large subunit rDNA. The evolutionary trees inferred from 18S sequences show insufficient resolution to determine the assignment of the two species to particular families, moreover Pararhyssocolpusparadoxus gen. n., comb. n. (=Rhyssocolpusparadoxus) previously regarded as a member of Nordiidae or Qudsianematidae, showed distant relationship both to Rhyssocolpusvinciguerrae and Eudorylaimus spp. The phylogram inferred from 28S sequences revealed that Amblydorylaimusisokaryon is a member of a well-supported group comprised of several Aporcelaimellus spp., while, no close relationships could be revealed for the Pararhyssocolpusparadoxus gen. n., comb. n. to any nematode genus. On the basis of molecular data and morphological characteristics, some taxonomic changes are proposed. Amblydorylaimusisokaryon is transferred from family Qudsianematidae to family Aporcelaimidae, and a new monotypic genus Pararhyssocolpus gen. n. is proposed, attributed to Pararhyssocolpidaefam. n. The diagnosis of the new family is provided together with emended diagnosis of the genera Amblydorylaimus and Pararhyssocolpus gen. n. Data concerning distribution of these endemic genera in the Antarctic region are also given.

  3. Mudwigglus gen. n. (Nematoda: Diplopeltidae) from the continental slope of New Zealand, with description of three new species and notes on their distribution.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Three new free-living nematode species belonging to the genus Mudwigglus gen. n. are described from the continental slope of New Zealand. The new genus is characterised by four short cephalic setae, fovea amphidialis in the shape of an elongated loop, narrow mouth opening, small, lightly cuticularised buccal cavity, pharynx with oval-shaped basal bulb, and secretory-excretory pore (if present) at level of pharyngeal bulb or slightly anterior. Mudwigglus gen. et sp. n. differs from other genera of the family Diplopeltidae in the combination of the following traits: presence of reflexed ovaries, male reproductive system with both testes directed anteriorly and reflexed posterior testis, and presence of tubular pre-cloacal supplements and pre-cloacal seta. Mudwigglus patumuka gen. et sp. n. is characterised by gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophyses, vagina directed posteriorly, and short conical tail with three terminal setae. M. macramphidum gen. et sp. n. is characterised by long fovea amphidialis, cylindrical buccal cavity, gubernaculum without apophyses, vagina at right angle to body surface, and conico-cylindrical tail without terminal setae. M. plebeius gen. et sp. n. is characterised by cylindrical buccal cavity with cuticularised ring, gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophyses, females with vagina directed posteriorly, and conico-cylindrical tail with two terminal setae. Diplopeluta nellyae Vinex and Gourbault, 1992 is transferred to Mudwigglus gen. n. based on observations of paratypes from New Caledonia, and of specimens from the New Zealand continental slope, which both show the presence of two testes facing anteriorly. M. macramphidum gen. et sp. n. was restricted to a single site on Chatham Rise crest (350 m water depth), whereas M. patumuka gen. et sp. was recorded from six sites on western Chatham Rise (350-2800 m). M. plebeius gen. et sp. n. was recorded from 13 sites on Chatham Rise and two sites on Challenger Plateau (264-2300 m). Mudwigglus nellyae comb. n. was restricted to two Challenger Plateau sites. All Mudwigglus gen. n. species appear to be restricted to subsurface sediments.

  4. A new species of Oesophagostomoides (Nematoda: Cloacinidae) from the northern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii with a key to species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Smales, L R

    1994-08-01

    Lasiorhinus krefftii, the northern hairy-nosed wombat, is a rare and endangered marsupial existing as a single population in the Epping Forest National Park, Queensland, Australia. Dissection of a juvenile wombat that had died from natural causes revealed the presence in the colon of a new species of Oesophagostomoides Schwartz, 1928, a genus found only in wombats (Vombatidae, Marsupialia). Oesophagostomoides eppingensis n. sp. differs from the other species in the genus in the length of spicule, form of the dorsal ray, length of the vagina, and proportions of the female's posterior end. Morphological similarities between species suggest that there may have been switching of the species of Oesophagostomoides between L. krefftii and Vombatus ursinus (the common wombat). The potential contribution of colon parasites to the energy budget of wombats may be of importance when determining conservation management strategies for L. krefftii.

  5. Monanema joopi n. sp. (Nematoda, Onchocercidae) from Acomys (Acomys) spinosissimus Peters, 1852 (Muridae) in South Africa, with comments on the filarial genus.

    PubMed

    Junker, K; Medger, K; Lutermann, H; Bain, O

    2012-11-01

    Monanema joopi n. sp. is described from blood drawn from the heart of the murid Acomys (Acomys) spinosissimus in South Africa. It is characterised by a non-bulbous cephalic extremity, shared with only one of its five congeners, and a cylindrical tail with caudal alae and a spicular ratio of 2.7 in the male. As is typical for the genus, microfilariae are skin-dwelling. They are 185 to 215 micrometres long and have no refractory granules beneath their sheath. A key to the species of Monanema is presented and an amended generic description, based on the six currently known species, is proposed. Species of Monanema are primarily lymphatic and the low intensity of infection with M. joopi n. sp. in blood from the heart, might suggest that not all adults settle in the heart cavities. One might also consider that other, more susceptible rodents serve as hosts for this parasite as well. To date, the geographic range of Monanema includes North America, Africa and Australia, each with representatives of a different lineage. Given the present hypotheses on the evolutionary origin and subsequent migrations of rodents, we expect the origin of Monanema to be in the Palearctic-Oriental region.

  6. Monanema joopi n. sp. (Nematoda, Onchocercidae) from Acomys (Acomys) spinosissimus Peters, 1852 (Muridae) in South Africa, with comments on the filarial genus

    PubMed Central

    Junker, K.; Medger, K.; Lutermann, H.; Bain, O.

