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Sample records for iz vodoema v-11

  1. Near-contact Binaries IZ Monocerotis and AR Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Dai, Hai-Feng; Zhou, Zheng; Li, Qun

    2016-05-01

    We present multi-color photometric observations for two neglected near-contact binaries, IZ Mon (P=0\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_fd;77980) and AR Dra (P=0\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_fd;67584). By the aid of the updated W-D analysis code, the photometric solutions were deduced from the multi-color light curves (LCs). IZ Mon is a semi-detached binary with a mass ratio of q=0.388(+/- 0.002), while AR Dra is a detached star with a mass ratio of q=0.652(+/- 0.002). The asymmetric LCs of IZ Mon were modeled by a hot spot on the secondary’s surface, which may be attributed to mass transfer from the primary. Based on all collected eclipse times for two systems, we constructed their timing residual curves. The orbital period for IZ Mon may be continuously decreasing at a rate of {dP}/{dt}=-2.06(+/- 0.04) {days} {{yr}}-1, which may result from mass and angular momentum loss from the central system. For AR Dra, there exists a cyclic variation with a period of {P}3=104.9(+/- 2.9) {yr} due to light-time orbit effect via the presence of the third body, whose mass is more than 0.28(+/- 0.02) {M}⊙ . Finally, two near-contact binaries, IZ Mon and AR Dra, will evolve into contact binaries.

  2. Radio evolution of supernova SN 2008iz in M 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimani, N.; Sendlinger, K.; Brunthaler, A.; Menten, K. M.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Henkel, C.; Falcke, H.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Beswick, R. J.; Bower, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    We report on multi-frequency Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) radio observations for a monitoring campaign of supernova SN 2008iz in the nearby irregular galaxy M 82. We fit two models to the data, a simple time power-law, S ∝ tβ, and a simplified Weiler model, yielding decline indices of β = -1.22 ± 0.07 (days 100-1500) and -1.41 ± 0.02 (days 76-2167), respectively. The late-time radio light-curve evolution shows flux-density flares at ~970 and ~1400 days that are a factor of ~2 and ~4 higher than the expected flux, respectively. The later flare, except for being brighter, does not show signs of decline at least from results examined so far (2014 January 23; day 2167). We derive the spectral index, α, S ∝ να for frequencies 1.4 to 43 GHz for SN 2008iz during the period from ~430 to 2167 days after the supernova explosion. The value of α shows no signs of evolution and remains steep ≈-1 throughout the period, unlike that of SN 1993J, which started flattening at ~day 970. From the 4.8 and 8.4 GHz VLBI images, the supernova expansion is seen to start with a shell-like structure that becomes increasingly more asymmetric, then breaks up in the later epochs, with bright structures dominating the southern part of the ring. This structural evolution differs significantly from SN 1993J, which remains circularly symmetric over 4000 days after the explosion. The VLBI 4.8 and 8.4 GHz images are used to derive a deceleration index, m, for SN 2008iz, of 0.86 ± 0.02, and the average expansion velocity between days 73 and 1400 as (12.1 ± 0.2) × 103 km s-1. From the energy equipartition between magnetic field and particles, we estimate the minimum total energy in relativistic particles and the magnetic fields during the supernova expansion and also find the magnetic field amplification factor for SN 2008iz to be in the range of 55-400. The VLBI images (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVR photometry of IZ Mon and AR Dra (Yang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Zhou, Z.; Li, Q.

    2016-07-01

    CCD Photometry for IZ Mon and AR Dra, was acquired using the 60cm telescope and the 85cm telescope at the Xinglong station (XLs) of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). Two telescopes are equipped with the standard Johnson-Cousins UBVRcIc. filters. We then obtained the individual observations as heliocentric Julian dates and differential magnitude, which are listed in Table1. The complete light curves for IZ Mon were obtained on 2009 January 20, 22, 24, 25, and 26, and March 1, using the 85cm telescope. The exposure times are fixed to be 20, 15, and 15s for BVR bands, respectively. A total of 961, 960, and 959 effective images in BVR bands are obtained. Another primary eclipse for IZ Mon was monitored on 2011 January 17. AR Dra was observed on 2009 February 20, 25, 26, and 27, with the 65cm telescope. The typical exposure times are 50, 40 and 40s for BVR bands, which depend on the condition of weather. In total, we obtained 733, 728 and 356 images in B, V and R bands, respectively. (6 data files).

  4. Evaluation of the range shifter model for proton pencil-beam scanning for the Eclipse v.11 treatment planning system.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Witold; Yeung, Daniel; Slopsema, Roelf; Li, Zuofeng

    2016-03-08

    Existing proton therapy pencil-beam scanning (PBS) systems have limitations on the minimum range to which a patient can be treated. This limitation arises from practical considerations, such as beam current intensity, layer spacing, and delivery time. The range shifter (RS) - a slab of stopping material inserted between the nozzle and the patient - is used to reduce the residual range of the incident beam so that the treatment ranges can be extended to shallow depths. Accurate modeling of the RS allows one to calculate the beam spot size entering the patient, given the proton energy, for arbitrary positions and thicknesses of the RS in the beam path. The Eclipse version 11 (v11) treatment planning system (TPS) models RS-induced beam widening by incorporating the scattering properties of the RS material into the V-parameter. Monte Carlo simulations with Geant4 code and analytical calculations using the Fermi-Eyges (FE) theory with Highland approximation of multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) were employed to calculate proton beam widening due to scattering in the RS. We demonstrated that both methods achieved consistent results and could be used as a benchmark for evaluating the Eclipse V-parameter model. In most cases, the V-parameter model correctly predicted the beam spot size after traversing the RS. However, Eclipse did not enforce the constraint for a nonnegative covariance matrix when fitting the spot sizes to derive the phase space parameters, which resulted in incorrect calculations under specific conditions. In addition, Eclipse v11 incorrectly imposed limits on the individual values of the phase space parameters, which could lead to incorrect spot size values in the air calculated for beams with spot sigmas <3.8 mm. Notably, the TPS supplier (Varian) and hardware vendor (Ion Beam Applications) inconsistently refer to the RS position, which may result in improper spot size calculations.

  5. Evaluation of the range shifter model for proton pencil-beam scanning for the Eclipse v.11 treatment planning system.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Witold; Yeung, Daniel; Slopsema, Roelf; Li, Zuofeng

    2016-01-01

    Existing proton therapy pencil-beam scanning (PBS) systems have limitations on the minimum range to which a patient can be treated. This limitation arises from practical considerations, such as beam current intensity, layer spacing, and delivery time. The range shifter (RS) - a slab of stopping material inserted between the nozzle and the patient - is used to reduce the residual range of the incident beam so that the treatment ranges can be extended to shallow depths. Accurate modeling of the RS allows one to calculate the beam spot size entering the patient, given the proton energy, for arbitrary positions and thicknesses of the RS in the beam path. The Eclipse version 11 (v11) treatment planning system (TPS) models RS-induced beam widening by incorporating the scattering properties of the RS material into the V-parameter. Monte Carlo simulations with Geant4 code and analytical calculations using the Fermi-Eyges (FE) theory with Highland approximation of multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) were employed to calculate proton beam widening due to scattering in the RS. We demonstrated that both methods achieved consistent results and could be used as a benchmark for evaluating the Eclipse V-parameter model. In most cases, the V-parameter model correctly predicted the beam spot size after traversing the RS. However, Eclipse did not enforce the constraint for a nonnegative covariance matrix when fitting the spot sizes to derive the phase space parameters, which resulted in incorrect calculations under specific conditions. In addition, Eclipse v11 incorrectly imposed limits on the individual values of the phase space parameters, which could lead to incorrect spot size values in the air calculated for beams with spot sigmas <3.8 mm. Notably, the TPS supplier (Varian) and hardware vendor (Ion Beam Applications) inconsistently refer to the RS position, which may result in improper spot size calculations. PMID:27074461

  6. Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] is a potent ligand for selectively labeling alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hone, Arik J; Whiteaker, Paul; Mohn, Jesse L; Jacob, Michele H; McIntosh, J Michael

    2010-08-01

    The alpha7* (*denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is widely expressed in the vertebrate nervous system and implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders that compromise thought and cognition. In this report, we demonstrate that the recently developed fluorescent ligand Cy3-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels alpha7 nAChRs in cultured hippocampal neurons. However, photobleaching of this ligand during long image acquisition times prompted us to develop a new derivative. In photostability studies, this new ligand, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A], was significantly more resistant to bleaching than the Cy3 derivative. The classic alpha7 ligand alpha-bungarotoxin binds to alpha1* and alpha9* nAChRs. In contrast, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] potently (IC(50) 1.8 nM) and selectively blocked alpha7 nAChRs but not alpha1* or alpha9* nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Selectivity was further confirmed by competition binding studies of native nAChRs in rat brain membranes. The fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] were assessed using human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably transfected with nAChRs; labeling was observed on cells expressing alpha7 but not cells expressing alpha3beta2, alpha3beta4, or alpha4beta2 nAChRs. Further imaging studies demonstrate that Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels hippocampal neurons from wild-type mice but not from nAChR alpha7 subunit-null mice. Thus, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] represents a potent and selective ligand for imaging alpha7 nAChRs.

  7. 76 FR 73760 - In the Matter of the Designation of Imad Fa'iz Mughniyah also Known as Imad Fayiz Mughniyah as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... published in the Federal Register. Dated: October 24, 2011. Hillary Rodham Clinton, Secretary of State... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Imad Fa'iz Mughniyah also Known as Imad Fayiz Mughniyah as a...

  8. Response of lake water quality to wastewater inputs from land-based fish farm located on Yuvarlakçay Creek in Köyceğiz-Dalyan Specially Protected Area, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Taşeli, B K

    2009-10-01

    Köyceğiz Lake is located in the south-western part of Turkey. The area between the Köyceğiz Lake and the Mediterranean Sea is covered with four small lakes and several canals. The surroundings of the lake, canals and forests have a great potential as a reproduction areas for Mediterranean Sea turtles (Caretta caretta) and sheltering place for various animals. In the vicinity of this system there are agricultural areas and small settlements. In this region the most important economic activities are tourism and fisheries. However, the lake is currently threatened by pollution because of (1) non-point source pollution (agriculture); (2) point sources (land-based fish farms); (3) inefficient sewerage systems; (4) uncontrolled soil erosion in its drainage basin; (5) inappropriate flood control measures; and (6) channel traffic. This study evaluates the influence of its influent creeks namely Namnam and Yuvarlakçay Creek on the water quality of Köyceğiz Lake, mainly because the creeks are believed to be responsible for the major pollutant load reaching the lake. Accordingly, this study demonstrates (1) change in the water quality of Köyceğiz Lake from 2006 to 2007; (2) the water quality classification of the major influent creeks feeding Köyceğiz Lake; and (3) how land-based fish farm influences Yuvarlakçay Creek water quality in a Köyceğiz-Dalyan Specially Protected Area.

  9. Response of lake water quality to wastewater inputs from land-based fish farm located on Yuvarlakçay Creek in Köyceğiz-Dalyan Specially Protected Area, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Taşeli, B K

    2009-10-01

    Köyceğiz Lake is located in the south-western part of Turkey. The area between the Köyceğiz Lake and the Mediterranean Sea is covered with four small lakes and several canals. The surroundings of the lake, canals and forests have a great potential as a reproduction areas for Mediterranean Sea turtles (Caretta caretta) and sheltering place for various animals. In the vicinity of this system there are agricultural areas and small settlements. In this region the most important economic activities are tourism and fisheries. However, the lake is currently threatened by pollution because of (1) non-point source pollution (agriculture); (2) point sources (land-based fish farms); (3) inefficient sewerage systems; (4) uncontrolled soil erosion in its drainage basin; (5) inappropriate flood control measures; and (6) channel traffic. This study evaluates the influence of its influent creeks namely Namnam and Yuvarlakçay Creek on the water quality of Köyceğiz Lake, mainly because the creeks are believed to be responsible for the major pollutant load reaching the lake. Accordingly, this study demonstrates (1) change in the water quality of Köyceğiz Lake from 2006 to 2007; (2) the water quality classification of the major influent creeks feeding Köyceğiz Lake; and (3) how land-based fish farm influences Yuvarlakçay Creek water quality in a Köyceğiz-Dalyan Specially Protected Area. PMID:18855110

  10. Physico-chemical and biological characteristics of thermal springs in Köyceğiz and Dalaman basins in south-western Turkey and recommendations for their protection.

    PubMed

    Kazanci, N; Girgin, S

    2001-01-01

    Many hydrogeological researches exist on the thermal springs of Turkey but limnological researches are very deficient. The results of the limnological research of the thermal springs in the basin of the meromictic lake Köyceğiz and Dalaman Basin are as follows; the thermal springs are of euthermal or chliarothermal types. In the thermal springs thermotolerant diatoms constituted the major plankton flora. Recommendations for the protection of thermal springs are given according to the results of this research.

  11. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformations and seismically amplified erosion rates recorded in varved sediments of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avşar, Ulaş; Jónsson, Sigurjón; Avşar, Özgür; Schmidt, Sabine

    2016-06-01

    Earthquake-triggered landslides amplify erosion rates in catchments, i.e., catchment response (CR) to seismic shocks. In addition to historical eyewitness accounts of muddy rivers implying CRs after large earthquakes, several studies have quantitatively reported increased sediment concentrations in rivers after earthquakes. However, only a few paleolimnological studies could detect CRs within lacustrine sedimentary sequences as siliciclastic-enriched intercalations within background sedimentation. Since siliciclastic-enriched intercalations can easily be of nonseismic origin, their temporal correlation with nearby earthquakes is crucial to assign a seismic triggering mechanism. In most cases, either uncertainties in dating methods or the lack of recent seismic activity has prevented reliable temporal correlations, making the seismic origin of observed sedimentary events questionable. Here we attempt to remove this question mark by presenting sedimentary traces of CRs in the 370-year-long varved sequence of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey) that we compare with estimated peak ground acceleration (PGA) values of several nearby earthquakes. We find that earthquakes exceeding estimated PGA values of ~20 cm/s2 can induce soft-sediment deformations, while CRs seem only to be triggered by PGA levels higher than 70 cm/s2. In Köyceğiz Lake, CRs produce Cr- and Ni-enriched sedimentation due to the seismically mobilized soils derived from ultramafic rocks in the catchment. Given the varve chronology, the residence time of the seismically mobilized material in the catchment is determined to be 5 to 10 years.

  12. STATS SRS v11.0

    SciTech Connect

    Piscotty, M A; Nazario, O L

    2007-06-20

    The objective of this project is the delivery of an application that will provide a unified, web-based system for collecting, verifying and analyzing the achievements for Laboratory employees. The application will enable individual Directorates to manage and report achievement record data for their employees using an LLNL standard web browser. In addition, cross directorate data reporting and analysis will be available for such organizations as LSTO and programmatic directorates. This system is intended to store reference data and metadata for employee achievements. Abstracts and entire publications will not be stored in this system.Directorates are expected to use this system at all levels of management in preparing for Annual Self-Assessments, peer reviews, LDRD reviews, work force reviews, performance appraisals, and requests from sponsors. This document represents the primary deliverable for the Requirements Definition stage of system development. As part of a successful Requirements Definition, this document provides the development staff, the project sponsor, and the user community with a clear understanding of the product's operational, data, and other requirements. With this understanding, the development staff will take the opportunity to refine estimates regarding the cost, schedule, and deliverables reflected in it.

  13. Cubit Mesh Generation Toolkit V11.1

    2009-03-25

    CUBIT prepares models to be used in computer-based simulation of real-world events. CUBIT is a full-featured software toolkit for robust generation of two- and three-dimensional finite element meshes (grids) and geometry preparation. Its main goal is to reduce the time to generate meshes, particularly large hex meshes of complicated, interlocking assemblies.

  14. Three types of condensed cluster phases of rare-earth metal iodides with transition metal interstitials: Pr{sub 4}I{sub 5}Ni, Pr{sub 3}I{sub 3}Os, Pr{sub 2}INi{sub 2}, and La{sub 2}IZ{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.; Martin, J.D.; Corbett, J.D.

    1997-03-01

    Syntheses of the title compounds result from appropriate reactions of the elements and RI{sub 3} (R=La, Pr) in sealed Nb containers at, variously, 800-990{degrees}C. The structures of three were detailed by single crystal X-ray diffraction: Pr{sub 4}I{sub 5}Ni, Pmmn, Z = 2, R(F)/R{sub w} = 3.6/5.3%; Pr{sub 3}I{sub 3}Os, P2{sub 1}/m, Z = 2, R/R{sub 2} 2.4/2.8%; Pr{sub 2}INi{sub 2}, P6{sub 3}/mmc, Z = 2, R/R{sub w} = 2.2/3.6. The new compounds La{sub 2}IZ{sub 2}, Z = Fe, Co, Ru, Os, were shown to be isostructural with Pr{sub 2}INi{sub 2}(Gd{sub 2}IFe{sub 2}) by Guinier powder diffraction. Pr{sub 4}I{sub 5}Ni, the first orthorhombic example among the R{sub 4}I{sub 5}Z series, consists of R{sub 6}Z octahedra condensed into chains. The new example contains the most extreme R:Z size proportions and clearly lacks the strong d{pi}-d{pi} bonding between Z and apical R seen within other members. Pr{sub 3}I{sub 3}Os, previously known only with a cubic Gd{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}C-(Ca{sub 3}I{sub 3}P-)-type structure, also occurs as a relatively undistorted member of the monoclinic Pr{sub 3}I{sub 3}Ru (double chain) family. Apical Pr-Os {pi}-bonding appears significant, with Pr-Os distances that are 0.24 {angstrom} shorter than the average within the waist of the parent octahedra. The R{sub 2}IZ{sub 2} phases expand the number of examples of the unusual Gd{sub 2}IFe{sub 2} structure, which contains AlB{sub 2}-like slabs; namely, graphite-like Z{sub 2} nets between eclipsed pairs of R layers that are in turn separated by single iodine layers. Notable distances in Pr{sub 2}INi{sub 2} are Ni-Ni, 2.36 {angstrom}, and Pr-Ni, 2.98 {angstrom}. Charge-consistent, extended Hueckel band calculations in La{sub 2}IFe{sub 2} (in contrast with results reported for Gd{sub 2}IFe{sub 2}) demonstrate a strong mixing of La-Fe and Fe-Fe bonding in a partially filled band, the Fe states on balance falling only slightly below those of La.

  15. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Specialist, Blocks III-V, 11-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This plan of instruction, study guides, and workbooks for a secondary-postsecondary-level course in refrigeration and air conditioning are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. It is the second section of a three-part course (see…

  16. 76 FR 20835 - Amendment of VOR Federal Airways V-1, V-7, V-11 and V-20; Kona, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... flight inspection. DATES: The effective date of FR Doc. 2011-5078, published on March 10, 2011 (76 FR...: Background Airspace Docket No. 10-AWP-20, published in the Federal Register on March 10, 2011, (76 FR 13082...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034;...

  17. 76 FR 13082 - Amendment of VOR Federal Airways V-1, V-7, V-11 and V-20; Kona, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation...-11 and V-20; Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule....

  18. Production of alcohol from Jerusalem artichoke for gasoline additive. Proucavanje mogucnosti proizvodnje alkohola iz topinambura kao dodatka u benzin

    SciTech Connect

    Pekic, B.; Kisgeci, J.

    1984-01-01

    Trials conducted in 1980 and 1981 on three soil types, chernozem (a rich soil), anthropogenized black sand (a medium-rich soil), and anthropogenized brown sand (a poor soil), showed that the Jerusalem artichoke was superior to conventional field crops (corn, sugarbeet, potato, and sorghum) regarding the yield of carbohydrates per unit area, especially when grown on the poor soil. The analyses of the technological properties of Jerusalem artichokes grown for two years in the experimental plots showed that the plant species is a quality raw material for the production of alcohol. From the aspect of alcohol production, the quality of the tested varieties of Jerusalem artichoke depended neither on soil quality nor on the delay in harvesting the crop after it reached technological maturity. The results of the study indicate that the alcohol production from Jerusalem artichokes would be more economic, i.e., more profitable, than the production from conventional raw materials. The study of the carbohydrate composition of Jerusalem artichoke tubers made it clear that besides alcohol production, Jerusalem artichokes are a good raw material for the production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose. Since the interest in these products kept increasing in recent years, because of their exceptional characters, it is necessary to establish research programs to cover these field too. In the course of the study the authors came across some interesting literature data on the use of Jerusalem artichokes as a raw material for the production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose. Some of the publication, i.e., those that might be useful in further research work, are appended to this study.

  19. Silver bullet or trojan horse? The effects of inclusionary zoning on local housing markets in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, Jenny; Meltzer, Rachel; Been, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    Many local governments are adopting inclusionary zoning (IZ) as a means of producing affordable housing without direct public subsidies. In this paper, panel data on IZ in the San Francisco metropolitan area and suburban Boston are used to analyse how much affordable housing the programmes produce and how IZ affects the prices and production of market-rate housing. The amount of affordable housing produced under IZ has been modest and depends primarily on how long IZ has been in place. Results from suburban Boston suggest that IZ has contributed to increased housing prices and lower rates of production during periods of regional house price appreciation. In the San Francisco area, IZ also appears to increase housing prices in times of regional price appreciation, but to decrease prices during cooler regional markets. There is no evidence of a statistically significant effect of IZ on new housing development in the Bay Area.

  20. 76 FR 19488 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Condenser shell by operating valves V-9-2099, V-11- 49, V-11-63 and V-11-41 due to loss of power... Indicators can be used. Provide Fire Water to 2 Isolation Condenser shell by operating valves V-9-2099, V-11... Fire Water to 2 Isolation Condenser shell by operating valves V-9-2099, V-11- 49, V-11-63 and...

  1. Is Inclusionary Zoning Inclusionary? A Guide for Practitioners. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Ecola, Liisa; Leuschner, Kristin J.; Kofner, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Inclusionary zoning (IZ) has become an increasingly popular tool for providing affordable housing in an economically integrative manner. IZ policies typically require developers to set aside a proportion of units in market-rate residential developments to be made affordable for lower-income households in exchange for development rights or zoning…

  2. Selective determination of isoniazid using bentonite clay modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Azad, Uday Pratap; Prajapati, Nandlal; Ganesan, Vellaichamy

    2015-02-01

    Fe(dmbpy)3(2+) (where dmbpy is 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) was immobilized by ion-exchange in a bentonite clay film coating on a glassy carbon electrode. Cyclic voltammetry characteristics of the immobilized Fe(dmbpy)3(2+) were stable and reproducible corresponding to the Fe(dmbpy)3(2+/3+) redox process. In the presence of isoniazid (IZ), the electrogenerated in film Fe(dmbpy)3(3+) oxidized IZ efficiently producing large anodic current. This current was linearly proportional to the IZ concentration in the solution. The process was described by an EC' electrocatalysis mechanism allowing for sensitive determination of IZ with a wide linear dynamic concentration range of 10.0μM to 10.0mM. The electrode was tested for its analytical suitability and possible discrimination of interferences by determining IZ in a commercially available pharmaceutical product. The paper reports on a simple, cheap, and easy to fabricate chronoamperometric chemical sensor for determination of IZ. Kinetic parameters, such as the catalytic rate constant (2.3×10(3)M(-1)s(-1)) and diffusion coefficient of IZ (5.42×10(-5)cm(2)s(-1)), were determined using CV, chronoamperometry, and chronocoulometry. PMID:25260015

  3. Automatic localisation of innervation zones: a simulation study of the external anal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Mesin, Luca; Gazzoni, Marco; Merletti, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    Traumas of the innervation zone (IZ) of the external anal sphincter (EAS), e.g. during delivery, can promote the development of faecal incontinence. Recently developed probes allow high-resolution detection of EMG signals from the EAS. The analysis of pelvic floor muscles by surface EMG (in particular, the estimation of the location of the IZ) has potential applications in the diagnosis and investigation of the mechanisms of incontinence. An automatic method (based on matched filter approach) for the estimation of the IZ distribution of EAS from surface EMG is discussed and tested using an analytical model of generation of EMG signals from sphincter muscles. Simulations are performed varying length of the fibres, thickness of the mucosa, position of the motor units, and force level. Different distributions of IZs are simulated. The performance of the proposed method in the estimation of the IZ distribution is affected by surface MUAP amplitude (as the estimation made by visual inspection), by mucosa thickness (performance decreases when fibre length is higher) and by different MU distributions. However, in general the method is able to identify the position of two IZ locations and can measure asymmetry of the IZ distribution. This strengthens the potential applications of high density surface EMG in the prevention and investigation of incontinence.

  4. Imprinted zeolite modified carbon paste electrode as a potentiometric sensor for uric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanah, Miratul; Widati, Alfa Akustia; Fitri, Sarita Aulia

    2016-03-01

    Imprinted zeolite modified carbon paste electrode (carbon paste-IZ) has been developed and applied to determine uric acid by potentiometry. The imprinted zeolite (IZ) was synthesized by the mole ratio of uric acid/Si of 0.0306. The modified electrode was manufactured by mass ratio of carbon, IZ and solid paraffin was 40:25:35. The modified electrode had shown the measurement range of 10-5 M to 10-2 M with Nernst factor of 28.6 mV/decade, the detection limit of 5.86 × 10-6 M and the accuracy of 95.3 - 105.0%. Response time of the electrode for uric acid 10-5 M - 10-2 M was 25 - 44 s. The developed electrode showed the high selectivity toward uric acid in the urea matrix. Life time of the carbon paste-IZ electrode was 10 weeks.

  5. What Are Normal Puberty, Precocious Puberty, and Delayed Puberty?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a long-lasting condition known as hypogonadism (pronounced HI-poe-GO-nad-iz-uhm ) in which the ... Turner syndrome or in individuals with hypogonadotropic (pronounced HI-po-GO-nah-doe-TROH-pik ) hypogonadism, which ...

  6. Evaluation of recombinant fusion protein comprising dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 and Izumo and individual fragments as immunogens for contraception.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Abhinav; Wadhwa, Neerja; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2014-01-23

    Vaccines based on gamete specific proteins have been proposed for fertility inhibition. In the present study, immunogenicity and contraceptive potential of E. coli-expressed recombinant fusion protein TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz, comprising promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid (TT) followed by dilysin linker (KK), a fragment of dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 (ZP3), triglycine spacer (GGG) and a fragment of dog Izumo (Iz) without any affinity tag has been evaluated in female FvB/J mice. In addition, recombinant TT-KK-ZP3 and Izumo linked to the promiscuous T cell epitope of bovine RNase (bRNase-KK-Iz) and their physical mixture were also used. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot studies revealed ∼32kDa band corresponding to TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz, ∼22kDa band of TT-KK-ZP3 and ∼11kDa band of bRNase-KK-Iz. Groups of mice immunized with the above recombinant proteins led to the generation of high antibody titres against the respective proteins. Immunization with recombinant TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz generated higher antibody titre as compared to mice immunized with physical mixture of TT-KK-ZP3 and bRNase-KK-Iz. Antibodies against TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz and TT-KK-ZP3 recognized mouse and dog ZP and those against TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz and bRNase-KK-Iz recognized mouse and dog acrosome-reacted sperm in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Immune sera from groups of mice immunized with the above recombinant proteins led to a significant reduction in mouse in vitro fertilization. Mating studies revealed significant reduction in fertility as compared to adjuvant control group. Highest infertility was observed in group of mice immunized with TT-KK-ZP3 followed by TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz. Infertility was associated with the antibody titres against ZP3, whereas no association in the inhibition of fertility and antibody titres against Izumo was observed. In conclusion, these studies revealed the contraceptive potential of ZP3, which could not be further enhanced by the inclusion of Izumo. PMID:24333343

  7. Myofascial trigger points and innervation zone locations in upper trapezius muscles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are hyperirritable spots located in taut bands of muscle fibres. Electrophysiological studies indicate that abnormal electrical activity is detectable near MTrPs. This phenomenon has been described as endplate noise and it has been purported to be associated MTrP pathophysiology. Thus, it is suggested that MTrPs will be overlap the innervation zone (IZ). The purpose of this work was to describe the location of MTrPs and the IZ in the right upper trapezius. Methods We screened 71 individuals and eventually enrolled 24 subjects with neck pain and active MTrPs and 24 neck pain-free subjects with latent MTrPs. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals were detected using an electrode matrix during isometric contraction of the upper trapezius. A physiotherapist subsequently examined the subject’s trapezius to confirm the presence of MTrPs and establish their location. IZ locations were identified by visual analysis of sEMG signals. IZ and MTrPs locations were described using an anatomical coordinate system (ACS), with the skin area covered by the matrix divided into four quadrants. Results No significant difference was observed between active and latent MTrPs locations (P = 0.6). Forty-five MTrPs were in the third quadrant of the ACS, and 3 were included in second quadrant. IZs were located approximately midway between the seventh cervical vertebrae and the acromial angle in a limited area in the second and third quadrants. The mean distance between MTrP and IZ was 10.4 ± 5.8 mm. Conclusions According to the acquired results, we conclude that IZ and MTrPs are located in well-defined areas in upper trapezius muscle. Moreover, MTrPs in upper trapezius are proximally located to the IZ but not overlapped. PMID:23758854

  8. Use of biomarkers in resident organisms as a tool for environmental monitoring in a cold coastal system, Tierra del Fuego Island.

    PubMed

    Comoglio, L; Amin, O; Botté, S; Marcovecchio, J

    2011-03-01

    Antioxidant status of Nacella (P) magellanica and Mytilus edulis related with heavy metal in sediment and tissues were analysed in five stations close to Ushuaia city in winter and spring. The principal component analysis produced a two-dimensional pattern of the degree of similarity between sites. The Industrial-Urban Contamination Index (IUCI) showed that the Industrial Zone (IZ) and Oil Marine Station (OMS) represent areas with anthropic inputs. Heavy metals have differential association with biomarkers depending on the species. In limpets, digestive gland presented major activities of enzyme defence in winter and gonads have shown higher values of Catalase (CAT) during spring while lipid peroxidation (LPO) presented higher values in IZ. For mussels CAT and LPO increased in spring time. For superoxide dismutase (SOD) peaks have been detected in IZ and NW stations for winter. Differences in biomarker responses due to seasons did not influence the grouping of the sites into references and contaminated groups. PMID:21035188

  9. Use of biomarkers in resident organisms as a tool for environmental monitoring in a cold coastal system, Tierra del Fuego Island.

    PubMed

    Comoglio, L; Amin, O; Botté, S; Marcovecchio, J

    2011-03-01

    Antioxidant status of Nacella (P) magellanica and Mytilus edulis related with heavy metal in sediment and tissues were analysed in five stations close to Ushuaia city in winter and spring. The principal component analysis produced a two-dimensional pattern of the degree of similarity between sites. The Industrial-Urban Contamination Index (IUCI) showed that the Industrial Zone (IZ) and Oil Marine Station (OMS) represent areas with anthropic inputs. Heavy metals have differential association with biomarkers depending on the species. In limpets, digestive gland presented major activities of enzyme defence in winter and gonads have shown higher values of Catalase (CAT) during spring while lipid peroxidation (LPO) presented higher values in IZ. For mussels CAT and LPO increased in spring time. For superoxide dismutase (SOD) peaks have been detected in IZ and NW stations for winter. Differences in biomarker responses due to seasons did not influence the grouping of the sites into references and contaminated groups.

  10. Continuous desulfurization and bacterial community structure of an integrated bioreactor developed to treat SO2 from a gas stream.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Li, Lin; Ding, Wenjie; Zhang, Jingying; Liu, Junxin

    2015-11-01

    Sulfide dioxide (SO2) is often released during the combustion processes of fossil fuels. An integrated bioreactor with two sections, namely, a suspended zone (SZ) and immobilized zone (IZ), was applied to treat SO2 for 6months. Sampling ports were set in both sections to investigate the performance and microbial characteristics of the integrated bioreactor. SO2 was effectively removed by the synergistic effect of the SZ and IZ, and more than 85% removal efficiency was achieved at steady state. The average elimination capacity of SO2 in the bioreactor was 2.80g/(m(3)·hr) for the SZ and 1.50g/(m(3)·hr) for the IZ. Most SO2 was eliminated in the SZ. The liquid level of the SZ and the water content ratio of the packing material in the IZ affected SO2 removal efficiency. The SZ served a key function not only in SO2 elimination, but also in moisture maintenance for the IZ. The desired water content in IZ could be feasibly maintained without any additional pre-humidification facilities. Clone libraries of 16S rDNA directly amplified from the DNA of each sample were constructed and sequenced to analyze the community composition and diversity in the individual zones. The desulfurization bacteria dominated both zones. Paenibacillus sp. was present in both zones, whereas Ralstonia sp. existed only in the SZ. The transfer of SO2 to the SZ involved dissolution in the nutrient solution and biodegradation by the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. This work presents a potential biological treatment method for waste gases containing hydrophilic compounds.

  11. Angiotensin receptor blockade and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition limit adverse remodeling of infarct zone collagens and global diastolic dysfunction during healing after reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jugdutt, Bodh I; Idikio, Halliday; Uwiera, Richard R E

    2007-09-01

    To determine whether therapy with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) candesartan and the comparator angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) enalapril during healing after reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction (RSTEMI) limit adverse remodeling of infarct zone (IZ) collagens and left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, we randomized 24 dogs surviving anterior RSTEMI (90-min coronary occlusion) to placebo, candesartan, and enalapril therapy between day 2 and 42. Six other dogs were sham. We measured regional IZ and non-infarct zone (NIZ) collagens (hydroxyproline; types I/III; cross-linking), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and topography at 6 weeks, and hemodynamics, LV diastolic and systolic function, and remodeling over 6 weeks. Compared to sham, placebo-RSTEMI differentially altered regional collagens, with more pronounced increase in TGF-beta, hydroxyproline, and type I, insoluble, and cross-linked collagens in the IZ than NIZ, and increased IZ soluble and type III collagens at 6 weeks, and induced persistent LV filling pressure elevation, diastolic and systolic dysfunction, and LV remodeling over 6 weeks. Compared to placebo-RSTEMI, candesartan and enalapril limited adverse regional collagen remodeling, with normalization of type III, soluble and insoluble collagens and decrease in pyridinoline cross-linking in the IZ at 6 weeks, and attenuation of LV filling pressure, diastolic dysfunction, and remodeling over 6 weeks. The results suggest that candesartan and enalapril during healing after RSTEMI prevent rather than worsen adverse remodeling of IZ collagens and LV diastolic dysfunction, supporting the clinical use of ARBs and ACEIs during subacute RSTEMI.

  12. The Functionator 3000: Transforming Numbers and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Elaine Cerrato; Roy, George; Reeves, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Mrs. Fisher's class was learning about arithmetic functions by pretending to operate real-world "function machines" (Reeves 2006). Functions are a unifying mathematics topic, and a great deal of emphasis is placed on understanding them in prekindergarten through grade 12 (Kilpatrick and Izsák 2008). In its Algebra Content Standard,…

  13. "Educación Bilingüe a Nivel De Escuela Secundaria": Dual-Language Education at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Dania

    2013-01-01

    The Summer 2013 issue of "Voices in Urban Education" presents an interview with Dania Vazquez, founding principal of the Margarita Muñiz Academy, a Boston public high school offering dual-language education in Spanish and English. The first dual-language high school in Massachusetts, this Innovation School opened in the fall of 2012 with…

  14. 75 FR 54697 - Unblocking of Thirteen Specially Designated Nationals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... HONEY CENTER), Sanaa, Yemen . AL-KADR, Ahmad Sa'id (a.k.a. AL-KANADI, Abu Abd Al-Rahman); DOB 01 Mar..., Al- Hasabah, Sanaa, Yemen; By the Shrine Next to the Gas Station, Jamal Street, Ta'iz, Yemen; Al-'Arudh Square, Khur Maksar, Aden, Yemen; Al- Nasr Street, Doha, Qatar . AWEYS, Dahir Ubeidullahi,...

  15. The effects of skinfold thicknesses and innervation zone on the mechanomyographic signal during cycle ergometry.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Jorge M; Housh, Terry J; Camic, Clayton L; Russell Hendrix, C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of skinfold (SF) thicknesses at four locations on the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle and the placement of accelerometers relative to the innervation zone (IZ) on the mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude and mean power frequency (MPF) responses during incremental cycle ergometry. Twenty adults (age±SD=23.8±3.0 years) participated in the investigation. The MMG signals were detected during incremental cycle ergometry using four accelerometers placed on the right VL. Prior to the cycle ergometer test, SF thicknesses were measured. Simple linear regression analyses and one-way repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were performed. The present study found that only 10% of the regression analyses and mean comparisons were significant (p<0.05). Furthermore, the accelerometer placed at the most proximal site (Prox 2) had significantly greater MMG amplitude and MMG MPF than accelerometers placed at more distal sites (Prox 1, Over IZ, and Dist). There were no significant differences, however, in SF thickness between accelerometer placement sites. In addition, the IZ had no effect on MMG amplitude and little effect on MMG MPF values. The results of the present study indicated that the SF thickness values and IZ did not affect the MMG signal.

  16. Reducing the duration of broadband excitation pulses using optimal control with limited RF amplitude.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Thomas E; Reiss, Timo O; Luy, Burkhard; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J

    2004-03-01

    Combining optimal control theory with a new RF limiting step produces pulses with significantly reduced duration and improved performance for a given maximum RF amplitude compared to previous broadband excitation by optimized pulses (BEBOP). The resulting pulses tolerate variations in RF homogeneity relevant for standard high-resolution NMR probes. Design criteria were transformation of Iz-->Ix over resonance offsets of +/-20kHz and RF variability of +/-5%, with a pulse length of 500 micros and peak RF amplitude equal to 17.5 kHz. Simulations transform Iz to greater than 0.995 Ix, with phase deviations of the final magnetization less than 2 degrees, over ranges of resonance offset and RF variability that exceed the design targets. Experimental performance of the pulse is in excellent agreement with the simulations. Performance tradeoffs for yet shorter pulses or pulses with decreased digitization are also investigated. PMID:14987600

  17. Sampling and composition of airborne particulate matter (PM10) from two locations of Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Chirino, Yolanda I.; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-01-01

    The PM10 airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm is considered as a risk factor of various adverse health outcomes, including lung cancer. Here we described the sampling and composition of PM10 collected from an industrial zone (IZ), and a commercial zone (CZ) of Mexico City. The PM10 was collected with a high-volume sampler in the above mentioned locations and both types of PM10 sampled were characterized by the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and endotoxin. The endotoxin PM10 content from IZ and CZ displayed 138.4 UE/mg and 170.4 UE/mg of PM10, respectively. PMID:26217815

  18. Sampling and composition of airborne particulate matter (PM10) from two locations of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Yolanda I; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-09-01

    The PM10 airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm is considered as a risk factor of various adverse health outcomes, including lung cancer. Here we described the sampling and composition of PM10 collected from an industrial zone (IZ), and a commercial zone (CZ) of Mexico City. The PM10 was collected with a high-volume sampler in the above mentioned locations and both types of PM10 sampled were characterized by the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and endotoxin. The endotoxin PM10 content from IZ and CZ displayed 138.4 UE/mg and 170.4 UE/mg of PM10, respectively.

  19. Effect of the microstructure on the lifetime of dental ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Márcia; de Araújo, Maico D.; Fukushima, Karen A.; Yoshimura, Humberto N.; Cesar, Paulo F.; Griggs, Jason A.; Della Bona, Álvaro

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of the microstructure on the Weibull and slow crack growth (SCG) parameters and on the lifetime of three ceramics used as framework materials for fixed partial dentures (FPDs) (YZ - Vita In-Ceram YZ; IZ - Vita In-Ceram Zirconia; AL - Vita In-Ceram AL) and of two veneering porcelains (VM7 and VM9). Methods Bar-shaped specimens were fabricated according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Specimens were tested in three-point flexure in 37°C artificial saliva. Weibull analysis (n=30) and a constant stress-rate test (n=10) were used to determine the Weibull modulus (m) and SCG coefficient (n), respectively. Microstructural and fractographic analyses were performed using SEM. ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05) were used to statistically analyze data obtained with both microstructural and fractographic analyses. Results YZ and AL presented high crystalline content and low porosity (0.1–0.2%). YZ had the highest characteristic strength (σ0) value (911 MPa) followed by AL (488 MPa) and IZ (423 MPa). Lower σ0 values were observed for the porcelains (68–75 MPa). Except for IZ and VM7, m values were similar among the ceramic materials. Higher n values were found for YZ (76) and AL (72), followed by IZ (54) and the veneering materials (36–44). Lifetime predictions showed that YZ was the material with the best mechanical performance. The size of the critical flaw was similar among the framework materials (34–48 µm) and among the porcelains (75–86 µm). Significance The microstructure influenced the mechanical and SCG behavior of the studied materials and, consequently, the lifetime predictions. PMID:21536324

  20. Single event upset susceptibility testing of the Xilinx Virtex II FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yui, C.; Swift, G.; Carmichael, C.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy ion testing of the Xilinx Virtex IZ was conducted on the configuration, block RAM and user flip flop cells to determine their single event upset susceptibility using LETs of 1.2 to 60 MeVcm^2/mg. A software program specifically designed to count errors in the FPGA is used to reveal L1/e values and single-event-functional interrupt failures.

  1. The influence of the muscle fiber pennation angle and innervation zone on the identification of neuromuscular fatigue during cycle ergometry.

    PubMed

    Camic, Clayton L; Housh, Terry J; Hendrix, C Russell; Zuniga, Jorge M; Bergstrom, Haley C; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) responses and the estimated physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWC(FT)) values recorded from electrode arrangements placed: (1) parallel to the muscle fiber pennation angle (MFPA), (2) parallel to the long axis of the femur, and (3) over the innervation zone (IZ) during incremental cycle ergometry. Thirteen college-aged males and females (mean age ± SD=22.4 ± 3.4 years) performed an incremental test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. A linear electrode array was utilized to determine the MFPA and location of the IZ of the vastus lateralis (VL). For determination of the PWC(FT) values, EMG signals were recorded from three bipolar electrode arrangements at different locations over the VL. The results of a one-way repeated measures ANOVA indicated there were no significant (p<0.05) mean differences in PWC(FT) values among the electrode arrangements (parallel to the MFPA=190 ± 36 W; parallel to the long axis of the femur=194 ± 40 W; and over the IZ=199 ± 51 W) or the EMG amplitude and MPF values at the common power outputs. There were also significant correlations (r=0.75-0.91) among the three electrode arrangements for PWC(FT) values. These findings suggested that the PWC(FT), like absolute EMG amplitude and MPF, is robust to the influence of electrode placement over the IZ as well as the orientation with respect to the MFPA during cycle ergometry.

  2. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    Beer's Law: The Real Hazards by S. R. Logan Re: article by M. A. Muyskens and E. T. Sevy The author replies Photodimerization of Maleic Anhydride by Zhijun Zhang Re: article by D. Todd and M. Pickering (J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1100) Qual from a Different Viewpoint by Francisco J. Arnáiz Re: article by M. Laing (J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 666)

  3. Towards an informative mutant phenotype for every bacterial gene

    SciTech Connect

    Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Tarjan, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjen; Leon, Dacia; Arkin, Adam P.; Skerker, Jeffrey M.

    2014-08-11

    Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, in <i>Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of <i>Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized <i>Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in <i>Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometric brown-dwarf classification (Skrzypek+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, N.; Warren, S. J.; Faherty, J. K.

    2016-02-01

    Table 3 (L dwarfs) and Table 4 (T dwarfs) provide coordinates and photometry of the 1281 L dwarfs and 80 T dwarfs, J<17.5, found by Skrzypek et al. 2016 using the photo-type classification method. Coordinates and photometry in izYJHKW1W2 (on the Vega system) is provided, as well as the photo-type classification, and any existing spectroscopic classification in the literature. (3 data files).

  5. The influence zone of surfactant-enhanced air sparging in different media.

    PubMed

    Chuan-Yu, Qin; Yong-Sheng, Zhao; Wei, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of the influence zone (IZ) of air sparging (AS) in different media at different surface tension. Different kinds of media were used in two-dimensional tank experiments, designed to determine (1) the effect of surface tension reduction on the airflow pattern during AS in different air travelling modes (channels and bubbles) in homogeneous aquifer and (2) the airflow distribution and migration characteristics in heterogeneous aquifer at different surface tension during AS. The results demonstrated that in homogeneous gravel aquifer, the IZ was almost identical with or without surfactant addition into groundwater, the air saturation, however, was increased with decreasing surface tension. In homogeneous coarse sand tank saturated with 500 mg/L sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS) solution, the IZ was approximately 1.3 times larger than that in the same medium saturated with distilled water. In addition, the density of airflow channels was much larger in medium saturated with SDBS solution. In heterogeneous subsurface saturated with distilled water, when the permeability ratio between two adjoining layers was 8:1, air would bypass low-permeable soils. In contrast, the air would infiltrate into low-permeable soils when SDBS concentration in groundwater was 1000 mg/L. The results indicate that surfactant-enhanced air sparging can effectively improve the volatile organic compounds removal both in homogeneous and heterogeneous media.

  6. Molecules and mechanisms that regulate multipolar migration in the intermediate zone.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    Most neurons migrate with an elongated, "bipolar" morphology, extending a long leading process that explores the environment. However, when immature projection neurons enter the intermediate zone (IZ) of the neocortex they become "multipolar". Multipolar cells extend and retract cytoplasmic processes in different directions and move erratically-sideways, up and down. Multipolar cells extend axons while they are in the lower half of the IZ. Remarkably, the cells then resume radial migration: they reorient their centrosome and Golgi apparatus towards the pia, transform back to bipolar morphology, and commence locomotion along radial glia (RG) fibers. This reorientation implies the existence of directional signals in the IZ that are ignored during the multipolar stage but sensed after axonogenesis. In vivo genetic manipulation has implicated a variety of candidate directional signals, cell surface receptors, and signaling pathways, that may be involved in polarizing multipolar cells and stabilizing a pia-directed leading process for radial migration. Other signals are implicated in starting multipolar migration and triggering axon outgrowth. Here we review the molecules and mechanisms that regulate multipolar migration, and also discuss how multipolar migration affects the orderly arrangement of neurons in layers and columns in the developing neocortex.

  7. Distribution, diversity and abundance of bacterial laccase-like genes in different particle size fractions of sediments in a subtropical mangrove ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Chao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the diversity and abundance of bacterial lacasse-like genes in different particle size fractions, namely sand, silt, and clay of sediments in a subtropical mangrove ecosystem. Moreover, the effects of nutrient conditions on bacterial laccase-like communities as well as the correlation between nutrients and, both the abundance and diversity indices of laccase-like bacteria in particle size fractions were also studied. Compared to bulk sediments, Bacteroidetes, Caldithrix, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi were dominated in all 3 particle-size fractions of intertidal sediment (IZ), but Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were lost after the fractionation procedures used. The diversity index of IZ fractions decreased in the order of bulk > clay > silt > sand. In fractions of mangrove forest sediment (MG), Verrucomicrobia was found in silt, and both Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes appeared in clay, but no new species were found in sand. The declining order of diversity index in MG fractions was clay > silt > sand > bulk. Furthermore, the abundance of lacasse-like bacteria varied with different particle-size fractions significantly (p < 0.05), and decreased in the order of sand > clay > silt in both IZ and MG fractions. Additionally, nutrient availability was found to significantly affect the diversity and community structure of laccase-like bacteria (p < 0.05), while the total organic carbon contents were positively related to the abundance of bacterial laccase-like genes in particle size fractions (p < 0.05). Therefore, this study further provides evidence that bacterial laccase plays a vital role in turnover of sediment organic matter and cycling of nutrients. PMID:25822201

  8. In-vitro Callus Propagation and Secondary Metabolite Quantification in Sericostoma pauciflorum

    PubMed Central

    C. Jain, Satish; Pancholi, Boskey; Jain, Renuka

    2012-01-01

    Sericostoma pauciflorum Stocks ex Wight (Family Boraginaceae) used against cancer, diabetes and known to be health promoter. Callus cultures have been established from the stem explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L concentration of different growth hormone viz. kinetin (Kn), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-butyric acid (IBA). At 6 weeks of age, these calli were harvested, dried and extracted successively in pet, ether, methanol and water. Extracts were dried, weighed (%) and analyzed for their bioefficacies. Antimicrobial activities were determined using agar well diffusion and antioxidant potentials by DPPH and FRAP methods. Among all the test extracts, the extract of stem callus raised on IBA found to be more effective whereas it’s pet. ether extract showed appreciable activity against both the test bacteria and fungi (S. aureus- IZ 14.00 ± 0.57 mm and T. rubrum- 16.33 ± 0.32 mm), followed by methanol extract (S. aureus- IZ 13.00 ± 0.57 mm, A. niger and P. chrysogenum- IZ 16.66 mm in both). In antioxidant potentials, all aqueous extracts were more active where IBA and Kn extracts demonstrated 0.06 mg/mL IC50 value (% inhibition 93.30 and 92.70 respectively at 0.8 mg/mL concentration) with 366 ± 6.69 and 343 ± 3.34 ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant potentials at 1 mg/mL concentration. Furthermore, the chemical profile of test extracts was carried out. The bioactive secondary metabolites, β-sitosterol and caffeic acid was isolated from culture tissue of 6 weeks-old callus, and their identification and confirmation was carried out by color reaction, TLC behavior and IR spectrum techniques. PMID:24250543

  9. Photometric brown-dwarf classification. II. A homogeneous sample of 1361 L and T dwarfs brighter than J = 17.5 with accurate spectral types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, N.; Warren, S. J.; Faherty, J. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a homogeneous sample of 1361 L and T dwarfs brighter than J = 17.5 (of which 998 are new), from an effective area of 3070 deg2, classified by the photo-type method to an accuracy of one spectral sub-type using izYJHKW1W2 photometry from SDSS+UKIDSS+WISE. Other than a small bias in the early L types, the sample is shown to be effectively complete to the magnitude limit, for all spectral types L0 to T8. The nature of the bias is an incompleteness estimated at 3% because peculiar blue L dwarfs of type L4 and earlier are classified late M. There is a corresponding overcompleteness because peculiar red (likely young) late M dwarfs are classified early L. Contamination of the sample is confirmed to be small: so far spectroscopy has been obtained for 19 sources in the catalogue and all are confirmed to be ultracool dwarfs. We provide coordinates and izYJHKW1W2 photometry of all sources. We identify an apparent discontinuity, Δm ~ 0.4 mag, in the Y - K colour between spectral types L7 and L8. We present near-infrared spectra of nine sources identified by photo-type as peculiar, including a new low-gravity source ULAS J005505.68+013436.0, with spectroscopic classification L2γ. We provide revised izYJHKW1W2 template colours for late M dwarfs, types M7 to M9. The catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/589/A49

  10. DES J0454-4448: discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S. L.; McMahon, R. G.; Banerji, M.; Becker, G. D.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Martini, P.; Ostrovski, F.; Rauch, M.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bertin, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; da Costa, L. N.; D'Andrea, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Cunha, C. E.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J.; Merritt, K.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A.; Romer, K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Smith, C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = -26.5) quasar DES J0454-4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H I near zone size of 4.1+1.1-1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i-z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightest of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i-z and z-Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.

  11. Distribution, diversity and abundance of bacterial laccase-like genes in different particle size fractions of sediments in a subtropical mangrove ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Chao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the diversity and abundance of bacterial lacasse-like genes in different particle size fractions, namely sand, silt, and clay of sediments in a subtropical mangrove ecosystem. Moreover, the effects of nutrient conditions on bacterial laccase-like communities as well as the correlation between nutrients and, both the abundance and diversity indices of laccase-like bacteria in particle size fractions were also studied. Compared to bulk sediments, Bacteroidetes, Caldithrix, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi were dominated in all 3 particle-size fractions of intertidal sediment (IZ), but Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were lost after the fractionation procedures used. The diversity index of IZ fractions decreased in the order of bulk > clay > silt > sand. In fractions of mangrove forest sediment (MG), Verrucomicrobia was found in silt, and both Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes appeared in clay, but no new species were found in sand. The declining order of diversity index in MG fractions was clay > silt > sand > bulk. Furthermore, the abundance of lacasse-like bacteria varied with different particle-size fractions significantly (p < 0.05), and decreased in the order of sand > clay > silt in both IZ and MG fractions. Additionally, nutrient availability was found to significantly affect the diversity and community structure of laccase-like bacteria (p < 0.05), while the total organic carbon contents were positively related to the abundance of bacterial laccase-like genes in particle size fractions (p < 0.05). Therefore, this study further provides evidence that bacterial laccase plays a vital role in turnover of sediment organic matter and cycling of nutrients.

  12. Temperature thresholds and thermal requirements for development of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Diaz, Beatriz Maria; Muñiz, Mariano; Barrios, Laura; Fereres, Alberto

    2007-08-01

    Early detection of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on lettuce is of primary importance for its effective control. Temperature thresholds for development of this pest were estimated using developmental rates [r(T)] at different constant temperatures (8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 26, and 28 degrees C). Observed developmental rates data and temperature were fitted to two linear (Campbell and Muñiz and Gil) and a nonlinear (Lactin) models. Lower temperature threshold estimated by the Campbell model was 3.6 degrees C for apterous, 4.1 degrees C for alates, and 3.1 degrees C for both aphid adult morphs together. Similar values of the lower temperature threshold were obtained with the Muñiz and Gil model, for apterous (4.0 degrees C), alates (4.2 degrees C), and both adult morphs together (3.7 degrees C) of N. ribisnigri. Thermal requirements of N. ribisnigri to complete development were estimated by Campbell and Muñiz and Gil models for apterous in 125 and 129 DD and for both adult morphs together in 143 and 139 DD, respectively. For complete development from birth to adulthood, the alate morph needed 15-18 DD more than the apterous morph. The lower temperature threshold determined by the Lactin model was 5.3 degrees C for alates, 2.3 degrees C for apterous, and 1.9 degrees C for both adult morphs together. The optimal and upper temperature thresholds were 25.2 and 33.6 degrees C, respectively, for the alate morph, 27 and 35.9 degrees C, respectively, for the apterous morph, and 26.1 and 35.3 degrees C, respectively, for the two adult morphs together. The Campbell model provided the best fit to the observed developmental rates data of N. ribisnigri. This information could be incorporated in forecasting models of this pest. PMID:17716458

  13. ADAM17 is critical for multipolar exit and radial migration of neuronal intermediate progenitor cells in mice cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingyu; Zhang, Zhengyu; Li, Zengmin; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Bin; Pan, Le; Ma, Zhixing; Zheng, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    The radial migration of neuronal progenitor cells is critical for the development of cerebral cortex layers. They go through a critical step transforming from multipolar to bipolar before outward migration. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) is a transmembrane protease which can process many substrates involved in cell-cell interaction, including Notch, ligands of EGFR, and some cell adhesion molecules. In this study, we used in utero electroporation to knock down or overexpress ADAM17 at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) in neuronal progenitor cells to examine the role of ADAM17 in cortical embryonic neurogenesis. Our results showed that the radial migration of ADAM17-knocked down cells were normal till E16.5 and reached the intermediate zone (IZ). Then most transfected cells stopped migration and stayed at the IZ to inner cortical plate (CP) layer at E18.5, and there was higher percentage of multipolar cells at IZ layer in the ADAM17-knocked down group compared to the cells in control group. Marker staining revealed that those ADAM17-knocked down cells differentiated normally from neural stem cells (NSCs) to neuronal intermediate progenitor cells (nIPCs) but did not differentiate into mature neurons. The migration and multipolar exit defects caused by ADAM17 knockdown could be partially rescued by over-expressing an shRNA resistant ADAM17, while overexpressing ADAM17 alone did not affect the radial migration. Taken together, our results showed for the first time that, ADAM17 is critical in regulating the multipolar-stage exit and radial migration of the nIPCs during telencephalon cortex development in mice. PMID:23755270

  14. ADAM17 is critical for multipolar exit and radial migration of neuronal intermediate progenitor cells in mice cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingyu; Zhang, Zhengyu; Li, Zengmin; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Bin; Pan, Le; Ma, Zhixing; Zheng, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    The radial migration of neuronal progenitor cells is critical for the development of cerebral cortex layers. They go through a critical step transforming from multipolar to bipolar before outward migration. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) is a transmembrane protease which can process many substrates involved in cell-cell interaction, including Notch, ligands of EGFR, and some cell adhesion molecules. In this study, we used in utero electroporation to knock down or overexpress ADAM17 at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) in neuronal progenitor cells to examine the role of ADAM17 in cortical embryonic neurogenesis. Our results showed that the radial migration of ADAM17-knocked down cells were normal till E16.5 and reached the intermediate zone (IZ). Then most transfected cells stopped migration and stayed at the IZ to inner cortical plate (CP) layer at E18.5, and there was higher percentage of multipolar cells at IZ layer in the ADAM17-knocked down group compared to the cells in control group. Marker staining revealed that those ADAM17-knocked down cells differentiated normally from neural stem cells (NSCs) to neuronal intermediate progenitor cells (nIPCs) but did not differentiate into mature neurons. The migration and multipolar exit defects caused by ADAM17 knockdown could be partially rescued by over-expressing an shRNA resistant ADAM17, while overexpressing ADAM17 alone did not affect the radial migration. Taken together, our results showed for the first time that, ADAM17 is critical in regulating the multipolar-stage exit and radial migration of the nIPCs during telencephalon cortex development in mice.

  15. THz semiconductor-based front-end receiver technology for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Advances in the design and fabrication of very low capacitance planar Schottky diodes and millimeter-wave power amplifiers, more accurate device and circuit models for commercial 3-D electromagnetic simulators, and the availability of both MEMS and high precision metal machining, have enabled RF engineers to extend traditional waveguide-based sensor and source technologies well into the TI-Iz frequency regime. This short paper will highlight recent progress in realizing THz space-qualified receiver front-ends based on room temperature semiconductor devices.

  16. Dose equations for shift-variant CT acquisition modes using variable pitch, tube current, and aperture, and the meaning of their associated CTDI{sub vol}

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Robert L.; Boone, John M.; Kraft, Robert A.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: With the increasing clinical use of shift-variant CT protocols involving tube current modulation (TCM), variable pitch or pitch modulation (PM), and variable aperture a(t), the interpretation of the scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} is called into question. This was addressed for TCM in their previous paper published by Dixon and Boone [Med. Phys. 40, 111920 (14pp.) (2013)] and is extended to PM and concurrent TCM/PM as well as variable aperture in this work. Methods: Rigorous convolution equations are derived to describe the accumulated dose distributions for TCM, PM, and concurrent TCM/PM. A comparison with scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} formulae clearly identifies the source of their differences with the traditional CTDI{sub vol}. Dose distribution simulations using the convolution are provided for a variety of TCM and PM scenarios including a helical shuttle used for perfusion studies (as well as constant mA)—all having the same scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol}. These new convolution simulations for TCM are validated by comparison with their previous discrete summations. Results: These equations show that PM is equivalent to TCM if the pitch variation p(z) is proportional to 1/i(z), where i(z) is the local tube current. The simulations show that the local dose at z depends only weakly on the local tube current i(z) or local pitch p(z) due to scatter from all other locations along z, and that the “local CTDI{sub vol}(z)” or “CTDI{sub vol} per slice” do not represent a local dose but rather only a relative i(z) or p(z). The CTDI-paradigm does not apply to shift-variant techniques and the scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} for the same lacks physical significance and relevance. Conclusions: While the traditional CTDI{sub vol} at constant tube current and pitch conveys useful information (the peak dose at the center of the scan length), CTDI{sub vol} for shift-variant techniques (TCM or PM) conveys no useful information about the associated dose

  17. Re-evaluation of EMG-torque relation in chronic stroke using linear electrode array EMG recordings

    PubMed Central

    Bhadane, Minal; Liu, Jie; Rymer, W. Zev; Zhou, Ping; Li, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to re-evaluate the controversial reports of EMG-torque relation between impaired and non-impaired sides using linear electrode array EMG recordings. Ten subjects with chronic stroke performed a series of submaximal isometric elbow flexion tasks. A 20-channel linear array was used to record surface EMG of the biceps brachii muscles from both impaired and non-impaired sides. M-wave recordings for bilateral biceps brachii muscles were also made. Distribution of the slope of the EMG-torque relations for the individual channels showed a quasi-symmetrical “M” shaped pattern. The lowest value corresponded to the innervation zone (IZ) location. The highest value from the slope curve for each side was selected for comparison to minimize the effect of electrode placement and IZ asymmetry. The slope was greater on the impaired side in 4 of 10 subjects. There were a weak correlation between slope ratio and strength ratio and a moderate to high correlation between slope ratio and M-wave ratio between two sides. These findings suggest that the EMG-torque relations are likely mediated and influenced by multiple factors. Our findings emphasize the importance of electrode placement and suggest the primary role of peripheral adaptive changes in the EMG-torque relations in chronic stroke. PMID:27349938

  18. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and anti-acetylcholinesterase properties of Tunisian Origanum majorana L. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Hajlaoui, Hafedh; Mighri, Hedi; Aouni, Mahjoub; Gharsallah, Néji; Kadri, Adel

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and evaluated the antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anti-acetylcholinesterase properties of Tunisian Origanum majorana essential oil. The findings showed that the oil exhibited high activity, particularly in terms of reducing power and β-Carotene bleaching, inducing higher IC50 values than BHT. The oil showed an important antimicrobial activity against 25 bacterial and fungal strains. In fact, the IZ, MIC and MBC values recorded for the bacterial strains were in the range of 8 ± 0-18.33 ± 0.57 mm, 0.097-3.125 and 0.39-6.25 mg/mL, respectively. The IZ, MIC and MFC values of the fungal strains varied between 11±0-28 ± 0 mm, 0.058-0.468 mg/mL and 0.234-1.875 mg/mL, respectively. A low cytotoxic effect was observed against cancer (Hep-2 and HT29) and continuous cell lineage (Vero), with CC50 values ranging from 13.73 to 85.63 mg/mL. The oil was also evaluated for anti-acetylcholinesterase effects, which showed that it exhibited significant activity with IC50 values reaching 150.33 ± 2.02 μg/mL. PMID:26997648

  19. Antimicrobial activity of a neem cake extract in a broth model meat system.

    PubMed

    Del Serrone, Paola; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2013-08-02

    This work reports on the antimicrobial activity of an ethyl acetate extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) cake (NCE) against bacteria affecting the quality of retail fresh meat in a broth model meat system. NCE (100 µg) was also tested by the agar disc diffusion method. It inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. The NCE growth inhibition zone (IZ) ranged 11.33-22.67 mm while the ciprofloxacin (10 µg) IZ ranged from 23.41-32.67 mm. There was no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the antimicrobial activity of NCE and ciprofloxacin vs. C. jejuni and Leuconostoc spp. The NCE antibacterial activity was moreover determined at lower concentrations (1:10-1:100,000) in micro-assays. The percent growth reduction ranged from 61 ± 2.08-92 ± 3.21. The higher bacterial growth reduction was obtained at 10 µg concentration of NCE. Species-specific PCR and multiplex PCR with the DNA dye propidium monoazide were used to directly detect viable bacterial cells from experimentally contaminated meat samples. The numbers of bacterial cells never significantly (p ≤ 0.05) exceeded the inocula concentration used to experimentally contaminate the NCE treated meat. This report represents a screening methodology to evaluate the antimicrobial capability of a herbal extract to preserve meat.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of a Neem Cake Extract in a Broth Model Meat System

    PubMed Central

    Del Serrone, Paola; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    This work reports on the antimicrobial activity of an ethyl acetate extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) cake (NCE) against bacteria affecting the quality of retail fresh meat in a broth model meat system. NCE (100 µg) was also tested by the agar disc diffusion method. It inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. The NCE growth inhibition zone (IZ) ranged 11.33–22.67 mm while the ciprofloxacin (10 µg) IZ ranged from 23.41–32.67 mm. There was no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the antimicrobial activity of NCE and ciprofloxacin vs. C. jejuni and Leuconostoc spp. The NCE antibacterial activity was moreover determined at lower concentrations (1:10–1:100,000) in micro-assays. The percent growth reduction ranged from 61 ± 2.08–92 ± 3.21. The higher bacterial growth reduction was obtained at 10 µg concentration of NCE. Species-specific PCR and multiplex PCR with the DNA dye propidium monoazide were used to directly detect viable bacterial cells from experimentally contaminated meat samples. The numbers of bacterial cells never significantly (p ≤ 0.05) exceeded the inocula concentration used to experimentally contaminate the NCE treated meat. This report represents a screening methodology to evaluate the antimicrobial capability of a herbal extract to preserve meat. PMID:23917814

  1. Semi-synthesis of new antimicrobial esters from the natural oleanolic and maslinic acids.

    PubMed

    Chouaïb, Karim; Hichri, Fayçal; Nguir, Asma; Daami-Remadi, Majda; Elie, Nicolas; Touboul, David; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Hamza, M'hamed Ali

    2015-09-15

    In this article, we report an effective procedure for the selective isolation of oleanolic acid 1 and maslinic acid 2 (3.4 and 8.5mg/g DW, respectively) from pomace olive (Olea europaea L.) using an ultrasonic bath, and the synthesis of a series of new triterpenic acid esters. The compounds were characterized by their spectral data and were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Among the compounds tested, those having sulfur and chlorine atoms were found to be antibacterial. They showed activity against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and two Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MICs within a range of 5-25μg/mL). The fungus Penicillium italicum was found to be the most sensitive to both sulfur derivatives: (3β)-3-((thiophene-2-carbonyl)oxy)-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1a) (IZ=22mm) and (2α,3β-2,3-bis((thiophene-2-carbonyl)oxy)olean-12-en-28-oic acid (2a) (IZ=24mm).

