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Sample records for iz rastvorov sernoj

  1. Near-contact Binaries IZ Monocerotis and AR Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Dai, Hai-Feng; Zhou, Zheng; Li, Qun

    2016-05-01

    We present multi-color photometric observations for two neglected near-contact binaries, IZ Mon (P=0\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_fd;77980) and AR Dra (P=0\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_fd;67584). By the aid of the updated W-D analysis code, the photometric solutions were deduced from the multi-color light curves (LCs). IZ Mon is a semi-detached binary with a mass ratio of q=0.388(+/- 0.002), while AR Dra is a detached star with a mass ratio of q=0.652(+/- 0.002). The asymmetric LCs of IZ Mon were modeled by a hot spot on the secondary’s surface, which may be attributed to mass transfer from the primary. Based on all collected eclipse times for two systems, we constructed their timing residual curves. The orbital period for IZ Mon may be continuously decreasing at a rate of {dP}/{dt}=-2.06(+/- 0.04) {days} {{yr}}-1, which may result from mass and angular momentum loss from the central system. For AR Dra, there exists a cyclic variation with a period of {P}3=104.9(+/- 2.9) {yr} due to light-time orbit effect via the presence of the third body, whose mass is more than 0.28(+/- 0.02) {M}⊙ . Finally, two near-contact binaries, IZ Mon and AR Dra, will evolve into contact binaries.

  2. Radio evolution of supernova SN 2008iz in M 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimani, N.; Sendlinger, K.; Brunthaler, A.; Menten, K. M.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Henkel, C.; Falcke, H.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Beswick, R. J.; Bower, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    We report on multi-frequency Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) radio observations for a monitoring campaign of supernova SN 2008iz in the nearby irregular galaxy M 82. We fit two models to the data, a simple time power-law, S ∝ tβ, and a simplified Weiler model, yielding decline indices of β = -1.22 ± 0.07 (days 100-1500) and -1.41 ± 0.02 (days 76-2167), respectively. The late-time radio light-curve evolution shows flux-density flares at ~970 and ~1400 days that are a factor of ~2 and ~4 higher than the expected flux, respectively. The later flare, except for being brighter, does not show signs of decline at least from results examined so far (2014 January 23; day 2167). We derive the spectral index, α, S ∝ να for frequencies 1.4 to 43 GHz for SN 2008iz during the period from ~430 to 2167 days after the supernova explosion. The value of α shows no signs of evolution and remains steep ≈-1 throughout the period, unlike that of SN 1993J, which started flattening at ~day 970. From the 4.8 and 8.4 GHz VLBI images, the supernova expansion is seen to start with a shell-like structure that becomes increasingly more asymmetric, then breaks up in the later epochs, with bright structures dominating the southern part of the ring. This structural evolution differs significantly from SN 1993J, which remains circularly symmetric over 4000 days after the explosion. The VLBI 4.8 and 8.4 GHz images are used to derive a deceleration index, m, for SN 2008iz, of 0.86 ± 0.02, and the average expansion velocity between days 73 and 1400 as (12.1 ± 0.2) × 103 km s-1. From the energy equipartition between magnetic field and particles, we estimate the minimum total energy in relativistic particles and the magnetic fields during the supernova expansion and also find the magnetic field amplification factor for SN 2008iz to be in the range of 55-400. The VLBI images (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVR photometry of IZ Mon and AR Dra (Yang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Zhou, Z.; Li, Q.

    2016-07-01

    CCD Photometry for IZ Mon and AR Dra, was acquired using the 60cm telescope and the 85cm telescope at the Xinglong station (XLs) of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). Two telescopes are equipped with the standard Johnson-Cousins UBVRcIc. filters. We then obtained the individual observations as heliocentric Julian dates and differential magnitude, which are listed in Table1. The complete light curves for IZ Mon were obtained on 2009 January 20, 22, 24, 25, and 26, and March 1, using the 85cm telescope. The exposure times are fixed to be 20, 15, and 15s for BVR bands, respectively. A total of 961, 960, and 959 effective images in BVR bands are obtained. Another primary eclipse for IZ Mon was monitored on 2011 January 17. AR Dra was observed on 2009 February 20, 25, 26, and 27, with the 65cm telescope. The typical exposure times are 50, 40 and 40s for BVR bands, which depend on the condition of weather. In total, we obtained 733, 728 and 356 images in B, V and R bands, respectively. (6 data files).

  4. 76 FR 73760 - In the Matter of the Designation of Imad Fa'iz Mughniyah also Known as Imad Fayiz Mughniyah as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... published in the Federal Register. Dated: October 24, 2011. Hillary Rodham Clinton, Secretary of State... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Imad Fa'iz Mughniyah also Known as Imad Fayiz Mughniyah as a...

  5. Response of lake water quality to wastewater inputs from land-based fish farm located on Yuvarlakçay Creek in Köyceğiz-Dalyan Specially Protected Area, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Taşeli, B K

    2009-10-01

    Köyceğiz Lake is located in the south-western part of Turkey. The area between the Köyceğiz Lake and the Mediterranean Sea is covered with four small lakes and several canals. The surroundings of the lake, canals and forests have a great potential as a reproduction areas for Mediterranean Sea turtles (Caretta caretta) and sheltering place for various animals. In the vicinity of this system there are agricultural areas and small settlements. In this region the most important economic activities are tourism and fisheries. However, the lake is currently threatened by pollution because of (1) non-point source pollution (agriculture); (2) point sources (land-based fish farms); (3) inefficient sewerage systems; (4) uncontrolled soil erosion in its drainage basin; (5) inappropriate flood control measures; and (6) channel traffic. This study evaluates the influence of its influent creeks namely Namnam and Yuvarlakçay Creek on the water quality of Köyceğiz Lake, mainly because the creeks are believed to be responsible for the major pollutant load reaching the lake. Accordingly, this study demonstrates (1) change in the water quality of Köyceğiz Lake from 2006 to 2007; (2) the water quality classification of the major influent creeks feeding Köyceğiz Lake; and (3) how land-based fish farm influences Yuvarlakçay Creek water quality in a Köyceğiz-Dalyan Specially Protected Area.

  6. Response of lake water quality to wastewater inputs from land-based fish farm located on Yuvarlakçay Creek in Köyceğiz-Dalyan Specially Protected Area, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Taşeli, B K

    2009-10-01

    Köyceğiz Lake is located in the south-western part of Turkey. The area between the Köyceğiz Lake and the Mediterranean Sea is covered with four small lakes and several canals. The surroundings of the lake, canals and forests have a great potential as a reproduction areas for Mediterranean Sea turtles (Caretta caretta) and sheltering place for various animals. In the vicinity of this system there are agricultural areas and small settlements. In this region the most important economic activities are tourism and fisheries. However, the lake is currently threatened by pollution because of (1) non-point source pollution (agriculture); (2) point sources (land-based fish farms); (3) inefficient sewerage systems; (4) uncontrolled soil erosion in its drainage basin; (5) inappropriate flood control measures; and (6) channel traffic. This study evaluates the influence of its influent creeks namely Namnam and Yuvarlakçay Creek on the water quality of Köyceğiz Lake, mainly because the creeks are believed to be responsible for the major pollutant load reaching the lake. Accordingly, this study demonstrates (1) change in the water quality of Köyceğiz Lake from 2006 to 2007; (2) the water quality classification of the major influent creeks feeding Köyceğiz Lake; and (3) how land-based fish farm influences Yuvarlakçay Creek water quality in a Köyceğiz-Dalyan Specially Protected Area. PMID:18855110

  7. Physico-chemical and biological characteristics of thermal springs in Köyceğiz and Dalaman basins in south-western Turkey and recommendations for their protection.

    PubMed

    Kazanci, N; Girgin, S

    2001-01-01

    Many hydrogeological researches exist on the thermal springs of Turkey but limnological researches are very deficient. The results of the limnological research of the thermal springs in the basin of the meromictic lake Köyceğiz and Dalaman Basin are as follows; the thermal springs are of euthermal or chliarothermal types. In the thermal springs thermotolerant diatoms constituted the major plankton flora. Recommendations for the protection of thermal springs are given according to the results of this research.

  8. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformations and seismically amplified erosion rates recorded in varved sediments of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avşar, Ulaş; Jónsson, Sigurjón; Avşar, Özgür; Schmidt, Sabine

    2016-06-01

    Earthquake-triggered landslides amplify erosion rates in catchments, i.e., catchment response (CR) to seismic shocks. In addition to historical eyewitness accounts of muddy rivers implying CRs after large earthquakes, several studies have quantitatively reported increased sediment concentrations in rivers after earthquakes. However, only a few paleolimnological studies could detect CRs within lacustrine sedimentary sequences as siliciclastic-enriched intercalations within background sedimentation. Since siliciclastic-enriched intercalations can easily be of nonseismic origin, their temporal correlation with nearby earthquakes is crucial to assign a seismic triggering mechanism. In most cases, either uncertainties in dating methods or the lack of recent seismic activity has prevented reliable temporal correlations, making the seismic origin of observed sedimentary events questionable. Here we attempt to remove this question mark by presenting sedimentary traces of CRs in the 370-year-long varved sequence of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey) that we compare with estimated peak ground acceleration (PGA) values of several nearby earthquakes. We find that earthquakes exceeding estimated PGA values of ~20 cm/s2 can induce soft-sediment deformations, while CRs seem only to be triggered by PGA levels higher than 70 cm/s2. In Köyceğiz Lake, CRs produce Cr- and Ni-enriched sedimentation due to the seismically mobilized soils derived from ultramafic rocks in the catchment. Given the varve chronology, the residence time of the seismically mobilized material in the catchment is determined to be 5 to 10 years.

  9. Three types of condensed cluster phases of rare-earth metal iodides with transition metal interstitials: Pr{sub 4}I{sub 5}Ni, Pr{sub 3}I{sub 3}Os, Pr{sub 2}INi{sub 2}, and La{sub 2}IZ{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.; Martin, J.D.; Corbett, J.D.

    1997-03-01

    Syntheses of the title compounds result from appropriate reactions of the elements and RI{sub 3} (R=La, Pr) in sealed Nb containers at, variously, 800-990{degrees}C. The structures of three were detailed by single crystal X-ray diffraction: Pr{sub 4}I{sub 5}Ni, Pmmn, Z = 2, R(F)/R{sub w} = 3.6/5.3%; Pr{sub 3}I{sub 3}Os, P2{sub 1}/m, Z = 2, R/R{sub 2} 2.4/2.8%; Pr{sub 2}INi{sub 2}, P6{sub 3}/mmc, Z = 2, R/R{sub w} = 2.2/3.6. The new compounds La{sub 2}IZ{sub 2}, Z = Fe, Co, Ru, Os, were shown to be isostructural with Pr{sub 2}INi{sub 2}(Gd{sub 2}IFe{sub 2}) by Guinier powder diffraction. Pr{sub 4}I{sub 5}Ni, the first orthorhombic example among the R{sub 4}I{sub 5}Z series, consists of R{sub 6}Z octahedra condensed into chains. The new example contains the most extreme R:Z size proportions and clearly lacks the strong d{pi}-d{pi} bonding between Z and apical R seen within other members. Pr{sub 3}I{sub 3}Os, previously known only with a cubic Gd{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}C-(Ca{sub 3}I{sub 3}P-)-type structure, also occurs as a relatively undistorted member of the monoclinic Pr{sub 3}I{sub 3}Ru (double chain) family. Apical Pr-Os {pi}-bonding appears significant, with Pr-Os distances that are 0.24 {angstrom} shorter than the average within the waist of the parent octahedra. The R{sub 2}IZ{sub 2} phases expand the number of examples of the unusual Gd{sub 2}IFe{sub 2} structure, which contains AlB{sub 2}-like slabs; namely, graphite-like Z{sub 2} nets between eclipsed pairs of R layers that are in turn separated by single iodine layers. Notable distances in Pr{sub 2}INi{sub 2} are Ni-Ni, 2.36 {angstrom}, and Pr-Ni, 2.98 {angstrom}. Charge-consistent, extended Hueckel band calculations in La{sub 2}IFe{sub 2} (in contrast with results reported for Gd{sub 2}IFe{sub 2}) demonstrate a strong mixing of La-Fe and Fe-Fe bonding in a partially filled band, the Fe states on balance falling only slightly below those of La.

  10. Production of alcohol from Jerusalem artichoke for gasoline additive. Proucavanje mogucnosti proizvodnje alkohola iz topinambura kao dodatka u benzin

    SciTech Connect

    Pekic, B.; Kisgeci, J.

    1984-01-01

    Trials conducted in 1980 and 1981 on three soil types, chernozem (a rich soil), anthropogenized black sand (a medium-rich soil), and anthropogenized brown sand (a poor soil), showed that the Jerusalem artichoke was superior to conventional field crops (corn, sugarbeet, potato, and sorghum) regarding the yield of carbohydrates per unit area, especially when grown on the poor soil. The analyses of the technological properties of Jerusalem artichokes grown for two years in the experimental plots showed that the plant species is a quality raw material for the production of alcohol. From the aspect of alcohol production, the quality of the tested varieties of Jerusalem artichoke depended neither on soil quality nor on the delay in harvesting the crop after it reached technological maturity. The results of the study indicate that the alcohol production from Jerusalem artichokes would be more economic, i.e., more profitable, than the production from conventional raw materials. The study of the carbohydrate composition of Jerusalem artichoke tubers made it clear that besides alcohol production, Jerusalem artichokes are a good raw material for the production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose. Since the interest in these products kept increasing in recent years, because of their exceptional characters, it is necessary to establish research programs to cover these field too. In the course of the study the authors came across some interesting literature data on the use of Jerusalem artichokes as a raw material for the production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose. Some of the publication, i.e., those that might be useful in further research work, are appended to this study.

  11. Silver bullet or trojan horse? The effects of inclusionary zoning on local housing markets in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, Jenny; Meltzer, Rachel; Been, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    Many local governments are adopting inclusionary zoning (IZ) as a means of producing affordable housing without direct public subsidies. In this paper, panel data on IZ in the San Francisco metropolitan area and suburban Boston are used to analyse how much affordable housing the programmes produce and how IZ affects the prices and production of market-rate housing. The amount of affordable housing produced under IZ has been modest and depends primarily on how long IZ has been in place. Results from suburban Boston suggest that IZ has contributed to increased housing prices and lower rates of production during periods of regional house price appreciation. In the San Francisco area, IZ also appears to increase housing prices in times of regional price appreciation, but to decrease prices during cooler regional markets. There is no evidence of a statistically significant effect of IZ on new housing development in the Bay Area.

  12. Is Inclusionary Zoning Inclusionary? A Guide for Practitioners. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Ecola, Liisa; Leuschner, Kristin J.; Kofner, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Inclusionary zoning (IZ) has become an increasingly popular tool for providing affordable housing in an economically integrative manner. IZ policies typically require developers to set aside a proportion of units in market-rate residential developments to be made affordable for lower-income households in exchange for development rights or zoning…

  13. Selective determination of isoniazid using bentonite clay modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Azad, Uday Pratap; Prajapati, Nandlal; Ganesan, Vellaichamy

    2015-02-01

    Fe(dmbpy)3(2+) (where dmbpy is 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) was immobilized by ion-exchange in a bentonite clay film coating on a glassy carbon electrode. Cyclic voltammetry characteristics of the immobilized Fe(dmbpy)3(2+) were stable and reproducible corresponding to the Fe(dmbpy)3(2+/3+) redox process. In the presence of isoniazid (IZ), the electrogenerated in film Fe(dmbpy)3(3+) oxidized IZ efficiently producing large anodic current. This current was linearly proportional to the IZ concentration in the solution. The process was described by an EC' electrocatalysis mechanism allowing for sensitive determination of IZ with a wide linear dynamic concentration range of 10.0μM to 10.0mM. The electrode was tested for its analytical suitability and possible discrimination of interferences by determining IZ in a commercially available pharmaceutical product. The paper reports on a simple, cheap, and easy to fabricate chronoamperometric chemical sensor for determination of IZ. Kinetic parameters, such as the catalytic rate constant (2.3×10(3)M(-1)s(-1)) and diffusion coefficient of IZ (5.42×10(-5)cm(2)s(-1)), were determined using CV, chronoamperometry, and chronocoulometry. PMID:25260015

  14. Automatic localisation of innervation zones: a simulation study of the external anal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Mesin, Luca; Gazzoni, Marco; Merletti, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    Traumas of the innervation zone (IZ) of the external anal sphincter (EAS), e.g. during delivery, can promote the development of faecal incontinence. Recently developed probes allow high-resolution detection of EMG signals from the EAS. The analysis of pelvic floor muscles by surface EMG (in particular, the estimation of the location of the IZ) has potential applications in the diagnosis and investigation of the mechanisms of incontinence. An automatic method (based on matched filter approach) for the estimation of the IZ distribution of EAS from surface EMG is discussed and tested using an analytical model of generation of EMG signals from sphincter muscles. Simulations are performed varying length of the fibres, thickness of the mucosa, position of the motor units, and force level. Different distributions of IZs are simulated. The performance of the proposed method in the estimation of the IZ distribution is affected by surface MUAP amplitude (as the estimation made by visual inspection), by mucosa thickness (performance decreases when fibre length is higher) and by different MU distributions. However, in general the method is able to identify the position of two IZ locations and can measure asymmetry of the IZ distribution. This strengthens the potential applications of high density surface EMG in the prevention and investigation of incontinence.

  15. Imprinted zeolite modified carbon paste electrode as a potentiometric sensor for uric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanah, Miratul; Widati, Alfa Akustia; Fitri, Sarita Aulia

    2016-03-01

    Imprinted zeolite modified carbon paste electrode (carbon paste-IZ) has been developed and applied to determine uric acid by potentiometry. The imprinted zeolite (IZ) was synthesized by the mole ratio of uric acid/Si of 0.0306. The modified electrode was manufactured by mass ratio of carbon, IZ and solid paraffin was 40:25:35. The modified electrode had shown the measurement range of 10-5 M to 10-2 M with Nernst factor of 28.6 mV/decade, the detection limit of 5.86 × 10-6 M and the accuracy of 95.3 - 105.0%. Response time of the electrode for uric acid 10-5 M - 10-2 M was 25 - 44 s. The developed electrode showed the high selectivity toward uric acid in the urea matrix. Life time of the carbon paste-IZ electrode was 10 weeks.

  16. What Are Normal Puberty, Precocious Puberty, and Delayed Puberty?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a long-lasting condition known as hypogonadism (pronounced HI-poe-GO-nad-iz-uhm ) in which the ... Turner syndrome or in individuals with hypogonadotropic (pronounced HI-po-GO-nah-doe-TROH-pik ) hypogonadism, which ...

  17. Evaluation of recombinant fusion protein comprising dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 and Izumo and individual fragments as immunogens for contraception.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Abhinav; Wadhwa, Neerja; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2014-01-23

    Vaccines based on gamete specific proteins have been proposed for fertility inhibition. In the present study, immunogenicity and contraceptive potential of E. coli-expressed recombinant fusion protein TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz, comprising promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid (TT) followed by dilysin linker (KK), a fragment of dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 (ZP3), triglycine spacer (GGG) and a fragment of dog Izumo (Iz) without any affinity tag has been evaluated in female FvB/J mice. In addition, recombinant TT-KK-ZP3 and Izumo linked to the promiscuous T cell epitope of bovine RNase (bRNase-KK-Iz) and their physical mixture were also used. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot studies revealed ∼32kDa band corresponding to TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz, ∼22kDa band of TT-KK-ZP3 and ∼11kDa band of bRNase-KK-Iz. Groups of mice immunized with the above recombinant proteins led to the generation of high antibody titres against the respective proteins. Immunization with recombinant TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz generated higher antibody titre as compared to mice immunized with physical mixture of TT-KK-ZP3 and bRNase-KK-Iz. Antibodies against TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz and TT-KK-ZP3 recognized mouse and dog ZP and those against TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz and bRNase-KK-Iz recognized mouse and dog acrosome-reacted sperm in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Immune sera from groups of mice immunized with the above recombinant proteins led to a significant reduction in mouse in vitro fertilization. Mating studies revealed significant reduction in fertility as compared to adjuvant control group. Highest infertility was observed in group of mice immunized with TT-KK-ZP3 followed by TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz. Infertility was associated with the antibody titres against ZP3, whereas no association in the inhibition of fertility and antibody titres against Izumo was observed. In conclusion, these studies revealed the contraceptive potential of ZP3, which could not be further enhanced by the inclusion of Izumo. PMID:24333343

  18. Myofascial trigger points and innervation zone locations in upper trapezius muscles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are hyperirritable spots located in taut bands of muscle fibres. Electrophysiological studies indicate that abnormal electrical activity is detectable near MTrPs. This phenomenon has been described as endplate noise and it has been purported to be associated MTrP pathophysiology. Thus, it is suggested that MTrPs will be overlap the innervation zone (IZ). The purpose of this work was to describe the location of MTrPs and the IZ in the right upper trapezius. Methods We screened 71 individuals and eventually enrolled 24 subjects with neck pain and active MTrPs and 24 neck pain-free subjects with latent MTrPs. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals were detected using an electrode matrix during isometric contraction of the upper trapezius. A physiotherapist subsequently examined the subject’s trapezius to confirm the presence of MTrPs and establish their location. IZ locations were identified by visual analysis of sEMG signals. IZ and MTrPs locations were described using an anatomical coordinate system (ACS), with the skin area covered by the matrix divided into four quadrants. Results No significant difference was observed between active and latent MTrPs locations (P = 0.6). Forty-five MTrPs were in the third quadrant of the ACS, and 3 were included in second quadrant. IZs were located approximately midway between the seventh cervical vertebrae and the acromial angle in a limited area in the second and third quadrants. The mean distance between MTrP and IZ was 10.4 ± 5.8 mm. Conclusions According to the acquired results, we conclude that IZ and MTrPs are located in well-defined areas in upper trapezius muscle. Moreover, MTrPs in upper trapezius are proximally located to the IZ but not overlapped. PMID:23758854

  19. Use of biomarkers in resident organisms as a tool for environmental monitoring in a cold coastal system, Tierra del Fuego Island.

    PubMed

    Comoglio, L; Amin, O; Botté, S; Marcovecchio, J

    2011-03-01

    Antioxidant status of Nacella (P) magellanica and Mytilus edulis related with heavy metal in sediment and tissues were analysed in five stations close to Ushuaia city in winter and spring. The principal component analysis produced a two-dimensional pattern of the degree of similarity between sites. The Industrial-Urban Contamination Index (IUCI) showed that the Industrial Zone (IZ) and Oil Marine Station (OMS) represent areas with anthropic inputs. Heavy metals have differential association with biomarkers depending on the species. In limpets, digestive gland presented major activities of enzyme defence in winter and gonads have shown higher values of Catalase (CAT) during spring while lipid peroxidation (LPO) presented higher values in IZ. For mussels CAT and LPO increased in spring time. For superoxide dismutase (SOD) peaks have been detected in IZ and NW stations for winter. Differences in biomarker responses due to seasons did not influence the grouping of the sites into references and contaminated groups. PMID:21035188

  20. Use of biomarkers in resident organisms as a tool for environmental monitoring in a cold coastal system, Tierra del Fuego Island.

    PubMed

    Comoglio, L; Amin, O; Botté, S; Marcovecchio, J

    2011-03-01

    Antioxidant status of Nacella (P) magellanica and Mytilus edulis related with heavy metal in sediment and tissues were analysed in five stations close to Ushuaia city in winter and spring. The principal component analysis produced a two-dimensional pattern of the degree of similarity between sites. The Industrial-Urban Contamination Index (IUCI) showed that the Industrial Zone (IZ) and Oil Marine Station (OMS) represent areas with anthropic inputs. Heavy metals have differential association with biomarkers depending on the species. In limpets, digestive gland presented major activities of enzyme defence in winter and gonads have shown higher values of Catalase (CAT) during spring while lipid peroxidation (LPO) presented higher values in IZ. For mussels CAT and LPO increased in spring time. For superoxide dismutase (SOD) peaks have been detected in IZ and NW stations for winter. Differences in biomarker responses due to seasons did not influence the grouping of the sites into references and contaminated groups.

  1. Continuous desulfurization and bacterial community structure of an integrated bioreactor developed to treat SO2 from a gas stream.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Li, Lin; Ding, Wenjie; Zhang, Jingying; Liu, Junxin

    2015-11-01

    Sulfide dioxide (SO2) is often released during the combustion processes of fossil fuels. An integrated bioreactor with two sections, namely, a suspended zone (SZ) and immobilized zone (IZ), was applied to treat SO2 for 6months. Sampling ports were set in both sections to investigate the performance and microbial characteristics of the integrated bioreactor. SO2 was effectively removed by the synergistic effect of the SZ and IZ, and more than 85% removal efficiency was achieved at steady state. The average elimination capacity of SO2 in the bioreactor was 2.80g/(m(3)·hr) for the SZ and 1.50g/(m(3)·hr) for the IZ. Most SO2 was eliminated in the SZ. The liquid level of the SZ and the water content ratio of the packing material in the IZ affected SO2 removal efficiency. The SZ served a key function not only in SO2 elimination, but also in moisture maintenance for the IZ. The desired water content in IZ could be feasibly maintained without any additional pre-humidification facilities. Clone libraries of 16S rDNA directly amplified from the DNA of each sample were constructed and sequenced to analyze the community composition and diversity in the individual zones. The desulfurization bacteria dominated both zones. Paenibacillus sp. was present in both zones, whereas Ralstonia sp. existed only in the SZ. The transfer of SO2 to the SZ involved dissolution in the nutrient solution and biodegradation by the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. This work presents a potential biological treatment method for waste gases containing hydrophilic compounds.

  2. Angiotensin receptor blockade and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition limit adverse remodeling of infarct zone collagens and global diastolic dysfunction during healing after reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jugdutt, Bodh I; Idikio, Halliday; Uwiera, Richard R E

    2007-09-01

    To determine whether therapy with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) candesartan and the comparator angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) enalapril during healing after reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction (RSTEMI) limit adverse remodeling of infarct zone (IZ) collagens and left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, we randomized 24 dogs surviving anterior RSTEMI (90-min coronary occlusion) to placebo, candesartan, and enalapril therapy between day 2 and 42. Six other dogs were sham. We measured regional IZ and non-infarct zone (NIZ) collagens (hydroxyproline; types I/III; cross-linking), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and topography at 6 weeks, and hemodynamics, LV diastolic and systolic function, and remodeling over 6 weeks. Compared to sham, placebo-RSTEMI differentially altered regional collagens, with more pronounced increase in TGF-beta, hydroxyproline, and type I, insoluble, and cross-linked collagens in the IZ than NIZ, and increased IZ soluble and type III collagens at 6 weeks, and induced persistent LV filling pressure elevation, diastolic and systolic dysfunction, and LV remodeling over 6 weeks. Compared to placebo-RSTEMI, candesartan and enalapril limited adverse regional collagen remodeling, with normalization of type III, soluble and insoluble collagens and decrease in pyridinoline cross-linking in the IZ at 6 weeks, and attenuation of LV filling pressure, diastolic dysfunction, and remodeling over 6 weeks. The results suggest that candesartan and enalapril during healing after RSTEMI prevent rather than worsen adverse remodeling of IZ collagens and LV diastolic dysfunction, supporting the clinical use of ARBs and ACEIs during subacute RSTEMI.

  3. The Functionator 3000: Transforming Numbers and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Elaine Cerrato; Roy, George; Reeves, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Mrs. Fisher's class was learning about arithmetic functions by pretending to operate real-world "function machines" (Reeves 2006). Functions are a unifying mathematics topic, and a great deal of emphasis is placed on understanding them in prekindergarten through grade 12 (Kilpatrick and Izsák 2008). In its Algebra Content Standard,…

  4. "Educación Bilingüe a Nivel De Escuela Secundaria": Dual-Language Education at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Dania

    2013-01-01

    The Summer 2013 issue of "Voices in Urban Education" presents an interview with Dania Vazquez, founding principal of the Margarita Muñiz Academy, a Boston public high school offering dual-language education in Spanish and English. The first dual-language high school in Massachusetts, this Innovation School opened in the fall of 2012 with…

  5. 75 FR 54697 - Unblocking of Thirteen Specially Designated Nationals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... HONEY CENTER), Sanaa, Yemen . AL-KADR, Ahmad Sa'id (a.k.a. AL-KANADI, Abu Abd Al-Rahman); DOB 01 Mar..., Al- Hasabah, Sanaa, Yemen; By the Shrine Next to the Gas Station, Jamal Street, Ta'iz, Yemen; Al-'Arudh Square, Khur Maksar, Aden, Yemen; Al- Nasr Street, Doha, Qatar . AWEYS, Dahir Ubeidullahi,...