    2012-01-01

    Monanema joopi n. sp. is described from blood drawn from the heart of the murid Acomys (Acomys) spinosissimus in South Africa. It is characterised by a non-bulbous cephalic extremity, shared with only one of its five congeners, and a cylindrical tail with caudal alae and a spicular ratio of 2.7 in the male. As is typical for the genus, microfilariae are skin-dwelling. They are 185 to 215 micrometres long and have no refractory granules beneath their sheath. A key to the species of Monanema is presented and an amended generic description, based on the six currently known species, is proposed. Species of Monanema are primarily lymphatic and the low intensity of infection with M. joopi n. sp. in blood from the heart, might suggest that not all adults settle in the heart cavities. One might also consider that other, more susceptible rodents serve as hosts for this parasite as well. To date, the geographic range of Monanema includes North America, Africa and Australia, each with representatives of a different lineage. Given the present hypotheses on the evolutionary origin and subsequent migrations of rodents, we expect the origin of Monanema to be in the Palearctic-Oriental region. PMID:23193517

  7. Coronostoma claireae n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditida: Oxyuridomorpha: Coronostomatidae) from the Indigenous Milliped Narceus gordanus (Chamberlain, 1943) (Diplopoda: Spirobolida) in Ocala National Forest, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Gary; Bernard, Ernest C.; Pivar, Robert J.; Moulton, John K.; Shelley, Rowland M.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four individuals of Narceus gordanus (Diplopoda: Spirobolidae) were collected in Ocala National Forest, FL, between November 2013 and July 2014. Each specimen was dissected to extract the intestine, which was removed and examined for parasitic nematodes. Coronostoma claireae n. sp. was collected from the hindgut and midgut of 10 specimens, and its morphology was examined with brightfield, differential interference contrast, phase contrast, and scanning electron microscopy. This species is separated from other Coronostoma spp. by the following characteristics: body length less than 3 mm; head sense organs pit-like; first annule long, extending past middle of corpus, width similar to that of second annule; basal bulb pyriform; eggs larger than 60 × 50 µm. This species is the first North American record for the genus Coronostoma, which is removed from Thelastomatoidea: Thelastomatidae and reassigned to Coronostomatidae on the basis of presumed apomorphies. A key is provided for known Coronostoma spp. The superfamily Coronostomatoidea is re-established for Coronostomatidae and Traklosiidae. PMID:27765989

  8. Redescription of Rhabdochona papuanensis (Nematoda: Thelazioidea), a parasite of rainbow fishes (Melanotaenia spp.); the first record of the species of Rhabdochona in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Adlard, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Numerous specimens of the parasitic nematode Rhabdochona papuanensis Moravec, Riha et Kuchta, 2008 (Spirurida: Rhabdochonidae) were collected from the intestines of the Australian endemic freshwater fish (eastern rainbow fish) Melanotaenia splendida (Peters) (Melanotaeniidae, Atheriniformes) in the Behana Creek, North Queesland during November of 2015. Although many species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 are known to be common parasites of fishes in other continents, the present finding of R. papuanensis represents the first record of the species belonging to this genus from the Australian mainland. Light and scanning electron microscopical examinations of these newly collected specimens made it possible to redescribe in detail this nematode species, originally incompletely described from a congeneric host in Papua New Guinea. Fully developed, filamented eggs of R. papuanensis and the conspecific fourth-stage larva are described for the first time. The present finding of R. papuanensis in M. splendida from Australia represents new host and geographical records.

  9. First description of the male and redescription of the female of Paratrichosoma recurvum (Nematoda: Capillariidae), a skin-invading parasite of crocodiles in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Vargas-Vázquez, J

    1998-06-01

    The first description of the male and a redescription of the female of the nematode Paratrichosoma recurvum (Solger, 1877), a parasite of the abdominal skin of crocodiles, are presented on the basis of specimens collected from Crocodilus moreletii Duméril et Bibron from the Lagoon of Celestún, Yucatan, Mexico. The morphology of P. recurvum proved to be very similar to that of the only other congeneric species, P. crocodylus Ashford et Muller, 1978, but the former differed from the latter in having distinctly protruding polar plugs on eggs, reduced mesenchymal cells at the esophagointestinal junction, and a smooth spicular surface as well as in geographic distribution. The finding of P. recurvum in C. moreletii represents a new host record. Paratrichosoma spp. appear to be widely distributed in tropical countries of different continents and may be of economic importance for crocodile farms.

  10. On the life cycle and morphology of development stages of Paraspiralatus sakeri Gibbons et al., 2004 (Nematoda: Spiroidea, Spirocercidae), a heteroxenic stomach parasite of falcons.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Rolf Karl; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kinne, Jörg

    2014-06-01

    Pitted darkling beetles (Adesmia cancellata) were infected with nematode eggs found in the alimentary tract of a gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) naturally infected with Paraspiralatus sakeri. Third-stage larvae in numbers between 1 and 84 were removed from the beetles 5 weeks postinfection and were used for morphological studies as well as to infect domestic chicken, yellow-bellied geckos (Hemidactylus flaviviridis) and fringe-toed lizards (Acanthodactylus schmidti). All experimental animals, necropsied 4-38 weeks later, were positive for spirally coiled nematode larvae located under the skin and in the interstitium of skeletal muscles. Despite similarities in general morphology, larvae from beetles and reptiles and chicken differed strikingly in the total body length and body width. Differences in length of the muscular oesophagus and distances of cervical papillae, nerve ring and excretory pore from the anterior end were less distinct. Morphology of these larvae matched with larvae found in subcutaneous cysts in naturally infected houbara bustards (Chlamydotis macqueeni) from Pakistan and UAE as well as with those detected in the muscles of an ocellated skink (Chalcides ocellatus).