  2. Electronegative plasma equilibria with spatially varying ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, E.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Lieberman, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Electronegative inductive discharges in higher pressure ranges typically exhibit strongly localized ionization near the coil structure, with decay of the electron temperature and ionization into the central discharge region. We use a two-dimensional (2D) fluid code with a chlorine feedstock gas to determine the spatial profiles of the particle densities and electron temperature in a cylindrical transformer-coupled plasma device excited by a stove-top coil on top of the plasma chamber. To compare with one-dimensional (1D) analytical models, the 2D results are area-averaged over the radius. The area-averaged ionization frequency νiz is found to decay exponentially away from the coils, allowing the ansatz of an exponentially decaying axial variation for νiz to be used in a 1D numerical model. The 1D model captures the main features of the axial variations of the area-averaged 2D fluid simulation, indicating that the main diffusion mechanisms act along the axial direction. A simple analytical global discharge model is also developed, accounting for the asymmetric density and ionization profiles. The global model gives the scalings of the ion densities and electron temperature with power and pressure. The 1D and global models are compared with the 2D fluid simulations, showing reasonable agreement.

  3. Semi-synthesis of new antimicrobial esters from the natural oleanolic and maslinic acids.

    PubMed

    Chouaïb, Karim; Hichri, Fayçal; Nguir, Asma; Daami-Remadi, Majda; Elie, Nicolas; Touboul, David; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Hamza, M'hamed Ali

    2015-09-15

    In this article, we report an effective procedure for the selective isolation of oleanolic acid 1 and maslinic acid 2 (3.4 and 8.5mg/g DW, respectively) from pomace olive (Olea europaea L.) using an ultrasonic bath, and the synthesis of a series of new triterpenic acid esters. The compounds were characterized by their spectral data and were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Among the compounds tested, those having sulfur and chlorine atoms were found to be antibacterial. They showed activity against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and two Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MICs within a range of 5-25μg/mL). The fungus Penicillium italicum was found to be the most sensitive to both sulfur derivatives: (3β)-3-((thiophene-2-carbonyl)oxy)-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1a) (IZ=22mm) and (2α,3β-2,3-bis((thiophene-2-carbonyl)oxy)olean-12-en-28-oic acid (2a) (IZ=24mm). PMID:25863603

  4. Nanog expression in heart tissues induced by acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huanhuan; Li, Qiong; Pramanik, Jogen; Luo, Jiankai; Guo, Zhikun

    2014-10-01

    Nanog is a potential stem cell marker and is considered a regeneration factor during tissue repair. In the present study, we investigated expression patterns of nanog in the rat heart after acute myocardial infarction by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. Our results show that nanog at both mRNA and protein levels is positively expressed in myocardial cells, fibroblasts and small round cells in different myocardial zones at different stages after myocardial infarction, showing a spatio-temporal and dynamic change. After myocardial infarction, the nanog expression in fibroblasts and small round cells in the infarcted zone (IZ) is much stronger than that in the margin zone (MZ) and remote infarcted zone (RIZ). From day 7 after myocardial infarction, the fibroblasts and small cells strongly expressed nanog protein in the IZ, and a few myocardial cells in the MZ and the RIZ and the numbers of nanog-positive fibroblasts and small cells reached the highest peak at 21 days after myocardial infarction, but in this period the number of nanog-positive myocardial cells decreased gradually. At 28 days after myocardial infarction, the numbers of all nanog-positive cells decreased into a low level. Therefore, our data suggest that all myocardial cells, fibroblasts and small round cells are involved in myocardial reconstruction after cardiac infarction. The nanog-positive myocardial cells may respond to early myocardial repair, and the nanog-positive fibroblasts and small round cells are the main source for myocardial reconstruction after cardiac infarction.

  5. Exogenous Reelin modifies the migratory behavior of neurons depending on cortical location.

    PubMed

    Britto, Joanne M; Tait, Karen J; Lee, Ean Phing; Gamble, Robin S; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Tan, Seong-Seng

    2014-11-01

    Malformations of cortical development can arise when projection neurons generated in the germinal zones fail to migrate properly into the cortical plate. This process is critically dependent on the Reelin glycoprotein, which when absent leads to an inversion of cortical layers and blurring of borders. Reelin has other functions including supporting neuron migration and maintaining their trajectories; however, the precise role on glial fiber-dependent or -independent migration of neurons remains controversial. In this study, we wish to test the hypothesis that migrating cortical neurons at different levels of the cortical wall have differential responses to Reelin. We exposed neurons migrating across the cortical wall to exogenous Reelin and monitored their migratory behavior using time-lapse imaging. Our results show that, in the germinal zones, exogenous Reelin retarded neuron migration and altered their trajectories. This behavior is in contrast to the response of neurons located in the intermediate zone (IZ), possibly because Reelin receptors are not expressed in this zone. In the reeler cortex, Reelin receptors are expressed in the IZ and exposure to exogenous Reelin was able to rescue the migratory defect. These studies demonstrate that migrating neurons have nonequivalent responses to Reelin depending on their location within the cortical wall. PMID:23749873

  6. Further perspective on the theory of heteronuclear decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Thomas E.

    2014-11-01

    An exact general theory of heteronuclear decoupling is presented for spin-1/2 IS systems. RF irradiation applied to the I spins both modifies and generates additional couplings between states of the system. The recently derived equivalence between the dynamics of any N-level quantum system and a system of classical coupled harmonic oscillators makes explicit the exact physical couplings between states. Decoupling is thus more properly viewed as a complex intercoupling. The sign of antiphase magnetization plays a fundamental role in decoupling. A one-to-one correspondence is demonstrated between ± 2SyIz and the sense of the S-spin coupling evolution. Magnetization Sx is refocused to obtain the desired decoupled state when ∫ 2SyIz dt = 0 . The exact instantaneous coupling at any time during the decoupling sequence is readily obtained in terms of the system states, showing that the creation of two-spin coherence is crucial for reducing the effective scalar coupling, as required for refocusing to occur. Representative examples from new aperiodic sequences as well as standard cyclic, periodic composite-pulse and adiabatic decoupling sequences illustrate the decoupling mechanism. The more general aperiodic sequences, obtained using optimal control, realize the potential inherent in the theory for significantly improved decoupling.

  7. Excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape establish neuronal polarity by forming a tangentially oriented axon in the intermediate zone.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Yamauchi, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    The formation of axon-dendrite polarity is crucial for neuron to make the proper information flow within the brain. Although the processes of neuronal polarity formation have been extensively studied using neurons in dissociated culture, the corresponding developmental processes in vivo are still unclear. Here, we illuminate the initial steps of morphological polarization of excitatory cortical neurons in situ, by sparsely labeling their neuroepithelial progenitors using in utero electroporation and then examining their neuronal progeny in brain sections and in slice cultures. Morphological analysis showed that an axon-like long tangential process formed in progeny cells in the intermediate zone (IZ). Time-lapse imaging analysis using slice culture revealed that progeny cells with multipolar shape, after alternately extending and retracting their short processes for several hours, suddenly elongated a long process tangentially. These cells then transformed into a bipolar shape, extending a pia-directed leading process, and migrated radially leaving the tangential process behind, which gave rise to an "L-shaped" axon. Our findings suggest that neuronal polarity in these cells is established de novo from a nonpolarized stage in vivo and indicate that excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape in the IZ initiate axon outgrowth before radial migration into the cortical plate. PMID:22267309

  8. Distinct roles of neuropilin 1 signaling for radial and tangential extension of callosal axons.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Fujisawa, Hajime; Murakami, Fujio; Masu, Masayuki

    2009-05-20

    Cortical excitatory neurons migrate from their origin in the ventricular zone (VZ) toward the pial surface. During migration, these neurons exhibit a stellate shape in the intermediate zone (IZ), transform into bipolar cells, and then initiate radial migration, extending a trailing process, which may lead to an axon. Here we examined the role of neuropilin 1 (NRP1) in these developmental events. Both NRP1 mRNA and protein were highly expressed in the IZ, where stellate-shaped cells were located. DiI labeling experiments showed that neuronal migration occurred normally in Nrp1 mutant mice up to embryonic day (E) 14.5, the latest day to which the mutant survives, with only subtle axonal defasciculation. However, interference with Nrp1 signaling at a later stage caused pathfinding errors: when a dominant negative form of Nrp1 was electroporated into the cortical VZ cells at E12.5 or E15.5 and examined perinatally, guidance errors were found in tangential axonal extension toward the midline. In contrast, no significant effect was noted on the migration of cortical excitatory neurons. These findings indicate that NRP1 plays an important role in the guidance of callosal axons originating from cortical excitatory neurons but does not support a role in their migration. Moreover, insofar as radial axonal extension within the cortical plate was unaffected, the present findings imply that molecular mechanisms for the axonal extension of excitatory neurons within the cortical plate are distinct from those in the white matter. PMID:19296474

  9. C3G/Rapgef1 Is Required in Multipolar Neurons for the Transition to a Bipolar Morphology during Cortical Development.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavin; Lutter, Daniela; Bochenek, Magdalena L; Kato, Katsuhiro; Tsytsyura, Yaroslav; Glyvuk, Natalia; Sakakibara, Akira; Klingauf, Jürgen; Adams, Ralf H; Püschel, Andreas W

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of a polarized morphology is essential for the development and function of neurons. During the development of the mammalian neocortex, neurons arise in the ventricular zone (VZ) from radial glia cells (RGCs) and leave the VZ to generate the cortical plate (CP). During their migration, newborn neurons first assume a multipolar morphology in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and lower intermediate zone (IZ). Subsequently, they undergo a multi-to-bipolar (MTB) transition to become bipolar in the upper IZ by developing a leading process and a trailing axon. The small GTPases Rap1A and Rap1B act as master regulators of neural cell polarity in the developing mouse neocortex. They are required for maintaining the polarity of RGCs and directing the MTB transition of multipolar neurons. Here we show that the Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) C3G (encoded by the Rapgef1 gene) is a crucial regulator of the MTB transition in vivo by conditionally inactivating the Rapgef1 gene in the developing mouse cortex at different time points during neuronal development. Inactivation of C3G results in defects in neuronal migration, axon formation and cortical lamination. Live cell imaging shows that C3G is required in cortical neurons for both the specification of an axon and the initiation of radial migration by forming a leading process. PMID:27111087

  10. C3G/Rapgef1 Is Required in Multipolar Neurons for the Transition to a Bipolar Morphology during Cortical Development.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavin; Lutter, Daniela; Bochenek, Magdalena L; Kato, Katsuhiro; Tsytsyura, Yaroslav; Glyvuk, Natalia; Sakakibara, Akira; Klingauf, Jürgen; Adams, Ralf H; Püschel, Andreas W

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of a polarized morphology is essential for the development and function of neurons. During the development of the mammalian neocortex, neurons arise in the ventricular zone (VZ) from radial glia cells (RGCs) and leave the VZ to generate the cortical plate (CP). During their migration, newborn neurons first assume a multipolar morphology in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and lower intermediate zone (IZ). Subsequently, they undergo a multi-to-bipolar (MTB) transition to become bipolar in the upper IZ by developing a leading process and a trailing axon. The small GTPases Rap1A and Rap1B act as master regulators of neural cell polarity in the developing mouse neocortex. They are required for maintaining the polarity of RGCs and directing the MTB transition of multipolar neurons. Here we show that the Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) C3G (encoded by the Rapgef1 gene) is a crucial regulator of the MTB transition in vivo by conditionally inactivating the Rapgef1 gene in the developing mouse cortex at different time points during neuronal development. Inactivation of C3G results in defects in neuronal migration, axon formation and cortical lamination. Live cell imaging shows that C3G is required in cortical neurons for both the specification of an axon and the initiation of radial migration by forming a leading process.

  11. Exogenous Reelin modifies the migratory behavior of neurons depending on cortical location.

    PubMed

    Britto, Joanne M; Tait, Karen J; Lee, Ean Phing; Gamble, Robin S; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Tan, Seong-Seng

    2014-11-01

    Malformations of cortical development can arise when projection neurons generated in the germinal zones fail to migrate properly into the cortical plate. This process is critically dependent on the Reelin glycoprotein, which when absent leads to an inversion of cortical layers and blurring of borders. Reelin has other functions including supporting neuron migration and maintaining their trajectories; however, the precise role on glial fiber-dependent or -independent migration of neurons remains controversial. In this study, we wish to test the hypothesis that migrating cortical neurons at different levels of the cortical wall have differential responses to Reelin. We exposed neurons migrating across the cortical wall to exogenous Reelin and monitored their migratory behavior using time-lapse imaging. Our results show that, in the germinal zones, exogenous Reelin retarded neuron migration and altered their trajectories. This behavior is in contrast to the response of neurons located in the intermediate zone (IZ), possibly because Reelin receptors are not expressed in this zone. In the reeler cortex, Reelin receptors are expressed in the IZ and exposure to exogenous Reelin was able to rescue the migratory defect. These studies demonstrate that migrating neurons have nonequivalent responses to Reelin depending on their location within the cortical wall.

  12. Excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape establish neuronal polarity by forming a tangentially oriented axon in the intermediate zone.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Yamauchi, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    The formation of axon-dendrite polarity is crucial for neuron to make the proper information flow within the brain. Although the processes of neuronal polarity formation have been extensively studied using neurons in dissociated culture, the corresponding developmental processes in vivo are still unclear. Here, we illuminate the initial steps of morphological polarization of excitatory cortical neurons in situ, by sparsely labeling their neuroepithelial progenitors using in utero electroporation and then examining their neuronal progeny in brain sections and in slice cultures. Morphological analysis showed that an axon-like long tangential process formed in progeny cells in the intermediate zone (IZ). Time-lapse imaging analysis using slice culture revealed that progeny cells with multipolar shape, after alternately extending and retracting their short processes for several hours, suddenly elongated a long process tangentially. These cells then transformed into a bipolar shape, extending a pia-directed leading process, and migrated radially leaving the tangential process behind, which gave rise to an "L-shaped" axon. Our findings suggest that neuronal polarity in these cells is established de novo from a nonpolarized stage in vivo and indicate that excitatory cortical neurons with multipolar shape in the IZ initiate axon outgrowth before radial migration into the cortical plate.

  13. C3G/Rapgef1 Is Required in Multipolar Neurons for the Transition to a Bipolar Morphology during Cortical Development

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Bhavin; Lutter, Daniela; Bochenek, Magdalena L.; Kato, Katsuhiro; Tsytsyura, Yaroslav; Glyvuk, Natalia; Sakakibara, Akira; Klingauf, Jürgen; Adams, Ralf H.; Püschel, Andreas W.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of a polarized morphology is essential for the development and function of neurons. During the development of the mammalian neocortex, neurons arise in the ventricular zone (VZ) from radial glia cells (RGCs) and leave the VZ to generate the cortical plate (CP). During their migration, newborn neurons first assume a multipolar morphology in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and lower intermediate zone (IZ). Subsequently, they undergo a multi-to-bipolar (MTB) transition to become bipolar in the upper IZ by developing a leading process and a trailing axon. The small GTPases Rap1A and Rap1B act as master regulators of neural cell polarity in the developing mouse neocortex. They are required for maintaining the polarity of RGCs and directing the MTB transition of multipolar neurons. Here we show that the Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) C3G (encoded by the Rapgef1 gene) is a crucial regulator of the MTB transition in vivo by conditionally inactivating the Rapgef1 gene in the developing mouse cortex at different time points during neuronal development. Inactivation of C3G results in defects in neuronal migration, axon formation and cortical lamination. Live cell imaging shows that C3G is required in cortical neurons for both the specification of an axon and the initiation of radial migration by forming a leading process. PMID:27111087

  14. The effect of hot salt on the mechanical properties of several superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. E.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride on unstressed, transverse, tensile, metal specimens at elevated temperatures was determined. Results indicate that the mechanical properties of Inconel 718, Rene 41, titanium base alloy 13V-11Cr-3Al, Hastelloy X, HS25 (L605), HS188, and TDNiCr suffer degradation in tensile strength and ductility due to hot salt exposure.

  15. beta. -decay asymmetry of the free neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp, P.; Dubbers, D.; Klemt, E.; Last, J.; Schuetze, H.; Weibler, W.; Freedman, S.J.; Schaerpf, O.

    1983-01-01

    The ..beta..-decay of polarized neutrons has been studied with the new superconducting spectrometer PERKEO at the ILL. The energy dependence of the ..beta..-decay asymmetry has been measured for the first time. From the measured ..beta..-asymmetry parameter we obtain a new value for the ratio of weak coupling constants g/sub A//g/sub V/. 11 references.

  16. Invitational Engineering--Good Counsel Then and Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shushok, Frank, Jr.; Farquhar-Caddell, Dakota A.; Krimowski, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Shushok, Farquhar-Caddell, and Krimowski, compare the vestiges of old residential environments as introduced in a 1981 article entitled "Invitational Engineering in the Residence Halls" by Jack Murphy and William Purkey ("The Journal of College and University Student Housing," v11 n1 p13-16 Sum 1981) (See in…

  17. Integrating soil and weather information into canopy sensor algorithms for improved corn nitrogen rate recommendation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn production can be often limited by the loss of nitrogen (N) due to leaching, volatilization and denitrification. The use of canopy sensors for making in-season N fertilizer applications has been proven effective in matching plant N requirements with periods of rapid N uptake (V7-V11), reducing ...

  18. 77 FR 46421 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Representatives, Transmittals 12-30 with attached transmittal and policy justification, and Sensitivity of..., or Agreed to be Paid: None (vii) Sensitivity of Technology Contained in the Defense Article or... Export Control Act Annex Item No. vii (vii) Sensitivity of Technology: 1. The AN/TPQ-36(V)11 and...

  19. Dose equations for tube current modulation in CT scanning and the interpretation of the associated CTDI{sub vol}

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Robert L.; Boone, John M.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} for automatic tube current modulation (TCM) has a different physical meaning from the traditional CTDI{sub vol} at constant mA, resulting in the dichotomy “CTDI{sub vol} of the first and second kinds” for which a physical interpretation is sought in hopes of establishing some commonality between the two.Methods: Rigorous equations are derived to describe the accumulated dose distributions for TCM. A comparison with formulae for scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol} clearly identifies the source of their differences. Graphical dose simulations are also provided for a variety of TCM tube current distributions (including constant mA), all having the same scanner-reported CTDI{sub vol}.Results: These convolution equations and simulations show that the local dose at z depends only weakly on the local tube current i(z) due to the strong influence of scatter from all other locations along z, and that the “local CTDI{sub vol}(z)” does not represent a local dose but rather only a relative i(z) ≡ mA(z). TCM is a shift-variant technique to which the CTDI-paradigm does not apply and its application to TCM leads to a CTDI{sub vol} of the second kind which lacks relevance.Conclusions: While the traditional CTDI{sub vol} at constant mA conveys useful information (the peak dose at the center of the scan length), CTDI{sub vol} of the second kind conveys no useful information about the associated TCM dose distribution it purportedly represents and its physical interpretation remains elusive. On the other hand, the total energy absorbed E (“integral dose”) as well as its surrogate DLP remain robust between variable i(z) TCM and constant current i{sub 0} techniques, both depending only on the total mAs =t{sub 0}=i{sub 0} t{sub 0} during the beam-on time t{sub 0}.

  20. The effects of selected pre-treatments on germination of seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Ozel, Halil Bariş

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of some pre-treatments implemented on seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), which has wide geographical variation along Turkey on germination percentage values were investigated. For this purpose, 13 different pre-treatments were implemented to seeds obtained from 17 different populations. According to the obtained results (except control seeds), pre-treatments leading to lowest germination percentage value (8.1%) in Oriental hornbeam seeds was PT10: Keeping seeds for 90 min in sulfuric acid, while highest germination percentage (86.58%) has been obtained with pre-treatment PT13: Implementation of 40% dose of Baikal EM1 + Biohoumous mixture to the seeds, while lowest germination percentage (40.50%) was observed on seeds collected from P7 (Bartin-Kozcağiz) population, highest germination percentage was observed in seeds obtained from P17 (Artvin-Hopa) population.

  1. The effects of selected pre-treatments on germination of seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Ozel, Halil Bariş

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of some pre-treatments implemented on seeds of Oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), which has wide geographical variation along Turkey on germination percentage values were investigated. For this purpose, 13 different pre-treatments were implemented to seeds obtained from 17 different populations. According to the obtained results (except control seeds), pre-treatments leading to lowest germination percentage value (8.1%) in Oriental hornbeam seeds was PT10: Keeping seeds for 90 min in sulfuric acid, while highest germination percentage (86.58%) has been obtained with pre-treatment PT13: Implementation of 40% dose of Baikal EM1 + Biohoumous mixture to the seeds, while lowest germination percentage (40.50%) was observed on seeds collected from P7 (Bartin-Kozcağiz) population, highest germination percentage was observed in seeds obtained from P17 (Artvin-Hopa) population. PMID:27498493

  2. Giant tunneling anomalous Hall conductance in topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos-Abiague, Alex; Scharf, Benedikt; Han, Jong E.; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.; Zutic, Igor

    We theoretically investigate the tunneling transport across a magnetic barrier modulated by a top gate potential on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. In the presence of a magnetization component along the bias direction, a finite tunneling anomalous Hall conductance (TAHC), transverse to the applied bias, develops. Depending on the strengths of the magnetization and gate potential, the system can exhibit a giant anomalous Hall angle, with the TAHC exceeding the longitudinal tunneling conductance. Moreover, we predict the existence of a negative differential TAHC even when the longitudinal differential conductance remains positive. This work was supported by U.S. ONR Grant No. N000141310754 (A.M.-A., B.S.), DFG Grant No. SCHA 1899/1-1 (B.S.), DFG Grant No. HA 5893/4-1 within SPP 1666 (E.M.H.), and U.S. DOE, Office of Science BES, under Award DE-SC0004890 (I.Z.).

  3. The CMC/3DPNS computer program for prediction of three-dimensional, subsonic, turbulent aerodynamic juncture region flow. Volume 3: Programmers' manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orzechowski, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The CMC fluid mechanics program system was developed to transmit the theoretical evolution of finite element numerical solution methodology, applied to nonlinear field problems into a versatile computer code for comprehensive flow field analysis. A detailed view of the code from the standpoint of a computer programmer's use is presented. A system macroflow chart and detailed flow charts of several routines necessary to interact with a theoretican/user to modify the operation of this program are presented. All subroutines and details of usage, primarily for input and output routines are described. Integer and real scalars and a cross reference list denoting subroutine usage for these scalars are outlined. Entry points in dynamic storage vector IZ; the lengths of each vector accompanying the scalar definitions are described. A listing of the routines peculiar to the standard test case and a listing of the input deck and printout for this case are included.

  4. The paradox of an insulating contact between a chemisorbed molecule and a wide band gap semiconductor surface.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Boudrioua, O; Mayne, A J; Comtet, G; Dujardin, G; Kuk, Y; Sonnet, Ph; Stauffer, L; Nagarajan, S; Gourdon, A

    2012-02-01

    Controlling the intrinsic optical and electronic properties of a single molecule adsorbed on a surface requires electronic decoupling of some molecular orbitals from the surface states. Scanning tunneling microscopy experiments and density functional theory calculations are used to study a perylene molecule derivative (DHH-PTCDI), adsorbed on the clean 3 × 3 reconstructed wide band gap silicon carbide surface (SiC(0001)-3 × 3). We find that the LUMO of the adsorbed molecule is invisible in I(V) spectra due to the absence of any surface or bulk states and that the HOMO has a very low saturation current in I(z) spectra. These results present a paradox that the molecular orbitals are electronically isolated from the surface of the wide band gap semiconductor even though strong chemical bonds are formed.

  5. Ring state for single transition metal atoms on boron nitride on Rh(111).

    PubMed

    Natterer, Fabian Donat; Patthey, François; Brune, Harald

    2012-08-10

    The low-temperature adsorption of isolated transition metal adatoms (Mn, Co, and Fe) onto hexagonal boron nitride monolayers on Rh(111) creates a bistable adsorption complex. The first state considerably weakens the hexagonal boron nitride- (h-BN-) substrate bond for 60 BN unit cells, leading to a highly symmetric ring in STM images, while the second state is imaged as a conventional adatom and leaves the BN-substrate interaction intact. We demonstrate reversible switching between the two states and, thus, controlled pinning and unpinning of the h-BN layer from the metal substrate. I(z) and d lnI/dz curves are used to reveal the BN deformation in the ring state. PMID:23006283

  6. [9 new Salmonella serotypes isolated in Africa and the Antilles].

    PubMed

    Le Minor, S; Doutre, M; Sansonnens, R; Papa, F; Lhuillier, M; Meyran, M; Le Priol, A; Beaud, R; Laurent, B; Denis, D; Miras, I

    1981-01-01

    Description of nine new serotypes of Salmonella, three isolated in Senegal: S. tambacounda (I,3,I9:b:e,n,x) from Chiroptera, S. bargny (8,20:i:I,5) and S. fass (50:l,v:I,2) from horse; two recovered in Haute-Volta from patients with diarrhoea: S. tounouma (8,20:b:z6) and S. sya (47:b:z6); one isolated from a carrier in Antilles: S. gustavia (II:d:I,5); one from a snake in Tunisia: S. gafsa (I6:c:I,6); two from Madagascar: S. II I8:z4,z23:- isolated from a wild mammalian and S. III arizonae 6I:z52:z from a patient with diarrhoea. PMID:7249241

  7. Machine Learning Search for Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows in Optical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topinka, M.

    2016-06-01

    Thanks to the advances in robotic telescopes, time domain astronomy leads to a large number of transient events detected in images every night. Data mining and machine learning tools used for object classification are presented. The goal is to automatically classify transient events for both further follow-up by a larger telescope and for statistical studies of transient events. Special attention is given to the identification of gamma-ray burst afterglows. Machine learning techniques are used to identify GROND gamma-ray burst afterglow among the astrophysical objects present in the SDSS archival images based on the g'-r', r'-i' and i'-z' color indices. The performance of the support vector machine, random forest and neural network algorithms is compared. A joint meta-classifier, built on top of the individual classifiers, can identify GRB afterglows with the overall accuracy of ≳ 90%.

  8. Gu's function scale of ion hydration force and charge size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hong-Kan

    1997-06-01

    “Water Vapor Chemistry” as a new science was discovered and established from trace analysis in Gu's laboratory(Gu, 1991; Gu et al., 1991). Gu's Function shows that the trace metal ion concentration in water vapor has positive correlation to “specific electron affinity constant” last ionization potential I z/ion valence Z and negative correlation to ion volume V and coordination number N(Gu, 1994). Gu's Function C=f[(Iz/Z)/VN] of the bond parameter in water vapor chemistry corresponds to the potential energy function Z'e 2/r in the Schrodinger Equation of quantum chemistry. In, different ions with the same 2+ charge, the ion concentration of water—water vapor transfer may be much different. This shows that the 2+ charge of different ions has different attractive force (hydration force). This different attractive force of the charge can be scaled with the relative energy or charge size from Gu's Function.

  9. Adaptation of all-ceramic fixed partial dentures

    PubMed Central

    Borba, Márcia; Cesar, Paulo F.; Griggs, Jason A.; Della Bona, Álvaro

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To measure the marginal and internal fit of three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) using the micro-CT technique, testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the adaptation between the ceramic systems studied. Methods Stainless steel models of prepared abutments were fabricated to design the FPDs. Ten FPDs were produced from each framework ceramic (YZ - Vita In-Ceram YZ and IZ - Vita In-Ceram Zirconia) using CEREC inLab according to the manufacturer instructions. All FPDs were veneered using the recommended porcelain. Each FPD was seated on the original model and scanned using micro-CT. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Adobe Photoshop and Image J software were used to analyze the cross-sections images. Five measuring locations were used as follows: MG – marginal gap; CA - chamfer area; AW - axial wall; AOT - axio-occlusal transition area; OA - occlusal area. The horizontal marginal discrepancy (HMD) was evaluated in another set of images. Results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results The mean values for MG, CA, AW, OA and HMD were significantly different for all tested groups (p<0.05). IZ exhibited greater mean values than YZ for all measuring locations except for AW and AOT. OA showed the greatest mean gap values for both ceramic systems. MG and AW mean gap values were low for both systems. Significance The ceramic systems evaluated showed different levels of marginal and internal fit, rejecting the study hypothesis. Yet, both ceramic systems showed clinically acceptable marginal and internal fit. PMID:21920595

  10. Effects of maternal mild zinc deficiency and different ways of zinc supplementation for offspring on learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaogang; Chen, Weiwei; Wei, Zhenzhen; Ren, Tianhong; Yang, Xin; Yu, Xiaodan

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of different ways of zinc supplementation on spatial learning and memory remains unclear. Objectives This study aims to assess the effectiveness of two ways of zinc supplementation – oral use and intravenous transfusion – in zinc-deficient offspring rats on learning and memory. Design Rats were randomly divided into six groups on the first day of pregnancy (n=12): control (CO), pair fed (PF), zinc deprived (ZD), oral zinc supplementation (OZS), injection zinc supplementation (IZS), and injection control. The offspring's spatial learning and memory were tested at postnatal day 35 using Morris water maze (MWM). Maternal rats’ serum zinc was measured at postnatal day 21, while pups’ serum zinc was measured at postnatal day 35. Results Compared with the CO and PF groups, pups in ZD group spent more time finding the latent platform and swam longer distances (p<0.05). Compared with ZD groups, pups in OZS group significantly decreased the time used for finding the platform and the swimming distance (p<0.05) and were similar to that of CO and PF groups (p>0.05). However, compared with ZD groups, pups in IZS did not show any improvement in the indexes of MWM (p>0.05) although their zinc serum concentration increased significantly (p<0.05). Conclusions These results indicate that mild zinc deficiency during pregnancy and lactation leads to the impairment of learning and memory function in offspring, and that OZS, instead of intravenous transfusion zinc supplementation, can recover the impairment of spatial learning and memory function. PMID:26829185

  11. [Zoonotic tuberculosis in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Kantor, Isabel N de; Torres, Pedro M; Morcillo, Nora; Imaz, María S; Sequeira, María D

    2012-01-01

    There are significant achievements in the control of animal tuberculosis (tB) in Argentina. the percentage of bovines with apparent tB lesions at the slaughterhouse inspection decreased from 6.7% to 0.6% between 1969 and 2011. on the other hand, the mean percentage of human tB cases due to M. bovis among all those bacteriologically confirmed, was in Santa Fe, an agro-industrial province, 2.3% in the period 1977-2001. It fell to 1.6% by 2011. In the Cetrángolo Hospital (Buenos Aires), it was 0.34% in the period 2001-2005, and 0.36% in 2006-2011. At the Muñiz Hospital, these percentages decreased from 1.75% in 1971 to 0.22% in 2006. Frequency of HIV infection among M. bovis cases varied from 5.9% in santa Fe to 11.1% and 20.5% respectively, in Cetrángolo and Muñiz Hospitals (a reference institution for aids) in Buenos Aires. According to these data M. bovis infection predominates in agro-industrial/ rural areas, showing a slow decrease there as well as in Buenos Aires. Co-infection with HIV is more frequent among patients with M. bovis that in all cases of tB. The situation of M. bovis in Argentina is here compared with that in USA and in several European and Latin American countries. Trends followed by tB in cattle, in humans, and the percentages of M. bovis among them, are not always closely related to move towards the common goal of eradicating tB; the employment of appropriate strategies and the strengthening of control measures are critical in both programs.

  12. The in Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of Persian Green Tea Extract as an Intracanal Irrigant on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanali, Fatemeh; Samimi, Shiva; Kharazifard, Mohammadjavad; Afkhami, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial effect of Persian green tea extract (GTE) and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) as an intracanal irrigant. Methods and Materials: Thirty freshly extracted teeth were instrumented and sectioned into mesial and distal segments. The specimens were put into wells containing 2 mL of E. faecalis-containing medium. After 3 weeks, the specimens were removed and divided randomly into three groups (n=20). Each group was exposed to 3 mL of different irrigants for 3 min. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were irrigated with GTE, 2.5% NaOCl and normal saline, respectively. Biofilm formed in the middle third of the root canal was carved by sterile scalpel and cultured in Mueller-Hinton medium. Number of colony forming units (CFU) was counted on each plate. In addition, antimicrobial activity of the irrigants was evaluated by the agar disc diffusion test. The diameter of inhibition zone (IZ) around each irrigant was evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests were used to analysis the data. Results: While in NaOCl group no bacterial colonies were observed, the mean number of E. faecalis in GTE and control groups were 275±74 CFU/mL (P<0.001) and 119×108±11×108 (P<0.001), respectively. The mean of IZ in NaOCl and GTE groups were 24.35±0.78 and 6.9±0.87 mm, in order of appearance (P<0.001). Zone of inhibition was not observed around the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: This research highlighted the potential role of plant extracts in antimicrobial root canal irrigation protocol. PMID:27790260

  13. Correlating Photoreceptor Mosaic Structure to Clinical Findings in Stargardt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Razeen, Moataz M.; Cooper, Robert F.; Langlo, Christopher S.; Goldberg, Mara R.; Wilk, Melissa A.; Han, Dennis P.; Connor, Thomas B.; Fishman, Gerald A.; Collison, Frederick T.; Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Stepien, Kimberly E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate a method for correlating photoreceptor mosaic structure with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and microperimetry findings in patients with Stargardt disease. Methods A total of 14 patients with clinically diagnosed Stargardt disease were imaged using confocal and split-detection adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy. Cone photoreceptors were identified manually in a band along the temporal meridian. Resulting values were compared to a normative database (n = 9) to generate cone density deviation (CDD) maps. Manual measurement of outer nuclear layer plus Henle fiber layer (ONL+HFL) thickness was performed, in addition to determination of the presence of ellipsoid zone (EZ) and interdigitation zone (IZ) bands on OCT. These results, along with microperimetry data, were overlaid with the CDD maps. Results Wide variation in foveal structure and CDD maps was seen within this small group. Disruption of ONL+HFL and/or IZ band was seen in all patients, with EZ band preservation in regions with low cone density in 38% of locations analyzed. Normality of retinal lamellar structure on OCT corresponded with cone density and visual function at 50/78 locations analyzed. Outer retinal tubulations containing photoreceptor-like structures were observed in 3 patients. Conclusions The use of CDD color-coded maps enables direct comparison of cone mosaic local density with other measures of retinal structure and function. Larger normative datasets and improved tools for automation of image alignment are needed. Translational Relevance The approach described facilitates comparison of complex multimodal data sets from patients with inherited retinal degeneration, and can be expanded to incorporate other structural imaging or functional testing. PMID:26981328

  14. SPITZER TRANSITS OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Fraine, Jonathan D.; Deming, Drake; Gillon, Michaeel; Jehin, Emmanueel; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara; Lewis, Nikole K.; Knutson, Heather; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2013-03-10

    We observed the transiting super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b using warm Spitzer at 4.5 {mu}m wavelength during a 20 day quasi-continuous sequence in 2011 May. The goals of our long observation were to accurately define the infrared transit radius of this nearby super-Earth, to search for the secondary eclipse, and to search for other transiting planets in the habitable zone of GJ1214. We here report results from the transit monitoring of GJ1214b, including a reanalysis of previous transit observations by Desert et al. In total, we analyze 14 transits of GJ1214b at 4.5 {mu}m, 3 transits at 3.6 {mu}m, and 7 new ground-based transits in the I+z band. Our new Spitzer data by themselves eliminate cloudless solar composition atmospheres for GJ1214b, and methane-rich models from Howe and Burrows. Using our new Spitzer measurements to anchor the observed transit radii of GJ1214b at long wavelengths, and adding new measurements in I+z, we evaluate models from Benneke and Seager and Howe and Burrows using a {chi}{sup 2} analysis. We find that the best-fit model exhibits an increase in transit radius at short wavelengths due to Rayleigh scattering. Pure water atmospheres are also possible. However, a flat line (no atmosphere detected) remains among the best of the statistically acceptable models, and better than pure water atmospheres. We explore the effect of systematic differences among results from different observational groups, and we find that the Howe and Burrows tholin-haze model remains the best fit, even when systematic differences among observers are considered.

  15. Cdk5 is required for multipolar-to-bipolar transition during radial neuronal migration and proper dendrite development of pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Toshio; Hirasawa, Motoyuki; Tabata, Hidenori; Mutoh, Tetsuji; Adachi, Tomoko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Saruta, Keiko; Iwasato, Takuji; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Hashimoto, Mistuhiro; Nakajima, Kazunori; Ogawa, Masaharu; Kulkarni, Ashok B; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2007-06-01

    The mammalian cerebral cortex consists of six layers that are generated via coordinated neuronal migration during the embryonic period. Recent studies identified specific phases of radial migration of cortical neurons. After the final division, neurons transform from a multipolar to a bipolar shape within the subventricular zone-intermediate zone (SVZ-IZ) and then migrate along radial glial fibres. Mice lacking Cdk5 exhibit abnormal corticogenesis owing to neuronal migration defects. When we introduced GFP into migrating neurons at E14.5 by in utero electroporation, we observed migrating neurons in wild-type but not in Cdk5(-/-) embryos after 3-4 days. Introduction of the dominant-negative form of Cdk5 into the wild-type migrating neurons confirmed specific impairment of the multipolar-to-bipolar transition within the SVZ-IZ in a cell-autonomous manner. Cortex-specific Cdk5 conditional knockout mice showed inverted layering of the cerebral cortex and the layer V and callosal neurons, but not layer VI neurons, had severely impaired dendritic morphology. The amount of the dendritic protein Map2 was decreased in the cerebral cortex of Cdk5-deficient mice, and the axonal trajectory of cortical neurons within the cortex was also abnormal. These results indicate that Cdk5 is required for proper multipolar-to-bipolar transition, and a deficiency of Cdk5 results in abnormal morphology of pyramidal neurons. In addition, proper radial neuronal migration generates an inside-out pattern of cerebral cortex formation and normal axonal trajectories of cortical pyramidal neurons.

  16. Differential effects of blockade of ERG channels on gamma oscillations and excitability in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Fano, Silvia; Çalışkan, Gürsel; Heinemann, Uwe

    2012-12-01

    Agents such as sertindole and astemizole affect heart action by inducing long-QT syndrome, suggesting that apart from their neuronal actions through histamine receptors, 5-HT2 serotonin receptors and D2 dopamine receptors they also affect ether-a-go-go channels and particularly ether-a-go-go-related (ERG) potassium (K(+)) channels, comprising the K(v) 11.1, K(v) 11.2 and K(v) 11.3 voltage-gated potassium currents. Changes in ERG K(+) channel expression and activity have been reported and may be linked to schizophrenia [Huffaker, S.J., Chen, J., Nicodemus, K.K., Sambataro, F., Yang, F., Mattay, V., Lipska, B.K., Hyde, T.M., Song, J., Rujescu, D., Giegling, I., Mayilyan, K., Proust, M.J., Soghoyan, A., Caforio, G., Callicott, J.H., Bertolino, A., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Chang, J., Ji, Y., Egan, M.F., Goldberg, T.E., Kleinman, J.E., Lu, B. & Weinberger DR. (2009). Nat. Med., 15, 509-518; Shepard, P.D., Canavier, C.C. & Levitan, E.S. (2007). Schizophr Bull., 33, 1263-1269]. We have previously shown that histamine H1 blockers augment gamma oscillations (γ) which are thought to be involved in cognition and storage of information. These effects were particularly pronounced for γ induced by acetylcholine. Here we have compared neuronal effects of three agents which interfere with ERG K(+) channels. We found that astemizole and sertindole, but not the K(v) 11 channel blocker E4031, augmented γ induced by acetylcholine in hippocampal slices. Kainate-induced γ were only affected by astemizole. Evoked responses induced by stratum radiatum stimulation in area CA1 revealed that only E4031 augmented stimulus-induced synaptic potentials and neuronal excitability. Our findings suggest that K(v) 11 channels are involved in neuronal excitability without clear effects on γ and that the effect of astemizole is related to actions on H1 receptors. PMID:23050739

  17. Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system based on renewable energy - Modelling the impact of varying CO2 injection rates on reservoir behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection rates if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection rates on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation models are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir model approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir model was generated. The defined yearly injection rate schedule is based on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection rates on the long-term reservoir

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dynamical parameters of open clusters (Danilov+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, V. M.; Putkov, S. I.

    2012-11-01

    α0 - is the mean value of a virial factor, δ{alp the amplitude of virial factor oscillations, ν={rho}c/{rho}0-is the density contrast ({rho}c - is the mean density of a cluster core, {rho}0 - is the cluster centre density), NK/N - is the ratio of the stars number in a cluster received by King's distribution and by stellar counts, P1-is the period of cluster core oscillations, P2 - is the period of cluster oscillations, δR1/R10-is the relative amplitude of core radius oscillations, λ=σ/σiz, σiz2 - is the velocity dispersion of an isolated virialized cluster, σ2, σ12, σ22 - are the velocity dispersions of nonisolated nonsteady clusters with spherical halo; with ellipsoidal halo elongated to the centre of Galaxy; with ellipsoidal halo elongated to the direction of cluster motion correspondingly. Errors of values α0, δα, δR1/R10, P1 have been estimated by the assumption of the normal distribution of the values M (the mass of a cluster), R2 (the radius of a cluster), {xi} (the ratio of core radius to halo radius), μ (the ratio of core mass to halo mass). Assuming a deviation of one of the four values equal to zero we receive four sections of 1σ-errors ellipsoid. These sections are the spheres of radius 20.5. Taking points on each sphere with the step 0.25*π on angular coordinates we receive 96 points on a surface of the 1σ-errors ellipsoid. The values α0, δα, δR1/R10, P1 were calculated in the 96 points. The centre of the ellipsoidal was used for calculation of the mean values. The errors of the values were computed as root-mean-squire deviations of 96 values from the same mean values. The errors of the others values of the catalog were computed by the errors calculation rule of indirect measuring. (3 data files).

  19. Explosively erupted magmas with relatively quiescent differentiation stories. Examples from Sierra Nevada, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Ceballos, G.; Macias, J.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.

    2013-12-01

    Sierra Nevada is a N-S aligned volcanic range in central Mexico, located approximately 65 km SE of Mexico City. It is formed by Telapón, Tláloc, Iztaccíhuatl, and Popocatépetl volcanoes. Popocatepetl have had at least five Plinian eruptions in the last 23 ky and at least two sector collapses that partially destroyed the volcanic edifice. Iztaccíhuatl explosive history is less constrained than Popocatepetl's but a debris avalanche deposit suggest that at least one sector collapse affected the volcano. The most recent debris avalanche deposits from Popocatépetl (23 ky) and Iztaccíhuatl (430 ky) are crowned by fall deposits produced by an explosive eruption. Compared to the other Plinian magmas from Popocatepetl, the WP magma (Popocatepetl) and the IZ-4 magma (Iztaccíhuatl) are slightly more evolved (65-66 wt. % SiO2), do not contain any xenocryst suggesting mixing with more mafic magmas (olivine, Mg-rich pyroxene, or Cr-rich magnetite), their frequency of mixing events is lower, disequilibrium textures like sieving are absent, and at least for the WP magma, evidence of upper crust assimilation is negligible. In addition, equilibrium of Fe-Ti oxides, CO2 and water concentrations analyzed in melt inclusions, and hydrothermal experiments yield that the pre-eruptive conditions of both magmas are approximately ~910 °C and <200 MPa. The pressure of storage is greater compared to the other Plinain magmas from Popocatepetl, ~130 MPa. It is well known that magma mixing could trigger explosive eruptions. However, in contrast to all other Plinian eruptions from Popocatepetl, the WP and IZ-4 magmas seem to being predominately crystallizing with no major effects from mixing and/or assimilation, and that they were tapped just because of the effect produced on the pressure gradient by the sector collapse. This is important for present day monitoring of Popocatépetl activity, because it seems that the deeper reservoir is less prone for mixing and that the accumulation of

  20. Developmental profile of neurogenesis in prenatal human hippocampus: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengbo; Zhang, Junfeng; Shi, Hangyu; Zhang, Jianshui; Xu, Xi; Xiao, Xinli; Liu, Yong

    2014-11-01

    Hippocampus has attracted the attention of the neuroscientists for its involvement in a wide spectrum of higher-order brain functions and pathological conditions, especially its persistent neurogenesis in subgranular zone (SGZ). The development of hippocampus was intensively investigated on animals such as rodents. However, in prenatal human hippocampus, little information on the distribution of neural stem/progenitor cells, newly generated neurons and mature neurons is available and the timetable of a series of neurogenesis event is even more obscure. So in the present study, we aim at immunohistochemically providing more information on neurogenesis in prenatal human hippocampus from 9 weeks to 32 weeks of gestation. We found that the ki67-positive cells were always detected in hippocampus from 9 weeks to 32 weeks, with a peak at 9 weeks in cornu ammonis (CA) or 14 weeks in dentate gyrus (DG). At 9 weeks the nestin-expressing cells were distributed throughout the hippocampus, with concentrated immunoreactivity in intermediate zone (IZ), marginal zone (MZ), fimbria, and relatively sparse immunoreactivity in the ventricular zone (VZ) and hippocampal plate (HP). With development, the optical density (OD) and the number of nestin-positive cells decreased gradually. At 32 weeks, there were relatively more nestin-positive cells in DG than that in CA. About DCX-positive cells, they displayed a similar distribution as nestin-positive cells (immunoreactivity concentrated in IZ, MZ, fimbria and HP) and a dramatic decrease of OD or cell number density from 9 weeks on. NeuN-positive cells, with small nuclei, were firstly found in MZ and subplate of hippocampus at 9 weeks. After 14 weeks, many NeuN-positive cells extended from subplate into HP and the density of NeuN-positive cells peaked at 22 weeks. That the immunoreactivity for NeuN was the strongest and the nuclei were the biggest at 32 weeks suggests that the neurons reach maturity gradually. Therefore this study provides

  1. Recycling of crustal minerals into the upper mantle: evidence from ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. T.; Yang, J.; Trumbull, R.

    2009-05-01

    A wide variety of ultrahigh pressure and crustal minerals has been recovered from podiform chromitites of the Donqiao and Luobusa ophiolites of Tibet, the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals and the Semail ophiolite of Oman. Microdiamonds are abundant in the Luobusa, Donqiao and Ray-Iz ophiolites, coesite and kyanite occur in Luobusa and moissanite is present in all four ophiolites. Numerous crustal minerals, including zircon, corundum, quartz, almandine garnet, rutile, and feldspar are also present. The diamonds are mostly euhedral grains,100-200 µm across, commonly containing metallic and Mg-Fe silicate inclusions. One small grain occurs as an inclusion in an Os-Ir alloy. Coesite and kyanite are intergrown with each other on the rim of a grain of Ti-Fe alloy, and the coesite has a prismatic form suggesting it may be pseudomorphic after stishovite. Moissanite is common in all four ophiolites and occurs as small colorless, green or blue, vitreous fragments. Zircon grains range from 20 to 300 µm, and are mostly well rounded with very complex internal structures. They commonly contain low-pressure inclusions of quartz, rutile, orthoclase, mica, ilmenite and apatite. 206Pb/238U SIMS and SHRIMP dates for the zircons are mostly Paleozoic and Precambrian, far older than the ophiolites. The grains of quartz, almandine garnet, corundum and feldspar range up to about 0.5 mm and are moderately to well rounded. Smaller, angular fragments of such grains are also present. The rounded morphology of these grains, as well as the zircons, strongly suggests derivation from sedimentary material, presumably transported into the mantle by subduction. The microdiamonds and moissanite could also have been derived from crustal materials recycled into the mantle. We suggest that the various minerals were picked up by melts from which the chromitites precipitated and carried to shallow crustal levels. The preservation of such minerals, particularly quartz and coesite, in the mantle

  2. Discrimination between Lumbar Intraspinal Stenosis and Foraminal Stenosis using Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Ohtori, Seiji; Suzuki, Munetaka; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Hajime; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Miyako; Aoki, Yasuchika; Watanabe, Atsuya; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective observational study. Purpose To examine fractional anisotropy (FA) values and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of damaged nerves to discriminate between lumbar intraspinal stenosis (IS) and foraminal stenosis (FS) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) Overview of Literature It is important in the selection of surgical procedure to discriminate between lumbar IS and FS, but such discrimination is difficult. Methods There were 9 cases of IS, 7 cases of FS, and 5 healthy controls. The regions of interest were established in the lumbar intraspinal zone (Iz), nerve root (N), and extraforaminal zone (Ez). The FA and ADC values were measured on the affected and unaffected sides of the nerves. The FA ratio and the ADC ratio were calculated as the affected side/unaffected side ×100 (%). Results In the Ez, the FA value was significantly lower in FS than in IS (p<0.01). FA ratio was significantly lower in FS than in IS for the Ez (p<0.01). In the Iz, the ADC value was significantly higher in IS than FS (p<0.01). ADC ratio was significantly higher in FS than in IS for the N and Ez (p<0.05). For the Ez, receiver operating characteristic analysis of parameters revealed that the FA values showed a higher accuracy for the diagnosis of FS than the ADC values, and the FA value cut-off value was 0.42 (sensitivity: 85.7%, false positive: 11.1%) and the FA ratio cut-off value was 83.9% (sensitivity: 85.7%, false positive: 22.2%). Conclusions The low FA value in the extraforaminal zone suggests the presence of foraminal stenosis. When the FA value and FA ratio cut-off value were established as 0.42 and 83.9%, respectively, the accuracy was high for the diagnosis of foraminal stenosis. It may be possible to use DTI parameters to help in the discrimination between IS and FS. PMID:27114775

  3. Method of separation of celestial gamma-ray bursts from solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, K.W.; White, R.S. ); Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G. )

    1991-09-01

    We recently discovered 217 new'' celestial gamma-ray burst candidates from the new'' burst search of the PVO real time data base.[sup 1] The burst search covered the time period from September 1978 to July 1988. Sixty were confirmed by at lest on other spacecraft, e.g., ISEE-3, V-11, V-12, etc. None triggered the PVO high time resolution memory. In this paper we describe a new algorithm based ont eh relationship between time width [ital T][sub [ital w

  4. Evaluation of vacuum relays for multi-hundred volt switching applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, A. R.; Dowlet, B. A.

    Twenty-one ITT Jennings RF 4B-26S latching vacuum relays were repetitively operated both with and without arc suppression circuitry in tests simulating high voltage power distribution applications and regulator applications in spacecraft. The simulations covered the 110-170V, 11-15A range for power distribution and the 180-400V, 5-12A range for regulator applications. One relay failed during unsnubbered operation after 45,000 regulator application switching events. The remaining twenty vacuum relays completed the testing schedule successfully.

  5. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  6. Site-specific Isopeptide Bridge Tethering of Chimeric gp41 N-terminal Heptad Repeat Helical Trimers for the Treatment of HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xue; Yu, Fei; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Xifeng; Xu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Huixin; Lai, Wenqing; Zhang, Tianhong; Zhang, Zhenqing; Ye, Ling; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Keliang

    2016-01-01

    Peptides derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) of HIV-1 gp41 can be potent inhibitors against viral entry when presented in a nonaggregating trimeric coiled-coil conformation via the introduction of exogenous trimerization motifs and intermolecular disulfide bonds. We recently discovered that crosslinking isopeptide bridges within the de novo helical trimers added exceptional resistance to unfolding. Herein, we attempted to optimize (CCIZN17)3, a representative disulfide bond-stabilized chimeric NHR-trimer, by incorporating site-specific interhelical isopeptide bonds as the redox-sensitive disulfide surrogate. In this process, we systematically examined the effect of isopeptide bond position and molecular sizes of auxiliary trimeric coiled-coil motif and NHR fragments on the antiviral potency of these NHR-trimers. Pleasingly, (IZ14N24N)3 possessed promising inhibitory activity against HIV-1 infection and markedly increased proteolytic stability relative to its disulfide-tethered counterpart, suggesting good potential for further development as an effective antiviral agent for treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:27562370

  7. Site-specific Isopeptide Bridge Tethering of Chimeric gp41 N-terminal Heptad Repeat Helical Trimers for the Treatment of HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xue; Yu, Fei; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Xifeng; Xu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Huixin; Lai, Wenqing; Zhang, Tianhong; Zhang, Zhenqing; Ye, Ling; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Keliang

    2016-01-01

    Peptides derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) of HIV-1 gp41 can be potent inhibitors against viral entry when presented in a nonaggregating trimeric coiled-coil conformation via the introduction of exogenous trimerization motifs and intermolecular disulfide bonds. We recently discovered that crosslinking isopeptide bridges within the de novo helical trimers added exceptional resistance to unfolding. Herein, we attempted to optimize (CCIZN17)3, a representative disulfide bond-stabilized chimeric NHR-trimer, by incorporating site-specific interhelical isopeptide bonds as the redox-sensitive disulfide surrogate. In this process, we systematically examined the effect of isopeptide bond position and molecular sizes of auxiliary trimeric coiled-coil motif and NHR fragments on the antiviral potency of these NHR-trimers. Pleasingly, (IZ14N24N)3 possessed promising inhibitory activity against HIV-1 infection and markedly increased proteolytic stability relative to its disulfide-tethered counterpart, suggesting good potential for further development as an effective antiviral agent for treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:27562370

  8. Programming standards for effective S-3D game development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Neil; Matveev, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    When a video game is in development, more often than not it is being rendered in three dimensions - complete with volumetric depth. It's the PC monitor that is taking this three-dimensional information, and artificially displaying it in a flat, two-dimensional format. Stereoscopic drivers take the three-dimensional information captured from DirectX and OpenGL calls and properly display it with a unique left and right sided view for each eye so a proper stereoscopic 3D image can be seen by the gamer. The two-dimensional limitation of how information is displayed on screen has encouraged programming short-cuts and work-arounds that stifle this stereoscopic 3D effect, and the purpose of this guide is to outline techniques to get the best of both worlds. While the programming requirements do not significantly add to the game development time, following these guidelines will greatly enhance your customer's stereoscopic 3D experience, increase your likelihood of earning Meant to be Seen certification, and give you instant cost-free access to the industry's most valued consumer base. While this outline is mostly based on NVIDIA's programming guide and iZ3D resources, it is designed to work with all stereoscopic 3D hardware solutions and is not proprietary in any way.

  9. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  10. Balsscallichirus Sakai, 2011 (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) in the fossil record: systematics and palaeobiogeography

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš

    2016-01-01

    The fossil record of the ghost shrimp genus Balsscallichirus Sakai, 2011 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Callianassidae) is revised. Barnardcallichirus Sakai, 2011 and Tirmizicallichirus Sakai, 2011 are considered subjective synonyms of Balsscallichirus. Based on the examination of extant species it is argued that the morphology of the major cheliped merus, in combination with other hard part morphology characters, is sufficient for assignment of the fossil material into the genus. Main identifying characters are on merus which is keeled along its midline and its lower half is tuberculated; its lower margin possesses broad proximal meral hook continuing into a lobe distally; the entire lower margin is subdivided into numerous irregularly spaced spines. Three species, Callianassa sismondai A. Milne-Edwards, 1860, C. floriana Glaessner, 1928, and Podocallichirus laepaensis Hyžný & Muñiz, 2012, originally described from the Miocene of Italy, Austria and Spain, respectively, are assigned to Balsscallichirus herein. Neocallichirus wellsi Schweitzer, Feldmann & Gingerich, 2004 from the Upper Eocene of Pakistan is tentatively assigned to that genus as well. Spatial and temporal distribution of the genus indicates that at least since the Oligocene, and possibly even sooner (the Late Eocene), the genus has been restricted to the Western Tethys Region. Later, it migrated also into West Atlantic establishing present day communities. PMID:27499568

  11. X-ray fluorescence analysis of yellow pigments in altarpieces by Valencian artists of the XV and XVI centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, J. L.; Roldán, C.; Ardid, M.; Navarro, E.

    1999-02-01

    XRF analysis has allowed a quick and precise detection and identification of the inorganic elements that compose the yellow pigments in altarpieces of the XV and XVI centuries painted by the Valencian artists Miguel Alcañiz, Vicente Macip, Juan de Juanes, Hernando Yáñez de la Almedina and Hernando Llanos. The analyses have been carried out with an XRF portable system that consists of a tube of X-rays and detectors of Si(Li) and cadmium zinc telluride. This system has enabled a non-aggressive and non-destructive analysis of many pieces at the Museo de Bellas Artes of Valencia (Spain). Among the yellow pigments we have identified a pigment composed by lead and tin oxides named lead-tin yellow (Pb 2SnO 4), frequently used in European paintings from the XIV century until the first half of the XVIII century. This fact demonstrates the influence of elements and pictorial techniques from Europe to the region of Valencia.

  12. Manuscript "Collection of Solved Problems of General Astronomy" by Vojislav Miskovic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejovic, N.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we present the first university problems book concerning astronomy written in Serbian. The topic is "Zbirka rešenih zadataka iz opšte astronomije" (A Collection of Solved Problems of General Astronomy) by Prof. Vojislav Mi\\vsković. The first part of this collection was published in 1956 in Belgrade. The second one is still in the form of a manuscript. Though completely prepared for publishing, it has never been published. From the methodical point of view the collection was interestingly and nicely arranged. All astronomical notions and formulae are treated in details and well explained so that no complementary textbook is needed. A special attention is devoted to the numerical solution of the problems, which is not only missing in Serbian schools, but also, as said by Mi\\vsković in the Preface, is not properly valued. This paper treats both parts of this Collection which have been digitized and are available in the Virtual Library of the National Digitization Centre (Virtual Library, http://elib.matf.bg.ac.yu:8080/virlib/). By means of the manuscript digitization the second part of the Collection has become available to public use.

  13. Characterization, nucleotide sequence, and conserved genomic locations of insertion sequence ISRm5 in Rhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed Central

    Laberge, S; Middleton, A T; Wheatcroft, R

    1995-01-01

    A target for ISRm3 transposition in Rhizobium meliloti IZ450 is another insertion sequence element, named ISRm5. ISRm5 is 1,340 bp in length and possesses terminal inverted repeats of unequal lengths (27 and 28 bp) and contain five mismatches. An open reading frame that spans 89% of the length of one DNA strand encodes a putative transposase with significant similarity to the putative transposases of 11 insertion sequence elements from diverse bacterial species, including ISRm3 from R. meliloti. Multiple copies and variants of ISRm5 occur in the R. meliloti genome, often in close association with ISRm3. Five ISRm5 copies in two strains were studied, and each was found to be located between 8-bp direct repeats. At two of these loci, which were shown to be highly conserved in R. meliloti, the copies of ISRm5 were found to be associated with pairs of short inverted repeats resembling transcription terminators. This structural arrangement not only may provide a conserved niche for ISRm5 but also may be a preferred target for transposition. PMID:7768811

  14. Parahydrogen-induced polarization at zero magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Mark C.; Kervern, Gwendal; Theis, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah P.; Ganssle, Paul J.; Blanchard, John W.; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    We use symmetry arguments and simple model systems to describe the conversion of the singlet state of parahydrogen into an oscillating sample magnetization at zero magnetic field. During an initial period of free evolution governed by the scalar-coupling Hamiltonian HJ, the singlet state is converted into scalar spin order involving spins throughout the molecule. A short dc pulse along the z axis rotates the transverse spin components of nuclear species I and S through different angles, converting a portion of the scalar order into vector order. The development of vector order can be described analytically by means of single-transition operators, and it is found to be maximal when the transverse components of I are rotated by an angle of ±π/2 relative to those of S. A period of free evolution follows the pulse, during which the vector order evolves as a set of oscillating coherences. The imaginary parts of the coherences represent spin order that is not directly detectable, while the real parts can be identified with oscillations in the z component of the molecular spin dipole. The dipole oscillations are due to a periodic exchange between Iz and Sz, which have different gyromagnetic ratios. The frequency components of the resulting spectrum are imaginary, since the pulse cannot directly induce magnetization in the sample; it is only during the evolution under HJ that the vector order present at the end of the pulse evolves into detectable magnetization.