  6. The effects of skinfold thicknesses and innervation zone on the mechanomyographic signal during cycle ergometry.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Jorge M; Housh, Terry J; Camic, Clayton L; Russell Hendrix, C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of skinfold (SF) thicknesses at four locations on the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle and the placement of accelerometers relative to the innervation zone (IZ) on the mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude and mean power frequency (MPF) responses during incremental cycle ergometry. Twenty adults (age±SD=23.8±3.0 years) participated in the investigation. The MMG signals were detected during incremental cycle ergometry using four accelerometers placed on the right VL. Prior to the cycle ergometer test, SF thicknesses were measured. Simple linear regression analyses and one-way repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were performed. The present study found that only 10% of the regression analyses and mean comparisons were significant (p<0.05). Furthermore, the accelerometer placed at the most proximal site (Prox 2) had significantly greater MMG amplitude and MMG MPF than accelerometers placed at more distal sites (Prox 1, Over IZ, and Dist). There were no significant differences, however, in SF thickness between accelerometer placement sites. In addition, the IZ had no effect on MMG amplitude and little effect on MMG MPF values. The results of the present study indicated that the SF thickness values and IZ did not affect the MMG signal.

  7. Reducing the duration of broadband excitation pulses using optimal control with limited RF amplitude.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Thomas E; Reiss, Timo O; Luy, Burkhard; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J

    2004-03-01

    Combining optimal control theory with a new RF limiting step produces pulses with significantly reduced duration and improved performance for a given maximum RF amplitude compared to previous broadband excitation by optimized pulses (BEBOP). The resulting pulses tolerate variations in RF homogeneity relevant for standard high-resolution NMR probes. Design criteria were transformation of Iz-->Ix over resonance offsets of +/-20kHz and RF variability of +/-5%, with a pulse length of 500 micros and peak RF amplitude equal to 17.5 kHz. Simulations transform Iz to greater than 0.995 Ix, with phase deviations of the final magnetization less than 2 degrees, over ranges of resonance offset and RF variability that exceed the design targets. Experimental performance of the pulse is in excellent agreement with the simulations. Performance tradeoffs for yet shorter pulses or pulses with decreased digitization are also investigated. PMID:14987600

  8. Sampling and composition of airborne particulate matter (PM10) from two locations of Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Chirino, Yolanda I.; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-01-01

    The PM10 airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm is considered as a risk factor of various adverse health outcomes, including lung cancer. Here we described the sampling and composition of PM10 collected from an industrial zone (IZ), and a commercial zone (CZ) of Mexico City. The PM10 was collected with a high-volume sampler in the above mentioned locations and both types of PM10 sampled were characterized by the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and endotoxin. The endotoxin PM10 content from IZ and CZ displayed 138.4 UE/mg and 170.4 UE/mg of PM10, respectively. PMID:26217815

  9. Sampling and composition of airborne particulate matter (PM10) from two locations of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Yolanda I; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-09-01

    The PM10 airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm is considered as a risk factor of various adverse health outcomes, including lung cancer. Here we described the sampling and composition of PM10 collected from an industrial zone (IZ), and a commercial zone (CZ) of Mexico City. The PM10 was collected with a high-volume sampler in the above mentioned locations and both types of PM10 sampled were characterized by the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and endotoxin. The endotoxin PM10 content from IZ and CZ displayed 138.4 UE/mg and 170.4 UE/mg of PM10, respectively.

  10. Effect of the microstructure on the lifetime of dental ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Márcia; de Araújo, Maico D.; Fukushima, Karen A.; Yoshimura, Humberto N.; Cesar, Paulo F.; Griggs, Jason A.; Della Bona, Álvaro

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of the microstructure on the Weibull and slow crack growth (SCG) parameters and on the lifetime of three ceramics used as framework materials for fixed partial dentures (FPDs) (YZ - Vita In-Ceram YZ; IZ - Vita In-Ceram Zirconia; AL - Vita In-Ceram AL) and of two veneering porcelains (VM7 and VM9). Methods Bar-shaped specimens were fabricated according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Specimens were tested in three-point flexure in 37°C artificial saliva. Weibull analysis (n=30) and a constant stress-rate test (n=10) were used to determine the Weibull modulus (m) and SCG coefficient (n), respectively. Microstructural and fractographic analyses were performed using SEM. ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05) were used to statistically analyze data obtained with both microstructural and fractographic analyses. Results YZ and AL presented high crystalline content and low porosity (0.1–0.2%). YZ had the highest characteristic strength (σ0) value (911 MPa) followed by AL (488 MPa) and IZ (423 MPa). Lower σ0 values were observed for the porcelains (68–75 MPa). Except for IZ and VM7, m values were similar among the ceramic materials. Higher n values were found for YZ (76) and AL (72), followed by IZ (54) and the veneering materials (36–44). Lifetime predictions showed that YZ was the material with the best mechanical performance. The size of the critical flaw was similar among the framework materials (34–48 µm) and among the porcelains (75–86 µm). Significance The microstructure influenced the mechanical and SCG behavior of the studied materials and, consequently, the lifetime predictions. PMID:21536324

  11. Single event upset susceptibility testing of the Xilinx Virtex II FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yui, C.; Swift, G.; Carmichael, C.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy ion testing of the Xilinx Virtex IZ was conducted on the configuration, block RAM and user flip flop cells to determine their single event upset susceptibility using LETs of 1.2 to 60 MeVcm^2/mg. A software program specifically designed to count errors in the FPGA is used to reveal L1/e values and single-event-functional interrupt failures.

  12. The influence of the muscle fiber pennation angle and innervation zone on the identification of neuromuscular fatigue during cycle ergometry.

    PubMed

    Camic, Clayton L; Housh, Terry J; Hendrix, C Russell; Zuniga, Jorge M; Bergstrom, Haley C; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) responses and the estimated physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWC(FT)) values recorded from electrode arrangements placed: (1) parallel to the muscle fiber pennation angle (MFPA), (2) parallel to the long axis of the femur, and (3) over the innervation zone (IZ) during incremental cycle ergometry. Thirteen college-aged males and females (mean age ± SD=22.4 ± 3.4 years) performed an incremental test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. A linear electrode array was utilized to determine the MFPA and location of the IZ of the vastus lateralis (VL). For determination of the PWC(FT) values, EMG signals were recorded from three bipolar electrode arrangements at different locations over the VL. The results of a one-way repeated measures ANOVA indicated there were no significant (p<0.05) mean differences in PWC(FT) values among the electrode arrangements (parallel to the MFPA=190 ± 36 W; parallel to the long axis of the femur=194 ± 40 W; and over the IZ=199 ± 51 W) or the EMG amplitude and MPF values at the common power outputs. There were also significant correlations (r=0.75-0.91) among the three electrode arrangements for PWC(FT) values. These findings suggested that the PWC(FT), like absolute EMG amplitude and MPF, is robust to the influence of electrode placement over the IZ as well as the orientation with respect to the MFPA during cycle ergometry.

  13. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    Beer's Law: The Real Hazards by S. R. Logan Re: article by M. A. Muyskens and E. T. Sevy The author replies Photodimerization of Maleic Anhydride by Zhijun Zhang Re: article by D. Todd and M. Pickering (J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1100) Qual from a Different Viewpoint by Francisco J. Arnáiz Re: article by M. Laing (J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 666)

  14. Towards an informative mutant phenotype for every bacterial gene

    SciTech Connect

    Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Tarjan, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjen; Leon, Dacia; Arkin, Adam P.; Skerker, Jeffrey M.

    2014-08-11

    Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, in <i>Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of <i>Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized <i>Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in <i>Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometric brown-dwarf classification (Skrzypek+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, N.; Warren, S. J.; Faherty, J. K.

    2016-02-01

    Table 3 (L dwarfs) and Table 4 (T dwarfs) provide coordinates and photometry of the 1281 L dwarfs and 80 T dwarfs, J<17.5, found by Skrzypek et al. 2016 using the photo-type classification method. Coordinates and photometry in izYJHKW1W2 (on the Vega system) is provided, as well as the photo-type classification, and any existing spectroscopic classification in the literature. (3 data files).

  16. The influence zone of surfactant-enhanced air sparging in different media.

    PubMed

    Chuan-Yu, Qin; Yong-Sheng, Zhao; Wei, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of the influence zone (IZ) of air sparging (AS) in different media at different surface tension. Different kinds of media were used in two-dimensional tank experiments, designed to determine (1) the effect of surface tension reduction on the airflow pattern during AS in different air travelling modes (channels and bubbles) in homogeneous aquifer and (2) the airflow distribution and migration characteristics in heterogeneous aquifer at different surface tension during AS. The results demonstrated that in homogeneous gravel aquifer, the IZ was almost identical with or without surfactant addition into groundwater, the air saturation, however, was increased with decreasing surface tension. In homogeneous coarse sand tank saturated with 500 mg/L sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS) solution, the IZ was approximately 1.3 times larger than that in the same medium saturated with distilled water. In addition, the density of airflow channels was much larger in medium saturated with SDBS solution. In heterogeneous subsurface saturated with distilled water, when the permeability ratio between two adjoining layers was 8:1, air would bypass low-permeable soils. In contrast, the air would infiltrate into low-permeable soils when SDBS concentration in groundwater was 1000 mg/L. The results indicate that surfactant-enhanced air sparging can effectively improve the volatile organic compounds removal both in homogeneous and heterogeneous media.

  17. Molecules and mechanisms that regulate multipolar migration in the intermediate zone.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    Most neurons migrate with an elongated, "bipolar" morphology, extending a long leading process that explores the environment. However, when immature projection neurons enter the intermediate zone (IZ) of the neocortex they become "multipolar". Multipolar cells extend and retract cytoplasmic processes in different directions and move erratically-sideways, up and down. Multipolar cells extend axons while they are in the lower half of the IZ. Remarkably, the cells then resume radial migration: they reorient their centrosome and Golgi apparatus towards the pia, transform back to bipolar morphology, and commence locomotion along radial glia (RG) fibers. This reorientation implies the existence of directional signals in the IZ that are ignored during the multipolar stage but sensed after axonogenesis. In vivo genetic manipulation has implicated a variety of candidate directional signals, cell surface receptors, and signaling pathways, that may be involved in polarizing multipolar cells and stabilizing a pia-directed leading process for radial migration. Other signals are implicated in starting multipolar migration and triggering axon outgrowth. Here we review the molecules and mechanisms that regulate multipolar migration, and also discuss how multipolar migration affects the orderly arrangement of neurons in layers and columns in the developing neocortex.

  18. Distribution, diversity and abundance of bacterial laccase-like genes in different particle size fractions of sediments in a subtropical mangrove ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Chao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the diversity and abundance of bacterial lacasse-like genes in different particle size fractions, namely sand, silt, and clay of sediments in a subtropical mangrove ecosystem. Moreover, the effects of nutrient conditions on bacterial laccase-like communities as well as the correlation between nutrients and, both the abundance and diversity indices of laccase-like bacteria in particle size fractions were also studied. Compared to bulk sediments, Bacteroidetes, Caldithrix, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi were dominated in all 3 particle-size fractions of intertidal sediment (IZ), but Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were lost after the fractionation procedures used. The diversity index of IZ fractions decreased in the order of bulk > clay > silt > sand. In fractions of mangrove forest sediment (MG), Verrucomicrobia was found in silt, and both Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes appeared in clay, but no new species were found in sand. The declining order of diversity index in MG fractions was clay > silt > sand > bulk. Furthermore, the abundance of lacasse-like bacteria varied with different particle-size fractions significantly (p < 0.05), and decreased in the order of sand > clay > silt in both IZ and MG fractions. Additionally, nutrient availability was found to significantly affect the diversity and community structure of laccase-like bacteria (p < 0.05), while the total organic carbon contents were positively related to the abundance of bacterial laccase-like genes in particle size fractions (p < 0.05). Therefore, this study further provides evidence that bacterial laccase plays a vital role in turnover of sediment organic matter and cycling of nutrients. PMID:25822201

  19. In-vitro Callus Propagation and Secondary Metabolite Quantification in Sericostoma pauciflorum

    PubMed Central

    C. Jain, Satish; Pancholi, Boskey; Jain, Renuka

    2012-01-01

    Sericostoma pauciflorum Stocks ex Wight (Family Boraginaceae) used against cancer, diabetes and known to be health promoter. Callus cultures have been established from the stem explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L concentration of different growth hormone viz. kinetin (Kn), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-butyric acid (IBA). At 6 weeks of age, these calli were harvested, dried and extracted successively in pet, ether, methanol and water. Extracts were dried, weighed (%) and analyzed for their bioefficacies. Antimicrobial activities were determined using agar well diffusion and antioxidant potentials by DPPH and FRAP methods. Among all the test extracts, the extract of stem callus raised on IBA found to be more effective whereas it’s pet. ether extract showed appreciable activity against both the test bacteria and fungi (S. aureus- IZ 14.00 ± 0.57 mm and T. rubrum- 16.33 ± 0.32 mm), followed by methanol extract (S. aureus- IZ 13.00 ± 0.57 mm, A. niger and P. chrysogenum- IZ 16.66 mm in both). In antioxidant potentials, all aqueous extracts were more active where IBA and Kn extracts demonstrated 0.06 mg/mL IC50 value (% inhibition 93.30 and 92.70 respectively at 0.8 mg/mL concentration) with 366 ± 6.69 and 343 ± 3.34 ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant potentials at 1 mg/mL concentration. Furthermore, the chemical profile of test extracts was carried out. The bioactive secondary metabolites, β-sitosterol and caffeic acid was isolated from culture tissue of 6 weeks-old callus, and their identification and confirmation was carried out by color reaction, TLC behavior and IR spectrum techniques. PMID:24250543

  20. Photometric brown-dwarf classification. II. A homogeneous sample of 1361 L and T dwarfs brighter than J = 17.5 with accurate spectral types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, N.; Warren, S. J.; Faherty, J. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a homogeneous sample of 1361 L and T dwarfs brighter than J = 17.5 (of which 998 are new), from an effective area of 3070 deg2, classified by the photo-type method to an accuracy of one spectral sub-type using izYJHKW1W2 photometry from SDSS+UKIDSS+WISE. Other than a small bias in the early L types, the sample is shown to be effectively complete to the magnitude limit, for all spectral types L0 to T8. The nature of the bias is an incompleteness estimated at 3% because peculiar blue L dwarfs of type L4 and earlier are classified late M. There is a corresponding overcompleteness because peculiar red (likely young) late M dwarfs are classified early L. Contamination of the sample is confirmed to be small: so far spectroscopy has been obtained for 19 sources in the catalogue and all are confirmed to be ultracool dwarfs. We provide coordinates and izYJHKW1W2 photometry of all sources. We identify an apparent discontinuity, Δm ~ 0.4 mag, in the Y - K colour between spectral types L7 and L8. We present near-infrared spectra of nine sources identified by photo-type as peculiar, including a new low-gravity source ULAS J005505.68+013436.0, with spectroscopic classification L2γ. We provide revised izYJHKW1W2 template colours for late M dwarfs, types M7 to M9. The catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/589/A49

  1. DES J0454-4448: discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S. L.; McMahon, R. G.; Banerji, M.; Becker, G. D.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Martini, P.; Ostrovski, F.; Rauch, M.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bertin, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; da Costa, L. N.; D'Andrea, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Cunha, C. E.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J.; Merritt, K.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A.; Romer, K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = -26.5) quasar DES J0454-4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H I near zone size of 4.1+1.1-1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i-z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightest of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i-z and z-Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.

  2. Distribution, diversity and abundance of bacterial laccase-like genes in different particle size fractions of sediments in a subtropical mangrove ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Chao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the diversity and abundance of bacterial lacasse-like genes in different particle size fractions, namely sand, silt, and clay of sediments in a subtropical mangrove ecosystem. Moreover, the effects of nutrient conditions on bacterial laccase-like communities as well as the correlation between nutrients and, both the abundance and diversity indices of laccase-like bacteria in particle size fractions were also studied. Compared to bulk sediments, Bacteroidetes, Caldithrix, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi were dominated in all 3 particle-size fractions of intertidal sediment (IZ), but Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were lost after the fractionation procedures used. The diversity index of IZ fractions decreased in the order of bulk > clay > silt > sand. In fractions of mangrove forest sediment (MG), Verrucomicrobia was found in silt, and both Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes appeared in clay, but no new species were found in sand. The declining order of diversity index in MG fractions was clay > silt > sand > bulk. Furthermore, the abundance of lacasse-like bacteria varied with different particle-size fractions significantly (p < 0.05), and decreased in the order of sand > clay > silt in both IZ and MG fractions. Additionally, nutrient availability was found to significantly affect the diversity and community structure of laccase-like bacteria (p < 0.05), while the total organic carbon contents were positively related to the abundance of bacterial laccase-like genes in particle size fractions (p < 0.05). Therefore, this study further provides evidence that bacterial laccase plays a vital role in turnover of sediment organic matter and cycling of nutrients.

  3. Temperature thresholds and thermal requirements for development of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Diaz, Beatriz Maria; Muñiz, Mariano; Barrios, Laura; Fereres, Alberto

    2007-08-01

    Early detection of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on lettuce is of primary importance for its effective control. Temperature thresholds for development of this pest were estimated using developmental rates [r(T)] at different constant temperatures (8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 26, and 28 degrees C). Observed developmental rates data and temperature were fitted to two linear (Campbell and Muñiz and Gil) and a nonlinear (Lactin) models. Lower temperature threshold estimated by the Campbell model was 3.6 degrees C for apterous, 4.1 degrees C for alates, and 3.1 degrees C for both aphid adult morphs together. Similar values of the lower temperature threshold were obtained with the Muñiz and Gil model, for apterous (4.0 degrees C), alates (4.2 degrees C), and both adult morphs together (3.7 degrees C) of N. ribisnigri. Thermal requirements of N. ribisnigri to complete development were estimated by Campbell and Muñiz and Gil models for apterous in 125 and 129 DD and for both adult morphs together in 143 and 139 DD, respectively. For complete development from birth to adulthood, the alate morph needed 15-18 DD more than the apterous morph. The lower temperature threshold determined by the Lactin model was 5.3 degrees C for alates, 2.3 degrees C for apterous, and 1.9 degrees C for both adult morphs together. The optimal and upper temperature thresholds were 25.2 and 33.6 degrees C, respectively, for the alate morph, 27 and 35.9 degrees C, respectively, for the apterous morph, and 26.1 and 35.3 degrees C, respectively, for the two adult morphs together. The Campbell model provided the best fit to the observed developmental rates data of N. ribisnigri. This information could be incorporated in forecasting models of this pest. PMID:17716458

  4. ADAM17 is critical for multipolar exit and radial migration of neuronal intermediate progenitor cells in mice cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingyu; Zhang, Zhengyu; Li, Zengmin; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Bin; Pan, Le; Ma, Zhixing; Zheng, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    The radial migration of neuronal progenitor cells is critical for the development of cerebral cortex layers. They go through a critical step transforming from multipolar to bipolar before outward migration. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) is a transmembrane protease which can process many substrates involved in cell-cell interaction, including Notch, ligands of EGFR, and some cell adhesion molecules. In this study, we used in utero electroporation to knock down or overexpress ADAM17 at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) in neuronal progenitor cells to examine the role of ADAM17 in cortical embryonic neurogenesis. Our results showed that the radial migration of ADAM17-knocked down cells were normal till E16.5 and reached the intermediate zone (IZ). Then most transfected cells stopped migration and stayed at the IZ to inner cortical plate (CP) layer at E18.5, and there was higher percentage of multipolar cells at IZ layer in the ADAM17-knocked down group compared to the cells in control group. Marker staining revealed that those ADAM17-knocked down cells differentiated normally from neural stem cells (NSCs) to neuronal intermediate progenitor cells (nIPCs) but did not differentiate into mature neurons. The migration and multipolar exit defects caused by ADAM17 knockdown could be partially rescued by over-expressing an shRNA resistant ADAM17, while overexpressing ADAM17 alone did not affect the radial migration. Taken together, our results showed for the first time that, ADAM17 is critical in regulating the multipolar-stage exit and radial migration of the nIPCs during telencephalon cortex development in mice. PMID:23755270

  5. ADAM17 is critical for multipolar exit and radial migration of neuronal intermediate progenitor cells in mice cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingyu; Zhang, Zhengyu; Li, Zengmin; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Bin; Pan, Le; Ma, Zhixing; Zheng, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    The radial migration of neuronal progenitor cells is critical for the development of cerebral cortex layers. They go through a critical step transforming from multipolar to bipolar before outward migration. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) is a transmembrane protease which can process many substrates involved in cell-cell interaction, including Notch, ligands of EGFR, and some cell adhesion molecules. In this study, we used in utero electroporation to knock down or overexpress ADAM17 at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) in neuronal progenitor cells to examine the role of ADAM17 in cortical embryonic neurogenesis. Our results showed that the radial migration of ADAM17-knocked down cells were normal till E16.5 and reached the intermediate zone (IZ). Then most transfected cells stopped migration and stayed at the IZ to inner cortical plate (CP) layer at E18.5, and there was higher percentage of multipolar cells at IZ layer in the ADAM17-knocked down group compared to the cells in control group. Marker staining revealed that those ADAM17-knocked down cells differentiated normally from neural stem cells (NSCs) to neuronal intermediate progenitor cells (nIPCs) but did not differentiate into mature neurons. The migration and multipolar exit defects caused by ADAM17 knockdown could be partially rescued by over-expressing an shRNA resistant ADAM17, while overexpressing ADAM17 alone did not affect the radial migration. Taken together, our results showed for the first time that, ADAM17 is critical in regulating the multipolar-stage exit and radial migration of the nIPCs during telencephalon cortex development in mice.

  6. THz semiconductor-based front-end receiver technology for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Advances in the design and fabrication of very low capacitance planar Schottky diodes and millimeter-wave power amplifiers, more accurate device and circuit models for commercial 3-D electromagnetic simulators, and the availability of both MEMS and high precision metal machining, have enabled RF engineers to extend traditional waveguide-based sensor and source technologies well into the TI-Iz frequency regime. This short paper will highlight recent progress in realizing THz space-qualified receiver front-ends based on room temperature semiconductor devices.

  7. Dose equations for shift-variant CT acquisition modes using variable pitch, tube current, and aperture, and the meaning of their associated CTDI{sub vol}

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Robert L.; Boone, John M.; Kraft, Robert A.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: With the increasing clinical use of shift-variant CT protocols involving tube current modulation (TCM), variable pitch or pitch modulation (PM), and variable aperture a(t), the interpretation of the scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} is called into question. This was addressed for TCM in their previous paper published by Dixon and Boone [Med. Phys. 40, 111920 (14pp.) (2013)] and is extended to PM and concurrent TCM/PM as well as variable aperture in this work. Methods: Rigorous convolution equations are derived to describe the accumulated dose distributions for TCM, PM, and concurrent TCM/PM. A comparison with scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} formulae clearly identifies the source of their differences with the traditional CTDI{sub vol}. Dose distribution simulations using the convolution are provided for a variety of TCM and PM scenarios including a helical shuttle used for perfusion studies (as well as constant mA)—all having the same scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol}. These new convolution simulations for TCM are validated by comparison with their previous discrete summations. Results: These equations show that PM is equivalent to TCM if the pitch variation p(z) is proportional to 1/i(z), where i(z) is the local tube current. The simulations show that the local dose at z depends only weakly on the local tube current i(z) or local pitch p(z) due to scatter from all other locations along z, and that the “local CTDI{sub vol}(z)” or “CTDI{sub vol} per slice” do not represent a local dose but rather only a relative i(z) or p(z). The CTDI-paradigm does not apply to shift-variant techniques and the scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} for the same lacks physical significance and relevance. Conclusions: While the traditional CTDI{sub vol} at constant tube current and pitch conveys useful information (the peak dose at the center of the scan length), CTDI{sub vol} for shift-variant techniques (TCM or PM) conveys no useful information about the associated dose

  8. Re-evaluation of EMG-torque relation in chronic stroke using linear electrode array EMG recordings

    PubMed Central

    Bhadane, Minal; Liu, Jie; Rymer, W. Zev; Zhou, Ping; Li, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to re-evaluate the controversial reports of EMG-torque relation between impaired and non-impaired sides using linear electrode array EMG recordings. Ten subjects with chronic stroke performed a series of submaximal isometric elbow flexion tasks. A 20-channel linear array was used to record surface EMG of the biceps brachii muscles from both impaired and non-impaired sides. M-wave recordings for bilateral biceps brachii muscles were also made. Distribution of the slope of the EMG-torque relations for the individual channels showed a quasi-symmetrical “M” shaped pattern. The lowest value corresponded to the innervation zone (IZ) location. The highest value from the slope curve for each side was selected for comparison to minimize the effect of electrode placement and IZ asymmetry. The slope was greater on the impaired side in 4 of 10 subjects. There were a weak correlation between slope ratio and strength ratio and a moderate to high correlation between slope ratio and M-wave ratio between two sides. These findings suggest that the EMG-torque relations are likely mediated and influenced by multiple factors. Our findings emphasize the importance of electrode placement and suggest the primary role of peripheral adaptive changes in the EMG-torque relations in chronic stroke. PMID:27349938

  9. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and anti-acetylcholinesterase properties of Tunisian Origanum majorana L. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Hajlaoui, Hafedh; Mighri, Hedi; Aouni, Mahjoub; Gharsallah, Néji; Kadri, Adel

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and evaluated the antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anti-acetylcholinesterase properties of Tunisian Origanum majorana essential oil. The findings showed that the oil exhibited high activity, particularly in terms of reducing power and β-Carotene bleaching, inducing higher IC50 values than BHT. The oil showed an important antimicrobial activity against 25 bacterial and fungal strains. In fact, the IZ, MIC and MBC values recorded for the bacterial strains were in the range of 8 ± 0-18.33 ± 0.57 mm, 0.097-3.125 and 0.39-6.25 mg/mL, respectively. The IZ, MIC and MFC values of the fungal strains varied between 11±0-28 ± 0 mm, 0.058-0.468 mg/mL and 0.234-1.875 mg/mL, respectively. A low cytotoxic effect was observed against cancer (Hep-2 and HT29) and continuous cell lineage (Vero), with CC50 values ranging from 13.73 to 85.63 mg/mL. The oil was also evaluated for anti-acetylcholinesterase effects, which showed that it exhibited significant activity with IC50 values reaching 150.33 ± 2.02 μg/mL. PMID:26997648

  10. Antimicrobial activity of a neem cake extract in a broth model meat system.

    PubMed

    Del Serrone, Paola; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2013-08-02

    This work reports on the antimicrobial activity of an ethyl acetate extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) cake (NCE) against bacteria affecting the quality of retail fresh meat in a broth model meat system. NCE (100 µg) was also tested by the agar disc diffusion method. It inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. The NCE growth inhibition zone (IZ) ranged 11.33-22.67 mm while the ciprofloxacin (10 µg) IZ ranged from 23.41-32.67 mm. There was no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the antimicrobial activity of NCE and ciprofloxacin vs. C. jejuni and Leuconostoc spp. The NCE antibacterial activity was moreover determined at lower concentrations (1:10-1:100,000) in micro-assays. The percent growth reduction ranged from 61 ± 2.08-92 ± 3.21. The higher bacterial growth reduction was obtained at 10 µg concentration of NCE. Species-specific PCR and multiplex PCR with the DNA dye propidium monoazide were used to directly detect viable bacterial cells from experimentally contaminated meat samples. The numbers of bacterial cells never significantly (p ≤ 0.05) exceeded the inocula concentration used to experimentally contaminate the NCE treated meat. This report represents a screening methodology to evaluate the antimicrobial capability of a herbal extract to preserve meat.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of a Neem Cake Extract in a Broth Model Meat System

    PubMed Central

    Del Serrone, Paola; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    This work reports on the antimicrobial activity of an ethyl acetate extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) cake (NCE) against bacteria affecting the quality of retail fresh meat in a broth model meat system. NCE (100 µg) was also tested by the agar disc diffusion method. It inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. The NCE growth inhibition zone (IZ) ranged 11.33–22.67 mm while the ciprofloxacin (10 µg) IZ ranged from 23.41–32.67 mm. There was no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the antimicrobial activity of NCE and ciprofloxacin vs. C. jejuni and Leuconostoc spp. The NCE antibacterial activity was moreover determined at lower concentrations (1:10–1:100,000) in micro-assays. The percent growth reduction ranged from 61 ± 2.08–92 ± 3.21. The higher bacterial growth reduction was obtained at 10 µg concentration of NCE. Species-specific PCR and multiplex PCR with the DNA dye propidium monoazide were used to directly detect viable bacterial cells from experimentally contaminated meat samples. The numbers of bacterial cells never significantly (p ≤ 0.05) exceeded the inocula concentration used to experimentally contaminate the NCE treated meat. This report represents a screening methodology to evaluate the antimicrobial capability of a herbal extract to preserve meat. PMID:23917814

  12. Semi-synthesis of new antimicrobial esters from the natural oleanolic and maslinic acids.

    PubMed

    Chouaïb, Karim; Hichri, Fayçal; Nguir, Asma; Daami-Remadi, Majda; Elie, Nicolas; Touboul, David; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Hamza, M'hamed Ali

    2015-09-15

    In this article, we report an effective procedure for the selective isolation of oleanolic acid 1 and maslinic acid 2 (3.4 and 8.5mg/g DW, respectively) from pomace olive (Olea europaea L.) using an ultrasonic bath, and the synthesis of a series of new triterpenic acid esters. The compounds were characterized by their spectral data and were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Among the compounds tested, those having sulfur and chlorine atoms were found to be antibacterial. They showed activity against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and two Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MICs within a range of 5-25μg/mL). The fungus Penicillium italicum was found to be the most sensitive to both sulfur derivatives: (3β)-3-((thiophene-2-carbonyl)oxy)-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1a) (IZ=22mm) and (2α,3β-2,3-bis((thiophene-2-carbonyl)oxy)olean-12-en-28-oic acid (2a) (IZ=24mm).