  11. First Report of the Spiral Nematode Rotylenchus incultus (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) from Cultivated Olive in Tunisia, with Additional Molecular Data on Rotylenchus eximius

    PubMed Central

    Guesmi-Mzoughi, Ilhem; Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Regaieg, Hajer; Horrigue-Raouani, Najet; Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Spiral nematode species of the genus Rotylenchus have been reported on olive (Olea europaea L.) in several Mediterranean countries (Castillo et al., 2010; Ali et al., 2014). Nematological surveys for plant-parasitic nematodes on olive trees were carried out in Tunisia between 2013 and 2014, and two nematode species of Rotylenchus were collected from the rhizosphere of olive cv. Chemlali in several localities of Tunisia (Tables 1,2Table 1Rotylenchus eximius Siddiqi, 1964 and R. incultus Sher, 1965 sampled in olive cv. Chemlali in Tunisia and sequences used in this study.Table 2Morphometrics of Rotylenchus incultus Sher, 1965 from olive cv. Chemlali in Tunisia.a). Twenty-two soil samples of 3 to 4 kg were collected with a shovel from the upper 50 cm of soil from arbitrarily chosen olive trees. Nematodes were extracted from 500 cm3 of soil by centrifugal flotation method (Coolen, 1979). Specimens were heat killed by adding hot 4% formaldehyde solution and processed to pure glycerin using the De Grisse’s (1969) method. Measurements were done using a drawing tube attached to a Zeiss III compound microscope. Nematode DNA was extracted from single individuals and PCR assays were conducted as described by Castillo et al. (2003). Moderate-to-low soil populations of these spiral nematodes were detected (5.5–11.5, 1.5–5.0 individuals/500 cm3 of soil, respectively). This prompted us to undertake a detailed morphological and molecular comparative study with previous reported data. Morphological and molecular analyses of females identified these species as Rotylenchus eximius Siddiqi, 1964, and Rotylenchus incultus Sher, 1965. The morphology of R. eximius females (five specimens studied) was characterized by having a hemispherical lip region clearly off set, with four to five annuli, body without longitudinal striations, lateral fields areolated in the pharyngeal region only, stylet 32 to 36 μm long, and broadly rounded tail. The morphology of R. incultus females (51 females and 16 males; Table 2) was characterized by a hemispherical lip region with the basal annulus subdivided by irregular longitudinal striations, with three, rarely four annuli; stylet 21.5 to 27.5 μm long, female tail hemispherical with terminus regularly annulated; phasmids anterior to anus level (3–6 annuli above). The morphology of the isolated nematodes agreed with previous descriptions of R. eximius (Siddiqi, 1964; Castillo and Vovlas, 2005) and R. incultus (Sher, 1965; Castillo and Vovlas, 2005; Vovlas et al., 2008), respectively. A single individual was used for DNA extraction. Primers and PCR conditions used in this research were specified in Cantalapiedra-Navarrete et al. (2013), and a single amplicon of 800, 1,100, and 450 bp was obtained and sequenced for D2 to D3, ITS1, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (coxI), respectively. Sequence alignments for D2 to D3 (KX669231–KX669233), ITS1 (KX669238–KX669240), and coxI (KX669244–KX669245) from R. eximius, showed 99% to 97%, 98% to 94%, 93% similarity to other sequences of R. eximius deposited in GenBank (EU280794–DQ328741, EU373663–EU373664, JX015401–JX015402, respectively). Similarly, D2 to D3 (KX669234–KX669237), ITS1 (KX669241–KX669243), and coxI (KX669246–KX669249) sequence alignments from R. incultus, showed 99%, 99% to 95%, 99% to 90% similarity, respectively, to other sequences of R. incultus deposited in GenBank (EU280797, EU373672–EU373673, JX015403, respectively). The best fitted model of DNA evolution was obtained using jModelTest v. 2.1.7 (Darriba et al. 2012) with the Akaike information criterion. BI analyses were performed under the general time reversible (GTR) with invariable sites and a gamma-shaped distribution of substitution rates (GTR + I + G) model for ITS1 and coxI. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS1 and coxI using Bayesian inference (BI) placed R. eximius and R. incultus from Tunisia in subclades that included all R. eximius and R. incultus sequences deposited in GenBank (Fig. 1Fig. 1Phylogenetic relationships within Rotylenchus species found in Tunisia and other species from GenBank. Bayesian 50% majority rule consensus trees as inferred from ITS1 and coxI sequences alignments under the GTR + I + G model. Posterior probabilities more than 0.70 are given for appropriate clades. Newly obtained sequences in this study are in bold. Scale bar = expected changes per site.), which agrees with previous results (Cantalapiedra-Navarrete et al., 2013). Morphology, morphometry, and molecular and phylogenetic data obtained from these samples were consistent with R. eximius and R. incultus identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of R. incultus in Tunisia. Consequently, all these data suggest that spiral nematode species of the genus Rotylenchus are predominant in olive as previously reported in other Mediterranean areas (Ali et al., 2014). PMID:27765986

  12. Pinworm diversity in free-ranging howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) in Mexico: Morphological and molecular evidence for two new Trypanoxyuris species (Nematoda: Oxyuridae).

    PubMed

    Solórzano-García, Brenda; Nadler, Steven A; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2016-10-01

    Two new species of Trypanoxyuris are described from the intestine of free-ranging howler monkeys in Mexico, Trypanoxyuris multilabiatus n. sp. from the mantled howler Alouatta palliata, and Trypanoxyuris pigrae n. sp. from the black howler Alouatta pigra. An integrative taxonomic approach is followed, where conspicuous morphological traits and phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences are used to test the validity of the two new species. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the nuclear ribosomal 18S and 28S rRNA genes were used for evolutionary analyses, with the concatenated dataset of all three genes used for maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. The two new species of pinworms from howler monkeys were morphologically distinct and formed reciprocally monophyletic lineages in molecular phylogenetic trees. The three species from howler monkeys, T. multilabiatus n. sp., T. pigrae n. sp., and Trypanoxyuris minutus, formed a monophyletic group with high bootstrap and posterior probability support values. Phylogenetic patterns inferred from sequence data support the hypothesis of a close evolutionary association between these primate hosts and their pinworm parasites. The results suggest that the diversity of pinworm parasites from Neotropical primates might be underestimated.

  13. A new species of Comephoronema (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) from the stomach of the abyssal halosaur Halosauropsis macrochir (Teleostei) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Klimpel, Sven

    2007-08-01

    A new species of parasitic nematode Comephoronema macrochiri n. sp. (Cystidicolidae), is described from the stomach of the marine deep-sea fish Halosauropsis macrochir (abyssal halosaur) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The new species, studied with both light and scanning electron microscopy, is characterized mainly by 6 pairs of preanal papillae, by which it principally differs from members of Ascarophis; the spicules are 297-375 microm and 99-120 microm long and fully developed eggs possess 2 long filaments on 1 pole. Rhabdochona beatriceinsleyae is transferred to Comephoronema as C. beatriceinsleyae (Holloway and Klewer, 1969) n. comb. Comephoronema macrochiri differs from all other congeners mainly in having eggs with filaments on 1 pole only, and from individual species by some additional features such as the number of preanal papillae, the shape of pseudolabial projections, and the body and organ measurements.