  15. Distribution of infective gastrointestinal helminth larvae in tropical erect grass under different feeding systems for lambs.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Jalise Fabíola; Poli, Cesar Henrique Espírito Candal; Bremm, Carolina; de Castro, Juliane Machado; Fajardo, Neuza Maria; Sarout, Bruna Nunes Marsiglio; Castilhos, Zélia Maria de Souza

    2015-08-01

    This study examined tropical pasture contamination dynamics under different feeding systems for finishing lambs. The experiment aimed to evaluate the vertical distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infective larvae (L3) in erect grass subjected to grazing and to assess the parasite load and its impact on lamb performance in three production systems. Three treatments based on Aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. IZ-5) were as follows: T1, grass only; T2, grass with 1.5% of body weight (BW) nutrient concentrate supplementation; and T3, grass with 2.5% BW concentrate supplementation. The randomized block design had three replicates of three treatments, with six lambs per replicate. L3 were recovered from three pasture strata (upper, middle, and bottom), each representing one third of the sward height, and correlated with microclimatic data. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among treatments in the L3 recovery. Despite different grass heights between treatments and microclimates within the sward, the L3 concentration generally did not differ significantly among the three strata within a treatment (P > 0.05). Pasture microclimate did not correlate with larval recovery. At the end of the experiment, the animal fecal egg count was similar among treatments (P > 0.05). The results indicated that different lamb feeding systems in a tropical erect grassland caused differences in grass height but did not affect the distribution of infective larvae among strata. Larvae were found from the base to the top of the grass sward.

  16. [Antioxidant stabilization of the antifoaming agents used in the fermentation process].

    PubMed

    Rakyta, J; Frimm, R; Velvard, L; Lacko, L; Lukasiková, E

    1980-01-01

    Oils used as antifoaming agents in fermentation are subjected to oxidation to form various products, such as aldehydes, carboxylic acids, peroxides, etc. The negative effect of such products on biosynthesis of chlortetracycline by strains VUA 84 and Iz 22/VUPL of Str. aureofaciens was recorded. The level of the oil oxidation was characterized by the contents of peroxides and epihydrinaldehydes. The Kreiss qualitative test was modified for quantitative estimation of epihydrinalydehydes. The oil antifoaming agents characterized by the routine parameters used in determination of oil quality, such as acid number, saponification number and iodine number. In the control experiments lard and soybeen oil were oxidized by air at a temperature of 100 degrees C without an antioxidant (2,6-ditetrabutyl-4-methylphenol). The oil antifoaming agents such as soybeen oil and lard were tested in biosynthesis of chlortetracycline carried out in flasks and pilot plant 750 1 apparatus. Antioxidant 4K, an alkylphenol antioxidant, in a 2% concentration proved to be effective for prevention of oxidation and nontoxic for the culture.

  17. Further perspective on the theory of heteronuclear decoupling.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Thomas E

    2014-11-01

    An exact general theory of heteronuclear decoupling is presented for spin-1/2 IS systems. RF irradiation applied to the I spins both modifies and generates additional couplings between states of the system. The recently derived equivalence between the dynamics of any N-level quantum system and a system of classical coupled harmonic oscillators makes explicit the exact physical couplings between states. Decoupling is thus more properly viewed as a complex intercoupling. The sign of antiphase magnetization plays a fundamental role in decoupling. A one-to-one correspondence is demonstrated between ±2SyIz and the sense of the S-spin coupling evolution. Magnetization Sx is refocused to obtain the desired decoupled state when ∫2SyIzdt=0. The exact instantaneous coupling at any time during the decoupling sequence is readily obtained in terms of the system states, showing that the creation of two-spin coherence is crucial for reducing the effective scalar coupling, as required for refocusing to occur. Representative examples from new aperiodic sequences as well as standard cyclic, periodic composite-pulse and adiabatic decoupling sequences illustrate the decoupling mechanism. The more general aperiodic sequences, obtained using optimal control, realize the potential inherent in the theory for significantly improved decoupling.

  18. Occurring mechanism and restraining method research of numerical noise signal in penetration simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Wang, Yabin

    2016-08-01

    In hard target penetration simulation, the existing researches of the convergence of results are mainly concentrating in the corresponding relationship between penetration depth and mesh scales. However, the influence of the mesh difference on the penetration resistance and acceleration signals are seldom refer to. This paper presents the occurring mechanism and restraining method of numerical noise signal in penetration simulation. First, the concept of the noise signal izs proposed. By taking a 3D penetration simulation as example, the influence of the noise signal on the penetration resistance in different mesh scales and impact velocity is studied. To ensure the convergence of the computational results, the grid scale of the target is encrypted to 1:1:8. In addition, modern spectrum analysis method is introduced to further analyze the penetration resistance signal. The research results presented is useful to improve the computational accuracy of high speed projectile penetration simulation, and provide important reference for carrying out structural design and optimization of fuze system.

  19. Two Dimensional Intermodulation Distortion Scanning of Superconducting Filter Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischak, Michael; Remillard, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear superconducting conductivity produces distortion that has usually been measured globally across the entire sample. In order to fully understand the origin of non linearity, local methods must be used to examine specific points in the sample. The nonlinear Ohm's law, V =IZ(I) includes the current dependence in the impedance. The method in this work raster scans a magnetic loop probe across a sample. In order to address limited resolution, we reduced the size of the magnetic loop probe. Using the electromagnetic field solver, sonnet, two dimensional current simulations of superconducting microwave filters composed of Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 or of YBa2Cu3O7 reveal microwave current which is bunched up at the corners and sides of the sample. Two dimensional images of third order intermodulation distortion made with the magnetic probe at the same corners and edges reveal elevated distortion in the same places. Using the magnetic probe, third order intermodulation was seen to come from the same corners and edges where the current is bunched. This research was funded by the National Science Foundation under grant number DMR-1206149.

  20. The near wall TIRFM measurement of nano-tracer's statistical intensity distribution (SID) and determining the base intensity I0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xu; LNM Team

    2015-11-01

    The total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) is an evanescent-wave-based technique for measuring nanoparticle dynamics very close to wall. The intensity of the evanescent wave decays exponentially (i.e. I(z) =I0exp(z/zp)) , which can provide information of the tracer particle position not just parallel but also normal to wall. However, considering the z information is encoded in tracer intensity, it is critical to determine the base intensity I0. In this study, we will first establish a model to describe the statistical intensity distribution (SID) of the nano-tracers observed in the evanescent field inspired by the works of Huang et al. A different function of particle-wall interaction and a term of the influence of the objective focal plane thickness are introduced in the present SID method. Then, TIRFM experiments are performed to measure the histogram of SID. The experimental histogram of SID is then fitted by the theoretical curve to determine I0 which is the only one fit parameter. By near wall velocity measurement, we will show that the SID method has a very high precision in determining I0 and the vertical z position of every nanotracer. Further tests show that the PDF of nano-tracers can reveal more information about how nanoparticles interact with the charged solid wall. This provides a promising method to detect the physical properties near interface.

  1. Evaluation of an electrostatic toxicity model for predicting Ni(2+) toxicity to barley root elongation in hydroponic cultures and in soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Kopittke, Peter M; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Lock, Koen; Ma, Yi-Bing; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; McGrath, Steve P

    2011-10-01

    Assessing environmental risks of metal contamination in soils is a complex task because the biologically effective concentrations of metals in soils vary widely with soil properties. The factors influencing the toxic effect of nickel (Ni) on root growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare) were re-evaluated using published data from both soil and hydroponic cultures. The electrical potential (ψ(0) (o) ) and ion activities ({I(z) }(0) (o) ) at the outer surfaces of root-cell plasma membranes (PMs) were computed as the basis of the re-evaluation. The reanalyses demonstrated that root growth was related to: the Ni(2+) activity at the PM surface, ({Ni(2+) }(0) (o) ); calcium (Ca) deficiency (related to {Ca(2+) }(0) (o) ); osmotic effects; and modification of intrinsic Ni(2+) toxicity by magnesium (Mg(2+) ; this appeared to exert an intrinsic (specific) ameliorating effect on intrinsic Ni(2+) toxicity). Electrostatic toxicity models (ETM) were developed to relate root growth to these factors (R(2)  > 0.751). Based on the ETM developed in soil culture and a Ni(2+) solid-solution partitioning model, critical metal concentrations in soils linked to a biological effect were well predicted for 16 European soils with a wide range of properties, indicating the potential utility of ETM in risk assessment of metals in terrestrial ecosystems.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Motion Verified Red Stars (MoVeRS) (Theissen+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theissen, C. A.; West, A. A.; Dhital, S.

    2015-09-01

    We present a photometric catalog of 8,735,004 proper motion selected low-mass stars (KML-spectral types) within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) footprint, from the combined SDSS-DR10, Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) Point Source Catalog (PSC), and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) AllWISE catalog. Stars were selected using r-i, i-z, r-z, z-J, and z-W1 colors, and SDSS, WISE, and 2MASS astrometry was combined to compute proper motions. The resulting 3,518,150 stars were augmented with proper motions for 5,216,854 earlier type stars from the combined SDSS and United States Naval Observatory B1.0 catalog (USNO-B). We used SDSS+USNO-B proper motions to determine the best criteria for selecting a clean sample of stars. Only stars whose proper motions were greater than their 2-sigma uncertainty were included. Our Motion Verified Red Stars (MoVeRS) catalog is available through SDSS CasJobs and VizieR. (2 data files).

  3. Characterization of Salmonella isolated from captive and free-living snakes in Germany.

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Stenkat, Julia; Szabo, Istvan; Ortlieb, Falk; Blindow, Irmgard; Neul, Ann-Kathrin; Pees, Michael; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Reptiles are well-known reservoirs of Salmonella spp. and cases of reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) are increasing since reptiles are becoming more popular as pets. In the present study, the presence, distribution and prevalence of serovars of Salmonella was investigated in captive snakes (n = 87) and in free-living snakes (n = 87) in Germany. A total of 43 S. enterica-isolates were recovered from organ samples and cloacal swabs, predominantly belonging to the subspecies diarizonae (IIIb) (n = 27), enterica (I) (n = 7) and houtenae (IV) (n = 6). S. enterica subsp. enterica (I) serovar Paratyphi B (n = 4) and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (IIIb) serovar 47:l,v:z (n = 3) were the most frequently isolated serotypes. Nevertheless, the fact that most serotypes were only represented by a single isolate points out the high diversity of Salmonella present among snakes. Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae (IIIb) serotype 40:i:z53, which was isolated twice from two free-living Eurasian adders (Vipera berus) captured at different locations, has not been previously described. Our results confirm the role of both free-living and captive snakes as reservoirs of S. enterica in Germany.

  4. Interpretation of Flood-Illuminated Adaptive Optics Images in Subjects with Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Gale, Michael J; Feng, Shu; Titus, Hope E; Smith, Travis B; Pennesi, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate features on flood-illuminated adaptive optics (AO) images with color fundus, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We imaged 39 subjects diagnosed with RP using the rtx1™ flood-illuminated AO camera from Imagine Eyes (Orsay, France). We observed a correlation between hyper-autofluoresence changes on FAF, disruption of the interdigitation zone (IZ) on SD-OCT and loss of reflective cone profiles on AO. Four main patterns of cone-reflectivity were seen on AO: presumed healthy cone mosaics, hypo-reflective blurred cone-like structures, higher frequency disorganized hyper-reflective spots, and lower frequency hypo-reflective spots. These regions were correlated to progressive phases of cone photoreceptor degeneration observed using SD-OCT and FAF. These results help provide interpretation of en face images obtained by flood-illuminated AO in subjects with RP. However, significant ambiguity remains as to what truly constitutes a cone, especially in areas of degeneration. With further refinements in technology, flood illuminated AO imaging has the potential to provide rapid, standardized, longitudinal and lower cost imaging in patients with retinal degeneration.

  5. Heavy-metal complexation by de novo peptide design.

    PubMed

    Farrer, Brian T; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2002-11-01

    From poisoning caused by lead-based paint on domestic buildings to groundwater contamination by naturally occurring arsenic deposits in India, heavy-metal toxicity is a global health problem. Contaminated ground water and acute cases of heavy-metal poisoning are treated with chelators to remove the heavy metals from the contaminated site or person. This review discusses the effort to generate heavy-metal chelators through peptide de novo design. De novo design entails the design of a primary sequence that will precisely fold into a predetermined secondary and tertiary protein structure. The first-generation peptide chelator used to initiate this investigation is the three-stranded coild coil containing Cys. Cys provides a potential trigonal binding site with soft thiolate ligands, which has been proposed to provide specific interactions with heavy metals. This hypothesis derives from the observation that similar sites on natural proteins show selectivity for heavy metals over other essential metals, such as Zn or Mg. A description of two systems, the TRI series and the IZ-AC peptide, is given, highlighting the interaction of these peptides with Hg, Cd, As and Pb. Arguments are also presented for the potential use of three-helix bundles as a second-generation design.

  6. Inverse participation ratios in the XXZ spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misguich, Grégoire; Pasquier, Vincent; Luck, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    We investigate numerically the inverse participation ratios in a spin-1/2 XXZ chain, computed in the "Ising" basis (i.e., eigenstates of σiz). We consider in particular a quantity T , defined by summing the inverse participation ratios of all the eigenstates in the zero-magnetization sector of a finite chain of length N , with open boundary conditions. From a dynamical point of view, T is proportional to the stationary return probability to an initial basis state, averaged over all the basis states (initial conditions). We find that T exhibits an exponential growth, T ˜exp(a N ) , in the gapped phase of the model and a linear scaling, T ˜N , in the gapless phase. These two different behaviors are analyzed in terms of the distribution of the participation ratios of individual eigenstates. We also investigate the effect of next-nearest-neighbor interactions, which break the integrability of the model. Although the massive phase of the nonintegrable model also has T ˜exp(a N ) , in the gapless phase T appears to saturate to a constant value.

  7. The chromatin environment shapes DNA replication origin organization and defines origin classes

    PubMed Central

    Cayrou, Christelle; Ballester, Benoit; Peiffer, Isabelle; Fenouil, Romain; Coulombe, Philippe; Andrau, Jean-Christophe; van Helden, Jacques; Méchali, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    To unveil the still-elusive nature of metazoan replication origins, we identified them genome-wide and at unprecedented high-resolution in mouse ES cells. This allowed initiation sites (IS) and initiation zones (IZ) to be differentiated. We then characterized their genetic signatures and organization and integrated these data with 43 chromatin marks and factors. Our results reveal that replication origins can be grouped into three main classes with distinct organization, chromatin environment, and sequence motifs. Class 1 contains relatively isolated, low-efficiency origins that are poor in epigenetic marks and are enriched in an asymmetric AC repeat at the initiation site. Late origins are mainly found in this class. Class 2 origins are particularly rich in enhancer elements. Class 3 origins are the most efficient and are associated with open chromatin and polycomb protein-enriched regions. The presence of Origin G-rich Repeated elements (OGRE) potentially forming G-quadruplexes (G4) was confirmed at most origins. These coincide with nucleosome-depleted regions located upstream of the initiation sites, which are associated with a labile nucleosome containing H3K64ac. These data demonstrate that specific chromatin landscapes and combinations of specific signatures regulate origin localization. They explain the frequently observed links between DNA replication and transcription. They also emphasize the plasticity of metazoan replication origins and suggest that in multicellular eukaryotes, the combination of distinct genetic features and chromatin configurations act in synergy to define and adapt the origin profile. PMID:26560631

  8. Lactobacillus furfuricola sp. nov., isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles.

    PubMed

    Irisawa, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Kitahara, Maki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Okada, Sanae

    2014-08-01

    Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, Nu27(T) and Nu29, were isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles. The isolates were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, catalase-negative, non-motile and facultatively anaerobic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. The closest relatives to strain Nu27(T) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were Lactobacillus versmoldensis KU-3(T) (98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Lactobacillus nodensis iz4b(T) (96.3%) and Lactobacillus tucceti CECT 5290(T) (97.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness values revealed genotype separation of the two isolates from the above three species. Based on the physiological, biochemical and genotypic characteristics provided, the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which name is Lactobacillus furfuricola proposed. The type strain is Nu 27(T) ( = JCM 18764(T) = NRIC 0900(T) = DSM 27174(T)).

  9. Evaluating the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in a small Mediterranean watershed.

    PubMed

    Ertürk, Ali; Ekdal, Alpaslan; Gürel, Melike; Karakaya, Nusret; Guzel, Cigdem; Gönenç, Ethem

    2014-11-15

    Western Mediterranean Region of Turkey is subject to considerable impacts of climate change that may adversely affect the water resources. Decrease in annual precipitation and winter precipitation as well as increase in temperatures are observed since 1960s. In this study, the impact of climate change on groundwater resources in part of Köyceğiz-Dalyan Watershed was evaluated. Evaluation was done by quantifying the impacts of climate change on the water budget components. Hydrological modeling was conducted with SWAT model which was calibrated and validated successfully. Climate change and land use scenarios were used to calculate the present and future climate change impacts on water budgets. According to the simulation results, almost all water budget components have decreased. SWAT was able to allocate less irrigation water because of the decrease of overall water due to the climate change. This resulted in an increase of water stressed days and temperature stressed days whereas crop yields have decreased according to the simulation results. The results indicated that lack of water is expected to be a problem in the future. In this manner, investigations on switching to more efficient irrigation methods and to crops with less water consumption are recommended as adaptation measures to climate change impacts.

  10. Developmental stage-dependent influence of environmental factors on growth of rural Sundanese children in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the growth trajectories and the relative relevance levels of nutrition, disease, and hormonal status at various developmental stages among children in adverse environments to provide population-based empirical evidence for the life history theory. Three years of longitudinal anthropometric data in 1-year intervals were obtained from 418 boys and girls aged 0 to 12 years at recruitment. Following the final measurement, the main survey, which included blood and feces sampling, 3-h interval food consumption recall surveys for energy and nutrient intakes and anthropometry, was performed. Blood and feces were used for detecting, respectively, anemia and hormonal (IGF-I and IGFBP-3) levels as well as intestinal helminthiasis (Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm). The major findings of this study are summarized as follows: 1) the growth velocity of the subject children lagged behind international standards during childhood and juvenility but caught up during early adolescence; 2) diseases, both intestinal helminths and anemia, had significant effects on growth in childhood but not at older ages; and 3) hormonal status significantly affected growth in the children, with its highest significance in early adolescence. A larger growth than international standards in early adolescence likely follows programmed hormonal mechanisms after the onset of puberty. The onset of puberty might be associated with adequate amounts of nutrient intake and be mediated by hormonal function, because the IGF-IZ score was significantly correlated with energy and protein intakes at the transitional period from juvenility to adolescence, when puberty occurs.

  11. Nonmarket valuation of water quality in a rural transition economy in Turkey applying an a posteriori bid design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederli Tümay, Aylin; Brouwer, Roy

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the economic benefits associated with public investments in wastewater treatment in one of the special protected areas along Turkey's touristic Mediterranean coast, the Köyceǧiz-Dalyan watershed. The benefits, measured in terms of boatable, fishable, swimmable and drinkable water quality, are estimated using a public survey format following the contingent valuation (CV) method. The study presented here is the first of its kind in Turkey. The study's main objective is to assess public perception, understanding, and valuation of improved wastewater treatment facilities in the two largest population centers in the watershed, facing the same water pollution problems as a result of lack of appropriate wastewater treatment. We test the validity and reliability of the application of the CV methodology to this specific environmental problem in a rural transition economy and evaluate the transferability of the results within the watershed. In order to facilitate willingness to pay (WTP) value elicitation we apply a novel dichotomous choice procedure where bid design takes place a posteriori instead of a priori. The statistical efficiency of different bid vectors is evaluated in terms of the estimated welfare measures' mean square errors using Monte Carlo simulation. The robustness of bid function specification is analyzed through average WTP and standard deviation estimated using parametric and nonparametric methods.

  12. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology. PMID:27117799

  13. [Dr Srećko Marac (1921-1985): a physician, sychiatrist/phychotherapist, and a poet].

    PubMed

    Radovancević, Ljubomir; Pavlović, Eduard

    2009-01-01

    Srećko Marac was born in Susak in 1921 and died in Zagreb in 1990. Having completed the Susak grammar school, he moved to Padua and later to Zagreb to study medicine. During WW2 he dropped the studies and joined the antifascist resistance known as the People's Liberation War. After the war, he completed medical studies in Zagreb. He worked as army physician in Bjelovar and in the Military Hospital in Zagreb. He specialised in psychiatry and practiced psychotherapy in the former Zagreb Mental Health Centre. In 1973, he published his first selection of poems wrought over a long time, with a simple title Pjesme (Poems). The aim of this article was to take a better look at this 1973 collection, see its structure and composition, its content, moods, and ways it communicates to the reader. The collection consists of five parts: Ad tyrannos, Iz partizana (from Resistance), Lutanja/ traZenja/snovi...(Roamings, Quests, Dreams...), Satire i kusanja humora (Satire and Attempts at Humour), and More/brda i domovina (Sea, Hills, and Homeland). Instead of a conclusion, this article proposes to save this wonderful and compassionate poetphysician from oblivion.

  14. Low-temperature specific heat in hydrogenated and Mn-doped La (Fe,Si ) 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, Edmund; Ghivelder, Luis; Nicotina, Amanda; Turcaud, Jeremy; Bratko, Milan; Caplin, A. David; Basso, Vittorio; Barcza, Alexander; Katter, Matthias; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2016-10-01

    It is now well established that the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transition in the magnetocaloric La (FeSi) 13 is a cooperative effect involving spin, charge, and lattice degrees of freedom. However, the influence of this correlated behavior on the ferromagnetic state is as yet little studied. Here we measure the specific heat at low temperatures in a systematic set of LaF exM nyS iz samples, with and without hydrogen, to extract the Sommerfeld coefficient, the Debye temperature, and the spin-wave stiffness. Substantial and systematic changes in magnitude of the Sommerfeld coefficient are observed with Mn substitution and introduction of hydrogen, showing that over and above the changes to the density of states at the Fermi energy there are significant enhanced d -band electronic interactions at play. The Sommerfeld coefficient is found to be 90 -210 mJ mo l-1K-2 , unusually high compared to that expected from band-structure calculations. The Debye temperature determined from the specific heat measurement is insensitive to Mn and Si doping but increases when hydrogen is introduced into the system. The Sommerfeld coefficient is reduced in magnetic field for all compositions that have a measurable spin-wave contribution. These results move our understanding of the cooperative effects forward in this important and interesting class of materials significantly and provide a basis for future theoretical development.

  15. Particulate matter (PM₁₀) induces metalloprotease activity and invasion in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Chirino, Yolanda I; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-09-17

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) is a risk factor for the development of lung diseases and cancer. The aim of this work was to identify alterations in airway epithelial (A549) cells induced by PM10 that could explain how subtoxic exposure (10 μg/cm(2)) promotes a more aggressive in vitro phenotype. Our results showed that cells exposed to PM10 from an industrial zone (IZ) and an urban commercial zone (CZ) induced an increase in protease activity and invasiveness; however, the cell mechanism is different, as only PM10 from CZ up-regulated the activity of metalloproteases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and disrupted E-cadherin/β-catenin expression after 48 h of exposure. These in vitro findings are relevant in terms of the mechanism action of PM10 in lung epithelial cells, which could be helpful in understanding the pathogenesis of some human illness associated with highly polluted cities.

  16. Cytoplasmic p21(CIP1/WAF1), ERK1/2 activation, and cytoskeletal remodeling are associated with the senescence-like phenotype after airborne particulate matter (PM(10)) exposure in lung cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Chirino, Yolanda I; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Herrera, Luis A; Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; López-Saavedra, Alejandro; González-Ramírez, Imelda; Miranda, Javier; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2014-02-10

    The exposure to particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10) from urban zones is considered to be a risk factor in the development of cancer. The aim of this work was to determine if PM10 exposure induces factors related to the acquisition of a neoplastic phenotype, such as cytoskeletal remodeling, changes in the subcellular localization of p21(CIP1/WAF1), an increase in β-galactosidase activity and changes in cell cycle. To test our hypothesis, PM10 from an industrial zone (IZ) and a commercial zone (CZ) were collected, and human adenocarcinoma lung cell cultures (A549) were exposed to a sublethal PM10 concentration (10 μg/cm(2)) for 24 h and 48 h. The results showed that PM10 exposure induced an increase in F-actin stress fibers and caused the cytoplasmic stabilization of p21(CIP1/WAF1) via phosphorylation at Thr(145) and Ser(146) and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 on Thr(202). Changes in the cell cycle or apoptosis were not observed, but an increase in β-galactosidase activity was detected. The PM10 from CZ caused more dramatic effects in lung cells. We conclude that PM10 exposure induced cytoplasmic p21(CIP1/WAF1) retention, ERK1/2 activation, cytoskeleton remodeling and the acquisition of a senescence-like phenotype in lung cells. These alterations could have mechanistic implications regarding the carcinogenic potential of PM10.

  17. DEEP 21 cm H I OBSERVATIONS AT z {approx} 0.1: THE PRECURSOR TO THE ARECIBO ULTRA DEEP SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Freudling, Wolfram; Zwaan, Martin; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Meyer, Martin; Catinella, Barbara; Minchin, Robert; Calabretta, Mark; Momjian, Emmanuel; O'Neil, Karen

    2011-01-20

    The 'ALFA Ultra Deep Survey' (AUDS) is an ongoing 21 cm spectral survey with the Arecibo 305 m telescope. AUDS will be the most sensitive blind survey undertaken with Arecibo's 300 MHz Mock spectrometer. The survey searches for 21 cm H I line emission at redshifts between 0 and 0.16. The main goals of the survey are to investigate the H I content and probe the evolution of H I gas within that redshift region. In this paper, we report on a set of precursor observations with a total integration time of 53 hr. The survey detected a total of eighteen 21 cm emission lines at redshifts between 0.07 and 0.15 in a region centered around {alpha}{sub 2000} {approx} 0{sup h}, {delta} {approx} 15{sup 0}42'. The rate of detection is consistent with the one expected from the local H I mass function. The derived relative H I density at the median redshift of the survey is {rho}{sub H{sub I}}[z = 0.125] = (1.0 {+-} 0.3){rho}{sub 0}, where {rho}{sub 0} is the H I density at zero redshift.

  18. Connexin 43 controls the multipolar phase of neuronal migration to the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuxin; Sun, Lin; Torii, Masaaki; Rakic, Pasko

    2012-05-22

    The prospective pyramidal neurons, migrating from the proliferative ventricular zone to the overlaying cortical plate, assume multipolar morphology while passing through the transient subventricular zone. Here, we show that this morphogenetic transformation, from the bipolar to the mutipolar and then back to bipolar again, is associated with expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) and, that knockdown of Cx43 retards, whereas its overexpression enhances, this morphogenetic process. In addition, we have observed that knockdown of Cx43 reduces expression of p27, whereas overexpression of p27 rescues the effect of Cx43 knockdown in the multipolar neurons. Furthermore, functional gap junction/hemichannel domain, and the C-terminal domain of Cx43, independently enhance the expression of p27 and promote the morphological transformation and migration of the multipolar neurons in the SVZ/IZ. Collectively, these results indicate that Cx43 regulates the passage of migrating neurons through their multipolar stage via p27 signaling and that interference with this process, by either genetic and/or environmental factors, may cause cortical malformations. PMID:22566616

  19. Fourier series and {delta}-subharmonic functions of finite {gamma}-type in a half-plane

    SciTech Connect

    Malyutin, K G

    2001-06-30

    Let {gamma}(r) be a growth function and let v(z) be a proper {delta}-subharmonic function in the sense of Grishin in a complex half-plane, that is v=v{sub 1}-v{sub 2}, where v{sub 1} and v{sub 2} are proper subharmonic functions (limsup{sub z{yields}}{sub t}v{sub i}(z){<=}0, for each real t, i=1,2), let {lambda}={lambda}{sub +}-{lambda}{sub -} be the full measure corresponding to v and let T(r,v) be its Nevanlinna characteristic. The class J{delta}({gamma}) of functions of finite {gamma}-type is defined as follows: v element of J{delta}({gamma}) if T(r,v){<=}A{gamma}(Br)/r for some positive constants A and B. The Fourier coefficients of v are defined in the standard way. The central result of the paper is the equivalence of the following properties: (1) v element of J{delta}({gamma}); (2) N(r){<=}A{sub 1}{gamma}(B{sub 1}r)/r, where N(r)=N(r,{lambda}{sub +}) or N(r)=N(r,{lambda}{sub -}), and |c{sub k}(r,v)|{<=}A{sub 2}{gamma}(B{sub 2}r). It is proved in addition that J{delta}({gamma})=JS({gamma})-JS({gamma}), where JS({gamma}) is the class of proper subharmonic functions of finite {gamma}-type.

  20. Connexin 43 controls the multipolar phase of neuronal migration to the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuxin; Sun, Lin; Torii, Masaaki; Rakic, Pasko

    2012-05-22

    The prospective pyramidal neurons, migrating from the proliferative ventricular zone to the overlaying cortical plate, assume multipolar morphology while passing through the transient subventricular zone. Here, we show that this morphogenetic transformation, from the bipolar to the mutipolar and then back to bipolar again, is associated with expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) and, that knockdown of Cx43 retards, whereas its overexpression enhances, this morphogenetic process. In addition, we have observed that knockdown of Cx43 reduces expression of p27, whereas overexpression of p27 rescues the effect of Cx43 knockdown in the multipolar neurons. Furthermore, functional gap junction/hemichannel domain, and the C-terminal domain of Cx43, independently enhance the expression of p27 and promote the morphological transformation and migration of the multipolar neurons in the SVZ/IZ. Collectively, these results indicate that Cx43 regulates the passage of migrating neurons through their multipolar stage via p27 signaling and that interference with this process, by either genetic and/or environmental factors, may cause cortical malformations.

  1. T cell immunodominance is dictated by the positively selecting self-peptide.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wan-Lin; Solomon, Benjamin D; Donermeyer, David L; Hsieh, Chyi-Song; Allen, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Naive T cell precursor frequency determines the magnitude of immunodominance. While a broad T cell repertoire requires diverse positively selecting self-peptides, how a single positively selecting ligand influences naive T cell precursor frequency remains undefined. We generated a transgenic mouse expressing a naturally occurring self-peptide, gp250, that positively selects an MCC-specific TCR, AND, as the only MHC class II I-E(k) ligand to study the MCC highly organized immunodominance hierarchy. The single gp250/I-E(k) ligand greatly enhanced MCC-tetramer(+) CD4(+) T cells, and skewed MCC-tetramer(+) population toward V11α(+)Vβ3(+), a major TCR pair in MCC-specific immunodominance. The gp250-selected V11α(+)Vβ3(+) CD4(+) T cells had a significantly increased frequency of conserved MCC-preferred CDR3 features. Our studies establish a direct and causal relationship between a selecting self-peptide and the specificity of the selected TCRs. Thus, an immunodominant T cell response can be due to a dominant positively selecting self-peptide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01457.001.

  2. Lectin-binding properties of Aeromonas caviae strains

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-de-Souza, Cláudio M.; Hirata-Jr, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L.; Freitas-Almeida, Angela C.; Andrade, Arnaldo F. B.

    2008-01-01

    The cell surface carbohydrates of four strains of Aeromonas caviae were analyzed by agglutination and lectin-binding assays employing twenty highly purified lectins encompassing all sugar specificities. With the exception of L-fucose and sialic acid, the sugar residues were detected in A. caviae strains. A marked difference, however, in the pattern of cell surface carbohydrates in different A. caviae isolates was observed. Specific receptors for Tritricum vulgaris (WGA), Lycopersicon esculentum (LEL) and Solanum tuberosum (STA) (D-GlcNAc-binding lectins) were found only in ATCC 15468 strain, whereas Euonymus europaeus (EEL, D-Gal-binding lectin) sites were present exclusively in AeQ32 strain, those for Helix pomatia (HPA, D-GalNAc-binding lectin) in AeC398 and AeV11 strains, and for Canavalia ensiformes (Con A, D-Man-binding lectin) in ATCC 15468, AeC398, AeQ32 and AeV11 strains, after bacterial growing at 37°C. On the other hand, specific receptors for WGA and EEL were completely abrogated growing the bacteria at 22°C. Binding studies with 125I- labeled lectins from WGA, EEL and Con A were performed. These assays essentially confirmed the selectivity, demonstrated in the agglutination assays of these lectins for the A. caviae strains. PMID:24031204

  3. Structure prediction of Fe(II) 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase from a psychrophilic yeast Glaciozyma antarctica PI12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Nik Yusnoraini; Bakar, Farah Diba Abu; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Raih, Mohd Firdaus; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul

    2015-09-01

    A cDNA encoding Fe(II) 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent dioxygenases was isolated from psychrophilic yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica PI12. We have successfully amplified 1,029 bp cDNA sequence that encodes 342 amino acid with predicted molecular weight 38 kDa. The prediction protein was analysed using various bioinformatics tools to explore the properties of the protein. Based on a BLAST search analysis, the Fe2OX amino acid sequence showed 61% identity to the sequence of oxoglutarate/iron-dependent oxygenase from Rhodosporidium toruloides NP11. SignalP prediction showed that the Fe2OX protein contains no putative signal peptide, which suggests that this enzyme most probably localised intracellularly.The structure of Fe2OX was predicted by homology modelling using MODELLER9v11. The model with the lowest objective function was selected from hundred models generated using MODELLER9v11. Analysis of the structure revealed the longer loop at Fe2OX from G.antarctica that might be responsible for the flexibility of the structure, which contributes to its adaptation to low temperatures. Fe2OX hold a highly conserved Fe(II) binding HXD/E…H triad motif. The binding site for 2-oxoglutarate was found conserved for Arg280 among reported studies, however the Phe268 was found to be different in Fe2OX.

  4. Rapid Synthesis of a Near-β Titanium Alloy by Blended Elemental Powder Metallurgy (BEPM) with Induction Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Mingtu; Gabbitas, Brian

    2015-10-01

    A near-β Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al alloy was produced by blended elemental powder metallurgy combining warm compaction and induction sintering. Two Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al powder compacts with different oxygen content were manufactured by mixing PREP and HDH Ti powders with Cr and AlV master alloy powders, respectively. The effect of isothermal holding time, at a sintering temperature of 1573 K (1300 °C), on pore characteristics and compositional homogeneity was investigated in this study. Pore coarsening by Ostwald ripening occurred with an increase in the isothermal holding time and Kirkendall voids were produced by a reaction between Ti and Cr. After an isothermal holding time of 10 minutes, the two sintered powder compacts had a homogeneous composition. Ti/AlV and Ti/Cr diffusion couples were used to predict the distribution of alloying elements, and the binary Ti-V, Ti-Al, and Ti-Cr interdiffusion coefficients were consistent with the distribution of alloying elements after isothermal holding. The mechanical properties of sintered powder compacts, prepared using PREP Ti powder as the raw powder, were optimized by sintered density and pore size.

  5. Expression of Cyclin d1 protein and CCND1 та PNKP genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in clean up worker of Chornobyl accident with different state of immune system.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, D A; Kubashko, A V; Ilyenko, I M; Belyaev, O A; Pleskach, O J

    2015-12-01

    Meta. Doslidyty zminy rivniv Cyclin D1+ klityn ta asotsiyovanykh geniv CCND1 ta PNKP u mononuklearakh peryfe rychnoI krovi v uchasnykiv likvidatsiI naslidkiv avariI (ULNA) na ChAES z riznym imunnym statusom v zalezhnosti vid dozy oprominennia.Materialy i metody. Proanalizovano vidnosnyy riven' Cyclin D1+ klityn u mononuklearakh peryferychnoI krovi 39 ULNA na ChAES, cholovikiv, oprominenykh u dozi u diapazoni (0,01–2,00) Gr. Imunologichnyy status obstezhenykh vyz nachavsia za rivnem CD3/19, CD4/8, CD3/HLA DR, SD3/16/56 metodom protochnoI tsytofluorymetriI ta za vmistom Ig klasiv A,M,G metodom imunofermentnogo analizu u krovi. Ekspresiia geniv CCND1 ta PNKP, iaki pov’iazani z Syclin D1, provodylos' za metodom polimeraznoI lantsiugovoI reaktsiI u real'nomu chasi. Porivniannia rezul'tativ zdiysniuva los' iz vidpovidnymy danymy, otrymanymy vid 18 zdorovykh cholovikiv, iaki ne maly kontaktu z ionizuiuchym vyp rominiuvanniam vyshche pryrodn'ogo fonu.Rezul'taty. Pokazano, shcho vidsotok Suclin D1+ klityn zbil'shuiet'sia za normu v osib, oprominenykh u dozi > 0,1 Gr, ta koreliuie z dozoiu oprominennia (rs = 0,417, p = 0,048). Vidkhylennia rivnia Cyclin D1+ klityn za mezhi kontrol'nykh zna chen' pov’iazuiet'sia zi zminamy v klitynniy ta gumoral'niy lankakh imunitetu. Zmenshennia vidsotku Cyclin D1+ klityn za mezhi kontrol'nykh znachen' v ULNA na ChAES iz dozoiu < 0,35 Gr suprovodzhuiet'sia znyzhenniam rivniv CD3+ ta pidvy shchenniam CD3 16+56+ limfotsytiv; u osib, oprominenykh u dozi > 0,35 Gr, zbil'shennia vidsotku Cyclin D1+ klityn asotsiiuiet'sia zi znyzhenniam CD3+ ta tendentsiieiu shchodo znyzhennia CD3+16+56+ limfotsytiv u poiednanni zi zbil'shen niam rivnia IgG. Zbil'shennia rivniv CD4+, CD19+, Ireg. ta IgG suprovodzhuiet'sia poiavoiu koreliatsiynykh zv’iazkiv mizh Cyclin D1+ ta CD3 16+56+ klitynamy (rs = 0,872, p = 0,049), Cyclin D1+ ta CD8+ i IgG (rs = 0,683, p = 0,042; rs = 0,809, p = 0,014), Cyclin D1+ ta CD4+ (rs = 0,602, p = 0,029), Cyclin D1+ ta CD19+ i

  6. Detection of vibrationally excited H2(v double prime) for H(-) production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischel, William K.; Robie, Daniel C.; Peterson, James R.

    1989-09-01

    Research was performed to develop laser-based detection of high-lying vibrational levels of hydrogen to aid the development of high intensity H(-) ion production from H2 plasmas. A new type source of vibrationally excited H2 was developed, and a 2-photon resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) was developed and was successful in detecting H2(v) in levels up to v = 11. A technique was developed for measuring the tuning range and bandwidth of a tunable ArF laser used to generate vacuum-ultraviolet photons. Two-photon absorption cross sections for X yields EF excitation in H2 were calculated for a wide range of X and EF vibrational levels. Attempts to use both one- and two-photon laser-induced fluorescence to detect excited levels were unsuccessful.

  7. High Jc YBCO coated conductors on non-magnetic metallic substrate using YSZ-based buffer layer architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celentano, G.; Boffa, V.; Ciontea, L.; Fabbri, F.; Galluzzi, V.; Gambardella, U.; Mancini, A.; Petrisor, T.; Rogai, R.; Rufoloni, A.; Varesi, E.

    2002-08-01

    Biaxially aligned YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ (YBCO) thick films were deposited by pulsed laser ablation technique on cube textured non-magnetic Ni 89V 11 (Ni-V) substrate, using CeO 2/YSZ/CeO 2/NiO buffer layer architecture. The first NiO seed layer was formed by epitaxial oxidation of the Ni-V substrate. Structural analyses show typical full width at half maximum values of φ- and ω-scans less than 10° and 8°, respectively. The highest value obtained for the critical current density at 77 K and zero magnetic field was 6×10 5 A cm -2, which is close to that obtained for YBCO films grown on CeO 2/NiO buffer layer architecture.

  8. WASP-29b: A SATURN-SIZED TRANSITING EXOPLANET

    SciTech Connect

    Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Smalley, B.; Collier Cameron, A.; Brown, D. J. A.; Enoch, B.; Gillon, M.; Lendl, M.; Queloz, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Pepe, F.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Lister, T. A.; Pollacco, D.

    2010-11-01

    We report the discovery of a Saturn-sized planet transiting a V = 11.3, K4 dwarf star every 3.9 days. WASP-29b has a mass of 0.24 {+-} 0.02 M {sub Jup} and a radius of 0.79 {+-} 0.05 R {sub Jup}, making it the smallest planet so far discovered by the WASP survey, and the exoplanet most similar in mass and radius to Saturn. The host star WASP-29 has an above-solar metallicity and fits a possible correlation for Saturn-mass planets such that planets with higher-metallicity host stars have higher core masses and thus smaller radii.

  9. Circumstances for Pluto-Charon mutual events in 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.; Buie, Marc W.; Swift, Catherine E.

    1987-01-01

    Circumstances are tabulated for 88 Pluto-Charon mutual events occurring during the 1987 opposition. Charon is predicted to be completely obscured either by Pluto or Pluto's shadow during each passage behind Pluto during this opposition, providing several opportunities to study Pluto uncontaminated by the light of Charon. The duration of these total events is predicted to be from 32 to 79 min. The mutual-event season is now expected to conclude during the 1990 opposition. Two new stars have been selected as comparison stars for events occurring prior to opposition in 1987. Standardization of the primary comparison stars used in 1985 and 1986 has yielded the following magnitudes: B = 12.6044 + or - 0.0015 and V = 11.7956 + or - 0.0017 (1985 Primary); B = 13.1238 + or 0.0008 and V = 12.3885 + or - 0.0014 (1986 Primary).

  10. High intensity vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet production by noncollinear mixing in laser vaporized media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todt, Michael A.; Albert, Daniel R.; Davis, H. Floyd

    2016-06-01

    A method is described for generating intense pulsed vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser radiation by resonance enhanced four-wave mixing of commercial pulsed nanosecond lasers in laser vaporized mercury under windowless conditions. By employing noncollinear mixing of the input beams, the need of dispersive elements such as gratings for separating the VUV/XUV from the residual UV and visible beams is eliminated. A number of schemes are described, facilitating access to the 9.9-14.6 eV range. A simple and convenient scheme for generating wavelengths of 125 nm, 112 nm, and 104 nm (10 eV, 11 eV, and 12 eV) using two dye lasers without the need for dye changes is described.

  11. AY Vulpeculae, observations and analysis of a binary with an undermassive secondary

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.L.; Chambliss, C.R. Kutztown Univ., PA )

    1991-02-01

    AY Vulpeculae is an Algol-type eclipsig binary with P = 2.4124 days, and V = 11.70 at maximum light. The primary eclipse is very deep (2.2 mag), which makes the system of special interest. Complete light curves in UBV were obtained in 1986 using the 1.0 m reflector at the USNO Flagstaff Station. A revised ephemeris is presented which shows that the period has increased slightly over the past few decades. The light curves were analyzed using both the WINK method and the SIMPLEX algorithm. AY Vulpeculae is a semidetached system with the secondary filling its Roche lobe. The values derived for r1, r2, and the mass ratio (q) are 0.24, 0.26, and 0.24, respectively. The primary component has the characteristics of a subgiant of spectral class F0, while the secondary is a K-type subgiant and is decidedly undermassive. 24 refs.

  12. High-resolution synchrotron infrared spectroscopy of acrolein: The vibrational levels between 850 and 1020 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKellar, A. R. W.; Billinghurst, B. E.; Xu, Li-Hong; Lees, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    Using spectra obtained at the Canadian Light Source synchrotron radiation facility, a previously unobserved out-of-plane vibration of trans-acrolein (propenal) is reliably assigned for the first time. Its origin is at 1002.01 cm-1, which is about 20 cm-1 higher than usually quoted in the past. This mode is thus labelled as v14, leaving the label v15 for the known vibration at 992.66 cm-1. Weak combination bands 171182 ← 182, 171131 ← 131, 121182 ← 181, and 171182 ← 181 are studied for the first time, and assignments in the known v11, v16, and v15 fundamental bands are also extended. The seven excited vibrations involved in these bands are analyzed, together with five more unobserved vibrations in the same region (850-1020 cm-1), in a large 12-state simultaneous fit which accounts for most of the many observed perturbations in the spectra.

  13. Damp housing and childhood asthma; respiratory effects of indoor air temperature and relative humidity.

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, D P; Sanders, C H

    1989-01-01

    In a questionnaire survey of a random sample of 1000 children aged 7 years, a significantly greater proportion of those living in homes reported as damp were affected by wheeze (22% v 11%), day cough, night cough, and chesty colds. Simultaneous estimation of relative humidity in the bedrooms of 778 children and continuous 7 day recordings of ambient temperature and humidity in a stratified sample of 317 bedrooms showed no association with the same respiratory symptoms. No correlation was found between bedroom conditions and baseline ventilatory function or exercise induced reduction in FEV1. These results run counter to the widely held belief that indoor temperature and humidity are important determinants of respiratory ill health, although they do not directly exclude effects due to mites or moulds, whose survival is determined by the humidity of their respective microenvironments. PMID:2592894

  14. Investigation of the role of 10Li resonances in the halo structure of 11Li through the 11Li (p , d)10Li transfer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanetullaev, A.; Kanungo, R.; Tanaka, J.; Alcorta, M.; Andreoiu, C.; Bender, P.; Chen, A. A.; Christian, G.; Davids, B.; Fallis, J.; Fortin, J. P.; Galinski, N.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Ishimoto, S.; Keefe, M.; Krücken, R.; Lighthall, J.; McNeice, E.; Miller, D.; Purcell, J.; Randhawa, J. S.; Roger, T.; Rojas, A.; Savajols, H.; Shotter, A.; Tanihata, I.; Thompson, I. J.; Unsworth, C.; Voss, P.; Wang, Z.

    2016-04-01

    The first measurement of the one-neutron transfer reaction 11Li(p,d)10Li performed using the IRIS facility at TRIUMF with a 5.7 A MeV11Li beam interacting with a solid H2 target is reported. The 10Li residue was populated strongly as a resonance peak with energy Er = 0.62 ± 0.04 MeV having a total width Γ = 0.33 ± 0.07 MeV. The angular distribution of this resonance is characterized by neutron occupying the 1p1/2 orbital. A DWBA analysis yields a spectroscopic factor of 0.67 ± 0.12 for p1/2 removal strength from the ground state of 11Li to the region of the peak.

  15. Occupation and industry data obtained from death certificates: the effect and influence of case selection.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D E; Swanson, G M; Schwartz, A G; Brix, K; Fine, L J

    1987-01-01

    This study first examined the accuracy of death certificate diagnoses of 4,954 cases of cancer of the lung, liver, nasopharynx, and pleura/peritoneum, then compared usual occupation and industry based on case selection from the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (MDCSS), a population-based cancer registry, with cases selected from death certificates for the above types of tumors to examine the effect of misclassification. Accuracy of death certificate cancer diagnoses ranged from 93.4% for lung cancer to 28.6% for malignancies of the pleura/peritoneum. The mix of usual occupation/industry titles obtained from death certificate cases and MDCSS cases was similar for lung cancer but not for malignancies of the pleura/peritoneum (35.7% of cases from the registry v 11.1% from death certificates for the automobile industry, P = .05). The effect of misclassification and utility of usual occupation/industry statements on death certificates is discussed.

  16. Application of lipid extracts from Solidago canadensis to phytomonitoring of PCB126 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Sayuri; Ohta, Masaya; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of lipid extracts from Solidago canadensis for phytomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 in the transgenic Arabidopsis plant XgD2V11-6 carrying the recombinant guinea pig (g) aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system. A lipid extract was prepared from S. canadensis and separated into simple lipid, glycolipid, and phospholipid fractions by silica gel column chromatography. Sterylglucoside (SG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and glucosyl ceramide were found in the glycolipid fraction. When the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were treated with the glycolipid fraction together with PCB126, PCB126-induced GUS activity significantly increased in the whole plant. Moreover, S. canadensis-derived SG, MGDG, and DGDG also significantly increased PCB126-induced GUS activity. These results indicated that glycolipids in S. canadensis enhanced the sensitivity of this monitoring assay. PMID:24530184

  17. Beta titanium alloys and their role in the titanium industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bania, Paul J.

    1994-07-01

    The class of titanium alloys generically referred to as the beta alloys is arguably the most versatile in the titanium family. Since these alloys offer the highest strength-to-weight ratios and deepest hardenability of all titanium alloys, one might expect them to compete favorably for a variety of aerospace applications. To the contrary, however, except for one very successful application (Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al on the SR-71), the beta alloys have remained a very small segment of the industry. As a perspective on this situation, this article reviews some past and present applications of titanium alloys. It also descibes some unique new alloys and applications that promise to reverse historical trends.

  18. Threshold voltage manipulation of ZnO-graphene oxide hybrid thin film transistors via Au nanoparticles doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wooseok; Kim, Ki Woong; Kim, Seong Jun; Min, Bok Ki; Rang Lim, Yi; Myung, Sung; Lee, Sun Sook; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok

    2015-12-01

    In order to fabricate a complementary inverter, precise control of the threshold voltages for n-type semiconductor based thin film transistors (TFTs) is highly required. Here we provided a facile methodology for controlling the threshold voltage of ZnO-based TFTs. Chemically-derived graphene oxide (GO) and Au-decorated GO (Au-GO) flakes were hybridized with solution-processed ZnO thin films to control electron injection determined by the workfunction difference between ZnO and GO or Au-GO. As a result, the threshold voltages for the ZnO, GO/ZnO, and Au-GO/ZnO TFTs were 24 ± 3 V, -11 ± 4 V, and 63 ± 5 V, respectively, which determine depletion or enhancement mode TFTs without any significant change in the field effect mobility and on/off ratio.

  19. Effects of hot-salt stress corrosion on titanium alloys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    Susceptibility of titanium alloys to hot-salt stress-corrosion cracking increased as follows: Ti-2Al-11Sn-5Zr-1Mo-0.2Si (679), Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (6242), Ti-6Al-4V (64), Ti-6Al-4V-3Co (643), Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V (811), and Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al (13-11-3). The Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-0.25Si (5621S) alloy was both the least and most susceptible, depending on heat treatment. Such rankings can be drastically altered by heat-to-heat variations and processing conditions. Residual compressive stresses reduce susceptibility to stress-corrosion. Detection of substantial concentrations of hydrogen in all corroded alloys confirmed the generality of a previously proposed hydrogen embrittlement mechanism.

  20. Intraspecies biodiversity of the genetically homologous species Brucella microti.

    PubMed

    Al Dahouk, Sascha; Hofer, Erwin; Tomaso, Herbert; Vergnaud, Gilles; Le Flèche, Philippe; Cloeckaert, Axel; Koylass, Mark S; Whatmore, Adrian M; Nöckler, Karsten; Scholz, Holger C

    2012-03-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major bacterial zoonoses worldwide. In the past decade, an increasing number of atypical Brucella strains and species have been described. Brucella microti in particular has attracted attention, because this species not only infects mammalian hosts but also persists in soil. An environmental reservoir may pose a new public health risk, leading to the reemergence of brucellosis. In a polyphasic approach, comprising conventional microbiological techniques and extensive biochemical and molecular techniques, all currently available Brucella microti strains were characterized. While differing in their natural habitats and host preferences, B. microti isolates were found to possess identical 16S rRNA, recA, omp2a, and omp2b gene sequences and identical multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) profiles at 21 different genomic loci. Only highly variable microsatellite markers of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16) showed intraspecies discriminatory power. In contrast, biotyping demonstrated striking differences within the genetically homologous species. The majority of the mammalian isolates agglutinated only with monospecific anti-M serum, whereas soil isolates agglutinated with anti-A, anti-M, and anti-R sera. Bacteria isolated from animal sources were lysed by phages F1, F25, Tb, BK2, Iz, and Wb, whereas soil isolates usually were not. Rough strains of environmental origin were lysed only by phage R/C. B. microti exhibited high metabolic activities similar to those of closely related soil organisms, such as Ochrobactrum spp. Each strain was tested with 93 different substrates and showed an individual metabolic profile. In summary, the adaptation of Brucella microti to a specific habitat or host seems to be a matter of gene regulation rather than a matter of gene configuration.

  1. Intraspecies Biodiversity of the Genetically Homologous Species Brucella microti

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Erwin; Tomaso, Herbert; Vergnaud, Gilles; Le Flèche, Philippe; Cloeckaert, Axel; Koylass, Mark S.; Whatmore, Adrian M.; Nöckler, Karsten; Scholz, Holger C.

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major bacterial zoonoses worldwide. In the past decade, an increasing number of atypical Brucella strains and species have been described. Brucella microti in particular has attracted attention, because this species not only infects mammalian hosts but also persists in soil. An environmental reservoir may pose a new public health risk, leading to the reemergence of brucellosis. In a polyphasic approach, comprising conventional microbiological techniques and extensive biochemical and molecular techniques, all currently available Brucella microti strains were characterized. While differing in their natural habitats and host preferences, B. microti isolates were found to possess identical 16S rRNA, recA, omp2a, and omp2b gene sequences and identical multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) profiles at 21 different genomic loci. Only highly variable microsatellite markers of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16) showed intraspecies discriminatory power. In contrast, biotyping demonstrated striking differences within the genetically homologous species. The majority of the mammalian isolates agglutinated only with monospecific anti-M serum, whereas soil isolates agglutinated with anti-A, anti-M, and anti-R sera. Bacteria isolated from animal sources were lysed by phages F1, F25, Tb, BK2, Iz, and Wb, whereas soil isolates usually were not. Rough strains of environmental origin were lysed only by phage R/C. B. microti exhibited high metabolic activities similar to those of closely related soil organisms, such as Ochrobactrum spp. Each strain was tested with 93 different substrates and showed an individual metabolic profile. In summary, the adaptation of Brucella microti to a specific habitat or host seems to be a matter of gene regulation rather than a matter of gene configuration. PMID:22210211

  2. The continuing story of SN IIb 2013df: new optical and IR observations and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Tamás; Vinkó, József; Nagy, Andrea P.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Dhungana, Govinda; Marion, G. Howie; Kehoe, Robert; Fox, Ori D.; Sárneczky, Krisztián; Marschalkó, Gábor; Bíró, Barna I.; Borkovits, Tamás; Hegedüs, Tibor; Szakáts, Róbert; Ferrante, Farley V.; Bányai, Evelin; Hodosán, Gabriella; Kelemen, János; Pál, András

    2016-08-01

    SN 2013df is a nearby Type IIb supernova that seems to be the spectroscopic twin of the well-known SN 1993J. Previous studies revealed many, but not all interesting properties of this event. Our goal was to add new understanding of both the early- and late-time phases of SN 2013df. Our spectral analysis is based on six optical spectra obtained with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope during the first month after explosion, complemented by a near-infrared spectrum. We applied the SYNAPPS spectral synthesis code to constrain the chemical composition and physical properties of the ejecta. A principal result is the identification of `high-velocity' He I lines in the early spectra of SN 2013df, manifest as the blue component of the double-troughed profile at ˜5650 Å. This finding, together with the lack of clear separation of H and He lines in velocity space, indicates that both H and He features form at the outer envelope during the early phases. We also obtained ground-based BVRI and g'r 'i'z' photometric data up to +45 d and unfiltered measurements with the ROTSE-IIIb telescope up to +168 d. From the modelling of the early-time quasi-bolometric light curve, we find Mej ˜ 3.2-4.6 M⊙ and Ekin ˜ 2.6-2.8 × 1051 erg for the initial ejecta mass and the initial kinetic energy, respectively, which agree well with the values derived from the separate modelling of the light-curve tail. Late-time mid-infrared excess indicates circumstellar interaction starting ˜1 yr after explosion, in accordance with previously published optical, X-ray, and radio data.

  3. A new free-floating planet in the Upper Scorpius association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Ramírez, K.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    We report on a deep photometric survey covering an area of 1.17 deg2 in the young Upper Scorpius stellar association using VIMOS Iz and UKIDSS ZJHK data that was taken with several years in between. The search for the least massive population of Upper Scorpius (~5-10 Myr, 145 pc) is performed on the basis of various optical and infrared color-color and color-magnitude diagrams, including WISE photometry, in the magnitude interval J = 14.5-19 mag (completeness), which corresponds to substellar masses from 0.028 through 0.004 M⊙ at the age and distance of Upper Scorpius. We also present the proper motion analysis of the photometric candidates, finding that two objects successfully pass all photometric and astrometric criteria for membership in the young stellar association. One of them, USco J155150.2-213457, is a new discovery. We obtained low resolution, near-infrared spectroscopy (R ~ 450, 0.85-2.35 μm) of this new finding using the FIRE instrument. We confirmed its low-gravity atmosphere expected for an Upper Scorpius member (weak alkaline lines, strong VO absorption, peaked H-band pseudocontinuum). By comparison with spectroscopic standards, we derive a spectral type of L6 ± 1, and estimate a mass of ≈0.008-0.010 M⊙ for USco J155150.2-213457. The colors and spectral slope of this object resemble those of other young, cool members of Upper Scorpius and σ Orionis (~3 Myr) and field, high gravity dwarfs of related classification in contrast with the very red indices of field, low gravity, L-type dwarfs of intermediate age. USco J155150.2-213457, which does not show infrared flux excesses up to 4.5 μm, becomes one of the least massive and latest type objects known in the entire Upper Scorpius stellar association.

  4. Some principles for formation of self-developing dichromate media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherstyuk, Valentin P.; Malov, Alexander N.; Maloletov, Sergei M.; Kalinkin, Vyacheslav V.

    1991-02-01

    The optical information recorded in dichromate gelatin (DCG) layers Induced the information of a latent. image Which rnder the action of water and alcohols transforms to a relief or Phase image. The action of water vapours ma appreciably increase diffraction efficiency. judging from the assumPtion that the introduction of multiatomic alcohols favours the retention of water'' moecu1es in a lager in the amount sufficient for deve1oment on its exposure and stabilization of chromium complexes1 a " self-development" regim has teen worked out. In this case the diffraction efficiency of recorded hc. 1ograms is c''ose to the theoretical limiting value for flatphase r''e c o rdI ng me (J i a. At present the occurence of a Primary latent holographic image (or structure) in dichromated gelatin (DCG) layers has been recognized The diffraction efficiency (DE) detected at a step of holographic recording is low (about 0. 1-IZ). It was shown earlier /j_ 2/ that the treatment bY water vaours or eXPOSUPC Of the layers under conditions of increased humidity results ma growth of DE up to the values enabling the use of DCG to record information in real time /3/j Latent image centres in exposed DC3 layers are predominantly chromium(V) compounds. It is particulary evidenced by the observed correlation between the rate of formation of Cr(V) compounds in a Photo process and the specific change in DE of a latent image /5/.

  5. Effects of Al, Ga-DOPING on Transparent Conducting Properties of Amorphous ZnO-SnO2 Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriga, Toshihiro; Nishimura, Yusuke; Suketa, Hiroshi; Murai, Kei-Ichiro; Nogami, Kazuhiro; Tominaga, Kikuo; Nakabayashi, Ichiro

    ZnOSnO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrates (Corning#1737) by DC magnetron sputtering. In this works, we examined a doping effect on a ZnO target on transparent conducting properties. ZnO:Al(4wt%), and ZnO:Ga(6wt%) targets were used for a dopant-free ZnO target. Substrate temperature was held at 250°C. The current ratio δ was defined as IZn/IZ+ISn (ZnO target current divided by the sum of ZnO and SnO2 target currents). Compositions of as-deposited films were changed with the current ratio δ. In the ZnO-SnO2 system, amorphous transparent films appeared over the range of 0.33≤δ≤0.73. On the other hand, in the ZnO:Al(4wt%)-SnO2 and ZnO:Ga(6wt%)-SnO2 systems, they appeared over the range of 0.20≤δ≤0.80 and 0.33≤δ≤0.80, ≤δ≤ respectively. The minimum resistivity of amorphous films was about 3.0×10-2 Ωcm for all the systems. Al, Ga doping effect on film resistivity was not clear very much. But optical transparencies were 80-90% in visible region, 10% higher than those of ZnO-SnO2 system at average. Optical band gap for the films with the same current ratio δ also was enhanced by the Al, Ga doping.

  6. Neutral hydrogen in galaxy clusters: impact of AGN feedback and implications for intensity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Planelles, Susana; Borgani, Stefano; Viel, Matteo; Rasia, Elena; Murante, Giuseppe; Dolag, Klaus; Steinborn, Lisa K.; Biffi, Veronica; Beck, Alexander M.; Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia

    2016-03-01

    By means of zoom-in hydrodynamic simulations, we quantify the amount of neutral hydrogen (H I) hosted by groups and clusters of galaxies. Our simulations, which are based on an improved formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics, include radiative cooling, star formation, metal enrichment and supernova feedback, and can be split into two different groups, depending on whether feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is turned on or off. Simulations are analysed to account for H I self-shielding and the presence of molecular hydrogen. We find that the mass in neutral hydrogen of dark matter haloes monotonically increases with the halo mass and can be well described by a power law of the form M_{H I}(M,z)∝ M^{3/4}. Our results point out that AGN feedback reduces both the total halo mass and its H I mass, although it is more efficient in removing H I. We conclude that AGN feedback reduces the neutral hydrogen mass of a given halo by ˜50 per cent, with a weak dependence on halo mass and redshift. The spatial distribution of neutral hydrogen within haloes is also affected by AGN feedback, whose effect is to decrease the fraction of H I that resides in the halo inner regions. By extrapolating our results to haloes not resolved in our simulations, we derive astrophysical implications from the measurements of Ω _{H I}(z): haloes with circular velocities larger than ˜25 km s-1 are needed to host H I in order to reproduce observations. We find that only the model with AGN feedback is capable of reproducing the value of Ω _{H I}b_{H I} derived from available 21 cm intensity mapping observations.

  7. Effects of maternal oral administration of morphine sulfate on developing rat fetal cerebrum: a morphometrical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Kaka, Gholam Reza; Sahraei, Hedayat; Dashtnavard, Hosein; Bahadoran, Hosein; Mofid, Mahmood; Nasab, Hossein Mahdavi; Jafari, Fatemeh

    2008-12-15

    Intrauterine morphine exposure is a risk factor for neurological and behavioral deficit in children, although the precise underlying biological correlate for this is unclear. Female pregnant rats were orally treated with 0.1 mg/ml of morphine solution on the 21st day of gestation. Pregnant rats were killed on the 21st day of gestation and their fetuses were taken out and evaluated for growth and cerebral development. The fetuses were fixed and followed by dehydration through graded ethanol solutions and were then embedded and their heads were coronally sectioned through the frontal cerebral cortex. Quantitative computer-assisted morphometric study was done on the frontal cerebral cortex (FCC) which consists of cortical plate (CP), intermediate (migratory) zone (IZ) and matrix (proliferative) zone (MZ) in the rat embryos. The results showed that morphine exposure caused a significant reduction of fetal weight and crown-to-rump length in morphine exposure group. The present study showed that animals with intrauterine morphine exposure, induced by a period of reduced placental blood flow during the second week of pregnancy, demonstrate reduced both cortical thickness and the numbers of neurons in the developing fetal frontal cerebral cortex (FCC). Histomorphometric evaluation revealed that the thickness of the CP was significantly decreased in the morphine-exposed embryos. In addition, neuronal counting showed that cell proliferation in the CP was suppressed after morphine administration and that the migration of neurons from the matrix zone (MZ) to the cortex was decelerated. In conclusion, these results showed that morphine exposure during the second week of pregnancy could affect brain development in a way, which could lead to neurological and behavioral deficits in the postnatal animal.