  13. Electronegative plasma equilibria with spatially varying ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, E.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Lieberman, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Electronegative inductive discharges in higher pressure ranges typically exhibit strongly localized ionization near the coil structure, with decay of the electron temperature and ionization into the central discharge region. We use a two-dimensional (2D) fluid code with a chlorine feedstock gas to determine the spatial profiles of the particle densities and electron temperature in a cylindrical transformer-coupled plasma device excited by a stove-top coil on top of the plasma chamber. To compare with one-dimensional (1D) analytical models, the 2D results are area-averaged over the radius. The area-averaged ionization frequency νiz is found to decay exponentially away from the coils, allowing the ansatz of an exponentially decaying axial variation for νiz to be used in a 1D numerical model. The 1D model captures the main features of the axial variations of the area-averaged 2D fluid simulation, indicating that the main diffusion mechanisms act along the axial direction. A simple analytical global discharge model is also developed, accounting for the asymmetric density and ionization profiles. The global model gives the scalings of the ion densities and electron temperature with power and pressure. The 1D and global models are compared with the 2D fluid simulations, showing reasonable agreement.

  14. Semi-synthesis of new antimicrobial esters from the natural oleanolic and maslinic acids.

    PubMed

    Chouaïb, Karim; Hichri, Fayçal; Nguir, Asma; Daami-Remadi, Majda; Elie, Nicolas; Touboul, David; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Hamza, M'hamed Ali

    2015-09-15

    In this article, we report an effective procedure for the selective isolation of oleanolic acid 1 and maslinic acid 2 (3.4 and 8.5mg/g DW, respectively) from pomace olive (Olea europaea L.) using an ultrasonic bath, and the synthesis of a series of new triterpenic acid esters. The compounds were characterized by their spectral data and were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Among the compounds tested, those having sulfur and chlorine atoms were found to be antibacterial. They showed activity against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and two Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MICs within a range of 5-25μg/mL). The fungus Penicillium italicum was found to be the most sensitive to both sulfur derivatives: (3β)-3-((thiophene-2-carbonyl)oxy)-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1a) (IZ=22mm) and (2α,3β-2,3-bis((thiophene-2-carbonyl)oxy)olean-12-en-28-oic acid (2a) (IZ=24mm). PMID:25863603

  15. Nanog expression in heart tissues induced by acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huanhuan; Li, Qiong; Pramanik, Jogen; Luo, Jiankai; Guo, Zhikun

    2014-10-01

    Nanog is a potential stem cell marker and is considered a regeneration factor during tissue repair. In the present study, we investigated expression patterns of nanog in the rat heart after acute myocardial infarction by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. Our results show that nanog at both mRNA and protein levels is positively expressed in myocardial cells, fibroblasts and small round cells in different myocardial zones at different stages after myocardial infarction, showing a spatio-temporal and dynamic change. After myocardial infarction, the nanog expression in fibroblasts and small round cells in the infarcted zone (IZ) is much stronger than that in the margin zone (MZ) and remote infarcted zone (RIZ). From day 7 after myocardial infarction, the fibroblasts and small cells strongly expressed nanog protein in the IZ, and a few myocardial cells in the MZ and the RIZ and the numbers of nanog-positive fibroblasts and small cells reached the highest peak at 21 days after myocardial infarction, but in this period the number of nanog-positive myocardial cells decreased gradually. At 28 days after myocardial infarction, the numbers of all nanog-positive cells decreased into a low level. Therefore, our data suggest that all myocardial cells, fibroblasts and small round cells are involved in myocardial reconstruction after cardiac infarction. The nanog-positive myocardial cells may respond to early myocardial repair, and the nanog-positive fibroblasts and small round cells are the main source for myocardial reconstruction after cardiac infarction.

  16. Exogenous Reelin modifies the migratory behavior of neurons depending on cortical location.

    PubMed

    Britto, Joanne M; Tait, Karen J; Lee, Ean Phing; Gamble, Robin S; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Tan, Seong-Seng

    2014-11-01

    Malformations of cortical development can arise when projection neurons generated in the germinal zones fail to migrate properly into the cortical plate. This process is critically dependent on the Reelin glycoprotein, which when absent leads to an inversion of cortical layers and blurring of borders. Reelin has other functions including supporting neuron migration and maintaining their trajectories; however, the precise role on glial fiber-dependent or -independent migration of neurons remains controversial. In this study, we wish to test the hypothesis that migrating cortical neurons at different levels of the cortical wall have differential responses to Reelin. We exposed neurons migrating across the cortical wall to exogenous Reelin and monitored their migratory behavior using time-lapse imaging. Our results show that, in the germinal zones, exogenous Reelin retarded neuron migration and altered their trajectories. This behavior is in contrast to the response of neurons located in the intermediate zone (IZ), possibly because Reelin receptors are not expressed in this zone. In the reeler cortex, Reelin receptors are expressed in the IZ and exposure to exogenous Reelin was able to rescue the migratory defect. These studies demonstrate that migrating neurons have nonequivalent responses to Reelin depending on their location within the cortical wall. PMID:23749873

  17. Further perspective on the theory of heteronuclear decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Thomas E.

    2014-11-01

    An exact general theory of heteronuclear decoupling is presented for spin-1/2 IS systems. RF irradiation applied to the I spins both modifies and generates additional couplings between states of the system. The recently derived equivalence between the dynamics of any N-level quantum system and a system of classical coupled harmonic oscillators makes explicit the exact physical couplings between states. Decoupling is thus more properly viewed as a complex intercoupling. The sign of antiphase magnetization plays a fundamental role in decoupling. A one-to-one correspondence is demonstrated between ± 2SyIz and the sense of the S-spin coupling evolution. Magnetization Sx is refocused to obtain the desired decoupled state when ∫ 2SyIz dt = 0 . The exact instantaneous coupling at any time during the decoupling sequence is readily obtained in terms of the system states, showing that the creation of two-spin coherence is crucial for reducing the effective scalar coupling, as required for refocusing to occur. Representative examples from new aperiodic sequences as well as standard cyclic, periodic composite-pulse and adiabatic decoupling sequences illustrate the decoupling mechanism. The more general aperiodic sequences, obtained using optimal control, realize the potential inherent in the theory for significantly improved decoupling.

  18. Excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape establish neuronal polarity by forming a tangentially oriented axon in the intermediate zone.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Yamauchi, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    The formation of axon-dendrite polarity is crucial for neuron to make the proper information flow within the brain. Although the processes of neuronal polarity formation have been extensively studied using neurons in dissociated culture, the corresponding developmental processes in vivo are still unclear. Here, we illuminate the initial steps of morphological polarization of excitatory cortical neurons in situ, by sparsely labeling their neuroepithelial progenitors using in utero electroporation and then examining their neuronal progeny in brain sections and in slice cultures. Morphological analysis showed that an axon-like long tangential process formed in progeny cells in the intermediate zone (IZ). Time-lapse imaging analysis using slice culture revealed that progeny cells with multipolar shape, after alternately extending and retracting their short processes for several hours, suddenly elongated a long process tangentially. These cells then transformed into a bipolar shape, extending a pia-directed leading process, and migrated radially leaving the tangential process behind, which gave rise to an "L-shaped" axon. Our findings suggest that neuronal polarity in these cells is established de novo from a nonpolarized stage in vivo and indicate that excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape in the IZ initiate axon outgrowth before radial migration into the cortical plate. PMID:22267309

  19. Distinct roles of neuropilin 1 signaling for radial and tangential extension of callosal axons.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Fujisawa, Hajime; Murakami, Fujio; Masu, Masayuki

    2009-05-20

    Cortical excitatory neurons migrate from their origin in the ventricular zone (VZ) toward the pial surface. During migration, these neurons exhibit a stellate shape in the intermediate zone (IZ), transform into bipolar cells, and then initiate radial migration, extending a trailing process, which may lead to an axon. Here we examined the role of neuropilin 1 (NRP1) in these developmental events. Both NRP1 mRNA and protein were highly expressed in the IZ, where stellate-shaped cells were located. DiI labeling experiments showed that neuronal migration occurred normally in Nrp1 mutant mice up to embryonic day (E) 14.5, the latest day to which the mutant survives, with only subtle axonal defasciculation. However, interference with Nrp1 signaling at a later stage caused pathfinding errors: when a dominant negative form of Nrp1 was electroporated into the cortical VZ cells at E12.5 or E15.5 and examined perinatally, guidance errors were found in tangential axonal extension toward the midline. In contrast, no significant effect was noted on the migration of cortical excitatory neurons. These findings indicate that NRP1 plays an important role in the guidance of callosal axons originating from cortical excitatory neurons but does not support a role in their migration. Moreover, insofar as radial axonal extension within the cortical plate was unaffected, the present findings imply that molecular mechanisms for the axonal extension of excitatory neurons within the cortical plate are distinct from those in the white matter. PMID:19296474

  20. C3G/Rapgef1 Is Required in Multipolar Neurons for the Transition to a Bipolar Morphology during Cortical Development.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavin; Lutter, Daniela; Bochenek, Magdalena L; Kato, Katsuhiro; Tsytsyura, Yaroslav; Glyvuk, Natalia; Sakakibara, Akira; Klingauf, Jürgen; Adams, Ralf H; Püschel, Andreas W

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of a polarized morphology is essential for the development and function of neurons. During the development of the mammalian neocortex, neurons arise in the ventricular zone (VZ) from radial glia cells (RGCs) and leave the VZ to generate the cortical plate (CP). During their migration, newborn neurons first assume a multipolar morphology in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and lower intermediate zone (IZ). Subsequently, they undergo a multi-to-bipolar (MTB) transition to become bipolar in the upper IZ by developing a leading process and a trailing axon. The small GTPases Rap1A and Rap1B act as master regulators of neural cell polarity in the developing mouse neocortex. They are required for maintaining the polarity of RGCs and directing the MTB transition of multipolar neurons. Here we show that the Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) C3G (encoded by the Rapgef1 gene) is a crucial regulator of the MTB transition in vivo by conditionally inactivating the Rapgef1 gene in the developing mouse cortex at different time points during neuronal development. Inactivation of C3G results in defects in neuronal migration, axon formation and cortical lamination. Live cell imaging shows that C3G is required in cortical neurons for both the specification of an axon and the initiation of radial migration by forming a leading process. PMID:27111087

  1. C3G/Rapgef1 Is Required in Multipolar Neurons for the Transition to a Bipolar Morphology during Cortical Development.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavin; Lutter, Daniela; Bochenek, Magdalena L; Kato, Katsuhiro; Tsytsyura, Yaroslav; Glyvuk, Natalia; Sakakibara, Akira; Klingauf, Jürgen; Adams, Ralf H; Püschel, Andreas W

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of a polarized morphology is essential for the development and function of neurons. During the development of the mammalian neocortex, neurons arise in the ventricular zone (VZ) from radial glia cells (RGCs) and leave the VZ to generate the cortical plate (CP). During their migration, newborn neurons first assume a multipolar morphology in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and lower intermediate zone (IZ). Subsequently, they undergo a multi-to-bipolar (MTB) transition to become bipolar in the upper IZ by developing a leading process and a trailing axon. The small GTPases Rap1A and Rap1B act as master regulators of neural cell polarity in the developing mouse neocortex. They are required for maintaining the polarity of RGCs and directing the MTB transition of multipolar neurons. Here we show that the Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) C3G (encoded by the Rapgef1 gene) is a crucial regulator of the MTB transition in vivo by conditionally inactivating the Rapgef1 gene in the developing mouse cortex at different time points during neuronal development. Inactivation of C3G results in defects in neuronal migration, axon formation and cortical lamination. Live cell imaging shows that C3G is required in cortical neurons for both the specification of an axon and the initiation of radial migration by forming a leading process.

  2. Exogenous Reelin modifies the migratory behavior of neurons depending on cortical location.

    PubMed

    Britto, Joanne M; Tait, Karen J; Lee, Ean Phing; Gamble, Robin S; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Tan, Seong-Seng

    2014-11-01

    Malformations of cortical development can arise when projection neurons generated in the germinal zones fail to migrate properly into the cortical plate. This process is critically dependent on the Reelin glycoprotein, which when absent leads to an inversion of cortical layers and blurring of borders. Reelin has other functions including supporting neuron migration and maintaining their trajectories; however, the precise role on glial fiber-dependent or -independent migration of neurons remains controversial. In this study, we wish to test the hypothesis that migrating cortical neurons at different levels of the cortical wall have differential responses to Reelin. We exposed neurons migrating across the cortical wall to exogenous Reelin and monitored their migratory behavior using time-lapse imaging. Our results show that, in the germinal zones, exogenous Reelin retarded neuron migration and altered their trajectories. This behavior is in contrast to the response of neurons located in the intermediate zone (IZ), possibly because Reelin receptors are not expressed in this zone. In the reeler cortex, Reelin receptors are expressed in the IZ and exposure to exogenous Reelin was able to rescue the migratory defect. These studies demonstrate that migrating neurons have nonequivalent responses to Reelin depending on their location within the cortical wall.

  3. Excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape establish neuronal polarity by forming a tangentially oriented axon in the intermediate zone.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Yamauchi, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    The formation of axon-dendrite polarity is crucial for neuron to make the proper information flow within the brain. Although the processes of neuronal polarity formation have been extensively studied using neurons in dissociated culture, the corresponding developmental processes in vivo are still unclear. Here, we illuminate the initial steps of morphological polarization of excitatory cortical neurons in situ, by sparsely labeling their neuroepithelial progenitors using in utero electroporation and then examining their neuronal progeny in brain sections and in slice cultures. Morphological analysis showed that an axon-like long tangential process formed in progeny cells in the intermediate zone (IZ). Time-lapse imaging analysis using slice culture revealed that progeny cells with multipolar shape, after alternately extending and retracting their short processes for several hours, suddenly elongated a long process tangentially. These cells then transformed into a bipolar shape, extending a pia-directed leading process, and migrated radially leaving the tangential process behind, which gave rise to an "L-shaped" axon. Our findings suggest that neuronal polarity in these cells is established de novo from a nonpolarized stage in vivo and indicate that excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape in the IZ initiate axon outgrowth before radial migration into the cortical plate.

  4. C3G/Rapgef1 Is Required in Multipolar Neurons for the Transition to a Bipolar Morphology during Cortical Development

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Bhavin; Lutter, Daniela; Bochenek, Magdalena L.; Kato, Katsuhiro; Tsytsyura, Yaroslav; Glyvuk, Natalia; Sakakibara, Akira; Klingauf, Jürgen; Adams, Ralf H.; Püschel, Andreas W.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of a polarized morphology is essential for the development and function of neurons. During the development of the mammalian neocortex, neurons arise in the ventricular zone (VZ) from radial glia cells (RGCs) and leave the VZ to generate the cortical plate (CP). During their migration, newborn neurons first assume a multipolar morphology in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and lower intermediate zone (IZ). Subsequently, they undergo a multi-to-bipolar (MTB) transition to become bipolar in the upper IZ by developing a leading process and a trailing axon. The small GTPases Rap1A and Rap1B act as master regulators of neural cell polarity in the developing mouse neocortex. They are required for maintaining the polarity of RGCs and directing the MTB transition of multipolar neurons. Here we show that the Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) C3G (encoded by the Rapgef1 gene) is a crucial regulator of the MTB transition in vivo by conditionally inactivating the Rapgef1 gene in the developing mouse cortex at different time points during neuronal development. Inactivation of C3G results in defects in neuronal migration, axon formation and cortical lamination. Live cell imaging shows that C3G is required in cortical neurons for both the specification of an axon and the initiation of radial migration by forming a leading process. PMID:27111087

  5. Dose equations for tube current modulation in CT scanning and the interpretation of the associated CTDI{sub vol}

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Robert L.; Boone, John M.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} for automatic tube current modulation (TCM) has a different physical meaning from the traditional CTDI{sub vol} at constant mA, resulting in the dichotomy “CTDI{sub vol} of the first and second kinds” for which a physical interpretation is sought in hopes of establishing some commonality between the two.Methods: Rigorous equations are derived to describe the accumulated dose distributions for TCM. A comparison with formulae for scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} clearly identifies the source of their differences. Graphical dose simulations are also provided for a variety of TCM tube current distributions (including constant mA), all having the same scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol}.Results: These convolution equations and simulations show that the local dose at z depends only weakly on the local tube current i(z) due to the strong influence of scatter from all other locations along z, and that the “local CTDI{sub vol}(z)” does not represent a local dose but rather only a relative i(z) ≡ mA(z). TCM is a shift-variant technique to which the CTDI-paradigm does not apply and its application to TCM leads to a CTDI{sub vol} of the second kind which lacks relevance.Conclusions: While the traditional CTDI{sub vol} at constant mA conveys useful information (the peak dose at the center of the scan length), CTDI{sub vol} of the second kind conveys no useful information about the associated TCM dose distribution it purportedly represents and its physical interpretation remains elusive. On the other hand, the total energy absorbed E (“integral dose”) as well as its surrogate DLP remain robust between variable i(z) TCM and constant current i{sub 0} techniques, both depending only on the total mAs =t{sub 0}=i{sub 0} t{sub 0} during the beam-on time t{sub 0}.

  6. The effects of selected pre-treatments on germination of seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Ozel, Halil Bariş

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of some pre-treatments implemented on seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), which has wide geographical variation along Turkey on germination percentage values were investigated. For this purpose, 13 different pre-treatments were implemented to seeds obtained from 17 different populations. According to the obtained results (except control seeds), pre-treatments leading to lowest germination percentage value (8.1%) in Oriental hornbeam seeds was PT10: Keeping seeds for 90 min in sulfuric acid, while highest germination percentage (86.58%) has been obtained with pre-treatment PT13: Implementation of 40% dose of Baikal EM1 + Biohoumous mixture to the seeds, while lowest germination percentage (40.50%) was observed on seeds collected from P7 (Bartin-Kozcağiz) population, highest germination percentage was observed in seeds obtained from P17 (Artvin-Hopa) population.

  7. The effects of selected pre-treatments on germination of seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Ozel, Halil Bariş

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of some pre-treatments implemented on seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), which has wide geographical variation along Turkey on germination percentage values were investigated. For this purpose, 13 different pre-treatments were implemented to seeds obtained from 17 different populations. According to the obtained results (except control seeds), pre-treatments leading to lowest germination percentage value (8.1%) in Oriental hornbeam seeds was PT10: Keeping seeds for 90 min in sulfuric acid, while highest germination percentage (86.58%) has been obtained with pre-treatment PT13: Implementation of 40% dose of Baikal EM1 + Biohoumous mixture to the seeds, while lowest germination percentage (40.50%) was observed on seeds collected from P7 (Bartin-Kozcağiz) population, highest germination percentage was observed in seeds obtained from P17 (Artvin-Hopa) population. PMID:27498493

  8. Giant tunneling anomalous Hall conductance in topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos-Abiague, Alex; Scharf, Benedikt; Han, Jong E.; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.; Zutic, Igor

    We theoretically investigate the tunneling transport across a magnetic barrier modulated by a top gate potential on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. In the presence of a magnetization component along the bias direction, a finite tunneling anomalous Hall conductance (TAHC), transverse to the applied bias, develops. Depending on the strengths of the magnetization and gate potential, the system can exhibit a giant anomalous Hall angle, with the TAHC exceeding the longitudinal tunneling conductance. Moreover, we predict the existence of a negative differential TAHC even when the longitudinal differential conductance remains positive. This work was supported by U.S. ONR Grant No. N000141310754 (A.M.-A., B.S.), DFG Grant No. SCHA 1899/1-1 (B.S.), DFG Grant No. HA 5893/4-1 within SPP 1666 (E.M.H.), and U.S. DOE, Office of Science BES, under Award DE-SC0004890 (I.Z.).

  9. The CMC/3DPNS computer program for prediction of three-dimensional, subsonic, turbulent aerodynamic juncture region flow. Volume 3: Programmers' manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orzechowski, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The CMC fluid mechanics program system was developed to transmit the theoretical evolution of finite element numerical solution methodology, applied to nonlinear field problems into a versatile computer code for comprehensive flow field analysis. A detailed view of the code from the standpoint of a computer programmer's use is presented. A system macroflow chart and detailed flow charts of several routines necessary to interact with a theoretican/user to modify the operation of this program are presented. All subroutines and details of usage, primarily for input and output routines are described. Integer and real scalars and a cross reference list denoting subroutine usage for these scalars are outlined. Entry points in dynamic storage vector IZ; the lengths of each vector accompanying the scalar definitions are described. A listing of the routines peculiar to the standard test case and a listing of the input deck and printout for this case are included.

  10. The paradox of an insulating contact between a chemisorbed molecule and a wide band gap semiconductor surface.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Boudrioua, O; Mayne, A J; Comtet, G; Dujardin, G; Kuk, Y; Sonnet, Ph; Stauffer, L; Nagarajan, S; Gourdon, A

    2012-02-01

    Controlling the intrinsic optical and electronic properties of a single molecule adsorbed on a surface requires electronic decoupling of some molecular orbitals from the surface states. Scanning tunneling microscopy experiments and density functional theory calculations are used to study a perylene molecule derivative (DHH-PTCDI), adsorbed on the clean 3 × 3 reconstructed wide band gap silicon carbide surface (SiC(0001)-3 × 3). We find that the LUMO of the adsorbed molecule is invisible in I(V) spectra due to the absence of any surface or bulk states and that the HOMO has a very low saturation current in I(z) spectra. These results present a paradox that the molecular orbitals are electronically isolated from the surface of the wide band gap semiconductor even though strong chemical bonds are formed.

  11. Ring state for single transition metal atoms on boron nitride on Rh(111).

    PubMed

    Natterer, Fabian Donat; Patthey, François; Brune, Harald

    2012-08-10

    The low-temperature adsorption of isolated transition metal adatoms (Mn, Co, and Fe) onto hexagonal boron nitride monolayers on Rh(111) creates a bistable adsorption complex. The first state considerably weakens the hexagonal boron nitride- (h-BN-) substrate bond for 60 BN unit cells, leading to a highly symmetric ring in STM images, while the second state is imaged as a conventional adatom and leaves the BN-substrate interaction intact. We demonstrate reversible switching between the two states and, thus, controlled pinning and unpinning of the h-BN layer from the metal substrate. I(z) and d lnI/dz curves are used to reveal the BN deformation in the ring state. PMID:23006283

  12. [9 new Salmonella serotypes isolated in Africa and the Antilles].

    PubMed

    Le Minor, S; Doutre, M; Sansonnens, R; Papa, F; Lhuillier, M; Meyran, M; Le Priol, A; Beaud, R; Laurent, B; Denis, D; Miras, I

    1981-01-01

    Description of nine new serotypes of Salmonella, three isolated in Senegal: S. tambacounda (I,3,I9:b:e,n,x) from Chiroptera, S. bargny (8,20:i:I,5) and S. fass (50:l,v:I,2) from horse; two recovered in Haute-Volta from patients with diarrhoea: S. tounouma (8,20:b:z6) and S. sya (47:b:z6); one isolated from a carrier in Antilles: S. gustavia (II:d:I,5); one from a snake in Tunisia: S. gafsa (I6:c:I,6); two from Madagascar: S. II I8:z4,z23:- isolated from a wild mammalian and S. III arizonae 6I:z52:z from a patient with diarrhoea. PMID:7249241

  13. Machine Learning Search for Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows in Optical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topinka, M.

    2016-06-01

    Thanks to the advances in robotic telescopes, time domain astronomy leads to a large number of transient events detected in images every night. Data mining and machine learning tools used for object classification are presented. The goal is to automatically classify transient events for both further follow-up by a larger telescope and for statistical studies of transient events. Special attention is given to the identification of gamma-ray burst afterglows. Machine learning techniques are used to identify GROND gamma-ray burst afterglow among the astrophysical objects present in the SDSS archival images based on the g'-r', r'-i' and i'-z' color indices. The performance of the support vector machine, random forest and neural network algorithms is compared. A joint meta-classifier, built on top of the individual classifiers, can identify GRB afterglows with the overall accuracy of ≳ 90%.

  14. Gu's function scale of ion hydration force and charge size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hong-Kan

    1997-06-01

    “Water Vapor Chemistry” as a new science was discovered and established from trace analysis in Gu's laboratory(Gu, 1991; Gu et al., 1991). Gu's Function shows that the trace metal ion concentration in water vapor has positive correlation to “specific electron affinity constant” last ionization potential I z/ion valence Z and negative correlation to ion volume V and coordination number N(Gu, 1994). Gu's Function C=f[(Iz/Z)/VN] of the bond parameter in water vapor chemistry corresponds to the potential energy function Z'e 2/r in the Schrodinger Equation of quantum chemistry. In, different ions with the same 2+ charge, the ion concentration of water—water vapor transfer may be much different. This shows that the 2+ charge of different ions has different attractive force (hydration force). This different attractive force of the charge can be scaled with the relative energy or charge size from Gu's Function.

  15. Adaptation of all-ceramic fixed partial dentures

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Márcia; Cesar, Paulo F.; Griggs, Jason A.; Della Bona, Álvaro

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To measure the marginal and internal fit of three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) using the micro-CT technique, testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the adaptation between the ceramic systems studied. Methods Stainless steel models of prepared abutments were fabricated to design the FPDs. Ten FPDs were produced from each framework ceramic (YZ - Vita In-Ceram YZ and IZ - Vita In-Ceram Zirconia) using CEREC inLab according to the manufacturer instructions. All FPDs were veneered using the recommended porcelain. Each FPD was seated on the original model and scanned using micro-CT. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Adobe Photoshop and Image J software were used to analyze the cross-sections images. Five measuring locations were used as follows: MG – marginal gap; CA - chamfer area; AW - axial wall; AOT - axio-occlusal transition area; OA - occlusal area. The horizontal marginal discrepancy (HMD) was evaluated in another set of images. Results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results The mean values for MG, CA, AW, OA and HMD were significantly different for all tested groups (p<0.05). IZ exhibited greater mean values than YZ for all measuring locations except for AW and AOT. OA showed the greatest mean gap values for both ceramic systems. MG and AW mean gap values were low for both systems. Significance The ceramic systems evaluated showed different levels of marginal and internal fit, rejecting the study hypothesis. Yet, both ceramic systems showed clinically acceptable marginal and internal fit. PMID:21920595

  16. Effects of maternal mild zinc deficiency and different ways of zinc supplementation for offspring on learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaogang; Chen, Weiwei; Wei, Zhenzhen; Ren, Tianhong; Yang, Xin; Yu, Xiaodan

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of different ways of zinc supplementation on spatial learning and memory remains unclear. Objectives This study aims to assess the effectiveness of two ways of zinc supplementation – oral use and intravenous transfusion – in zinc-deficient offspring rats on learning and memory. Design Rats were randomly divided into six groups on the first day of pregnancy (n=12): control (CO), pair fed (PF), zinc deprived (ZD), oral zinc supplementation (OZS), injection zinc supplementation (IZS), and injection control. The offspring's spatial learning and memory were tested at postnatal day 35 using Morris water maze (MWM). Maternal rats’ serum zinc was measured at postnatal day 21, while pups’ serum zinc was measured at postnatal day 35. Results Compared with the CO and PF groups, pups in ZD group spent more time finding the latent platform and swam longer distances (p<0.05). Compared with ZD groups, pups in OZS group significantly decreased the time used for finding the platform and the swimming distance (p<0.05) and were similar to that of CO and PF groups (p>0.05). However, compared with ZD groups, pups in IZS did not show any improvement in the indexes of MWM (p>0.05) although their zinc serum concentration increased significantly (p<0.05). Conclusions These results indicate that mild zinc deficiency during pregnancy and lactation leads to the impairment of learning and memory function in offspring, and that OZS, instead of intravenous transfusion zinc supplementation, can recover the impairment of spatial learning and memory function. PMID:26829185

  17. [Zoonotic tuberculosis in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Kantor, Isabel N de; Torres, Pedro M; Morcillo, Nora; Imaz, María S; Sequeira, María D

    2012-01-01

    There are significant achievements in the control of animal tuberculosis (tB) in Argentina. the percentage of bovines with apparent tB lesions at the slaughterhouse inspection decreased from 6.7% to 0.6% between 1969 and 2011. on the other hand, the mean percentage of human tB cases due to M. bovis among all those bacteriologically confirmed, was in Santa Fe, an agro-industrial province, 2.3% in the period 1977-2001. It fell to 1.6% by 2011. In the Cetrángolo Hospital (Buenos Aires), it was 0.34% in the period 2001-2005, and 0.36% in 2006-2011. At the Muñiz Hospital, these percentages decreased from 1.75% in 1971 to 0.22% in 2006. Frequency of HIV infection among M. bovis cases varied from 5.9% in santa Fe to 11.1% and 20.5% respectively, in Cetrángolo and Muñiz Hospitals (a reference institution for aids) in Buenos Aires. According to these data M. bovis infection predominates in agro-industrial/ rural areas, showing a slow decrease there as well as in Buenos Aires. Co-infection with HIV is more frequent among patients with M. bovis that in all cases of tB. The situation of M. bovis in Argentina is here compared with that in USA and in several European and Latin American countries. Trends followed by tB in cattle, in humans, and the percentages of M. bovis among them, are not always closely related to move towards the common goal of eradicating tB; the employment of appropriate strategies and the strengthening of control measures are critical in both programs.