  14. A new species of Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) parasitic in the brown ground snake Atractus major Boulenger (Reptilia: Serpentes: Dipsadidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2014-10-01

    Serpentirhabdias atracti n. sp. is described based on specimens discovered in the lung of Atractus major Boulenger from Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brazil. The new species is assigned to Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on morphological characters (comparatively thin body cuticle without prominent inflations, arrangement of circumoral papillae in two lateral groups, pre-equatorial position of vulva, eggs in uteri at early cleavage stages), as well as because of its parasitism in snakes. The new species is most similar to S. vellardi (Pereira, 1928) due to the absence of lips and buccal capsule, similar body dimensions, and the specificity to dipsadid snakes in Brazil. The two species differ in the shape of the tail (bulbous dilatation in the posterior part followed by a thread-like tail tip present in S. atracti n. sp.), the width of the oesophagus, and the size of the excretory glands. Serpentirhabdias atracti n. sp. is the sixth species of this genus found in the Neotropical Region.

  15. Description of a new species of Acrostichus Rahm 1928 (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) from India with a note on its position and relationship with the congeners

    PubMed Central

    Ahlawat, Shikha; Asif, Mohammad; Mustaqim, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The clade Diplogastridae Micoletzky 1922 largely represents the bacterivorous or predatory nematodes that very often demonstrate phoretic, necromenic or parasitic associations with insects (Sudhaus and Fürst von Lieven 2003). That is the reason, much of the diversity of the family remains undocumented because of their absence from routine soil samples. Due to their variable habitats and niches, these nematodes show ample variation in their stomal armature, feeding behavior and life cycle patterns. New information The paper describes and illustrates a new diplogastrid species of genus Acrostichus Rahm 1928 that appears to be the link between the genera Diplogastrellus Paramonov et al. 1952a and Acrostichus. Acrostichus medius n. sp. is characterised by hermaphroditic females and males having faintly striated longitudinal ridges, demarcated lateral fields, amalgamated lips, six adradial cheilostomal plates, moderately-built dorsal tooth, relatively smaller posterior genital branch; large oval uterine pouch and males with robust, heavily cuticularised spicules, each with hood-like capitulum, deeply forked distal end with fine extensions and a ventral attenuated arm; gubernaculum 2/3 of spicule length and rudiments of bursa confined to posterior four pairs of genital papillae. The biogeographical distribution of Acrostichus has been mapped and the relationship between congeners has been analysed cladistically and discussed. PMID:27226756

  16. Descriptions and Comparative Morphology of Cactodera milleri n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) and Cactodera cacti with a Review and Key to the Genus Cactodera

    PubMed Central

    Graney, L. S. O.; Bird, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A new species, Cactodera milleri n. sp., is described and illustrated from specimens obtained from roots of common lambsquarter, Chenopodium album L., from Mattawan, Michigan. Cactodera milleri can be differentiated from other Cactodera species by the presence of punctated egg shells and a second-stage juvenile (J2) stylet length averaging 21.8 μm as measured from freshly killed specimens in water mounts. Thirty-four plant species, including 11 weed species, 18 agronomic crop species, and 5 cactus species were tested as potential hosts of C. milleri. The new species reproduced only on Chenopodium album, C. amaranticolor Cofte. Reyn., and C. quinoa Willd. Cactodera cacti (Filipjev &Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941) Krall &Krall, 1978, a morphologically similar species, is reexamined. A description of the female and additional morphometric and morphologic data of cysts, males, J2, and eggs are provided for several populations of C. cacti. A review of the morphometrics of all species of Cactodera and a taxonomic key to the seven species are presented. PMID:19287746

  17. Descriptions and Comparative Morphology of Cactodera milleri n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) and Cactodera cacti with a Review and Key to the Genus Cactodera.

    PubMed

    Graney, L S; Bird, G W

    1990-10-01

    A new species, Cactodera milleri n. sp., is described and illustrated from specimens obtained from roots of common lambsquarter, Chenopodium album L., from Mattawan, Michigan. Cactodera milleri can be differentiated from other Cactodera species by the presence of punctated egg shells and a second-stage juvenile (J2) stylet length averaging 21.8 mum as measured from freshly killed specimens in water mounts. Thirty-four plant species, including 11 weed species, 18 agronomic crop species, and 5 cactus species were tested as potential hosts of C. milleri. The new species reproduced only on Chenopodium album, C. amaranticolor Cofte. Reyn., and C. quinoa Willd. Cactodera cacti (Filipjev &Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941) Krall &Krall, 1978, a morphologically similar species, is reexamined. A description of the female and additional morphometric and morphologic data of cysts, males, J2, and eggs are provided for several populations of C. cacti. A review of the morphometrics of all species of Cactodera and a taxonomic key to the seven species are presented.

  18. Morphological and molecular characterisation, and phylogenetic position of X. browni sp. n., X. penevi sp. n. and two known species of Xiphinema americanum-group (Nematoda, Longidoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Lazarova, Stela; Peneva, Vlada; Kumari, Shesh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Using ribosomal (18S, ITS1, ITS2, D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rDNA) and mitochondrial (partial cox1 and nad4) DNA markers in a study of several populations of Xiphinema americanum-group from Europe and Morocco, two cryptic species Xiphinema browni sp. n. (formerly reported as Xiphinema pachtaicum) and Xiphinema penevi sp. n. were revealed. The species are described, illustrated and their phylogenetic relationships discussed. The first species is most similar to Xiphinema parasimile and is a member of Xiphinema simile species complex. The phylogenetic reconstructions inferred from three molecular markers (18S, D2-D3 28S rDNA and cox1) showed that Xiphinema penevi sp. n. is part of Xiphinema pachtaicum-subgroup and is closely related to Xiphinema incertum, Xiphinema pachtaicum, Xiphinema parapachydermum, Xiphinema plesiopachtaicum, Xiphinema astaregiense and Xiphinema pachydermum. Also, a separate “Xiphinema simile-subgroup”, outside the Xiphinema pachtaicum-subgroup and so far consisting only of the parthenogenetic species Xiphinema simile, Xiphinema parasimile, Xiphinema browni sp. n. and probably Xiphinema vallense was formed. New primers for amplification and sequencing of part of the nad4 mitochondrial gene were designed and used. PMID:27110175

  19. The structure of the shell and polar plugs of the egg of the whipworm, Trichuris trichiura (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from the Samango monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis).