  8. A Detailed Study of Contamination in Deep Rapid Searches for Gravitational Wave Optical Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowperthwaite, Philip; Berger, Edo; Chornock, Ryan; Fong, Wen-fai

    2015-01-01

    The first direct detection of gravitational waves (GW) by the Advanced LIGO/VIRGO (aLIGO/VIRGO) collaboration is expected to occur within the next few years. In order to maximize the science gains from such a detection it is essential that we identify an electromagnetic counterpart. One of the most promising counterparts is the so-called 'kilonovae,' a fast-evolving (t ~ days) and faint (z ~ 24 AB mag) optical transient powered by the radioactive decay of r-process elements generated in the merger. However, the poor initial localization of aLIGO/VIRGO (~ 100 sq. deg.) demand the use of wide-field telescopes. Furthermore, the cadences and depths used by current and future wide-field optical surveys (e.g. PTF/ZTF, PANStarrs, LSST) are sub-optimal for kilonovae detection. We present our attempts to tackle these issues by investigating the theoretical and practical issues associated with optical follow-up of an aLIGO/VIRGO GW event. This includes a systematic study of the potential contaminant population and their impact on kilonovae detectability in simulated observations. We show that kilonovae can remain separated from contaminants by the virtue of their red colors (i - z > 0.5) and short timescales. This theoretical analysis will be tested against observations obtained by the DECam wide-field imager on the CTIO Blanco 4m telescope. These data attempt to simulate the wide area coverage (~ 70 sq. deg.) and rapid cadence (two visits per night in i,z) necessary for targeted GW follow-up and will provide an excellent test bed for understanding the practical issues associated with this endeavor. This work is supported in part by the NSF GRFP grant DGE1144152.

  9. Weighing Neutrinos with Cosmic Neutral Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Bull, Philip; Viel, Matteo

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the signatures left by massive neutrinos on the spatial distribution of neutral hydrogen (H i) in the post-reionization era by running hydrodynamic simulations that include massive neutrinos as additional collisionless particles. We find that halos in massive/massless neutrino cosmologies host a similar amount of neutral hydrogen, although for a fixed halo mass, on average, the H i mass increases with the sum of the neutrino masses. Our results show that H i is more strongly clustered in cosmologies with massive neutrinos, while its abundance, ΩH i(z), is lower. These effects arise mainly from the impact of massive neutrinos on cosmology: they suppress both the amplitude of the matter power spectrum on small scales and the abundance of dark matter halos. Modeling the H i distribution with hydrodynamic simulations at z > 3 and a simple analytic model at z < 3, we use the Fisher matrix formalism to conservatively forecast the constraints that Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array will place on the sum of neutrino masses, Mν ≡ Σ mν. We find that with 10,000 hr of interferometric observations at 3 ≲ z ≲ 6 from a deep and narrow survey with SKA1-LOW, the sum of the neutrino masses can be measured with an error σ(Mν) ≲ 0.3 eV (95% CL). Similar constraints can be obtained with a wide and deep SKA1-MID survey at z ≲ 3, using the single-dish mode. By combining data from MID, LOW, and Planck, plus priors on cosmological parameters from a Stage IV spectroscopic galaxy survey, the sum of the neutrino masses can be determined with an error σ(Mν) ≃ 0.06 eV (95% CL).

  10. DES J0454–4448: Discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S. L.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = –26.5) quasar DES J0454–4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H i near zone size of 4.1+1.1–1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i–z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightest of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i–z and z–Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.

  11. DES J0454–4448: Discovery of the first luminous z ≥ 6 quasar from the Dark Energy Survey

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Reed, S. L.

    2015-10-28

    We present the first results of a survey for high-redshift, z ≥ 6, quasars using izY multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Here we report the discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of the zAB, YAB = 20.2, 20.2 (M1450 = –26.5) quasar DES J0454–4448 with a redshift of z = 6.09±0.02 based on the onset of the Ly α forest and an H i near zone size of 4.1+1.1–1.2 proper Mpc. The quasar was selected as an i-band drop out with i–z = 2.46 and zAB < 21.5 from an area of ~300 deg2. It is the brightestmore » of our 43 candidates and was identified for spectroscopic follow-up solely based on the DES i–z and z–Y colours. The quasar is detected by WISE and has W1AB = 19.68. The discovery of one spectroscopically confirmed quasar with 5.7 < z < 6.5 and zAB ≤ 20.2 is consistent with recent determinations of the luminosity function at z ~ 6. DES when completed will have imaged ~5000 deg2 to YAB = 23.0 (5σ point source) and we expect to discover 50–100 new quasars with z > 6 including 3–10 with z > 7 dramatically increasing the numbers of quasars currently known that are suitable for detailed studies.« less

  12. Tree growth and forest ecosystem functioning in Eurasia under extreme climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurer, Matthias; Kirdyanov, Alexander; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Bryukhanova, Marina; Knorre, Anastasia; Nasyrov, Muhtor; Frank, David; Treydte, Kerstin; Sidorova, Olga; Siegwolf, Rolf

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of this study is to improve our understanding of the influence of a changing climate on trees in extreme conditions by a detailed analysis of the factors controlling tree-ring growth. We investigated forest ecosystems in regions that are very sensitive to climatic changes and where rapid and dramatic environmental and climatic changes are on-going, namely, the high latitude permafrost region in Central Siberia (Russia), the semi-arid dry areas in Central Asia (Uzbekistan) and high-altitude sites in the Alps (Switzerland). Tree-ring parameters studied were ring-width, density, cell number and structure and the ratio of carbon and oxygen isotopes. An important aspect of the work was the characterization of seasonal growth and water supply of trees. Intra-seasonal dynamics of tree-ring formation was correlated with monitored environmental factors, such as air and soil temperature and moisture, permafrost depth and the isotope composition of soil water, of precipitation, and of stream water. Intra-annual and long-term variability of the main tree-ring parameters were compared for the different regions. The results obtained help us to understand better tree-physiological processes valid under contrasting environmental conditions. For instance, the relationship between the onset of cell division in the cambium and the thermo-hydrological soil regime was used to determine the period of the year with the highest influence on the start of tree-ring formation. Seasonally resolved oxygen isotope depth profiles of soil water and concurrent xylem and leaf water measurements show the importance of time-lags between precipitation, leaf processes and growth. The data obtained are important for improving tree-ring growth models and estimating future tree growth under climate change. Funding: SNF SCOPES IZ73Z0_128035

  13. CLASH: COMPLETE LENSING ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST COSMIC LENS MACS J0717.5+3745 AND SURROUNDING STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Medezinski, Elinor; Lemze, Doron; Ford, Holland; Umetsu, Keiichi; Nonino, Mario; Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom; Sayers, Jack; Czakon, Nicole; Waizmann, Jean-Claude; Meneghetti, Massimo; Koekemoer, Anton; Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc; Molino, Alberto; Melchior, Peter; Grillo, Claudio; and others

    2013-11-01

    The galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 (z = 0.55) is the largest known cosmic lens, with complex internal structures seen in deep X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and dynamical observations. We perform a combined weak- and strong-lensing analysis with wide-field BVR{sub c} i'z' Subaru/Suprime-Cam observations and 16-band Hubble Space Telescope observations taken as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. We find consistent weak distortion and magnification measurements of background galaxies and combine these signals to construct an optimally estimated radial mass profile of the cluster and its surrounding large-scale structure out to 5 Mpc h {sup –1}. We find consistency between strong-lensing and weak-lensing in the region where these independent data overlap, <500 kpc h {sup –1}. The two-dimensional weak-lensing map reveals a clear filamentary structure traced by distinct mass halos. We model the lensing shear field with nine halos, including the main cluster, corresponding to mass peaks detected above 2.5σ{sub κ}. The total mass of the cluster as determined by the different methods is M{sub vir} ≈ (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 15} M{sub ☉}. Although this is the most massive cluster known at z > 0.5, in terms of extreme value statistics, we conclude that the mass of MACS J0717.5+3745 by itself is not in serious tension with ΛCDM, representing only a ∼2σ departure above the maximum simulated halo mass at this redshift.

  14. Salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant barley varieties differ in the extent of potentiation of the ROS-induced K(+) efflux by polyamines.

    PubMed

    Velarde-Buendía, Ana María; Shabala, Sergey; Cvikrova, Milena; Dobrovinskaya, Oxana; Pottosin, Igor

    2012-12-01

    Generation of high levels of polyamines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) is common under stress conditions. Our recent study on a salt-sensitive pea species revealed an interaction between natural polyamines and hydroxyl radicals in inducing non-selective conductance and stimulating Ca(2+)-ATPase pumps at the root plasma membrane (I. Zepeda-Jazo, A.M. Velarde-Buendía, R. Enríquez-Figueroa, B. Jayakumar, S. Shabala, J. Muñiz, I. Pottosin, Polyamines interact with hydroxyl radicals in activating Ca2+ and K+ transport across the root epidermal plasma membranes, Plant Phys. 157 (2011) 1-14). In this work, we extended that study to see if interaction between polyamines and ROS may determine the extent of genotypic variation in salinity tolerance. This work was conducted using barley genotypes contrasting in salinity tolerance. Similar to our findings in pea, application of hydroxyl radicals-generating Cu(2+)/ascorbate mixture induced transient Ca(2+) and K(+) fluxes in barley roots. Putrescine and spermine alone induced only transient Ca(2+) efflux and negligible K(+) flux. However, both putrescine and spermine strongly potentiated hydroxyl radicals-induced K(+) efflux and respective non-selective current. This synergistic effect was much more pronounced in a salt-sensitive cultivar Franklin as compared to a salt-tolerant TX9425. As retention of K(+) under salt stress is a key determinant of salinity tolerance in barley, we suggest that the alteration of cytosolic K(+) homeostasis, caused by interaction between polyamines and ROS, may have a substantial contribution to genetic variability in salt sensitivity in this species.

  15. WEIGHING NEUTRINOS WITH COSMIC NEUTRAL HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo; Bull, Philip E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the signatures left by massive neutrinos on the spatial distribution of neutral hydrogen (H i) in the post-reionization era by running hydrodynamic simulations that include massive neutrinos as additional collisionless particles. We find that halos in massive/massless neutrino cosmologies host a similar amount of neutral hydrogen, although for a fixed halo mass, on average, the H i mass increases with the sum of the neutrino masses. Our results show that H i is more strongly clustered in cosmologies with massive neutrinos, while its abundance, Ω{sub H} {sub i}(z), is lower. These effects arise mainly from the impact of massive neutrinos on cosmology: they suppress both the amplitude of the matter power spectrum on small scales and the abundance of dark matter halos. Modeling the H i distribution with hydrodynamic simulations at z > 3 and a simple analytic model at z < 3, we use the Fisher matrix formalism to conservatively forecast the constraints that Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array will place on the sum of neutrino masses, M{sub ν} ≡ Σ m{sub ν}. We find that with 10,000 hr of interferometric observations at 3 ≲ z ≲ 6 from a deep and narrow survey with SKA1-LOW, the sum of the neutrino masses can be measured with an error σ(M{sub ν}) ≲ 0.3 eV (95% CL). Similar constraints can be obtained with a wide and deep SKA1-MID survey at z ≲ 3, using the single-dish mode. By combining data from MID, LOW, and Planck, plus priors on cosmological parameters from a Stage IV spectroscopic galaxy survey, the sum of the neutrino masses can be determined with an error σ(M{sub ν}) ≃ 0.06 eV (95% CL)

  16. Open air mineral treatment operations and ambient air quality: assessment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Escudero, M; Alastuey, A; Moreno, T; Querol, X; Pérez, P

    2012-11-01

    We present a methodology for evaluating and quantifying the impact of inhalable mineral dust resuspension close to a potentially important industrial point source, in this case an open air plant producing sand, flux and kaolin in the Capuchinos district of Alcañiz (Teruel, NE Spain). PM(10) levels at Capuchinos were initially high (42 μg m(-3) as the annual average with 91 exceedances of the EU daily limit value during 2007) but subsequently decreased (26 μg m(-3) with 16 exceedances in 2010) due to a reduced demand for minerals from the ceramic industry and construction sector during the first stages of the economic crisis. Back trajectory and local wind pattern analyses revealed only limited contribution from exotic PM sources such as African dust intrusions whereas there was clearly a strong link with the mineral stockpiles of the local industry. This link was reinforced by chemical and mineral speciation and source apportionment analysis which showed a dominance of mineral matter (sum of CO(3)(2-), SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), Ca, Fe, K, Mg, P, and Ti: mostly aluminosilicates) which in 2007 contributed 76% of the PM(10) mass (44 μg m(-3) on average). The contribution from Secondary Inorganic Aerosols (SIA, sum of SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+)) reached 8.4 μg m(-3), accounting for 14% of the PM(10) mass, similar to the amount of calcareous road dust estimated to be present (8 μg m(-3); 13%). Organic matter and elemental carbon contributed 5.3 μg m(-3) (9%) whereas marine aerosol (Na + Cl) levels were minor with an average concentration of 0.4 μg m(-3) (1% of the PM(10) mass). Finally, chemical and mineralogical analysis of stockpile samples and comparison with filter samples confirmed the local industry to be the major source of ambient PM(10) in the area.

  17. A mutant of the nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) is a novel biocontrol agent for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Abdelnabby, Hazem; Xiao, Yannong

    2015-12-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes severe stem rot and yield loss in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and other crops worldwide. Extensive studies have been conducted on Paecilomyces lilacinus as a nematophagous bioagent. However, no reports stated the effect of P. lilacinus as a biocontrol agent against oilseed rape rot S. sclerotiorum. This study describes such effect in lab and field trials using the new transformant pt361 derived from the wild strain P. lilacinus 36-1. Unlike the wild-type strain, the mutant pt361 showed high antagonistic effect against S. Sclerotiorum A. Under lab conditions, the pt361 inhibited (65%) radial mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum in dual culture test producing 5.9 mm inhibition zone IZ in front of the S. sclerotiorum colony. Moreover, the cell-free filtrate of pt361 culture showed strong inhibitory effects (60.3-100%) on mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum. In leaf detached assay, pt361 significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited (40.4-97.9%) the extension of the leaf spots caused by S. sclerotiorum A at all tested concentrations. The genomic DNA sequences of the inserted T-DNA flanking obtained from pt361 strain was cloned, verified as a glycoside hydrolase 31 family by homologous analysis with other fungal strains, and named PGH31 (2556bp). Secondary structure prediction showed a domain (Glycoside hydrolase31). Three years field trial confirmed that the cell-free filtrates or spores suspension of pt361 achieved significant (p < 0.05) suppression of oilseed rape stem rot, promoted growth and increased yield compared to the control and exceeded, at dose 100%, the action of the fungicide procymidone(®). In conclusion, the mutant pt361 of P. lilacinus is a novel and promising biocontrol agent against oilseed rape Sclerotinia stem rot. PMID:26521137

  18. The Initial Mass Function in the Taurus Star-forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, César; Luhman, K. L.; Hartmann, Lee; Stauffer, John R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2002-11-01

    By combining a deep optical imaging (I,z') survey of 8 deg2 in the Taurus star-forming region with data from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and follow-up spectroscopy, we have performed a search for low-mass Taurus members that is complete to 0.02 Msolar for reddenings of AV<~4. We report the discovery of nine new members with spectral types of M5.75-M9.5, corresponding to masses of 0.1-0.015 Msolar by recent evolutionary models. The new M9.5 member is the least massive brown dwarf found to date in the Taurus star-forming region. We derive an initial mass function (IMF) for the fields surveyed in this work and in our previous studies, which encompass 54% of the known Taurus membership. We compare the Taurus IMF with a similarly derived one for the Trapezium Cluster and to mass functions for the M35 and Pleiades open clusters. While the IMFs in all of these regions flatten near ~0.8 Msolar, the mass function in Taurus is more narrow and sharply peaked at this mass. Our survey indicates that Taurus has ~2 × fewer brown dwarfs at 0.02-0.08 Msolar than the Trapezium. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of the IMF, and suggest that the lower frequency of brown dwarfs in Taurus relative to the Trapezium may result from the low-density star-forming environment, leading to larger minimum Jeans masses. Based on observations obtained at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Keck Observatory, Steward Observatory, and the MMT Observatory. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.

  19. Distribution of infective gastrointestinal helminth larvae in tropical erect grass under different feeding systems for lambs.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Jalise Fabíola; Poli, Cesar Henrique Espírito Candal; Bremm, Carolina; de Castro, Juliane Machado; Fajardo, Neuza Maria; Sarout, Bruna Nunes Marsiglio; Castilhos, Zélia Maria de Souza

    2015-08-01

    This study examined tropical pasture contamination dynamics under different feeding systems for finishing lambs. The experiment aimed to evaluate the vertical distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infective larvae (L3) in erect grass subjected to grazing and to assess the parasite load and its impact on lamb performance in three production systems. Three treatments based on Aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. IZ-5) were as follows: T1, grass only; T2, grass with 1.5% of body weight (BW) nutrient concentrate supplementation; and T3, grass with 2.5% BW concentrate supplementation. The randomized block design had three replicates of three treatments, with six lambs per replicate. L3 were recovered from three pasture strata (upper, middle, and bottom), each representing one third of the sward height, and correlated with microclimatic data. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among treatments in the L3 recovery. Despite different grass heights between treatments and microclimates within the sward, the L3 concentration generally did not differ significantly among the three strata within a treatment (P > 0.05). Pasture microclimate did not correlate with larval recovery. At the end of the experiment, the animal fecal egg count was similar among treatments (P > 0.05). The results indicated that different lamb feeding systems in a tropical erect grassland caused differences in grass height but did not affect the distribution of infective larvae among strata. Larvae were found from the base to the top of the grass sward. PMID:26003429

  20. Associations Between Selected Xenobiotics and Antinuclear Antibodies in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Dinse, Gregg E.; Jusko, Todd A.; Whitt, Irene Z.; Co, Caroll A.; Parks, Christine G.; Satoh, Minoru; Chan, Edward K.L.; Rose, Kathryn M.; Walker, Nigel J.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Miller, Frederick W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Potential associations between background environmental chemical exposures and autoimmunity are understudied. Objectives: Our exploratory study investigated exposure to individual environmental chemicals and selected mixtures in relation to the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a widely used biomarker of autoimmunity, in a representative sample of the U.S. population. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis used data on 4,340 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004), of whom 14% were ANA positive, to explore associations between ANA and concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorines, organophosphates, phenols, metals, and other environmental exposures and metabolites measured in participants’ serum, whole blood, or urine. For dioxin-like compounds with toxic equivalency factors, we developed and applied a new statistical approach to study selected mixtures. Lognormal models and censored-data methods produced estimates of chemical associations with ANA in males, nulliparous females, and parous females; these estimates were adjusted for confounders and accommodated concentrations below detectable levels. Results: Several associations between chemical concentration and ANA positivity were observed, but only the association in males exposed to triclosan remained statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons (mean concentration ratio = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.8, 4.5; p < 0.00001). Conclusions: These data suggest that background levels of most xenobiotic exposures typical in the U.S. population are not strongly associated with ANA. Future studies should ideally reduce exposure misclassification by including prospective measurement of the chemicals of concern and should track changes in ANA and other autoantibodies over time. Citation: Dinse GE, Jusko TA, Whitt IZ, Co CA, Parks CG, Satoh M, Chan EKL, Rose KM, Walker NJ, Birnbaum LS, Zeldin DC, Weinberg CR

  1. Semi-blind Eigen Analyses of Recombination Histories Using Cosmic Microwave Background Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhang, M.; Bond, J. R.; Chluba, J.

    2012-06-01

    Cosmological parameter measurements from cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, such as Planck, ACTPol, SPTPol, and other high-resolution follow-ons, fundamentally rely on the accuracy of the assumed recombination model or one with well-prescribed uncertainties. Deviations from the standard recombination history might suggest new particle physics or modified atomic physics. Here we treat possible perturbative fluctuations in the free electron fraction, X e(z), by a semi-blind expansion in densely packed modes in redshift. From these we construct parameter eigenmodes, which we rank order so that the lowest modes provide the most power to probe X e(z) with CMB measurements. Since the eigenmodes are effectively weighed by the fiducial X e history, they are localized around the differential visibility peak, allowing for an excellent probe of hydrogen recombination but a weaker probe of the higher redshift helium recombination and the lower redshift highly neutral freezeout tail. We use an information-based criterion to truncate the mode hierarchy and show that with even a few modes the method goes a long way from the fiducial recombination model computed with RECFAST, X e, i(z), toward the precise underlying history given by the new and improved recombination calculations of COSMOREC or HYREC, X e, f(z), in the hydrogen recombination regime, though not well in the helium regime. Without such a correction, the derived cosmic parameters are biased. We discuss an iterative approach for updating the eigenmodes to further hone in on X e, f(z) if large deviations are indeed found. We also introduce control parameters that downweight the attention on the visibility peak structure, e.g., focusing the eigenmode probes more strongly on the X e(z) freezeout tail, as would be appropriate when looking for the X e signature of annihilating or decaying elementary particles.

  2. Chromospheric activity properties and search for subdwarfs and extreme subdwarfs based on LAMOST stellar spectral survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liyun; Pi, Qingfeng; Han, Xianming L.; Shi, Jianrong; Wang, Daimei; Luo, Ali; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-04-01

    Big data obtained from a stellar spectroscopic survey carried out using the Large Sky Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST, also known as Guo Shou Jing telescope) provide important information for studying chromospheric activity, variability of chromospheric activity, and chromospheric statistical properties, and for searching subdwarfs and extreme subdwarfs. Using as chromospheric activity indicator the Hα line, we detected 6391 active M stars among the 99741 stars in the M-star catalogue of the LAMOST survey. We also obtained the relationship between the fraction of active stars and the spectral types, which is consistent to previous results. We also studied the effects of activity on broadband photometric colors, and we did not see significant differences between active and inactive M stars. Using as spectroscopic molecular indicators the CaH123 and TiO5 lines, we found 1288 subdwarfs (including 120 active subdwarfs). We also found 15 extreme subdwarf (2 active extreme subdwarf) candidates. Our subdwarf candidates are slightly redder by about 0.05 mag in g-r compared with dwarfs using the g-r and r-i, and g-r and i-z color diagrams. Using our active M-star catalogue, we found that 898 stars exhibited Hα emission in at least two exposures (170 of them in at least three exposures). Among these 170 stars, 163 of them show variability in Hα emission on long timescales (more than 2.5 h). Furthermore, 34 stars show variability over short timescales (less than 2.5 h), and 29 actives show variability over both short and long time scales.

  3. Compositions and Structures of Vanadium Oxide Cluster Ions VmOn(±) (m = 2-20) Investigated by Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jenna W J; Moriyama, Ryoichi; Tahara, Hiroshi; Ohshimo, Keijiro; Misaizu, Fuminori

    2016-06-01

    Stable compositions and geometrical structures of vanadium oxide cluster ions, VmOn(±), were investigated by ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS). The most stable compositions of vanadium oxide cluster cations were (V2O4)(V2O5)(m-2)/2(+) and (VO2)(V2O5)(m-1)/2(+), depending on the clusters with even and odd numbers of vanadium atoms. Compositions one-oxygen richer than the cations, such as (V2O5)m/2(-) and (VO3)(V2O5)(m-1)/2(-), were predominantly observed for cluster anions. Assignments of these stable cluster ion compositions, which were determined as a result of collision-induced dissociations in IM-MS, can partly be explained with consideration of spin density distribution. By comparing the experimental collision cross sections (CCSs) obtained from ion mobility measurement with CCSs of the theoretically calculated structures, we confirmed the patterned growth of geometrical structures partially discussed in previous theoretical and spectroscopic studies. We showed that even sized (V2O5)m/2(±) where m = 6-12 had right polygonal prism structures except for the anionic V12O30(-), and for the clusters of odd numbers of vanadium m, cations and anions can either have bridged or pyramid structures. Both of the odd sized structures proposed were derivatives from the even sized right polygonal prism structures. The exception, V12O30(-), which had a CCS almost equal to that of the neighboring smaller V11O28(-), should have a structure of higher density than the right hexagonal prism, in which it was proposed to be a captured pyramid structure, derived from V11O28(-).

  4. Effect of game format on heart rate, activity profile, and player involvement in elite and recreational youth players.

    PubMed

    Randers, M B; Andersen, T B; Rasmussen, L S; Larsen, M N; Krustrup, P

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate activity profile, aerobic load, and player involvement in two game formats of recreational and elite youth football for two age groups. A total of 152 youth players participated, with 45 U10 players playing 5v5 and 8v8 games, and 41 U13 players playing 8v8 and 11v11 (20 min) games. Activity profile, heart rate (HR), and technical actions were measured during all games using 10 Hz GPS, video filming, and HR monitors. For U10, no difference was found in total distance covered (1754 ± 237 vs 1771 ± 314 m, P = 0.650, d = 0.06), whereas mean HR (174 ± 10 vs 168 ± 12 bpm, P = 0.001, d = 0.59) and number of technical actions (65.1 ± 24.0 vs 36.9 ± 20.4, P    0.001, d = 1.27) were higher in 5v5 than in 8v8. For U13, lower total distance covered (1821 ± 325 vs 2038 ± 328 m, P < 0.001, d = 0.66) and higher number of technical actions (36.2 ± 14.9 vs 26.9 ± 14.1, P < 0.001, d = 0.64) were observed in 8v8 than in 11v11, with no difference in mean HR (170 ± 10 vs 171 ± 10 bpm, P = 0.679, d = 0.10). In conclusion, HR is high in youth football matches irrespective of the level of play and the game format. Playing with fewer players on smaller pitches results in minor changes to the physical loading but elevates the technical involvement of youth players both at elite level and recreational level.

  5. Effect of taurine supplementation on fat and energy absorption in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    De Curtis, M; Santamaria, F; Ercolini, P; Vittoria, L; De Ritis, G; Garofalo, V; Ciccimarra, F

    1992-09-01

    In 10 children with cystic fibrosis and persisting steatorrhoea, supplementation with taurine (30-40 mg/kg/day) was given for two months as an adjunct to the usual pancreatic enzyme treatment. A three day fat and energy balance was performed in patients with cystic fibrosis, before and after the supplementation, and in seven healthy controls who did not receive taurine. Faecal fat was measured by a gravimetric method and stool energy was determined using a bomb calorimeter. Patients with cystic fibrosis, before and after taurine, and healthy controls received the same fat and energy intake (calculated by a dietitian). In patients with cystic fibrosis taurine did not produce any improvement of steatorrhoea (mean (SD) faecal fat 8.7 (3.3) v 11.2 (7.0) g/day, respectively before and after the supplementation), of faecal energy loss (0.978 (0.468) v 1.133 (0.539) MJ/day), of faecal fat expressed as percent of fat intake (13.4 (5.6) v 15.1 (9.8)%), and of faecal energy expressed as percent of energy intake (9.9 (3.6) v 11.2 (5.7)%). Healthy controls had significant lower fat (3.5 (2.3) g/day) and energy 0.576 (0.355) MJ/day faecal losses. In conclusion, taurine failed to decrease significantly fat and energy losses. Our study does not support the use of taurine supplementation in the nutritional management of cystic fibrosis. PMID:1417050

  6. State of the Art in Beta Titanium Alloys for Airframe Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, James D.; Briggs, Robert D.; Boyer, Rodney R.; Tamirisakandala, Sesh; Russo, Patrick; Shchetnikov, Nikolay; Fanning, John C.

    2015-06-01

    Beta titanium alloys were recognized as a distinct materials class in the 1950s, and following the introduction of Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al in the early 1960s, intensive research occurred for decades thereafter. By the 1980s, dozens of compositions had been explored and sufficient work had been accomplished to warrant the first major conference in 1983. Metallurgists of the time recognized beta alloys as highly versatile and capable of remarkable property development at much lower component weights than steels, coupled with excellent corrosion resistance. Although alloys such as Ti-15V-3Al-3Sn-3Cr, Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al and Ti-3AI-8V-6Cr-4Mo-4Zr (Beta C) were commercialized into well-known airframe systems by the 1980s, Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al was largely discarded following extensive employment on the SR-71 Blackbird. The 1990s saw the implementation of specialty beta alloys such as Beta 21S and Alloy C, in large part for their chemical and oxidation resistance. It was also predicted that by the 1990s, cost would be the major limitation on expansion into new applications. This turned out to be true and is part of the reason for some stagnation in commercialization of new such compositions over the past two decades, despite a good understanding of the relationships among chemistry, processing, and performance and some very attractive offerings. Since then, only a single additional metastable beta alloy, Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr-0.5Fe, has been commercialized in aerospace, although low volumes of other chemistries have found a place in the biomedical implant market. This article examines the evolution of this important class of materials and the current status in airframe applications. It speculates on challenges for expanding their use.

  7. Development of greenhouse screening for resistance to Aspergillus parasiticus infection and preharvest aflatoxin contamination in peanut.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W F; Holbrook, C C; Wilson, D M

    1996-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries and A. parasiticus Speare can invade peanut kernels and under certain environmental conditions produce unacceptable levels of the mycotoxin aflatoxin. A concerted effort is underway to reduce aflatoxin contamination in peanut and peanut products. A potentially effective method of control in peanut is the discovery and use of genes for resistance to either fungal invasion or aflatoxin formation. The objective of the present experimental study was to develop an effective and efficient procedure for screening individual plants or pods of single plants for resistance to invasion by the aflatoxigenic fungi and subsequent aflatoxin production. Methods of obtaining adequate drought-stress and fungal infection were developed through this series of experiments. By completely isolating the pods from the root zone and imposing drought-stress only on pegs and pods, high levels of fungal infection were observed. High amounts of preharvest aflatoxin accumulation were also produced by completely isolating the pods from the root zone. Mid-bloom inoculation with A. parasiticus-contaminated cracked corn and drought-stress periods of 40 to 60 days were the most effective procedures. This technique was used to assess peanut genotypes previously identified as being partially resistant to A. parasiticus infection or aflatoxin contamination, and segregating populations from four crosses. Variability in aflatoxin contamination was found among the 11 genotypes evaluated, however, none were significantly lower than the standard cultivars. Broad-sense heritability of four crosses was estimated through evaluation of seed from individual plants in the F2 generation. The heritability estimates of crosses GFA-2 x NC-V11 and Tifton-8 X NC-V11 were 0.46 and 0.29, respectively, but mean aflatoxin contamination levels were high (73,295 and 27,305 ppb). This greenhouse screening method could be an effective tool when genes for superior aflatoxin resistance are

  8. Compositions and Structures of Vanadium Oxide Cluster Ions VmOn(±) (m = 2-20) Investigated by Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jenna W J; Moriyama, Ryoichi; Tahara, Hiroshi; Ohshimo, Keijiro; Misaizu, Fuminori

    2016-06-01

    Stable compositions and geometrical structures of vanadium oxide cluster ions, VmOn(±), were investigated by ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS). The most stable compositions of vanadium oxide cluster cations were (V2O4)(V2O5)(m-2)/2(+) and (VO2)(V2O5)(m-1)/2(+), depending on the clusters with even and odd numbers of vanadium atoms. Compositions one-oxygen richer than the cations, such as (V2O5)m/2(-) and (VO3)(V2O5)(m-1)/2(-), were predominantly observed for cluster anions. Assignments of these stable cluster ion compositions, which were determined as a result of collision-induced dissociations in IM-MS, can partly be explained with consideration of spin density distribution. By comparing the experimental collision cross sections (CCSs) obtained from ion mobility measurement with CCSs of the theoretically calculated structures, we confirmed the patterned growth of geometrical structures partially discussed in previous theoretical and spectroscopic studies. We showed that even sized (V2O5)m/2(±) where m = 6-12 had right polygonal prism structures except for the anionic V12O30(-), and for the clusters of odd numbers of vanadium m, cations and anions can either have bridged or pyramid structures. Both of the odd sized structures proposed were derivatives from the even sized right polygonal prism structures. The exception, V12O30(-), which had a CCS almost equal to that of the neighboring smaller V11O28(-), should have a structure of higher density than the right hexagonal prism, in which it was proposed to be a captured pyramid structure, derived from V11O28(-). PMID:27172006

  9. The integrated analyses of digital field mapping techniques and traditional field methods: implications from the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, SW Turkey as a case-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Zabcı, Cengiz; Şahin, Murat

    2015-04-01

    The precise geological mapping is one of the most important issues in geological studies. Documenting the spatial distribution of geological bodies and their contacts play a crucial role on interpreting the tectonic evolution of any region. Although the traditional field techniques are still accepted to be the most fundamental tools in construction of geological maps, we suggest that the integration of digital technologies to the classical methods significantly increases the resolution and the quality of such products. We simply follow the following steps in integration of the digital data with the traditional field observations. First, we create the digital elevation model (DEM) of the region of interest by interpolating the digital contours of 1:25000 scale topographic maps to 10 m of ground pixel resolution. The non-commercial Google Earth satellite imagery and geological maps of previous studies are draped over the interpolated DEMs in the second stage. The integration of all spatial data is done by using the market leading GIS software, ESRI ArcGIS. We make the preliminary interpretation of major structures as tectonic lineaments and stratigraphic contacts. These preliminary maps are controlled and precisely coordinated during the field studies by using mobile tablets and/or phablets with GPS receivers. The same devices are also used in measuring and recording the geologic structures of the study region. Finally, all digitally collected measurements and observations are added to the GIS database and we finalise our geological map with all available information. We applied this integrated method to map the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone (BFSZ) in the southwest Turkey. The BFSZ is an active sinistral 60-to-90 km-wide shear zone, which prolongs about 300 km-long between Suhut-Cay in the northeast and Köyceğiz Lake-Kalkan in the southwest on land. The numerous studies suggest contradictory models not only about the evolution but also about the fault geometry of this

  10. Evidence for rapid geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe over the past 800 years from new French archeointensity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genevey, Agnès; Gallet, Yves; Rosen, Jean; Le Goff, Maxime

    2009-06-01

    The number of reliable archeointensity determinations obtained from Western Europe for the past millennium remains limited. Moreover, the large scatter between different datasets available is puzzling. The present study analyzed 31 new groups of baked clay (ceramic or brick) fragments sampled in France (29 groups) and in Belgium (2 groups). These groups contain several fragments collected from different artefacts and are precisely dated principally from historical constraints between the XIIIth and the XIXth centuries. Additionally, we re-evaluated 14 intensity values that we previously obtained from the same time period. The fragments were analyzed using two different thermal methods: (1) the "in field-zero field" (IZ) or the IZZI version of the classical Thellier and Thellier method and (2) the Triaxe protocol that involves high-temperature magnetization measurements. Data were corrected for the anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) and the dependence of TRM acquisition on the cooling rate was taken into account in the different protocols. Archeointensity data obtained on twin specimens sampled from the same fragment and using both experimental techniques generally show a good agreement (i.e. within 5%) at the fragment and at the site level. All retained site-level averaged intensity results (43 of 45 groups) have standard deviations of less than 5 µT. Furthermore, groups of approximately the same age have very consistent archeointensity. Altogether, the data presented herein recover a detailed and smoothed geomagnetic field intensity variation curve characterized by two peaks in intensity, the first during the second half of the XIVth century and the second around AD 1600, followed by a significant decreasing trend in intensity during most the XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries. This evolution does not satisfactorily fit with the expected intensity values for France derived from geomagnetic field models relying on a different evolution of the axial dipole

  11. State of oral cavity hygiene, sIgA level, mineral content of oral fluid, and optimization of preventive intervention in children with enamel hypoplasia and underlying comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Liubarets, S F; Kopylova, O V; Belingio, T O; Kolbasynska, V M; Sechina, I M; Liubarets, T F

    2015-12-01

    (p = 0,0001) ta indeksu Silness Loe (p = 0,0003). Pryznachennia remineralizuiuchogo geliu dostovirno pidvyshchuvalo vmist kal'tsiiu (r = 0,0008) ta ortofosfativ (r = 0,001) v rotoviy ridyni. U ditey obokh grupy ne bulo vyiavleno suttievykh zmin rivnia sIgA.Vysnovky. Vprovadzhennia kompleksu profilaktychnykh zakhodiv iz zastosuvanniam preparatu remineralizuiuchoI diI spryialo pokrashchenniu gigiieny porozhnyny rota, pidvyshchenniu vmistu mineral'nykh skladovykh rotovoI ridyny, odnak suttievo ne vplynulo na riven' sIgA.

  12. Level repulsion exponent β for many-body localization transitions and for Anderson localization transitions via Dyson Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2016-03-01

    The generalization of the Dyson Brownian motion approach of random matrices to Anderson localization (AL) models (Chalker et al 1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 554) and to many-body localization (MBL) Hamiltonians (Serbyn and Moore 2015 arXiv:1508.07293) is revisited to extract the level repulsion exponent β, where β =1 in the delocalized phase governed by the Wigner-Dyson statistics, β =0 , in the localized phase governed by the Poisson statistics, and 0<{βc}<1 at the critical point. The idea is that the Gaussian disorder variables h i are promoted to Gaussian stationary processes h i (t) in order to sample the disorder stationary distribution with some time correlation τ. The statistics of energy levels can then be studied via Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations. For the MBL quantum spin Hamiltonian with random fields h i , we obtain β =2qn,n+1\\text{EA}(N)/qn,n\\text{EA}(N) in terms of the Edwards-Anderson matrix qnm\\text{EA}(N)\\equiv \\frac{1}{N}{\\sum}i=1N|< {φn}|σ iz|{φm}> {{|}2} for the same eigenstate m  =  n and for consecutive eigenstates m  =  n  +  1. For the Anderson localization tight-binding Hamiltonian with random on-site energies h i , we find β =2{{Y}n,n+1}(N)/≤ft({{Y}n,n}(N)-{{Y}n,n+1}(N)\\right) in terms of the density correlation matrix {{Y}nm}(N)\\equiv {\\sum}i=1N|< {φn}|i> {{|}2}|< i|{φm}> {{|}2} for consecutive eigenstates m  =  n  +  1, while the diagonal element m  =  n corresponds to the inverse participation ratio {{Y}nn}(N)\\equiv {\\sum}i=1N|< {φn}|i> {{|}4} of the eigenstate |{φn}> .

  13. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  14. Multicolor surface photometry of a sample of low luminosity radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Sheetal Kumar; Pandey, S. K.; Chakradhari, N. K.; Baburao Pandge, Mahadev

    2015-08-01

    We present a detailed multiband photometric study of five galaxies, selected from a sample of low luminosity early-type galaxies from B2 sample, which have mpg = 15.7, mV = 16.5, redshifts up to 0.2, radio powers P408 = 1023 - 1026.5 W Hz-1 and between 1022 - 1025 W Hz-1 at 1.4 GHz. We have used observed BVR and Hα images from IGO 2m telescope (Pune, India) and 2m HCT, Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO Hanle, India), and archival multiband data from SDSS (ugriz), 2MASS (JHKs ), WISE, Spitzer (mid-IR), XMM, CHANDRA (X-ray), UV (GALEX) and radio from VLA, IRAM for this study.We used standard technique of surface photometry by fitting ellipses to the isophotes for studying the distribution of light in the galaxies by studying their surface brightness profiles, ellipticity profiles, position angle profiles, variation of center of isophotes along semi-major axis, shapes of isophotes, radial color gradients, twists in isophotes and fine structure variations from smooth light profile. The obtained surface brightness profiles are fitted to the core-Sersic model for decomposing the galaxy light profiles and quantify the radial stellar distributions of the sample galaxies.The multiband color index profiles, e.g. u-g, g-r, r-i, i-z, B-R, B-V, J-Hs , J-Ks , H-Ks , R-Ks , 3.4-4.6 μm, 4.6-12 μm (mid-IR) and FUV-NUV(UV), are obtained and combined with various maps e.g . unsharp-masked images, residual maps, quotient maps, dust extinction maps, Hα emission maps, CO intensity maps, diffuse X-ray emission maps and extinction curves of the galaxies to study the morphology, properties and physical correlations of different phases (e.g cool gas, dust, ionized gas and hot gases) of Inter Stellar Medium and to examine various star formation related processes in the galaxies.

  15. Impact of Forest Fires on Tree-Ring δ13C and δ18O of Gmelinii Larch in the Permafrost Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorre, Anastasia; Kirdyanov, Alexander; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Sidorova, Olga; Prokushkin, Anatoly

    2013-04-01

    the frequency and intensity of fires is expected to increase. Funding: SNF SCOPES IZ73Z0_128035 and RFBR-04-12-00542

  16. THE GAS CONSUMPTION HISTORY TO REDSHIFT 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bauermeister, Amber; Blitz, Leo; Ma, Chung-Pei E-mail: blitz@berkeley.ed

    2010-07-01

    Using the observations of the star formation rate (SFR) and H I densities to z {approx} 4, with measurements of the molecular gas depletion rate (MGDR) and local density of H{sub 2} at z = 0, we derive the history of the gas consumption by star formation to z {approx} 4. We find that closed-box models in which H{sub 2} is not replenished by H I require improbably large increases in {rho}(H{sub 2}) and a decrease in the MGDR with lookback time that is inconsistent with observations. Allowing the H{sub 2} used in star formation to be replenished by H I does not alleviate the problem because observations show that there is very little evolution of {rho}{sub H{sub I}}(z) from z = 0 to z = 4. We show that to be consistent with observational constraints, star formation on cosmic timescales must be fueled by intergalactic ionized gas, which may come from either accretion of gas through cold (but ionized) flows, or from ionized gas associated with accretion of dark matter halos. We constrain the rate at which the extragalactic ionized gas must be converted into H I and ultimately into H{sub 2}. The ionized gas inflow rate roughly traces the SFR density: about 1-2 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} Gyr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} from z {approx_equal} 1-4, decreasing by about an order of magnitude from z = 1 to z = 0 with details depending largely on MGDR(t). All models considered require the volume-averaged density of {rho}{sub H{sub 2}} to increase by a factor of 1.5-10 to z {approx} 1.5 over the currently measured value. Because the molecular gas must reside in galaxies, it implies that galaxies at high-z must, on average, be more molecule rich than they are at the present epoch, which is consistent with observations. These quantitative results, derived solely from observations, agree well with cosmological simulations.

  17. Ultra-reducing conditions in average mantle peridotites and in podiform chromitites: a thermodynamic model for moissanite (SiC) formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubkova, Anastasia; Schmidt, Max W.; Connolly, James A. D.

    2016-05-01

    Natural moissanite (SiC) is reported from mantle-derived samples ranging from lithospheric mantle keel diamonds to serpentinites to podiform chromitites in ophiolites related to suprasubduction zone settings (Luobusa, Dongqiao, Semail, and Ray-Iz). To simulate ultra-reducing conditions and the formation of moissanite, we compiled thermodynamic data for alloys (Fe-Si-C and Fe-Cr), carbides (Fe3C, Fe7C3, SiC), and Fe-silicides; these data were augmented by commonly used thermodynamic data for silicates and oxides. Computed phase diagram sections then constrain the P- T- fO2 conditions of SiC stability in the upper mantle. Our results demonstrate that: Moissanite only occurs at oxygen fugacities 6.5-7.5 log units below the iron-wustite buffer; moissanite and chromite cannot stably coexist; increasing pressure does not lead to the stability of this mineral pair; and silicates that coexist with moissanite have X Mg > 0.99. At upper mantle conditions, chromite reduces to Fe-Cr alloy at fO2 values 3.7-5.3 log units above the moissanite-olivine-(ortho)pyroxene-carbon (graphite or diamond) buffer (MOOC). The occurrence of SiC in chromitites and the absence of domains with almost Fe-free silicates suggest that ultra-reducing conditions allowing for SiC are confined to grain scale microenvironments. In contrast to previous ultra-high-pressure and/or temperature hypotheses for SiC origin, we postulate a low to moderate temperature mechanism, which operates via ultra-reducing fluids. In this model, graphite-/diamond-saturated moderately reducing fluids evolve in chemical isolation from the bulk rock to ultra-reducing methane-dominated fluids by sequestering H2O into hydrous phases (serpentine, brucite, phase A). Carbon isotope compositions of moissanite are consistent with an origin of such fluids from sediments originally rich in organic compounds. Findings of SiC within rocks mostly comprised by hydrous phases (serpentine + brucite) support this model. Both the hydrous phases

  18. The deep structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, A.; Cupillard, P.; Saygin, E.; Trampert, J.; Taymaz, T.; Capdeville, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-scale full waveform inversion of complete continental- and regional-scale seismograms reveals the crustal and upper-mantle signature of the North Anatolian Fault Zone which shapes the neotectonics of Turkey and the eastern Mediterranean. Within the crust, the fault zone is mostly bounded by several high-velocity blocks, suggesting that it developed along the edges of continental fragments with high rigidity. Below the crust, the surface expression of the eastern and central parts of the North Anatolian Fault Zone correlate with a pronounced low-velocity band that extends laterally over 600 km. Around 100 km depth, the low-velocity band merges into the shallow Anatolian asthenosphere, thereby providing a link to the Kirka-Afyon-Isparta Volcanic Field and the Central Anatolian Volcanics. We interpret the low-velocity band beneath the North Anatolian Fault Zone as the upper-mantle expression of the Tethyan sutures that formed 60-15 Ma ago as a result of Africa-Eurasian convergence. The structurally weak suture facilitated the formation of the younger (less than 10 Ma) crustal fault zone. In this sense, the North Anatolian Fault Zone is not only a crustal feature, but a narrow zone of weakness that extends into the upper mantle. Horizontal slices through the isotropic S velocity, vS, at 20 km (a) and 40 km (b) depth. Indicated are the surface expressions of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) marks the northern boundary of the NAFZ. Dashed rectangles mark regions that are amplified in the two leftmost panels of the figure. Dotted ellipses indicate thin (20-30 km) crust as inferred from receiver function analysis (Vanacore et al., GJI 2013). Key to marked features: ATB: Anatolide-Tauride Block, IZ: Istanbul Zone, KM: Krsehir Massif, SZ: Sakarya Zone. Horizontal slices through the isotropic S velocity, vs, at 70 km and 150 km depth beneath Europe and western Asia. The Anatolian region where shorter-period data have been

  19. Heat flow studies: Constraints on the distribution of uranium, thorium and potassium in the continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, Claude; Sclater, John G.; Simmons, Gene

    1981-02-01

    To study the amount of heat generated by radioactive decay in the continental crust, the usual practice in the literature is to fit to the heat flow and radioactivity data a relationship of the form: Q = Q r + D · A where Q and A are the observed heat flow and radiogenic heat production. Q r is the "reduced" heat flow and D is a depth scale. This procedure implicitly assumes that uranium, thorium and potassium have identical distributions in the crust. We suggest that significant information may be lost as the three radioelements may in fact be affected by processes operating over different depths. Data published for four heat flow provinces throughout the world are used to estimate the distributions of uranium, thorium and potassium in the continental crust. These distributions are characterized by a depth scales defined as follows: D i =∫0h C i(z)C i(0)dz where h is the thickness of the layer containing the bulk of radioactivity and C i(z) the concentration of element i at depth z. Three depth scales are computed from a least-squares fit to the following relationship: Q = Q r + D U · A U + D T · A T + D K · A T where Q is the observed heat flow and Q r some constant (a reduced heat flow). A i is the heat generation rate due to the radioactive decay of element i, and D i is the corresponding depth scale. The analysis suggests that the three distributions are different and that they have the same basic features in the four provinces considered. The depth scale for potassium is large in granitic areas, that for thorium is small and that for uranium lies between the other two. We propose a simple model according to which each radioelement essentially provides a record for one process. Potassium gives a depth scale for the primary differentiation of the crust. Thorium gives the depth scale of magmatic or metamorphic fluid circulation. Finally, the uranium distribution reflects the late effects of alteration due to meteoric water. We show that the heat flow and

  20. Dissociative photoionization mechanism of methanol isotopologues (CH3OH, CD3OH, CH3OD and CD3OD) by iPEPICO: energetics, statistical and non-statistical kinetics and isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Sampada; Sztáray, Bálint; Bodi, Andras

    2011-07-28

    The dissociative photoionization of energy selected methanol isotopologue (CH(3)OH, CD(3)OH, CH(3)OD and CD(3)OD) cations was investigated using imaging Photoelectron Photoion Coincidence (iPEPICO) spectroscopy. The first dissociation is an H/D-atom loss from the carbon, also confirmed by partial deuteration. Somewhat above 12 eV, a parallel H(2)-loss channel weakly asserts itself. At photon energies above 15 eV, in a consecutive hydrogen molecule loss to the first H-atom loss, the formation of CHO(+)/CDO(+) dominates as opposed to COH(+)/COD(+) formation. We see little evidence for H-atom scrambling in these processes. In the photon energy range corresponding to the B[combining tilde] and C[combining tilde] ion states, a hydroxyl radical loss appears yielding CH(3)(+)/CD(3)(+). Based on the branching ratios, statistical considerations and ab initio calculations, this process is confirmed to take place on the first electronically excited Ã(2)A' ion state. Uncharacteristically, internal conversion is outcompeted by unimolecular dissociation due to the apparently weak Renner-Teller-like coupling between the X[combining tilde] and the à ion states. The experimental 0 K appearance energies of the ions CH(2)OH(+), CD(2)OH(+), CH(2)OD(+) and CD(2)OD(+) are measured to be 11.646 ± 0.003 eV, 11.739 ± 0.003 eV, 11.642 ± 0.003 eV and 11.737 ± 0.003 eV, respectively. The E(0)(CH(2)OH(+)) = 11.6454 ± 0.0017 eV was obtained based on the independently measured isotopologue results and calculated zero point effects. The 0 K heat of formation of CH(2)OH(+), protonated formaldehyde, was determined to be 717.7 ± 0.7 kJ mol(-1). This yields a 0 K heat of formation of CH(2)OH of -11.1 ± 0.9 kJ mol(-1) and an experimental 298 K proton affinity of formaldehyde of 711.6 ± 0.8 kJ mol(-1). The reverse barrier to homonuclear H(2)-loss from CH(3)OH(+) is determined to be 36 kJ mol(-1), whereas for heteronuclear H(2)-loss from CH(2)OH(+) it is found to be 210 kJ mol(-1).

  1. HAT-P-32b and HAT-P-33b: Two Highly Inflated Hot Jupiters Transiting High-jitter Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Torres, G.; Latham, D. W.; Kovács, Géza; Béky, B.; Quinn, S. N.; Mazeh, T.; Shporer, A.; Marcy, G. W.; Howard, A. W.; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Noyes, R. W.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stefanik, R. P.; Fernandez, J. M.; Szklenár, T.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2011-11-01

    We report the discovery of two exoplanets transiting high-jitter stars. HAT-P-32b orbits the bright V = 11.289 late-F-early-G dwarf star GSC 3281-00800, with a period P = 2.150008 ± 0.000001 d. The stellar and planetary masses and radii depend on the eccentricity of the system, which is poorly constrained due to the high-velocity jitter (~80 m s-1). Assuming a circular orbit, the star has a mass of 1.16 ± 0.04 M ⊙ and radius of 1.22 ± 0.02 R ⊙, while the planet has a mass of 0.860 ± 0.164 M J and a radius of 1.789 ± 0.025 R J. The second planet, HAT-P-33b, orbits the bright V = 11.188 late-F dwarf star GSC 2461-00988, with a period P = 3.474474 ± 0.000001 d. As for HAT-P-32, the stellar and planetary masses and radii of HAT-P-33 depend on the eccentricity, which is poorly constrained due to the high jitter (~50 m s-1). In this case, spectral line bisector spans (BSs) are significantly anti-correlated with the radial velocity residuals, and we are able to use this correlation to reduce the residual rms to ~35 m s-1. We find that the star has a mass of 1.38 ± 0.04 M ⊙ and a radius of 1.64 ± 0.03 R ⊙ while the planet has a mass of 0.762 ± 0.101 M J and a radius of 1.686 ± 0.045 R J for an assumed circular orbit. Due to the large BS variations exhibited by both stars we rely on detailed modeling of the photometric light curves to rule out blend scenarios. Both planets are among the largest radii transiting planets discovered to date. Based in part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by NOAO (A285Hr, A146Hr, A201Hr, A289Hr), NASA (N128Hr, N145Hr, N049Hr, N018Hr, N167Hr, N029Hr), and the NOAO Gemini/Keck time-exchange program (G329Hr).

  2. KELT-14b and KELT-15b: An Independent Discovery of WASP-122b and a New Hot Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Colón, Knicole D.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wright, Duncan; Cargile, Phillip A.; Bayliss, Daniel; Pepper, Joshua; Collins, Karen A.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Lund, Michael B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Zhou, George; Gaudi, B. Scott; Tinney, C. G.; Penev, Kaloyan; Tan, T. G.; Stockdale, Chris; Curtis, Ivan A.; James, David; Udry, Stephane; Segransan, Damien; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Eastman, Jason D.; Myers, Gordon; Bartz, Jonathan; Bento, Joao; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Stevens, Daniel J.

    2016-06-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-14b and KELT-15b, two hot Jupiters from the KELT-South survey. KELT-14b, an independent discovery of the recently announced WASP-122b, is an inflated Jupiter mass planet that orbits a ∼ {5.0}-0.7+0.3 Gyr, V = 11.0, G2 star that is near the main sequence turnoff. The host star, KELT-14 (TYC 7638-981-1), has an inferred mass {M}* = {1.18}-0.07+0.05 M⊙ and radius {R}* = 1.37+/- -0.08 R⊙, and has {T}{{eff}} = {5802}-92+95 K, {log}{g}* = {4.23}-0.04+0.05 and [{{Fe}}/{{H}}] = 0.33 ± ‑0.09. The planet orbits with a period of 1.7100588 ± 0.0000025 days (T0 = 2457091.02863 ± 0.00047) and has a radius Rp = {1.52}-0.11+0.12 RJ and mass Mp = 1.196 ± 0.072 MJ, and the eccentricity is consistent with zero. KELT-15b is another inflated Jupiter mass planet that orbits a ∼{4.6}-0.4+0.5 Gyr, V = 11.2, G0 star (TYC 8146-86-1) that is near the “blue hook” stage of evolution prior to the Hertzsprung gap, and has an inferred mass {M}* = {1.181}-0.050+0.051 M⊙ and radius {R}* = {1.48}-0.04+0.09 R⊙, and {T}{{eff}} = {6003}-52+56 K, {log}{g}* = {4.17}-0.04+0.02 and [{{Fe}}/{{H}}] = 0.05 ± 0.03. The planet orbits on a period of 3.329441 ± 0.000016 days (T0 = 2457029.1663 ± 0.0073) and has a radius Rp = {1.443}-0.057+0.11 RJ and mass Mp = {0.91}-0.22+0.21 MJ and an eccentricity consistent with zero. KELT-14b has the second largest expected emission signal in the K-band for known transiting planets brighter than K < 10.5. Both KELT-14b and KELT-15b are predicted to have large enough emission signals that their secondary eclipses should be detectable using ground-based observatories.

  3. Characterization of the nuclear ribosomal DNA units and phylogeny of Beta L. wild forms and cultivated beets.

    PubMed

    Santoni, S; Bervillé, A

    1992-03-01

    The nuclear rDNA units of species belonging to the genus Beta were characterized using heterologous probes of flax (entire unit and 25S) and sunflower (6.1-kb Eco fragment containing the 18S, the entire intergenic spacer (IGS) and a small piece of the 25S). The physical maps of one species from each section of the genus was constructed by localization of the EcoRI, BamHI, HindIII, KpnI and SacI restriction sites. For each species a single individual was used to obtain total DNA. The major unit length is 11 kb, but variant length units at 10.4, 10.7 and 11.3 kb were found as minor forms. However, some individuals carried the 10.4-kb or the 10.7-kb variant length unit as the major form. For the variant length units of one species the restriction sites were conserved, so that the variation in length occurred in the IGS. The EcoRI fragment corresponding to the intergenic spacer appeared to be the best indicator of variation. The variable sequence in the IGS sometimes generated new restriction sites for the Corollinae and mainly, did so, for the Vulgares relative to the Procumbentes. The variable sites were able, to differentiate the three sections and species within the sections. Corollinae species belong to two different groups according to the absence or the presence of the BamHI (B4) site. The Vulgares species contain several unit types. We proposed that all the unit types derived from a unique unit, V-11-2.3, by unequal crossing-overs or conversion. We also supposed a homogenization mechanism because we found individuals homogeneous for every unit type. Among the cultivated beets, all the root beets contain only one rDNA unit type, V-11-2.9. Thus, we supposed that the common unit type of cultivated beets either brings a physiological advantage or is strictly linked to a favorable allele. It is likely that the rDNA unit of B. maritima were eliminated from sugar beet by the breeding process since they were not recovered. Whatever the process, we deduced that all the

  4. CyberShake: Running Seismic Hazard Workflows on Distributed HPC Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Graves, R. W.; Gill, D.; Olsen, K. B.; Milner, K. R.; Yu, J.; Jordan, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    As part of its program of earthquake system science research, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed a simulation platform, CyberShake, to perform physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) using 3D deterministic wave propagation simulations. CyberShake performs PSHA by simulating a tensor-valued wavefield of Strain Green Tensors, and then using seismic reciprocity to calculate synthetic seismograms for about 415,000 events per site of interest. These seismograms are processed to compute ground motion intensity measures, which are then combined with probabilities from an earthquake rupture forecast to produce a site-specific hazard curve. Seismic hazard curves for hundreds of sites in a region can be used to calculate a seismic hazard map, representing the seismic hazard for a region. We present a recently completed PHSA study in which we calculated four CyberShake seismic hazard maps for the Southern California area to compare how CyberShake hazard results are affected by different SGT computational codes (AWP-ODC and AWP-RWG) and different community velocity models (Community Velocity Model - SCEC (CVM-S4) v11.11 and Community Velocity Model - Harvard (CVM-H) v11.9). We present our approach to running workflow applications on distributed HPC resources, including systems without support for remote job submission. We show how our approach extends the benefits of scientific workflows, such as job and data management, to large-scale applications on Track 1 and Leadership class open-science HPC resources. We used our distributed workflow approach to perform CyberShake Study 13.4 on two new NSF open-science HPC computing resources, Blue Waters and Stampede, executing over 470 million tasks to calculate physics-based hazard curves for 286 locations in the Southern California region. For each location, we calculated seismic hazard curves with two different community velocity models and two different SGT codes, resulting in over

  5. Determination of Two-Liquid Mixture Composition by Assessing Dielectric Parameters 1. Precise Measuring System / Divu Šķidrumu Maisījuma Sastāva Noteikšana, Izvērtējot to Dielektriskos Parametrus 1. Precīza Mērīšanas Sistēma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilitis, O.; Shipkovs, P.; Merkulovs, D.

    2013-08-01

    Concentration measurements are important in bioethanol industries, in the R&D areas, for chemical, medical and microbiological analyses and processing as well as for diagnostics, manufacturing, etc. The overview shows development of the structural design of a system for measuring the concentration of solutions and mixtures consisting of two dielectric liquids. The basic principles of the system's design are given along with relevant equations. The concentration of dielectric liquids is measured using devices with capacitive sensors (1-300 pF). The operational frequency of the developed measuring system is 100.000 kHz. Configuration of the system excludes some errors usually arising at measurements, and broadens its applicability. For testing, the system was calibrated for measuring the concentration of anhydrous ethanol + de-ionized water mixture. Experimental results have shown a stable resolution of ±0.005 pF at measuring the sensor capacitance and a reproducible resolution better than ±0.01% at measuring the ethanol volume concentration Rakstā esam parādījuši iespējas izveidot augstas precizitātes, kompaktu, lētu un ērtu lietošanai dielektrisku šķidrumu mērīšanas sistēmu koncentrācijas noteikšanai. Šī sistēma ir piemērojama kapacitīviem sensoriem, kuru kapacitāte ir atkarīga no sensora izveidojuma kā arī mērāmā šķidruma dielektriskās konstantes vērtības, un kapacitāte var tikt noteikta pie frekvences 100,000 kHz robežās no 1 F līdz 300 pF. Mērīšanas sistēmas pārbaudei, sistēma tika kalibrēta etanola koncentrācijas mērīšanai tilpuma procentos sertificēta bezūdens etanola un dejonizēta ūdens maisījumiem. Pārbaužu rezultāti pierādīja, ka sensora kapacitātes vērtības ir stabili nosakāmas ar izšķirtspēju ne mazāku par ±0,005 pF. Sensora kapacitāšu vērtībām atbilstošā etanola tilpuma koncentrācijas atkārtojamu mērījumu izšķirtspēja visā mērīšanas diapazonā nebija mazāka par ±0

  6. Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and its specific phages from shrimp ponds in east coast of India.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, K M; Deivasigamani, B; Somasundaram, S T; Kumaran, S

    2010-10-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a natural microflora of marine and coastal water bodies and associated with mortality of larval shrimp in penaeid shrimp in ponds. Bacteriophages occur virtually in all places where their hosts exist. In this study, total distribution of V. parahaemolyticus and its phages were examined in shrimp ponds, seawater, estuary, animal surface, and tissues. Total vibrio count in sediments of two ponds was found to be 2.6 × 10(3) and 5.6 × 10(3) cfu/g. Incidence of V. parahaemolyticus in the ponds was close, while it was markedly higher in the animal surface and tissue samples. Biochemically identified eight strains of V. parahaemolyticus (V1, V3-V6, V9, V11, and V12) were taken for further infection studies with bacteriophage. Totally five bacteriophages capable of infecting V. parahaemolyticus MTCC-451 strain were isolated from all the samples. One of the isolated bacteriophage Vp1 from estuary was able to lyse all the isolated V. parahaemolyticus strains we used. Therefore, the morphology of Vp1 was estimated in TEM. Vp1 phage head measuring approximately about 50-60 nm diameter with icosahedral outline and a contractile tails of diameter 7 nm and length 100 nm and it was identified as Myoviridae. Therefore, the phages have the potential application in destroying bacterial pathogens.

  7. a Second Order Born Calculation for Charge Transfer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simony, Paul Richard

    Charge transfer cross sections, from the ground state of the target to the ground state of the projectile, have been computed in a second order Born approximation for protons incident upon hydrogen at energies of 1, 10, and 50 MeV. The exact second order matrix element is evaluated numerically, and the results are compared to a standard peaking approximation (SP), as well as to a new peaking approximation (LP) developed herein. At 50 MeV two distinct second order effects are evident in the differential cross section. For very small (center of mass) scattering angles ((theta) (DBLTURN) .032(DEGREES)) the second order cross section is smaller than the first order cross section, while at larger angles ((theta) (DBLTURN) .054(DEGREES)) a second Born peak occurs. This peak can be kinematically associated with a classical two step process which gives rise to the well known dominating v('-11) asymptotic velocity dependence of the total cross section. The reduction of the differential cross section at smaller angles serves to decrease the total cross section, as is predicted by the asymptotic expression. At 10 MeV second order effects become less important, and at 1 MeV the kinematic peak has all but disappeared, while the second order cross section has here become larger than the first order cross section. At intermediate energies experimental results indicate that the first order cross section used here is itself too large.