  18. The in Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of Persian Green Tea Extract as an Intracanal Irrigant on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanali, Fatemeh; Samimi, Shiva; Kharazifard, Mohammadjavad; Afkhami, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial effect of Persian green tea extract (GTE) and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) as an intracanal irrigant. Methods and Materials: Thirty freshly extracted teeth were instrumented and sectioned into mesial and distal segments. The specimens were put into wells containing 2 mL of E. faecalis-containing medium. After 3 weeks, the specimens were removed and divided randomly into three groups (n=20). Each group was exposed to 3 mL of different irrigants for 3 min. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were irrigated with GTE, 2.5% NaOCl and normal saline, respectively. Biofilm formed in the middle third of the root canal was carved by sterile scalpel and cultured in Mueller-Hinton medium. Number of colony forming units (CFU) was counted on each plate. In addition, antimicrobial activity of the irrigants was evaluated by the agar disc diffusion test. The diameter of inhibition zone (IZ) around each irrigant was evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests were used to analysis the data. Results: While in NaOCl group no bacterial colonies were observed, the mean number of E. faecalis in GTE and control groups were 275±74 CFU/mL (P<0.001) and 119×108±11×108 (P<0.001), respectively. The mean of IZ in NaOCl and GTE groups were 24.35±0.78 and 6.9±0.87 mm, in order of appearance (P<0.001). Zone of inhibition was not observed around the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: This research highlighted the potential role of plant extracts in antimicrobial root canal irrigation protocol. PMID:27790260

  19. Correlating Photoreceptor Mosaic Structure to Clinical Findings in Stargardt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Razeen, Moataz M.; Cooper, Robert F.; Langlo, Christopher S.; Goldberg, Mara R.; Wilk, Melissa A.; Han, Dennis P.; Connor, Thomas B.; Fishman, Gerald A.; Collison, Frederick T.; Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Stepien, Kimberly E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate a method for correlating photoreceptor mosaic structure with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and microperimetry findings in patients with Stargardt disease. Methods A total of 14 patients with clinically diagnosed Stargardt disease were imaged using confocal and split-detection adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy. Cone photoreceptors were identified manually in a band along the temporal meridian. Resulting values were compared to a normative database (n = 9) to generate cone density deviation (CDD) maps. Manual measurement of outer nuclear layer plus Henle fiber layer (ONL+HFL) thickness was performed, in addition to determination of the presence of ellipsoid zone (EZ) and interdigitation zone (IZ) bands on OCT. These results, along with microperimetry data, were overlaid with the CDD maps. Results Wide variation in foveal structure and CDD maps was seen within this small group. Disruption of ONL+HFL and/or IZ band was seen in all patients, with EZ band preservation in regions with low cone density in 38% of locations analyzed. Normality of retinal lamellar structure on OCT corresponded with cone density and visual function at 50/78 locations analyzed. Outer retinal tubulations containing photoreceptor-like structures were observed in 3 patients. Conclusions The use of CDD color-coded maps enables direct comparison of cone mosaic local density with other measures of retinal structure and function. Larger normative datasets and improved tools for automation of image alignment are needed. Translational Relevance The approach described facilitates comparison of complex multimodal data sets from patients with inherited retinal degeneration, and can be expanded to incorporate other structural imaging or functional testing. PMID:26981328

  20. SPITZER TRANSITS OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Fraine, Jonathan D.; Deming, Drake; Gillon, Michaeel; Jehin, Emmanueel; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara; Lewis, Nikole K.; Knutson, Heather; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2013-03-10

    We observed the transiting super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b using warm Spitzer at 4.5 {mu}m wavelength during a 20 day quasi-continuous sequence in 2011 May. The goals of our long observation were to accurately define the infrared transit radius of this nearby super-Earth, to search for the secondary eclipse, and to search for other transiting planets in the habitable zone of GJ1214. We here report results from the transit monitoring of GJ1214b, including a reanalysis of previous transit observations by Desert et al. In total, we analyze 14 transits of GJ1214b at 4.5 {mu}m, 3 transits at 3.6 {mu}m, and 7 new ground-based transits in the I+z band. Our new Spitzer data by themselves eliminate cloudless solar composition atmospheres for GJ1214b, and methane-rich models from Howe and Burrows. Using our new Spitzer measurements to anchor the observed transit radii of GJ1214b at long wavelengths, and adding new measurements in I+z, we evaluate models from Benneke and Seager and Howe and Burrows using a {chi}{sup 2} analysis. We find that the best-fit model exhibits an increase in transit radius at short wavelengths due to Rayleigh scattering. Pure water atmospheres are also possible. However, a flat line (no atmosphere detected) remains among the best of the statistically acceptable models, and better than pure water atmospheres. We explore the effect of systematic differences among results from different observational groups, and we find that the Howe and Burrows tholin-haze model remains the best fit, even when systematic differences among observers are considered.

  1. Cdk5 is required for multipolar-to-bipolar transition during radial neuronal migration and proper dendrite development of pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Toshio; Hirasawa, Motoyuki; Tabata, Hidenori; Mutoh, Tetsuji; Adachi, Tomoko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Saruta, Keiko; Iwasato, Takuji; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Hashimoto, Mistuhiro; Nakajima, Kazunori; Ogawa, Masaharu; Kulkarni, Ashok B; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2007-06-01

    The mammalian cerebral cortex consists of six layers that are generated via coordinated neuronal migration during the embryonic period. Recent studies identified specific phases of radial migration of cortical neurons. After the final division, neurons transform from a multipolar to a bipolar shape within the subventricular zone-intermediate zone (SVZ-IZ) and then migrate along radial glial fibres. Mice lacking Cdk5 exhibit abnormal corticogenesis owing to neuronal migration defects. When we introduced GFP into migrating neurons at E14.5 by in utero electroporation, we observed migrating neurons in wild-type but not in Cdk5(-/-) embryos after 3-4 days. Introduction of the dominant-negative form of Cdk5 into the wild-type migrating neurons confirmed specific impairment of the multipolar-to-bipolar transition within the SVZ-IZ in a cell-autonomous manner. Cortex-specific Cdk5 conditional knockout mice showed inverted layering of the cerebral cortex and the layer V and callosal neurons, but not layer VI neurons, had severely impaired dendritic morphology. The amount of the dendritic protein Map2 was decreased in the cerebral cortex of Cdk5-deficient mice, and the axonal trajectory of cortical neurons within the cortex was also abnormal. These results indicate that Cdk5 is required for proper multipolar-to-bipolar transition, and a deficiency of Cdk5 results in abnormal morphology of pyramidal neurons. In addition, proper radial neuronal migration generates an inside-out pattern of cerebral cortex formation and normal axonal trajectories of cortical pyramidal neurons.

  2. Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system based on renewable energy - Modelling the impact of varying CO2 injection rates on reservoir behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection rates if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection rates on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation models are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir model approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir model was generated. The defined yearly injection rate schedule is based on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection rates on the long-term reservoir

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dynamical parameters of open clusters (Danilov+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, V. M.; Putkov, S. I.

    2012-11-01

    α0 - is the mean value of a virial factor, δ{alp the amplitude of virial factor oscillations, ν={rho}c/{rho}0-is the density contrast ({rho}c - is the mean density of a cluster core, {rho}0 - is the cluster centre density), NK/N - is the ratio of the stars number in a cluster received by King's distribution and by stellar counts, P1-is the period of cluster core oscillations, P2 - is the period of cluster oscillations, δR1/R10-is the relative amplitude of core radius oscillations, λ=σ/σiz, σiz2 - is the velocity dispersion of an isolated virialized cluster, σ2, σ12, σ22 - are the velocity dispersions of nonisolated nonsteady clusters with spherical halo; with ellipsoidal halo elongated to the centre of Galaxy; with ellipsoidal halo elongated to the direction of cluster motion correspondingly. Errors of values α0, δα, δR1/R10, P1 have been estimated by the assumption of the normal distribution of the values M (the mass of a cluster), R2 (the radius of a cluster), {xi} (the ratio of core radius to halo radius), μ (the ratio of core mass to halo mass). Assuming a deviation of one of the four values equal to zero we receive four sections of 1σ-errors ellipsoid. These sections are the spheres of radius 20.5. Taking points on each sphere with the step 0.25*π on angular coordinates we receive 96 points on a surface of the 1σ-errors ellipsoid. The values α0, δα, δR1/R10, P1 were calculated in the 96 points. The centre of the ellipsoidal was used for calculation of the mean values. The errors of the values were computed as root-mean-squire deviations of 96 values from the same mean values. The errors of the others values of the catalog were computed by the errors calculation rule of indirect measuring. (3 data files).

  4. Explosively erupted magmas with relatively quiescent differentiation stories. Examples from Sierra Nevada, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Ceballos, G.; Macias, J.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.

    2013-12-01

    Sierra Nevada is a N-S aligned volcanic range in central Mexico, located approximately 65 km SE of Mexico City. It is formed by Telapón, Tláloc, Iztaccíhuatl, and Popocatépetl volcanoes. Popocatepetl have had at least five Plinian eruptions in the last 23 ky and at least two sector collapses that partially destroyed the volcanic edifice. Iztaccíhuatl explosive history is less constrained than Popocatepetl's but a debris avalanche deposit suggest that at least one sector collapse affected the volcano. The most recent debris avalanche deposits from Popocatépetl (23 ky) and Iztaccíhuatl (430 ky) are crowned by fall deposits produced by an explosive eruption. Compared to the other Plinian magmas from Popocatepetl, the WP magma (Popocatepetl) and the IZ-4 magma (Iztaccíhuatl) are slightly more evolved (65-66 wt. % SiO2), do not contain any xenocryst suggesting mixing with more mafic magmas (olivine, Mg-rich pyroxene, or Cr-rich magnetite), their frequency of mixing events is lower, disequilibrium textures like sieving are absent, and at least for the WP magma, evidence of upper crust assimilation is negligible. In addition, equilibrium of Fe-Ti oxides, CO2 and water concentrations analyzed in melt inclusions, and hydrothermal experiments yield that the pre-eruptive conditions of both magmas are approximately ~910 °C and <200 MPa. The pressure of storage is greater compared to the other Plinain magmas from Popocatepetl, ~130 MPa. It is well known that magma mixing could trigger explosive eruptions. However, in contrast to all other Plinian eruptions from Popocatepetl, the WP and IZ-4 magmas seem to being predominately crystallizing with no major effects from mixing and/or assimilation, and that they were tapped just because of the effect produced on the pressure gradient by the sector collapse. This is important for present day monitoring of Popocatépetl activity, because it seems that the deeper reservoir is less prone for mixing and that the accumulation of

  5. Developmental profile of neurogenesis in prenatal human hippocampus: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengbo; Zhang, Junfeng; Shi, Hangyu; Zhang, Jianshui; Xu, Xi; Xiao, Xinli; Liu, Yong

    2014-11-01

    Hippocampus has attracted the attention of the neuroscientists for its involvement in a wide spectrum of higher-order brain functions and pathological conditions, especially its persistent neurogenesis in subgranular zone (SGZ). The development of hippocampus was intensively investigated on animals such as rodents. However, in prenatal human hippocampus, little information on the distribution of neural stem/progenitor cells, newly generated neurons and mature neurons is available and the timetable of a series of neurogenesis event is even more obscure. So in the present study, we aim at immunohistochemically providing more information on neurogenesis in prenatal human hippocampus from 9 weeks to 32 weeks of gestation. We found that the ki67-positive cells were always detected in hippocampus from 9 weeks to 32 weeks, with a peak at 9 weeks in cornu ammonis (CA) or 14 weeks in dentate gyrus (DG). At 9 weeks the nestin-expressing cells were distributed throughout the hippocampus, with concentrated immunoreactivity in intermediate zone (IZ), marginal zone (MZ), fimbria, and relatively sparse immunoreactivity in the ventricular zone (VZ) and hippocampal plate (HP). With development, the optical density (OD) and the number of nestin-positive cells decreased gradually. At 32 weeks, there were relatively more nestin-positive cells in DG than that in CA. About DCX-positive cells, they displayed a similar distribution as nestin-positive cells (immunoreactivity concentrated in IZ, MZ, fimbria and HP) and a dramatic decrease of OD or cell number density from 9 weeks on. NeuN-positive cells, with small nuclei, were firstly found in MZ and subplate of hippocampus at 9 weeks. After 14 weeks, many NeuN-positive cells extended from subplate into HP and the density of NeuN-positive cells peaked at 22 weeks. That the immunoreactivity for NeuN was the strongest and the nuclei were the biggest at 32 weeks suggests that the neurons reach maturity gradually. Therefore this study provides

  6. Recycling of crustal minerals into the upper mantle: evidence from ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. T.; Yang, J.; Trumbull, R.

    2009-05-01

    A wide variety of ultrahigh pressure and crustal minerals has been recovered from podiform chromitites of the Donqiao and Luobusa ophiolites of Tibet, the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals and the Semail ophiolite of Oman. Microdiamonds are abundant in the Luobusa, Donqiao and Ray-Iz ophiolites, coesite and kyanite occur in Luobusa and moissanite is present in all four ophiolites. Numerous crustal minerals, including zircon, corundum, quartz, almandine garnet, rutile, and feldspar are also present. The diamonds are mostly euhedral grains,100-200 µm across, commonly containing metallic and Mg-Fe silicate inclusions. One small grain occurs as an inclusion in an Os-Ir alloy. Coesite and kyanite are intergrown with each other on the rim of a grain of Ti-Fe alloy, and the coesite has a prismatic form suggesting it may be pseudomorphic after stishovite. Moissanite is common in all four ophiolites and occurs as small colorless, green or blue, vitreous fragments. Zircon grains range from 20 to 300 µm, and are mostly well rounded with very complex internal structures. They commonly contain low-pressure inclusions of quartz, rutile, orthoclase, mica, ilmenite and apatite. 206Pb/238U SIMS and SHRIMP dates for the zircons are mostly Paleozoic and Precambrian, far older than the ophiolites. The grains of quartz, almandine garnet, corundum and feldspar range up to about 0.5 mm and are moderately to well rounded. Smaller, angular fragments of such grains are also present. The rounded morphology of these grains, as well as the zircons, strongly suggests derivation from sedimentary material, presumably transported into the mantle by subduction. The microdiamonds and moissanite could also have been derived from crustal materials recycled into the mantle. We suggest that the various minerals were picked up by melts from which the chromitites precipitated and carried to shallow crustal levels. The preservation of such minerals, particularly quartz and coesite, in the mantle

  7. Discrimination between Lumbar Intraspinal Stenosis and Foraminal Stenosis using Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Ohtori, Seiji; Suzuki, Munetaka; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Hajime; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Miyako; Aoki, Yasuchika; Watanabe, Atsuya; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective observational study. Purpose To examine fractional anisotropy (FA) values and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of damaged nerves to discriminate between lumbar intraspinal stenosis (IS) and foraminal stenosis (FS) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) Overview of Literature It is important in the selection of surgical procedure to discriminate between lumbar IS and FS, but such discrimination is difficult. Methods There were 9 cases of IS, 7 cases of FS, and 5 healthy controls. The regions of interest were established in the lumbar intraspinal zone (Iz), nerve root (N), and extraforaminal zone (Ez). The FA and ADC values were measured on the affected and unaffected sides of the nerves. The FA ratio and the ADC ratio were calculated as the affected side/unaffected side ×100 (%). Results In the Ez, the FA value was significantly lower in FS than in IS (p<0.01). FA ratio was significantly lower in FS than in IS for the Ez (p<0.01). In the Iz, the ADC value was significantly higher in IS than FS (p<0.01). ADC ratio was significantly higher in FS than in IS for the N and Ez (p<0.05). For the Ez, receiver operating characteristic analysis of parameters revealed that the FA values showed a higher accuracy for the diagnosis of FS than the ADC values, and the FA value cut-off value was 0.42 (sensitivity: 85.7%, false positive: 11.1%) and the FA ratio cut-off value was 83.9% (sensitivity: 85.7%, false positive: 22.2%). Conclusions The low FA value in the extraforaminal zone suggests the presence of foraminal stenosis. When the FA value and FA ratio cut-off value were established as 0.42 and 83.9%, respectively, the accuracy was high for the diagnosis of foraminal stenosis. It may be possible to use DTI parameters to help in the discrimination between IS and FS. PMID:27114775

  8. Site-specific Isopeptide Bridge Tethering of Chimeric gp41 N-terminal Heptad Repeat Helical Trimers for the Treatment of HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xue; Yu, Fei; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Xifeng; Xu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Huixin; Lai, Wenqing; Zhang, Tianhong; Zhang, Zhenqing; Ye, Ling; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Keliang

    2016-01-01

    Peptides derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) of HIV-1 gp41 can be potent inhibitors against viral entry when presented in a nonaggregating trimeric coiled-coil conformation via the introduction of exogenous trimerization motifs and intermolecular disulfide bonds. We recently discovered that crosslinking isopeptide bridges within the de novo helical trimers added exceptional resistance to unfolding. Herein, we attempted to optimize (CCIZN17)3, a representative disulfide bond-stabilized chimeric NHR-trimer, by incorporating site-specific interhelical isopeptide bonds as the redox-sensitive disulfide surrogate. In this process, we systematically examined the effect of isopeptide bond position and molecular sizes of auxiliary trimeric coiled-coil motif and NHR fragments on the antiviral potency of these NHR-trimers. Pleasingly, (IZ14N24N)3 possessed promising inhibitory activity against HIV-1 infection and markedly increased proteolytic stability relative to its disulfide-tethered counterpart, suggesting good potential for further development as an effective antiviral agent for treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:27562370

  9. Site-specific Isopeptide Bridge Tethering of Chimeric gp41 N-terminal Heptad Repeat Helical Trimers for the Treatment of HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xue; Yu, Fei; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Xifeng; Xu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Huixin; Lai, Wenqing; Zhang, Tianhong; Zhang, Zhenqing; Ye, Ling; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Keliang

    2016-01-01

    Peptides derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) of HIV-1 gp41 can be potent inhibitors against viral entry when presented in a nonaggregating trimeric coiled-coil conformation via the introduction of exogenous trimerization motifs and intermolecular disulfide bonds. We recently discovered that crosslinking isopeptide bridges within the de novo helical trimers added exceptional resistance to unfolding. Herein, we attempted to optimize (CCIZN17)3, a representative disulfide bond-stabilized chimeric NHR-trimer, by incorporating site-specific interhelical isopeptide bonds as the redox-sensitive disulfide surrogate. In this process, we systematically examined the effect of isopeptide bond position and molecular sizes of auxiliary trimeric coiled-coil motif and NHR fragments on the antiviral potency of these NHR-trimers. Pleasingly, (IZ14N24N)3 possessed promising inhibitory activity against HIV-1 infection and markedly increased proteolytic stability relative to its disulfide-tethered counterpart, suggesting good potential for further development as an effective antiviral agent for treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:27562370

  10. Programming standards for effective S-3D game development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Neil; Matveev, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    When a video game is in development, more often than not it is being rendered in three dimensions - complete with volumetric depth. It's the PC monitor that is taking this three-dimensional information, and artificially displaying it in a flat, two-dimensional format. Stereoscopic drivers take the three-dimensional information captured from DirectX and OpenGL calls and properly display it with a unique left and right sided view for each eye so a proper stereoscopic 3D image can be seen by the gamer. The two-dimensional limitation of how information is displayed on screen has encouraged programming short-cuts and work-arounds that stifle this stereoscopic 3D effect, and the purpose of this guide is to outline techniques to get the best of both worlds. While the programming requirements do not significantly add to the game development time, following these guidelines will greatly enhance your customer's stereoscopic 3D experience, increase your likelihood of earning Meant to be Seen certification, and give you instant cost-free access to the industry's most valued consumer base. While this outline is mostly based on NVIDIA's programming guide and iZ3D resources, it is designed to work with all stereoscopic 3D hardware solutions and is not proprietary in any way.

  11. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  12. Balsscallichirus Sakai, 2011 (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) in the fossil record: systematics and palaeobiogeography

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš

    2016-01-01

    The fossil record of the ghost shrimp genus Balsscallichirus Sakai, 2011 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Callianassidae) is revised. Barnardcallichirus Sakai, 2011 and Tirmizicallichirus Sakai, 2011 are considered subjective synonyms of Balsscallichirus. Based on the examination of extant species it is argued that the morphology of the major cheliped merus, in combination with other hard part morphology characters, is sufficient for assignment of the fossil material into the genus. Main identifying characters are on merus which is keeled along its midline and its lower half is tuberculated; its lower margin possesses broad proximal meral hook continuing into a lobe distally; the entire lower margin is subdivided into numerous irregularly spaced spines. Three species, Callianassa sismondai A. Milne-Edwards, 1860, C. floriana Glaessner, 1928, and Podocallichirus laepaensis Hyžný & Muñiz, 2012, originally described from the Miocene of Italy, Austria and Spain, respectively, are assigned to Balsscallichirus herein. Neocallichirus wellsi Schweitzer, Feldmann & Gingerich, 2004 from the Upper Eocene of Pakistan is tentatively assigned to that genus as well. Spatial and temporal distribution of the genus indicates that at least since the Oligocene, and possibly even sooner (the Late Eocene), the genus has been restricted to the Western Tethys Region. Later, it migrated also into West Atlantic establishing present day communities. PMID:27499568

  13. X-ray fluorescence analysis of yellow pigments in altarpieces by Valencian artists of the XV and XVI centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, J. L.; Roldán, C.; Ardid, M.; Navarro, E.

    1999-02-01

    XRF analysis has allowed a quick and precise detection and identification of the inorganic elements that compose the yellow pigments in altarpieces of the XV and XVI centuries painted by the Valencian artists Miguel Alcañiz, Vicente Macip, Juan de Juanes, Hernando Yáñez de la Almedina and Hernando Llanos. The analyses have been carried out with an XRF portable system that consists of a tube of X-rays and detectors of Si(Li) and cadmium zinc telluride. This system has enabled a non-aggressive and non-destructive analysis of many pieces at the Museo de Bellas Artes of Valencia (Spain). Among the yellow pigments we have identified a pigment composed by lead and tin oxides named lead-tin yellow (Pb 2SnO 4), frequently used in European paintings from the XIV century until the first half of the XVIII century. This fact demonstrates the influence of elements and pictorial techniques from Europe to the region of Valencia.

  14. Manuscript "Collection of Solved Problems of General Astronomy" by Vojislav Miskovic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejovic, N.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we present the first university problems book concerning astronomy written in Serbian. The topic is "Zbirka rešenih zadataka iz opšte astronomije" (A Collection of Solved Problems of General Astronomy) by Prof. Vojislav Mi\\vsković. The first part of this collection was published in 1956 in Belgrade. The second one is still in the form of a manuscript. Though completely prepared for publishing, it has never been published. From the methodical point of view the collection was interestingly and nicely arranged. All astronomical notions and formulae are treated in details and well explained so that no complementary textbook is needed. A special attention is devoted to the numerical solution of the problems, which is not only missing in Serbian schools, but also, as said by Mi\\vsković in the Preface, is not properly valued. This paper treats both parts of this Collection which have been digitized and are available in the Virtual Library of the National Digitization Centre (Virtual Library, http://elib.matf.bg.ac.yu:8080/virlib/). By means of the manuscript digitization the second part of the Collection has become available to public use.

  15. Characterization, nucleotide sequence, and conserved genomic locations of insertion sequence ISRm5 in Rhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed Central

    Laberge, S; Middleton, A T; Wheatcroft, R

    1995-01-01

    A target for ISRm3 transposition in Rhizobium meliloti IZ450 is another insertion sequence element, named ISRm5. ISRm5 is 1,340 bp in length and possesses terminal inverted repeats of unequal lengths (27 and 28 bp) and contain five mismatches. An open reading frame that spans 89% of the length of one DNA strand encodes a putative transposase with significant similarity to the putative transposases of 11 insertion sequence elements from diverse bacterial species, including ISRm3 from R. meliloti. Multiple copies and variants of ISRm5 occur in the R. meliloti genome, often in close association with ISRm3. Five ISRm5 copies in two strains were studied, and each was found to be located between 8-bp direct repeats. At two of these loci, which were shown to be highly conserved in R. meliloti, the copies of ISRm5 were found to be associated with pairs of short inverted repeats resembling transcription terminators. This structural arrangement not only may provide a conserved niche for ISRm5 but also may be a preferred target for transposition. PMID:7768811

  16. Parahydrogen-induced polarization at zero magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Mark C.; Kervern, Gwendal; Theis, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah P.; Ganssle, Paul J.; Blanchard, John W.; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    We use symmetry arguments and simple model systems to describe the conversion of the singlet state of parahydrogen into an oscillating sample magnetization at zero magnetic field. During an initial period of free evolution governed by the scalar-coupling Hamiltonian HJ, the singlet state is converted into scalar spin order involving spins throughout the molecule. A short dc pulse along the z axis rotates the transverse spin components of nuclear species I and S through different angles, converting a portion of the scalar order into vector order. The development of vector order can be described analytically by means of single-transition operators, and it is found to be maximal when the transverse components of I are rotated by an angle of ±π/2 relative to those of S. A period of free evolution follows the pulse, during which the vector order evolves as a set of oscillating coherences. The imaginary parts of the coherences represent spin order that is not directly detectable, while the real parts can be identified with oscillations in the z component of the molecular spin dipole. The dipole oscillations are due to a periodic exchange between Iz and Sz, which have different gyromagnetic ratios. The frequency components of the resulting spectrum are imaginary, since the pulse cannot directly induce magnetization in the sample; it is only during the evolution under HJ that the vector order present at the end of the pulse evolves into detectable magnetization.

  17. Distribution of infective gastrointestinal helminth larvae in tropical erect grass under different feeding systems for lambs.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Jalise Fabíola; Poli, Cesar Henrique Espírito Candal; Bremm, Carolina; de Castro, Juliane Machado; Fajardo, Neuza Maria; Sarout, Bruna Nunes Marsiglio; Castilhos, Zélia Maria de Souza

    2015-08-01

    This study examined tropical pasture contamination dynamics under different feeding systems for finishing lambs. The experiment aimed to evaluate the vertical distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infective larvae (L3) in erect grass subjected to grazing and to assess the parasite load and its impact on lamb performance in three production systems. Three treatments based on Aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. IZ-5) were as follows: T1, grass only; T2, grass with 1.5% of body weight (BW) nutrient concentrate supplementation; and T3, grass with 2.5% BW concentrate supplementation. The randomized block design had three replicates of three treatments, with six lambs per replicate. L3 were recovered from three pasture strata (upper, middle, and bottom), each representing one third of the sward height, and correlated with microclimatic data. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among treatments in the L3 recovery. Despite different grass heights between treatments and microclimates within the sward, the L3 concentration generally did not differ significantly among the three strata within a treatment (P > 0.05). Pasture microclimate did not correlate with larval recovery. At the end of the experiment, the animal fecal egg count was similar among treatments (P > 0.05). The results indicated that different lamb feeding systems in a tropical erect grassland caused differences in grass height but did not affect the distribution of infective larvae among strata. Larvae were found from the base to the top of the grass sward.