    PubMed

    Appleton, C C; White, B J

    1989-12-01

    The structure of the shell of the egg of Trichuris trichiura was examined using light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results confirmed its three-layered structure and provided evidence that the cores of the polar plugs, which could be seen to be extensions of the shell's middle layer, could be lost en bloc, either mechanically or chemically, and in this way probably provided an exit for the first stage larva at hatching.

  20. Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the abdominal cavity of the marine fish (picarel) Spicara smaris (Centracanthidae) off Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Gaglio, Gabriella; Giannetto, Salvatore; Marino, Fabio

    2010-07-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra spicarae sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from a gravid female found in the abdominal cavity of spicarel, Spicara smaris (Linnaeus) (Centracanthidae, Perciformes), from the Ionian Sea off Sicily, Italy. The new species differs from most other Philometra spp. parasitic in the abdominal cavity of marine fishes by the oesophagus without an anterior inflation, resembling thus only Philometra cheilopogoni Mordvinova, 1986 and Philometra justinei Moravec, Ternengo and Levron, 2006; these two species can be differentiated from P. spicarae by the relative length of the oesophagus to body length (0.6-0.8% vs. 6%) and some other features. From the gonad-infecting species Philometra filiformis (Stossich, 1896), a parasite of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus), P. spicarae differs mainly in having a conspicuously long (1.4 mm) intestinal ligament. It is the first nominal philometrid species described from the fish of the family Centracanthidae.

  1. Macroscopic lesions of the ventriculus of Rhea americana , Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Rheidae) naturally infected by Sicarius uncinipenis (Molin, 1860) (Nematoda: Habronematidae).

    PubMed

    Ederli, N B; de Oliveira, F C R

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies concerning the parasites of rheas. However, parasitism is the major cause of the limited success in captive breeding of these birds. Deletrocephalus dimidiatus, Deletrocephalus cesarpintoi, Paradeletrocephalus minor, and Sicarius uncinipenis are the most prevalent nematode species affecting these birds, but the lesions caused by these parasites have not been previously reported. Four adult rheas were necropsied to determine the presence or absence of gross lesions within the gastrointestinal tract, associated with parasitic infection. Two rheas parasitized by S. uncinipenis had ulcers on the koilin layer or had parasites penetrating this layer, resulting in widespread necrosis and hemorrhagic areas, whereas the 2 nonparasitized birds did not present lesions. The degree of injury was proportional to the parasitic load found in the birds. Thus, high parasitic loads can result in necrosis of the ventriculus, which may contribute to the death of birds, resulting in economic losses in the rural production of these birds.

  2. A new species of Neocosmocercella Baker & Vaucher, 1983 (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae), a parasite of Phyllomedusa vaillantii Boulenger (Anura: Phyllomedusidae) in the Caxiuanã National Forest, eastern Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ana Nunes; Rodrigues, Allan Rodrigo Oliveira; Dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento; González, Cynthya Elizabeth; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos

    2017-05-01

    Neocosmocercella bakeri n. sp. is described from the large intestine of Phyllomedusa vaillantii Boulenger collected in the Caxiuanã National Forest in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon. The new species is easily distinguished from the type-species of the genus, Neocosmocercella paraguayensis Baker & Vaucher, 1983 in possessing a triangular mouth opening with three simple lips (vs three bi-lobed lips and hexagonal mouth opening) and somatic papillae, which are absent in N. paraguayensis. The males of the new species are distinguished by the distribution of the sessile cloacal papillae and the dimensions of the gubernaculum, whereas the females are distinguished by their smaller size and opisthodelphic uterus. This study expands the diagnostic characters of Neocosmocercella Baker & Vaucher, 1983, reports the first species parasitising anurans of the Brazilian Amazon, a new host record for the genus, and the description of the second species of the genus.

  3. Philometra floridensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the ovary of red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) off the coast of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Fajer-Avila, E J; Bakenhaster, M

    2010-03-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra floridensis sp. n. (Philometridae), is described from male and female specimens found in the ovary of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus) (Sciaenidae, Perciformes), from the Gulf of Mexico off Treasure Island, Florida, USA. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examination, the new species differs from most other gonad-infecting Philometra spp. in having a smooth gubernaculum with a distinct dorsal tooth on the distal tip. The new species is most similar to P. carolinensis Moravec, de Buron & Roumillat, 2006, but differs in length and shape of spicules. It can be distinguished from P. carolinensis and other species with unknown males, by the markedly greater body length of gravid females (up to about 100 cm). Philometra floridensis is the third valid gonad-infecting species of Philometra reported from sciaenids.

  4. Muscleworms, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae), discovered in Columbia white-tailed deer from Oregon and Washington: implications for biogeography and host associations.

    PubMed

    Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Mortenson, Jack A; Hoberg, Eric P

    2008-01-01

    Parelaphostrongylus andersoni is considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Host and geographic distribution for this parasite, however, remain poorly defined in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from Columbia white-tailed deer (O. v. leucurus) in a restricted range endemic to Oregon and Washington, USA, were examined for dorsal-spined larvae characteristic of many protostrongylid nematodes. Multilocus DNA sequence data (internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) established the identity and a new record for P. andersoni in a subspecies of white-tailed deer previously unrecognized as hosts. Populations of P. andersoni are now recognized along the basin of the lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington and from south-central Oregon on the North Umpqua River. Current data indicate a potentially broad zone of sympatry for P. andersoni and Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in the western region of North America, although these elaphostrongylines seem to be segregated, respectively, in white-tailed deer or in black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) at temperate latitudes. The geographic range for P. andersoni in white-tailed deer is extended substantially to the west of the currently defined limit in North America, and we confirm an apparently extensive range for this elpahostrongyline. These observations are explored in the broader context of host and geographic associations for P. andersoni and related elaphostrongylines in North American cervids.