  8. Comparative serology techniques for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a rural population from the state of Querétaro, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Villagrán-Herrera, María Elena; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Rodríguez-Méndez, Adriana Jheny; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert Luis; Dávila-Esquivel, Felipe de Jesús; González-Pérez, Germán; Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; de Diego-Cabrera, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Immunological diagnostic methods for Trypanosoma cruzi depend specifically on the presence of antibodies and parasitological methods lack sensitivity during the chronic and “indeterminate” stages of the disease. This study performed a serological survey of 1,033 subjects from 52 rural communities in 12 of the 18 municipalities in the state of Querétaro, Mexico. We detected anti-T. cruzi antibodies using the following tests: indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), ELISA and recombinant ELISA (rELISA). We also performed Western blot (WB) analysis using iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD), a detoxifying enzyme excreted by the parasite, as the antigen. Positive test results were distributed as follows: ELISA 8%, rELISA 6.2%, IFA and IHA 5.4% in both cases and FeSOD 8%. A comparative study of the five tests was undertaken. Sensitivity levels, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, concordance percentage and kappa index were considered. Living with animals, trips to other communities, gender, age, type of housing and symptomatology at the time of the survey were statistically analysed using SPSS software v.11.5. Detection of the FeSOD enzyme that was secreted by the parasite and used as an antigenic fraction in WBs showed a 100% correlation with traditional ELISA tests. PMID:25411004

  9. Serum Samples From Middle-aged Adults Vaccinated Annually with Seasonal Influenza Vaccines Cross-neutralize Some Potential Pandemic Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Alvarado-Facundo, Esmeralda; Chen, Qiong; Anderson, Christine M; Scott, Dorothy; Vassell, Russell; Weiss, Carol D

    2016-02-01

    We examined serum samples from adults ages 48-64 who received multiple seasonal influenza vaccines from 2004 to 2009 for cross-neutralizing antibodies to potential pandemic strains. Using pseudoviruses bearing various hemagglutinins (HA-pseudoviruses), we found serum neutralization titers (≥160) in 100% against A/Japan/305/1957 (H2N2), 53% against A/Hong Kong/1073/99 (H9N2), 56% against the H3N2 variant A/Indiana/08/11 (H3N2v), 11% against A/Hong Kong/G9/97 (H9N2), and 36% A/chicken/Hong Kong/SF4/01 (H6N1). None had titers >160 to A/Shanghai/2/13 (H7N9) or A/Netherlands/219/03 (H7N7). Thirty-six percent to 0% had neutralization titers to various H5N1 strains. Titers to H9, H6, and H5 HA-pseudoviruses correlated with each other, but not with H3N2v, suggesting group-specific cross-neutralization.

  10. Spectrophotometric Standards for Cross-Observatory Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Miller, Rosa

    2005-07-01

    This program will obtain NICMOS spectrophotometry of four main sequence A stars and four K giants, each selected from the Spitzer IRAC photometric calibration target and/or candidate calibration target lists {Reach et al 2005, PASP,117,978}. These observations will supplement existing HST observations of DA white dwarfs and solar analogs, and will provide a broad base of stellar types for spectrophotometric cross calibration of HST, Spitzer, and eventually JWST. The targets are chosen to be faint enough for unsaturated observations with JWST NIRSPEC, yet still bright enough for high signal to noise in relatively short observations with HST+NICMOS and with Spitzer+IRAC.ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST OBS OF 1812095 & KF06T2These data demonstated heavy saturation in the longer exposures. For example, 1812095 {A3V, V=11.8, Ks=11.6} shows a peak rate of 250DN/s in G096, while KF06T2 {K1.5III V=13.8, Ks=11.3} reaches 250DN/s in G206, including the 100DN/s of background. Thus, full saturation of some charge wells occurred after integrating for 100s. Adopting a 2x safety factor, the integration times should be limited to 50s. The brightest stars are Ks=11, or 32% brighter.

  11. High-Q/V Monolithic Diamond Microdisks Fabricated with Quasi-isotropic Etching.

    PubMed

    Khanaliloo, Behzad; Mitchell, Matthew; Hryciw, Aaron C; Barclay, Paul E

    2015-08-12

    Optical microcavities enhance light-matter interactions and are essential for many experiments in solid state quantum optics, optomechanics, and nonlinear optics. Single crystal diamond microcavities are particularly sought after for applications involving diamond quantum emitters, such as nitrogen vacancy centers, and for experiments that benefit from diamond's excellent optical and mechanical properties. Light-matter coupling rates in experiments involving microcavities typically scale with Q/V, where Q and V are the microcavity quality-factor and mode-volume, respectively. Here we demonstrate that microdisk whispering gallery mode cavities with high Q/V can be fabricated directly from bulk single crystal diamond. By using a quasi-isotropic oxygen plasma to etch along diamond crystal planes and undercut passivated diamond structures, we create monolithic diamond microdisks. Fiber taper based measurements show that these devices support TE- and TM-like optical modes with Q > 1.1 × 10(5) and V < 11(λ/n) (3) at a wavelength of 1.5 μm. PMID:26134379

  12. An Occultation by Saturn's Rings on 1991 October 2-3 October 2-3 Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Bosh, A. S.; Cooke, M. L.; Bless, R. C.; Nelson, M. J.; Percival, J. W.; Taylor, M. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Robinson, E. L.; Van Citters, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    An occultation of the star GSC 6323-01396 (V = 11.9) by Saturn's rings was observed with the High-Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on 1991 October 2-3. This occultation occurred when Saturn was near a stationary point, so the apparent motion of Saturn relative to the star was dominated by the HST orbital motion (8 km/s). Data were recorded simultaneously at effective wavelengths of 3200 and 7500 A, with an integration time of 0.15 s. Fifteen segments of occultation data, totaling 6.8 h, were recorded in 13 successive orbits during the 20.0 h interval from UTC 1991 October 2, 19:35 until UTC 1991 October 3, 15:35. Occultations by 43 different features throughout the classical rings were unambiguously identified in the light curve, with a second occultation by 24 of them occurring due to spacecraft orbital parallax during this extremely slow event. Occultation times for features currently presumed circular were measured and employed in a geometrical model for the rings. This model, relating the observed occultation times to feature radii and longitudes, is presented here and is used in a least-squares fit for the pole direction and radius scale of Saturn's ring system.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AAVSO Photometric All Sky Survey (APASS) DR9 (Henden+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henden, A. A.; Templeton, M.; Terrell, D.; Smith, T. C.; Levine, S.; Welch, D.

    2016-01-01

    The AAVSO Photometric All Sky Survey (APASS) project is designed to bridge the gap between the shallow Tycho2 two-bandpass photometric catalog that is complete to V=11 and the deeper, but less spatially-complete catalogs like SDSS or PanSTARRS. It can be used for calibration of a specific field; for obtaining spectral information about single sources, determining reddening in a small area of the sky; or even obtaining current-epoch astrometry for rapidly moving objects. The survey is being performed at two locations: near Weed, New Mexico in the Northern Hemisphere; and at CTIO in the Southern Hemisphere. Each site consists of dual bore-sighted 20cm telescopes on a single mount, designed to obtain two bandpasses of information simultaneously. Each telescope covers 9 square degrees of sky with 2.5arcsec pixels, with the main survey taken with B,V,g',r',i' filters and covering the magnitude range 10

  14. Assessment of Electrosurgery Burns in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Seyyed Mehdi; Moradi, Mohammad; Khalaj, Alireza; Pazouki, Alireza; Tamannaie, Zeinab; Ghanbari, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Monopolar surgery is applied mostly in major operations, while bipolar is used in delicate ones. Attention must be paid in electrosurgery application to avoid electrical burns. Objectives: We aimed to assess factors associated with electrosurgery burns in cardiac surgery operating rooms. Patients and Methods: This was a case-control study in which two groups of 150 patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Imam Khomeini Hospital were recruited. Several factors like gender, age, operation duration, smoking, diseases, infection, atopia, , immunosuppressive drugs use, hepatic cirrhosis, and pulmonary diseases were compared between the two groups. Patients were observed for 24 hours for development of any burn related to the operation. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.11.5, by Chi square and T-test. Results: Patients in the two groups were similar except for two factors. DM and pulmonary diseases which showed significant differences (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002 respectively). Seventy-five patients from controls and 35 from the study group developed burns, which was significant (P ˂ 0.0001). Conclusions: None of the factors were significantly related to developing burns. The differences between the two groups highlights the importance of systems modifications to lessen the incidence of burns. PMID:26839854

  15. A new class of homogeneous visible-light photocatalysts: molecular cerium vanadium oxide clusters.

    PubMed

    Seliverstov, Andrey; Streb, Carsten

    2014-07-28

    The first systematic access to molecular cerium vanadium oxides is presented. A family of structurally related, di-cerium-functionalized vanadium oxide clusters and their use as visible-light-driven photooxidation catalysts is reported. Comparative analyses show that photocatalytic activity is controlled by the cluster architecture. Increased photoreactivity of the cerium vanadium oxides in the visible range compared with nonfunctionalized vanadates is observed. Based on the recent discovery of the first molecular cerium vanadate cluster, (nBu4 N)2 [(Ce(dmso)3 )2 V12 O33 Cl]⋅2 DMSO (1), two new di-cerium-containing vanadium oxide clusters [(Ce(dmso)4 )2 V11 O30 Cl]⋅DMSO (2) and [(Ce(nmp)4 )2 V12 O32 Cl]⋅NMP⋅Me2 CO (3; NMP=N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) were obtained by using a novel fragmentation and reassembly route. Pentagonal building units {(V)M5 } (M=V, Ce) reminiscent of "Müller-type" pentagons are observed in 2 and 3. Compounds 1-3 feature high visible-light photooxidative activity, and quantum efficiencies >10 % for indigo photooxidation are observed. Photocatalytic performance increases in the order 1<3<2. Mechanistic studies show that the irradiation wavelength and the presence of oxygen strongly affect photoreactivity. Initial findings suggest that the photooxidation mechanism proceeds by intermediate formation of hydroxyl radicals. The findings open new avenues for the bottom-up design of sunlight-driven photocatalysts.

  16. Meta-analysis of the Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection among Children and Adults of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Lankarani, Kamran B.; Afshari, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a common health problem related to many gastrointestinal disorders. This study aims to estimate the total and age specific prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori infection in Iran. We systematically reviewed all national and international databases and finally identified 21 studies were eligible for meta-analysis. Each of them were assigned a quality score using STROBE checklist. Due to significant heterogeneity of the results, random effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval of Helicobacter Pylori infection. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA. V11 software. The pooled prevalence (95% confidence interval) of Helicobacter Pylori infection among all population, children and adults were estimated as 54% (53%- 55%), 42% (41%- 44%) and 62% (61%- 64%) respectively. Helicobacter Pylori, has infected more than half of Iranian people during the last decade. Preventive strategies as well as taking into account this infection during clinical visits should be emphasized to reduce its transmission and prevalence within the community. PMID:27076886

  17. WASP-32b: A Transiting Hot Jupiter Planet Orbiting a Lithium-Poor, Solar-Type Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; West, R. G.; Enoch, R.; Lister, T. A.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D. L.; Ségransan, D.; Skillen, I.; Udry, S.

    2010-12-01

    We report the discovery of a transiting planet orbiting the star TYC 2-1155-1. The star, WASP-32, is a moderately bright (V = 11.3) solar-type star (Teff = 6100 ± 100 K, [Fe/H] = -0.13 ± 0.10). The light curve of the star obtained with the WASP-South and WASP-North instruments shows periodic transitlike features with a depth of about 1% and a duration of 0.10 day every 2.72 days. The presence of a transitlike feature in the light curve is confirmed using z-band photometry obtained with Faulkes Telescope North. High-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Coralie spectrograph confirms the presence of a planetary mass companion. From a combined analysis of the spectroscopic and photometric data, assuming that the star is a typical main-sequence star, we estimate that the planet has a mass Mp of 3.60 ± 0.07 MJup and a radius Rp = 1.19 ± 0.06 RJup. WASP-32 is one of a small group of hot Jupiters with masses greater than 3 MJup. We find that some stars with hot Jupiter companions and with masses Msstarf ≈ 1.2 Msolar, including WASP-32, are depleted in lithium and that the majority of these stars have lithium abundances similar to field stars.

  18. The PLATO 2.0 mission. Spanish contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Urqui O'Callaghan, R.; Suárez J. C.; Deeg, H.; Balado, A.

    2015-05-01

    The PLATO 2.0 space mission (PLAnetary Transits and Oscillation of stars) was selected by the ESA Science Programme in February 2014, as the M3 mission to be launched in 2024. PLATO 2.0 will detect terrestrial exoplanets in the habitable zone of bright solar-type stars and characterise their bulk properties. The exoplanets will be detected by the weak eclipses they produce when transiting in front of their parent star, while the long uninterrupted observations will allow also to analyze the oscillations of these stars, yielding their internal structure and evolutionary state. The stellar sample targeted by PLATO is bright enough (V<11.5) to be able to confirm the planets candidates using radial velocity spectroscopy from ground, providing so a complete characterization of the exoplanetary systems. Spain will contribute to the PLATO 2.0 instrument by providing the Focal Plane Assemblies of its 34 telescopes, as well as the Main Electronics Units which will perform onboard and in real time the photometric extraction of the stellar lightcurves.

  19. Efficiency of eugenol as anesthetic for the early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paula A P; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C; Melo, Daniela C de; Luz, Ronald K

    2015-03-01

    In aquaculture, activities with anesthetic compounds are usually used in order to ensure the welfare of farmed fish, allowing handling out of water with decreased trauma by stress. Presently, there is no information about anesthetic action of eugenol in early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of eugenol for larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia. Sixty animals were used for each group of weight, group I = 0.02 g; group II = 0.08 g; group III = 0.22 g; group IV = 2.62 g; and group V = 11.64 g. The eugenol concentrations tested were 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 mg L-1. No mortality was reported during the tests with eugenol. Tilapia larvae with 0.02 g and juveniles around 11.64 g can be anesthetized with eugenol concentrations between 150 and 175 mg L-1, since they determine the shortest sedation time (23 and 72 seconds, for the group of lowest and highest weights, respectively).

  20. The use of β titanium alloys in the aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, R. R.; Briggs, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    Beta titanium alloys have been available since the 1950s (Ti-13V-11Cr-3Mo or B120VCA), but significant applications of these alloys, beyond the SR-71 Blackbird, have been slow in coming. The next significant usage of a β alloy did not occur until the mid-1980s on the B-1B bomber. This aircraft used Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn sheet due to its capability for strip rolling, improved formability, and higher strength than Ti-6Al-4V. The next major usage was on a commercial aircraft, the Boeing 777, which made extensive use of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al high-strength forgings. Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn environmental control system ducting, castings, and springs were also used, along with Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Mo-4Zr (β-C) springs. Beta-21S was also introduced for high-temperature usage. More recent work at Boeing has focused on the development of Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr, a high-strength alloy that can be used at higher strength than Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al and is much more robust; it has a much wider, or friendlier, processing window. This, along with additional studies at Boeing, and from within the aerospace industry in general will be discussed in detail, summarizing applications and the rationale for the selection of this alloy system for aerospace applications.

  1. Dispatcher Recognition of Stroke Using the National Academy Medical Priority Dispatch System

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Brian H; Starkman, Sidney; Eckstein, Marc; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Haines, Jill; Huang, Rainy; Colby, Daniel; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2009-01-01

    Background Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMDs) play an important role in optimizing stroke care if they are able to accurately identify calls regarding acute cerebrovascular disease. This study was undertaken to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the current national protocol guiding dispatcher questioning of 911 callers to identify stroke, QA Guide v 11.1 of the National Academy Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS). Methods We identified all Los Angeles Fire Department paramedic transports of patients to UCLA Medical Center during the 12 month period from January to December 2005 in a prospectively maintained database. Dispatcher-assigned MPDS codes for each of these patient transports were abstracted from the paramedic run sheets and compared to final hospital discharge diagnosis. Results Among 3474 transported patients, 96 (2.8%) had a final diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Dispatchers assigned a code of potential stroke to 44.8% of patients with a final discharge diagnosis of stroke or TIA. Dispatcher identification of stroke showed a sensitivity of 0.41, specificity of 0.96, positive predictive value of 0.45, and negative predictive value of 0.95. Conclusions Dispatcher recognition of stroke calls using the widely employed MPDS algorithm is suboptimal, with failure to identify more than half of stroke patients as likely stroke. Revisions to the current national dispatcher structured interview and complaint identification algorithm for stroke may facilitate more accurate recognition of stroke by EMDs. PMID:19390065

  2. Exoplanet observations with GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallé, Enric

    2015-12-01

    Our group is presently conducting an observational campaign, using the 10-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), to obtain the transmission spectrum of several exoplanets during a transit event. The GTC instrument OSIRIS is used in its long-slit spectroscopic mode, covering the spectral range of 520-1040 nm, and observations are taken using a set of custom-built slits of various, broad, widths. We integrate the stellar flux of both stars in different wavelength regions producing several light curves and fit transit models in order to obtain the star-to-planet radius ratio Rp/Rs across wavelength. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Bayesian approach is used for the transit fitting. We will show that with our instrumental setup, OSIRIS has been able to reach precisions down to 250 ppm (WASP-48b, V=11.06 mag) for each color light curve 10 nm wide, in a single transit. And accuracies of the order of 500ppm can be obtained for objects with V=16. Central transit timing accuracies have been measured down to 6 seconds.Here, we will present refined planet parameters, the detection of planet color signatures, and the transmission spectra of a set of know and unpublished transiting exoplanets. We will also discuss the capabilities and limitations of GTC with current and future instrumentation, and the role of GTC as tool for the follow up of faint exoplanet targets.

  3. Low Reynolds turbulence model CFD simulation for complex electronic system: an industrial point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannuzzi, M.

    2014-07-01

    In electronic systems the presence of bluff bodies, sharp corners and bends are the cause of flow separation and large recirculation bubbles. Since the recirculation vortices develop they encapsulate the heat from an electronic component becoming one of the major contributors of malfunction. Going in depth in this, some numerical simulations of conjugate heat transfer for a heat wall-mounted cube have been performed using the commercial CFD code scSTREAM V11 by Software Cradle Co, Ltd. It is well known that the reliability of CFD analysis depends heavily on the turbulent model employed together with the wall functions implemented. The three low- Reynolds k - epsilon turbulent models developed by Abe-Nagano-Kondoh have been validated against experimental data consisting mainly of velocity profiles and surface temperature distributions provided in literature. The performed validation shows a satisfactory agreement between the measured and simulated data. The turbulent model chosen is then used for the CFD simulation of a complex electronic system.

  4. Norman L. Bowen Award to John Barry Dawson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joseph V.; Dawson, J. B.

    Barry Dawson is just right for th e first Norman L. Bowen Award in Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology. Like Norman L. Bowen, he has the inspiration to combine ideas from different disciplines to obtain a higher synthesis. Consider his brilliant talk of yesterday morning (Eos 69, p. 502, abstract V11C-06, Veined and metasomatised upper mantle beneath the Eastern African Rift: Evidence from N. Tanzania xenoliths). Barry rapidly reviewed the tectonic setting of east Africa, showed some nice photographs of the volcanic cones of Pello and Oldoinyo Lengai, focused on the upper-mantle xenoliths in scoria at Pello, moved in on the microscopy and mineral chemistry of the metasomatic veins in the peridotites, snowed how the lower density of a metasomatized peridotite would fit the middle of a geophysical profile from seismic surveys, and brought off a grand finale in which the Kenya dome was interpreted to result from inflation related to metasomatization of underlying peridotite. Undoubtedly, this will lead to many further studies of doming adjacent to rift systems around the world.

  5. Aloe vera Aqueous Extract Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Dependent Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Mirshekari, Hamideh; Sabri, Azame

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is a medicinal herb used as an anti-inflammatory and sedative agent. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera aqueous extract on morphine withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent female rats. Patients and Methods: The current research was performed on 40 female Wista-Albino rats which were made dependent on morphine using Houshyar protocol and were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E). Group A did not receive any agent in the period of handling but other groups (B, C, D and E) received 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of Aloe vera aqueous extract by gavage, three times daily for a week, respectively. Withdrawal symptoms, stool form, agitation, disparity, floppy eyelids, and body mass variations were checked for 10 days. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS v.11 software, and Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Statistical difference was considered significant (P < 0.05). Results: The results of the present study showed that agitation, disparity, and floppy eyelids in group E were significantly higher than those of others groups; however, these symptoms in group C were significantly lower than those of the other groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that the Aloe vera aqueous extract had various effects on morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent female rats . PMID:25593890

  6. Feasibility of a hybrid elastographic-microfluidic device to rapidly process and assess pancreatic cancer biopsies for pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ronnie; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Lim, Saniel D.; O’Donnell, Matt; Wang, Ruikang K.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, our collaborative research group explored the possibility of incorporating ultrasound elastography technology with a microfluidic device that is designed to prepare fine needle core biopsies (CBs; L=0.5–2.0 cm, D=0.4–1.2 mm) for pancreatic cancer diagnosis. For the first time, elastographic techniques were employed to measure shear wave velocity in fresh (3.7 m/s) and formalin-fixed (14.7 m/s) pancreatic CBs. Shear wave velocity did not vary whether fixed specimens were free on a microscope slide, or constrained within glass microfluidic channels: 11.5±1.9 v. 11.8±2.1 m/s. 4% agarose inclusions were also embedded within 1% agarose hydrogels to simulate cysts, neoplastic, or necrotic tissue within CBs. Inclusions were successfully visualized and measured using optical coherence elastography. These preliminary experiments demonstrate in a rudimentary fashion that elastographic measurements of pancreatic CBs may be incorporated with our microfluidic device. The rapid mapping of CB stiffness may provide qualitative spatial information for pathologists to determine a more accurate diagnosis for patients. PMID:26110186

  7. The prevalence of mental disorders in adults in different level general medical facilities in Kenya: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ndetei, David M; Khasakhala, Lincoln I; Kuria, Mary W; Mutiso, Victoria N; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca A; Kokonya, Donald A

    2009-01-01

    Background The possibility that a significant proportion of the patients attending a general health facility may have a mental disorder means that psychiatric conditions must be recognised and managed appropriately. This study sought to determine the prevalence of common psychiatric disorders in adult (aged 18 years and over) inpatients and outpatients seen in public, private and faith-based general hospitals, health centres and specialised clinics and units of general hospitals. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 10 health facilities. All the patients in psychiatric wards and clinics were excluded. Stratified and systematic sampling methods were used. Informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Data were collected over a 4-week period in November 2005 using various psychiatric instruments for adults. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS V. 11.5. Results A total of 2,770 male and female inpatients and outpatients participated in the study. In all, 42% of the subjects had symptoms of mild and severe depression. Only 114 (4.1%) subjects had a file or working diagnosis of a psychiatric condition, which included bipolar mood disorder, schizophrenia, psychosis and depression. Conclusion The 4.1% clinician detection rate for mental disorders means that most psychiatric disorders in general medical facilities remain undiagnosed and thus, unmanaged. This calls for improved diagnostic practices in general medical facilities in Kenya and in other similar countries. PMID:19144164

  8. Attenuated response to purified protein derivative in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: study in a population with a high prevalence of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    d Ponce; Acevedo-Vasquez, E; Sanchez-Torres, A; Cucho, M; Alfaro, J; Perich, R; Pastor, C; Harrison, J; Sanchez-Schwartz, C

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the response to PPD in patients with RA and to compare it with that of control subjects. Methods: 112 patients with RA and 96 healthy controls were studied. PPD 5 U was applied using the Mantoux method, and skin reaction was measured at 72 hours. The reaction was considered negative for PPD <5 mm. Results: There were no significant differences in age, sex, history of bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination, or tuberculosis contact between the two groups. The median size of the PPD induration in the patients with RA was significantly less than that in the control group (4.5 v 11.5 mm, p<0.01). 79 (70.6%) patients with RA compared with 25 (26%) of the control group had a negative reaction to PPD (p<0.01), a response not influenced by disease activity or duration of disease in the patients with RA. Conclusion: A PPD skin test is not an appropriate test for recognising LTBI in patients with RA in our population. PMID:16100342

  9. Searching for the counterpart to the unidentified gamma-ray source 2FGL J0221.4+6257c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque-Escamilla, Pedro; Sanchez-Ayaso, Estrella; Sanchez-Sutil, Juan Ramon; Marti, Josep

    The Fermi LAT source 2FGL J0221.4+6257c is tentatively associated in the Fermi catalogue to the SNR G132.7+01.3. However, its huge angular size of 80’ makes this identification uncertain. In an effort to find counterparts to this Fermi LAT source we used a cross-correlation between different catalogues and databases. As a result, the emission-line, early-type star VES 737 (V=11.86 mag, spectral type B9V) appeared as a possible gamma-ray binary candidate consistent at the position of the Fermi source. Trying to confirm the true nature of this source, we carried out a VLA observation which showed no radio detection in the position of VES 737, thus giving less reliability to the gamma-ray binary scenario. However, other interesting radio sources appeared consistent with the Fermi LAT error ellipse. Here we report the analysis taken so far to these sources, suggesting a possible PWN or AGN counterparts to the Fermi LAT 2FGL J0221.4+6257c.

  10. [A new human machine interface in neurosurgery: The Leap Motion(®). Technical note regarding a new touchless interface].

    PubMed

    Di Tommaso, L; Aubry, S; Godard, J; Katranji, H; Pauchot, J

    2016-06-01

    Currently, cross-sectional imaging viewing is used in routine practice whereas the surgical procedure requires physical contact with an interface (mouse or touch-sensitive screen). This type of contact results in a risk of lack of aseptic control and causes loss of time. The recent appearance of devices such as the Leap Motion(®) (Leap Motion society, San Francisco, USA) a sensor which enables to interact with the computer without any physical contact is of major interest in the field of surgery. However, its configuration and ergonomics produce key challenges in order to adapt to the practitioner's requirements, the imaging software as well as the surgical environment. This article aims to suggest an easy configuration of the Leap Motion(®) in neurosurgery on a PC for an optimized utilization with Carestream(®) Vue PACS v11.3.4 (Carestream Health, Inc., Rochester, USA) using a plug-in (to download at: https://drive.google.com/?usp=chrome_app#folders/0B_F4eBeBQc3ybElEeEhqME5DQkU) and a video tutorial (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVPTgxg-SIk).

  11. Leap Motion Gesture Control With Carestream Software in the Operating Room to Control Imaging: Installation Guide and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Pauchot, Julien; Di Tommaso, Laetitia; Lounis, Ahmed; Benassarou, Mourad; Mathieu, Pierre; Bernot, Dominique; Aubry, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, routine cross-sectional imaging viewing during a surgical procedure requires physical contact with an interface (mouse or touch-sensitive screen). Such contact risks exposure to aseptic conditions and causes loss of time. Devices such as the recently introduced Leap Motion (Leap Motion Society, San Francisco, CA), which enables interaction with the computer without any physical contact, are of wide interest in the field of surgery, but configuration and ergonomics are key challenges for the practitioner, imaging software, and surgical environment. This article aims to suggest an easy configuration of Leap Motion on a PC for optimized use with Carestream Vue PACS v11.3.4 (Carestream Health, Inc, Rochester, NY) using a plug-in (to download at https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_F4eBeBQc3yNENvTXlnY09qS00&authuser=0) and a video tutorial (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVPTgxg-SIk). Videos of surgical procedure and discussion about innovative gesture control technology and its various configurations are provided in this article.

  12. K2-30 b and K2-34 b: Two inflated hot Jupiters around solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Demangeon, O.; Santerne, A.; Barros, S. C. C.; Barrado, D.; Hébrard, G.; Osborn, H. P.; Armstrong, D. J.; Almenara, J.-M.; Boisse, I.; Bouchy, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Courcol, B.; Deleuil, M.; Delgado Mena, E.; Díaz, R. F.; Kirk, J.; Lam, K. W. F.; McCormac, J.; Pollacco, D.; Rajpurohit, A.; Rey, J.; Santos, N. C.; Sousa, S. G.; Tsantaki, M.; Wilson, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery of the two hot Jupiters K2-30 b and K2-34 b. The two planets were detected during campaigns 4 and 5 of the extension of the Kepler mission, K2; they transit their main-sequence stars with periods of ~4.099 and ~2.996 days. Subsequent ground-based radial velocity follow-up with SOPHIE, HARPS-N, and CAFE established the planetary nature of the transiting objects. We analyzed the transit signal, radial velocity, and spectral energy distributions of the two systems to characterize their properties. Both planets (K2-30 b and K2-34 b) are bloated hot Jupiters (1.20 RJup and 1.22 RJup) around relatively bright (V = 13.5 and V = 11.5) slow rotating main-sequence (G8 and F9) stars. Thus, these systems are good candidates for detecting the Rossiter-MacLaughlin effect in order to measure their obliquity and for atmospheric studies. Full Tables 1 and 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/594/A50

  13. Human papillomavirus and breast cancer in Iran: a meta- analysis

    PubMed Central

    Haghshenas, Mohammad Reza; Mousavi, Tahoora; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Afshari, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): This study aims to investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and breast cancer using meta- analysis. Materials and Methods: Relevant studies were identified reviewing the national and international databases. We also increased the search sensitivity by investigating the references as well as interview with research centers and experts. Finally, quality assessment and implementation of inclusion/exclusion criteria determined the eligible articles for meta-analysis. Based on the heterogeneity observed among the results of the primary studies, random effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of HPV infection and also pooled odds ratio between HPV and developing breast cancer using Stata SE V. 11 software. Results: This meta- analysis included 11 primary studies investigating the HPV infection prevalence among 1539 Iranian women. Pooled prevalence (95% confidence interval) of HPV infection among Iranian women with breast cancer was estimated as of 23.6% (6.7- 40.5), while, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) between HPV infection and developing breast cancer was estimated as of 5.7% (0.7- 46.8). Conclusion: This meta- analysis showed a high prevalence of HPV infection among women with breast cancer. We also found that the odds of developing breast cancer among women with breast cancer was more than that of women without breast cancer. PMID:27114791

  14. Homology modeling and in silico site directed mutagenesis of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Saranyah, Kannuchamy; Kalva, Sukesh; Mukund, Nisha; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Saleena, Lilly M

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase is the crucial enzyme that involves in bioethanol synthesis pathway of Clostridium thermocellum. It is an ethanologenic organism but has been investigated less on its enzyme structure. The amino acid sequence of Pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was derived from UNIPROT and the screened crystal structure was taken as the template for homology modeling using MODELLER 9V11. The model was loop refined and was validated using RMSD, ProSA and PROCHECK. The docking and per residue interaction studies were carried out to elucidate the interaction energies of amino acid residues with pyruvate. To enhance the binding of pyruvate with the enzyme, mutation studies were carried out by replacing Thr31 as it had a less interaction energy. Out of 10 mutants, T31N, T31Q and T31G were selected using potential energy and the residual energy calculations. Five nanoseconds explicit MD simulations were run for apo, wild type and mutants T31N, T31Q and T31G using Desmond. RMSD, RMSF, distance plots and H-bonds analysis proved T31G to be a favorable mutant for binding of pyruvate. Thus, modeling PFOR would help in profound understanding of its structural clefts and mutation studies would aid in improving the enzyme efficiency. PMID:26369404

  15. PAPR mitigation algorithms for OFDM WiMAX link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashwan, Gasem; Kenshil, Salih; Matin, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    OFDM has been adopted in many high systems due to its high data rates and to its robust performance in fading channel. OFDM distributes the data among number of carriers which are called subcarriers. The subcarriers must be orthogonal to prevent the carrier from interfering to each other. Features such overcoming ISI (inter-symbol interference) and the complexity of Designing both receiver and transmitter made it ideal technique for both wired and wireless communication as long as optical communications. However, OFDM suffers from a defect called Peak Average power ratio (PAPR). APARP is crucial drawback that limits the way that OFDM functions and reducing or mitigating this factor in wireless and optical environment will help overcome and enhance the OFDM date rate. PAPR is the main cause of inter-carrier interference and high out-of-band power, and consequently Bit error rate BER. We investigate some of the techniques that mitigate the effect of PAPR. These techniques are merged together to provide a better PAPR reduction with the existing techniques. In this paper, we are proposing a new reduction algorithm to minimize the effect of the PAPR. The results and simulation are done in Optisystem V-11 and Matlab environment. These approaches will be applied on WiMAX application and the performances between the different techniques are examined.

  16. Long-term safety evaluation of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03%: a pooled analysis of six double-masked, randomized, active-controlled clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Wirta, David; VanDenburgh, Amanda M; Weng, Emily; Whitcup, Scott M; Kurstjens, Sef; Beddingfield, Frederick C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% was approved in the US for reducing intraoccular pressure (IOP) based on two double-masked, active-controlled clinical trials. Four additional long-term studies (≥12 months) were conducted; however, the aggregate safety profile of the six studies has not been reported. Methods: Adverse events (AEs) were pooled from six double-masked, active-controlled, long-term clinical trials in which subjects received bimatoprost 0.03% once daily (QD) or twice daily (BID) as an eyedrop. AE terms were converted to MedDRA (V.11.0) Preferred Terms and analyzed. Results: In total, 1409 patients received more than one dose of bimatoprost 0.03% QD or BID. Most AEs were mild in severity and reported by 86.7% (QD) and 94.8% (BID) of subjects (≤12 months of treatment). AEs reported through month 12 (aggregate incidence of ≥5%) were conjunctival hyperemia, increased eyelash growth, eye pruritus, periocular skin hyperpigmentation, eye irritation, dry eye, and hypertrichosis. AE onset was generally reported within four months of treatment. The cumulative incidence of common AEs in the QD treatment group at 24–48 months was similar to that measured at 12 months of treatment. Conclusion: Bimatoprost 0.03% has a favorable safety and tolerability profile as characterized by six long-term studies. Common AEs were due to the known pharmacological activity of bimatoprost and reversible with treatment cessation. PMID:21691584

  17. Development and implementation of a portable grating interferometer system as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM.

    PubMed

    Assoufid, Lahsen; Shi, Xianbo; Marathe, Shashidhara; Benda, Erika; Wojcik, Michael J; Lang, Keenan; Xu, Ruqing; Liu, Wenjun; Macrander, Albert T; Tischler, Jon Z

    2016-05-01

    We developed a portable X-ray grating interferometer setup as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamline 1-BM. The interferometer can be operated in phase-stepping, Moiré, or single-grating harmonic imaging mode with 1-D or 2-D gratings. All of the interferometer motions are motorized; hence, it is much easier and quicker to switch between the different modes of operation. A novel aspect of this new instrument is its designed portability. While the setup is designed to be primarily used as a standard tool for testing optics at 1-BM, it could be potentially deployed at other APS beamlines for beam coherence and wavefront characterization or imaging. The design of the interferometer system is described in detail and coherence measurements obtained at the APS 34-ID-E beamline are presented. The coherence was probed in two directions using a 2-D checkerboard, a linear, and a circular grating at X-ray energies of 8 keV, 11 keV, and 18 keV.

  18. Characterization of nontransmural myocardial infarction by positron-emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.; Biello, D.; Welch, M.J.; Ter-Pogossian, M.M.; Roberts, R.; Sobel, B.E.

    1982-04-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether positron emission tomography (PET) performed after i.v. 11C-palmitate permits detection and characterization of nontransmural myocardial infarction. PET was performed after the i.v. injection of 11C-palmitate in 10 normal subjects, 24 patients with initial nontransmural myocardial infarction (defined electrocardiographically), and 22 patients with transmural infarction. Depressed accumulation of 11C-palmitate was detected with sagittal, coronal and transverse reconstructions, and quantified based on 14 contiguous transaxial reconstructions. Defects with homogeneously intense depression of accumulation of tracer were detected in all 22 patients with transmural infarction (100%). Abnormalities of the distribution of 11C-palmitate in the myocardium were detected in 23 patients with nontransmural infarction (96%). Thallium scintigrams were abnormal in only 11 of 18 patients with nontransmural infarction (61%). Tomographically estimated infarct size was greater among patients with transmural infarction (50.4 +/- 7.8 PET-g-Eq/m2 (+/- SEM SEM)) compared with those with nontransmural infarction (19 +/- 4 PET-g-Eq, p less than 0.01). Residual accumulation of 11C-palmitate within regions of infarction was more intensely depressed among patients with transmural compared to nontransmural infarction (33 +/- 1 vs 39 +/- 1% maximal myocardial radioactivity, p less than 0.01). Thus, PET and metabolic imaging with 11C-palmitate is a sensitive means of detecting, quantifying and characterizing nontransmural and transmural myocardial infarction.

  19. The Importance of Caveolin-1 as Key-Regulator of Three-Dimensional Growth in Thyroid Cancer Cells Cultured under Real and Simulated Microgravity Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Riwaldt, Stefan; Bauer, Johann; Pietsch, Jessica; Braun, Markus; Segerer, Jürgen; Schwarzwälder, Achim; Corydon, Thomas J.; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that the CAV1 gene was down-regulated, when poorly differentiated thyroid FTC-133 cancer cells formed spheroids under simulated microgravity conditions. Here, we present evidence that the caveolin-1 protein is involved in the inhibition of spheroid formation, when confluent monolayers are exposed to microgravity. The evidence is based on proteins detected in cells and their supernatants of the recent spaceflight experiment: “NanoRacks-CellBox-Thyroid Cancer”. The culture supernatant had been collected in a special container adjacent to the flight hardware incubation chamber and stored at low temperature until it was analyzed by Multi-Analyte Profiling (MAP) technology, while the cells remaining in the incubation chamber were fixed by RNAlater and examined by mass spectrometry. The soluble proteins identified by MAP were investigated in regard to their mutual interactions and their influence on proteins, which were associated with the cells secreting the soluble proteins and had been identified in a preceding study. A Pathway Studio v.11 analysis of the soluble and cell-associated proteins together with protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA) suggests that caveolin-1 is involved, when plasminogen enriched in the extracellular space is not activated and the vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) mediated cell–cell adhesion is simultaneously strengthened and activated PRKCA is recruited in caveolae, while the thyroid cancer cells do not form spheroids. PMID:26633361

  20. ASASSN-16ae: A Powerful White-light Flare on an Early-L Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Gagné, Jonathan; Stanek, K. Z.; Prieto, José L.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Chomiuk, Laura; Dong, Subo; Seibert, Mark; Strader, Jay

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery and classification of SDSS J053341.43+001434.1 (SDSS0533), an early-L dwarf first discovered during a powerful ΔV < -11 magnitude flare observed as part of the ASAS-SN survey. Optical and infrared spectroscopy indicate a spectral type of L0 with strong Hα emission and a blue NIR spectral slope. Combining the photometric distance, proper motion, and radial velocity of SDSS0533 yields three-dimensional velocities of (U, V, W) = (14 ± 13, -35 ± 14, -94 ± 22) km s-1, indicating that it is most likely part of the thick disk population and probably old. The three detections of SDSS0533 obtained during the flare are consistent with a total V-band flare energy of at least 4.9 × 1033 erg (corresponding to a total thermal energy of at least E tot > 3.7 × 1034 erg), placing it among the strongest detected M dwarf flares. The presence of this powerful flare on an old L0 dwarf may indicate that stellar-type magnetic activity persists down to the end of the main sequence and on older ML transition dwarfs.

  1. SuperWASP discovery and SALT confirmation of a semi-detached eclipsing binary that contains a δ Scuti star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, A. J.; Lohr, M. E.; Smalley, B.; Wheatley, P. J.; West, R. G.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We searched the SuperWASP archive for objects that display multiply periodic photometric variations. Methods: Specifically we sought evidence for eclipsing binary stars that display a further non-harmonically related signal in their power spectra. Results: The object 1SWASP J050634.16-353648.4 has been identified as a relatively bright (V ~ 11.5) semi-detached eclipsing binary with a 5.104 d orbital period that displays coherent pulsations with a semi-amplitude of 65 mmag at a frequency of 13.45 d-1. Follow-up radial velocity spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope confirmed the binary nature of the system. Using the phoebe code to model the radial velocity curve with the SuperWASP photometry enabled parameters of both stellar components to be determined. This yielded a primary (pulsating) star with a mass of 1.73 ± 0.11 M⊙ and a radius of 2.41 ± 0.06 R⊙, as well as a Roche-lobe filling secondary star with a mass of 0.41 ± 0.03 M⊙ and a radius of 4.21 ± 0.11 R⊙. Conclusions: 1SWASP J050634.16-353648.4 is therefore a bright δ Sct pulsator in a semi-detached eclipsing binary with one of the largest pulsation amplitudes of any such system known. The pulsation constant indicates that the mode is likely a first overtone radial pulsation.

  2. KELT-10b and KELT-11b: Two Sub-Jupiter Mass Planets well-Suited for Atmospheric Characterization in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.

    2015-12-01

    The Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) project is a photometric survey in both the northern and southern hemispheres for transiting planets around bright stars (8 < V < 11), and has discovered 15 planets to date. Of these, several possess unique characteristics that make them especially well suited for study of planet atmospheres. Here, I present the first two discoveries from the KELT-South survey. KELT-10b is an inflated transiting sub-Jupiter mass planet (0.68 MJ) around a V=10.7 early G-star. It has the 3rd deepest transit (1.4%) in the southern hemisphere for a star V < 12.5, making it a great target for transmission spectroscopy. KELT-11b is a highly inflated transiting Saturn mass planet (0.22 MJ) orbiting one of the brightest planet-hosting stars in the southern hemisphere. Interestingly, KELT-11b's host star is a clear sub-giant star (log(g) ~ 3.7). I will discuss their impact for atmospheric characterization. For example, the highly inflated nature of the KELT-11b planet provides the ability to study a sub-Jupiter atmosphere at very low planetary gravity, while the sub-giant nature of its host star allows us to study the effects of post main sequence evolution of a host star on a hot Jupiter.

  3. B2H6 PLAD Doped PMOS Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Z.; Miller, T.; Winder, E.; Persing, H.; Arevalo, E.; Gupta, A.; Parrill, T.; Singh, V.; Qin, S.; McTeer, A.

    2006-11-13

    Plasma doping (PLAD) achieves high wafer throughput by directly extracting ions across the plasma sheath. PLAD profiles are typically surface peaked instead of retrograde as obtained from beamline (BL) implant. It may require optimization of PLAD energy and dose in order to match BL doping results. From device optimization point of view, it is necessary to understand the impact of doping parameters to device characteristics. In this paper we present the PMOS device performance with the poly gate and source drain (SD) implants carried out using B2H6 PLAD. The BL control conditions are 2-5 keV 11B+ 4-6x1015 cm-2. Equivalent device performance for p+ poly gate doping is obtained using PLAD with B2H6 / H2. In SD doping using same gas mixture, nearly 50% reduction in SD contact resistance is observed in the PLAD splits. The reduction in SD contact resistance leads to 10-15% increase in device on-current, hence demonstrating the process advantages of using PLAD in addition to having a high wafer throughput.

  4. Texting decreases the time to treatment for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Menon‐Johansson, A S; McNaught, F; Mandalia, S; Sullivan, A K

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of a text message result service within an inner London sexual health clinic. Method Demographic data, diagnoses, and time to diagnosis and treatment were collected over a 6 month period for patients receiving text messages and a matched standard recall group. Data on messages sent, staff time, and cost in relation to result provision were collected. Results Over a 6 month period 952 text messages were sent. In the final month of analysis, 33.9% of all clinic results were provided by text, resulting in a saving of 46 hours of staff time per month. 49 messages requested that the patient return for treatment, 28 of these patients had untreated genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection. The mean number of days (SD) to diagnosis was significantly shorter in the text message group (TG) v the standard recall group (SG) (7.9 (3.6) v 11.2 (4.7), p <0.001). The median time to treatment was 8.5 days (range 4–27 days) for the TG group v 15.0 (range 7–35) for SG, p  =  0.005. Conclusion Patients with genital CT infection are diagnosed and receive treatment sooner since the introduction of a text message result service. The introduction of this service has resulted in a significant saving in staff time. PMID:16461603

  5. The Importance of Caveolin-1 as Key-Regulator of Three-Dimensional Growth in Thyroid Cancer Cells Cultured under Real and Simulated Microgravity Conditions.

    PubMed

    Riwaldt, Stefan; Bauer, Johann; Pietsch, Jessica; Braun, Markus; Segerer, Jürgen; Schwarzwälder, Achim; Corydon, Thomas J; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that the CAV1 gene was down-regulated, when poorly differentiated thyroid FTC-133 cancer cells formed spheroids under simulated microgravity conditions. Here, we present evidence that the caveolin-1 protein is involved in the inhibition of spheroid formation, when confluent monolayers are exposed to microgravity. The evidence is based on proteins detected in cells and their supernatants of the recent spaceflight experiment: "NanoRacks-CellBox-Thyroid Cancer". The culture supernatant had been collected in a special container adjacent to the flight hardware incubation chamber and stored at low temperature until it was analyzed by Multi-Analyte Profiling (MAP) technology, while the cells remaining in the incubation chamber were fixed by RNAlater and examined by mass spectrometry. The soluble proteins identified by MAP were investigated in regard to their mutual interactions and their influence on proteins, which were associated with the cells secreting the soluble proteins and had been identified in a preceding study. A Pathway Studio v.11 analysis of the soluble and cell-associated proteins together with protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA) suggests that caveolin-1 is involved, when plasminogen enriched in the extracellular space is not activated and the vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) mediated cell-cell adhesion is simultaneously strengthened and activated PRKCA is recruited in caveolae, while the thyroid cancer cells do not form spheroids. PMID:26633361

  6. [A new human machine interface in neurosurgery: The Leap Motion(®). Technical note regarding a new touchless interface].

    PubMed

    Di Tommaso, L; Aubry, S; Godard, J; Katranji, H; Pauchot, J

    2016-06-01

    Currently, cross-sectional imaging viewing is used in routine practice whereas the surgical procedure requires physical contact with an interface (mouse or touch-sensitive screen). This type of contact results in a risk of lack of aseptic control and causes loss of time. The recent appearance of devices such as the Leap Motion(®) (Leap Motion society, San Francisco, USA) a sensor which enables to interact with the computer without any physical contact is of major interest in the field of surgery. However, its configuration and ergonomics produce key challenges in order to adapt to the practitioner's requirements, the imaging software as well as the surgical environment. This article aims to suggest an easy configuration of the Leap Motion(®) in neurosurgery on a PC for an optimized utilization with Carestream(®) Vue PACS v11.3.4 (Carestream Health, Inc., Rochester, USA) using a plug-in (to download at: https://drive.google.com/?usp=chrome_app#folders/0B_F4eBeBQc3ybElEeEhqME5DQkU) and a video tutorial (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVPTgxg-SIk). PMID:27234915

  7. Leap Motion Gesture Control With Carestream Software in the Operating Room to Control Imaging: Installation Guide and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Pauchot, Julien; Di Tommaso, Laetitia; Lounis, Ahmed; Benassarou, Mourad; Mathieu, Pierre; Bernot, Dominique; Aubry, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, routine cross-sectional imaging viewing during a surgical procedure requires physical contact with an interface (mouse or touch-sensitive screen). Such contact risks exposure to aseptic conditions and causes loss of time. Devices such as the recently introduced Leap Motion (Leap Motion Society, San Francisco, CA), which enables interaction with the computer without any physical contact, are of wide interest in the field of surgery, but configuration and ergonomics are key challenges for the practitioner, imaging software, and surgical environment. This article aims to suggest an easy configuration of Leap Motion on a PC for optimized use with Carestream Vue PACS v11.3.4 (Carestream Health, Inc, Rochester, NY) using a plug-in (to download at https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_F4eBeBQc3yNENvTXlnY09qS00&authuser=0) and a video tutorial (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVPTgxg-SIk). Videos of surgical procedure and discussion about innovative gesture control technology and its various configurations are provided in this article. PMID:26002115

  8. Higher Efficiency for Quasi-Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Under Low Light Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desilva, Ajith; Bandara, T. M. W. J.; Fernado, H. D. N. S.; Fernando, P. S. L.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Jayasundara, W. J. M. J. S. R.; Furlani, M.; Mellander, B.-E.

    2014-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), lower cost solar energy conversion devices are alternative green energy source. The liquid based electrolyte DSSCs have higher efficiencies with many practical issues while the quasi-solid-state DSSCs resolve the key problems but efficiencies are relatively low. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based gel polymer electrolytes were fabricated as DSSCs by incorporating ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate plasticizers and tetrapropylammonium iodide salt. A thin layer of electrolyte was sandwiched between the TiO2 anode (sensitized with N719 dye) and the Pt counter electrode. The electrolyte had an ionic conductivity of 2.6 mS/cm at 25 degrees of Celsius. DSSCs incorporating this gel electrolyte revealed Vsc circuit, Jsc, fill factor (FF) and efficiency values of 0.71 V, 11.8 mA, 51 percent and 4.2 percent respectively under 1 sun irradiation. The efficiency of the cell increased with decreasing solar irradiance achieving up to 10 percent efficiency and 80 percent FF at low irradiance values. This work uncovers that quasi-solid state DSSCs can reach efficiencies close to that of liquid electrolytes based cells.

  9. Peculiarities of exciton polariton dispersion for ternary molecular crystal with isotopic replacement defects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumyantsev, Vladimir V.; Fedorov, Stanislav A.

    2002-03-01

    The peculiarities of exciton polariton spectrum caused of isotopic replacement defects in ternary molecular crystal have been studied. In the examined case configuration dependence of molecular currents, energies and intermolecular resonance interaction matrix W is weak as well as W-components are small. It enabled to describe main exciton spectrum peculiarities in approach similar to orientated gas model [1] and to obtain polariton dispersion low in analytical form. Three specific dispersion curves having two “the bottle throat” and reflecting isotopic replacement effect is added to the pair of typical polariton curves for perfect crystal. The values of “the bottle throats” of that curves has been evaluated. Non-collinearity of the molecule dipole moments in crystalline matrix and the moments of isotopic replacement admixture determine it. 1.Rumyantsev V.V., Fedorov S.A. Polariton propagation in mixed molecular crystals.Fizika i Tekhnika Vysokikh Davlenii. 2001, v.11, N.4 (special issue).-P.112-117.

  10. Theranostic Applications of Lutetium-177 in Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Das, Tapas; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    Lutetium-177 has been widely discussed as a radioisotope of choice for targeted radionuclide therapy. The simultaneous emission of imageable gamma photons [208 keV (11%) and 113 keV (6.4%)] along with particulate β(-) emission [β(max) = 497 keV] makes it a theranostically desirable radioisotope. In the present article, the possibility of using two 177Lu-based agents viz. 177Lu-EDTMP and 177Lu-DOTATATE for theranostic applications in metastatic bone pain palliation (MBPP) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), have been explored. In the case of 177Lu-EDTMP, the whole-body images obtained are compared with those recorded using 99mTc-MDP in the same patient. On the other hand, pre-therapy images acquired with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE are compared with similar images obtained with standard agents, such as 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC (SPECT) and 68Ga-DOTA-TOC (PET) in the same patient. The advantage of the long physical half-life (T1/2) of 177Lu has been utilized in mapping the pharmacokinetics of two additional agents, 177Lu-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) in radiation synovectomy of knee joints and 177Lu-HA for therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results of these multiple studies conclusively document the potential of 177Lu as a theranostic radioisotope.

  11. Bioactive Chaetoglobosins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Song; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Wensheng; Zhu, Xinwei; Ding, Weijia; Li, Chunyuan

    2016-01-01

    A novel chaetoglobosin named penochalasin I (1) with a unprecedented six-cyclic 6/5/6/5/6/13 fused ring system, and another new chaetoglobosin named penochalasin J (2), along with chaetoglobosins G, F, C, A, E, armochaetoglobosin I, and cytoglobosin C (3–9) were isolated from the culture of Penicillium chrysogenum V11. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation with the experimental CD. Compound 1 was the first example, with a six-cyclic fused ring system formed by the connection of C-5 and C-2′ of the chaetoglobosin class. Compounds 5–8 remarkably inhibited the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) = 11.79–23.66 μM), and compounds 2, 6, and 7 greatly inhibited C. gloeosporioides (MICs = 23.58–47.35 μM), showing an antifungal activity higher than that of carbendazim. Compound 1 exhibited marked cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-435 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 < 10 μM), and compounds 6 and 9 showed potent cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and A549 cells (IC50 < 10 μM). PMID:27690061

  12. Assessment of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic based on urinary concentrations and speciation of arsenic.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, J G; Johnson, L R

    1990-01-01

    An analytical speciation method, capable of separating inorganic arsenic (As (V), As (III] and its methylated metabolites (MMAA, DMAA) from common, inert, dietary organoarsenicals, was applied to the determination of arsenic in urine from a variety of workers occupationally exposed to inorganic arsenic compounds. Mean urinary arsenic (As (V) + As (III) + MMAA + DMAA) concentrations ranged from 4.4 micrograms/g creatinine for controls to less than 10 micrograms/g for those in the electronics industry, 47.9 micrograms/g for timber treatment workers applying arsenical wood preservatives, 79.4 micrograms/g for a group of glassworkers using arsenic trioxide, and 245 micrograms/g for chemical workers engaged in manufacturing and handling inorganic arsenicals. The maximum recorded concentration was 956 micrograms/g. For the most exposed groups, the ranges in the average urinary arsenic speciation pattern were 1-6% As (V), 11-14% As (III), 14-18% MMAA, and 63-70% DMAA. The highly raised urinary arsenic concentrations for the chemical workers, in particular, and some glassworkers are shown to correspond to possible atmospheric concentrations in the workplace and intakes in excess of, or close to, recommended and statutory limits and those associated with inorganic arsenic related diseases. PMID:2357455

  13. Efficient quasi-monoenergetic ion beams up to 18 MeV/nucleon via self-generated plasma fields in relativistic laser plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniyappan, Sasi; Huang, Chengkun; Gautier, Donald; Hamilton, Christopher; Santiago, Miguel; Kreuzer, Christian; Shah, Rahul; Fernandez, Juan; Los Alamos National Laboratory Team; Ludwig-Maximilian-University Team

    2015-11-01

    Table-top laser-plasma ion accelerators seldom achieve narrow energy spreads, and never without serious compromises in efficiency, particle yield, etc. Using massive computer simulations, we identify a self-organizing scheme that exploits persisting self-generated plasma electric (~ TV/m) and magnetic (~ 104 Tesla) fields to reduce the ion energy spread after the laser exits the plasma - separating the ion acceleration from the energy spread reduction. Consistent with the scheme, we experimentally demonstrate aluminum and carbon ion beams with narrow spectral peaks at energies up to 310 MeV (11.5 MeV/nucleon) and 220 MeV (18.3 MeV/nucleon), respectively, with high conversion efficiency (~ 5%, i.e., 4J out of 80J laser). This is achieved with 0.12 PW high-contrast Gaussian laser pulses irradiating planar foils with optimal thicknesses of up to 250 nm that scale with laser intensity. When increasing the focused laser intensity fourfold (by reducing the focusing optic f/number twofold), the spectral-peak energy increases twofold. These results pave the way for next generation compact accelerators suitable for applications. For example, 400 MeV (33.3 MeV/nucleon) carbon-ion beam with narrow energy spread required for ion fast ignition could be generated using PW-class lasers.

  14. A new species of Odorrana (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae) from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, Cuong The; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Odorrana is described from the karst forests in northeastern Vietnam based on morphological differences and molecular divergence. Morphologically, the new species is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following diagnostic characters: (1) size large (SVL 85.9-91.6 mm in males, 108.7-110.1 mm in females); (2) head longer than wide; (3) vomerine teeth present; (4) external vocal sacs absent; (5) snout short (SL/SVL 0.16-0.17); (6) tympanum large (TD/ED 0.70 in males, 0.68 in females); (7) dorsal surface of head and anterior part of body smooth, posterior part of body and flanks with small tubercles; (8) supratympanic fold present; (9) dorsolateral fold absent; (10) webbing formula I0-0II0-0III0-1/2IV1/2-0V; (11) in life, dorsum green with dark brown spots; (12) flanks greyish brown with dark brown spots; (13) throat and chest grey, underside of limbs with large dark brown spots, edged in white, forming a network. In the phylogenetic analyses, the new species is unambiguously nested within the O. andersonii group, and placed as the sister taxon to O. wuchuanensis. PMID:27394273

  15. Comparative serology techniques for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a rural population from the state of Querétaro, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villagrán-Herrera, María Elena; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Rodríguez-Méndez, Adriana Jheny; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert Luis; Dávila-Esquivel, Felipe de Jesús; González-Pérez, Germán; Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Diego-Cabrera, José Antonio de

    2014-11-01

    Immunological diagnostic methods for Trypanosoma cruzi depend specifically on the presence of antibodies and parasitological methods lack sensitivity during the chronic and "indeterminate" stages of the disease. This study performed a serological survey of 1,033 subjects from 52 rural communities in 12 of the 18 municipalities in the state of Querétaro, Mexico. We detected anti-T. cruzi antibodies using the following tests: indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), ELISA and recombinant ELISA (rELISA). We also performed Western blot (WB) analysis using iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD), a detoxifying enzyme excreted by the parasite, as the antigen. Positive test results were distributed as follows: ELISA 8%, rELISA 6.2%, IFA and IHA 5.4% in both cases and FeSOD 8%. A comparative study of the five tests was undertaken. Sensitivity levels, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, concordance percentage and kappa index were considered. Living with animals, trips to other communities, gender, age, type of housing and symptomatology at the time of the survey were statistically analysed using SPSS software v.11.5. Detection of the FeSOD enzyme that was secreted by the parasite and used as an antigenic fraction in WBs showed a 100% correlation with traditional ELISA tests.

  16. Relative susceptibility of titanium alloys to hot-salt stress-corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    Susceptibility of titanium alloys to hot-salt stress-corrosion cracking increased as follows: Ti-2Al-11Sn-5Zr-0.2Si(679), Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo(6242), Ti-6Al-4V(64), Ti-6Al-4V-3Co(643), Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V(811), and Ti-13V-11Cr-3A1(13-11-3). The Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-0.25Si(5621S) alloy was both the least and most susceptible depending on heat treatment. Such rankings can be drastically altered by heat-to-heat and processing variations. Residual compressive stresses and cyclic exposures also reduce susceptibility to stress-corrosion. Simulated turbine-engine compressor environmental variables such as air velocity, pressure, dewpoint, salt concentration, and salt deposition temperature have only minor effects. Detection of substantial concentrations of hydrogen in all corroded alloys confirmed the existence of a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism.

  17. A new species of Odorrana (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae) from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, Cuong The; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-02-26

    A new species of Odorrana is described from the karst forests in northeastern Vietnam based on morphological differences and molecular divergence. Morphologically, the new species is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following diagnostic characters: (1) size large (SVL 85.9-91.6 mm in males, 108.7-110.1 mm in females); (2) head longer than wide; (3) vomerine teeth present; (4) external vocal sacs absent; (5) snout short (SL/SVL 0.16-0.17); (6) tympanum large (TD/ED 0.70 in males, 0.68 in females); (7) dorsal surface of head and anterior part of body smooth, posterior part of body and flanks with small tubercles; (8) supratympanic fold present; (9) dorsolateral fold absent; (10) webbing formula I0-0II0-0III0-1/2IV1/2-0V; (11) in life, dorsum green with dark brown spots; (12) flanks greyish brown with dark brown spots; (13) throat and chest grey, underside of limbs with large dark brown spots, edged in white, forming a network. In the phylogenetic analyses, the new species is unambiguously nested within the O. andersonii group, and placed as the sister taxon to O. wuchuanensis.

  18. Ni-Al Protective Coating of Steel Electrodes in Dc Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production / Ni-Al Pārklājuma Ietekme Uz Tērauda Elektrodiem Līdzstrāvas Elektrolīzē Ūdeņraža Ražošanai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizpurietis, P.; Vanags, M.; Kleperis, J.; Bajars, G.

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen can be a good alternative to fossil fuels under the conditions of world's crisis as an effective energy carrier derived from renewable resources. Among all the known methods of hydrogen production, water electrolysis gives the ecologically purest hydrogen, so it is of importance to maximize the efficiency of this process. The authors consider the influence of plasma sprayed Ni-Al protective coating of 316L steel anode-cathode electrodes in DC electrolysis. In a long-term (24 h) process the anode corrodes strongly, losing Cr and Ni ions which are transferred to the electrolyte, while only minor corrosion of the cathode occurs. At the same time, the composition of anode and cathode electrodes protected by Ni-Al coating changes only slightly during a prolonged electrolysis. As the voltammetry and Tafel plots evidence, the Ni-Al coating protects both the anode and cathode from the corrosion and reduces the potential of hydrogen evolution. The results obtained show that such a coating works best in the case of steel electrodes. Darbā pētīts, kā līdzstrāvas elektrolīzē tērauda 316L elektrodus (anods un katods) ietekmē ar plazmas izputināšanas metodi iegūts Ni-Al pārklājums. Tikko uznestam pārklājumam ir mikrostrukturēta virsma, kas kodināšanas laikā mainās, gan pēc reljefa, gan elementu sastāva. Veicot ilgstošu (24 stundas elektrolīzi), atrasts, ka tikai tērauda elektrods anoda lomā intensīvi korodē un zaudē hroma un niķeļa jonus, kas pāriet elektrolītā, turpretī katods mainās relatīvi maz. Pārklājums Ni-Al pēc uznešanas tiek kodināts karstā sārmā, kad tiek izšķīdināta daļa sastāvā esošo elementu (Al, Si, Cd), bet ilgstošas elektrolīzes laikā pārklājuma sastāvs mainās maz gan anodam, gan katodam. Elektrodu elektroķīmiskie raksturlielumi noteikti ar voltamperometrijas un Tāfeļa līkņu analīzes metodēm. Atrasts, ka Ni-Al pārklājums aizsargā gan anodu, gan katodu no korozijas un samazina

  19. Vorticity and upscaled dispersion in 3D heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Dato, Mariaines; Chiogna, Gabriele; de Barros, Felipe; Bellin, Alberto; Fiori, Aldo

    2015-04-01

    Modeling flow in porous media is relevant for many environmental, energy and industrial applications. From an environmental perspective, the relevance of porous media flow becomes evident in subsurface hydrology. In general, flow in natural porous media is creeping, yet the large variability in the hydraulic conductivity values encountered in natural aquifers leads to highly heterogeneous flow fields. This natural variability in the conductivity field will affect both dilution rates of chemical species and reactive mixing. A physical consequence of this heterogeneity is also the presence of a various localized kinematical features such as straining, shearing and vorticity in aquifers, which will influence the shape of solute clouds and its fate and transport. This work aims in fundamentally characterizing the vorticity field in spatially heterogeneous flow fields as a function of their statistical properties in order to analyze the impact on transport processes. In our study, three-dimensional porous formations are constructed with an ensemble of N independent, non-overlapping spheroidal inclusions submerged into an homogeneous matrix, of conductivity K0. The inclusions are randomly located in a domain of volume W and are fully characterized by the geometry of spheroid (oblate or prolate), their conductivity K (random and drawn from a given probability density function fκ), the centroid location ¯x, the axes ratio e, the orientation of the rotational axis (α1,α2) and the volume w. Under the assumption of diluted medium, the flow problem is solved analitically by means of only two parameters: the conductivity contrast κ = K/K0 and the volume fraction n = Nw/W . Through the variation of these parameters of the problem, it is possible to approximate the structure of natural heterogeneous porous media. Using a random distribution of the orientation of the inclusions, we create media defined by the same global anisotropy f = Iz/Ix but different micro

  20. Geological and geophysical activities at Spallanzani Science Department (Liceo Scientifico Statale "Lazzaro Spallanzani" - Tivoli, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favale, T.; De Angelis, F.; De Filippis, L.