  18. [Antioxidant stabilization of the antifoaming agents used in the fermentation process].

    PubMed

    Rakyta, J; Frimm, R; Velvard, L; Lacko, L; Lukasiková, E

    1980-01-01

    Oils used as antifoaming agents in fermentation are subjected to oxidation to form various products, such as aldehydes, carboxylic acids, peroxides, etc. The negative effect of such products on biosynthesis of chlortetracycline by strains VUA 84 and Iz 22/VUPL of Str. aureofaciens was recorded. The level of the oil oxidation was characterized by the contents of peroxides and epihydrinaldehydes. The Kreiss qualitative test was modified for quantitative estimation of epihydrinalydehydes. The oil antifoaming agents characterized by the routine parameters used in determination of oil quality, such as acid number, saponification number and iodine number. In the control experiments lard and soybeen oil were oxidized by air at a temperature of 100 degrees C without an antioxidant (2,6-ditetrabutyl-4-methylphenol). The oil antifoaming agents such as soybeen oil and lard were tested in biosynthesis of chlortetracycline carried out in flasks and pilot plant 750 1 apparatus. Antioxidant 4K, an alkylphenol antioxidant, in a 2% concentration proved to be effective for prevention of oxidation and nontoxic for the culture.

  19. Further perspective on the theory of heteronuclear decoupling.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Thomas E

    2014-11-01

    An exact general theory of heteronuclear decoupling is presented for spin-1/2 IS systems. RF irradiation applied to the I spins both modifies and generates additional couplings between states of the system. The recently derived equivalence between the dynamics of any N-level quantum system and a system of classical coupled harmonic oscillators makes explicit the exact physical couplings between states. Decoupling is thus more properly viewed as a complex intercoupling. The sign of antiphase magnetization plays a fundamental role in decoupling. A one-to-one correspondence is demonstrated between ±2SyIz and the sense of the S-spin coupling evolution. Magnetization Sx is refocused to obtain the desired decoupled state when ∫2SyIzdt=0. The exact instantaneous coupling at any time during the decoupling sequence is readily obtained in terms of the system states, showing that the creation of two-spin coherence is crucial for reducing the effective scalar coupling, as required for refocusing to occur. Representative examples from new aperiodic sequences as well as standard cyclic, periodic composite-pulse and adiabatic decoupling sequences illustrate the decoupling mechanism. The more general aperiodic sequences, obtained using optimal control, realize the potential inherent in the theory for significantly improved decoupling.

  20. Occurring mechanism and restraining method research of numerical noise signal in penetration simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Wang, Yabin

    2016-08-01

    In hard target penetration simulation, the existing researches of the convergence of results are mainly concentrating in the corresponding relationship between penetration depth and mesh scales. However, the influence of the mesh difference on the penetration resistance and acceleration signals are seldom refer to. This paper presents the occurring mechanism and restraining method of numerical noise signal in penetration simulation. First, the concept of the noise signal izs proposed. By taking a 3D penetration simulation as example, the influence of the noise signal on the penetration resistance in different mesh scales and impact velocity is studied. To ensure the convergence of the computational results, the grid scale of the target is encrypted to 1:1:8. In addition, modern spectrum analysis method is introduced to further analyze the penetration resistance signal. The research results presented is useful to improve the computational accuracy of high speed projectile penetration simulation, and provide important reference for carrying out structural design and optimization of fuze system.

  1. Two Dimensional Intermodulation Distortion Scanning of Superconducting Filter Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischak, Michael; Remillard, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear superconducting conductivity produces distortion that has usually been measured globally across the entire sample. In order to fully understand the origin of non linearity, local methods must be used to examine specific points in the sample. The nonlinear Ohm's law, V =IZ(I) includes the current dependence in the impedance. The method in this work raster scans a magnetic loop probe across a sample. In order to address limited resolution, we reduced the size of the magnetic loop probe. Using the electromagnetic field solver, sonnet, two dimensional current simulations of superconducting microwave filters composed of Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 or of YBa2Cu3O7 reveal microwave current which is bunched up at the corners and sides of the sample. Two dimensional images of third order intermodulation distortion made with the magnetic probe at the same corners and edges reveal elevated distortion in the same places. Using the magnetic probe, third order intermodulation was seen to come from the same corners and edges where the current is bunched. This research was funded by the National Science Foundation under grant number DMR-1206149.

  2. The near wall TIRFM measurement of nano-tracer's statistical intensity distribution (SID) and determining the base intensity I0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xu; LNM Team

    2015-11-01

    The total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) is an evanescent-wave-based technique for measuring nanoparticle dynamics very close to wall. The intensity of the evanescent wave decays exponentially (i.e. I(z) =I0exp(z/zp)) , which can provide information of the tracer particle position not just parallel but also normal to wall. However, considering the z information is encoded in tracer intensity, it is critical to determine the base intensity I0. In this study, we will first establish a model to describe the statistical intensity distribution (SID) of the nano-tracers observed in the evanescent field inspired by the works of Huang et al. A different function of particle-wall interaction and a term of the influence of the objective focal plane thickness are introduced in the present SID method. Then, TIRFM experiments are performed to measure the histogram of SID. The experimental histogram of SID is then fitted by the theoretical curve to determine I0 which is the only one fit parameter. By near wall velocity measurement, we will show that the SID method has a very high precision in determining I0 and the vertical z position of every nanotracer. Further tests show that the PDF of nano-tracers can reveal more information about how nanoparticles interact with the charged solid wall. This provides a promising method to detect the physical properties near interface.

  3. Evaluation of an electrostatic toxicity model for predicting Ni(2+) toxicity to barley root elongation in hydroponic cultures and in soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Kopittke, Peter M; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Lock, Koen; Ma, Yi-Bing; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; McGrath, Steve P

    2011-10-01

    Assessing environmental risks of metal contamination in soils is a complex task because the biologically effective concentrations of metals in soils vary widely with soil properties. The factors influencing the toxic effect of nickel (Ni) on root growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare) were re-evaluated using published data from both soil and hydroponic cultures. The electrical potential (ψ(0) (o) ) and ion activities ({I(z) }(0) (o) ) at the outer surfaces of root-cell plasma membranes (PMs) were computed as the basis of the re-evaluation. The reanalyses demonstrated that root growth was related to: the Ni(2+) activity at the PM surface, ({Ni(2+) }(0) (o) ); calcium (Ca) deficiency (related to {Ca(2+) }(0) (o) ); osmotic effects; and modification of intrinsic Ni(2+) toxicity by magnesium (Mg(2+) ; this appeared to exert an intrinsic (specific) ameliorating effect on intrinsic Ni(2+) toxicity). Electrostatic toxicity models (ETM) were developed to relate root growth to these factors (R(2)  > 0.751). Based on the ETM developed in soil culture and a Ni(2+) solid-solution partitioning model, critical metal concentrations in soils linked to a biological effect were well predicted for 16 European soils with a wide range of properties, indicating the potential utility of ETM in risk assessment of metals in terrestrial ecosystems.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Motion Verified Red Stars (MoVeRS) (Theissen+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theissen, C. A.; West, A. A.; Dhital, S.

    2015-09-01

    We present a photometric catalog of 8,735,004 proper motion selected low-mass stars (KML-spectral types) within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) footprint, from the combined SDSS-DR10, Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) Point Source Catalog (PSC), and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) AllWISE catalog. Stars were selected using r-i, i-z, r-z, z-J, and z-W1 colors, and SDSS, WISE, and 2MASS astrometry was combined to compute proper motions. The resulting 3,518,150 stars were augmented with proper motions for 5,216,854 earlier type stars from the combined SDSS and United States Naval Observatory B1.0 catalog (USNO-B). We used SDSS+USNO-B proper motions to determine the best criteria for selecting a clean sample of stars. Only stars whose proper motions were greater than their 2-sigma uncertainty were included. Our Motion Verified Red Stars (MoVeRS) catalog is available through SDSS CasJobs and VizieR. (2 data files).

  5. Characterization of Salmonella isolated from captive and free-living snakes in Germany.

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Stenkat, Julia; Szabo, Istvan; Ortlieb, Falk; Blindow, Irmgard; Neul, Ann-Kathrin; Pees, Michael; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Reptiles are well-known reservoirs of Salmonella spp. and cases of reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) are increasing since reptiles are becoming more popular as pets. In the present study, the presence, distribution and prevalence of serovars of Salmonella was investigated in captive snakes (n = 87) and in free-living snakes (n = 87) in Germany. A total of 43 S. enterica-isolates were recovered from organ samples and cloacal swabs, predominantly belonging to the subspecies diarizonae (IIIb) (n = 27), enterica (I) (n = 7) and houtenae (IV) (n = 6). S. enterica subsp. enterica (I) serovar Paratyphi B (n = 4) and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (IIIb) serovar 47:l,v:z (n = 3) were the most frequently isolated serotypes. Nevertheless, the fact that most serotypes were only represented by a single isolate points out the high diversity of Salmonella present among snakes. Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae (IIIb) serotype 40:i:z53, which was isolated twice from two free-living Eurasian adders (Vipera berus) captured at different locations, has not been previously described. Our results confirm the role of both free-living and captive snakes as reservoirs of S. enterica in Germany.

  6. Interpretation of Flood-Illuminated Adaptive Optics Images in Subjects with Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Gale, Michael J; Feng, Shu; Titus, Hope E; Smith, Travis B; Pennesi, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate features on flood-illuminated adaptive optics (AO) images with color fundus, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We imaged 39 subjects diagnosed with RP using the rtx1™ flood-illuminated AO camera from Imagine Eyes (Orsay, France). We observed a correlation between hyper-autofluoresence changes on FAF, disruption of the interdigitation zone (IZ) on SD-OCT and loss of reflective cone profiles on AO. Four main patterns of cone-reflectivity were seen on AO: presumed healthy cone mosaics, hypo-reflective blurred cone-like structures, higher frequency disorganized hyper-reflective spots, and lower frequency hypo-reflective spots. These regions were correlated to progressive phases of cone photoreceptor degeneration observed using SD-OCT and FAF. These results help provide interpretation of en face images obtained by flood-illuminated AO in subjects with RP. However, significant ambiguity remains as to what truly constitutes a cone, especially in areas of degeneration. With further refinements in technology, flood illuminated AO imaging has the potential to provide rapid, standardized, longitudinal and lower cost imaging in patients with retinal degeneration.

  7. Heavy-metal complexation by de novo peptide design.

    PubMed

    Farrer, Brian T; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2002-11-01

    From poisoning caused by lead-based paint on domestic buildings to groundwater contamination by naturally occurring arsenic deposits in India, heavy-metal toxicity is a global health problem. Contaminated ground water and acute cases of heavy-metal poisoning are treated with chelators to remove the heavy metals from the contaminated site or person. This review discusses the effort to generate heavy-metal chelators through peptide de novo design. De novo design entails the design of a primary sequence that will precisely fold into a predetermined secondary and tertiary protein structure. The first-generation peptide chelator used to initiate this investigation is the three-stranded coild coil containing Cys. Cys provides a potential trigonal binding site with soft thiolate ligands, which has been proposed to provide specific interactions with heavy metals. This hypothesis derives from the observation that similar sites on natural proteins show selectivity for heavy metals over other essential metals, such as Zn or Mg. A description of two systems, the TRI series and the IZ-AC peptide, is given, highlighting the interaction of these peptides with Hg, Cd, As and Pb. Arguments are also presented for the potential use of three-helix bundles as a second-generation design.

  8. Inverse participation ratios in the XXZ spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misguich, Grégoire; Pasquier, Vincent; Luck, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    We investigate numerically the inverse participation ratios in a spin-1/2 XXZ chain, computed in the "Ising" basis (i.e., eigenstates of σiz). We consider in particular a quantity T , defined by summing the inverse participation ratios of all the eigenstates in the zero-magnetization sector of a finite chain of length N , with open boundary conditions. From a dynamical point of view, T is proportional to the stationary return probability to an initial basis state, averaged over all the basis states (initial conditions). We find that T exhibits an exponential growth, T ˜exp(a N ) , in the gapped phase of the model and a linear scaling, T ˜N , in the gapless phase. These two different behaviors are analyzed in terms of the distribution of the participation ratios of individual eigenstates. We also investigate the effect of next-nearest-neighbor interactions, which break the integrability of the model. Although the massive phase of the nonintegrable model also has T ˜exp(a N ) , in the gapless phase T appears to saturate to a constant value.

  9. The chromatin environment shapes DNA replication origin organization and defines origin classes

    PubMed Central

    Cayrou, Christelle; Ballester, Benoit; Peiffer, Isabelle; Fenouil, Romain; Coulombe, Philippe; Andrau, Jean-Christophe; van Helden, Jacques; Méchali, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    To unveil the still-elusive nature of metazoan replication origins, we identified them genome-wide and at unprecedented high-resolution in mouse ES cells. This allowed initiation sites (IS) and initiation zones (IZ) to be differentiated. We then characterized their genetic signatures and organization and integrated these data with 43 chromatin marks and factors. Our results reveal that replication origins can be grouped into three main classes with distinct organization, chromatin environment, and sequence motifs. Class 1 contains relatively isolated, low-efficiency origins that are poor in epigenetic marks and are enriched in an asymmetric AC repeat at the initiation site. Late origins are mainly found in this class. Class 2 origins are particularly rich in enhancer elements. Class 3 origins are the most efficient and are associated with open chromatin and polycomb protein-enriched regions. The presence of Origin G-rich Repeated elements (OGRE) potentially forming G-quadruplexes (G4) was confirmed at most origins. These coincide with nucleosome-depleted regions located upstream of the initiation sites, which are associated with a labile nucleosome containing H3K64ac. These data demonstrate that specific chromatin landscapes and combinations of specific signatures regulate origin localization. They explain the frequently observed links between DNA replication and transcription. They also emphasize the plasticity of metazoan replication origins and suggest that in multicellular eukaryotes, the combination of distinct genetic features and chromatin configurations act in synergy to define and adapt the origin profile. PMID:26560631

  10. Lactobacillus furfuricola sp. nov., isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles.

    PubMed

    Irisawa, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Kitahara, Maki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Okada, Sanae

    2014-08-01

    Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, Nu27(T) and Nu29, were isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles. The isolates were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, catalase-negative, non-motile and facultatively anaerobic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. The closest relatives to strain Nu27(T) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were Lactobacillus versmoldensis KU-3(T) (98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Lactobacillus nodensis iz4b(T) (96.3%) and Lactobacillus tucceti CECT 5290(T) (97.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness values revealed genotype separation of the two isolates from the above three species. Based on the physiological, biochemical and genotypic characteristics provided, the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which name is Lactobacillus furfuricola proposed. The type strain is Nu 27(T) ( = JCM 18764(T) = NRIC 0900(T) = DSM 27174(T)).

  11. Evaluating the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in a small Mediterranean watershed.

    PubMed

    Ertürk, Ali; Ekdal, Alpaslan; Gürel, Melike; Karakaya, Nusret; Guzel, Cigdem; Gönenç, Ethem

    2014-11-15

    Western Mediterranean Region of Turkey is subject to considerable impacts of climate change that may adversely affect the water resources. Decrease in annual precipitation and winter precipitation as well as increase in temperatures are observed since 1960s. In this study, the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in part of Köyceğiz-Dalyan Watershed was evaluated. Evaluation was done by quantifying the impacts of climate change on the water budget components. Hydrological modeling was conducted with SWAT model which was calibrated and validated successfully. Climate change and land use scenarios were used to calculate the present and future climate change impacts on water budgets. According to the simulation results, almost all water budget components have decreased. SWAT was able to allocate less irrigation water because of the decrease of overall water due to the climate change. This resulted in an increase of water stressed days and temperature stressed days whereas crop yields have decreased according to the simulation results. The results indicated that lack of water is expected to be a problem in the future. In this manner, investigations on switching to more efficient irrigation methods and to crops with less water consumption are recommended as adaptation measures to climate change impacts.

  12. Developmental stage-dependent influence of environmental factors on growth of rural Sundanese children in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the growth trajectories and the relative relevance levels of nutrition, disease, and hormonal status at various developmental stages among children in adverse environments to provide population-based empirical evidence for the life history theory. Three years of longitudinal anthropometric data in 1-year intervals were obtained from 418 boys and girls aged 0 to 12 years at recruitment. Following the final measurement, the main survey, which included blood and feces sampling, 3-h interval food consumption recall surveys for energy and nutrient intakes and anthropometry, was performed. Blood and feces were used for detecting, respectively, anemia and hormonal (IGF-I and IGFBP-3) levels as well as intestinal helminthiasis (Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm). The major findings of this study are summarized as follows: 1) the growth velocity of the subject children lagged behind international standards during childhood and juvenility but caught up during early adolescence; 2) diseases, both intestinal helminths and anemia, had significant effects on growth in childhood but not at older ages; and 3) hormonal status significantly affected growth in the children, with its highest significance in early adolescence. A larger growth than international standards in early adolescence likely follows programmed hormonal mechanisms after the onset of puberty. The onset of puberty might be associated with adequate amounts of nutrient intake and be mediated by hormonal function, because the IGF-IZ score was significantly correlated with energy and protein intakes at the transitional period from juvenility to adolescence, when puberty occurs.

  13. Nonmarket valuation of water quality in a rural transition economy in Turkey applying an a posteriori bid design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederli Tümay, Aylin; Brouwer, Roy

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the economic benefits associated with public investments in wastewater treatment in one of the special protected areas along Turkey's touristic Mediterranean coast, the Köyceǧiz-Dalyan watershed. The benefits, measured in terms of boatable, fishable, swimmable and drinkable water quality, are estimated using a public survey format following the contingent valuation (CV) method. The study presented here is the first of its kind in Turkey. The study's main objective is to assess public perception, understanding, and valuation of improved wastewater treatment facilities in the two largest population centers in the watershed, facing the same water pollution problems as a result of lack of appropriate wastewater treatment. We test the validity and reliability of the application of the CV methodology to this specific environmental problem in a rural transition economy and evaluate the transferability of the results within the watershed. In order to facilitate willingness to pay (WTP) value elicitation we apply a novel dichotomous choice procedure where bid design takes place a posteriori instead of a priori. The statistical efficiency of different bid vectors is evaluated in terms of the estimated welfare measures' mean square errors using Monte Carlo simulation. The robustness of bid function specification is analyzed through average WTP and standard deviation estimated using parametric and nonparametric methods.

  14. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology. PMID:27117799

  15. [Dr Srećko Marac (1921-1985): a physician, sychiatrist/phychotherapist, and a poet].

    PubMed

    Radovancević, Ljubomir; Pavlović, Eduard

    2009-01-01

    Srećko Marac was born in Susak in 1921 and died in Zagreb in 1990. Having completed the Susak grammar school, he moved to Padua and later to Zagreb to study medicine. During WW2 he dropped the studies and joined the antifascist resistance known as the People's Liberation War. After the war, he completed medical studies in Zagreb. He worked as army physician in Bjelovar and in the Military Hospital in Zagreb. He specialised in psychiatry and practiced psychotherapy in the former Zagreb Mental Health Centre. In 1973, he published his first selection of poems wrought over a long time, with a simple title Pjesme (Poems). The aim of this article was to take a better look at this 1973 collection, see its structure and composition, its content, moods, and ways it communicates to the reader. The collection consists of five parts: Ad tyrannos, Iz partizana (from Resistance), Lutanja/ traZenja/snovi...(Roamings, Quests, Dreams...), Satire i kusanja humora (Satire and Attempts at Humour), and More/brda i domovina (Sea, Hills, and Homeland). Instead of a conclusion, this article proposes to save this wonderful and compassionate poetphysician from oblivion.

  16. Low-temperature specific heat in hydrogenated and Mn-doped La (Fe,Si ) 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, Edmund; Ghivelder, Luis; Nicotina, Amanda; Turcaud, Jeremy; Bratko, Milan; Caplin, A. David; Basso, Vittorio; Barcza, Alexander; Katter, Matthias; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2016-10-01

    It is now well established that the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transition in the magnetocaloric La (FeSi) 13 is a cooperative effect involving spin, charge, and lattice degrees of freedom. However, the influence of this correlated behavior on the ferromagnetic state is as yet little studied. Here we measure the specific heat at low temperatures in a systematic set of LaF exM nyS iz samples, with and without hydrogen, to extract the Sommerfeld coefficient, the Debye temperature, and the spin-wave stiffness. Substantial and systematic changes in magnitude of the Sommerfeld coefficient are observed with Mn substitution and introduction of hydrogen, showing that over and above the changes to the density of states at the Fermi energy there are significant enhanced d -band electronic interactions at play. The Sommerfeld coefficient is found to be 90 -210 mJ mo l-1K-2 , unusually high compared to that expected from band-structure calculations. The Debye temperature determined from the specific heat measurement is insensitive to Mn and Si doping but increases when hydrogen is introduced into the system. The Sommerfeld coefficient is reduced in magnetic field for all compositions that have a measurable spin-wave contribution. These results move our understanding of the cooperative effects forward in this important and interesting class of materials significantly and provide a basis for future theoretical development.

  17. Particulate matter (PM₁₀) induces metalloprotease activity and invasion in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Chirino, Yolanda I; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-09-17

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) is a risk factor for the development of lung diseases and cancer. The aim of this work was to identify alterations in airway epithelial (A549) cells induced by PM10 that could explain how subtoxic exposure (10 μg/cm(2)) promotes a more aggressive in vitro phenotype. Our results showed that cells exposed to PM10 from an industrial zone (IZ) and an urban commercial zone (CZ) induced an increase in protease activity and invasiveness; however, the cell mechanism is different, as only PM10 from CZ up-regulated the activity of metalloproteases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and disrupted E-cadherin/β-catenin expression after 48 h of exposure. These in vitro findings are relevant in terms of the mechanism action of PM10 in lung epithelial cells, which could be helpful in understanding the pathogenesis of some human illness associated with highly polluted cities.

  18. Cytoplasmic p21(CIP1/WAF1), ERK1/2 activation, and cytoskeletal remodeling are associated with the senescence-like phenotype after airborne particulate matter (PM(10)) exposure in lung cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Chirino, Yolanda I; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Herrera, Luis A; Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; López-Saavedra, Alejandro; González-Ramírez, Imelda; Miranda, Javier; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2014-02-10

    The exposure to particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10) from urban zones is considered to be a risk factor in the development of cancer. The aim of this work was to determine if PM10 exposure induces factors related to the acquisition of a neoplastic phenotype, such as cytoskeletal remodeling, changes in the subcellular localization of p21(CIP1/WAF1), an increase in β-galactosidase activity and changes in cell cycle. To test our hypothesis, PM10 from an industrial zone (IZ) and a commercial zone (CZ) were collected, and human adenocarcinoma lung cell cultures (A549) were exposed to a sublethal PM10 concentration (10 μg/cm(2)) for 24 h and 48 h. The results showed that PM10 exposure induced an increase in F-actin stress fibers and caused the cytoplasmic stabilization of p21(CIP1/WAF1) via phosphorylation at Thr(145) and Ser(146) and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 on Thr(202). Changes in the cell cycle or apoptosis were not observed, but an increase in β-galactosidase activity was detected. The PM10 from CZ caused more dramatic effects in lung cells. We conclude that PM10 exposure induced cytoplasmic p21(CIP1/WAF1) retention, ERK1/2 activation, cytoskeleton remodeling and the acquisition of a senescence-like phenotype in lung cells. These alterations could have mechanistic implications regarding the carcinogenic potential of PM10.

  19. DEEP 21 cm H I OBSERVATIONS AT z {approx} 0.1: THE PRECURSOR TO THE ARECIBO ULTRA DEEP SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Freudling, Wolfram; Zwaan, Martin; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Meyer, Martin; Catinella, Barbara; Minchin, Robert; Calabretta, Mark; Momjian, Emmanuel; O'Neil, Karen

    2011-01-20

    The 'ALFA Ultra Deep Survey' (AUDS) is an ongoing 21 cm spectral survey with the Arecibo 305 m telescope. AUDS will be the most sensitive blind survey undertaken with Arecibo's 300 MHz Mock spectrometer. The survey searches for 21 cm H I line emission at redshifts between 0 and 0.16. The main goals of the survey are to investigate the H I content and probe the evolution of H I gas within that redshift region. In this paper, we report on a set of precursor observations with a total integration time of 53 hr. The survey detected a total of eighteen 21 cm emission lines at redshifts between 0.07 and 0.15 in a region centered around {alpha}{sub 2000} {approx} 0{sup h}, {delta} {approx} 15{sup 0}42'. The rate of detection is consistent with the one expected from the local H I mass function. The derived relative H I density at the median redshift of the survey is {rho}{sub H{sub I}}[z = 0.125] = (1.0 {+-} 0.3){rho}{sub 0}, where {rho}{sub 0} is the H I density at zero redshift.

  20. Connexin 43 controls the multipolar phase of neuronal migration to the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuxin; Sun, Lin; Torii, Masaaki; Rakic, Pasko

    2012-05-22

    The prospective pyramidal neurons, migrating from the proliferative ventricular zone to the overlaying cortical plate, assume multipolar morphology while passing through the transient subventricular zone. Here, we show that this morphogenetic transformation, from the bipolar to the mutipolar and then back to bipolar again, is associated with expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) and, that knockdown of Cx43 retards, whereas its overexpression enhances, this morphogenetic process. In addition, we have observed that knockdown of Cx43 reduces expression of p27, whereas overexpression of p27 rescues the effect of Cx43 knockdown in the multipolar neurons. Furthermore, functional gap junction/hemichannel domain, and the C-terminal domain of Cx43, independently enhance the expression of p27 and promote the morphological transformation and migration of the multipolar neurons in the SVZ/IZ. Collectively, these results indicate that Cx43 regulates the passage of migrating neurons through their multipolar stage via p27 signaling and that interference with this process, by either genetic and/or environmental factors, may cause cortical malformations. PMID:22566616

  1. Fourier series and {delta}-subharmonic functions of finite {gamma}-type in a half-plane

    SciTech Connect

    Malyutin, K G

    2001-06-30

    Let {gamma}(r) be a growth function and let v(z) be a proper {delta}-subharmonic function in the sense of Grishin in a complex half-plane, that is v=v{sub 1}-v{sub 2}, where v{sub 1} and v{sub 2} are proper subharmonic functions (limsup{sub z{yields}}{sub t}v{sub i}(z){<=}0, for each real t, i=1,2), let {lambda}={lambda}{sub +}-{lambda}{sub -} be the full measure corresponding to v and let T(r,v) be its Nevanlinna characteristic. The class J{delta}({gamma}) of functions of finite {gamma}-type is defined as follows: v element of J{delta}({gamma}) if T(r,v){<=}A{gamma}(Br)/r for some positive constants A and B. The Fourier coefficients of v are defined in the standard way. The central result of the paper is the equivalence of the following properties: (1) v element of J{delta}({gamma}); (2) N(r){<=}A{sub 1}{gamma}(B{sub 1}r)/r, where N(r)=N(r,{lambda}{sub +}) or N(r)=N(r,{lambda}{sub -}), and |c{sub k}(r,v)|{<=}A{sub 2}{gamma}(B{sub 2}r). It is proved in addition that J{delta}({gamma})=JS({gamma})-JS({gamma}), where JS({gamma}) is the class of proper subharmonic functions of finite {gamma}-type.

  2. Connexin 43 controls the multipolar phase of neuronal migration to the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuxin; Sun, Lin; Torii, Masaaki; Rakic, Pasko

    2012-05-22

    The prospective pyramidal neurons, migrating from the proliferative ventricular zone to the overlaying cortical plate, assume multipolar morphology while passing through the transient subventricular zone. Here, we show that this morphogenetic transformation, from the bipolar to the mutipolar and then back to bipolar again, is associated with expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) and, that knockdown of Cx43 retards, whereas its overexpression enhances, this morphogenetic process. In addition, we have observed that knockdown of Cx43 reduces expression of p27, whereas overexpression of p27 rescues the effect of Cx43 knockdown in the multipolar neurons. Furthermore, functional gap junction/hemichannel domain, and the C-terminal domain of Cx43, independently enhance the expression of p27 and promote the morphological transformation and migration of the multipolar neurons in the SVZ/IZ. Collectively, these results indicate that Cx43 regulates the passage of migrating neurons through their multipolar stage via p27 signaling and that interference with this process, by either genetic and/or environmental factors, may cause cortical malformations.