  5. Growth, fecundity and sex ratio of adult whaleworm (Anisakis simplex; Nematoda, Ascaridoidea, Anisakidae) in three whale species from the North-East Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Ugland, Karl Inne; Strømnes, Einar; Berland, Bjørn; Aspholm, Paul Eric

    2004-04-01

    The growth rate, fecundity, and sex ratio of Anisakis simplex in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) was studied on the basis of material from the North Atlantic. A total of 8,135 mature A. simplex were collected from 24 minke whales, 11 porpoises and eight pilot whales. For both males and females, the prevalence was 100% for all three host species, with a mean intensity of 1,727, 262 and 139, respectively. The mean body length of adult female A. simplex was 126 mm in minke whales, 71 mm in the porpoises and 73 mm in pilot whales; and for males the averages were, respectively, 106 mm, 57 mm and 68 mm. Eggs from the uteri of 32 females of length 87-176 mm collected in minke whale stomachs were counted in a Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber. Total egg production was measured in 14 females cultivated at sea. The female growth period was estimated to be 30-60 days, and apparently all eggs were shed during the last week of life. A female of size 150 mm produces approximately 1.5 million eggs. In the cultivation experiment, about 85% of the total egg production was shed during the first 3 days after spawning started.

  6. An annotated list of parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Beveridge, Ian; Boxshall, Geoffrey A; Bray, Rod A; Moravec, Frantisek; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Whittington, Ian D

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Over a 7-year period, parasites have been collected from 28 species of groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in the waters off New Caledonia. Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 337 host-parasite combinations, including 146 parasite identifications at the species level. Results are included for isopods (5 species), copepods (19), monogeneans (56), digeneans (28), cestodes (12), and nematodes (12). When results are restricted to those 14 fish species for which more than five specimens were examined and to parasites identified at the species level, 109 host-parasite combinations were recorded, with 63 different species, of which monogeneans account for half (32 species), and an average of 4.5 parasite species per fish species. Digenean records were compared for 16 fish species shared with the study of Cribb et al. (2002); based on a total of 90 parasite records identified at the species level, New Caledonia has 17 new records and only seven species were already known from other locations. We hypothesize that the present results represent only a small part of the actual biodiversity, and we predict a biodiversity of 10 different parasite species and 30 host-parasite combinations per serranid. A comparison with a study on Heron Island (Queensland, Australia) by Lester and Sewell (1989) was attempted: of the four species of fish in common and in a total of 91 host-parasite combinations, only six parasites identified at the species level were shared. This suggests strongly that insufficient sampling impairs proper biogeographical or ecological comparisons. Probably only 3% of the parasite species of coral reef fish are already known in New Caledonia.

  7. Contrasting evolutionary patterns of 28S and ITS rRNA genes reveal high intragenomic variation in Cephalenchus (Nematoda): Implications for species delimitation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Tiago José; Baldwin, James Gordon

    2016-05-01

    Concerted evolution is often assumed to be the evolutionary force driving multi-family genes, including those from ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat, to complete homogenization within a species, although cases of non-concerted evolution have been also documented. In this study, sequence variation of 28S and ITS ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in the genus Cephalenchus is assessed at three different levels, intragenomic, intraspecific, and interspecific. The findings suggest that not all Cephalenchus species undergo concerted evolution. High levels of intraspecific polymorphism, mostly due to intragenomic variation, are found in Cephalenchus sp1 (BRA-01). Secondary structure analyses of both rRNA genes and across different species show a similar substitution pattern, including mostly compensatory (CBC) and semi-compensatory (SBC) base changes, thus suggesting the functionality of these rRNA copies despite the variation found in some species. This view is also supported by low sequence variation in the 5.8S gene in relation to the flanking ITS-1 and ITS-2 as well as by the existence of conserved motifs in the former gene. It is suggested that potential cross-fertilization in some Cephalenchus species, based on inspection of female reproductive system, might contribute to both intragenomic and intraspecific polymorphism of their rRNA genes. These results reinforce the potential implications of intragenomic and intraspecific genetic diversity on species delimitation, especially in biodiversity studies based solely on metagenetic approaches. Knowledge of sequence variation will be crucial for accurate species diversity estimation using molecular methods.

  8. Molecular characterization of Hysterothylacium fabri (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Zeus faber (Pisces: Zeidae) caught off the Mediterranean coasts of Turkey based on nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer; Yardimci, Banu; Onuk, Ertan Emek; Umur, Sinasi

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, Hysterothylacium fabri was found in the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, Turkey and characterized by sequencing of nuclear (internal transcribed spacer, ITS) and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2, cox2) markers. Pairwise comparison between the entire ITS fragment including ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2 sequences of the H. fabri isolates from the Mediterranean Sea (Turkey, KC852206) and other H. fabri isolates from the South China Sea (JQ520158), the South Korea waters (JX974558) showed differences ranged from 0.1 and 1.1%. With the present study, H. fabri from the Mediterranean Sea was characterized for the first time by sequencing of the cox2 gene.

  9. New data on two remarkable Antarctic species Amblydorylaimus isokaryon (Loof, 1975) Andrássy, 1998 and Pararhyssocolpus paradoxus (Loof, 1975), gen. n., comb. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida)

    PubMed Central

    Elshishka, Milka; Lazarova, Stela; Radoslavov, Georgi; Hristov, Petar; Peneva, Vlada K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomic position of two antarctic dorylaimid species Amblydorylaimus isokaryon (Loof, 1975) Andrássy, 1998 and Pararhyssocolpus paradoxus (Loof, 1975), gen. n., comb. n. are discussed on the basis of morphological, including SEM study, morphometric, postembryonic and sequence data of 18S rDNA and the D2-D3 expansion fragments of large subunit rDNA. The evolutionary trees inferred from 18S sequences show insufficient resolution to determine the assignment of the two species to particular families, moreover Pararhyssocolpus paradoxus gen. n., comb. n. (=Rhyssocolpus paradoxus) previously regarded as a member of Nordiidae or Qudsianematidae, showed distant relationship both to Rhyssocolpus vinciguerrae and Eudorylaimus spp. The phylogram inferred from 28S sequences revealed that Amblydorylaimus isokaryon is a member of a well-supported group comprised of several Aporcelaimellus spp., while, no close relationships could be revealed for the Pararhyssocolpus paradoxus gen. n., comb. n. to any nematode genus. On the basis of molecular data and morphological characteristics, some taxonomic changes are proposed. Amblydorylaimus isokaryon is transferred from family Qudsianematidae to family Aporcelaimidae, and a new monotypic genus Pararhyssocolpus gen. n. is proposed, attributed to Pararhyssocolpidae fam. n. The diagnosis of the new family is provided together with emended diagnosis of the genera Amblydorylaimus and Pararhyssocolpus gen. n. Data concerning distribution of these endemic genera in the Antarctic region are also given. PMID:26257550