    2012-04-01

    The high school Liceo Scientifico "Lazzaro Spallanzani" at Tivoli (Rome) has been fully involved in the study of geological and geophysical features of the town of Tivoli and the surrounding area in the last twelve years. Objective of this activity is to promote the knowledge of the local territory from the geological point of view. Main activities: • School year 2001-2002: Setting up inside the school building of a Geological Museum focusing on "Geological Evolution of Latium, Central Italy" (in collaboration with colleagues M. Mancini, and A. Pierangeli). • March, 15, 2001: Conference of Environmental Geology. Lecturer: Prof. Raniero Massoli Novelli, L'Aquila University and Società Italiana di Geologia Ambientale. • School years 2001-2002 and 2002-2003: Earth Sciences course for students "Brittle deformation and tectonic stress in Tivoli area". • November, 2003: Conference of Geology, GIS and Remote Sensing. Lecturers: Prof. Maurizio Parotto and Dr Alessandro Cecili (Roma Tre University, Rome), and Dr Stefano Pignotti (Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sulla Montagna, Rome). • November, 2003, 2004 and 2005: GIS DAY, organized in collaboration with ESRI Italia. • School year 2006-2007: Earth Sciences course for students "Acque Albule basin and the Travertine of Tivoli, Latium, Central Italy" (focus on travertine formation). • School year 2010-2011: Earth Sciences course for students "Acque Albule basin and the Travertine of Tivoli. Geology, Hydrogeology and Microbiology of the basin, Latium, Central Italy" (focus on thermal springs and spa). In the period 2009-2010 a seismic station with three channels, currently working, was designed and built in our school by the science teachers Felice De Angelis and Tomaso Favale. Our seismic station (code name LTTV) is part of Italian Experimental Seismic Network (IESN) with identification code IZ (international database IRIS-ISC). The three drums are online in real time on websites http

  1. Textural and petrological characteristics of ultrahigh-pressure chromitites, indicating a mantle recycling origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Shoji; Miura, Makoto; Yamamoto, Shinji; Shmelev, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    examine the nodular-textured UHP chromitites from Luobusa (Yamamoto et al., 2009) to compare with nodular-textured chromities from the Oman ophiolite, which we consider as of typical low-P origin. They are completely different. The chromite nodule is an aggregate of subhedral to euhedral chromian spinel grains with interstitial olivine from the Oman chromitite, but is apparently an oval-shaped spinel grain cut by fractures filled with olivine (= COF (chromite cut by olivine-filled fractures) texture). Similar COF texture was confirmed from possible UHP chromitites from Ray-Iz ophiolite, the Polar Urals (Trumbull et al., 2009; Shmelev, 2011). Chromian spinel is totally free from pargasite and other inclusions in UHP chromitites (Miura et al., 2012). Olivine in chromitites with the COF texture is characterized by exceptionally high NiO contents (up to more than 1 wt%). These characteristics are apparently consistent with the deep recycling origin for the UHP chromitites. The COF texture is a result of a rheological contrast between olivine and chromian spinel during the travel of the chromitite in the mantle. The high Ni character of olivine is due to diffusion of Ni from chromian spinel during the recycling. The primary nodular-textured chromitite of low-P igneous origin can be basically preserved even after deep recycling, although compaction and possible phase transformation had occurred.

  2. Climatic record of the Iberian peninsula from lake Moncortes' sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Min; Huguet, Carme; Rull, Valenti; Valero, Blas; Rosell-Mele, Antoni

    2014-05-01

    .19km2. Lake Moncortes is situated at 1065 m above sea level, has an average temperature of 10ºC (minimum 3 and maximum 16ºC) and a mean annual precipitation of 770mm. We used the MBT/CBT (Weijers et al. 2007) proxy of pH and terrestrial temperature and the TEX86 temperature proxy (Schouten et al. 2002) to estimate changes in and around the lake. Both proxies are based on the glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) of archaea (isoprenoid GDGTs) and bacteria (branched GDGTs) origin. We also measured soils surrounding the lake (Menges et al. 2013) in order to establish end-members for the proxies as well as organic matter transport. Data on n-alkane isotopes will help establish hydrographic regime changes. We observe changes in temperature and humidity consistent with those on teh northern hemisphere. J. Menges, C. Huguet, J.M. Alcañiz, S. Fietz, D. Sachse, A. Rosell-Melé Biogechemistry discussions (2013), BGD bg-2013-198. S. Schouten, E.C. Hopmans, E. Schefuss, J.S.S. Damste, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 204(2002) 265-274 J.W.H. Weijers, S. Schouten, J.S.S. Damste, Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta 71(2007) A1098-A1098.

  3. Clustering analysis of high-redshift luminous red galaxies in Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoloudakis, N.; Shanks, T.; Sawangwit, U.

    2013-03-01

    We present a clustering analysis of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in Stripe 82 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We study the angular two-point autocorrelation function, w(θ), of a selected sample of over 130 000 LRG candidates via colour-cut selections in izK with the K-band coverage coming from UKIRT (United Kingdom Infrared Telescope) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS). We have used the cross-correlation technique of Newman to establish the redshift distribution of the LRGs. Cross-correlating them with SDSS quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), MegaZ-LRGs and DEEP Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) galaxies, implies an average redshift of the LRGs to be z ≈ 1 with space density, ng ≈ 3.20 ± 0.16 × 10-4 h3 Mpc-3. For θ ≤ 10 arcmin (corresponding to ≈10 h-1 Mpc), the LRG w(θ) significantly deviates from a conventional single power law as noted by previous clustering studies of highly biased and luminous galaxies. A double power law with a break at rb ≈ 2.4 h-1 Mpc fits the data better, with best-fitting scale length, r0, 1 = 7.63 ± 0.27 h-1 Mpc and slope γ1 = 2.01 ± 0.02 at small scales and r0, 2 = 9.92 ± 0.40 h-1 Mpc and γ2 = 1.64 ± 0.04 at large scales. Due to the flat slope at large scales, we find that a standard Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM) linear model is accepted only at 2-3σ, with the best-fitting bias factor, b = 2.74 ± 0.07. We also fitted the halo occupation distribution (HOD) models to compare our measurements with the predictions of the dark matter clustering. The effective halo mass of Stripe 82 LRGs is estimated as Meff = 3.3 ± 0.6 × 1013 h-1 M⊙. But at large scales, the current HOD models did not help explain the power excess in the clustering signal. We then compare the w(θ) results to the results of Sawangwit et al. from three samples of photometrically selected LRGs at lower redshifts to measure clustering evolution. We find that a long-lived model may be a poorer fit than at lower

  4. Polymorphic toxin systems: Comprehensive characterization of trafficking modes, processing, mechanisms of action, immunity and ecology using comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    predicts the presence of novel trafficking-related components, and also the organizational logic that allows toxin diversification through recombination. Domain architecture and protein-length analysis revealed that these toxins might be deployed as secreted factors, through directed injection, or via inter-cellular contact facilitated by filamentous structures formed by RHS/YD, filamentous hemagglutinin and other repeats. Phyletic pattern and life-style analysis indicate that polymorphic toxins and polyimmunity loci participate in cooperative behavior and facultative ‘cheating’ in several ecosystems such as the human oral cavity and soil. Multiple domains from these systems have also been repeatedly transferred to eukaryotes and their viruses, such as the nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses. Conclusions Along with a comprehensive inventory of toxins and immunity proteins, we present several testable predictions regarding active sites and catalytic mechanisms of toxins, their processing and trafficking and their role in intra-specific and inter-specific interactions between bacteria. These systems provide insights regarding the emergence of key systems at different points in eukaryotic evolution, such as ADP ribosylation, interaction of myosin VI with cargo proteins, mediation of apoptosis, hyphal heteroincompatibility, hedgehog signaling, arthropod toxins, cell-cell interaction molecules like teneurins and different signaling messengers. Reviewers This article was reviewed by AM, FE and IZ. PMID:22731697

  5. Digital Base Band Converter As Radar Vlbi Backend / Dbbc Kā Ciparošanas Sistēma Radara Vlbi Novērojumiem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuccari, G.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Nechaeva, M.

    2012-12-01

    can then allow exploring easily the desired range of search for unknown or not fully determined orbit objects. These features make Radar VLBI personality most useful in the space debris measurements. DBBC sistēma izstrādāta Noto Radioastronomijas institūtā. Sistēmas galvenaisuzdevums - palielināt visa Eiropas VLBI tīkla jutību - realizēts, palielinotvisas novērojamās joslas platumu un pielietojot ciparu signālu apstrādes metodes.Izejas datu plūsma palielināta no 1 līdz 4 Gbps katram radioteleskopam un visasoperācijas, kas saistītas ar signālu apstrādi (frekvences pārveidošana, pastiprinājums,iekšējie ģeneratori, utt.), realizētas digitālā formā, kas ļauj iegūt nozīmīgusuzlabojumus atkārtojamībā, precizitātē, vienkāršībā, nemaz neminot vispārzināmāspriekšrocības, ko nodrošina digitālo tehnoloģiju izmantošana. Maksimālā ieejassignāla frekvenču josla ir 3.5 GHz, un momentānais joslas platums ir līdz 1 GHz uzkatru no astoņiem iespējamajiem RF/IF kanāliem. Šī datu reģistrācijas sistēma irļoti veiktspējīga platforma ne tikai EVN, bet arī citiem radioastronomijas pielietojumiem,un papildus tiek izstrādāta vesela virkne programmatūras pakotņu, kasvēl vairāk paplašina sistēmas funkcionalitāti. Tas ietver PFB (Polifāzes FiltruBanka) uztvērējus "Spectra”, kas piemēroti augstas izšķirtspējas spektroskopijasvajadzībām. Papildus realizēts jaunas programmatūras risinājums, ar mērķiizmantot DBBC sistēmu kā daudzfunkcionālu datu ciparošanas iekārtu, kasizmantojama bistatiskiem radara novērojumiem, tai skaitā arī radara VLBInovērojumiem. Šāda veida novērojumos tiek pētīta kosmisko atlūzu populācija,nodrošinot iespēju detektēt pat centimetra

  6. The Use of Guidelines for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Tanzania: A Lesson from Kilimanjaro Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Mbwele, B; Slot, A; De Mast, Q; Kweka, P; Msuya, M; Hulscher, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evaluations of the guidelines for the management of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LRTI) Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Tanzania is scant. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of the current Tanzanian treatment guideline for the management lower respiratory tract infection. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study in 11 hospitals of different levels in the Kilimanjaro region Data were collected from May 2012 to July 2012 by semi-structured interview for clinicians using 2 dummy cases for practical assessment. Data were analyzed by STATA v11 (StataCorp, TX, USA). Qualitative narratives from the interviews were translated, transcribed then coded by colors into meaningful themes. Results: A variety of principles for diagnosing and managing LRTI were demonstrated by 53 clinicians of Kilimanjaro. For the awareness, 67.9% (36/53) clinicians knew their responsibility to use Standard Treatment Guideline for managing LRTI. The content derived from Standard Treatment Guideline could be cited by 11.3% of clinicians (6/53) however they all showed concern of gaps in the guideline. Previous training in the management of patients with LRTI was reported by 25.9% (14/53), majority were pulmonary TB related. Correct microorganisms causing different forms of LRTI were mentioned by 11.3% (6/53). Exact cause of Atypical pneumonia and Q fever as an example was stated by 13.0% (7/53) from whom the need of developing the guideline for LRTI was explicitly elaborated. Conclusion: The current guidelines have not been used effectively for the management of LRTI in Tanzania. There is a need to review its content for the current practical use. PMID:27213093

  7. Ethnic differences in control of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes attending an Inner London diabetes clinic

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, T A; Lasker, S S; Mahfuz, R

    2006-01-01

    Background South Asians have higher risk of diabetic complications compared with white Europeans. The aim of this study was to compare management of cardiovascular risk factors between Bangladeshis and white Europeans. Methods A retrospective survey of all diabetic patients attending an Inner London hospital diabetic clinic over one year was undertaken. Data were obtained from the hospital diabetes database: presence of macrovascular (myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, transient ischaemic attack, cardiac intervention) and microvascular disease (neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy), glycated haemoglobin, blood pressure, lipids, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) were all determined. Results A total of 1162 white European and 912 Bangladeshi patients with full data available were included in the analyses. The groups were equivalent in age, sex, duration of diabetes. Compared with white Europeans, Bangladeshis had more macrovascular disease (19.5% v 11.9% p<0.01), sight threatening retinopathy (7.2% v 3.8%, p<0.01), and nephropathy (15.3% v 9.1%, p<0.01). In addition, Bangladeshis had significantly more male smokers (28.1% v 22.1%, p<0.01), poorer glycaemic control (mean HbA1c 8.6% v 8.1%, p = 0.039), greater proportion with uncontrolled hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol >5.0 mmol/l, 31.6% v 26% p = 0.05), and poorer control of blood pressure (proportion with BP >140/80 mm Hg, 43.2% v 32.1%, p<0.01). Conclusions South Asians with type 2 diabetes have poorer glycaemic, blood pressure, and lipid control than white Europeans. The reasons for this are probably multifactorial. PMID:16517804

  8. The Death Spiral of T Pyxidis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J.; Oksanen, A.; Monard, B.; Rea, R.; Hambsch, F.; McCormick, J.; Nelson, P.; Kemp, J.; Allen, W.; Krajci, T.; Lowther, S.; Dvorak, S.; Richards, T.; Myers, G.; Bolt, G.

    2014-12-01

    We report a long campaign to track the 1.8 hr photometric wave in the recurrent nova T Pyxidis, using the global telescope network of the Center for Backyard Astrophysics. During 1996-2011, that wave was highly stable in amplitude and waveform, resembling the orbital wave commonly seen in supersoft binaries. The period, however, was found to increase on a timescale P/P =3 ×105 yr. This suggests a mass transfer rate of ˜ 10-7 M⊙/yr in quiescence. The orbital signal became vanishingly weak (< 0.003 mag) near maximum light of the 2011 eruption. After it returned to visibility near V=11, the orbital period had increased by 0.0054(6) %. This is a measure of the mass ejected in the nova outburst. For a plausible choice of binary parameters, that mass is at least 3×10-5 M⊙, and probably more. This represents > 300 yr of accretion at the pre-outburst rate, but the time between outbursts was only 45 yr. Thus the erupting white dwarf seems to have ejected at least 6 × more mass than it accreted. If this eruption is typical, the white dwarf must be eroding, rather than growing, in mass — dashing the star's hopes of ever becoming famous via a supernova explosion. Instead, it seems likely that the binary dynamics are basically a suicide pact between the eroding white dwarf and the low-mass secondary, excited and rapidly whittled down, probably by the white dwarf's EUV radiation.

  9. Retrieving of Microphysical Properties of Spheroidal Particles in the Atmosphere-Surface System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkin, S.; Lyapustin, A.

    2013-12-01

    In this presentation, we continue our study of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm [1, 2] as a tool for retrieval of properties of particles, suspended in the plane-parallel atmosphere coupled with the reflecting surface [3]. The effect of polarization of light is included. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm provides an iterative solution to the problem of minimization of a function over a space of its parameters. Each iteration involves solution of the forward problem and computation of the Jacobian matrix (the derivatives of signal over optical parameters). The recently developed code APC (Atmospheric Polarization Computations) is used to solve the forward problem [4, 5]. We use O.Dubovik's et al. [6] package to simulate scattering by spheroidal particles. Unlike for the purely spherical particles (Mie scattering), the Jacobian matrix for spheroids is computed numerically. We will consider retrievals over the land and the ocean with the bidirectional polarization distribution functions from [7-8]. Using MISR observation geometry and spectral bands [9] as an example, we will discuss the problem of convergence of iterations, sensitivity of the algorithm to the initial guess, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the geometry of observation. Possible ways of acceleration of iterations will be discussed, as well as the role of polarization in the retrieval process. References: 1. Levenberg K, Q. App. Math., 1944, V.2, P.164. 2. Marquardt D, J. Appl. Math., 1963, V.11, N.2, P.431. 3. Korkin S, Lyapustin A, AGU 2012, A23A-011. 4. Korkin S et al., JQSRT, 2013, V.127, P.1 5. ftp://climate1.gsfc.nasa.gov/skorkin/ 6. Dubovik O et al., Geophys. Res. Letters, 2006, V.111, D11208. 7. Ota Y, et al., JQSRT, 2010, V.111, P.878. 8. Nadal F, Breon F-M, IEEE Trans. Geos. Rem. Sens., 1999, V.37, N.3, P.1709. 9. http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov/Mission/misrInstrument/

  10. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study.

    PubMed

    LeCheminant, James D; Christenson, Ed; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A

    2013-12-14

    Few experimental data are available to support the notion that reducing night-time eating changes total daily energy intake (EI) or body weight in healthy adults. The present study primarily examined the short-term effect of night eating restriction (NER) on daily EI in healthy young men. It secondarily examined body weight and moods associated with NER. Using a cross-over design, twenty-nine men (20·9 (sd 2·5) years; 24·4 (sd 2·5) kg/m²) initiated a 2-week NER intervention (elimination of EI from 19.00 to 06.00 hours) and a 2-week control condition, counterbalanced and separated by a 1-week washout period. EI and macronutrient intake were assessed using computerised, multiple-pass 24 h food recalls, body weight via a digital scale and mood using the Profile of Mood States survey. Of the twenty-nine participants, twenty-seven (93 %) completed all aspects of the study. During the NER condition, the participants consumed less total energy per d than during the control condition (10 125 v. 11 146 kJ/d; F= 6·41; P= 0·018). During the NER condition, no energy was reported consumed between 19.00 and 06.00 hours; however, during the control condition, the energy intake of participants was 2920 (sd 1347) kJ/d between 19.00 and 06.00 hours. There was a significant difference in weight change between the NER (-0·4 (sd 1·1) kg) and control (+0·6 (sd 0·9) kg) conditions (F= 22·68; P< 0·001). Differences in total mood score or mood subscales between the NER and control conditions were not apparent (P>0·05). These findings provide support for NER decreasing short-term EI in healthy young men.

  11. Transversal and longitudinal mode selections in double-corrugation coaxial slow-wave devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ge Xingjun; Zhong Huihuang; Qian Baoliang; Liu Lie; Liu Yonggui; Li Limin; Shu Ting; Zhang Jiande

    2009-06-15

    To reduce the dimensions of relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs) operating in the low frequency regime of less than 2 GHz, the theory of transversal and longitudinal mode selections are introduced in this paper. The transversal mode selection is achieved using the property of ''surface wave'' of the coaxial slow-wave structure (SWS) to excite the quasi transverse electromagnetic (quasi-TEM) mode without the higher transverse magnetic (TM) modes and it is proved that the coaxial SWS may decrease the transversal dimension of the SWS sections. In addition, the S-parameter method is employed to investigate the longitudinal resonant characteristic of the finite-length SWS, and the scheme of longitudinal mode selection is put forward. It is proposed that the introduction of a well-designed coaxial extractor to slow-wave devices can help to achieve the longitudinal mode selection and reduce the period number of the SWS, which not only can make the devices more compact, but also can avoid the destructive competition between various longitudinal modes, therefore can enhance the efficiency and stabilize the frequency. To sum up, the physical mechanisms of transversal and longitudinal mode selections ensure that the microwave is produced with a single mode and a narrow band. Based on the above discussion, a compact L-band coaxial RBWO is investigated and optimized in detail with the particle-in-cell KARAT code (V. P. Tarakanov, Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., 1992). In simulation, the L-band coaxial RBWO, driven by a 700 kV, 11 kA electron beam, comes to a nonlinear steady state in 20 ns. High-power microwave of quasi-TEM mode is generated with an average power of 2.66 GW, a frequency of 1.6 GHz, and power conversion efficiency of 34.5% in durations of 30-60 ns.

  12. Patients With Small Left Ventricular Size Undergoing Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty Have Worse Intraprocedural Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Don, Creighton; Gupta, Pritha P.; Witzke, Christian; Kesarwani, Manoj; Cubeddu, Roberto J.; Inglessis, Ignacio; Palacios, Igor F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of left ventricular (LV) chamber size on procedural and hospital outcomes of patients undergoing aortic valvuloplasty. Background Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) is used as an integral step during transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Patients with small, thickened ventricles are thought to have more complications during and following BAV. Methods Retrospective study of consecutive patients with severe, symptomatic calcific aortic stenosis who underwent retrograde BAV at Massachusetts General Hospital. We compared patients with left ventricular end-diastolic diameters (LVEDD) <4.0 cm (n = 31) to those with LVEDD ≥4.0 cm (n = 78). Baseline and procedural characteristics as well as clinical outcomes were compared. Multivariate logistic regression was used for the adjusted analysis. Results Patients with smaller LV chamber size were mostly women (80.7% vs. 19.4%, P < 0.01) and had a smaller body surface area (BSA), (1.61 ± 0.20 m2 vs. 1.79 ± 0.25 m2, P < 0.01). Patients with smaller LV chamber size had higher ejection fractions and thicker ventricles. Otherwise, baseline characteristics were similar. The intraprocedural composite of death, cardiopulmonary arrest, intubation, hemodynamic collapse, and tamponade was higher for patients with LVEDD < 4.0 cm (32.3% v. 11.5%, P = 0.01). Adjusting for age, gender, BSA, LV pressure, and New York Heart Association class, LVEDD < 4.0 cm remained an independent predictor of procedural (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.4– 18.2) and in-hospital complications (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2–11.6). Conclusions Compared to patients undergoing BAV with LVEDD ≥4.0 cm, those with smaller LV chambers had worse procedural and in-hospital outcomes. PMID:22926957

  13. Natural cocoa consumption: Potential to reduce atherogenic factors?

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Venable, Adam S; Henning, Andrea L; Prado, Eric A; Best Sampson, Jill N; Vingren, Jakob L; Hill, David W

    2015-06-01

    Short-term consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been demonstrated to improve various facets of vascular health. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption on selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers in young (19-35 years) women of differing body mass indices (BMI; normal, overweight or obese). Subjects (n = 24) consumed a natural cocoa-containing product (12.7 g natural cocoa, 148 kcal/serving) or an isocaloric cocoa-free placebo daily for 4 weeks in a random, double-blind manner with a 2-week washout period between treatment arms. Fasted (>8-h) blood samples were collected before and after each 4-week period. Serum was analyzed to determine lipid profile (chemistry analyzer) and CVD biomarkers (26 biomarkers). EDTA-treated blood was used to assess monocytes (CD14, CD16, v11b and CD62L), while citrate-treated blood was used to measure changes in endothelial microparticles (EMPs; CD42a-/45-/144+) by flow cytometry. Natural cocoa consumption resulted in a significant decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034), EMP concentration (P = .017) and monocyte CD62L (P = .047) in obese compared to overweight and normal-weight subjects. Natural cocoa consumption regardless of BMI group was associated with an 18% increase in high-density lipoprotein (P = .020) and a 60% decrease in EMPs (P = .047). Also, obese subjects experienced a 21% decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034) and a 24% decrease in monocyte CD62L expression in (P = .047) following 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption. Collectively, these findings indicate that acute natural cocoa consumption was associated with decreased obesity-related disease risk. More research is needed to assess the stability of the observed short-term changes. PMID:25769436

  14. The Young and Bright Type Ia Supernova ASASSN-14lp: Discovery, Early-time Observations, First-light Time, Distance to NGC 4666, and Progenitor Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappee, B. J.; Piro, A. L.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Contreras, C.; Itagaki, K.; Burns, C. R.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Alper, E.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Brimacombe, J.; Conseil, E.; Danilet, A. B.; Dong, Subo; Falco, E.; Grupe, D.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kiyota, S.; Morrell, N.; Nicolas, J.; Phillips, M. M.; Pojmanski, G.; Simonian, G.; Stritzinger, M.; Szczygieł, D. M.; Taddia, F.; Thompson, T. A.; Thorstensen, J.; Wagner, M. R.; Woźniak, P. R.

    2016-08-01

    On 2014 December 9.61, the All-sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or “Assassin”) discovered ASASSN-14lp just ˜2 days after first light using a global array of 14 cm diameter telescopes. ASASSN-14lp went on to become a bright supernova (V = 11.94 mag), second only to SN 2014J for the year. We present prediscovery photometry (with a detection less than a day after first light) and ultraviolet through near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic data covering the rise and fall of ASASSN-14lp for more than 100 days. We find that ASASSN-14lp had a broad light curve ({{Δ }}{m}15(B)=0.80+/- 0.05), a B-band maximum at 2457015.82 ± 0.03, a rise time of {16.94}-0.10+0.11 days, and moderate host-galaxy extinction (E{(B-V)}{host}=0.33+/- 0.06). Using ASASSN-14lp, we derive a distance modulus for NGC 4666 of μ =30.8+/- 0.2, corresponding to a distance of 14.7 ± 1.5 Mpc. However, adding ASASSN-14lp to the calibrating sample of Type Ia supernovae still requires an independent distance to the host galaxy. Finally, using our early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations, we rule out red giant secondaries and, assuming a favorable viewing angle and explosion time, any nondegenerate companion larger than 0.34 {R}ȯ .

  15. Interaction of metal porphyrins with fullerene C60: a new insight.

    PubMed

    Liao, Meng-Sheng; Watts, John D; Huang, Ming-Ju

    2007-05-01

    The electronic structure and bonding in the noncovalent, supramolecular complexes of fullerene C60 with a series of first-row transition metal porphines MP (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) have been re-examined with DFT methods. A dispersion correction was made for the C60-MP binding energy through an empirical method (J. Comput. Chem. 2004, 25, 1463). Several density functionals and two types of basis sets were employed in the calculations. Our calculated results are rather different from those obtained in a recent paper (J. Phys. Chem. A 2005, 109, 3704). The ground state of C60.FeP is predicted to be high spin (S=2); the low-spin (S=0), closed-shell state is even higher in energy than the intermediate-spin (S=1) state. With only one electron in the Co-dz2 orbital, the calculated Co-C60 distance is in fact rather short, about 0.1 A longer than the Fe-C60 distance in high-spin C60.FeP. Double occupation of an M-dz2 orbital in MP prevents close association of any axial ligand, and so the Ni-C60, Cu-C60, and Zn-C60 distances are much longer than the Co-C60 one. The evaluated MP-C60 binding energies (Ebind) are 0.8 eV (18.5 kcal/mol) for M=Fe/Co and 0.5 eV (11.5 kcal/mol) for M=Ni/Cu/Zn (Ebind is about 0.2 eV larger in the case of C60-MTPP). They are believed to be reliable and accurate based on our dispersion-corrected DFT calculations that included the counterpoise (CP) correction. The effects of the C60 contact on the redox properties of MP were also examined.

  16. Chimeric Adenoviral Vectors Incorporating a Fiber of Human Adenovirus 3 Efficiently Mediate Gene Transfer into Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Miho; Ugai, Hideyo; Belousova, Natalya; Pereboev, Alexander; Dent, Paul; Fisher, Paul B.; Everts, Maaike; Curiel, David T.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND We have developed a range of adenoviral (Ad) vectors based on human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5) displaying the fiber shaft and knob domains of species B viruses (HAdV-3, HAdV-11, or HAdV-35). These species B Ads utilize different cellular receptors than HAdV-5 for infection. We evaluated whether Ad vectors displaying species B fiber shaft and knob domains (Ad5F3Luc1, Ad5F11Luc1, and Ad5F35Luc1) would efficiently infect cancer cells of distinct origins, including prostate cancer. METHODS The fiber chimeric Ad vectors were genetically generated and compared with the original Ad vector (Ad5Luc1) for transductional efficiency in a variety of cancer cell lines, including prostate cancer cells and primary prostate epithelial cells (PrEC), using luciferase as a reporter gene. RESULTS Prostate cancer cell lines infected with Ad5F3Luc1 expressed higher levels of luciferase than Ad5Luc1, as well as the other chimeric Ad vectors. We also analyzed the transductional efficiency via monitoring of luciferase activity in prostate cancer cells when expressed as a fraction of the gene transfer in PrEC cells. In the PC-3 and DU145 cell lines, the gene transfer ratio of cancer cells versus PrEC was once again highest for Ad5F3Luc1. CONCLUSION Of the investigated chimeric HAdV-5/species B vectors, Ad5F3Luc1 was judged to be the most suitable for targeting prostate cancer cells as it showed the highest transductional efficiency in these cells. It is foreseeable that an Ad vector incorporating the HAdV-3 fiber could potentially be used for prostate cancer gene therapy. PMID:19902467

  17. Effect of human papillomavirus vaccination on cervical cancer screening in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong; Bell, Christopher; Sun, Maggie; Kliewer, Gordon; Xu, Linan; McInerney, Maria; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Yang, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Background: A school-based program with quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was implemented in Alberta in 2008. We assessed the impact of this program on Pap test cytology results using databases of province-wide vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study involving a cohort of women in Alberta born between 1994 and 1997 who had at least 1 Pap test between 2012 and 2015. Women with negative cytology results were controls. Women with low-grade (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and high-grade (atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out a high-grade lesion; or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) cervical abnormalities were cases. Exposure status was assigned according to records of HPV vaccination. Odds ratios (ORs) for abnormal cytology results by vaccination status were adjusted for neighbourhood income, laboratory service, rural versus urban residency, and age. Results: The total study population was 10 204. Adjusting for age, vaccinated women had a higher screening rate than unvaccinated women (13.0% v. 11.4%, p < 0.001). Among women who received full vaccination (≥ 3 doses), the adjusted OR for cervical abnormalities was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63–0.82). For high-grade lesions, the adjusted OR was 0.50 (95% CI 0.30–0.85). With 2-dose HPV vaccination, the adjusted OR for cervical abnormalities was 1.08 (95% CI 0.84–1.38). Interpretation: Quadrivalent HPV vaccination significantly reduced high-grade cervical abnormalities but required 3 doses. Vaccination against HPV was associated with screening uptake. Population-based vaccination and screening programs should work together to optimize cervical cancer prevention. PMID:27378467

  18. The young and bright Type Ia supernova ASASSN-14lp: Discovery, early-time observations, first-light time, distance to NGC 4666, and progenitor constraints

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shappee, B. J.; Piro, A. L.; Holoien, T. W. -S.; Prieto, J. L.; Contreras, C.; Itagaki, K.; Burns, C. R.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Alper, E.; et al

    2016-07-27

    On 2014 December 9.61, the All-sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") discovered ASASSN-14lp just ~2 days after first light using a global array of 14 cm diameter telescopes. ASASSN-14lp went on to become a bright supernova (V = 11.94 mag), second only to SN 2014J for the year. We present prediscovery photometry (with a detection less than a day after first light) and ultraviolet through near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic data covering the rise and fall of ASASSN-14lp for more than 100 days. We find that ASASSN-14lp had a broad light curve (more » $${\\rm{\\Delta }}{m}_{15}(B)=0.80\\pm 0.05$$), a B-band maximum at 2457015.82 ± 0.03, a rise time of $${16.94}_{-0.10}^{+0.11}$$ days, and moderate host-galaxy extinction ($$E{(B-V)}_{\\mathrm{host}}=0.33\\pm 0.06$$). Using ASASSN-14lp, we derive a distance modulus for NGC 4666 of $$\\mu =30.8\\pm 0.2$$, corresponding to a distance of 14.7 ± 1.5 Mpc. However, adding ASASSN-14lp to the calibrating sample of Type Ia supernovae still requires an independent distance to the host galaxy. Lastly, using our early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations, we rule out red giant secondaries and, assuming a favorable viewing angle and explosion time, any nondegenerate companion larger than 0.34 $${R}_{\\odot }$$.« less

  19. Characterization of the KOI-273 Planetary System with HARPS-N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettel, Sara; Charbonneau, David; Harps-N Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Kepler mission detected thousands of planets with radii between 1 and 3 Earth radii, a population with no analog in our own solar system. The composition of these objects is not yet well understood; some of these may be planets that are predominantly rocky and others may be planets with a large fractional composition of volatiles or a substantial hydrogen envelope. There are only seven planets smaller than 2.5 Re with published mass estimates with a precision better than 20%, the minimum required to distinguish between different compositional models.HARPS-N is an ultra-stable, fiber-fed, high-resolution spectrograph optimized for the measurement of very precise radial velocities. A primary goal of the HARPS-N collaboration is to measure precisely the masses of small transiting planets and so constrain their individual compositions.KOI-273 is a solar-like star (Teff = 5783, log(g) = 4.43, V = 11.68) with a 1.8 Earth-radius planet candidate in a 10.5-d orbit. During the 2014 Kepler observing season, we obtained 50 observations of this star, with a median photon-limited radial velocity precision of 1.9 m/s. Our data indicated the presence of an outer, massive companion. We present the orbital solution of this system and measure the bulk density and inferred composition of the inner planet.HARPS-N was funded by the Swiss Space Office, the Harvard Origin of Life Initiative, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the University of Geneva, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and the Italian National Astrophysical Institute, University of St. Andrews, Queens University Belfast, and University of Edinburgh. This work was made possible through a grant from the John Templeton Foundation.

  20. SU-D-213-04: Accounting for Volume Averaging and Material Composition Effects in An Ionization Chamber Array for Patient Specific QA

    SciTech Connect

    Fugal, M; McDonald, D; Jacqmin, D; Koch, N; Ellis, A; Peng, J; Ashenafi, M; Vanek, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study explores novel methods to address two significant challenges affecting measurement of patient-specific quality assurance (QA) with IBA’s Matrixx Evolution™ ionization chamber array. First, dose calculation algorithms often struggle to accurately determine dose to the chamber array due to CT artifact and algorithm limitations. Second, finite chamber size and volume averaging effects cause additional deviation from the calculated dose. Methods: QA measurements were taken with the Matrixx positioned on the treatment table in a solid-water Multi-Cube™ phantom. To reduce the effect of CT artifact, the Matrixx CT image set was masked with appropriate materials and densities. Individual ionization chambers were masked as air, while the high-z electronic backplane and remaining solid-water material were masked as aluminum and water, respectively. Dose calculation was done using Varian’s Acuros XB™ (V11) algorithm, which is capable of predicting dose more accurately in non-biologic materials due to its consideration of each material’s atomic properties. Finally, the exported TPS dose was processed using an in-house algorithm (MATLAB) to assign the volume averaged TPS dose to each element of a corresponding 2-D matrix. This matrix was used for comparison with the measured dose. Square fields at regularly-spaced gantry angles, as well as selected patient plans were analyzed. Results: Analyzed plans showed improved agreement, with the average gamma passing rate increasing from 94 to 98%. Correction factors necessary for chamber angular dependence were reduced by 67% compared to factors measured previously, indicating that previously measured factors corrected for dose calculation errors in addition to true chamber angular dependence. Conclusion: By comparing volume averaged dose, calculated with a capable dose engine, on a phantom masked with correct materials and densities, QA results obtained with the Matrixx Evolution™ can be significantly

  1. Children's perception of breathlessness in acute asthma

    PubMed Central

    Male, I; Richter, H; Seddon, P

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To determine whether asthmatic children who present to hospital with hypoxia perceive breathlessness less well than non-hypoxic presenters.
METHODS—A total of 27 children aged 5-16 years (mean age 10) admitted with acute asthma had recordings of oxygen saturation (SaO2), clinical score, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and breathlessness score (HMP) at admission and at 5, 10, 24,48, and 72 hours after admission. Those defined as hypoxic (SaO2 <92%) at admission were compared with a non-hypoxic group.
RESULTS—Twelve children were hypoxic at admission. Compared with the non-hypoxic group they were younger (8.6 (SD 2.8) v 11.2 (2.8) y, p = 0.02), and had greater airway obstruction (FEV1 32.5 (10)% v 54.3 (26)%, p = 0.0073, 95% confidence interval (CI) −36.9 to −6.6) yet had a trend towards less breathlessness (median HMP 4 v 3, p = 0.062, CI −0.001 to 2.00) at admission. The hypoxic group had a smaller change in breathlessness from admission to discharge, despite a similar improvement in FEV1, reflected in a lower ratio of change in HMP to change in FEV1 (ΔHMP/ΔFEV1) (median ΔHMP/ΔFEV1 0.021%−1v 0.073%−1, p = 0.0081, CI −0.075 to −0.016). Linear regression analysis showed a strong relation between ΔHMP/ΔFEV1 and initial SaO2 (p = 0.004, r = 0.54).
CONCLUSIONS—Asthmatic children who present to hospital hypoxic tend to perceive themselves as less breathless than non-hypoxic children. This may predispose to a future life threatening attack.

 PMID:10999869

  2. Deformable image registration for geometrical evaluation of DIBH radiotherapy treatment of lung cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottosson, W.; Lykkegaard Andersen, J. A.; Borrisova, S.; Mellemgaard, A.; Behrens, C. F.

    2014-03-01

    Respiration and anatomical variation during radiotherapy (RT) of lung cancer yield dosimetric uncertainties of the delivered dose, possibly affecting the clinical outcome if not corrected for. Adaptive radiotherapy (ART), based on deformable image registration (DIR) and Deep-Inspiration-Breath-Hold (DIBH) gating can potentially improve the accuracy of RT. Purpose: The objective was to investigate the performance of contour propagation on repeated CT and Cone Beam CT (CBCT) images in DIBH compared to images acquired in free breathing (FB), using a recently released DIR software. Method: Three locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients were included, each with a planning-, midterm- and final CT (pCT, mCT, fCT) and 7 CBCTs acquired weekly and on the same day as the mCT and fCT. All imaging were performed in both FB and DIBH, using Varian RPM system for respiratory tracking. Delineations of anatomical structures were performed on each image set. The CT images were retrospective rigidly and deformable registered to all obtained images using the Varian Smart Adapt v. 11.0. The registered images were analysed for volume change and Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). Result: Geometrical similarities were found between propagated and manually delineated structures, with a slightly favour of FB imaging. Special notice should be taken to registrations where image artefacts or low tissue contrast are present. Conclusion: This study does not support the hypothesis that DIBH images perform better image registration than FB images. However DIR is a feasible tool for ART of lung cancer.

  3. The Young and Bright Type Ia Supernova ASASSN-14lp: Discovery, Early-time Observations, First-light Time, Distance to NGC 4666, and Progenitor Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappee, B. J.; Piro, A. L.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Contreras, C.; Itagaki, K.; Burns, C. R.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Alper, E.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Brimacombe, J.; Conseil, E.; Danilet, A. B.; Dong, Subo; Falco, E.; Grupe, D.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kiyota, S.; Morrell, N.; Nicolas, J.; Phillips, M. M.; Pojmanski, G.; Simonian, G.; Stritzinger, M.; Szczygieł, D. M.; Taddia, F.; Thompson, T. A.; Thorstensen, J.; Wagner, M. R.; Woźniak, P. R.

    2016-08-01

    On 2014 December 9.61, the All-sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or “Assassin”) discovered ASASSN-14lp just ˜2 days after first light using a global array of 14 cm diameter telescopes. ASASSN-14lp went on to become a bright supernova (V = 11.94 mag), second only to SN 2014J for the year. We present prediscovery photometry (with a detection less than a day after first light) and ultraviolet through near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic data covering the rise and fall of ASASSN-14lp for more than 100 days. We find that ASASSN-14lp had a broad light curve ({{Δ }}{m}15(B)=0.80+/- 0.05), a B-band maximum at 2457015.82 ± 0.03, a rise time of {16.94}-0.10+0.11 days, and moderate host-galaxy extinction (E{(B-V)}{host}=0.33+/- 0.06). Using ASASSN-14lp, we derive a distance modulus for NGC 4666 of μ =30.8+/- 0.2, corresponding to a distance of 14.7 ± 1.5 Mpc. However, adding ASASSN-14lp to the calibrating sample of Type Ia supernovae still requires an independent distance to the host galaxy. Finally, using our early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations, we rule out red giant secondaries and, assuming a favorable viewing angle and explosion time, any nondegenerate companion larger than 0.34 {R}⊙ .

  4. High-resolution infrared spectra of bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M. A.; Perry, A.; Masiello, T.; Schwartz, K. D.; Nibler, J. W.; Weber, A.; Maki, A.; Blake, T. A.

    2010-07-01

    Infrared spectra of bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane (C5H8) have been recorded at a resolution (0.0015 cm-1) sufficient to resolve for the first time individual rovibrational lines. This initial report presents the ground state constants for this molecule determined from the detailed analysis of three of the ten infrared-allowed bands, v14(e') at 540 cm-1, v17(a2'') at 1220 cm-1, v18(a2'') at 832 cm-1, and a partial analysis of the v11(e') band at 1237 cm-1. The upper states of transitions involving the lowest frequency mode, v14(e'), show no evidence of rovibrational perturbations but those for the v17 and v18 (a2'') modes give clear indication of Coriolis coupling to nearby e' levels. Accordingly, ground state constants were determined by use of the combination-difference method for all three bands. The assigned frequencies provided over 3300 consistent ground state difference values, yielding the following constants for the ground state (in units of cm-1): B0 = 0.2399412(2), DJ = 6.024(6) x 10-8, DJK = -1.930(21) x 10-8. For the unperturbed v14(e') fundamental, more than 3500 transitions were analyzed and the band origin was found to be at 540.34225(2) cm-1. The numbers in parentheses are the uncertainties (two standard deviations) in the values of the constants. The results are compared with those obtained previously for [1.1.1]propellane and with those computed at the ab initio anharmonic level using the B3LYP density functional method with a cc-pVTZ basis set.

  5. Preparation, evaluation, and first clinical use of 177Lu-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) particles in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: utility of cold kits for convenient dose formulation at hospital radiopharmacy.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Vimalnath, K V; Rajeswari, A; Shinto, Ajit; Sarma, H D; Kamaleshwaran, K; Thirumalaisamy, P; Dash, Ashutosh

    2014-06-15

    While radiation synovectomy (RSV) constitutes a successful paradigm for the treatment of arthritis, a major cornerstone of its success resides in the selection of appropriate radiolabeled agent. Among the radionuclide used for RSV, the scope of using (177)Lu [T1/2  = 6.65 d, Eβ(max)  = 497 keV, Eγ  = 113 KeV (6.4%), 208 KeV (11%)] seemed to be attractive owing to its suitable decay characteristics, easy availability, and cost-effective production route. The present article describes a formulation of (177)Lu-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) using ready-to-use kits of HA particles of 1-10 µm size range. The developed kits enable convenient one-step preparation of (177)Lu-HA (400 ± 30 MBq doses) in high radiochemical purity (>99%) and stability at hospital radiopharmacy. The preparation showed promising results in pre-clinical studies carried out in Wistar rats bearing arthritis in knee joints. In preliminary clinical investigation, significant improvement in the disease conditions was reported in 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis of knee joints treated with 333 ± 46 MBq doses of (177)Lu-HA. The studies reveal that while (177)Lu labeled HA particles holds considerable promise as a cost-effective agent for RSV, the adopted strategy of using HA kits could be a potential step toward wider clinical utilization of radiolanthanide-labeled HA particles.

  6. Discovery and Validation of a High-Density sub-Neptune from the K2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, Néstor; Brahm, Rafael; Jordán, Andrés; Jenkins, James S.; Rojas, Felipe; Jofré, Paula; Mädler, Thomas; Rabus, Markus; Chanamé, Julio; Pantoja, Blake; Soto, Maritza G.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Males, Jared R.; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Close, Laird M.

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery of K2-56b, a high-density sub-Neptune exoplanet, made using photometry from Campaign 4 of the two-wheeled Kepler (K2) mission, ground-based radial velocity (RV) follow-up from HARPS and high-resolution lucky and adaptive optics imaging obtained using AstraLux and MagAO, respectively. The host star is a bright (V = 11.04, K s = 9.37), slightly metal-poor ([Fe/H] = ‑0.15 ± 0.05 dex) solar analogue located at {152.1}-7.4+9.7 pc from Earth, for which we find a radius of {R}* ={0.928}-0.040+0.055{R}ȯ and a mass of {M}* ={0.961}-0.029+0.032{M}ȯ . A joint analysis of the K2 photometry and HARPS RVs reveal that the planet is in a ≈42 day orbit around its host star, has a radius of {2.23}-0.11+0.14{R}\\oplus , and a mass of {16.3}-6.1+6.0{M}\\oplus . Although the data at hand put the planet in the region of the mass–radius diagram where we could expect planets with a pure rock (i.e., magnesium silicate) composition using two-layer models (i.e., between rock/iron and rock/ice compositions), we discuss more realistic three-layer composition models which can explain the high density of the discovered exoplanet. The fact that the planet lies in the boundary between “possibly rocky” and “non-rocky” exoplanets makes it an interesting planet for future RV follow-up.

  7. Molecular identification of adenoviruses associated with respiratory infection in Egypt from 2003 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human adenoviruses of species B, C, and E (HAdV-B, –C, -E) are frequent causative agents of acute respiratory infections worldwide. As part of a surveillance program aimed at identifying the etiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Egypt, we characterized 105 adenovirus isolates from clinical samples collected between 2003 and 2010. Methods Identification of the isolates as HAdV was accomplished by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and confirmed by a set of species and type specific polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Results Of the 105 isolates, 42% were identified as belonging to HAdV-B, 60% as HAdV–C, and 1% as HAdV-E. We identified a total of six co-infections by PCR, of which five were HAdV-B/HAdV-C co-infections, and one was a co-infection of two HAdV-C types: HAdV-5/HAdV-6. Molecular typing by PCR enabled the identification of eight genotypes of human adenoviruses; HAdV-3 (n = 22), HAdV-7 (n = 14), HAdV-11 (n = 8), HAdV-1 (n = 22), HAdV-2 (20), HAdV-5 (n = 15), HAdV-6 (n = 3) and HAdV-4 (n = 1). The most abundant species in the characterized collection of isolates was HAdV-C, which is concordant with existing data for worldwide epidemiology of HAdV respiratory infections. Conclusions We identified three species, HAdV-B, -C and -E, among patients with ILI over the course of 7 years in Egypt, with at least eight diverse types circulating. PMID:24479824

  8. Inclusion body hepatitis associated with an outbreak of fowl adenovirus type 2 and type 8b in broiler flocks in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maartens, Louis H; Joubert, Hilda W; Aitchison, Henry; Venter, Estelle H

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion body hepatitis is an acute disease of chickens ascribed to viruses of the genus Aviadenovirus and referred to as fowl adenovirus (FAdV). There are 12 FAdV types (FAdV1to FAdV8a and FAdV8b to FAdV11), classified into five species based on their genotype (designated FAdVA to FAdVE). A total of 218 000 chickens, 2-29 days of age, were affected over a 1-year period, all testing positive by microscopy, virus isolation and confirmation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Affected birds were depressed, lost body weight,were weak and had watery droppings. Pathological changes observed during necropsy indicated consistent changes in the liver, characterised by hepatomegaly, cholestasis and hepatitis. Lesions were also discernible in the spleen, kidney and gizzard wall and were characterised by splenomegaly, pinpoint haemorrhages, nephritis with haemorrhage,visceral gout and serosal ecchymosis of the gizzard wall. Histopathological lesions were most consistently observed in the liver but could also be seen in renal and splenic tissue. Virus isolation was achieved in embryonated eggs and most embryos revealed multifocalto diffuse hepatic necrosis, with a mixed cellular infiltrate of macrophages and heterophils(necro-granulomas), even in the absence of macroscopic pathology. Virus isolation results were verified by histopathology and PCR on embryonic material and further characterised by nucleotide sequence analysis. Two infectious bursal disease virus isolates were also made from the Klerksdorp flock. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the L1 hexon loop of all the FAdV isolates indicated homology (99%) with prototype strains P7-A for FAdV-2, as well as for FAdV-8b.

  9. Cholesterol-lowering potential in human subjects of fat from pigs fed rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B; Bügel, S; Lauridsen, C; Nielsen, F; Jensen, C; Skibsted, L H

    2000-08-01

    The possibility of achieving blood-lipid-lowering characteristics of pig fat by increasing the content of unsaturated fat in pig feed was evaluated. Three pig feeding regimens were applied: basal feed (no added fat or vitamin E), basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg feed), and basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg) + vitamin E (200 mg/kg). Meat and meat products from the three pig groups were incorporated into diets providing 86 g pig fat/10 MJ. The diets were served to twelve healthy human male subjects for 3 weeks each in a randomised crossover design. The diets prepared from pigs fed rapeseed oil had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (approximately 9 v. 11% of energy) and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (approximately 6 v. 4% of energy) than the diet prepared from pigs fed the basal feed. Diets based on fat from pigs fed the rapeseed oil resulted in significantly lower (approximately 4%, P = 0.019) total serum cholesterol concentration compared with the diet from pigs fed the basal feed. No differences were observed in LDL-, HDL- or VLDL-cholesterol, or in triacylglycerol or VLDL-triacylglycerol concentrations. Addition of vitamin E to the pig feed resulted in only a minor increase in vitamin E content in the human subjects' diet and the vitamin E content was low in all three pig diets. Plasma vitamin E concentration in the human subjects at the end of the period with diets from pigs fed rapeseed oil without vitamin E was significantly lower (P = 0.04) than in the other two diet periods. In conclusion, an increased content of rapeseed oil in pig feed changes the fatty acid composition of the pig fat in a way that has a potential to reduce blood cholesterol concentrations in human subjects. However, intake of pig fat with a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids needs to be matched by a higher dietary intake of vitamin E.

  10. Computationally efficient real-time interpolation algorithm for non-uniform sampled biosignals

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Amir; Kindt, Wilko; Constandinou, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    This Letter presents a novel, computationally efficient interpolation method that has been optimised for use in electrocardiogram baseline drift removal. In the authors’ previous Letter three isoelectric baseline points per heartbeat are detected, and here utilised as interpolation points. As an extension from linear interpolation, their algorithm segments the interpolation interval and utilises different piecewise linear equations. Thus, the algorithm produces a linear curvature that is computationally efficient while interpolating non-uniform samples. The proposed algorithm is tested using sinusoids with different fundamental frequencies from 0.05 to 0.7 Hz and also validated with real baseline wander data acquired from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology University and Boston's Beth Israel Hospital (MIT-BIH) Noise Stress Database. The synthetic data results show an root mean square (RMS) error of 0.9 μV (mean), 0.63 μV (median) and 0.6 μV (standard deviation) per heartbeat on a 1 mVp–p 0.1 Hz sinusoid. On real data, they obtain an RMS error of 10.9 μV (mean), 8.5 μV (median) and 9.0 μV (standard deviation) per heartbeat. Cubic spline interpolation and linear interpolation on the other hand shows 10.7 μV, 11.6 μV (mean), 7.8 μV, 8.9 μV (median) and 9.8 μV, 9.3 μV (standard deviation) per heartbeat. PMID:27382478

  11. ADVANCES IN THE RXTE PROPORTIONAL COUNTER ARRAY CALIBRATION: NEARING THE STATISTICAL LIMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Jahoda, Keith; Markwardt, Craig; Swank, Jean; Strohmayer, Tod

    2012-10-01

    During its 16 years of service, the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) mission has provided an extensive archive of data, which will serve as a primary source of high cadence observations of variable X-ray sources for fast timing studies. It is, therefore, very important to have the most reliable calibration of RXTE instruments. The Proportional Counter Array (PCA) is the primary instrument on board RXTE which provides data in 3-50 keV energy range with submillisecond time resolution in up to 256 energy channels. In 2009, the RXTE team revised the response residual minimization method used to derive the parameters of the PCA physical model. The procedure is based on the residual minimization between the model spectrum for Crab Nebula emission and a calibration data set consisting of a number of spectra from the Crab and the on-board Am{sub 241} calibration source, uniformly covering the whole RXTE mission operation period. The new method led to a much more effective model convergence and allowed for better understanding of the PCA energy-to-channel relationship. It greatly improved the response matrix performance. We describe the new version of the RXTE/PCA response generator PCARMF v11.7 (HEASOFT Release 6.7) along with the corresponding energy-to-channel conversion table (version e05v04) and their difference from the previous releases of PCA calibration. The new PCA response adequately represents the spectrum of the calibration sources and successfully predicts the energy of the narrow iron emission line in Cas-A throughout the RXTE mission.

  12. HAT-P-24b: AN INFLATED HOT JUPITER ON A 3.36 DAY PERIOD TRANSITING A HOT, METAL-POOR STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Kipping, D. M.; Bakos, G. A.; Hartman, J.; Torres, G.; Latham, D. W.; Noyes, R. W.; Beky, B.; Perumpilly, G.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stefanik, R. P.; Shporer, A.; Kovacs, Geza; Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I.; Sari, P.

    2010-12-20

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-24b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright V = 11.818 F8 dwarf star GSC 0774-01441, with a period P = 3.3552464 {+-} 0.0000071 days, transit epoch T{sub c} = 2455216.97669 {+-} 0.00024 (BJD)11, and transit duration 3.653 {+-} 0.025 hr. The host star has a mass of 1.191 {+-} 0.042 M{sub sun}, radius of 1.317 {+-} 0.068 R{sub sun}, effective temperature 6373 {+-} 80 K, and a low metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.16 {+-} 0.08. The planetary companion has a mass of 0.681 {+-} 0.031 M{sub J} and radius of 1.243 {+-} 0.072 R{sub J} yielding a mean density of 0.439 {+-} 0.069 g cm{sup -3}. By repeating our global fits with different parameter sets, we have performed a critical investigation of the fitting techniques used for previous Hungarian-made Automated Telescope planetary discoveries. We find that the system properties are robust against the choice of priors. The effects of fixed versus fitted limb darkening are also examined. HAT-P-24b probably maintains a small eccentricity of e = 0.052{sup +0.022}{sub -0.017}, which is accepted over the circular orbit model with false alarm probability 5.8%. In the absence of eccentricity pumping, this result suggests that HAT-P-24b experiences less tidal dissipation than Jupiter. Due to relatively rapid stellar rotation, we estimate that HAT-P-24b should exhibit one of the largest known Rossiter-McLaughlin effect amplitudes for an exoplanet ({Delta}V{sub RM} {approx_equal} 95 m s{sup -1}) and thus a precise measurement of the sky-projected spin-orbit alignment should be possible.

  13. Mapping the Putative G Protein-coupled Receptor (GPCR) Docking Site on GPCR Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Beautrait, Alexandre; Michalski, Kevin R.; Lopez, Thomas S.; Mannix, Katelynn M.; McDonald, Devin J.; Cutter, Amber R.; Medina, Christopher B.; Hebert, Aaron M.; Francis, Charnelle J.; Bouvier, Michel; Tesmer, John J. G.; Sterne-Marr, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate agonist-occupied receptors initiating the processes of desensitization and β-arrestin-dependent signaling. Interaction of GRKs with activated receptors serves to stimulate their kinase activity. The extreme N-terminal helix (αN), the kinase small lobe, and the active site tether (AST) of the AGC kinase domain have previously been implicated in mediating the allosteric activation. Expanded mutagenesis of the αN and AST allowed us to further assess the role of these two regions in kinase activation and receptor phosphorylation in vitro and in intact cells. We also developed a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assay to monitor the recruitment of GRK2 to activated α2A-adrenergic receptors (α2AARs) in living cells. The bioluminescence resonance energy transfer signal exhibited a biphasic response to norepinephrine concentration, suggesting that GRK2 is recruited to Gβγ and α2AAR with EC50 values of 15 nm and 8 μm, respectively. We show that mutations in αN (L4A, V7E, L8E, V11A, S12A, Y13A, and M17A) and AST (G475I, V477D, and I485A) regions impair or potentiate receptor phosphorylation and/or recruitment. We suggest that a surface of GRK2, including Leu4, Val7, Leu8, Val11, and Ser12, directly interacts with receptors, whereas residues such as Asp10, Tyr13, Ala16, Met17, Gly475, Val477, and Ile485 are more important for kinase domain closure and activation. Taken together with data on GRK1 and GRK6, our data suggest that all three GRK subfamilies make conserved interactions with G protein-coupled receptors, but there may be unique interactions that influence selectivity. PMID:25049229

  14. Five transiting hot Jupiters discovered using WASP-South, Euler, and TRAPPIST: WASP-119 b, WASP-124 b, WASP-126 b, WASP-129 b, and WASP-133 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Wagg, T.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    We have used photometry from the WASP-South instrument to identify 5 stars showing planet-like transits in their light curves. The planetary nature of the companions to these stars has been confirmed using photometry from the EulerCam instrument on the Swiss Euler 1.2-m telescope and the TRAPPIST telescope, and spectroscopy obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph. The planets discovered are hot Jupiter systems with orbital periods in the range 2.17 to 5.75 days, masses from 0.3 MJup to 1.2 MJup and with radii from 1 RJup to 1.5 RJup. These planets orbit bright stars (V = 11-13) with spectral types in the range F9 to G4. WASP-126 is the brightest planetary system in this sample and hosts a low-mass planet with a large radius (0.3 MJup,0.95 RJup), making it a good target for transmission spectroscopy. The high density of WASP-129 A suggests that it is a helium-rich star similar to HAT-P-11 A. WASP-133 A has an enhanced surface lithium abundance compared to other old G-type stars, particularly other planet host stars. These planetary systems are good targets for follow-up observations with ground-based and space-based facilities to study their atmospheric and dynamical properties. Full Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A55

  15. Subchondral bone microstructural damage by increased remodelling aggravates experimental osteoarthritis preceded by osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Osteoporosis (OP) increases cartilage damage in a combined rabbit model of OP and osteoarthritis (OA). Accordingly, we assessed whether microstructure impairment at subchondral bone aggravates cartilage damage in this experimental model. Methods OP was induced in 20 female rabbits, by ovariectomy and intramuscular injections of methylprednisolone hemisuccinate for four weeks. Ten healthy animals were used as controls. At week 7, OA was surgically induced in left knees of all rabbits. At 22 weeks, after sacrifice, microstructure parameters were assessed by micro-computed tomography, and osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) protein expressions were evaluated by Western Blot at subchondral bone. In addition, cartilage damage was estimated using the histopathological Mankin score. Mann-Whitney and Spearman statistical tests were performed as appropriate, using SPSS software v 11.0. Significant difference was established at P < 0.05. Results Subchondral bone area/tissue area, trabecular thickness and polar moment of inertia were diminished in OPOA knees compared with control or OA knees (P < 0.05). A decrease of plate thickness, ALP expression and OPG/RANKL ratio as well as an increased fractal dimension and MMP9 expression occurred at subchondral bone of OA, OP and OPOA knees vs. controls (P < 0.05). In addition, the severity of cartilage damage was increased in OPOA knees vs. controls (P < 0.05). Remarkably, good correlations were observed between structural and remodelling parameters at subchondral bone, and furthermore, between subchondral structural parameters and cartilage Mankin score. Conclusions Microstructure impairment at subchondral bone associated with an increased remodelling aggravated cartilage damage in OA rabbits with previous OP. Our results suggest that an increased subchondral bone resorption may account for the exacerbation of cartilage

  16. Automatic detection of cardiovascular risk in CT attenuation correction maps in Rb-82 PET/CTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Išgum, Ivana; de Vos, Bob D.; Wolterink, Jelmer M.; Dey, Damini; Berman, Daniel S.; Rubeaux, Mathieu; Leiner, Tim; Slomka, Piotr J.

    2016-03-01

    CT attenuation correction (CTAC) images acquired with PET/CT visualize coronary artery calcium (CAC) and enable CAC quantification. CAC scores acquired with CTAC have been suggested as a marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this work, an algorithm previously developed for automatic CAC scoring in dedicated cardiac CT was applied to automatic CAC detection in CTAC. The study included 134 consecutive patients undergoing 82-Rb PET/CT. Low-dose rest CTAC scans were acquired (100 kV, 11 mAs, 1.4mm×1.4mm×3mm voxel size). An experienced observer defined the reference standard with the clinically used intensity level threshold for calcium identification (130 HU). Five scans were removed from analysis due to artifacts. The algorithm extracted potential CAC by intensity-based thresholding and 3D connected component labeling. Each candidate was described by location, size, shape and intensity features. An ensemble of extremely randomized decision trees was used to identify CAC. The data set was randomly divided into training and test sets. Automatically identified CAC was quantified using volume and Agatston scores. In 33 test scans, the system detected on average 469mm3/730mm3 (64%) of CAC with 36mm3 false positive volume per scan. The intraclass correlation coefficient for volume scores was 0.84. Each patient was assigned to one of four CVD risk categories based on the Agatston score (0-10, 11-100, 101-400, <400). The correct CVD category was assigned to 85% of patients (Cohen's linearly weighted κ0.82). Automatic detection of CVD risk based on CAC scoring in rest CTAC images is feasible. This may enable large scale studies evaluating clinical value of CAC scoring in CTAC data.

  17. Assays of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying the recombinant guinea pig aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Sayuri; Ohta, Masaya; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic Arabidopsis plant XgD2V11-6 carrying the recombinant guinea pig (g) aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was examined for assay of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals. When the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were treated with PCB126 (toxic equivalency factor; TEF: 0.1) and PCB169 (TEF: 0.03), the GUS activity of the whole plants was increased significantly. After treatment with PCB80 (TEF: 0), the GUS activity was nearly the same level as that treated with 0.1% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a vehicle control. After exposure to a 1:1 mixture of PCB126 and PCB169, the GUS activity was increased additively. However, after exposure to a mixture of PCB126 and PCB80, the GUS activity was lower than that of the treatment with PCB126 alone. Thus, PCB80 seemed to be an antagonist towards AhR. When the transgenic plants were treated with each of the heavy metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb together with PCB126, Cd and Pb increased the PCB126-induced GUS activity. On the other hand, Fe, Cu and Zn did not affect the PCB126-induced GUS activity. In the presence of the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-B (MEL-B) and the carrier protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), the PCB126-induced GUS activity was increased, but the Cd-assisted PCB126-induced GUS activity was not affected. Thus, MEL-B and BSA seemed to increase uptake and transport of PCB126, respectively. PMID:22938576

  18. Classification of Sasang constitutional body types using immunostimulatory activities of constitution-specific herbal extracts in human primary immune cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Ho; Chung, Mi Ja; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2012-09-01

    Sasang is a Korean traditional constitutional medicine in which individuals are classified into four constitutional types: Taeyangin, Soeumin, Taeumin, and Soyangin. However, the classification of each constitution is empirical and not scientific, and so it is difficult to consistently classify patients into these four constitutional types. Acanthopanacis cortex (AC; Taeyangin), Rehmanniae radix (RR; Soyangin), Ephedra herba (EH; Taeumin), and White ginseng (WG; Soeumin) are herbal medicines that are used to treat and prevent diseases associated with these four constitutions. Therefore, AC, RR, EH, and WG extracts (ACE, RRE, EHE, and WGE) were used as reference extracts to determine constitutional differences in the immunostimulatory activities of primary immune cells isolated from the blood of 15 volunteers. Cellular proliferation, nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) protein production, TNF-α and interleukin-6, and inducible NO synthase mRNA expression were measured as the immunostimulatory parameters. The increase in cell proliferation of V2, V3, V8, V11, and V12 was highest in EHE-treated lymphocytes among the ACE-, RRE-, EHE- or WGE-treated lymphocytes, and increase in cellular proliferation of V4, V7, V13, V14, and V15 in RRE-treated lymphocytes was significantly better than the other three medicines. The cell proliferation of V1, V5, V6, V9, and V10 responded best to WGE among the four extracts. Results of cell proliferation and other immunostimulatory parameters showed similar trends in regard to individual differences. These extracts may be useful as reference extracts in the development of a rapid and dependable individual lymphocyte- or macrophage-based assay that aids in the Sasang constitutional classification. PMID:22870991

  19. The Type-Ia Supernova 1998bu in M96 and the Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S.; Garnavich, P. M.; Challis, P. M.; Kirshner, R. P.; Riess, A. G.; Filippenko, A. V.; Li, W.; Modjaz, M.; Treffers, R. R.; Grebel, E. K.; Seitzer, P.; Jacoby, G. H.; Benson, P. J.; Rizvi, A.; Marschall, L. A.