  3. Expression of Cyclin d1 protein and CCND1 та PNKP genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in clean up worker of Chornobyl accident with different state of immune system.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, D A; Kubashko, A V; Ilyenko, I M; Belyaev, O A; Pleskach, O J

    2015-12-01

    Meta. Doslidyty zminy rivniv Cyclin D1+ klityn ta asotsiyovanykh geniv CCND1 ta PNKP u mononuklearakh peryfe rychnoI krovi v uchasnykiv likvidatsiI naslidkiv avariI (ULNA) na ChAES z riznym imunnym statusom v zalezhnosti vid dozy oprominennia.Materialy i metody. Proanalizovano vidnosnyy riven' Cyclin D1+ klityn u mononuklearakh peryferychnoI krovi 39 ULNA na ChAES, cholovikiv, oprominenykh u dozi u diapazoni (0,01–2,00) Gr. Imunologichnyy status obstezhenykh vyz nachavsia za rivnem CD3/19, CD4/8, CD3/HLA DR, SD3/16/56 metodom protochnoI tsytofluorymetriI ta za vmistom Ig klasiv A,M,G metodom imunofermentnogo analizu u krovi. Ekspresiia geniv CCND1 ta PNKP, iaki pov’iazani z Syclin D1, provodylos' za metodom polimeraznoI lantsiugovoI reaktsiI u real'nomu chasi. Porivniannia rezul'tativ zdiysniuva los' iz vidpovidnymy danymy, otrymanymy vid 18 zdorovykh cholovikiv, iaki ne maly kontaktu z ionizuiuchym vyp rominiuvanniam vyshche pryrodn'ogo fonu.Rezul'taty. Pokazano, shcho vidsotok Suclin D1+ klityn zbil'shuiet'sia za normu v osib, oprominenykh u dozi > 0,1 Gr, ta koreliuie z dozoiu oprominennia (rs = 0,417, p = 0,048). Vidkhylennia rivnia Cyclin D1+ klityn za mezhi kontrol'nykh zna chen' pov’iazuiet'sia zi zminamy v klitynniy ta gumoral'niy lankakh imunitetu. Zmenshennia vidsotku Cyclin D1+ klityn za mezhi kontrol'nykh znachen' v ULNA na ChAES iz dozoiu < 0,35 Gr suprovodzhuiet'sia znyzhenniam rivniv CD3+ ta pidvy shchenniam CD3 16+56+ limfotsytiv; u osib, oprominenykh u dozi > 0,35 Gr, zbil'shennia vidsotku Cyclin D1+ klityn asotsiiuiet'sia zi znyzhenniam CD3+ ta tendentsiieiu shchodo znyzhennia CD3+16+56+ limfotsytiv u poiednanni zi zbil'shen niam rivnia IgG. Zbil'shennia rivniv CD4+, CD19+, Ireg. ta IgG suprovodzhuiet'sia poiavoiu koreliatsiynykh zv’iazkiv mizh Cyclin D1+ ta CD3 16+56+ klitynamy (rs = 0,872, p = 0,049), Cyclin D1+ ta CD8+ i IgG (rs = 0,683, p = 0,042; rs = 0,809, p = 0,014), Cyclin D1+ ta CD4+ (rs = 0,602, p = 0,029), Cyclin D1+ ta CD19+ i

  4. Intraspecies biodiversity of the genetically homologous species Brucella microti.

    PubMed

    Al Dahouk, Sascha; Hofer, Erwin; Tomaso, Herbert; Vergnaud, Gilles; Le Flèche, Philippe; Cloeckaert, Axel; Koylass, Mark S; Whatmore, Adrian M; Nöckler, Karsten; Scholz, Holger C

    2012-03-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major bacterial zoonoses worldwide. In the past decade, an increasing number of atypical Brucella strains and species have been described. Brucella microti in particular has attracted attention, because this species not only infects mammalian hosts but also persists in soil. An environmental reservoir may pose a new public health risk, leading to the reemergence of brucellosis. In a polyphasic approach, comprising conventional microbiological techniques and extensive biochemical and molecular techniques, all currently available Brucella microti strains were characterized. While differing in their natural habitats and host preferences, B. microti isolates were found to possess identical 16S rRNA, recA, omp2a, and omp2b gene sequences and identical multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) profiles at 21 different genomic loci. Only highly variable microsatellite markers of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16) showed intraspecies discriminatory power. In contrast, biotyping demonstrated striking differences within the genetically homologous species. The majority of the mammalian isolates agglutinated only with monospecific anti-M serum, whereas soil isolates agglutinated with anti-A, anti-M, and anti-R sera. Bacteria isolated from animal sources were lysed by phages F1, F25, Tb, BK2, Iz, and Wb, whereas soil isolates usually were not. Rough strains of environmental origin were lysed only by phage R/C. B. microti exhibited high metabolic activities similar to those of closely related soil organisms, such as Ochrobactrum spp. Each strain was tested with 93 different substrates and showed an individual metabolic profile. In summary, the adaptation of Brucella microti to a specific habitat or host seems to be a matter of gene regulation rather than a matter of gene configuration.

  5. Intraspecies Biodiversity of the Genetically Homologous Species Brucella microti

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Erwin; Tomaso, Herbert; Vergnaud, Gilles; Le Flèche, Philippe; Cloeckaert, Axel; Koylass, Mark S.; Whatmore, Adrian M.; Nöckler, Karsten; Scholz, Holger C.

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major bacterial zoonoses worldwide. In the past decade, an increasing number of atypical Brucella strains and species have been described. Brucella microti in particular has attracted attention, because this species not only infects mammalian hosts but also persists in soil. An environmental reservoir may pose a new public health risk, leading to the reemergence of brucellosis. In a polyphasic approach, comprising conventional microbiological techniques and extensive biochemical and molecular techniques, all currently available Brucella microti strains were characterized. While differing in their natural habitats and host preferences, B. microti isolates were found to possess identical 16S rRNA, recA, omp2a, and omp2b gene sequences and identical multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) profiles at 21 different genomic loci. Only highly variable microsatellite markers of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16) showed intraspecies discriminatory power. In contrast, biotyping demonstrated striking differences within the genetically homologous species. The majority of the mammalian isolates agglutinated only with monospecific anti-M serum, whereas soil isolates agglutinated with anti-A, anti-M, and anti-R sera. Bacteria isolated from animal sources were lysed by phages F1, F25, Tb, BK2, Iz, and Wb, whereas soil isolates usually were not. Rough strains of environmental origin were lysed only by phage R/C. B. microti exhibited high metabolic activities similar to those of closely related soil organisms, such as Ochrobactrum spp. Each strain was tested with 93 different substrates and showed an individual metabolic profile. In summary, the adaptation of Brucella microti to a specific habitat or host seems to be a matter of gene regulation rather than a matter of gene configuration. PMID:22210211

  6. The continuing story of SN IIb 2013df: new optical and IR observations and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Tamás; Vinkó, József; Nagy, Andrea P.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Dhungana, Govinda; Marion, G. Howie; Kehoe, Robert; Fox, Ori D.; Sárneczky, Krisztián; Marschalkó, Gábor; Bíró, Barna I.; Borkovits, Tamás; Hegedüs, Tibor; Szakáts, Róbert; Ferrante, Farley V.; Bányai, Evelin; Hodosán, Gabriella; Kelemen, János; Pál, András

    2016-08-01

    SN 2013df is a nearby Type IIb supernova that seems to be the spectroscopic twin of the well-known SN 1993J. Previous studies revealed many, but not all interesting properties of this event. Our goal was to add new understanding of both the early- and late-time phases of SN 2013df. Our spectral analysis is based on six optical spectra obtained with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope during the first month after explosion, complemented by a near-infrared spectrum. We applied the SYNAPPS spectral synthesis code to constrain the chemical composition and physical properties of the ejecta. A principal result is the identification of `high-velocity' He I lines in the early spectra of SN 2013df, manifest as the blue component of the double-troughed profile at ˜5650 Å. This finding, together with the lack of clear separation of H and He lines in velocity space, indicates that both H and He features form at the outer envelope during the early phases. We also obtained ground-based BVRI and g'r 'i'z' photometric data up to +45 d and unfiltered measurements with the ROTSE-IIIb telescope up to +168 d. From the modelling of the early-time quasi-bolometric light curve, we find Mej ˜ 3.2-4.6 M⊙ and Ekin ˜ 2.6-2.8 × 1051 erg for the initial ejecta mass and the initial kinetic energy, respectively, which agree well with the values derived from the separate modelling of the light-curve tail. Late-time mid-infrared excess indicates circumstellar interaction starting ˜1 yr after explosion, in accordance with previously published optical, X-ray, and radio data.

  7. A new free-floating planet in the Upper Scorpius association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Ramírez, K.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    We report on a deep photometric survey covering an area of 1.17 deg2 in the young Upper Scorpius stellar association using VIMOS Iz and UKIDSS ZJHK data that was taken with several years in between. The search for the least massive population of Upper Scorpius (~5-10 Myr, 145 pc) is performed on the basis of various optical and infrared color-color and color-magnitude diagrams, including WISE photometry, in the magnitude interval J = 14.5-19 mag (completeness), which corresponds to substellar masses from 0.028 through 0.004 M⊙ at the age and distance of Upper Scorpius. We also present the proper motion analysis of the photometric candidates, finding that two objects successfully pass all photometric and astrometric criteria for membership in the young stellar association. One of them, USco J155150.2-213457, is a new discovery. We obtained low resolution, near-infrared spectroscopy (R ~ 450, 0.85-2.35 μm) of this new finding using the FIRE instrument. We confirmed its low-gravity atmosphere expected for an Upper Scorpius member (weak alkaline lines, strong VO absorption, peaked H-band pseudocontinuum). By comparison with spectroscopic standards, we derive a spectral type of L6 ± 1, and estimate a mass of ≈0.008-0.010 M⊙ for USco J155150.2-213457. The colors and spectral slope of this object resemble those of other young, cool members of Upper Scorpius and σ Orionis (~3 Myr) and field, high gravity dwarfs of related classification in contrast with the very red indices of field, low gravity, L-type dwarfs of intermediate age. USco J155150.2-213457, which does not show infrared flux excesses up to 4.5 μm, becomes one of the least massive and latest type objects known in the entire Upper Scorpius stellar association.

  8. Some principles for formation of self-developing dichromate media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherstyuk, Valentin P.; Malov, Alexander N.; Maloletov, Sergei M.; Kalinkin, Vyacheslav V.

    1991-02-01

    The optical information recorded in dichromate gelatin (DCG) layers Induced the information of a latent. image Which rnder the action of water and alcohols transforms to a relief or Phase image. The action of water vapours ma appreciably increase diffraction efficiency. judging from the assumPtion that the introduction of multiatomic alcohols favours the retention of water'' moecu1es in a lager in the amount sufficient for deve1oment on its exposure and stabilization of chromium complexes1 a " self-development" regim has teen worked out. In this case the diffraction efficiency of recorded hc. 1ograms is c''ose to the theoretical limiting value for flatphase r''e c o rdI ng me (J i a. At present the occurence of a Primary latent holographic image (or structure) in dichromated gelatin (DCG) layers has been recognized The diffraction efficiency (DE) detected at a step of holographic recording is low (about 0. 1-IZ). It was shown earlier /j_ 2/ that the treatment bY water vaours or eXPOSUPC Of the layers under conditions of increased humidity results ma growth of DE up to the values enabling the use of DCG to record information in real time /3/j Latent image centres in exposed DC3 layers are predominantly chromium(V) compounds. It is particulary evidenced by the observed correlation between the rate of formation of Cr(V) compounds in a Photo process and the specific change in DE of a latent image /5/.

  9. Effects of Al, Ga-DOPING on Transparent Conducting Properties of Amorphous ZnO-SnO2 Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriga, Toshihiro; Nishimura, Yusuke; Suketa, Hiroshi; Murai, Kei-Ichiro; Nogami, Kazuhiro; Tominaga, Kikuo; Nakabayashi, Ichiro

    ZnOSnO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrates (Corning#1737) by DC magnetron sputtering. In this works, we examined a doping effect on a ZnO target on transparent conducting properties. ZnO:Al(4wt%), and ZnO:Ga(6wt%) targets were used for a dopant-free ZnO target. Substrate temperature was held at 250°C. The current ratio δ was defined as IZn/IZ+ISn (ZnO target current divided by the sum of ZnO and SnO2 target currents). Compositions of as-deposited films were changed with the current ratio δ. In the ZnO-SnO2 system, amorphous transparent films appeared over the range of 0.33≤δ≤0.73. On the other hand, in the ZnO:Al(4wt%)-SnO2 and ZnO:Ga(6wt%)-SnO2 systems, they appeared over the range of 0.20≤δ≤0.80 and 0.33≤δ≤0.80, ≤δ≤ respectively. The minimum resistivity of amorphous films was about 3.0×10-2 Ωcm for all the systems. Al, Ga doping effect on film resistivity was not clear very much. But optical transparencies were 80-90% in visible region, 10% higher than those of ZnO-SnO2 system at average. Optical band gap for the films with the same current ratio δ also was enhanced by the Al, Ga doping.

  10. Neutral hydrogen in galaxy clusters: impact of AGN feedback and implications for intensity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Planelles, Susana; Borgani, Stefano; Viel, Matteo; Rasia, Elena; Murante, Giuseppe; Dolag, Klaus; Steinborn, Lisa K.; Biffi, Veronica; Beck, Alexander M.; Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia

    2016-03-01

    By means of zoom-in hydrodynamic simulations, we quantify the amount of neutral hydrogen (H I) hosted by groups and clusters of galaxies. Our simulations, which are based on an improved formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics, include radiative cooling, star formation, metal enrichment and supernova feedback, and can be split into two different groups, depending on whether feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is turned on or off. Simulations are analysed to account for H I self-shielding and the presence of molecular hydrogen. We find that the mass in neutral hydrogen of dark matter haloes monotonically increases with the halo mass and can be well described by a power law of the form M_{H I}(M,z)∝ M^{3/4}. Our results point out that AGN feedback reduces both the total halo mass and its H I mass, although it is more efficient in removing H I. We conclude that AGN feedback reduces the neutral hydrogen mass of a given halo by ˜50 per cent, with a weak dependence on halo mass and redshift. The spatial distribution of neutral hydrogen within haloes is also affected by AGN feedback, whose effect is to decrease the fraction of H I that resides in the halo inner regions. By extrapolating our results to haloes not resolved in our simulations, we derive astrophysical implications from the measurements of Ω _{H I}(z): haloes with circular velocities larger than ˜25 km s-1 are needed to host H I in order to reproduce observations. We find that only the model with AGN feedback is capable of reproducing the value of Ω _{H I}b_{H I} derived from available 21 cm intensity mapping observations.

  11. Effects of maternal oral administration of morphine sulfate on developing rat fetal cerebrum: a morphometrical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Kaka, Gholam Reza; Sahraei, Hedayat; Dashtnavard, Hosein; Bahadoran, Hosein; Mofid, Mahmood; Nasab, Hossein Mahdavi; Jafari, Fatemeh

    2008-12-15

    Intrauterine morphine exposure is a risk factor for neurological and behavioral deficit in children, although the precise underlying biological correlate for this is unclear. Female pregnant rats were orally treated with 0.1 mg/ml of morphine solution on the 21st day of gestation. Pregnant rats were killed on the 21st day of gestation and their fetuses were taken out and evaluated for growth and cerebral development. The fetuses were fixed and followed by dehydration through graded ethanol solutions and were then embedded and their heads were coronally sectioned through the frontal cerebral cortex. Quantitative computer-assisted morphometric study was done on the frontal cerebral cortex (FCC) which consists of cortical plate (CP), intermediate (migratory) zone (IZ) and matrix (proliferative) zone (MZ) in the rat embryos. The results showed that morphine exposure caused a significant reduction of fetal weight and crown-to-rump length in morphine exposure group. The present study showed that animals with intrauterine morphine exposure, induced by a period of reduced placental blood flow during the second week of pregnancy, demonstrate reduced both cortical thickness and the numbers of neurons in the developing fetal frontal cerebral cortex (FCC). Histomorphometric evaluation revealed that the thickness of the CP was significantly decreased in the morphine-exposed embryos. In addition, neuronal counting showed that cell proliferation in the CP was suppressed after morphine administration and that the migration of neurons from the matrix zone (MZ) to the cortex was decelerated. In conclusion, these results showed that morphine exposure during the second week of pregnancy could affect brain development in a way, which could lead to neurological and behavioral deficits in the postnatal animal.

  12. A Detailed Study of Contamination in Deep Rapid Searches for Gravitational Wave Optical Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowperthwaite, Philip; Berger, Edo; Chornock, Ryan; Fong, Wen-fai

    2015-01-01

    The first direct detection of gravitational waves (GW) by the Advanced LIGO/VIRGO (aLIGO/VIRGO) collaboration is expected to occur within the next few years. In order to maximize the science gains from such a detection it is essential that we identify an electromagnetic counterpart. One of the most promising counterparts is the so-called 'kilonovae,' a fast-evolving (t ~ days) and faint (z ~ 24 AB mag) optical transient powered by the radioactive decay of r-process elements generated in the merger. However, the poor initial localization of aLIGO/VIRGO (~ 100 sq. deg.) demand the use of wide-field telescopes. Furthermore, the cadences and depths used by current and future wide-field optical surveys (e.g. PTF/ZTF, PANStarrs, LSST) are sub-optimal for kilonovae detection. We present our attempts to tackle these issues by investigating the theoretical and practical issues associated with optical follow-up of an aLIGO/VIRGO GW event. This includes a systematic study of the potential contaminant population and their impact on kilonovae detectability in simulated observations. We show that kilonovae can remain separated from contaminants by the virtue of their red colors (i - z > 0.5) and short timescales. This theoretical analysis will be tested against observations obtained by the DECam wide-field imager on the CTIO Blanco 4m telescope. These data attempt to simulate the wide area coverage (~ 70 sq. deg.) and rapid cadence (two visits per night in i,z) necessary for targeted GW follow-up and will provide an excellent test bed for understanding the practical issues associated with this endeavor. This work is supported in part by the NSF GRFP grant DGE1144152.

  13. Weighing Neutrinos with Cosmic Neutral Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Bull, Philip; Viel, Matteo

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the signatures left by massive neutrinos on the spatial distribution of neutral hydrogen (H i) in the post-reionization era by running hydrodynamic simulations that include massive neutrinos as additional collisionless particles. We find that halos in massive/massless neutrino cosmologies host a similar amount of neutral hydrogen, although for a fixed halo mass, on average, the H i mass increases with the sum of the neutrino masses. Our results show that H i is more strongly clustered in cosmologies with massive neutrinos, while its abundance, ΩH i(z), is lower. These effects arise mainly from the impact of massive neutrinos on cosmology: they suppress both the amplitude of the matter power spectrum on small scales and the abundance of dark matter halos. Modeling the H i distribution with hydrodynamic simulations at z > 3 and a simple analytic model at z < 3, we use the Fisher matrix formalism to conservatively forecast the constraints that Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array will place on the sum of neutrino masses, Mν ≡ Σ mν. We find that with 10,000 hr of interferometric observations at 3 ≲ z ≲ 6 from a deep and narrow survey with SKA1-LOW, the sum of the neutrino masses can be measured with an error σ(Mν) ≲ 0.3 eV (95% CL). Similar constraints can be obtained with a wide and deep SKA1-MID survey at z ≲ 3, using the single-dish mode. By combining data from MID, LOW, and Planck, plus priors on cosmological parameters from a Stage IV spectroscopic galaxy survey, the sum of the neutrino masses can be determined with an error σ(Mν) ≃ 0.06 eV (95% CL).

  14. DES J0454–4448: Discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S. L.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = –26.5) quasar DES J0454–4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H i near zone size of 4.1+1.1–1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i–z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightest of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i–z and z–Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.

  15. DES J0454–4448: Discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Reed, S. L.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = –26.5) quasar DES J0454–4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H i near zone size of 4.1+1.1–1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i–z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightestmore » of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i–z and z–Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.« less

  16. Tree growth and forest ecosystem functioning in Eurasia under extreme climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurer, Matthias; Kirdyanov, Alexander; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Bryukhanova, Marina; Knorre, Anastasia; Nasyrov, Muhtor; Frank, David; Treydte, Kerstin; Sidorova, Olga; Siegwolf, Rolf

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of this study is to improve our understanding of the influence of a changing climate on trees in extreme conditions by a detailed analysis of the factors controlling tree-ring growth. We investigated forest ecosystems in regions that are very sensitive to climatic changes and where rapid and dramatic environmental and climatic changes are on-going, namely, the high latitude permafrost region in Central Siberia (Russia), the semi-arid dry areas in Central Asia (Uzbekistan) and high-altitude sites in the Alps (Switzerland). Tree-ring parameters studied were ring-width, density, cell number and structure and the ratio of carbon and oxygen isotopes. An important aspect of the work was the characterization of seasonal growth and water supply of trees. Intra-seasonal dynamics of tree-ring formation was correlated with monitored environmental factors, such as air and soil temperature and moisture, permafrost depth and the isotope composition of soil water, of precipitation, and of stream water. Intra-annual and long-term variability of the main tree-ring parameters were compared for the different regions. The results obtained help us to understand better tree-physiological processes valid under contrasting environmental conditions. For instance, the relationship between the onset of cell division in the cambium and the thermo-hydrological soil regime was used to determine the period of the year with the highest influence on the start of tree-ring formation. Seasonally resolved oxygen isotope depth profiles of soil water and concurrent xylem and leaf water measurements show the importance of time-lags between precipitation, leaf processes and growth. The data obtained are important for improving tree-ring growth models and estimating future tree growth under climate change. Funding: SNF SCOPES IZ73Z0_128035

  17. CLASH: COMPLETE LENSING ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST COSMIC LENS MACS J0717.5+3745 AND SURROUNDING STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Medezinski, Elinor; Lemze, Doron; Ford, Holland; Umetsu, Keiichi; Nonino, Mario; Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom; Sayers, Jack; Czakon, Nicole; Waizmann, Jean-Claude; Meneghetti, Massimo; Koekemoer, Anton; Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc; Molino, Alberto; Melchior, Peter; Grillo, Claudio; and others

    2013-11-01

    The galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 (z = 0.55) is the largest known cosmic lens, with complex internal structures seen in deep X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and dynamical observations. We perform a combined weak- and strong-lensing analysis with wide-field BVR{sub c} i'z' Subaru/Suprime-Cam observations and 16-band Hubble Space Telescope observations taken as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. We find consistent weak distortion and magnification measurements of background galaxies and combine these signals to construct an optimally estimated radial mass profile of the cluster and its surrounding large-scale structure out to 5 Mpc h {sup –1}. We find consistency between strong-lensing and weak-lensing in the region where these independent data overlap, <500 kpc h {sup –1}. The two-dimensional weak-lensing map reveals a clear filamentary structure traced by distinct mass halos. We model the lensing shear field with nine halos, including the main cluster, corresponding to mass peaks detected above 2.5σ{sub κ}. The total mass of the cluster as determined by the different methods is M{sub vir} ≈ (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 15} M{sub ☉}. Although this is the most massive cluster known at z > 0.5, in terms of extreme value statistics, we conclude that the mass of MACS J0717.5+3745 by itself is not in serious tension with ΛCDM, representing only a ∼2σ departure above the maximum simulated halo mass at this redshift.

  18. Salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant barley varieties differ in the extent of potentiation of the ROS-induced K(+) efflux by polyamines.

    PubMed

    Velarde-Buendía, Ana María; Shabala, Sergey; Cvikrova, Milena; Dobrovinskaya, Oxana; Pottosin, Igor

    2012-12-01

    Generation of high levels of polyamines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) is common under stress conditions. Our recent study on a salt-sensitive pea species revealed an interaction between natural polyamines and hydroxyl radicals in inducing non-selective conductance and stimulating Ca(2+)-ATPase pumps at the root plasma membrane (I. Zepeda-Jazo, A.M. Velarde-Buendía, R. Enríquez-Figueroa, B. Jayakumar, S. Shabala, J. Muñiz, I. Pottosin, Polyamines interact with hydroxyl radicals in activating Ca2+ and K+ transport across the root epidermal plasma membranes, Plant Phys. 157 (2011) 1-14). In this work, we extended that study to see if interaction between polyamines and ROS may determine the extent of genotypic variation in salinity tolerance. This work was conducted using barley genotypes contrasting in salinity tolerance. Similar to our findings in pea, application of hydroxyl radicals-generating Cu(2+)/ascorbate mixture induced transient Ca(2+) and K(+) fluxes in barley roots. Putrescine and spermine alone induced only transient Ca(2+) efflux and negligible K(+) flux. However, both putrescine and spermine strongly potentiated hydroxyl radicals-induced K(+) efflux and respective non-selective current. This synergistic effect was much more pronounced in a salt-sensitive cultivar Franklin as compared to a salt-tolerant TX9425. As retention of K(+) under salt stress is a key determinant of salinity tolerance in barley, we suggest that the alteration of cytosolic K(+) homeostasis, caused by interaction between polyamines and ROS, may have a substantial contribution to genetic variability in salt sensitivity in this species.

  19. WEIGHING NEUTRINOS WITH COSMIC NEUTRAL HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo; Bull, Philip E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the signatures left by massive neutrinos on the spatial distribution of neutral hydrogen (H i) in the post-reionization era by running hydrodynamic simulations that include massive neutrinos as additional collisionless particles. We find that halos in massive/massless neutrino cosmologies host a similar amount of neutral hydrogen, although for a fixed halo mass, on average, the H i mass increases with the sum of the neutrino masses. Our results show that H i is more strongly clustered in cosmologies with massive neutrinos, while its abundance, Ω{sub H} {sub i}(z), is lower. These effects arise mainly from the impact of massive neutrinos on cosmology: they suppress both the amplitude of the matter power spectrum on small scales and the abundance of dark matter halos. Modeling the H i distribution with hydrodynamic simulations at z > 3 and a simple analytic model at z < 3, we use the Fisher matrix formalism to conservatively forecast the constraints that Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array will place on the sum of neutrino masses, M{sub ν} ≡ Σ m{sub ν}. We find that with 10,000 hr of interferometric observations at 3 ≲ z ≲ 6 from a deep and narrow survey with SKA1-LOW, the sum of the neutrino masses can be measured with an error σ(M{sub ν}) ≲ 0.3 eV (95% CL). Similar constraints can be obtained with a wide and deep SKA1-MID survey at z ≲ 3, using the single-dish mode. By combining data from MID, LOW, and Planck, plus priors on cosmological parameters from a Stage IV spectroscopic galaxy survey, the sum of the neutrino masses can be determined with an error σ(M{sub ν}) ≃ 0.06 eV (95% CL)

  20. Open air mineral treatment operations and ambient air quality: assessment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Escudero, M; Alastuey, A; Moreno, T; Querol, X; Pérez, P

    2012-11-01

    We present a methodology for evaluating and quantifying the impact of inhalable mineral dust resuspension close to a potentially important industrial point source, in this case an open air plant producing sand, flux and kaolin in the Capuchinos district of Alcañiz (Teruel, NE Spain). PM(10) levels at Capuchinos were initially high (42 μg m(-3) as the annual average with 91 exceedances of the EU daily limit value during 2007) but subsequently decreased (26 μg m(-3) with 16 exceedances in 2010) due to a reduced demand for minerals from the ceramic industry and construction sector during the first stages of the economic crisis. Back trajectory and local wind pattern analyses revealed only limited contribution from exotic PM sources such as African dust intrusions whereas there was clearly a strong link with the mineral stockpiles of the local industry. This link was reinforced by chemical and mineral speciation and source apportionment analysis which showed a dominance of mineral matter (sum of CO(3)(2-), SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), Ca, Fe, K, Mg, P, and Ti: mostly aluminosilicates) which in 2007 contributed 76% of the PM(10) mass (44 μg m(-3) on average). The contribution from Secondary Inorganic Aerosols (SIA, sum of SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+)) reached 8.4 μg m(-3), accounting for 14% of the PM(10) mass, similar to the amount of calcareous road dust estimated to be present (8 μg m(-3); 13%). Organic matter and elemental carbon contributed 5.3 μg m(-3) (9%) whereas marine aerosol (Na + Cl) levels were minor with an average concentration of 0.4 μg m(-3) (1% of the PM(10) mass). Finally, chemical and mineralogical analysis of stockpile samples and comparison with filter samples confirmed the local industry to be the major source of ambient PM(10) in the area.