  10. Description and SEM Observations of Stegelletina coprophila sp.n. (Nematoda: Rhabditida) from Caves of Andalucía Oriental, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Abolafia, J.; Peña-Santiago, R.

    2006-01-01

    A new species of the genus Stegelletina is described from caves of Andalucía Oriental (SE Iberian Peninsula). Stegelletina coprophila sp. n. is characterized by its body 386 to 536 μm long in females and 391 and 521 μm in males, lateral field with three incisures, lips bearing four tines, labial probolae 4 to 6 μm long and bifurcate, pharyngeal corpus 1.5 to 2.9 times isthmus length, spermatheca 18 to 43 μm long, postvulvar sac 0.5 to 1.6 times the corresponding body diameter long, female tail conical (24–34 μm, c = 14.2–17.2, c′ = 1.7–2.3), male tail conical (26–35 μm, c = 12.1–17.1, c′ = 1.4–1.8), spicules 20 to 25 μm long, and gubernaculum 10 to 13 μm long. Descriptions, measurements and illustrations, including SEM photographs, are provided for the species. PMID:19259457

  11. New data on the morphology of Spinitectus oviflagellis Fourment, 1884 (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) from the pyloric caeca of Macrourus berglax (Macrouridae) in the eastern Greenland Sea.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Klimpel, Sven

    2007-05-01

    Specimens of a little-known nematode, Spinitectus oviflagellis Fourment, 1884, the type-species of Spinitectus Fourment, 1884, were collected mainly from the pyloric caeca of a marine deep-water fish, the onion-eye grenadier Macrourus berglax Lacépède (a new host record), in the eastern Greenland Sea, North Atlantic Ocean. Studies using light and scanning electron microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported features of S. oviflagellis, such as the detailed structure of the cephalic end, the position of the excretory pore and the presence of ventral pre-anal cuticular ridges (area rugosa) in the male, which indicated a certain degree of intraspecific biometrical variability in this species. S. oviflagellis is compared with similar congeneric species parasitising marine fishes.

  12. Characterization of Xiphinema americanum group species (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) and co-evolution of bacteria from the genus ‘Candidatus Xiphinematobacter’ with these nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Xiphinema americanum group contains over two-dozen different species of nematode. They are economically important because they vector nepoviruses, which cause damage to several crops. Taxonomic differentiation among species of the X. americanum complex is problematic because many of the species ...

  13. An updated list of the plants associated with plant-parasitic Aphelenchoides (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) and its implications for plant-parasitism within this genus.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Monge, Alcides; Flores, Lorena; Salazar, Luis; Hockland, Sue; Bert, Wim

    2015-09-08

    Few Aphelenchoides spp. are facultative plant-parasites (foliar and bulb nematodes); three of them are well known in agricultural systems, namely Aphelenchoides besseyi, A. fragariae and A. ritzemabosi. Ten other plant-parasitic species, A. arachidis, A. bicaudatus, A. blastophthorus, A. dalianensis, A. ensete, A. nechaleos, A. paranechaleos, A. saprophilus, A. sphaerocephalus and A. subtenuis, have been reported from a limited number of plant species. We compiled a new database of the associated plants for these thirteen species, a comprehensive list that includes 1104 reports from 126 botanical families. A. besseyi, A. fragariae and A. ritzemabosi represent 94% of the reports, circa 83% and 16% of the total reports correspond to flowering plants and ferns, respectively, with three records on conifers and two from other botanical groups also listed. Most plant-parasitic Aphelenchoides show a remarkably broad diversity of associated plants. Most species appear to have no specific plant hosts (i.e. are generalists). The broad host ranges of these species and absence of more intimate interactions with the associated plants highlights the primitive mode of parasitism in Aphelenchoides species, making them potentially interesting in the study of the evolution of plant parasitism. Even though the compiled list of associated plants is long, it probably only represents a fraction of the potential range. The complete compilation has been uploaded to http://nematodes.myspecies.info/.

  14. Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) of Dwarf Sperm Whale Kogia sima (Owen, 1866) stranded off the Pacific coast of southern Philippine archipelago.

    PubMed

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A; Santos, Mudjekeewis D; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi

    2013-10-18

    Anisakid nematodes in the Pacific region of the Philippine archipelago still remain unexplored. This study was carried out to identify anisakid species from one of their final hosts, the Kogiid whale (Dwarf Sperm Whale, Kogia sima) stranded off the southern part (Davao Gulf) of the Philippine archipelago. Anisakid worms were initially identified morphologically using light and scanning electron microscopy, whereas identification to species level was carried out molecularly using PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the ITS (ITS1-5.8s rRNA-ITS2) and mtDNA cox2 regions. Parasitological study revealed new geographical records for the presence of two Anisakis species (A. brevispiculata and A. typica) and two unknown Anisakis species that are genetically close, at mtDNA cox2 region, to A. paggiae and A. ziphidarum. Based on the molecular data on both genes, the current findings suggest possible occurrence of local variations or sibling species of A. paggiae and A. ziphidarum in the region. Given that Anisakis species have not been reported in the Philippine archipelago, their presence in the Dwarf Sperm Whale inhabiting this region indicates high possibility of Anisakis infections in the marine fishes, cephalopods and other intermediate hosts within the Philippine waters.