    1998-12-01

    We present extensive early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations of the type-Ia SN 1998bu in the Leo I Group galaxy M96 (NGC 3368). The well-sampled optical light curves consist of 311 UBVRI observations obtained from several telescopes: the F. L. Whipple Observatory 1.2-m, the MDM Observatory 2.4-m, the WIYN Observatory 3.5-m, the Kitt Peak National Observatory 0.9-m, the Whitin Observatory 0.6-m at Wellesley College, the Gettysburg College Observatory 0.4-m and the 0.76-m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope operated by UC Berkeley. The supernova reached maximum brightness in the B band on JD 2450952.8 +/- 0.8, with B = 12.22 +/- 0.03 and V = 11.88 +/- 0.02. There is strong evidence for considerable interstellar extinction along the line of sight to the supernova, but the light curve is otherwise quite typical of type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The distance to M96 has been measured via HST observations of Cepheids in the galaxy (Tanvir et al. 1995), making SN 1998bu very useful in determining the absolute luminosity of SNe Ia. We combine these observations with those of other Cepheid-calibrated SNe Ia and SNe Ia in the Hubble flow and perform a Multicolor Light Curve Shape analysis to derive a Hubble Constant of 64 +/- 4 km/s/Mpc (internal error), but subject to several sources of systematic uncertainty in the Cepheid distance scale.

  20. Acute consumption of a caffeinated energy drink enhances aspects of performance in sprint swimmers.

    PubMed

    Lara, Beatriz; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Areces, Francisco; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Salinero, Juan José; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Gallo-Salazar, César; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-09-28

    This study investigated the effect of a caffeinated energy drink on various aspects of performance in sprint swimmers. In a randomised and counterbalanced order, fourteen male sprint swimmers performed two acute experimental trials after the ingestion of a caffeinated energy drink (3 mg/kg) or after the ingestion of the same energy drink without caffeine (0 mg/kg; placebo). After 60 min of ingestion of the beverages, the swimmers performed a countermovement jump, a maximal handgrip test, a 50 m simulated competition and a 45 s swim at maximal intensity in a swim ergometer. A blood sample was withdrawn 1 min after the completion of the ergometer test. In comparison with the placebo drink, the intake of the caffeinated energy drink increased the height in the countermovement jump (49.4 (SD 5.3) v. 50.9 (SD 5.2) cm, respectively; P<0.05) and maximal force during the handgrip test with the right hand (481 (SD 49) v. 498 (SD 43) N; P<0.05). Furthermore, the caffeinated energy drink reduced the time needed to complete the 50 m simulated swimming competition (27.8 (SD 3.4) v. 27.5 (SD 3.2) s; P<0.05), and it increased peak power (273 (SD 55) v. 303 (SD 49) W; P <0.05) and blood lactate concentration (11.0 (SD 2.0) v. 11.7 (SD 2.1) mM; P<0.05) during the ergometer test. The caffeinated energy drink did not modify the prevalence of insomnia (7 v. 7%), muscle pain (36 v. 36%) or headache (0 v. 7%) during the hours following its ingestion (P>0.05). A caffeinated energy drink increased some aspects of swimming performance in competitive sprinters, whereas the side effects derived from the intake of this beverage were marginal at this dosage. PMID:26279580

  1. Two Transiting Low Density Sub-Saturns from K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petigura, Erik A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Lopez, Eric D.; Deck, Katherine M.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Ciardi, David R.; Chiang, Eugene; Lee, Eve J.; Isaacson, Howard; Beichman, Charles A.; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Sinukoff, Evan

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery and confirmation of K2-24 b and c, two sub-Saturn planets orbiting a bright (V = 11.3), metal-rich ([Fe/H] = 0.42 ± 0.04 dex) G3 dwarf in the K2 Campaign 2 field. The planets are 5.68 ± 0.56 {R}\\oplus and 7.82 ± 0.72 {R}\\oplus and have orbital periods of 20.8851 ± 0.0003 days and 42.3633 ± 0.0006 days, near the 2:1 mean-motion resonance. We obtained 32 radial velocities with Keck/HIRES and detected the reflex motion due to K2-24 b and c. These planets have masses of 21.0 ± 5.4 {M}\\oplus and 27.0 ± 6.9 {M}\\oplus , respectively. With low densities of 0.63 ± 0.25 g cm-3 and 0.31 ± 0.12 g cm-3, respectively, the planets require thick envelopes of H/He to explain their large sizes and low masses. Interior structure models predict that the planets have fairly massive cores of 17.6+/- 4.3 {M}\\oplus and 16.1+/- 4.2 {M}\\oplus , respectively. They may have formed exterior to their present locations, accreted their H/He envelopes at large orbital distances, and migrated in as a resonant pair. The proximity to resonance, large transit depths, and host star brightness offers rich opportunities for TTV follow-up. Finally, the low surface gravities of the K2-24 planets make them favorable targets for transmission spectroscopy by Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer, and James Webb Space Telescope.

  2. Spatio-temporal seasonal drought patterns in Europe from 1950 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoni, Jonathan; Naumann, Gustavo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Drought is one of the natural disasters with severe impacts in Europe, not only in areas which frequently experience water scarcity such as the Mediterranean, but also in temperate or continental climates such as Central and Eastern Europe and even in cold regions such as Scandinavia and Iceland. In this study the spatio-temporal patterns of seasonal meteorological droughts in Europe between 1950 and 2015 are investigated using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Since the focus is on the analysis of seasonal drought trends, indicators were calculated for 3 monthly accumulation periods. The input variables of precipitation and temperature were derived from E-OBS grids (v11-v12) at a spatial resolution of 0.25°x0.25°. Seasonal trends of drought frequency and severity were analyzed for moderate (SPI or SPEI <-1.0) and extreme (SPI or SPEI <-2.0) events during the periods 1950-2015 and 1981-2015. For the moderate events, results of the SPI analysis (precipitation driven) demonstrate a significant tendency towards less frequent and severe droughts in Northern Europe and Russia, especially in winter and spring; oppositely, an increasing trend is visible in Southern Europe, mainly in spring and summer. According to the SPEI analysis (precipitation and temperature driven) Northern Europe shows wetting patterns, while Southern and Eastern Europe show a more remarkable drying tendency, especially in summer and autumn for drought frequency and in every season for drought severity. The evolution towards drier conditions is more relevant from 1981 onwards, both in terms of frequency and severity. This is especially true for Central Europe in spring, for the Mediterranean in summer, and for Eastern Europe in autumn. Extreme events follow similar patterns, but in autumn no spatially coherent trend can be found.

  3. [Value of early acoustic and somatosensory evoked potentials in monitoring and prognostic assessment of coma in barbiturate therapy--comparison with clinical aspects and EEG].

    PubMed

    Reisecker, F; Witzmann, A; Löffler, W; Leblhuber, F; Deisenhammer, E; Valencak, E

    1987-03-01

    25 comatose patients suffering from severe cerebral lesions of different etiology were examined during barbiturate-therapy by Glasgow-Pittsburg-Coma-Scoring-System (GPCS), EEG, somatosensory and brainstem acoustic evoked potentials. The findings were correlated in view of prognostic prediction and importance for monitoring. A modified form of the Glasgow-Outcome-Score (GOS; independent-survival, dependent-survival, dead) was used for evaluating the outcome. In case of an initial GPCS less than 10 points none of the patients survived, in case of GPCS greater than 10 points 11 out of 19 patients survived. The latter relation of survival was also found in patients with improving or impairing scores during the observation period. In case of initial burst-suppression pattern in the EEG 7 out of 11 patients survived, in case of diffuse abnormalities with or with-out additional focal signs - 4 out of 10 patients survived, but in the latter there was none with an outcome of independent survival. All patients with an isoelectric EEG died. In case of bilateral recording of scalp- SEP 7 out of 11 patients survived, in case of unilateral loss of scalp-EP 4 out of 8 patients survived, but in the latter cases none with an outcome of independence. All patients with initial bilateral failure of scalp-SSEP or loss during the observation period died. In case of bilateral registrable BAEP (wave I to V) 11 out of 17 patients survived. All patients with initial uni- or bilateral failure of those potentials or loss during the observation period died.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3106004

  4. The physiological effects of cycling on tandem and single bicycles

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, J; Bacharach, D; Burke, E; Langenfeld, M; Snyder, A

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this field study was to compare the physiological responses from cycling on a tandem road bicycle to those from cycling on a single road bicycle. Methods: Nine pairs of experienced, recreational tandem cyclists rode a tandem or their single bicycle for 5 min at each velocity of 19.3, 22.5, 25.8, and 29.0 kph on a flat, paved surface. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and lactic acid (LA) data were collected after each interval. Results: Riding a tandem resulted in lower HR, RPE, and LA mean values across the four velocities compared to the single bicycle. Mean (SD) HR, RPE, and LA for tandem and single bicycles were 126 (20.7) v 142 (20.1) bpm, 10.1 (1.7) v 11.3 (2.6), and 1.46 (1.0) mM/L v 2.36 (1.7) mM/L, respectively. No position differences were observed between the captain and stoker (front and rear positions) when both were on the tandem. Stokers had significantly lower HR, LA, and RPE values when they rode a tandem compared to a single bicycle. No statistical differences were observed between bicycles for the captains. When on the single bicycle, captains exhibited significantly lower HR, RPE, and LA values than stokers. Conclusion: Cycling on a tandem resulted in lower physiological stress than when cycling at the same velocity on a single bicycle. Cyclists were able to ride from 4.8–8.0 kph faster on a tandem than on a single bicycle at similar physiological stress. Apparently, stokers can add to power output on a tandem without adding significantly to wind resistance. PMID:12547743

  5. The Rotational Spectrum of Acrylonitrile to 1.67 THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczółkowski, Lech; Drouin, Brian J.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Yu, Shanshan; Pearson, John C.

    2009-06-01

    Acrylonitrile (vinyl cyanide) is an astrophysical molecule of sufficient abundance for detection of its ^{13}C isotopologues. In fact this molecule has been identified as one of the 'weed' species, that will contribute a plethora of lines in broadband submillimetre spectra from the new tools of radioastronomy, such as the Herschel Space Observatory or ALMA. We presently report the first stage in extending the knowledge of the rotational spectrum of acrylonitrile well into the THz region. The spectrum was recorded with the jpl cascaded harmonic multiplication instrument in the form of several broadband segments covering 390-540, 818-930, 967-1160, and 1576-1669 GHz. The analysis of the ground state spectrum has been extended up to J=128, K_a=29, and a combined data set of over 3000 fitted lines. It is found that transitions in all measurable vibrational states, inclusive of the ground state, show evidence of perturbations with other states. Several different perturbations between the ground state and v_{11}=1 at 228 cm^{-1} were identified and have been successfully fitted, resulting in E_{11}=228.29994(3) cm^{-1}, to compare with a direct far-infrared value of 228.83(18) cm^{-1}. H.S.P.Müller et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc., 251, 319-325 (2008). B.J.Drouin, F.W.Maiwald, J.C.Pearson, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 76, 093113-1-10 (2005). A.R.H.Cole, A.A.Green, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 48, 246-253 (1973).

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VRI light curves of TT Her (Terrell+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, D.; Nelson, R. H.

    2016-04-01

    In April of 2005, 2006, and 2007 R.H.N. took a total of nine medium resolution (reciprocal dispersion=10Å/mm, R=10000) spectra at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria, BC using the 1.8m Plaskett Telescope. The exposure time was usually 1hr and the spectral coverage was approximately 5000-5260Å. The log of the spectroscopic observations is given in Table1. Photometric observations in the VRCIC photometric passbands were undertaken by R.H.N. at his private observatory in Prince George, BC, Canada in May and June of 2008. A total of 392 frames in V, 413 in RC, and 393 in IC were taken. Standard reduction techniques (bias subtraction, dark subtraction, and flat-fielding) were done and aperture photometry performed. Differential photometry was then performed with GSC 1525-0805 (V=9.82+/-0.03 and B-V=0.72+/-0.03 from the Tycho-2 catalog; Hog et al. 2000, cat. I/259) as the comparison star and GSC 1525-0939 (V=11.73+/-0.07 and B-V=0.82+/-0.07 from Data Release 7 of the APASS survey; Henden et al., 2012JAVSO..40..430H; see DR9 in Henden et al. 2016, cat. II/336) as the check star. No variation in the comparison and check stars greater than 0.01mag was detected, and the precision of the differential magnitudes for TT Her was about 0.005mag in each filter. The instrumental magnitude differences are given in Table2. (2 data files).

  7. Combating HIV resistance – focus on darunavir

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Cécile L

    2008-01-01

    Darunavir is a second-generation protease inhibitor designed to have antiviral efficacy against HIV-1 isolates harboring multiple resistance mutations to protease inhibitors. Pivotal trials conducted in treatment-experienced HIV-infected individuals have demonstrated significantly greater virological suppression when darunavir was added to an optimized background treatment compared with a control protease inhibitor. This virological suppression was associated with an increase in CD4 counts and was sustained over time. Darunavir resistance-associated mutations have been defined as V11I, V32I, L33F, I47V, I50V, I54L/M, G73S, L76V, I84V, and L89V. In clinical trials, baseline darunavir susceptibility was a strong predictor of virological response. Prior use of fosamprenavir was associated with darunavir resistance mutations. Darunavir has a high genetic barrier and has a distinct resistance profile. Although some cross-resistance exists with other second-generation protease inhibitors such as tipranavir, different resistance mutation patterns have been observed upon failure to these regimens. It was found that mutations at 47V, 54M, 85V, and 73T were most prevalent in isolates resistant to both PIs. Mutations 48V, 50V, and 54L were associated with resistance to darunavir but not to tipranavir. 82S and 82T were associated with resistance to tipranavir but not to darunavir. Therefore, darunavir provides potent virological efficacy as well as high genetic barrier that can be useful to preserve treatment options in HIV-infected, treatment-experienced individuals. PMID:19209258

  8. The Role of Partial Recording Protocols in reporting prevalence and severity of Dental Fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Akinkugbe, Aderonke; Iafolla, Timothy; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Garcia, Isabel; Adams, Amy; Kingman, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the role of partial recording protocols (PRPs) in reporting prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and assess whether prevalence/severity estimates derived from PRPs differ by race/ethnicity. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2004 were analyzed with Stata® v.11. Prevalence of dental fluorosis obtained from a full mouth examination (28 teeth gold standard) was compared to estimates derived from four subsets of teeth (maxillary canine-to-canine; maxillary 1st premolar to 1st premolar; allpremolars; all-molars). Sensitivity, Negative Predictive Value (NPV), absolute bias, and correction factors were calculated against gold standard estimate. Analysis was stratified according to race/ethnicity to assess differences in estimates derived from PRPs. Results All subsets underestimated prevalence albeit to varying degrees. Two subsets (allpremolars and all-molars) had prevalence and severity estimates closest to gold standard estimates. The all-molar subset (8 teeth) recorded the highest sensitivity (84.5%) and the lowest absolute bias (3.5%) of all subsets relative to gold standard. Subsets derived from aesthetically relevant teeth produced the lowest fluorosis prevalence. For instance, the maxillary canine-to-canine subset underestimated prevalence by 9.5%; incorporating the maxillary first premolars in the span improved prevalence estimate by 31%. Among non-Hispanic Whites, the all-premolars subset produced estimates closest to gold standard while the all-molars subset produced estimates closest to the gold standard among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics. Conclusion While the majority of dental fluorosis in the United States is very mild, concerns regarding its growing prevalence underscore the need for careful monitoring. The use of PRPs offers an alternative method of assessment, with validity of reported prevalence and severity dependent on choice of subset. PMID:24995860

  9. From the sparse to the statistical limit of intramolecular vibrational redistribution in vibrational predissociation: ArCl2 as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncero, Octavio; Caloto, David; Janda, Kenneth C.; Halberstadt, Nadine

    1997-08-01

    The dynamics of intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) for ArCl2 are examined for a wide range of vibrational and rotational excitation. In order to describe the IVR more efficiently, and characterize it more quantitatively, we propose a refinement of the traditional Bixon-Jortner description in which the active states are prediagonalized to simplify the coupling scheme that must be considered. This allows for an explicit determination of the average density of states and average coupling strength for each initial excitation. We find that the IVR dynamics proceed from the sparse regime for v=11, for which the first open dissociation channel corresponds to the loss of two Cl2 quanta, to the intermediate-dense regime for v=25 which dissociates by the loss of 4 quanta. We find that over this range the increase in the density of states is less important than the increase in the coupling strength. For v = 18 we examine the effect of rotation in considerable detail. Initial states that couple via a manifold of 6000 channels can be considered since the calculation is performed on a parallel computer. The effect of increasing J, the total angular momentum excitation, is found to be less than that of increasing K, the degree of rotation about the van der Waals bond. This means that the main effect is not simply an increase of the available density of states due to Coriolis coupling. Understanding the details of IVR in a relatively simple system like ArCl2 should help us understand the dynamics of more complicated molecules. In particular, the case of ArI2 is discussed.

  10. Worldwide burden of gastric cancer in 2012 that could have been prevented by increasing fruit and vegetable intake and predictions for 2025.

    PubMed

    Peleteiro, Bárbara; Padrão, Patrícia; Castro, Clara; Ferro, Ana; Morais, Samantha; Lunet, Nuno

    2016-03-14

    The regional and temporal variation in patterns of fruit and vegetable intake contributes to differences in the impact on gastric cancer burden across regions and over the years. We aimed to estimate the proportion and absolute number of gastric cancer cases that could have been prevented in 2012 with an increase in fruit and vegetable intake up to the levels defined by the Global Burden of Disease as the theoretical minimum-risk exposure distribution (300 and 400 g/d, respectively), as well as the corresponding figures expected for 2025. Preventable fractions (PF) were computed for 161 countries, using data on fruit and vegetable availability in 1997 and 2010 and published estimates of the magnitude of the association between fruit and vegetable intake and gastric cancer, assuming a time lag of approximately 15 years. Countries classified as very high Human Development Index (HDI) presented median PF in 2012 much lower than low-HDI countries for both fruits (3·0 v. 10·2%, P<0·001) and vegetables (6·0 v. 11·9%, P<0·001). For vegetables only, PF significantly decreased until 2025 in most settings; however, this corresponded to a reduction in the absolute number of preventable gastric cancer cases in less than half of the countries. Increasing fruit and vegetable intake would allow preventing a relatively high proportion of gastric cancer cases, mostly in developing countries. Although declines in PF are predicted in the near future, changes in order to achieve healthier lifestyles may be insufficient to overcome the load of demographic variation to further reduce the gastric cancer burden. PMID:26794617

  11. Natural cocoa consumption: Potential to reduce atherogenic factors?

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Venable, Adam S; Henning, Andrea L; Prado, Eric A; Best Sampson, Jill N; Vingren, Jakob L; Hill, David W

    2015-06-01

    Short-term consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been demonstrated to improve various facets of vascular health. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption on selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers in young (19-35 years) women of differing body mass indices (BMI; normal, overweight or obese). Subjects (n = 24) consumed a natural cocoa-containing product (12.7 g natural cocoa, 148 kcal/serving) or an isocaloric cocoa-free placebo daily for 4 weeks in a random, double-blind manner with a 2-week washout period between treatment arms. Fasted (>8-h) blood samples were collected before and after each 4-week period. Serum was analyzed to determine lipid profile (chemistry analyzer) and CVD biomarkers (26 biomarkers). EDTA-treated blood was used to assess monocytes (CD14, CD16, v11b and CD62L), while citrate-treated blood was used to measure changes in endothelial microparticles (EMPs; CD42a-/45-/144+) by flow cytometry. Natural cocoa consumption resulted in a significant decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034), EMP concentration (P = .017) and monocyte CD62L (P = .047) in obese compared to overweight and normal-weight subjects. Natural cocoa consumption regardless of BMI group was associated with an 18% increase in high-density lipoprotein (P = .020) and a 60% decrease in EMPs (P = .047). Also, obese subjects experienced a 21% decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034) and a 24% decrease in monocyte CD62L expression in (P = .047) following 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption. Collectively, these findings indicate that acute natural cocoa consumption was associated with decreased obesity-related disease risk. More research is needed to assess the stability of the observed short-term changes.

  12. HST Imaging of the Local Volume Dwarf Galaxies Pisces A and B: Prototypes for Local Group Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollerud, Erik J.; Geha, Marla C.; Grcevich, Jana; Putman, Mary E.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2016-08-01

    We present observations of the Pisces A and B galaxies with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. Photometry from these images clearly resolves a red giant branch (RGB) for both objects, demonstrating that they are nearby dwarf galaxies. We describe a Bayesian inferential approach to determining the distance to these galaxies using the magnitude of the tip of the RGB, and then apply this approach to these galaxies. This reveals the distance to these galaxies as {5.64}-0.15+0.13 {{Mpc}} and {8.89}-0.85+0.75 {{Mpc}} for Pisces A and B, respectively, placing both within the Local Volume but not the Local Group (LG). We estimate the star formation histories of these galaxies, which suggests that they have recently undergone an increase in their star formation rates. Together these yield luminosities for Pisces A and B of {M}V=-{11.57}-0.05+0.06 and -12.9 ± 0.2, respectively, and estimated stellar masses of {log}({M}* /{M}⊙ )={7.0}-1.7+0.4 and {7.5}-1.8+0.3. We further show that these galaxies are likely at the boundary between nearby voids and higher-density filamentary structure. This suggests that they are entering a higher-density region from voids, where they would have experienced delayed evolution, consistent with their recent increased star formation rates. If this is indeed the case, they are useful for study as proxies of the galaxies that later evolved into typical LG satellite galaxies.

  13. Clinical, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic features in 117 adult patients with mixed-phenotype acute leukemia defined by WHO-2008 classification.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lingzhi; Ping, Nana; Zhu, Mingqing; Sun, Aining; Xue, Yongquan; Ruan, Changgeng; Drexler, Hans G; Macleod, Roderick A F; Wu, Depei; Chen, Suning

    2012-11-01

    Among 4,780 consecutive adult acute lymphoblastic/myeloblastic leukemia patients, we identified 117 (2.4%) patients with mixed-phenotype acute leukemia fulfilling WHO 2008 criteria; these were classified as: Blymphoid+ myeloid (n=64), T-lymphoid+myeloid (n=38), B+T-lymphoid (n=14) and trilineage (n=1). Of 92 patients karyotyped, 59 were abnormal and were classified as: complex (22 of 92), t(9;22)(q34;q11) (14 of 92), monosomy 7 (7 of 92), polysomy 21 (7 of 92), t(v;11q23) (4 of 92), t(10;11)(p15;q21) (3 of 92), while STIL-TAL1 fusion was detected in one (T+My) patient. After investigating common acute leukemia-related mutations in 17 genes, 12 of 31 (39%) patients were found to have at least one mutation, classified with: IKZF1 deletion (4 of 31), and EZH2 (3 of 31), ASXL1 (3 of 31), ETV6 (2 of 31), NOTCH1 (1 of 31), and TET2 (1 of 31) mutations. Array-CGH revealed genomic deletions of CDKN2A (4 of 12), IKZF1 (3 of 12), MEF2C (2 of 12), BTG1 (2 of 12), together with BCOR, EBF1, K-RAS, LEF1, MBNL1, PBX3, and RUNX1 (one of 12 each). Our results indicate that mixed-phenotype acute leukemia is a complex entity with heterogeneous clinical, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic features. PMID:22581002

  14. Instructions to “push as hard as you can” improve average chest compression depth in dispatcher-assisted Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Muzna; Brown, Todd B.; Saini, Devashish; Pepper, Tracy L; Nandigam, Hari Krishna; Kaza, Niroop; Cofield, Stacey S.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) with adequate chest compression depth appears to improve first shock success in cardiac arrest. We evaluate the effect of simplification of chest compression instructions on compression depth in dispatcher-assisted CPR protocol. Methods Data from two randomized, double-blinded, controlled trials with identical methodology were combined to obtain 332 records for this analysis. Subjects were randomized to either modified Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) v11.2 protocol or a new simplified protocol. The main difference between the protocols was the instruction to “push as hard as you can” in the simplified protocol, compared to “push down firmly 2 inches (5cm)” in MPDS. Data were recorded via a Laerdal® ResusciAnne® SkillReporter™ manikin. Primary outcome measures included: chest compression depth, proportion of compressions without error, with adequate depth and with total release. Results Instructions to “push as hard as you can”, compared to “push down firmly 2 inches (5cm)”, resulted in improved chest compression depth (36.4 vs 29.7 mm, p<0.0001), and improved median proportion of chest compressions done to the correct depth (32% vs <1%, p<0.0001). No significant difference in median proportion of compressions with total release (100% for both) and average compression rate (99.7 vs 97.5 per min, p<0.56) was found. Conclusions Modifying dispatcher-assisted CPR instructions by changing “push down firmly 2 inches (5cm)” to “push as hard as you can” achieved improvement in chest compression depth at no cost to total release or average chest compression rate. PMID:18635306

  15. Outburst evolution, historic light curve and a flash-ionized nebula around the WZ Sge-type object PNV J03093063+2638031

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Jurdana-Šepić, R.; Ochner, P.; Cherini, G.

    2015-12-01

    We have monitored the 2014 superoutburst of the WZ Sge-type transient PNV J03093063+2638031 for more than four months, from V = 11.0 maximum brightness down to V = 18.4 mag, close to quiescence value, by obtaining BVRCIC photometry and low resolution fluxed spectroscopy. The evolution was normal and no late-time "echo" outbursts were observed. The absolute integrated flux of emission lines kept declining along the superoutburst, and their increasing contrast with the underlying continuum was simply the result of the faster decline of the continuum compared to the emission lines. Inspection of historical Harvard plates covering the 1899-1981 period did not reveal previous outbursts, neither "normal" nor "super". We discovered an extended emission nebula (radius ~1 arcmin) around PNV J03093063+2638031, that became visible for a few months as the result of photo-ionization from the superoutburst of the central star. The nebula is not present on Palomar I and II sky survey images and it quickly disappeared when the outburst was over. From the rate at wich the ionization front swept through the nebula, we derive a distance of ~120 pc to the system. The nebula is density bounded with an outer radius of 0.03 pc, and the absolute magnitude of the central star in quiescence is MV ~ 14.2 mag. The electron density in the nebula is estimated to be 105 cm-3 from the observed recombination time scale. Given the considerable substructures seen across the nebula, a low filling factor is inferred. Similar nebulae have not been reported for other WZ Sge objects and the challenges posed to models are considered. Spectra of Fig. 2 and full Table 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A12

  16. Inequity in household's capacity to pay and health payments in Tehran-Iran-2013

    PubMed Central

    Rezapour, Aziz; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Azami Aghdash, Saber; Tanoomand, Asghar; Ahmadzadeh, Nahal; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health inequality monitoring especially in Health care financing field is very important. Hence, this study tends to assess the inequality in household's capacity to pay and out-of-pocket health carepaymentsin Tehran metropolis. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2013.Thestudy population was selected by stratified cluster sampling, and they constitute the typical households living in Tehran (2200 households). The required data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using Excel and Stata v.11. Concentration Index on inequality was used for measuring inequality status in capacity to pay and household payments for health care expenses; and also the concentration index for out-of-pocket payments and capacity to pay was used to determine the extent of inequality. The recall period for inpatient care was one year and 1 month for outpatient. Results: The average of out-of-pocket payments for receiving the outpatient services was determined to be 44.33US$ and for each inpatient1861.11 US$. Concentration index for household's outof- pocket payments for inpatient health care, out-of-pocket payments for outpatient health care and health prepayments were calculated 0.13, -0.10 and -0.11, respectively. Also, concentration index in household’s capacity to pay was estimated to be 0.11whichindicatedinequality to the benefit of the rich. The households used financing strategies like savings, borrowing or lending to pay their health care expenditures. Conclusion: According to this study, the poor spend a greater portion of their capacity to pay for outpatient and inpatient health care costs and prepayment, in comparison to the rich. Thus, supporting the vulnerable groups of the society to decrease out-of-pocket payments and increasing the household’s capacity to pay through government support in order to improve the household economic potential, must be considered very important. PMID:26793636

  17. THRESHING IN ACTION: THE TIDAL DISRUPTION OF A DWARF GALAXY BY THE HYDRA I CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Andreas; Burkert, Andreas; Rich, R. Michael; Black, Christine S.; Collins, Michelle L. M.; Hilker, Michael; Benson, Andrew J.

    2012-08-10

    We report on the discovery of strong tidal features around a dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the Hydra I galaxy cluster, indicating its ongoing tidal disruption. This very low surface brightness object, HCC-087, was originally classified as an early-type dwarf in the Hydra Cluster Catalogue (HCC), but our re-analysis of the ESO-VLT/FORS images of the HCC unearthed a clear indication of an S-shaped morphology and a large spatial extent. Its shape, luminosity (M{sub V} = -11.6 mag), and physical size (at a half-light radius of 3.1 kpc and a full length of {approx}5.9 kpc) are comparable to the recently discovered NGC 4449B and the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal, all of which are undergoing clear tidal disruption. Aided by N-body simulations we argue that HCC-087 is currently at its first apocenter, at 150 kpc, around the cluster center and that it is being tidally disrupted by the galaxy cluster's potential itself. An interaction with the nearby (50 kpc) S0 cluster galaxy HCC-005, at M{sub *} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} is rather unlikely, as this constellation requires a significant amount of dynamical friction and thus low relative velocities. The S-shaped morphology and large spatial extent of the satellite would, however, also appear if HCC-087 would orbit the cluster center. These features appear to be characteristic properties of satellites that are seen in the process of being tidally disrupted, independent of the environment of the destruction. An important finding of our simulations is an orientation of the tidal tails perpendicular to the orbit.

  18. Acute consumption of a caffeinated energy drink enhances aspects of performance in sprint swimmers.

    PubMed

    Lara, Beatriz; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Areces, Francisco; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Salinero, Juan José; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Gallo-Salazar, César; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-09-28

    This study investigated the effect of a caffeinated energy drink on various aspects of performance in sprint swimmers. In a randomised and counterbalanced order, fourteen male sprint swimmers performed two acute experimental trials after the ingestion of a caffeinated energy drink (3 mg/kg) or after the ingestion of the same energy drink without caffeine (0 mg/kg; placebo). After 60 min of ingestion of the beverages, the swimmers performed a countermovement jump, a maximal handgrip test, a 50 m simulated competition and a 45 s swim at maximal intensity in a swim ergometer. A blood sample was withdrawn 1 min after the completion of the ergometer test. In comparison with the placebo drink, the intake of the caffeinated energy drink increased the height in the countermovement jump (49.4 (SD 5.3) v. 50.9 (SD 5.2) cm, respectively; P<0.05) and maximal force during the handgrip test with the right hand (481 (SD 49) v. 498 (SD 43) N; P<0.05). Furthermore, the caffeinated energy drink reduced the time needed to complete the 50 m simulated swimming competition (27.8 (SD 3.4) v. 27.5 (SD 3.2) s; P<0.05), and it increased peak power (273 (SD 55) v. 303 (SD 49) W; P <0.05) and blood lactate concentration (11.0 (SD 2.0) v. 11.7 (SD 2.1) mM; P<0.05) during the ergometer test. The caffeinated energy drink did not modify the prevalence of insomnia (7 v. 7%), muscle pain (36 v. 36%) or headache (0 v. 7%) during the hours following its ingestion (P>0.05). A caffeinated energy drink increased some aspects of swimming performance in competitive sprinters, whereas the side effects derived from the intake of this beverage were marginal at this dosage.

  19. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the development of asthma and COPD in asymptomatic individuals: SAPALDIA Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Brutsche, M H; Downs, S H; Schindler, C; Gerbase, M W; Schwartz, J; Frey, M; Russi, E W; Ackermann‐Liebrich, U; Leuenberger, P

    2006-01-01

    Background Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is a common feature of asthma. However, BHR is also present in asymptomatic individuals and its clinical and prognostic significance is unclear. We hypothesised that BHR might play a role in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as asthma. Methods In 1991 respiratory symptoms and BHR to methacholine were evaluated in 7126 of the 9651 participants in the SAPALDIA cohort study. Eleven years later 5825 of these participants were re‐evaluated, of whom 4852 performed spirometric tests. COPD was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio of <0.70. Results In 1991 17% of participants had BHR, of whom 51% were asymptomatic. Eleven years later the prevalence of asthma, wheeze, and shortness of breath in formerly asymptomatic subjects with or without BHR was, respectively, 5.7% v 2.0%, 8.3% v 3.4%, and 19.1% v 11.9% (all p<0.001). Similar differences were observed for chronic cough (5.9% v 2.3%; p = 0.002) and COPD (37.9% v 14.3%; p<0.001). BHR conferred an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.9 (95% CI 1.8 to 4.5) for wheezing at follow up among asymptomatic participants. The adjusted OR for COPD was 4.5 (95% CI 3.3 to 6.0). Silent BHR was associated with a significantly accelerated decline in FEV1 by 12 (5–18), 11 (5–16), and 4 (2–8) ml/year in current smokers, former smokers and never smokers, respectively, at SAPALDIA 2. Conclusions BHR is a risk factor for an accelerated decline in FEV1 and the development of asthma and COPD, irrespective of atopic status. Current smokers with BHR have a particularly high loss of FEV1. PMID:16670173

  20. Quality of Life Evaluation in Iranian Postpartum Women With and Without Striae Gravidarum

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, Masoumeh; Rashidi Fakari, Farzaneh; Mazloum, Seyed Reza; Layegh, Pouran

    2016-01-01

    Background Striae are a common change during pregnancy, leaving striae in various body parts after delivery, which most women find unpleasant. They create a big aesthetic concern for most women. Although striae do not endanger the mother and the fetus, they may cause a desire to scratch the region leading to small wounds, induce stress over beauty, decrease self-confidence, and create psychological disorders. They may try various treatments and often refer to dermatology clinics and receive long-term treatments; these time-consuming and costly behaviors and may affect their quality of life. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in Iranian postpartum women with and without striae gravidarum. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 145 women who had referred to health centers of Mashhad to receive post-delivery health care six weeks after delivery during year 2013. Multi-stage sampling was applied to select the participants. The tools used were demographic, SF-36 quality of life, Skindex29, Atwal and Fitzpatrick classification questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the SPSS V.11.5 software. Results The subjects’ mean age was 26.3 ± 5.7. Mann-Whitney test showed there was a significant difference between mean of Skindex29 and its dimensions (P < 0.001), general life quality (P < 0.001) in women with and without striae. Mann-Whitney test showed no significant difference between mean general quality of life dimension, except physical function in women with and without striae (P > 0.05). Conclusions The results showed that striae lead to reduced quality of general life and reduced skin quality index in women postpartum. PMID:27803721

  1. Myocardial Fibrosis Identified by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Late Gadolinium Enhancement is Associated with Adverse Ventricular Mechanics and Ventricular Tachycardia Late After Fontan Operation

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Rahul H.; Prakash, Ashwin; Powell, Andrew J.; Geva, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the relationship between myocardial fibrosis identified by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and ventricular performance and arrhythmias in patients late after the Fontan operation. Background Patients who have undergone the Fontan palliation may develop ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmias, but the mechanisms and risk factors are poorly defined. Methods All patients who have had a Fontan operation and a CMR study with the myocardial delayed enhancement technique from January 2002 to November 2008 were retrospectively identified. Results Of 90 patients (mean age at study 23.1 ± 10.9 years), 25 (28%) had positive late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in the ventricular myocardium. Patients with positive LGE had lower mean ejection fraction (EF) (45% v. 56%, P<0.001), increased median end-diastolic volume (EDVi) (100 mL/BSA1.3 v. 82 mL/BSA1.3, P=0.004), increased median ventricular massi (63 g/BSA1.3 v. 45 g/BSA1.3, P<0.001), higher frequency of regional wall motion abnormalities (52% v. 28%, P=0.05), and higher frequency of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) (36% v. 11%, P=0.01). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that more extensive positive LGE, expressed as percent LGE of total myocardial mass, was associated with lower EF (P=0.002), increased EDVi (P<0.001), increased massi (P<0.001), and a higher frequency of NSVT (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.4, P=0.006). Conclusions In this cohort of late Fontan survivors, myocardial fibrosis was common and associated with adverse ventricular mechanics and higher prevalence of NSVT. Further studies are warranted to examine the utility of LGE for risk stratification and treatment of ventricular arrhythmia and dysfunction in Fontan patients. PMID:20394877

  2. Predictive value of miR-210 as a novel biomarker for pre-eclampsia: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nikuei, Pooneh; Davoodian, Nahid; Tahamtan, Iman; Keshtkar, Abbas Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious condition affecting 3–5% of all pregnancies worldwide. However, underlying molecular pathogenesis of this disease has largely remained unknown. Recently, several studies have indicated the possibility role of microRNAs, especially miR-210, in the aetiology of PE. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the possible role of miR-210 as a novel biomarker for the prediction of PE. Methods and analysis Using a combination of mesh terms ‘preeclampsia’, ‘microRNA’ and their equivalents, an electronic search will be performed for all observational studies (cross sectional, case–control and cohort) in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane, LILACS and OvidSP MEDLINE from January 2005 to December 2015. Furthermore, other sources are searched, including grey literature, reference lists of relevant primary studies as well as key journals. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment of studies will be performed independently by 2 reviewers, and any disagreement will be resolved by consensus. If sufficient data are available, it will be combined by either fixed or random effects models. We will investigate the source)s(and degree of heterogeneity using ‘Heterogeneity χ2’ and I2. Heterogeneity would be investigated through either subgroup analysis or metaregression. Stata V.11.1 will be used for data analysis. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study are disseminated in peer-reviewed journal articles and academic presentations. Formal ethical approval is not required, since the secondary data will be collected. Trial registration number CRD42015032345. PMID:27683514

  3. Measuring equity in household's health care payments (Tehran-Iran 2013): technical points for health policy decision makers

    PubMed Central

    Rezapour, Aziz; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Azami Aghdash, Saber; Tanoomand, Asghar; Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Morteza; Yousefzadeh, Negar; Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Households’ financial protection against health payments and expenditures and equity in utilization of health care services are of the most important tasks of governments. This study aims to measuring equity in household’s health care payments according to fairness in financial contribution (FFC) and Kakwani indices in Tehran-Iran, 2013. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014.The study sample size was estimated to be 2200 households. Households were selected using stratified-cluster sampling including typical families who reside in the city of Tehran. The data were analyzed through Excel and Stata v.11software. Recall period for the inpatient care was 1 year and for outpatient1 month. Results: The indicator of FFC for households in health financing was estimated to be 0.68 and the trend of the indicator was ascending by the rise in the ranking of households’ financial level. The Kakwani index was estimated to be a negative number (-0.00125) which indicated the descending trend of health financing system. By redistribution of incomes or the exempt of the poorest quintiles from health payments, Kakwani index was estimated to be a positive number (0.090555) which indicated the ascending trend of health financing system. Conclusion: According to this study, the equity indices in health care financing denote injustice and a descending trend in the health care financing system. This finding clearly shows that deliberate policy making in health financing by national health authorities and protecting low-income households against health expenditures are required to improve the equity in health. PMID:26793637

  4. A case control study of a deprivation triangle: teenage motherhood, poor educational achievement and unemployment.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Terry; Cupples, Margaret E; Irvine, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Teenage motherhood has been linked with poor health, poor educational attainment, poor employment prospects and socio-economic deprivation. Much of the evidence has come from large surveys and the nature of these inter-relationships remains unclear. A case-control study was designed to compare the educational and employment experiences of teenage mothers with those of an age matched sample of peers from a similar social background and to test the feasibility of carrying out this type of research within primary care. Participants were identified from records in 36 GP practices in the Greater Belfast area. First time teenage mothers with one child aged 9-15 months at the time of interview were selected. Teenage mothers were matched with a control group of nulliparous teenagers in respect of age and postcode and registered with the same practice. Questionnaires were administered in their home or at their health centre. Data were analysed using SPSS for Windows Version 6. Teenage mothers were less likely than controls to have gained passes in school leaving examinations. None of the mothers was in full time education compared with 35% of the controls. Excluding those in education or training, more of the control group were employed at the time of study (82% v 11%). It is concluded that teenage mothers with one child report poorer educational attainment and employment status than their nulliparous peers from a similar social background with similar educational opportunities. Attention must be paid to these findings when planning policy to help teenage mothers and avoid perpetuation of a cycle of socio-economic deprivation.

  5. Isolation and in silico analysis of Fe-superoxide dismutase in the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Kesheri, Minu; Kanchan, Swarna; Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2014-12-15

    Cyanobacteria are known to endure various stress conditions due to the inbuilt potential for oxidative stress alleviation owing to the presence of an array of antioxidants. The present study shows that Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune possesses two antioxidative enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase that jointly cope with environmental stresses prevailing at its natural habitat. Native-PAGE analysis illustrates the presence of a single prominent isoform recognized as Fe-SOD and three distinct isoforms of catalase. The protein sequence of Fe-SOD in N. commune retrieved from NCBI protein sequence database was used for in silico analysis. 3D structure of N. commune was predicted by comparative modeling using MODELLER 9v11. Further, this model was validated for its quality by Ramachandran plot, ERRAT, Verify 3D and ProSA-web which revealed good structure quality of the model. Multiple sequence alignment showed high conservation in N and C-terminal domain regions along with all metal binding positions in Fe-SOD which were also found to be highly conserved in all 28 cyanobacterial species under study, including N. commune. In silico prediction of isoelectric point and molecular weight of Fe-SOD was found to be 5.48 and 22,342.98Da respectively. The phylogenetic tree revealed that among 28 cyanobacterial species, Fe-SOD in N. commune was the closest evolutionary homolog of Fe-SOD in Nostoc punctiforme as evident by strong bootstrap value. Thus, N. commune may serve as a good biological model for studies related to survival of life under extreme conditions prevailing at the Antarctic region. Moreover cyanobacteria may be exploited for biochemical and biotechnological applications of enzymatic antioxidants.

  6. Worldwide burden of gastric cancer in 2012 that could have been prevented by increasing fruit and vegetable intake and predictions for 2025.

    PubMed

    Peleteiro, Bárbara; Padrão, Patrícia; Castro, Clara; Ferro, Ana; Morais, Samantha; Lunet, Nuno

    2016-03-14

    The regional and temporal variation in patterns of fruit and vegetable intake contributes to differences in the impact on gastric cancer burden across regions and over the years. We aimed to estimate the proportion and absolute number of gastric cancer cases that could have been prevented in 2012 with an increase in fruit and vegetable intake up to the levels defined by the Global Burden of Disease as the theoretical minimum-risk exposure distribution (300 and 400 g/d, respectively), as well as the corresponding figures expected for 2025. Preventable fractions (PF) were computed for 161 countries, using data on fruit and vegetable availability in 1997 and 2010 and published estimates of the magnitude of the association between fruit and vegetable intake and gastric cancer, assuming a time lag of approximately 15 years. Countries classified as very high Human Development Index (HDI) presented median PF in 2012 much lower than low-HDI countries for both fruits (3·0 v. 10·2%, P<0·001) and vegetables (6·0 v. 11·9%, P<0·001). For vegetables only, PF significantly decreased until 2025 in most settings; however, this corresponded to a reduction in the absolute number of preventable gastric cancer cases in less than half of the countries. Increasing fruit and vegetable intake would allow preventing a relatively high proportion of gastric cancer cases, mostly in developing countries. Although declines in PF are predicted in the near future, changes in order to achieve healthier lifestyles may be insufficient to overcome the load of demographic variation to further reduce the gastric cancer burden.

  7. Spontaneous late improvement of myocardial viability in the chronic infarct zone is possible, depending on persistent TIMI 3 flow and a low grade stenosis of the infarct artery

    PubMed Central

    Faraggi, M; Montalescot, G; Sarda, L; Heintz, J; Doumit, D; Drobinski, G; Sotirov, I; Le Guludec, D; Thomas, D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—In the chronic phase of myocardial infarction, the relation between myocardial recovery and infarct related artery status remains unclear. The spontaneous changes in rest-redistribution thallium defect size were prospectively studied over six months in 52 patients with chronic Q wave myocardial infarction.
DESIGN—Changes in rest thallium defect size, thallium uptake in the infarct area, and radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction were compared to the quantitative coronary angiogram data. Two groups of patients were considered: patients with a percentage of stenosis below 100% (group 1, n = 31); and patients with an occluded artery (group 2, n = 21). 
RESULTS—In the overall population, the mean (SD) defect size decreased from 28.2 (17.2)% to 24.9 (19.3)% of the whole myocardium (p = 0.01), while, in this area, the thallium uptake increased from 62.9 (13.7)% to 66.9 (15.6)% (p < 0.001). At the time of inclusion, the defect size, thallium uptake, and ejection fraction were similar in both groups. In group 1 patients only, the reduction in defect size correlated with the improvement in ejection fraction (r = 0.41, p = 0.02) and was related to the percentage of coronary artery stenosis. TIMI 3 patients reduced the defect size while other patients increased this defect (−5.1 (7.0)% v +11.0 (14.4)%, p < 0.001). In contrast, no significant relations were found in group 2 patients.
CONCLUSION—Late spontaneous recovery in thallium defect can occur in patients with a patent infarct related artery, depending on the TIMI flow grade and a low grade stenosis of the infarct related artery, and is associated with functional improvement.

 Keywords: myocardial infarction; thallium; infarct related artery; TIMI 3 flow grade PMID:10092571

  8. Perceived work-related stress and early atherosclerotic changes in healthy employees

    PubMed Central

    Widerszal-Bazyl, Maria; Radkiewicz, Piotr; Pasierski, Tomasz; Szulczyk, Grażyna Anna; Ząbek, Jakub; Wojciechowska, Bożena; Jędryka-Góral, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between perceived work-related stress and preclinical atherosclerosis. Methods A total of 100 managers and 50 office workers aged 35–65 participated in a questionnaire study. Individual, family and work-related stress risk factors and coping were evaluated in all the studied individuals. Serum levels of biochemical (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, TG, glucose) and serological risk factors of atherosclerosis (anticardiolipin, anti-β2 GPI, anti-oxLDL, anti-HSP and anti-hsCRP antibodies) were evaluated. A computer analysis of B-mode ultrasound images was used to assess carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and atherosclerotic plaque in carotid arteries. Statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS v. 11.5. Results The studied individuals showed average ranges of both the global stress level and of coping results. In 71% no changes were found in the ultrasound image and in 29% of individuals (43) the presence of plaque was shown. The mean value of the IMT measure was 0.0618 ± 0.013 mm. IMT and plaque correlated negatively with the level of global work-related stress (r = −0.26; P < 0.01; and r = −0.28; P < 0.01; respectively). No correlation was found either between work-related stress and coping, or between coping and IMT (P > 0.05), or between work-related stress and healthy lifestyle (no smoking, no excessive use of alcohol, high physical activity), or between healthy lifestyle and IMT (P > 0.05). Positive correlation between IMT and LDL and smoking did not result from higher stress reaction in the studied individuals. Conclusions The explanation of the negative correlation between perceived work-related stress and preclinical atherosclerosis was not confirmed either by the subjects under high stress undertaking healthy protective activities or by their escaping into unhealthy behaviour. The most probable interpretation of the results is that in individuals with a low level

  9. Photodissociation spectroscopy of stored CH+ ions: Detection, assignment, and close-coupled modeling of near-threshold Feshbach resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hechtfischer, Ulrich; Williams, Carl J.; Lange, Michael; Linkemann, Joachim; Schwalm, Dirk; Wester, Roland; Wolf, Andreas; Zajfman, Daniel

    2002-11-01

    We have measured and theoretically analyzed a photodissociation spectrum of the CH+ molecular ion in which most observed energy levels lie within the fine-structure splitting of the C+ fragment and predissociate, and where the observed irregular line shapes and dipole-forbidden transitions indicate that nonadiabatic interactions lead to multichannel dynamics. The molecules were prepared in low rotational levels J''=0-9 of the vibrational ground state X 1Sigma+ (v'')=0 by storing a CH+ beam at 7.1 MeV in the heavy-ion storage ring TSR for up to 30 s, which was sufficient for the ions to rovibrationally thermalize to room temperature by spontaneous infrared emission. The internally cold molecules were irradiated with a dye laser at photon energies between 31 600-33 400 cm-1, and the resulting C+ fragments were counted with a particle detector. The photodissociation cross section displays the numerous Feshbach resonances between the two C+ fine-structure states predicted by theory for low rotation. The data are analyzed in two steps. First, from the overall structure of the spectrum, by identifying branches, and by a Le Roy-Bernstein analysis of level spacings we determine the dissociation energy D0=(32 946.7plus-or-minus1.1) cm-1 (with respect to the lower fine-structure limit) and assign the strongest features to the vibrational levels v'=11-14 of the dipole-allowed A 1Pi state. The majority of the 66 observed resonances cannot be assigned in this way. Therefore, in a second step, the complete spectrum is simulated with a close-coupling model, starting from recent ab initio Born-Oppenheimer potentials. For the long-range induction, dispersion and exchange energies, we propose an analytical expression and derive the C6 coefficients. After a systematic variation of just the vibrational defects of the four Born-Oppenheimer potentials involved, the close-coupling model yields a quantitative fit to the measured cross section in all detail, and is used to assign most of

  10. Biophysics and Molecular Biology of Cardiac Ion Channels for the Safety Pharmacologist.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, Michael K; Curtis, Michael J; Hayes, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac safety pharmacology is a continuously evolving discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment of a new chemical entity (NCE). The aim of cardiac safety pharmacology is to characterise the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects on the heart using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike Toxicology, safety pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare cardiotoxic (potentially lethal) events such as torsades de pointes (TdP), which is statistically associated with drug-induced changes in the QT interval of the ECG due to blockade of I Kr or K v11.1 current encoded by hERG. This gives safety pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for the safety pharmacology assessment of a drug on the heart are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and clinical safety monitoring. This chapter will briefly review the current cardiac safety pharmacology paradigm outlined in the ICH S7A and ICH S7B guidance documents and the non-clinical models and methods used in the evaluation of new chemical entities in order to define the integrated risk assessment for submission to regulatory authorities. An overview of how the present cardiac paradigm was developed will be discussed, explaining how it was based upon marketing authorisation withdrawal of many non-cardiovascular compounds due to unanticipated proarrhythmic effects. The role of related biomarkers (of cardiac repolarisation, e.g. prolongation of the QT interval of the ECG) will be considered. We will also provide an overview of the 'non-hERG-centric' concepts utilised in the evolving comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmia assay (CIPA) that details conduct of the proposed ion channel battery test, use of human stem cells and application of in silico models to early cardiac safety

  11. Comprehensive dosimetric planning comparison for early-stage, non-small cell lung cancer with SABR: fixed-beam IMRT versus VMAT versus TomoTherapy.

    PubMed

    Xhaferllari, Ilma; El-Sherif, Omar; Gaede, Stewart

    2016-09-08

    Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is emerging as a leading technology in treating early-stage, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). However, two other modalities capable of deliver-ing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) include fixed-beam and helical TomoTherapy (HT). This study aims to provide an extensive dosimetric compari-son among these various IMRT techniques for treating early-stage NSCLC with SABR. Ten early-stage NSCLC patients were retrospectively optimized using three fixed-beam techniques via nine to eleven beams (high and low modulation step-and-shoot (SS), and sliding window (SW)), two VMAT techniques via two partial arcs (SmartArc (SA) and RapidArc (RA)), and three HT techniques via three different fan beam widths (1 cm, 2.5 cm, and 5 cm) for 80 plans total. Fixed-beam and VMAT plans were generated using flattening filter-free beams. SS and SA, HT treatment plans, and SW and RA were optimized using Pinnacle v9.1, Tomoplan v.3.1.1, and Eclipse (Acuros XB v11.3 algorithm), respectively. Dose-volume histogram statistics, dose conformality, and treatment delivery efficiency were analyzed. VMAT treatment plans achieved significantly lower values for contralat-eral lung V5Gy (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the HT plans, and significantly lower mean lung dose (p < 0.006) compared to HT 5 cm treatment plans. In the comparison between the VMAT techniques, a significant reduction in the total monitor units (p = 0.05) was found in the SA plans, while a significant decrease was observed in the dose falloff parameter, D2cm, (p = 0.05), for the RA treatments. The maximum cord dose was significantly reduced (p = 0.017) in grouped RA&SA plans com-pared to SS. Estimated treatment time was significantly higher for HT and fixed-beam plans compared to RA&SA (p < 0.001). Although, a significant difference was not observed in the RA vs. SA (p = 0.393). RA&SA outperformed HT in all parameters measured. Despite an

  12. Is sequential feeding of whole wheat more efficient than ground wheat in laying hens?

    PubMed

    Umar Faruk, M; Bouvarel, I; Mallet, S; Ali, M N; Tukur, H M; Nys, Y; Lescoat, P

    2011-02-01

    The impact of sequential feeding of whole or ground wheat on the performance of layer hen was investigated using ISABROWN hens from 19 to 42 weeks of age. In addition, the effect of reduced dietary energy content of a complete diet was also investigated. Four treatments were tested. Whole wheat was alternated with a protein-mineral concentrate (balancer diet) in a treatment (sequential whole wheat: SWW), while another treatment alternated ground wheat (sequential ground wheat: SGW) with the same balancer diet. The control (C) was fed a complete layer diet conventionally. Another treatment (low energy: LE) was fed a complete diet conventionally. The diet contained lower energy (10.7 v. 11.6 MJ/kg) compared to the C. Each treatment was allocated 16 cages and each cage contained five birds. Light was provided 16 h daily (0400 to 2000 h). Feed offered was controlled (121 g/bird per day) and distributed twice (2 × 60.5 g) at 4 and 11 h after lights on. In the sequential treatment, only wheat (whole or ground) was fed during the first distribution and the balancer diet during the second distribution. Left over feed was always removed before the next distribution. The total feed intake was not different between SWW and SGW, but the two were lower than C (P < 0.05). Wheat intake was however, lowered with SGW compared to SWW (P < 0.05). Egg production and egg mass (EM) were not different between treatments. Egg weight was lower with SGW than with SWW (P < 0.05), but the two were similar to C. Body weight (BW) was lowered (P < 0.01) with SGW relative to SWW and C, SWW BW being also lower than the C one. The efficiency of egg production was increased (P < 0.01) with the SWW and SGW relative to the control. Birds fed LE had higher feed intake (P < 0.05) but they had similar egg production and EM compared to the two sequential treatments. The efficiency of feed utilization was also reduced (P < 0.01) with LE compared to SWW and SGW. It was concluded that sequential feeding is

  13. Electromagnetic Safety of Spacecraft During Active Experiments with the Use of Plasma Accelerators and Ion Injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plokhikh, Andrey; Popov, Garri; Shishkin, Gennady; Antropov, Nikolay; Vazhenin, Nikolay; Soganova, Galina

    electromagnetic emission of stationary and pulsed plasma injectors and of the electric propulsions developed on their basis are discussed. Predictive estimates are presented for the influence of originating electromagnetic fields and emissions on the electromagnetic safety of spacecraft and its systems and for the reliability of communication with ground command and tracking stations, and recommendations are given on the reduction of destructive effects. 1. S. Avdyushin, I. Podgorny, G. Popov, A. Porotnikov, "Plasma Accelerator Use for Studying Physical Processes in Space." Plasma Accelerators and Ion Injectors, Nauka, 1984. 2. A. Plokhikh, "Peculiarities of Radio Measurements in the Metal Vacuum Chambers." Vestnik moskovskogo aviatsionnogo instituta. v. 11, No. 2, 2004, pp. 66-78.

  14. Sexual behaviour and condom use among individuals with a history of symptomatic genital herpes

    PubMed Central

    Rana, R K; Pimenta, J M; Rosenberg, D M; Warren, T; Sekhin, S; Cook, S F; Robinson, N J

    2006-01-01

    Objectives This study describes the differences in sexual behaviour in individuals with genital herpes (GH) during “symptomatic” and “asymptomatic” periods of the disease. Methods A cross sectional questionnaire was undertaken by 1193 individuals attending clinics between 1998 and 2001. All participants in this analysis were in heterosexual, monogamous partnerships, self identified with a history of symptomatic GH and with confirmed HSV‐2 infection. Results Sexual activity reported during asymptomatic v symptomatic periods of GH was 98% v 40% (p<0.001), 76% v 29% (p<0.001), and 25% v 11% (p<0.001) for vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse, respectively, while “always” condom use during asymptomatic and symptomatic periods was 20% v 35% (p<0.001), 2% v 7% (p<0.001), and 10% v 15% (p = 0.131), respectively. The proportion of individuals who either abstained from vaginal intercourse or “always” used condoms was 21% v 74% (p<0.001), for asymptomatic v symptomatic periods. Multivariable analyses indicated that factors associated with engaging in intercourse during symptomatic periods of GH included current intrauterine device use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.46 to 6.02); living in Latin America (aOR = 2.16, CI = 1.19 to 3.91) or Europe (aOR = 1.67, CI = 1.21 to 2.28), compared with North America; previous sexually transmitted disease (aOR = 1.42, CI = 1.08 to 1.89); a higher number of sexual acts per month (aOR = 1.09, CI = 1.06 to 1.11); and a higher number of GH recurrences per year (aOR = 1.08, CI = 1.03 to 1.12). Conclusions These data indicate that the majority of people with GH either abstained from intercourse or “always” used condoms during symptomatic periods of GH. However, condom use was relatively low during asymptomatic periods in comparison with symptomatic periods. These results highlight that further education on GH prevention is warranted

  15. Biophysics and Molecular Biology of Cardiac Ion Channels for the Safety Pharmacologist.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, Michael K; Curtis, Michael J; Hayes, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac safety pharmacology is a continuously evolving discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment of a new chemical entity (NCE). The aim of cardiac safety pharmacology is to characterise the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects on the heart using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike Toxicology, safety pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare cardiotoxic (potentially lethal) events such as torsades de pointes (TdP), which is statistically associated with drug-induced changes in the QT interval of the ECG due to blockade of I Kr or K v11.1 current encoded by hERG. This gives safety pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for the safety pharmacology assessment of a drug on the heart are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and clinical safety monitoring. This chapter will briefly review the current cardiac safety pharmacology paradigm outlined in the ICH S7A and ICH S7B guidance documents and the non-clinical models and methods used in the evaluation of new chemical entities in order to define the integrated risk assessment for submission to regulatory authorities. An overview of how the present cardiac paradigm was developed will be discussed, explaining how it was based upon marketing authorisation withdrawal of many non-cardiovascular compounds due to unanticipated proarrhythmic effects. The role of related biomarkers (of cardiac repolarisation, e.g. prolongation of the QT interval of the ECG) will be considered. We will also provide an overview of the 'non-hERG-centric' concepts utilised in the evolving comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmia assay (CIPA) that details conduct of the proposed ion channel battery test, use of human stem cells and application of in silico models to early cardiac safety

  16. Web-based, virtual course units as a didactic concept for medical teaching.

    PubMed

    Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan; Zielinski, Thomas; Lochner, Jürgen

    2004-06-01

    The objective was to develop a web-based, virtual series of lectures for evidence-based, standardized knowledge transfer independent of location and time with possibilities for interactive participation and a concluding web-based online examination. Within the framework of a research project, specific Intranet and Internet capable course modules were developed together with a concluding examination. The concept of integrating digital and analogue course units supported by sound was based on FlashCam (Nexus Concepts), Flash MX (Macromedia), HTML and JavaScript. A Web server/SGI Indigo Unix server was used as a platform by the course provider. A variety of independent formats (swf, avi, mpeg, DivX, etc.) were integrated in the individual swf modules. An online examination was developed to monitor the learning effect. The examination papers are automatically forwarded by email after completion. The results are also returned to the user automatically after they have been processed by a key program and an evaluation program. The system requirements for the user PC have deliberately been kept low (Internet Explorer 5.0, Flash-Player 6, 56 kbit/s modem, 200 MHz PC). Navigation is intuitive. Users were provided with a technical online introduction and a FAQ list. Eighty-two students of dentistry in their 3rd to 5th years of study completed a questionnaire to assess the course content and the user friendliness (SPSS V11) with grades 1 to 6 (1 = 'excellent' and 6 = 'unsatisfactory'). The course units can be viewed under the URL: http://giga.rrze.uni-erlangen.de/movies/MKG/trailer and URL: http://giga.rrze.uni-erlangen.de/movies/MKG/demo/index. Some 89% of the students gave grades 1 (excellent) and 2 (good) for accessibility independent of time and 83% for access independent of location. Grades 1 and 2 were allocated for an objectivization of the knowledge transfer by 67% of the students and for the use of video sequences for demonstrating surgical techniques by 91% of the

  17. AGE AND DISTANCE FOR THE OLD OPEN CLUSTER NGC 188 FROM THE ECLIPSING BINARY MEMBER V 12

    SciTech Connect

    Meibom, Soeren; Mathieu, Robert D.; Grundahl, Frank; Frandsen, Soeren; Clausen, Jens Viggo; Pigulski, Andrzej; Narwid, Artur; Steslicki, Marek; Lefever, Karolien

    2009-06-15

    We present time series radial velocity, and photometric observations of a solar-type double-lined eclipsing binary star (V 12) in the old open cluster NGC 188. We use these data to determine the spectroscopic orbit and the photometric elements for V 12. From our analysis, we determine accurate masses (M{sub p} = 1.103 {+-} 0.007 M {sub sun}, M{sub s} = 1.081 {+-} 0.007 M {sub sun}) and radii (R{sub p} = 1.424 {+-} 0.019 R {sub sun}, R{sub s} = 1.373 {+-} 0.019 R {sub sun}) for the primary (p) and secondary (s) binary components. We adopt a reddening of E {sub B-V} = 0.087 for NGC 188, and derive component effective temperatures of 5900 {+-} 100 K and 5875 {+-} 100 K, respectively, for the primary and secondary stars. From their absolute dimensions, the two components of V 12 yield identical distance moduli of V {sub 0} - M{sub V} = 11fm24 {+-} 0fm09, corresponding to 1770 {+-} 75 pc. Both stars are near the end of their main-sequence evolutionary phase, and are located at the cluster turnoff in the color-magnitude diagram. We determine an age of 6.2 {+-} 0.2 Gyr for V 12 and NGC 188, from a comparison with theoretical isochrones in the mass-radius diagram. This age is independent of distance, reddening, and color-temperature transformations. We use isochrones from Victoria-Regina (VRSS) and Yonsei-Yale (Y {sup 2}) with [Fe/H] = -0.1 and [Fe/H] = 0.0. From the solar metallicity isochrones, an age of 6.4 Gyr provides the best fit to the binary components for both sets of models. For the isochrones with [Fe/H] = -0.1, ages of 6.0 Gyr and 5.9 Gyr provide the best fits for the (VRSS) and (Y {sup 2}) models, respectively. We use the distance and age estimates for V 12, together with best estimates for the metallicity and reddening of NGC 188, to investigate the locations of the corresponding VRSS and Y {sup 2} isochrones relative to cluster members in the color-magnitude diagram. Plausible changes in the model metallicity and distance to better match the isochrones to

  18. Properties, evolution and morpho-kinematical modelling of the very fast nova V2672 Oph (Nova Oph 2009), a clone of U Sco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Bode, M. F.; Saguner, T.