  1. A mutant of the nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) is a novel biocontrol agent for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Abdelnabby, Hazem; Xiao, Yannong

    2015-12-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes severe stem rot and yield loss in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and other crops worldwide. Extensive studies have been conducted on Paecilomyces lilacinus as a nematophagous bioagent. However, no reports stated the effect of P. lilacinus as a biocontrol agent against oilseed rape rot S. sclerotiorum. This study describes such effect in lab and field trials using the new transformant pt361 derived from the wild strain P. lilacinus 36-1. Unlike the wild-type strain, the mutant pt361 showed high antagonistic effect against S. Sclerotiorum A. Under lab conditions, the pt361 inhibited (65%) radial mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum in dual culture test producing 5.9 mm inhibition zone IZ in front of the S. sclerotiorum colony. Moreover, the cell-free filtrate of pt361 culture showed strong inhibitory effects (60.3-100%) on mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum. In leaf detached assay, pt361 significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited (40.4-97.9%) the extension of the leaf spots caused by S. sclerotiorum A at all tested concentrations. The genomic DNA sequences of the inserted T-DNA flanking obtained from pt361 strain was cloned, verified as a glycoside hydrolase 31 family by homologous analysis with other fungal strains, and named PGH31 (2556bp). Secondary structure prediction showed a domain (Glycoside hydrolase31). Three years field trial confirmed that the cell-free filtrates or spores suspension of pt361 achieved significant (p < 0.05) suppression of oilseed rape stem rot, promoted growth and increased yield compared to the control and exceeded, at dose 100%, the action of the fungicide procymidone(®). In conclusion, the mutant pt361 of P. lilacinus is a novel and promising biocontrol agent against oilseed rape Sclerotinia stem rot. PMID:26521137

  2. The Initial Mass Function in the Taurus Star-forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, César; Luhman, K. L.; Hartmann, Lee; Stauffer, John R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2002-11-01

    By combining a deep optical imaging (I,z') survey of 8 deg2 in the Taurus star-forming region with data from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and follow-up spectroscopy, we have performed a search for low-mass Taurus members that is complete to 0.02 Msolar for reddenings of AV<~4. We report the discovery of nine new members with spectral types of M5.75-M9.5, corresponding to masses of 0.1-0.015 Msolar by recent evolutionary models. The new M9.5 member is the least massive brown dwarf found to date in the Taurus star-forming region. We derive an initial mass function (IMF) for the fields surveyed in this work and in our previous studies, which encompass 54% of the known Taurus membership. We compare the Taurus IMF with a similarly derived one for the Trapezium Cluster and to mass functions for the M35 and Pleiades open clusters. While the IMFs in all of these regions flatten near ~0.8 Msolar, the mass function in Taurus is more narrow and sharply peaked at this mass. Our survey indicates that Taurus has ~2 × fewer brown dwarfs at 0.02-0.08 Msolar than the Trapezium. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of the IMF, and suggest that the lower frequency of brown dwarfs in Taurus relative to the Trapezium may result from the low-density star-forming environment, leading to larger minimum Jeans masses. Based on observations obtained at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Keck Observatory, Steward Observatory, and the MMT Observatory. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.

  3. Distribution of infective gastrointestinal helminth larvae in tropical erect grass under different feeding systems for lambs.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Jalise Fabíola; Poli, Cesar Henrique Espírito Candal; Bremm, Carolina; de Castro, Juliane Machado; Fajardo, Neuza Maria; Sarout, Bruna Nunes Marsiglio; Castilhos, Zélia Maria de Souza

    2015-08-01

    This study examined tropical pasture contamination dynamics under different feeding systems for finishing lambs. The experiment aimed to evaluate the vertical distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infective larvae (L3) in erect grass subjected to grazing and to assess the parasite load and its impact on lamb performance in three production systems. Three treatments based on Aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. IZ-5) were as follows: T1, grass only; T2, grass with 1.5% of body weight (BW) nutrient concentrate supplementation; and T3, grass with 2.5% BW concentrate supplementation. The randomized block design had three replicates of three treatments, with six lambs per replicate. L3 were recovered from three pasture strata (upper, middle, and bottom), each representing one third of the sward height, and correlated with microclimatic data. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among treatments in the L3 recovery. Despite different grass heights between treatments and microclimates within the sward, the L3 concentration generally did not differ significantly among the three strata within a treatment (P > 0.05). Pasture microclimate did not correlate with larval recovery. At the end of the experiment, the animal fecal egg count was similar among treatments (P > 0.05). The results indicated that different lamb feeding systems in a tropical erect grassland caused differences in grass height but did not affect the distribution of infective larvae among strata. Larvae were found from the base to the top of the grass sward. PMID:26003429

  4. Associations Between Selected Xenobiotics and Antinuclear Antibodies in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Dinse, Gregg E.; Jusko, Todd A.; Whitt, Irene Z.; Co, Caroll A.; Parks, Christine G.; Satoh, Minoru; Chan, Edward K.L.; Rose, Kathryn M.; Walker, Nigel J.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Miller, Frederick W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Potential associations between background environmental chemical exposures and autoimmunity are understudied. Objectives: Our exploratory study investigated exposure to individual environmental chemicals and selected mixtures in relation to the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a widely used biomarker of autoimmunity, in a representative sample of the U.S. population. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis used data on 4,340 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004), of whom 14% were ANA positive, to explore associations between ANA and concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorines, organophosphates, phenols, metals, and other environmental exposures and metabolites measured in participants’ serum, whole blood, or urine. For dioxin-like compounds with toxic equivalency factors, we developed and applied a new statistical approach to study selected mixtures. Lognormal models and censored-data methods produced estimates of chemical associations with ANA in males, nulliparous females, and parous females; these estimates were adjusted for confounders and accommodated concentrations below detectable levels. Results: Several associations between chemical concentration and ANA positivity were observed, but only the association in males exposed to triclosan remained statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons (mean concentration ratio = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.8, 4.5; p < 0.00001). Conclusions: These data suggest that background levels of most xenobiotic exposures typical in the U.S. population are not strongly associated with ANA. Future studies should ideally reduce exposure misclassification by including prospective measurement of the chemicals of concern and should track changes in ANA and other autoantibodies over time. Citation: Dinse GE, Jusko TA, Whitt IZ, Co CA, Parks CG, Satoh M, Chan EKL, Rose KM, Walker NJ, Birnbaum LS, Zeldin DC, Weinberg CR

  5. Semi-blind Eigen Analyses of Recombination Histories Using Cosmic Microwave Background Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhang, M.; Bond, J. R.; Chluba, J.

    2012-06-01

    Cosmological parameter measurements from cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, such as Planck, ACTPol, SPTPol, and other high-resolution follow-ons, fundamentally rely on the accuracy of the assumed recombination model or one with well-prescribed uncertainties. Deviations from the standard recombination history might suggest new particle physics or modified atomic physics. Here we treat possible perturbative fluctuations in the free electron fraction, X e(z), by a semi-blind expansion in densely packed modes in redshift. From these we construct parameter eigenmodes, which we rank order so that the lowest modes provide the most power to probe X e(z) with CMB measurements. Since the eigenmodes are effectively weighed by the fiducial X e history, they are localized around the differential visibility peak, allowing for an excellent probe of hydrogen recombination but a weaker probe of the higher redshift helium recombination and the lower redshift highly neutral freezeout tail. We use an information-based criterion to truncate the mode hierarchy and show that with even a few modes the method goes a long way from the fiducial recombination model computed with RECFAST, X e, i(z), toward the precise underlying history given by the new and improved recombination calculations of COSMOREC or HYREC, X e, f(z), in the hydrogen recombination regime, though not well in the helium regime. Without such a correction, the derived cosmic parameters are biased. We discuss an iterative approach for updating the eigenmodes to further hone in on X e, f(z) if large deviations are indeed found. We also introduce control parameters that downweight the attention on the visibility peak structure, e.g., focusing the eigenmode probes more strongly on the X e(z) freezeout tail, as would be appropriate when looking for the X e signature of annihilating or decaying elementary particles.

  6. Chromospheric activity properties and search for subdwarfs and extreme subdwarfs based on LAMOST stellar spectral survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liyun; Pi, Qingfeng; Han, Xianming L.; Shi, Jianrong; Wang, Daimei; Luo, Ali; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-04-01

    Big data obtained from a stellar spectroscopic survey carried out using the Large Sky Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST, also known as Guo Shou Jing telescope) provide important information for studying chromospheric activity, variability of chromospheric activity, and chromospheric statistical properties, and for searching subdwarfs and extreme subdwarfs. Using as chromospheric activity indicator the Hα line, we detected 6391 active M stars among the 99741 stars in the M-star catalogue of the LAMOST survey. We also obtained the relationship between the fraction of active stars and the spectral types, which is consistent to previous results. We also studied the effects of activity on broadband photometric colors, and we did not see significant differences between active and inactive M stars. Using as spectroscopic molecular indicators the CaH123 and TiO5 lines, we found 1288 subdwarfs (including 120 active subdwarfs). We also found 15 extreme subdwarf (2 active extreme subdwarf) candidates. Our subdwarf candidates are slightly redder by about 0.05 mag in g-r compared with dwarfs using the g-r and r-i, and g-r and i-z color diagrams. Using our active M-star catalogue, we found that 898 stars exhibited Hα emission in at least two exposures (170 of them in at least three exposures). Among these 170 stars, 163 of them show variability in Hα emission on long timescales (more than 2.5 h). Furthermore, 34 stars show variability over short timescales (less than 2.5 h), and 29 actives show variability over both short and long time scales.

  7. The integrated analyses of digital field mapping techniques and traditional field methods: implications from the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, SW Turkey as a case-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Zabcı, Cengiz; Şahin, Murat

    2015-04-01

    The precise geological mapping is one of the most important issues in geological studies. Documenting the spatial distribution of geological bodies and their contacts play a crucial role on interpreting the tectonic evolution of any region. Although the traditional field techniques are still accepted to be the most fundamental tools in construction of geological maps, we suggest that the integration of digital technologies to the classical methods significantly increases the resolution and the quality of such products. We simply follow the following steps in integration of the digital data with the traditional field observations. First, we create the digital elevation model (DEM) of the region of interest by interpolating the digital contours of 1:25000 scale topographic maps to 10 m of ground pixel resolution. The non-commercial Google Earth satellite imagery and geological maps of previous studies are draped over the interpolated DEMs in the second stage. The integration of all spatial data is done by using the market leading GIS software, ESRI ArcGIS. We make the preliminary interpretation of major structures as tectonic lineaments and stratigraphic contacts. These preliminary maps are controlled and precisely coordinated during the field studies by using mobile tablets and/or phablets with GPS receivers. The same devices are also used in measuring and recording the geologic structures of the study region. Finally, all digitally collected measurements and observations are added to the GIS database and we finalise our geological map with all available information. We applied this integrated method to map the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone (BFSZ) in the southwest Turkey. The BFSZ is an active sinistral 60-to-90 km-wide shear zone, which prolongs about 300 km-long between Suhut-Cay in the northeast and Köyceğiz Lake-Kalkan in the southwest on land. The numerous studies suggest contradictory models not only about the evolution but also about the fault geometry of this

  8. Evidence for rapid geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe over the past 800 years from new French archeointensity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genevey, Agnès; Gallet, Yves; Rosen, Jean; Le Goff, Maxime

    2009-06-01

    The number of reliable archeointensity determinations obtained from Western Europe for the past millennium remains limited. Moreover, the large scatter between different datasets available is puzzling. The present study analyzed 31 new groups of baked clay (ceramic or brick) fragments sampled in France (29 groups) and in Belgium (2 groups). These groups contain several fragments collected from different artefacts and are precisely dated principally from historical constraints between the XIIIth and the XIXth centuries. Additionally, we re-evaluated 14 intensity values that we previously obtained from the same time period. The fragments were analyzed using two different thermal methods: (1) the "in field-zero field" (IZ) or the IZZI version of the classical Thellier and Thellier method and (2) the Triaxe protocol that involves high-temperature magnetization measurements. Data were corrected for the anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) and the dependence of TRM acquisition on the cooling rate was taken into account in the different protocols. Archeointensity data obtained on twin specimens sampled from the same fragment and using both experimental techniques generally show a good agreement (i.e. within 5%) at the fragment and at the site level. All retained site-level averaged intensity results (43 of 45 groups) have standard deviations of less than 5 µT. Furthermore, groups of approximately the same age have very consistent archeointensity. Altogether, the data presented herein recover a detailed and smoothed geomagnetic field intensity variation curve characterized by two peaks in intensity, the first during the second half of the XIVth century and the second around AD 1600, followed by a significant decreasing trend in intensity during most the XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries. This evolution does not satisfactorily fit with the expected intensity values for France derived from geomagnetic field models relying on a different evolution of the axial dipole

  9. State of oral cavity hygiene, sIgA level, mineral content of oral fluid, and optimization of preventive intervention in children with enamel hypoplasia and underlying comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Liubarets, S F; Kopylova, O V; Belingio, T O; Kolbasynska, V M; Sechina, I M; Liubarets, T F

    2015-12-01

    (p = 0,0001) ta indeksu Silness Loe (p = 0,0003). Pryznachennia remineralizuiuchogo geliu dostovirno pidvyshchuvalo vmist kal'tsiiu (r = 0,0008) ta ortofosfativ (r = 0,001) v rotoviy ridyni. U ditey obokh grupy ne bulo vyiavleno suttievykh zmin rivnia sIgA.Vysnovky. Vprovadzhennia kompleksu profilaktychnykh zakhodiv iz zastosuvanniam preparatu remineralizuiuchoI diI spryialo pokrashchenniu gigiieny porozhnyny rota, pidvyshchenniu vmistu mineral'nykh skladovykh rotovoI ridyny, odnak suttievo ne vplynulo na riven' sIgA.

  10. Level repulsion exponent β for many-body localization transitions and for Anderson localization transitions via Dyson Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2016-03-01

    The generalization of the Dyson Brownian motion approach of random matrices to Anderson localization (AL) models (Chalker et al 1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 554) and to many-body localization (MBL) Hamiltonians (Serbyn and Moore 2015 arXiv:1508.07293) is revisited to extract the level repulsion exponent β, where β =1 in the delocalized phase governed by the Wigner-Dyson statistics, β =0 , in the localized phase governed by the Poisson statistics, and 0<{βc}<1 at the critical point. The idea is that the Gaussian disorder variables h i are promoted to Gaussian stationary processes h i (t) in order to sample the disorder stationary distribution with some time correlation τ. The statistics of energy levels can then be studied via Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations. For the MBL quantum spin Hamiltonian with random fields h i , we obtain β =2qn,n+1\\text{EA}(N)/qn,n\\text{EA}(N) in terms of the Edwards-Anderson matrix qnm\\text{EA}(N)\\equiv \\frac{1}{N}{\\sum}i=1N|< {φn}|σ iz|{φm}> {{|}2} for the same eigenstate m  =  n and for consecutive eigenstates m  =  n  +  1. For the Anderson localization tight-binding Hamiltonian with random on-site energies h i , we find β =2{{Y}n,n+1}(N)/≤ft({{Y}n,n}(N)-{{Y}n,n+1}(N)\\right) in terms of the density correlation matrix {{Y}nm}(N)\\equiv {\\sum}i=1N|< {φn}|i> {{|}2}|< i|{φm}> {{|}2} for consecutive eigenstates m  =  n  +  1, while the diagonal element m  =  n corresponds to the inverse participation ratio {{Y}nn}(N)\\equiv {\\sum}i=1N|< {φn}|i> {{|}4} of the eigenstate |{φn}> .

  11. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  12. Multicolor surface photometry of a sample of low luminosity radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Sheetal Kumar; Pandey, S. K.; Chakradhari, N. K.; Baburao Pandge, Mahadev

    2015-08-01

    We present a detailed multiband photometric study of five galaxies, selected from a sample of low luminosity early-type galaxies from B2 sample, which have mpg = 15.7, mV = 16.5, redshifts up to 0.2, radio powers P408 = 1023 - 1026.5 W Hz-1 and between 1022 - 1025 W Hz-1 at 1.4 GHz. We have used observed BVR and Hα images from IGO 2m telescope (Pune, India) and 2m HCT, Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO Hanle, India), and archival multiband data from SDSS (ugriz), 2MASS (JHKs ), WISE, Spitzer (mid-IR), XMM, CHANDRA (X-ray), UV (GALEX) and radio from VLA, IRAM for this study.We used standard technique of surface photometry by fitting ellipses to the isophotes for studying the distribution of light in the galaxies by studying their surface brightness profiles, ellipticity profiles, position angle profiles, variation of center of isophotes along semi-major axis, shapes of isophotes, radial color gradients, twists in isophotes and fine structure variations from smooth light profile. The obtained surface brightness profiles are fitted to the core-Sersic model for decomposing the galaxy light profiles and quantify the radial stellar distributions of the sample galaxies.The multiband color index profiles, e.g. u-g, g-r, r-i, i-z, B-R, B-V, J-Hs , J-Ks , H-Ks , R-Ks , 3.4-4.6 μm, 4.6-12 μm (mid-IR) and FUV-NUV(UV), are obtained and combined with various maps e.g . unsharp-masked images, residual maps, quotient maps, dust extinction maps, Hα emission maps, CO intensity maps, diffuse X-ray emission maps and extinction curves of the galaxies to study the morphology, properties and physical correlations of different phases (e.g cool gas, dust, ionized gas and hot gases) of Inter Stellar Medium and to examine various star formation related processes in the galaxies.

  13. Impact of Forest Fires on Tree-Ring δ13C and δ18O of Gmelinii Larch in the Permafrost Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorre, Anastasia; Kirdyanov, Alexander; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Sidorova, Olga; Prokushkin, Anatoly

    2013-04-01

    the frequency and intensity of fires is expected to increase. Funding: SNF SCOPES IZ73Z0_128035 and RFBR-04-12-00542

  14. THE GAS CONSUMPTION HISTORY TO REDSHIFT 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bauermeister, Amber; Blitz, Leo; Ma, Chung-Pei E-mail: blitz@berkeley.ed

    2010-07-01

    Using the observations of the star formation rate (SFR) and H I densities to z {approx} 4, with measurements of the molecular gas depletion rate (MGDR) and local density of H{sub 2} at z = 0, we derive the history of the gas consumption by star formation to z {approx} 4. We find that closed-box models in which H{sub 2} is not replenished by H I require improbably large increases in {rho}(H{sub 2}) and a decrease in the MGDR with lookback time that is inconsistent with observations. Allowing the H{sub 2} used in star formation to be replenished by H I does not alleviate the problem because observations show that there is very little evolution of {rho}{sub H{sub I}}(z) from z = 0 to z = 4. We show that to be consistent with observational constraints, star formation on cosmic timescales must be fueled by intergalactic ionized gas, which may come from either accretion of gas through cold (but ionized) flows, or from ionized gas associated with accretion of dark matter halos. We constrain the rate at which the extragalactic ionized gas must be converted into H I and ultimately into H{sub 2}. The ionized gas inflow rate roughly traces the SFR density: about 1-2 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} Gyr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} from z {approx_equal} 1-4, decreasing by about an order of magnitude from z = 1 to z = 0 with details depending largely on MGDR(t). All models considered require the volume-averaged density of {rho}{sub H{sub 2}} to increase by a factor of 1.5-10 to z {approx} 1.5 over the currently measured value. Because the molecular gas must reside in galaxies, it implies that galaxies at high-z must, on average, be more molecule rich than they are at the present epoch, which is consistent with observations. These quantitative results, derived solely from observations, agree well with cosmological simulations.

  15. Ultra-reducing conditions in average mantle peridotites and in podiform chromitites: a thermodynamic model for moissanite (SiC) formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubkova, Anastasia; Schmidt, Max W.; Connolly, James A. D.

    2016-05-01

    Natural moissanite (SiC) is reported from mantle-derived samples ranging from lithospheric mantle keel diamonds to serpentinites to podiform chromitites in ophiolites related to suprasubduction zone settings (Luobusa, Dongqiao, Semail, and Ray-Iz). To simulate ultra-reducing conditions and the formation of moissanite, we compiled thermodynamic data for alloys (Fe-Si-C and Fe-Cr), carbides (Fe3C, Fe7C3, SiC), and Fe-silicides; these data were augmented by commonly used thermodynamic data for silicates and oxides. Computed phase diagram sections then constrain the P- T- fO2 conditions of SiC stability in the upper mantle. Our results demonstrate that: Moissanite only occurs at oxygen fugacities 6.5-7.5 log units below the iron-wustite buffer; moissanite and chromite cannot stably coexist; increasing pressure does not lead to the stability of this mineral pair; and silicates that coexist with moissanite have X Mg > 0.99. At upper mantle conditions, chromite reduces to Fe-Cr alloy at fO2 values 3.7-5.3 log units above the moissanite-olivine-(ortho)pyroxene-carbon (graphite or diamond) buffer (MOOC). The occurrence of SiC in chromitites and the absence of domains with almost Fe-free silicates suggest that ultra-reducing conditions allowing for SiC are confined to grain scale microenvironments. In contrast to previous ultra-high-pressure and/or temperature hypotheses for SiC origin, we postulate a low to moderate temperature mechanism, which operates via ultra-reducing fluids. In this model, graphite-/diamond-saturated moderately reducing fluids evolve in chemical isolation from the bulk rock to ultra-reducing methane-dominated fluids by sequestering H2O into hydrous phases (serpentine, brucite, phase A). Carbon isotope compositions of moissanite are consistent with an origin of such fluids from sediments originally rich in organic compounds. Findings of SiC within rocks mostly comprised by hydrous phases (serpentine + brucite) support this model. Both the hydrous phases

  16. The deep structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, A.; Cupillard, P.; Saygin, E.; Trampert, J.; Taymaz, T.; Capdeville, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-scale full waveform inversion of complete continental- and regional-scale seismograms reveals the crustal and upper-mantle signature of the North Anatolian Fault Zone which shapes the neotectonics of Turkey and the eastern Mediterranean. Within the crust, the fault zone is mostly bounded by several high-velocity blocks, suggesting that it developed along the edges of continental fragments with high rigidity. Below the crust, the surface expression of the eastern and central parts of the North Anatolian Fault Zone correlate with a pronounced low-velocity band that extends laterally over 600 km. Around 100 km depth, the low-velocity band merges into the shallow Anatolian asthenosphere, thereby providing a link to the Kirka-Afyon-Isparta Volcanic Field and the Central Anatolian Volcanics. We interpret the low-velocity band beneath the North Anatolian Fault Zone as the upper-mantle expression of the Tethyan sutures that formed 60-15 Ma ago as a result of Africa-Eurasian convergence. The structurally weak suture facilitated the formation of the younger (less than 10 Ma) crustal fault zone. In this sense, the North Anatolian Fault Zone is not only a crustal feature, but a narrow zone of weakness that extends into the upper mantle. Horizontal slices through the isotropic S velocity, vS, at 20 km (a) and 40 km (b) depth. Indicated are the surface expressions of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) marks the northern boundary of the NAFZ. Dashed rectangles mark regions that are amplified in the two leftmost panels of the figure. Dotted ellipses indicate thin (20-30 km) crust as inferred from receiver function analysis (Vanacore et al., GJI 2013). Key to marked features: ATB: Anatolide-Tauride Block, IZ: Istanbul Zone, KM: Krsehir Massif, SZ: Sakarya Zone. Horizontal slices through the isotropic S velocity, vs, at 70 km and 150 km depth beneath Europe and western Asia. The Anatolian region where shorter-period data have been

  17. Heat flow studies: Constraints on the distribution of uranium, thorium and potassium in the continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, Claude; Sclater, John G.; Simmons, Gene

    1981-02-01

    To study the amount of heat generated by radioactive decay in the continental crust, the usual practice in the literature is to fit to the heat flow and radioactivity data a relationship of the form: Q = Q r + D · A where Q and A are the observed heat flow and radiogenic heat production. Q r is the "reduced" heat flow and D is a depth scale. This procedure implicitly assumes that uranium, thorium and potassium have identical distributions in the crust. We suggest that significant information may be lost as the three radioelements may in fact be affected by processes operating over different depths. Data published for four heat flow provinces throughout the world are used to estimate the distributions of uranium, thorium and potassium in the continental crust. These distributions are characterized by a depth scales defined as follows: D i =∫0h C i(z)C i(0)dz where h is the thickness of the layer containing the bulk of radioactivity and C i(z) the concentration of element i at depth z. Three depth scales are computed from a least-squares fit to the following relationship: Q = Q r + D U · A U + D T · A T + D K · A T where Q is the observed heat flow and Q r some constant (a reduced heat flow). A i is the heat generation rate due to the radioactive decay of element i, and D i is the corresponding depth scale. The analysis suggests that the three distributions are different and that they have the same basic features in the four provinces considered. The depth scale for potassium is large in granitic areas, that for thorium is small and that for uranium lies between the other two. We propose a simple model according to which each radioelement essentially provides a record for one process. Potassium gives a depth scale for the primary differentiation of the crust. Thorium gives the depth scale of magmatic or metamorphic fluid circulation. Finally, the uranium distribution reflects the late effects of alteration due to meteoric water. We show that the heat flow and

  18. Determination of Two-Liquid Mixture Composition by Assessing Dielectric Parameters 1. Precise Measuring System / Divu Šķidrumu Maisījuma Sastāva Noteikšana, Izvērtējot to Dielektriskos Parametrus 1. Precīza Mērīšanas Sistēma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilitis, O.; Shipkovs, P.; Merkulovs, D.

    2013-08-01

    Concentration measurements are important in bioethanol industries, in the R&D areas, for chemical, medical and microbiological analyses and processing as well as for diagnostics, manufacturing, etc. The overview shows development of the structural design of a system for measuring the concentration of solutions and mixtures consisting of two dielectric liquids. The basic principles of the system's design are given along with relevant equations. The concentration of dielectric liquids is measured using devices with capacitive sensors (1-300 pF). The operational frequency of the developed measuring system is 100.000 kHz. Configuration of the system excludes some errors usually arising at measurements, and broadens its applicability. For testing, the system was calibrated for measuring the concentration of anhydrous ethanol + de-ionized water mixture. Experimental results have shown a stable resolution of ±0.005 pF at measuring the sensor capacitance and a reproducible resolution better than ±0.01% at measuring the ethanol volume concentration Rakstā esam parādījuši iespējas izveidot augstas precizitātes, kompaktu, lētu un ērtu lietošanai dielektrisku šķidrumu mērīšanas sistēmu koncentrācijas noteikšanai. Šī sistēma ir piemērojama kapacitīviem sensoriem, kuru kapacitāte ir atkarīga no sensora izveidojuma kā arī mērāmā šķidruma dielektriskās konstantes vērtības, un kapacitāte var tikt noteikta pie frekvences 100,000 kHz robežās no 1 F līdz 300 pF. Mērīšanas sistēmas pārbaudei, sistēma tika kalibrēta etanola koncentrācijas mērīšanai tilpuma procentos sertificēta bezūdens etanola un dejonizēta ūdens maisījumiem. Pārbaužu rezultāti pierādīja, ka sensora kapacitātes vērtības ir stabili nosakāmas ar izšķirtspēju ne mazāku par ±0,005 pF. Sensora kapacitāšu vērtībām atbilstošā etanola tilpuma koncentrācijas atkārtojamu mērījumu izšķirtspēja visā mērīšanas diapazonā nebija mazāka par ±0

  19. Ni-Al Protective Coating of Steel Electrodes in Dc Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production / Ni-Al Pārklājuma Ietekme Uz Tērauda Elektrodiem Līdzstrāvas Elektrolīzē Ūdeņraža Ražošanai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizpurietis, P.; Vanags, M.; Kleperis, J.; Bajars, G.