  15. ULCERATIVE AND NECROTIZING GASTRITIS IN A CAPTIVE SLOTH (BRADYPUS VARIEGATUS, XENARTHRA, BRADYPODIDAE) DUE TO SEVERE PARASITISM WITH PARALEIURIS LOCCHII (NEMATODA, SPIROCERCIDAE).

    PubMed

    Michel, Ana Flávia Ribeiro Machado; Silva, Fabiana Lessa; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; de Carvalho, Tatiane Furtado; Pinto, Jaqueline Maria Silva; Santos, Renato Lima

    2017-03-01

    This is the first reported case of lethal gastric parasitism by the nematode Paraleiuris locchii in a captive sloth ( Bradypus variegatus ). There were more than 600 parasites in the stomach of the sloth, associated with extensive areas of ulceration and necrosis. The animal developed emaciation, dehydration, and anemia that progressed to death.

  16. Synlophe Structure in Pseudomarshallagia elongata (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea), Abomasal Parasites Among Ethiopian Ungulates, with Consideration of Other Morphological Attributes and Differentiation within the Osteragiinae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The independence of the genus Pseudomarshallagia and its placement among the medium stomach worms of ungulates, Ostertagiinae, is confirmed based on comparative morphological studies of the synlophe and genital attributes among male and female specimens. An emended description of P. elongata is pres...

  17. Radiolabeling of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) with /sup 75/Se-methionine and their performance as tracers in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Georgi, J.R.; Le Jambre, L.F.

    1983-10-01

    Haemonchus contortus infective larvae incorporated between 5 and 12 pCi/larva for each muCi of /sup 75/Se-methionine added per gram of fecal sediment. Thorough admixture of /sup 75/Se-methionine and fecal sediment was necessary to obtain approximately normal distribution and low variance of individual larval radioactivities. Ecdysis induced by treatment with 0.025% HClO in vitro resulted in loss of approximately 40% of the /sup 75/Se label of infective larvae. Loss of /sup 75/Se by parasitic larvae and adult H. contortus in vivo conformed to a two-component negative exponential function with half lives of 3.1 and 56 days acting on compartments representing 90% and 10%, respectively, of the /sup 75/Se label remaining after ecdysis. Labeled and unlabeled worms were readily distinguished by autoradiography 37 days after infection. No effect of gamma radiation arising from decay of /sup 75/Se in the range 130 to 1,300 pCi/larva could be measured in terms of survival or sex ratio of worms recovered at 17 days PI.

  18. AN EXPLORATION OF DIVERSITY AMONG THE OSTERTAGIINAE: AFRICANASTRONGYLUS BUCEROS GEN. NOV. ET SP. NOV. (NEMATODA: TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA) IN AFRICAN BUFFALO (SYNCERUS CAFFER).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abomasal nematodes (Ostertagiine: Trichostrongyloidea) representing a previously unrecognized genus and species are reported in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) from Kenya, Uganda and South Africa. Africanastrongylus buceros gen. nov. et sp. nov. is characterized by a symmetrical tapering ...

  19. Description of two new and six known species of the genus Tylencholaimus de Man, 1876 (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) with a diagnostic compendium and key to species.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Sumaya; Ahmad, Wasim

    2016-05-04

    Two new and six known species of the soil-inhabiting nematode genus Tylencholaimus de Man, 1876 are described and illustrated. Tylencholaimus arakii sp. n. is characterized by having 0.56-0.65 mm long body; lip region cap-like, set off by a shallow constriction; labial disc present; odontostyle 7-8 µm and odontophore 7-8 µm long, with well-developed, asymmetrical basal knobs; total spear length 15 μm; pharynx with slender anterior part which expands abruptly into the cylindrical basal bulb occupying about 45-47% of total neck length; female genital system mono-prodelphic; transverse vulva and short, hemispheroid tail. Tylencholaimus ladakhiensis sp. n. is characterized by having 0.56-0.73 mm long, slender body; lip region cap-like, set off by a slight constriction; amphid aperture slit-like; odontostyle slender 7-9 µm, with comparatively narrow lumen, odontophore 8-9 µm long; pharynx with slender anterior part which expands abruptly into the cylindrical basal bulb, occupying about 38-45% of total neck length; female genital system didelphic-amphidelphic and rounded-conoid tail, with distinct terminal caudal pore. Tylencholaimus proximus Thorne, 1939; Tylencholaimus mongolicus Andrássy, 1967; Tylencholaimus vulvulatus Rahman, Jairajpuri, Ahmad & Ahmad, 1987; Tylencholaimus ibericus Peña-Santiago & Coomans, 1994; Tylencholaimus imperanus Mohilal & Dhanachand, 2003 and Tylencholaimus cosmos (Dhanam & Jairajpuri, 1999) Peña-Santiago, 2008 are redescribed. Tylencholaimus proximus and Tylencholaimus mongolicus are reported for the first time from India and a male is reported for the first time for T. imperanus. A diagnostic key and compendium to species of the genus Tylencholaimus is provided.

  20. Morphology of Labronemella major n. sp. (Nematoda: Dorylaimida), a soil-dwelling nematode from China, including a revised key to species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Wu, W J; Yan, L; Xie, H; Xu, C L; Wang, K; Jin, S Y

    2017-01-01

    One new species from Qinghai Province, China, Labronemella major n. sp., is described. The new species is characterized by a body length of 3.03-3.34 mm; lip region wide, offset by a distinct depression, disc-like with six separated inner liplets; amphid fovea funnel-shaped, distinctly bulged on body surface in scanning electron micrographs; odontostyle long (35-39 μm) with distinct lumen, aperture about 39-47% of its length; odontophore rod-like and long; guiding ring double; pharyngeal basal expansion about half of the total neck length; uterus relatively long and tripartite; vulva transverse and sclerotized; spicules 81-90 μm long; ventromedial supplements 19-23; tail short, rounded to conoid. It can be differentiated from all other species of the genus by its relatively longer body, odontostyle and spicules, and wider lip region. Due to the lip region being offset by a deep constriction, and the long (three or more times the body diameter at mid-body) tripartite uterus, the new species is close to Labronemella czernowitzensis (Micoletzky, 1922) Andrássy, 2002 and Labronemella labiata Andrássy, 1985. An improved key to the genus including the new species is provided.