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen can be a good alternative to fossil fuels under the conditions of world's crisis as an effective energy carrier derived from renewable resources. Among all the known methods of hydrogen production, water electrolysis gives the ecologically purest hydrogen, so it is of importance to maximize the efficiency of this process. The authors consider the influence of plasma sprayed Ni-Al protective coating of 316L steel anode-cathode electrodes in DC electrolysis. In a long-term (24 h) process the anode corrodes strongly, losing Cr and Ni ions which are transferred to the electrolyte, while only minor corrosion of the cathode occurs. At the same time, the composition of anode and cathode electrodes protected by Ni-Al coating changes only slightly during a prolonged electrolysis. As the voltammetry and Tafel plots evidence, the Ni-Al coating protects both the anode and cathode from the corrosion and reduces the potential of hydrogen evolution. The results obtained show that such a coating works best in the case of steel electrodes. Darbā pētīts, kā līdzstrāvas elektrolīzē tērauda 316L elektrodus (anods un katods) ietekmē ar plazmas izputināšanas metodi iegūts Ni-Al pārklājums. Tikko uznestam pārklājumam ir mikrostrukturēta virsma, kas kodināšanas laikā mainās, gan pēc reljefa, gan elementu sastāva. Veicot ilgstošu (24 stundas elektrolīzi), atrasts, ka tikai tērauda elektrods anoda lomā intensīvi korodē un zaudē hroma un niķeļa jonus, kas pāriet elektrolītā, turpretī katods mainās relatīvi maz. Pārklājums Ni-Al pēc uznešanas tiek kodināts karstā sārmā, kad tiek izšķīdināta daļa sastāvā esošo elementu (Al, Si, Cd), bet ilgstošas elektrolīzes laikā pārklājuma sastāvs mainās maz gan anodam, gan katodam. Elektrodu elektroķīmiskie raksturlielumi noteikti ar voltamperometrijas un Tāfeļa līkņu analīzes metodēm. Atrasts, ka Ni-Al pārklājums aizsargā gan anodu, gan katodu no korozijas un samazina

  20. Vorticity and upscaled dispersion in 3D heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Dato, Mariaines; Chiogna, Gabriele; de Barros, Felipe; Bellin, Alberto; Fiori, Aldo

    2015-04-01

    Modeling flow in porous media is relevant for many environmental, energy and industrial applications. From an environmental perspective, the relevance of porous media flow becomes evident in subsurface hydrology. In general, flow in natural porous media is creeping, yet the large variability in the hydraulic conductivity values encountered in natural aquifers leads to highly heterogeneous flow fields. This natural variability in the conductivity field will affect both dilution rates of chemical species and reactive mixing. A physical consequence of this heterogeneity is also the presence of a various localized kinematical features such as straining, shearing and vorticity in aquifers, which will influence the shape of solute clouds and its fate and transport. This work aims in fundamentally characterizing the vorticity field in spatially heterogeneous flow fields as a function of their statistical properties in order to analyze the impact on transport processes. In our study, three-dimensional porous formations are constructed with an ensemble of N independent, non-overlapping spheroidal inclusions submerged into an homogeneous matrix, of conductivity K0. The inclusions are randomly located in a domain of volume W and are fully characterized by the geometry of spheroid (oblate or prolate), their conductivity K (random and drawn from a given probability density function fκ), the centroid location ¯x, the axes ratio e, the orientation of the rotational axis (α1,α2) and the volume w. Under the assumption of diluted medium, the flow problem is solved analitically by means of only two parameters: the conductivity contrast κ = K/K0 and the volume fraction n = Nw/W . Through the variation of these parameters of the problem, it is possible to approximate the structure of natural heterogeneous porous media. Using a random distribution of the orientation of the inclusions, we create media defined by the same global anisotropy f = Iz/Ix but different micro

  1. Geological and geophysical activities at Spallanzani Science Department (Liceo Scientifico Statale "Lazzaro Spallanzani" - Tivoli, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favale, T.; De Angelis, F.; De Filippis, L.

    2012-04-01

    The high school Liceo Scientifico "Lazzaro Spallanzani" at Tivoli (Rome) has been fully involved in the study of geological and geophysical features of the town of Tivoli and the surrounding area in the last twelve years. Objective of this activity is to promote the knowledge of the local territory from the geological point of view. Main activities: • School year 2001-2002: Setting up inside the school building of a Geological Museum focusing on "Geological Evolution of Latium, Central Italy" (in collaboration with colleagues M. Mancini, and A. Pierangeli). • March, 15, 2001: Conference of Environmental Geology. Lecturer: Prof. Raniero Massoli Novelli, L'Aquila University and Società Italiana di Geologia Ambientale. • School years 2001-2002 and 2002-2003: Earth Sciences course for students "Brittle deformation and tectonic stress in Tivoli area". • November, 2003: Conference of Geology, GIS and Remote Sensing. Lecturers: Prof. Maurizio Parotto and Dr Alessandro Cecili (Roma Tre University, Rome), and Dr Stefano Pignotti (Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sulla Montagna, Rome). • November, 2003, 2004 and 2005: GIS DAY, organized in collaboration with ESRI Italia. • School year 2006-2007: Earth Sciences course for students "Acque Albule basin and the Travertine of Tivoli, Latium, Central Italy" (focus on travertine formation). • School year 2010-2011: Earth Sciences course for students "Acque Albule basin and the Travertine of Tivoli. Geology, Hydrogeology and Microbiology of the basin, Latium, Central Italy" (focus on thermal springs and spa). In the period 2009-2010 a seismic station with three channels, currently working, was designed and built in our school by the science teachers Felice De Angelis and Tomaso Favale. Our seismic station (code name LTTV) is part of Italian Experimental Seismic Network (IESN) with identification code IZ (international database IRIS-ISC). The three drums are online in real time on websites http

  2. Textural and petrological characteristics of ultrahigh-pressure chromitites, indicating a mantle recycling origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Shoji; Miura, Makoto; Yamamoto, Shinji; Shmelev, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    examine the nodular-textured UHP chromitites from Luobusa (Yamamoto et al., 2009) to compare with nodular-textured chromities from the Oman ophiolite, which we consider as of typical low-P origin. They are completely different. The chromite nodule is an aggregate of subhedral to euhedral chromian spinel grains with interstitial olivine from the Oman chromitite, but is apparently an oval-shaped spinel grain cut by fractures filled with olivine (= COF (chromite cut by olivine-filled fractures) texture). Similar COF texture was confirmed from possible UHP chromitites from Ray-Iz ophiolite, the Polar Urals (Trumbull et al., 2009; Shmelev, 2011). Chromian spinel is totally free from pargasite and other inclusions in UHP chromitites (Miura et al., 2012). Olivine in chromitites with the COF texture is characterized by exceptionally high NiO contents (up to more than 1 wt%). These characteristics are apparently consistent with the deep recycling origin for the UHP chromitites. The COF texture is a result of a rheological contrast between olivine and chromian spinel during the travel of the chromitite in the mantle. The high Ni character of olivine is due to diffusion of Ni from chromian spinel during the recycling. The primary nodular-textured chromitite of low-P igneous origin can be basically preserved even after deep recycling, although compaction and possible phase transformation had occurred.

  3. Climatic record of the Iberian peninsula from lake Moncortes' sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Min; Huguet, Carme; Rull, Valenti; Valero, Blas; Rosell-Mele, Antoni

    2014-05-01

    .19km2. Lake Moncortes is situated at 1065 m above sea level, has an average temperature of 10ºC (minimum 3 and maximum 16ºC) and a mean annual precipitation of 770mm. We used the MBT/CBT (Weijers et al. 2007) proxy of pH and terrestrial temperature and the TEX86 temperature proxy (Schouten et al. 2002) to estimate changes in and around the lake. Both proxies are based on the glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) of archaea (isoprenoid GDGTs) and bacteria (branched GDGTs) origin. We also measured soils surrounding the lake (Menges et al. 2013) in order to establish end-members for the proxies as well as organic matter transport. Data on n-alkane isotopes will help establish hydrographic regime changes. We observe changes in temperature and humidity consistent with those on teh northern hemisphere. J. Menges, C. Huguet, J.M. Alcañiz, S. Fietz, D. Sachse, A. Rosell-Melé Biogechemistry discussions (2013), BGD bg-2013-198. S. Schouten, E.C. Hopmans, E. Schefuss, J.S.S. Damste, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 204(2002) 265-274 J.W.H. Weijers, S. Schouten, J.S.S. Damste, Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 71(2007) A1098-A1098.

  4. Clustering analysis of high-redshift luminous red galaxies in Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoloudakis, N.; Shanks, T.; Sawangwit, U.

    2013-03-01

    We present a clustering analysis of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in Stripe 82 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We study the angular two-point autocorrelation function, w(θ), of a selected sample of over 130 000 LRG candidates via colour-cut selections in izK with the K-band coverage coming from UKIRT (United Kingdom Infrared Telescope) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS). We have used the cross-correlation technique of Newman to establish the redshift distribution of the LRGs. Cross-correlating them with SDSS quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), MegaZ-LRGs and DEEP Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) galaxies, implies an average redshift of the LRGs to be z ≈ 1 with space density, ng ≈ 3.20 ± 0.16 × 10-4 h3 Mpc-3. For θ ≤ 10 arcmin (corresponding to ≈10 h-1 Mpc), the LRG w(θ) significantly deviates from a conventional single power law as noted by previous clustering studies of highly biased and luminous galaxies. A double power law with a break at rb ≈ 2.4 h-1 Mpc fits the data better, with best-fitting scale length, r0, 1 = 7.63 ± 0.27 h-1 Mpc and slope γ1 = 2.01 ± 0.02 at small scales and r0, 2 = 9.92 ± 0.40 h-1 Mpc and γ2 = 1.64 ± 0.04 at large scales. Due to the flat slope at large scales, we find that a standard Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM) linear model is accepted only at 2-3σ, with the best-fitting bias factor, b = 2.74 ± 0.07. We also fitted the halo occupation distribution (HOD) models to compare our measurements with the predictions of the dark matter clustering. The effective halo mass of Stripe 82 LRGs is estimated as Meff = 3.3 ± 0.6 × 1013 h-1 M⊙. But at large scales, the current HOD models did not help explain the power excess in the clustering signal. We then compare the w(θ) results to the results of Sawangwit et al. from three samples of photometrically selected LRGs at lower redshifts to measure clustering evolution. We find that a long-lived model may be a poorer fit than at lower

  5. Polymorphic toxin systems: Comprehensive characterization of trafficking modes, processing, mechanisms of action, immunity and ecology using comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    predicts the presence of novel trafficking-related components, and also the organizational logic that allows toxin diversification through recombination. Domain architecture and protein-length analysis revealed that these toxins might be deployed as secreted factors, through directed injection, or via inter-cellular contact facilitated by filamentous structures formed by RHS/YD, filamentous hemagglutinin and other repeats. Phyletic pattern and life-style analysis indicate that polymorphic toxins and polyimmunity loci participate in cooperative behavior and facultative ‘cheating’ in several ecosystems such as the human oral cavity and soil. Multiple domains from these systems have also been repeatedly transferred to eukaryotes and their viruses, such as the nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses. Conclusions Along with a comprehensive inventory of toxins and immunity proteins, we present several testable predictions regarding active sites and catalytic mechanisms of toxins, their processing and trafficking and their role in intra-specific and inter-specific interactions between bacteria. These systems provide insights regarding the emergence of key systems at different points in eukaryotic evolution, such as ADP ribosylation, interaction of myosin VI with cargo proteins, mediation of apoptosis, hyphal heteroincompatibility, hedgehog signaling, arthropod toxins, cell-cell interaction molecules like teneurins and different signaling messengers. Reviewers This article was reviewed by AM, FE and IZ. PMID:22731697

  6. Digital Base Band Converter As Radar Vlbi Backend / Dbbc Kā Ciparošanas Sistēma Radara Vlbi Novērojumiem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuccari, G.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Nechaeva, M.

    2012-12-01

    can then allow exploring easily the desired range of search for unknown or not fully determined orbit objects. These features make Radar VLBI personality most useful in the space debris measurements. DBBC sistēma izstrādāta Noto Radioastronomijas institūtā. Sistēmas galvenaisuzdevums - palielināt visa Eiropas VLBI tīkla jutību - realizēts, palielinotvisas novērojamās joslas platumu un pielietojot ciparu signālu apstrādes metodes.Izejas datu plūsma palielināta no 1 līdz 4 Gbps katram radioteleskopam un visasoperācijas, kas saistītas ar signālu apstrādi (frekvences pārveidošana, pastiprinājums,iekšējie ģeneratori, utt.), realizētas digitālā formā, kas ļauj iegūt nozīmīgusuzlabojumus atkārtojamībā, precizitātē, vienkāršībā, nemaz neminot vispārzināmāspriekšrocības, ko nodrošina digitālo tehnoloģiju izmantošana. Maksimālā ieejassignāla frekvenču josla ir 3.5 GHz, un momentānais joslas platums ir līdz 1 GHz uzkatru no astoņiem iespējamajiem RF/IF kanāliem. Šī datu reģistrācijas sistēma irļoti veiktspējīga platforma ne tikai EVN, bet arī citiem radioastronomijas pielietojumiem,un papildus tiek izstrādāta vesela virkne programmatūras pakotņu, kasvēl vairāk paplašina sistēmas funkcionalitāti. Tas ietver PFB (Polifāzes FiltruBanka) uztvērējus "Spectra”, kas piemēroti augstas izšķirtspējas spektroskopijasvajadzībām. Papildus realizēts jaunas programmatūras risinājums, ar mērķiizmantot DBBC sistēmu kā daudzfunkcionālu datu ciparošanas iekārtu, kasizmantojama bistatiskiem radara novērojumiem, tai skaitā arī radara VLBInovērojumiem. Šāda veida novērojumos tiek pētīta kosmisko atlūzu populācija,nodrošinot iespēju detektēt pat centimetra

  7. Analysis of geomagnetic data and cosmic ray variations in periods of magnetic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrikova, Oksana; Zalyaev, Timur; Solovev, Igor; Shevtsov, Boris

    field and predicting strong magnetic storms. Using the combination of the wavelet transform and neural networks, we have developed a technique of approximating the time variation of cosmic-ray data. This technique allows us to perform detailed analysis of geomagnetic data and detect anomalies in periods of high solar activity. Approximations of large-scale time variation components of cosmic-ray data have been obtained in the following form: [ c_{j,n+1}(t)=\\varphi^3_m Biggl (sum_i omega^3_{mi}\\varphi^2_i biggl (sum_l omega^2_{il}\\varphi^1_lBigl(sum_n omega^1_{ln}c_{j,n}(t)Bigr )biggr ) Biggr ) ] where c_{j,n}=< y, phi_{j,n} > ;phi_{j,n}=2(j/2) phi(2(j(t)-n)) is the scaling function, omega(1_{ln}) are the weights of the neurons of the network input layer l,omega(2_{il}) are the weights of the neurons of the network hidden layer i, omega(3_{mi}) are the weights of the neurons of the network output layer m, varphi(1_l(z)=varphi^2_i(z)=(2)/(1+exp(-2z))-1) ,varphi(3_m(z)) =a*z+b. Coefficients c_{j,n} are the result of transforming of the original function y to the space with the scale j. Analysis of long geomagnetic data from the Paratunka observatory (Kamchatka region, Russia) provided quantitative estimates of the storminess degree of the geomagnetic field before and during magnetic storms. Furthermore, we have managed to identify local weak increases of the field perturbations prior to the main phase of storms. The intensity of field perturbations rises on average 2.5 days before the onset of a storm. Abnormal time periods connected with increased solar activity have been detected in the flow of cosmic rays. Comparison of the results with the geomagnetic data has shown that the anomalies in the cosmic ray variations occur in periods of strong geomagnetic perturbations. The tools and techniques suggested in the present work, together with other methods of data -analysis will help forecast space weather, estimate more accurately the condition of the Earth’s magnetic

  8. Biorefinery Technologies for Biomass Conversion Into Chemicals and Fuels Towards Zero Emissions (Review) / Nulles Emisiju Princips Biomasas Konversijas Tehnoloģijās Aizstājot Fosilos Resursus (Pārskata Raksts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravitis, J.; Abolins, J.

    2013-10-01

    Exhausting of world resources, increasing pollution, and climate change are compelling the shift of the world economy from continuous growth to a kind of economy based on integration of technologies into zero emissions production systems. Transition from non-renewable fossil resources to renewable resources provided by solar radiation and the current processes in biosphere is seen in the bio-refinery approach - replacing crude oil refineries by biomass refineries. Biotechnology and nano-technologies are getting accepted as important players along with conventional biomass refinery technologies. Systems design is a significant element in the integration of bio-refinery technologies in clusters. A number of case-studies, steam explosion auto-hydrolysis (SEA) in particular, are reviewed to demonstrate conversion of biomass into value-added chemicals and fuels. Analysis of energy flows is made as part of modelling the SEA processes, the eMergy (energy memory) approach and sustainability indices being applied to assess environmental impacts. Resursu izsīkums, vides piesārņojums un globāla mēroga klimatiskās izmaiņas ir civilizācijas izdzīvošanai būtiski faktori, kas virza pasaules ekonomikas pārmaiņas, atsakoties no nepārtrauktas izaugsmes idejas par labu tādai ekonomikai, kas balstās uz atjaunojošamies resursiem un dažādu tehnoloģiju integrācijemisiju principam atbilstošās ražošanas sistēmās. Saules radiācijas ierosinātajos planētas biosfērā notiekošajos procesos radīto organisko vielu pārstrādes kompleksi, kas operē ievērojot sabalansētu nulles emisiju principu, tiek uzlūkoti kā tās ekonomiskās (ražošanas) struktūras, kurām jānodrošina pāreja uz atjaunojošos resursu izmantošanu, aizstājot esošās fosilo resursu (naftas, ogļu) pārstrādes rūpnīcas. Līdzās jau apgūtajām biomasas rafinēšanas tehnoloģijām svarīga un pieaugoša loma ekonomiskās sistēmas resursu bāzes nomaiņā ir bio- un nanotehnolo

  9. Star Formation at z~6: i-Dropouts in the Advanced Camera for Surveys Guaranteed Time Observation Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Rosati, P.; Lidman, C.; Broadhurst, T.; Franx, M.; Ford, H. C.; Magee, D.; Benítez, N.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Meurer, G. R.; Clampin, M.; Hartig, G. F.; Ardila, D. R.; Bartko, F.; Brown, R. A.; Burrows, C. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cross, N. J. G.; Feldman, P. D.; Golimowski, D. A.; Gronwall, C.; Infante, L.; Kimble, R. A.; Krist, J. E.; Lesser, M. P.; Martel, A. R.; Menanteau, F.; Miley, G. K.; Postman, M.; Sirianni, M.; Sparks, W. B.; Tran, H. D.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; White, R. L.; Zheng, W.

    2003-10-01

    Using an i-z dropout criterion, we determine the space density of z~6 galaxies from two deep ACS GTO fields with deep optical-IR imaging. A total of 23 objects are found over 46 arcmin2, or ~0.5+/-0.1 objects arcmin-2 down to zAB~27.3 (6 σ), or a completeness-corrected ~0.5+/-0.2 objects arcmin-2 down to zAB~26.5 (including one probable z~6 active galactic nucleus). Combining deep ISAAC data for our RDCS 1252-2927 field (JAB~25.7 and Ks,AB~25.0 5 σ) and NICMOS data for the Hubble Deep Field-North (J110,AB and H160,AB~27.3, 5 σ), we verify that these dropouts have relatively flat spectral slopes, as one would expect for star-forming objects at z~6. Compared with the average-color (β=-1.3) U-dropout in the Steidel et al. z~3 sample, i-dropouts in our sample range in luminosity from ~1.5L* (zAB~25.6) to ~0.3L* (zAB~27.3) with the exception of one very bright candidate at z850,AB~24.2. The half-light radii vary from 0.09" to 0.21", or 0.5 kpc to 1.3 kpc. We derive the z~6 rest-frame UV luminosity density (or star formation rate density) by using three different procedures. All three procedures use simulations based on a slightly lower redshift (z~5) V606-dropout sample from Chandra Deep Field-South ACS images. First, we make a direct comparison of our findings with a no-evolution projection of this V-dropout sample, allowing us to automatically correct for the light lost at faint magnitudes or lower surface brightnesses. We find 23%+/-25% more i-dropouts than we predict, consistent with no strong evolution over this redshift range. Adopting previous results to z~5, this works out to a mere 20%+/-29% drop in the luminosity density from z~3 to z~6. Second, we use the same V-dropout simulations to derive a detailed selection function for our i-dropout sample and compute the UV-luminosity density [(7.2+/-2.5)×1025 ergs s-1 Hz-1 Mpc-3 down to zAB~27]. We find a 39%+/-21% drop over the same redshift range (z~3-6), consistent with the first estimate. This is our

  10. The TRAPPIST comet survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehin, E.; Opitom, C.; Manfroid, J.; Hutsemékers, D.; Gillon, M.

    2014-07-01

    TRAPPIST (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope) is a 60-cm robotic telescope that has been installed in June 2010 at the ESO La Silla Observatory [1]. Operated from Liège (Belgium) it is devoted to the detection and characterisation of exoplanets and to the study of comets and other small bodies in the Solar System. We describe here the hardware and the goals of the project and give an overview of the comet production rates monitoring after three years of operations. The telescope and observatory --- TRAPPIST's optical tube unit is a Ritchey-Chretien 0.6 meter telescope with a focal length of 4.8 meter. It is associated with a German equatorial mount that is, thanks to its direct drive system, extremely fast (up to 50 deg/s), accurate (tracking accuracy without autoguider better than 2'' in 10 min), and free of periodic error. The instrument is a Peltier cooled commercial camera equipped with a Fairchild 3041 back-illuminated 2k×2k chip. The pixel scale is 0.64''/pixel. Three read-out modes are available, the shortest read-out time being 2s. The total field of view of the camera is 22'×22'. It is associated to a custom-made dual filter wheel. One of the filter wheel contains broad band filters (Johnson B, V, R, Cousins Ic, Sloan z, and a special I+z filter), while the other contains the narrow-band NASA HB cometary filters (OH, NH, CN, CO+, C3, and C2 gaseous species; UC, BC, GC and RC solar continuum windows and a NaI D filter) [2]. The telescope is protected by a 5 meter diameter dome that was totally refurbished and automatized. The observatory is fully robotic and equipped with a weather station, an UPS and webcams. The la Silla site is excellent with more than 300 clear nights per year and the telescope has proven to be very reliable with a small amount of technical downtime. Comet monitoring --- For relatively bright comets (V < 12) we measure several times a week the gaseous production rates (using a Haser model) and the spatial

  11. Biorefinery Technologies for Biomass Conversion Into Chemicals and Fuels Towards Zero Emissions (Review) / Nulles Emisiju Princips Biomasas Konversijas Tehnoloģijās Aizstājot Fosilos Resursus (Pārskata Raksts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravitis, J.; Abolins, J.

    2013-10-01

    Exhausting of world resources, increasing pollution, and climate change are compelling the shift of the world economy from continuous growth to a kind of economy based on integration of technologies into zero emissions production systems. Transition from non-renewable fossil resources to renewable resources provided by solar radiation and the current processes in biosphere is seen in the bio-refinery approach - replacing crude oil refineries by biomass refineries. Biotechnology and nano-technologies are getting accepted as important players along with conventional biomass refinery technologies. Systems design is a significant element in the integration of bio-refinery technologies in clusters. A number of case-studies, steam explosion auto-hydrolysis (SEA) in particular, are reviewed to demonstrate conversion of biomass into value-added chemicals and fuels. Analysis of energy flows is made as part of modelling the SEA processes, the eMergy (energy memory) approach and sustainability indices being applied to assess environmental impacts. Resursu izsīkums, vides piesārņojums un globāla mēroga klimatiskās izmaiņas ir civilizācijas izdzīvošanai būtiski faktori, kas virza pasaules ekonomikas pārmaiņas, atsakoties no nepārtrauktas izaugsmes idejas par labu tādai ekonomikai, kas balstās uz atjaunojošamies resursiem un dažādu tehnoloģiju integrācijemisiju principam atbilstošās ražošanas sistēmās. Saules radiācijas ierosinātajos planētas biosfērā notiekošajos procesos radīto organisko vielu pārstrādes kompleksi, kas operē ievērojot sabalansētu nulles emisiju principu, tiek uzlūkoti kā tās ekonomiskās (ražošanas) struktūras, kurām jānodrošina pāreja uz atjaunojošos resursu izmantošanu, aizstājot esošās fosilo resursu (naftas, ogļu) pārstrādes rūpnīcas. Līdzās jau apgūtajām biomasas rafinēšanas tehnoloģijām svarīga un pieaugoša loma ekonomiskās sistēmas resursu bāzes nomaiņā ir bio- un nanotehnolo

  12. Relativistic central-field Green's functions for the RATIP package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, Peter; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2005-11-01

    /output CPU time required to execute test data: 2 min on a 450 MHz Pentium III processor No. of lines in distributed program, including test data etc.: 82 042 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data etc.: 814 096 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of the physical problem: In atomic perturbation theory, Green's functions may help carry out the summation over the complete spectrum of atom and ions, including the (summation over the) bound states as well as an integration over the continuum [R.A. Swainson, G.W.F. Drake, J. Phys. A 24 (1991) 95]. Analytically, however, these functions are known only for free electrons ( V(r)≡0) and for electrons in a pure Coulomb field ( V(r)=-Z/r). For all other choices of the potential, in contrast, the Green's functions must be determined numerically. Method of solution: Relativistic Green's functions are generated for an arbitrary central-field potential V(r)=-Z(r)/r by using a piecewise linear approximation of the effective nuclear charge function Z(r) on some grid r(i=1,…,N): Z(r)=Z0i+Z1ir. Then, following McGuire's algorithm [E.J. McGuire, Phys. Rev. A 23 (1981) 186], the radial Green's functions are constructed from the (two) linear-independent solutions of the homogeneous equation [P. Morse, H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics, McGraw-Hill, New York 1953 (Part 1, p. 825)]. In the computation of these radial functions, the Kummer and Tricomi functions [J. Spanier, B. Keith, An Atlas of Functions, Springer, New York, 1987] are used extensively. Restrictions onto the complexity of the problem: The main restrictions of the program concern the shape of the effective nuclear charge Z(r)=-rV(r), i.e. the choice of the potential, and the allowed energies. Apart from obeying the proper boundary conditions for a point-like nucleus, namely, Z(r→0)=Z>0 and Z(r→∞)=Z-N⩾0, the first derivative of the charge function Z(r) must be smaller than the (absolute value of the) energy of the Green's function, {

  13. HUBBLE'S PANORAMIC PORTRAIT OF A VAST STAR-FORMING REGION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    giant shell, devoid of gas and dust. Still later, all of the most massive stars and gas will have disappeared from the entire region. Only older, less massive stars will remain in a region cleared of gas and dust. The mosaic image of 30 Doradus consists of five overlapping pictures taken between January 1994 and September 2000 by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Several color filters were used to enhance important details in the stars and the nebula. Blue corresponds to the hot stars. The greenish color denotes hot gas energized by the central cluster of stars. Pink depicts the glowing edges of the gas and dust clouds facing the cluster, which are being bombarded by winds and radiation. Reddish-brown represents the cooler surfaces of the clouds, which are not receiving direct radiation from the central cluster. Credits: NASA, N. Walborn and J. Ma`iz-Apell`aniz (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD), R. Barb`a (La Plata Observatory, La Plata, Argentina)

  14. A Survey of z>5.8 Quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Discovery of Three New Quasars and the Spatial Density of Luminous Quasars at z~6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaohui; Narayanan, Vijay K.; Lupton, Robert H.; Strauss, Michael A.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Becker, Robert H.; White, Richard L.; Pentericci, Laura; Leggett, S. K.; Haiman, Zoltán; Gunn, James E.; Ivezić, Željko; Schneider, Donald P.; Anderson, Scott F.; Brinkmann, J.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Csabai, István; Doi, Mamoru; Fukugita, Masataka; Geballe, Tom; Grebel, Eva K.; Harbeck, Daniel; Hennessy, Gregory; Lamb, Don Q.; Miknaitis, Gajus; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Nichol, Robert; Okamura, Sadanori; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Prada, Francisco; Richards, Gordon T.; Szalay, Alex; York, Donald G.

    2001-12-01

    We present the results from a survey of i-dropout objects selected from ~1550 deg2 of multicolor imaging data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to search for luminous quasars at z>~5.8. Objects with i*-z*>2.2 and z*<20.2 are selected, and follow-up J-band photometry is used to separate L- and T-type cool dwarfs from high-redshift quasars. We describe the discovery of three new quasars, SDSSp J083643.85+005453.3 (z=5.82), J130608.26+035626.3 (z=5.99), and J103027.10+052455.0 (z=6.28). The quasar SDSSp J083643.85+005453.3 is a radio source with flux of 1.1 mJy at 20 cm. The spectra of all three quasars show strong and broad Lyα+N V emission lines and very strong Lyα forest absorption, with a mean continuum decrement DA>0.90. The ARC 3.5 m spectrum of SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0 shows that over a range of ~300 Å immediately blueward of the Lyα emission, the average transmitted flux is only 0.003+/-0.020 times that of the continuum level, consistent with zero flux over a ~300 Å range of the Lyα forest region and suggesting a tentative detection of the complete Gunn-Peterson trough. The existence of strong metal lines in the quasar spectra suggests early metal enrichment in the quasar environment. The three new objects, together with the previously published z=5.8 quasar SDSSp J104433.04-012502.2, form a complete color-selected flux-limited sample at z>~5.8. We estimate the selection function of this sample, taking into account the estimated variations in the quasar spectral energy distribution, as well as observational photometric errors. We find that at z=6, the comoving density of luminous quasars at M1450<-26.8 (H0=50 km s-1 Mpc-1, Ω=1) is 1.1×10-9 Mpc-3. This is a factor of ~2 lower than that at z~5 and is consistent with an extrapolation of the observed quasar evolution at z<5. Using the current sample, we discuss the constraint on the shape of the quasar luminosity function and the implications for the contribution of quasars to the ionizing background at z