    2011-01-01

    Nova Oph 2009 (V2672 Oph) reached maximum brightness V= 11.35 on 2009 August 16.5. With observed t2(V) = 2.3 and t3(V) = 4.2 d decline times, it is one of the fastest known novae, being rivalled only by V1500 Cyg (1975) and V838 Her (1991) among classical novae, and U Sco among the recurrent ones. The line of sight to the nova passes within a few degrees of the Galactic Centre. The reddening of V2672 Oph is E(B-V) = 1.6 ± 0.1, and its distance d˜ 19 kpc places it on the other side of the Galactic Centre at a galactocentric distance larger than the solar one. The lack of an infrared counterpart for the progenitor excludes the donor star from being a cool giant like in RS Oph or T CrB. With close similarity to U Sco, V2672 Oph displayed a photometric plateau phase, a He/N spectrum classification, extreme expansion velocities and triple peaked emission-line profiles during advanced decline. The full width at zero intensity of Hα was 12 000 km s-1 at maximum, and declined linearly in time with a slope very similar to that observed in U Sco. The properties displayed by V2672 Oph lead us to infer a mass of its white dwarf close to the Chandrasekhar limit and a possible final fate as a Type Ia supernova. Morpho-kinematical modelling of the evolution of the Hα profile suggests that the overall structure of the ejecta is that of a prolate system with polar blobs and an equatorial ring. The density in the prolate system appeared to decline faster than that in the other components. V2672 Oph is seen pole-on, with an inclination of 0°± 6° and an expansion velocity of the polar blobs of 4800+900-800 km s-1. On the basis of its remarkable similarity to U Sco, we suspect this nova may be a recurrent. Given the southern declination, the faintness at maximum, the extremely rapid decline and its close proximity to the ecliptic, it is quite possible that previous outbursts of V2672 Oph have been missed.

  19. SU-E-P-47: Evaluation of Improvement of Esophagus Sparing in SBRT Lung Patients with Biologically Based IMRT Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, X; Penagaricano, J; Paudel, N; Zhang, X; Morrill, S; Corry, P; Han, E; Hardee, M; Ratanatharathorn, V

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To study the potential of improving esophageal sparing for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) lung cancer patients by using biological optimization (BO) compared to conventional dose-volume based optimization (DVO) in treatment planning. Methods: Three NSCLC patients (PTV (62.3cc, 65.1cc, and 125.1cc) adjacent to the heart) previously treated with SBRT were re-planned using Varian Eclipse TPS (V11) using DVO and BO. The prescription dose was 60 Gy in 5 fractions normalized to 95% of the PTV volume. Plans were evaluated by comparing esophageal maximum doses, PTV heterogeneity (HI= D5%/D95%), and Paddick’s conformity (CI) indices. Quality of the plans was assessed by clinically-used IMRT QA procedures. Results: By using BO, the maximum dose to the esophagus was decreased 1384 cGy (34.6%), 502 cGy (16.5%) and 532 cGy (16.2%) in patient 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The maximum doses to spinal cord and the doses to 1000 cc and 1500 cc of normal lung were comparable in both plans. The mean doses (Dmean-hrt) and doses to 15cc of the heart (V15-hrt) were comparable for patient 1 and 2. However for patient 3, with the largest PTV, Dmean-hrt and V15-hrt increased by 62.2 cGy (18.3%) and 549.9 cGy (24.9%) respectively for the BO plans. The mean target HI of BO plans (1.13) was inferior to the DVO plans (1.07). The same trend was also observed for mean CI in BO plans (0.77) versus DVO plans (0.83). The QA pass rates (3%, 3mm) were comparable for both plans. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the use of biological models in treatment planning optimization can substantially improve esophageal sparing without compromising spinal cord and normal lung doses. However, for the large PTV case (125.1cc) we studied here, Dmean-hrt and V15-hrt increased substantially. The target HI and CI were inferior in the BO plans.

  20. The effect of empowerment on the self-efficacy, quality of life and clinical and laboratory indicators of patients treated with hemodialysis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis patients face numerous physical and psychological stresses that result in reduced health. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of an empowerment program on self-efficacy, quality of life, clinical indicators of blood pressure and interdialytic weight gain, and laboratory results in these patients. Methods This randomized, controlled trial was conducted at Boo Ali Sina Dialysis Center, Shiraz, Iran. A total of 48 hemodialysis patients participated in this study. After acquisition of informed consent, eligible patients were randomly divided into two groups, control and experimental. Pre-test data were obtained by using a demographic data form and two questionnaires for self-efficacy and quality of life. Blood pressure and interdialytic weight gain were measured. We extracted laboratory data from patients’ charts. A six-week empowerment intervention that included four individual and two group counselling sessions was performed for the experimental group. Six weeks after intervention, post-test data were obtained from both groups in the same manner as the pre-test. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA using SPSS v11.5. Results There were no statistically significant differences in demographic variables between the groups. Pre-test mean scores for self-efficacy, quality of life, blood pressure, interdialytic weight gain and laboratory results did not differ between the groups. There was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of pre-to post-intervention changes in overall self-efficacy scores, stress reduction, and decision making, in addition to overall quality of life and all dimensions included within quality of life based on this questionnaire. Additionally, the pre- to post-intervention changes in systolic/diastolic blood pressures, interdialytic weight gain, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels significantly differed between the groups. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that a combination of

  1. Correction methodology for the spectral interfering γ-rays overlapping to the analytical peaks used in the analysis of 232Th.

    PubMed

    Yücel, H; Köse, E; Esen, A N; Bor, D

    2011-06-01

    "cleaner" analytical peaks are seen at 338.3 keV (11.25%) and 911.2 keV (26.13%) of (228)Ac when high resolution γ-rays spectrometry was used in the (232)Th activity measurements. Therefore, they can be adopted as the "reference" peaks in the (232)Th analysis. PMID:21398134

  2. Molecular gas and a new young stellar cluster in the far outer Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, J. L.; Elia, D.; Palmeirim, P. M.; Gomes, J. I.; Martins, A. M.

    2009-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the star-formation ocurring in the region towards IRAS 07527-3446 in the molecular cloud [MAB97]250.63-3.63, in the far outer Galaxy. We report the discovery of a new young stellar cluster, and describe its properties and those of its parent molecular cloud. Methods: Near-infrared JHKS images were obtained with VLT/ISAAC, and millimetre line CO spectra were obtained with the SEST telescope. VLA archive date were also used. Results: The cloud and cluster are located at a distance of 10.3 kpc and a Galactocentric distance of 15.4 kpc, in the far outer Galaxy. Morphologically, IRAS 07527-3446 appears as a young embedded cluster of a few hundred stars seen towards the position of the IRAS source, extending for about 2-4 pc and exhibiting sub-clustering. The cluster contains low and intermediate-mass young reddened stars, a large fraction having cleared the inner regions of their circumstellar discs responsible for (H-K_S) colour excess. The observations are compatible with a ≤5 Myr cluster with variable spatial extinction of between A_V=5 and A_V=11. Decomposition of CO emission in clumps, reveals a clump clearly associated with the cluster position, of mass 3.3 × 103 M_⊙. Estimates of the slopes of the K_S-band luminosity function and of the star-formation efficiency yield values similar to those seen in nearby star-formation sites. These findings reinforce previous results that the distant outer Galaxy continues to be active in the production of new and rich stellar clusters, with the physical conditions required for the formation of rich clusters continuing to be met in the very distant environment of the outer Galactic disc. Based on observations collected at the ESO 8.2-m VLT-UT1 Antu telescope (program 66.C-0015A). Table 2 is only available in electonic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Metamorphic manipulating mechanism design for MCCB using index reduced iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinghua; Zhang, Shuyou; Zhao, Zhen; Lin, Xiaoxia

    2013-03-01

    The present research on moulded case circuit breaker(MCCB) focuses on the enhancement of current-limiting interrupting performance during short circuit, overload, under voltage and phase failure, involving electrics, magnetic, mechanics, thermal, material, friction, arc extinguishing, impact vibration, skin effect, etc. The rigid-flexible coupling of the parts and components of the metamorphic manipulating mechanism in multi-fields leads to the non-rigid, high frequency, high damping, singularity of the Euler-Lagrange equations which represents the multi-body dynamics. The small step iteration which is used for obtaining the instantaneous and short time critical interrupting performance of metamorphic mechanism appears inaccuracy. It is difficult to realize top-down design by existing CAD systems. Therefore, a metamorphic manipulating mechanism design method for MCCB using index reduced iteration(IRI) is put forward. The metamorphic manipulating mechanism of MCCB is decomposed into three mechanisms: main switch connector mechanism, electromagnet-drawbar-jump buckle mechanism, and bimetallic strip-drawbar mechanism, which is respectively described by electro-dynamic force, electromagnet force, and bimetallic strip force. The dummy part(virtual rigid) without moment of inertia and mass is employed as intermediate to join the flexible body and rigid body. The model of rigid-flexible coupling metamorphic mechanism multi-body dynamics is built. The differential algebraic equations(DAEs) of the multibody dynamics model are converted to pure ordinary differential equations(ODEs) by coordinate partition. Order reduced integration with multi-step and variable step-size is preceded based on IRI. The non-linear algebraic equations are solved in each integration step by Newton-Rapson iteration. There is no ill-condition and singularity of Jacobian matrix when step size reduces to zero. The independent prototype design system using ACIS R13, HOOPS V11.0 and Visual C++.NET 2003

  4. Energy levels of {sup 251}Cf populated in the {alpha} decay of {sub 100}{sup 255}Fm and EC decay of {sub 99}{sup 251}Es

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Greene, J.P.; Moore, E.F.; Kondev, F.G.; Chasman, R.R.; Porter, C.E.; Felker, L.K.

    2005-11-01

    Gamma-ray singles spectra of extremely pure (chemically and isotopically) samples of {sup 255}Fm, with strengths of {approx}1 mCi, have been measured with a high-resolution 2-cm{sup 2}x10-mm germanium LEPS detector and with a 25% Ge spectrometer. Gamma rays with intensities as low as 1.0x10{sup -6}% per {sup 255}Fm {alpha} decay have been identified. The electron spectrum of a mass-separated {sup 251}Es source was measured with a cooled Si(Li) electron spectrometer. The spectrum provided the conversion coefficients of low-energy transitions in {sup 251}Cf and thereby their multipolarities. The present measurements confirm the previous assignments of single-particle states in {sup 251}Cf. These include 1/2{sup +}[620], 0.0 keV; 7/2{sup +}[613], 106.30 keV; 3/2{sup +}[622], 177.59 keV; 11/2{sup -}[725], 370.47 keV; 9/2{sup -}[734], 433.91 keV; 5/2{sup +}[622], 543.98 keV; 1/2{sup -}[750], 632.0 keV; 9/2{sup +}[615], 683 keV; and 9/2{sup +}[604], 974.0 keV. A vibrational band was identified in previous studies at 981.4 keV and given an assignment of {l_brace}7/2{sup +}[613]x2{sup -}{r_brace}3/2{sup -}. Three new vibrational bands are identified in the present work at 942.5, 1086.5, and 1250.0 keV with tentative assignments {l_brace}7/2{sup +}[613]x1{sup -}{r_brace}5/2{sup -},{l_brace}7/2{sup +}[613]x1{sup -}{r_brace}9/2{sup -}, and {l_brace}7/2{sup +}[613]x0{sup +}{r_brace}7/2{sup +}, respectively. A level was identified at 1185.5 keV with spin of 5/2 or 7/2 but it was not given any configuration assignment. Another level was identified at 1077.5 keV and given a spin of 9/2. Again, no configuration could be assigned to this level.

  5. Comprehensive dosimetric planning comparison for early-stage, non-small cell lung cancer with SABR: fixed-beam IMRT versus VMAT versus TomoTherapy.

    PubMed

    Xhaferllari, Ilma; El-Sherif, Omar; Gaede, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is emerging as a leading technology in treating early-stage, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). However, two other modalities capable of deliver-ing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) include fixed-beam and helical TomoTherapy (HT). This study aims to provide an extensive dosimetric compari-son among these various IMRT techniques for treating early-stage NSCLC with SABR. Ten early-stage NSCLC patients were retrospectively optimized using three fixed-beam techniques via nine to eleven beams (high and low modulation step-and-shoot (SS), and sliding window (SW)), two VMAT techniques via two partial arcs (SmartArc (SA) and RapidArc (RA)), and three HT techniques via three different fan beam widths (1 cm, 2.5 cm, and 5 cm) for 80 plans total. Fixed-beam and VMAT plans were generated using flattening filter-free beams. SS and SA, HT treatment plans, and SW and RA were optimized using Pinnacle v9.1, Tomoplan v.3.1.1, and Eclipse (Acuros XB v11.3 algorithm), respectively. Dose-volume histogram statistics, dose conformality, and treatment delivery efficiency were analyzed. VMAT treatment plans achieved significantly lower values for contralat-eral lung V5Gy (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the HT plans, and significantly lower mean lung dose (p < 0.006) compared to HT 5 cm treatment plans. In the comparison between the VMAT techniques, a significant reduction in the total monitor units (p = 0.05) was found in the SA plans, while a significant decrease was observed in the dose falloff parameter, D2cm, (p = 0.05), for the RA treatments. The maximum cord dose was significantly reduced (p = 0.017) in grouped RA&SA plans com-pared to SS. Estimated treatment time was significantly higher for HT and fixed-beam plans compared to RA&SA (p < 0.001). Although, a significant difference was not observed in the RA vs. SA (p = 0.393). RA&SA outperformed HT in all parameters measured. Despite an

  6. SU-F-BRE-10: Methods to Simulate and Measure the Attenuation for Modeling a Couch Top with Rails for FFF Treatment Delivery On the Varian Edge Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Gulam, M; Gardner, S; Zhao, B; Snyder, K; Song, K; Li, H; Gordon, J; Wen, N; Chetty, I; Kearns, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To measure attenuation for modelling of the KVue Couchtop for 6X and 10X FFF SRS/SBRT treatment Methods: Treatment planning simulation studies were done using 6X FFF beams to estimate the dosimetric impact of KVue couchtops (including the Q-Fix IGRT [carbon fiber] and Calypso [nonconductive Kevlar material]) with a structure model obtained from a research workstation (Eclipse, advanced planning interface (API) v13). Prior to installation on the Varian Edge linac, the couchtop along with (Kevlar) rails were CT scanned with the rails at various positions. An additional scan with the couchtop 15cm above the CT table top was obtained with 20cm solid water to facilitate precised/indexed data acquisition. Measurements for attenuation were obtained for field sizes of 2, 4 and 10 cm{sup 2} at 42 gantry angles including 6 pairs of opposing fields and other angles for oblique delivery where the beams traversed the couchtop and or rails. The delivery was fully automated with xml scripts running in developer mode. The results were then used to determine an accurate structure model for AAA (Eclipse v11) planning of IMRT and RapidArc delivery. Results: The planning simulation relative dose attenuation for oblique entry was not significantly different than the Exact IGRT or BrainLab iBeam couch except that the rails added 6% additional attenuation. The relative attenuation measurements for PA, PA (rails: inner position), oblique, oblique (rails: outer position), oblique (rails: inner position) were: −2.0%, −2.5%, −15.6%, −2.5%, −5.0% for 6X FFF and −1.4%, −1.5%, −12.2%, − 2.5%, −5.0% for 10X FFF with slight decrease in attenuation versus field size. A Couch structure model (with HU values) was developed. Calculation compared to measurement showed good agreement except for oblique (rails: outer position) where differences approached a magnitude of 6%. Conclusion: A model of the couch structures has been developed accounting for attenuation for FFF

  7. Study of three 2013 novae: V1830 Aql, V556 Ser and V809 Cep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Ochner, P.; Dallaporta, S.; Valisa, P.; Graziani, M.; Righetti, G. L.; Cherini, G.; Castellani, F.; Cetrulo, G.; Englaro, A.

    2014-06-01

    BVRCIC photometry and low-, medium- and high-resolution echelle fluxed spectroscopy is presented and discussed for three faint, heavily reddened novae of the Fe II-type which erupted in 2013. V1830 Nova Aql 2013 reached a peak V = 15.2 mag on 2013 Oct 30.3 UT and suffered from a huge E(B - V) ˜ 2.6 mag reddening. After a rapid decline, when the nova was ΔV = 1.7 mag below maximum, it entered a flat plateau where it remained for a month until solar conjunction prevented further observations. Similar values were observed for V556 Nova Ser 2013, that peaked near RC ˜ 12.3 around 2013 Nov 25 and soon went lost in the glare of sunset sky. A lot more observations were obtained for V809 Nova Cep 2013, that peaked at V = 11.18 on 2013 Feb 3.6. The reddening is E(B - V) ˜ 1.7 and the nova is located within or immediately behind the spiral Outer Arm, at a distance of ˜6.5 kpc as constrained by the velocity of interstellar atomic lines and the rate of decline from maximum. While passing at t3, the nova begun to form a thick dust layer that caused a peak extinction of ΔV > 5 mag, and took 125 d to completely dissolve. The dust extinction turned from neutral to selective around 6000 Å. Monitoring the time evolution of the integrated flux of emission lines allowed us to constrain the region of dust formation in the ejecta to be above the region of formation of O I 7774 Å and below that of Ca II triplet. Along the decline from maximum and before the dust obscuration, the emission line profiles of Nova Cep 2013 developed a narrow component (FWHM = 210 km s-1) superimposed on to the much larger normal profile, making it a member of the so-far exclusive but growing club of novae displaying this peculiar feature. Constrains based on the optical thickness of the innermost part of the ejecta and on the radiated flux, place the origin of the narrow feature within highly structured internal ejecta and well away from the central binary.

  8. Sural sensory nerve action potential: A study in healthy Indian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Aarthika; Mansukhani, Khushnuma A; Sharma, Alika; Balakrishnan, Lajita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sural sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is an important electrodiagnostic study for suspected peripheral neuropathies. Incorrect technique and unavailability of reference data can lead to erroneous conclusions. Objectives: To establish reference data for sural SNAP in age-stratified healthy subjects at three sites of stimulation. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in 146 nerves from healthy subjects aged between 18 years and 90 years, stratified into six age groups (a = 18-30 years, b = 31–40 years, c = 41–50 years, d = 51–60 years, e = 61–70 years, and f >71 years). Sural SNAP was recorded antidromically, stimulating at three sites at distances of 14 cm, 12 cm, and 10 cm from the recording electrode. Mean – 2 standard deviation (SD) of the transformed data was used to generate reference values for amplitudes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used for inter-group and between three sites comparisons of amplitudes. Results: The lower limits of amplitude at 14 cm were 12.4 μV, 10.4 μV, 6.5 μV, 5.3 μV, 2.9 μV, and 1.9 μV; at 12 cm were 13.5 μV, 13.6 μV, 8.5 μV, 7.8 μV, 3.5 μV, and 2.8 μV; and at 10 cm were 16.3 μV, 16.3 μV, 11.1 μV, 10.0 μV, 4.8 μV, and 3.7 μV for groups a, b, c, d, e, and f, respectively. A statistically significant difference in amplitudes was noted from the three different sites of stimulation (P < 0.001). The amplitude differed significantly above the age of 60 years (P < 0.01) but not between groups e and f (P > 0.05). Conclusion: This study provides reference data for sural SNAP in Indian population at three different sites of stimulation along the calf in six age groups. It also shows significant variation in amplitude from the three different sites of stimulation. PMID:27570380

  9. Impact of volcanism on the evolution of Lake Van (eastern Anatolia) III: Periodic (Nemrut) vs. episodic (Süphan) explosive eruptions and climate forcing reflected in a tephra gap between ca. 14 ka and ca. 30 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Sumita, Mari

    2014-09-01

    Fifteen Lateglacial to Holocene rhyolitic, dominantly primary tephra layers piston-cored and drilled (ICDP Paleovan drilling project) in western Lake Van (eastern Anatolia, Turkey) were precisely correlated to either of the two adjacent and active large volcanoes Nemrut and Süphan based on shard textures, mineralogy and mineral and glass compositions. The young peralkaline (comenditic to pantelleritic) primary rhyolitic Nemrut tephras are characterized by anorthoclase, hedenbergitic to augitic clinopyroxene, fayalitic olivine, minor quartz, and rare accessory chevkinite and zircon. Phenocrysts in subalkaline primary rhyolitic Süphan tephras are chiefly oligoclase-labradorite, with minor K-rich sanidine in some, biotite, amphibole, hypersthene, rare augitic clinopyroxene, relatively common allanite and rare zircon. Two contrasting explosive eruptive modes are distinguished from each other: episodic (Süphan) and periodic (Nemrut). The Lateglacial Süphan tephra swarm covers a short time interval of ca. 338 years between ca. 13,078 vy BP and 12,740 vy BP, eruptions having occurred statistically every ca. 42 years with especially short intervals between V-11 (reworked) and V-14. Causes for the strongly episodic Süphan explosive behavior might include seismic triggering of a volcano-magma system unable to erupt explosively without the benefit of external triggering, as reflected in pervasive faulting preceding the Süphan tephra swarm. Seismic triggering may have caused the rise of more mafic ("trachyandesitic") parent magma, heating near-surface pockets of highly evolved magma - that might have formed silicic domes during this stage of volcano evolution - resulting in ascent and finally explosive fragmentation of magma essentially by external factors, probably significantly enhanced by magma-water/ice interaction. Explosive eruptions of the Nemrut volcano system, interpreted to be underlain by a large fractionating magma reservoir, follow a more periodic mode of (a

  10. Membrane properties of a barnacle photoreceptor examined by the voltage clamp technique

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. Mack; Hagiwara, S.; Koike, H.; Meech, R. M.

    1970-01-01

    1. Electrical properties of the membrane of photoreceptor cells in the lateral ocelli of barnacles, Balanus amphitrite and B. eburneus were investigated by intracellular recording, polarization and voltage-clamp techniques. 2. The resting potential of a dark adapted cell was 36·3 ± 6·6 mV (S.D.) and depended mainly on the external K+ concentration. 3. Current—voltage relations obtained from voltage—clamp experiments in the absence of light were non-linear and varied with time after the onset of a step change in membrane potential; the steady state was reached after about 0·5 sec. 4. Illumination resulted in a membrane potential change under current clamp and in a change of membrane current (light-initiated membrane current (L.I.C.): total membrane current with illumination minus current without illumination) under voltage—clamp conditions. Amplitudes and time course of L.I.C. depended on the light intensity as well as membrane potential. 5. The L.I.C.-voltage relation was non-linear and corresponded with a slope conductance increase with increasing positive membrane potential. 6. The reversal potential of L.I.C. was independent of the light intensity and the time after onset of illumination; the average value obtained in normal saline was +26·9 ± 5·0 mV. 7. The membrane conductance estimated from instantaneous L.I.C.-voltage relations agreed with the chord conductance of the non-linear L.I.C.-voltage relation. 8. Decreasing external Na+ concentration decreased the inward component of L.I.C. but not the outward component. 9. Decreasing external Ca2+ concentration increased the inward as well as the outward component of L.I.C. 10. The reversal potential shifted in the negative direction with decreasing external Na+ concentration (the rate was 10-15 mV for a tenfold change in concentration) and the rate was augmented in the absence of Ca2+ but did not exceed 21 mV. 11. The change of reversal potential with changes of external Ca2+ concentration was

  11. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE OLD PULSAR PSR B1451-68

    SciTech Connect

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G.; Garmire, G. P.; Manchester, R. N.; Kargaltsev, O. E-mail: pavlov@astro.psu.edu

    2012-04-20

    We present 35 ks Chandra ACIS observations of the 42 Myr old radio pulsar PSR B1451-68. A point source is detected 0.''32 {+-} 0.''73 from the expected radio pulsar position. It has {approx}200 counts in the 0.3-8 keV energy range. We identify this point source as the X-ray counterpart of the radio pulsar. PSR B1451-68 is located close to a Two Micron All Sky Survey point source for which we derive 7% as the upper limit on the flux contribution to the measured pulsar X-ray flux. The pulsar spectrum can be described by either a power-law model with photon index {Gamma} = 2.4{sup +0.4}{sub -0.3} and a unrealistically high absorbing column density N{sub H} = (2.5{sup +1.2}{sub -1.3}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}, or by a combination of a kT = 0.35{sup +0.12}{sub -0.07} keV blackbody and a {Gamma} = 1.4 {+-} 0.5 power-law component for N{sup DM}{sub H} = 2.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}, estimated from the pulsar dispersion measure. At the parallactic, a Lutz-Kelker bias corrected distance of 480 pc, the non-thermal X-ray luminosities in the 0.3-8 keV energy band are either L{sup nonth}{sub 0.3-8keV} = (11.3 {+-} 1.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 29} erg s{sup -1} or L{sup nonth}{sub 0.3-8keV} = (5.9{sup +4.9}{sub -5.0}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 29} erg s{sup -1}, respectively. This corresponds to non-thermal X-ray efficiencies of either {eta}{sub 0.3-8keV}{sup north}=L{sub 0.3-8keV}{sup north}/E-dot{approx}5x10{sup -3} or 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, respectively.

  12. Web-based, virtual course units as a didactic concept for medical teaching.

    PubMed

    Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan; Zielinski, Thomas; Lochner, Jürgen

    2004-06-01

    The objective was to develop a web-based, virtual series of lectures for evidence-based, standardized knowledge transfer independent of location and time with possibilities for interactive participation and a concluding web-based online examination. Within the framework of a research project, specific Intranet and Internet capable course modules were developed together with a concluding examination. The concept of integrating digital and analogue course units supported by sound was based on FlashCam (Nexus Concepts), Flash MX (Macromedia), HTML and JavaScript. A Web server/SGI Indigo Unix server was used as a platform by the course provider. A variety of independent formats (swf, avi, mpeg, DivX, etc.) were integrated in the individual swf modules. An online examination was developed to monitor the learning effect. The examination papers are automatically forwarded by email after completion. The results are also returned to the user automatically after they have been processed by a key program and an evaluation program. The system requirements for the user PC have deliberately been kept low (Internet Explorer 5.0, Flash-Player 6, 56 kbit/s modem, 200 MHz PC). Navigation is intuitive. Users were provided with a technical online introduction and a FAQ list. Eighty-two students of dentistry in their 3rd to 5th years of study completed a questionnaire to assess the course content and the user friendliness (SPSS V11) with grades 1 to 6 (1 = 'excellent' and 6 = 'unsatisfactory'). The course units can be viewed under the URL: http://giga.rrze.uni-erlangen.de/movies/MKG/trailer and URL: http://giga.rrze.uni-erlangen.de/movies/MKG/demo/index. Some 89% of the students gave grades 1 (excellent) and 2 (good) for accessibility independent of time and 83% for access independent of location. Grades 1 and 2 were allocated for an objectivization of the knowledge transfer by 67% of the students and for the use of video sequences for demonstrating surgical techniques by 91% of the

  13. The electrogenicity of the rat sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 requires interactions among transmembrane segments of the transporter

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Inyeong; Soo Yang, Han; Boron, Walter F

    2007-01-01

    The electrogenic Na+–HCO3− cotransporter (NBCe1) plays a central role in intracellular pH (pHi) regulation as well as HCO3− secretion by pancreatic ducts and HCO3− reabsorption by renal proximal tubules. To understand the structural requirements for the electrogenicity of NBCe1, we constructed chimeras of NBCe1-A and the electroneutral NBCn1-B, and used two-electrode voltage clamp to measure electrogenic transporter current in Xenopus oocytes exposed to 5% CO2–26 mm HCO3−(pH 7.40). The chimera consisting of NBCe1-A (i.e. NBCe1-A ‘background’) with the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain (Nt) of NBCn1-B had a reversal potential of −156.3 mV (compared with a membrane potential Vm of −43.1 mV in a HCO3−-free solution) and a slope conductance of 3.0 μS (compared with 12.5 μS for NBCe1-A). Also electrogenic were chimeras with an NBCe1-A background but with NBCn1-B contributing the extracellular loop (L) between transmembrane segment (TM) 5 and 6 (−140.9 mV/11.1 μS), the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (Ct; −123.8 mV/9.7 μS) or Nt + L + Ct (−120.9 mV/3.7 μS). Reciprocal chimeras (with an NBCn1 background but with NBCe1 contributing Nt, L, Ct or Nt + L + Ct) produced no measurable electrogenic transporter currents in the presence of CO2–HCO3−. pHi recovered from an acid load, but without the negative shift of Vm that is characteristic of electrogenic Na+–HCO3− cotransporters. Thus, these chimeras were electroneutral, as were two others consisting of NBCe1(Nt–L)/NBCn1(TM6–Ct) and NBCn1(Nt–L)/NBCe1(TM6–Ct). We propose that the electrogenicity of NBCe1 requires interactions between TM1–5 and TM6–13. PMID:17038436

  14. First-principles survey of the structure, formation energies, and transition levels of As-interstitial defects in InGaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. R.; Wright, A. F.; Modine, N. A.; Battaile, C. C.; Foiles, S. M.; Thomas, J. C.; Van der Ven, A.

    2015-07-01

    While point defects in elemental (Si) and compound (GaAs, GaN, AlN) semiconductors have been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically, only limited theoretical studies of these defects exist for technologically important binary (S ixG e1 -x) and pseudobinary (I nxG a1 -xAs , I nxG a1 -xN , A lxG a1 -xN ) semiconductor alloys. Here, we use density-functional theory and a recently developed bounds-analysis approach to survey the atomic structures, formation energies, and charge-state transition levels of the stable and metastable states of As interstitials in the pseudobinary alloy I n0 .5G a0 .5As . Our studies consider seven different candidate defect structures for the As interstitial, with calculations performed for selected defect charge states in the range q =-2 to +3 . In each case, the mean and standard deviations of the defect-formation energy are determined using statistical sampling methods that place the defect into a wide variety of differing local-alloy environments. When examined from the point of view of the mean formation energy of the defect, the stable configurations of the As interstitial in I n0 .5G a0 .5As are found to resemble previous findings for GaAs, with a C1 h-p 001III interstitial structure in a q =+1 charge state favored near midgap and below, and a C2 v-11 0a split-interstitial structure in a q =-1 charge state favored above midgap (the named point-group symmetries refer to the underlying symmetry that the alloy defect would possess if within GaAs). The statistical sampling reveals a strong dependence of the defect-formation energy on the local-alloy environment, with the standard deviation σ of the formation energy approaching 0.21 eV for the most stable As-interstitial structures. Because the range of ground-state energies encountered by an As-interstitial defect when moving through the alloy is found to be quite large, approaching ˜1.2 eV (±3 σ ) , defect-diffusion pathways in I n0 .5G a0 .5As will have spatial

  15. Hadron Production and Freeze-Out Dynamics at square root of sNN = 3.0 GeV Au+Al and square root of sNN = 19.6 GeV Au+Au Collisions as Measured at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovko, Samantha Gail

    The Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC was commissioned to search for the critical point and the turn-off of QGP signatures. The program has completed collisions of Au+Au at energies from 7.7 to 62.4 GeV per nucleon pair in 2010 and 2011. The addition of a full-coverage Time-of-Flight detector at STAR extended the momentum range for clean particle identification. Mid-rapidity (|y| < 0.5) hadron spectra will be used to determine the freeze-out dynamics of the system. Particle spectra for pi, K, p and p¯ as a function of mT -- m0 will be presented and these will be used to discuss in particular the source's Coulombic effect on soft pions, as well as three of the four signs of the onset of deconfinement: the "Kink," the "Horn," and the "Step." Comparisons will be made to √s NN) = 7.7 GeV, 11.5 GeV, 19.6 GeV (from 2001), 27 GeV, 39 GeV Au+Au data from STAR, and (sqrt of sNN = 17.3 GeV Pb+Pb data from the SPS heavy ion program. Collisions between gold ions in the RHIC beam with aluminum nuclei in the beam pipe allow us to analyze fixed-target interactions with the STAR detector at RHIC. These lower-energy fixed-target collisions may allow us to extend the low-energy reach of the RHIC beam energy scan and possibly improve the chance of finding the critical point of the hadronic to quark matter phase boundary. In this thesis, we will present preliminary results of spectra analyses for a fixed target collision system at √sNN)= 3.0 GeV and colliding beam system at √sNN = 19.6 GeV . Also, the viability of doing fixed-target experiments with a collider detector will be discussed. Comparisons to simulation, using UrQMD, will also be made. The analysis provides a good reference to study excitation functions of strangeness production, net baryon number, and collective flow in heavy-ion collisions.

  16. SeReNA Project: studying aerosol interactions with cloud microphysics in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, A. L.; Catandi, P. B.; Frigeri, F. F.; Ferreira, W. C.; Martins, J.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-12-01

    can influence them. Reference: Martins et al. (2011) ACP, v.11, p.9485-9501. Available at: http://bit.ly/martinspaper Figure 1. Brightness temperature (left panel) and thermodynamic phase (right) of hydrometeors in the convective cloud shown in the middle panel. Extracted from Martins et al. (2011).

  17. KELT-10b: the first transiting exoplanet from the KELT-South survey - a hot sub-Jupiter transiting a V = 10.7 early G-star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Collins, Karen A.; Lund, Michael B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Colón, Knicole D.; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip A.; James, David J.; Penev, Kaloyan; Zhou, George; Bayliss, Daniel; Tan, T. G.; Curtis, Ivan A.; Udry, Stephane; Segransan, Damien; Mawet, Dimitri; Dhital, Saurav; Soutter, Jack; Hart, Rhodes; Carter, Brad; Gaudi, B. Scott; Myers, Gordon; Beatty, Thomas G.; Eastman, Jason D.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Haislip, Joshua B.; Kielkopf, John; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Stevens, Daniel J.

    2016-07-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-10b, the first transiting exoplanet discovered using the KELT-South telescope. KELT-10b is a highly inflated sub-Jupiter mass planet transiting a relatively bright V = 10.7 star (TYC 8378-64-1), with Teff = 5948 ± 74 K, log g = 4.319_{-0.030}^{+0.020} and [Fe/H] = 0.09_{-0.10}^{+0.11}, an inferred mass M* = 1.112_{-0.061}^{+0.055} M⊙ and radius R* = 1.209_{-0.035}^{+0.047} R⊙. The planet has a radius Rp = 1.399_{-0.049}^{+0.069} RJ and mass Mp = 0.679_{-0.038}^{+0.039} MJ. The planet has an eccentricity consistent with zero and a semimajor axis a = 0.052 50_{-0.000 97}^{+0.000 86} au. The best-fitting linear ephemeris is T0 = 2457 066.720 45 ± 0.000 27 BJDTDB and P = 4.166 2739 ± 0.000 0063 d. This planet joins a group of highly inflated transiting exoplanets with a larger radius and smaller mass than that of Jupiter. The planet, which boasts deep transits of 1.4 per cent, has a relatively high equilibrium temperature of Teq = 1377_{-23}^{+28} K, assuming zero albedo and perfect heat redistribution. KELT-10b receives an estimated insolation of 0.817_{-0.054}^{+0.068} × 109 erg s-1 cm-2, which places it far above the insolation threshold above which hot Jupiters exhibit increasing amounts of radius inflation. Evolutionary analysis of the host star suggests that KELT-10b may not survive beyond the current subgiant phase, depending on the rate of in-spiral of the planet over the next few Gyr. The planet transits a relatively bright star and exhibits the third largest transit depth of all transiting exoplanets with V < 11 in the Southern hemisphere, making it a promising candidate for future atmospheric characterization studies.

  18. Sensory transduction at the frog semicircular canal: how hair cell membrane potential controls junctional transmission

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Marta; Canella, Rita; Rubbini, Gemma; Fesce, Riccardo; Rossi, Maria Lisa

    2015-01-01

    At the frog semicircular canals, the afferent fibers display high spontaneous activity (mEPSPs), due to transmitter release from hair cells. mEPSP and spike frequencies are modulated by stimulation that activates the hair cell receptor conductance. The relation between receptor current and transmitter release cannot be studied at the intact semicircular canal. To circumvent the problem, we combined patch-clamp recordings at the isolated hair cell and electrophysiological recordings at the cytoneural junction in the intact preparation. At isolated hair cells, the K channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) is shown to block a fraction of total voltage-dependent K-conductance (IKD) that depends on TEA concentration but not on membrane potential (Vm). Considering the bioelectric properties of the hair cell, as previously characterized by this lab, a fixed fractional block of IKD is shown to induce a relatively fixed shift in Vm, provided it lies in the range −30 to −10 mV. The same concentrations of TEA were applied to the intact labyrinth while recording from single afferent fibers of the posterior canal, at rest and during mechanical stimulation. At the peak of stimulation, TEA produced increases in mEPSP rate that were linearly related to the shifts produced by the same TEA concentrations (0.1–3 mM) in hair cell Vm (0.7–5 mV), with a slope of 29.8 Hz/mV. The membrane potential of the hair cell is not linearly related to receptor conductance, so that the slope of quantal release vs. receptor conductance depends on the prevailing Vm (19.8 Hz/nS at −20 mV; 11 Hz/nS at −10 mV). Changes in mEPSP peak size were negligible at rest as well as during stimulation. Since ample spatial summation of mEPSPs occurs at the afferent terminal and threshold-governed spike firing is intrinsically nonlinear, the observed increases in mEPSP frequency, though not very large, may suffice to trigger afferent spike discharge. PMID:26157360

  19. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Landis, C; Miles, D G; Smith, R A; Saliki, J T; Ridpath, J F; Confer, A W; Neill, J D; Eberle, R; Clement, T J; Chase, C C L; Burge, L J; Payton, M E

    2016-06-24

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected from 114 cattle on initial BRD treatment. Processing included modified live virus (MLV) vaccination. Seven BRD necropsy cases were included for 121 total cases. Mean number of days on feed before first sample was 14.9 days. Swabs and tissue homogenates were tested by gel based PCR (G-PCR), quantitative-PCR (qPCR) and quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and viral culture. There were 87/114 (76.3%) swabs positive for at least one virus by at least one test. All necropsy cases were positive for at least one virus. Of 121 cases, positives included 18/121 (14.9%) BoHV-1; 19/121 (15.7%) BVDV; 76/121 (62.8%) BoCV; 11/121 (9.1%) BRSV; and 10/121 (8.3%) PI3V. For nasal swabs, G-PCR (5 viruses) detected 44/114 (38.6%); q-PCR and qRT-PCR (4 viruses) detected 81/114 (71.6%); and virus isolation detected 40/114 (35.1%). Most were positive for only one or two tests, but not all three tests. Necropsy cases had positives: 5/7 G-PCR, 5/7 q-PCR and qRT-PCR, and all were positive by cell culture. In some cases, G-PCR and both real time PCR were negative for BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V in samples positive by culture. PCR did not differentiate field from vaccines strains of BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V. However based on sequencing and analysis, field and vaccine strains of culture positive BoHV-1, BoCV, BVDV, and PI3V, 11/18 (61.1%) of BoHV-1 isolates, 6/17 (35.3%) BVDV isolates, and 1/10 (10.0%) PI3V identified as vaccine. BRSV was only identified by PCR testing. Interpretation of laboratory tests is appropriate as molecular based tests and virus isolation cannot separate field from vaccine strains. Additional testing using sequencing appears appropriate for identifying vaccine

  20. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Demads of the Kettlebell Swing using Tabata Interval versus a Traditional Resistance Protocol

    PubMed Central

    FORTNER, HOWARD A.; SALGADO, JEANETTE M.; HOLMSTRUP, ANGELICA M.; HOLMSTRUP, MICHAEL E.

    2014-01-01

    Tabata (TAB) training, consisting of eight cycles of 20 seconds of maximal exercise followed by 10 seconds of rest, is time-efficient, with aerobic and anaerobic benefit. This study investigated the cardiovascular and metabolic demands of a TAB versus traditional (TRAD) resistance protocol with the kettlebell swing. Fourteen young (18–25y), non-obese (BMI 25.7±0.8 kg/m2) participants reported on three occasions. All testing incorporated measurements of HR, oxygen consumption, and blood lactate accumulation. Each participant completed Tabata kettlebell swings (male- 8kg, female- 4.5kg; 8 intervals; 20s maximal repetitions, 10s rest). On a subsequent visit (TRAD), the total swings from the TAB protocol were evenly divided into 4 sets, with 90s rest between sets. Outcome measures were compared using paired t-tests. The TAB was completed more quickly than the TRAD protocol (240.0±0.0 v. 521.5±3.3 sec, P<0.01), at a higher perceived exertion (Borg RPE; 15.1±0.7 v. 11.7±0.9, P<0.01). The TAB elicited a higher average VO2 value (33.1±1.5 v. 27.2±1.6 ml/kg/min, P<0.01), percent of VO2peak achieved (71.0±0.3 v. 58.4±0.3%, P<0.01), maximal HR (162.4±4.6 v. 145.6±4.8 bpm, P<0.01), and post-exercise blood lactate concentration (6.4±1.1 v. 3.7±0.5 mmol/L, P<0.01). Conclusion The kettlebell swing demonstrated significantly greater cardiovascular and metabolic responses within a TAB vs. TRAD framework. Appropriate screening and risk stratification are advised before implementing kettlebell swings. PMID:27182402

  1. Cardiac neuronal nitric oxide synthase isoform regulates myocardial contraction and calcium handling.

    PubMed

    Sears, Claire E; Bryant, Simon M; Ashley, Euan A; Lygate, Craig A; Rakovic, Stevan; Wallis, Helen L; Neubauer, Stefan; Terrar, Derek A; Casadei, B

    2003-03-21

    A neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has recently been located to the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Subcellular localization of a constitutive NOS in the proximity of an activating source of Ca2+ suggests that cardiac nNOS-derived NO may regulate contraction by exerting a highly specific and localized action on ion channels/transporters involved in Ca2+ cycling. To test this hypothesis, we have investigated myocardial Ca2+ handling and contractility in nNOS knockout mice (nNOS-/-) and in control mice (C) after acute nNOS inhibition with 100 micromol/L L-VNIO. nNOS gene disruption or L-VNIO increased basal contraction both in left ventricular (LV) myocytes (steady-state cell shortening 10.3+/-0.6% in nNOS-/- versus 8.1+/-0.5% in C; P<0.05) and in vivo (LV ejection fraction 53.5+/-2.7 in nNOS-/- versus 44.9+/-1.5% in C; P<0.05). nNOS disruption increased ICa density (in pA/pF, at 0 mV, -11.4+/-0.5 in nNOS-/- versus -9.1+/-0.5 in C; P<0.05) and prolonged the slow time constant of inactivation of ICa by 38% (P<0.05), leading to an increased Ca2+ influx and a greater SR load in nNOS-/- myocytes (in pC/pF, 0.78+/-0.04 in nNOS-/- versus 0.64+/-0.03 in C; P<0.05). Consistent with these data, [Ca2+]i transient (indo-1) peak amplitude was greater in nNOS-/- myocytes (410/495 ratio 0.34+/-0.01 in nNOS-/- versus 0.31+/-0.01 in C; P<0.05). These findings have uncovered a novel mechanism by which intracellular Ca2+ is regulated in LV myocytes and indicate that nNOS is an important determinant of basal contractility in the mammalian myocardium. The full text of this article is available at http://www.circresaha.org.

  2. The ν4, ν9, ν10 and ν6+ν11 bands of 13CH3-12CH3 between 1245 and 1550 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Linda R.; di Lauro, C.; Lattanzi, F.; Mantz, A. W.; Smith, M. H.

    2013-10-01

    To support atmospheric studies of the Jovian planets, the infrared spectrum of 13CH3-12CH3 was measured between 1245 and 1550 cm-1. Using a 99% 13C-enriched ethane sample, spectra were recorded at 0.0022 cm-1 resolution with the 125 HR Bruker FTIR configured to a temperature-controlled absorption cell of 0.204 m path length cooled to 130.3 K. From these, we obtained the first analysis of isotopic ethane for the three fundamentals (v4, v9 and v10) and one combination band (v6+v11). The spectrum itself is very complex; while torsional splitting produces two components (as in normal ethane), there are additional small splittings in both v9 and v10 wherever the normally infrared inactive v10 levels are perturbed by interaction with nearby states of v9. The spectrum was assigned and analyzed by adopting an appropriate Hamiltonian model; vibration-rotation-torsion parameters of these four bands were determined by the least squares process to model 1348 observed line positions with an RMS deviation of 3.24×10-3 cm-1. The values of rotational and torsional parameters of the vibrational ground state were also improved or determined using the new cold spectrum. The parallel band v4 has very perturbed intensity patterns (e. g. with the R-transitions markedly stronger than the P-transitions) due to its Coriolis coupling with v9, and future analysis of the intensities is needed to obtain reliable predictions of this spectrum. For the interim, an empirical linelist is being formed by combining measured positions and intensities at 130 K with lower state energies from known quantum assignments so that lines of this molecule can be identified in planetary spectra. Part of the research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Connecticut College, and NASA Langley under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Landis, C; Miles, D G; Smith, R A; Saliki, J T; Ridpath, J F; Confer, A W; Neill, J D; Eberle, R; Clement, T J; Chase, C C L; Burge, L J; Payton, M E

    2016-06-24

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected from 114 cattle on initial BRD treatment. Processing included modified live virus (MLV) vaccination. Seven BRD necropsy cases were included for 121 total cases. Mean number of days on feed before first sample was 14.9 days. Swabs and tissue homogenates were tested by gel based PCR (G-PCR), quantitative-PCR (qPCR) and quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and viral culture. There were 87/114 (76.3%) swabs positive for at least one virus by at least one test. All necropsy cases were positive for at least one virus. Of 121 cases, positives included 18/121 (14.9%) BoHV-1; 19/121 (15.7%) BVDV; 76/121 (62.8%) BoCV; 11/121 (9.1%) BRSV; and 10/121 (8.3%) PI3V. For nasal swabs, G-PCR (5 viruses) detected 44/114 (38.6%); q-PCR and qRT-PCR (4 viruses) detected 81/114 (71.6%); and virus isolation detected 40/114 (35.1%). Most were positive for only one or two tests, but not all three tests. Necropsy cases had positives: 5/7 G-PCR, 5/7 q-PCR and qRT-PCR, and all were positive by cell culture. In some cases, G-PCR and both real time PCR were negative for BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V in samples positive by culture. PCR did not differentiate field from vaccines strains of BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V. However based on sequencing and analysis, field and vaccine strains of culture positive BoHV-1, BoCV, BVDV, and PI3V, 11/18 (61.1%) of BoHV-1 isolates, 6/17 (35.3%) BVDV isolates, and 1/10 (10.0%) PI3V identified as vaccine. BRSV was only identified by PCR testing. Interpretation of laboratory tests is appropriate as molecular based tests and virus isolation cannot separate field from vaccine strains. Additional testing using sequencing appears appropriate for identifying vaccine

  4. BVRIJHK photometry and proper motion analysis of NGC 6253 and the surrounding field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalto, M.; Piotto, G.; Desidera, S.; Platais, I.; Carraro, G.; Momany, Y.; de Marchi, F.; Recio-Blanco, A.

    2009-10-01

    Context: We present a photometric and astrometric catalog of 187 963 stars located in the field around the old super-metal-rich Galactic open cluster NGC 6253. The total field-of-view covered by the catalog is 34”×33”. In this field, we provide CCD BVRI photometry. For a smaller region close to the cluster's center, we also provide near-infrared JHK photometry. Aims: We analyze the properties of NGC 6253 by using our new photometric data and astrometric membership. Methods: In June 2004, we targeted the cluster during a 10 day multi-site campaign, which involved the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope with its wide-field imager and the Anglo-Australian 3.9 m telescope, equipped with the IRIS2 near-infrared imager. Archival CCD images of NGC 6253 were used to derive relative proper motions and to calculate the cluster membership probabilities. Results: We have refined the cluster's fundamental parameters, deriving (V_0-M_v)=11.15, E(B - V) = 0.15, E(V - I) = 0.25, E(V - J) = 0.50, and E(V - H) = 0.55. The color excess ratios obtained using both the optical and near infrared colors indicate a normal reddening law in the direction of NGC 6253. The age of NGC 6253 at 3.5 Gyr, determined from our best-fitting isochrone appears to be slightly older than the previous estimates. Finally, we estimated the binary fraction among the cluster members to be ~20%-30% and identified 11 blue straggler candidates. Based on observation made at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile and at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Siding Spring, Australia. The catalog presented in this paper is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/505/1129

  5. A Normal Supermassive Black Hole in NGC 1277

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Durré, Mark; Savorgnan, Giulia A. D.; Medling, Anne M.; Batcheldor, Dan; Scott, Nicholas; Watson, Beverly; Marconi, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    The identification of galaxies with “overly massive” black holes requires two measurements: a black hole mass (Mbh) and a host spheroid mass ({M}{{sph,\\ast }}). Here we provide our measurements for NGC 1277. Our structural decomposition reveals that NGC 1277 is dominated by a “classical” spheroid with a Sérsic index n = 5.3, a half-light radius {R}{{e,major}}=2.1 {{kpc}}, and a stellar mass of 2.7× {10}11\\quad {M}⊙ (using {M}*/{L}V=11.65, Martín-Navarro et al.). This mass is an order of magnitude greater than originally reported. Using the latest Mbh-n, Mbh-{M}{{sph,\\ast }}, and Mbh-σ relations, the expected black hole mass is, respectively, ({0.57}-0.40+1.29)× {10}9\\quad {M}⊙ , ({1.58}-1.13+4.04)× {10}9\\quad {M}⊙ , and ({2.27}-1.44+4.04)× {10}9\\quad {M}⊙ (using σ = 300 km s-1) for which the “sphere-of-influence” is 0.″31. Our new kinematical maps obtained from laser guide star assisted, adaptive optics on the Keck I Telescope dramatically reaffirm the presence of the inner, nearly edge-on, disk seen in the galaxy image. We also report that this produces a large velocity shear (˜400 km s-1) across the inner 0.″2 (70 pc) plus elevated values of \\sqrt{{σ }2+{V}2} across the inner (+/- 3\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 8)× (+/- 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 6) region of the galaxy. Our new multi-Gaussian expansion (MGE) models and Jeans Anisotropic MGE analysis struggled to match this extended component. Our optimal black hole mass, albeit a probable upper limit because of the disk is 1.2 × 109 M⊙ (M/{L}V=12.3). This is an order of magnitude smaller than originally reported and 4 times smaller than recently reported. It gives an {M}{{bh}}/{M}{{sph,\\ast }} ratio of 0.45% in agreement with the median (≈0.5%) and range (0.1%-5.0%) observed in non-dwarf, early-type galaxies. This result highlights the need for caution with inner disks.

  6. New calibration standard for LA-ICPMS analysis of sulphides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, I.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Olin, P. H.; Gilbert, S.; Thompson, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Currently available calibration standards for LA-ICPMS analysis for a wide range of trace elements in sulphide minerals include hydrothermally-precipitated Fe-Cu-Zn-S powder doped with trace metals MASS-1 [1] and Li borate glass STDGL-2 [2]. Both of them are not ideal due to a limited range of elements they contain and/or non-homogenous distribution and low concentrations of elements. MASS-1 suffers from a limited range of elements and poor homogeneity, whereas STDGL-2 has low and/or unevenly distributed volatile elements and precious metals (e.g. Se, Te, Tl, Pt, Au). In order to produce a better calibration standard, we have experimented with fusing sulphide mineral mixes in a variety of borate-based fluxes. A range of flux compositions, heating and cooling regimes and times at high temperatures have been tested in order to produce a homogeneous glass disk with an appropriate proportion of sulphide, while retaining volatile elements. Best results were achieved with using Li tetraborate as a flux with Na nitrate as an oxidizing agent by fusing with an LPG fluxer (M4 by Claisse). Selenium, tellurium and tin were added in the elemental form, whereas thallium was added as carbonate (Tl2CO3). A range of elements was added to provide capability for detecting known common interferences on chalcophile and siderophile elements (e.g. Gd, Hf, Ta, W, Zr, Sr). New standard glass STDGL-3 contains homogeneously distributed volatile elements (Se, Te, Tl, Sn) and precious metals (Au, Pt). A larger proportion of volatile elements was retained (100% Ge, 80% Re, 70% Te, 60% Sn, 20% Tl, 20% Se). Most problematic elements turned out to be Se and Tl, which volatilize together through a network of narrow zones, and Pt and Au, which form micro inclusions. Suitability of the new standard for LA-ICPMS analysis of sulphide minerals for trace element concentrations and Pb isotopes will be demonstrated. [1] Wilson et al., 2002. JAAS, v.17, pp.406-409[2] Danyushevsky et al., 2011. GEEA,. v.11

  7. The Besançon Galaxy model renewed. I. Constraints on the local star formation history from Tycho data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekaj, M. A.; Robin, A. C.; Figueras, F.; Luri, X.; Haywood, M.

    2014-04-01

    Context. The understanding of Galaxy evolution can be facilitated by the use of population synthesis models, which allows us to test hypotheses on the star formation history, star evolution, and chemical and dynamical evolution of the Galaxy. Aims: The new version of the Besançon Galaxy model (BGM) aims to provide a more flexible and powerful tool to investigate the initial mass function (IMF) and star formation rate (SFR) of the Galactic disc. Methods: We present a new strategy for the generation of thin disc stars, which assumes the IMF, SFR and evolutionary tracks as free parameters. We have updated most of the ingredients for the star count production and, for the first time, binary stars are generated in a consistent way. The local dynamical self-consistency is maintained in this new scheme. We then compare simulations from the new model with Tycho-2 data and the local luminosity function, as a first test to verify and constrain the new ingredients. The effects of changing thirteen different ingredients of the model are systematically studied. Results: For the first time, a full sky comparison is performed between BGM and data. This strategy allows us to constrain the IMF slope at high masses, which is found to be close to 3.0 and excludes a shallower slope such as Salpeter's one. The SFR is found decreasing whatever IMF is assumed. The model is compatible with a local dark matter density of 0.011 M⊙ pc-3 implying that there is no compelling evidence for the significant amount of dark matter in the disc. While the model is fitted to Tycho-2 data, which is a magnitude limited sample with V< 11, we check that it is still consistent with fainter stars. Conclusions: The new model constitutes a new basis for further comparisons with large scale surveys and is being prepared to become a powerful tool for the analysis of the Gaia mission data. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Living With A Red Dwarf: Rotation, Starspots, Activity Cycles, Coronal X-ray Activity And X-uv Irradiances Of Proxima Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jason, Merritt; Guinan, E.; Engle, S.; Pojmanski, G.

    2007-12-01

    As part of our Living with a Red Dwarf Program, we have carried out a detailed study of the radiative and plasma properties of the nearby dM5.5e star Proxima Centauri. Proxima Cen is noteworthy as the nearest star to the Sun. Because of its proximity ( 4.3 L.Y.) and membership in the α Cen system, Proxima Cen is an important star to use as a surrogate for solar-aged mid-dM stars. It is relatively bright (V = 11-mag) and has well determined observational and physical properties (MV, Teff, [Fe/H], angular diameter, mass and age). Importantly for our purposes, Proxima Cen has a reliable age of 5.5-6.0 Gyr from its association with the α Cen system in which α Cen A (G2 V) has a reliable isochronal age determination. We have analyzed 5 years of ASAS-3, V-band photometry to search for evidence of short- and long-term variations in brightness that could arise from magnetically related phenomenon (star spots, faculae, and possible UV flares). We also examine its coronal X-ray emission and variations as well as the stars chromospheric and transition regions in the UV from IUE and FUSE observations. The X-UV/optical data are combined and irradiances are calculated for use in extrasolar planet studies. From the photometry we find a rotational modulation of Prot = 83.5 days, in excellent agreement with the earlier HST/FGS study of Benedict et al. (1998). The character of its light variations indicates possible differential rotation as well as a probable long-term activity cycle of 6.9 +/- 0.5 yrs. Although Proxima Cen should be a fully convective star with a different magnetic dynamo (α2) than our Sun (αΩ), its overall magnetic behavior appears to be solar-like. This research is supported by grants from NSF/RUI AST-507536 and NASA Grants NNX06AD386 and NNG04G038G. We are grateful for this support.

  9. Physical parameters of NGC6705 (M11) open cluster using Strömgren photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casamiquela, L.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Jordi, C.; Masana, E.

    2015-05-01

    NGC 6705 (M11) is a middle-age well-studied open cluster. Its location in an area where the interstellar extinction is relatively low, its exceptional stellar density and richness, and the presence of both early type and evolved stars makes this cluster an interesting target for many scientific issues. Although NGC 6705 has been widely studied, Strömgren photometry was missing. The observations by our team have yielded uvbyH photometry for 51293 stars in an area of 34'×34' and with V_{lim}˜21. Observed stars with complete photometry (9308) are classified into photometric regions and their physical parameters are determined using standard relations among color indices for each of the photometric regions of the HR diagram. That allows us to provide an astrophysical characterization of the cluster: E(b-y)=0.31±0.05 (E(B-V)=0.42); V_{0}-M_{V}=11.9±0.7 (d˜2000pc); [Fe/H]=-0.2±0.4 (Z=0.009). In addition, we discuss the accuracy of the physical parameters through comparison with those recently determined by Beaver et al. (2013) with Strömgren photometry. We find mean systematic differences of Δ V=-0.015±0.038, Δ (b-y)=-0.017±0.046, Δ m_{1}=-0.014±0.092, Δ c_{1}=+0.014±0.131, and Δ β=-0.036±0.042. These are caused by different selection of reference stars for the instrumental-to-standard transformation. We also compare our results with those from the spectroscopic Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) to assess the quality of the photometric determinations. This work can be useful to give input astrophysical parameters to the spectral analyses being made by GES. We find out clear different trends for the stars bluer and redder than (b-y)=0.4 (T_{eff}˜8000 K), due to the different instrumental setups used for the GIRAFFE observations (HR3 and HR15N). We find that mean differences in effective temperatures and gravities for both works are compatible within the errors. However, mean difference in metallicity for stars with (b-y)>0.4 is discrepant by -0.65 dex.

  10. Hubble space telescope observations of young star clusters in NGC-4038/4039, 'the antennae' galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Schweizer, Francois

    1995-01-01

    New, high-resolution images of the disks of NGC 4038/4039 obtained with the Wide Field Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented. NGC 4038/4039, nicknamed The Antennae, is a prototypical example of a pair of colliding galaxies believed to be at an early stage of a merger. Down to the limiting magnitude of V approximately 23 mag, the HST images reveal a population of over 700 blue pointlike objects within the disks. The mean absolute magnitude of these objects is M(sub V) = -11 mag, with the brightest objects reaching M(sub V) approximately -15. Their mean apparent color indices ar U - V = -0.7 mag and V - 1 = 0.8 mag on the Johnson UVI passband system, while their mean indices corrected for internal reddening are (u - v)(sub 0) = -1.0 mag and (V - I(sub 0) = 0.5. Their mean effective radius, determined from slightly resolved images, is 18 pc (for H(sub 0) = 50 km/s /Mpc). Based on their luminosities and resolution, most of these objects cannot be individual stars, but are likely young compact star clusters. The brighter ones are similar to the objects found in NGC 1275 and NGC 7252, which appear to be young globular clusters formed during recent galazy mergers. Based on their U - V and V - I colors, the brightest, bluest clusters of NGC 4038/4039 appear to be less than 10 Myr old. Most of these bright clusters are relatively tightly clustered themselves, with typically a dozen individual clusters belonging to a complex identified as a giant H II region from ground-based observations. The cluster luminosity function (LF) is approximately a power law, phi(L)dL proportional to L(exp -1.78+/-0.05)dL, with no hint of a turnover at fainter magnitudes. This power-law shape agrees with the LF of Magellanic Cloud clusters and Galactic open clusters, but differs from the LF of old globular cluster systems that is typically Gaussian with a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of approximately 3 mag. Besides the blue clusters, we also find about a dozen extremely

  11. Assessment of left ventricular long axis contraction can detect early myocardial dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Vinereanu, D; Ionescu, A; Fraser, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify variables that could be applied at rest to diagnose subclinical ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic regurgitation.
DESIGN—Cross sectional study.
PATIENTS—Left ventricular long axis contraction was studied using tissue Doppler and M mode echocardiography in 21 patients with no symptoms (New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class ⩽ 2a) but severe aortic regurgitation (jet area/left ventricular outflow tract area > 40%).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at baseline and peak exercise (Weber protocol), cardiopulmonary function, and left ventricular long axis function at rest (peak systolic velocity and excursion of the mitral annulus).
RESULTS—In 11 patients, ejection fraction increased or did not change (from mean (SD) 55 (5)% to 58 (4)%, p < 0.05) (group I); in 10 patients it decreased by > 5% (from 54 (4)% to 42 (5)%, p < 0.001) (group II). Exercise ejection fraction was < 50% in all patients in group II. At rest, there were no differences between the groups in ejection fraction, left ventricular diameter indices, wall stress, and short axis contraction. However, patients in group II had reduced long axis contraction compared with group I: peak systolic velocity 8.6 (0.6) v 11.9 (2.2) cm/s (p < 0.001); excursion 11 (2) v 14 (2) mm (p < 0.01). A resting velocity of < 9.5 cm/s was the best indicator of poor exercise tolerance (sensitivity 90%, specificity 100%).
CONCLUSIONS—Markers of reduced long axis contraction may provide simple and reliable indices of subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic regurgitation.


Keywords: aortic regurgitation; long axis function; tissue Doppler echocardiography; exercise echocardiography PMID:11119457

  12. Bayesian investigation of isochrone consistency using the old open cluster NGC 188

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Shane; Courteau, Stéphane; Von Hippel, Ted; Geller, Aaron M. E-mail: courteau@astro.queensu.ca E-mail: a-geller@northwestern.edu

    2015-03-01

    This paper provides a detailed comparison of the differences in parameters derived for a star cluster from its color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs) depending on the filters and models used. We examine the consistency and reliability of fitting three widely used stellar evolution models to 15 combinations of optical and near-IR photometry for the old open cluster NGC 188. The optical filter response curves match those of theoretical systems and are thus not the source of fit inconsistencies. NGC 188 is ideally suited to this study thanks to a wide variety of high-quality photometry and available proper motions and radial velocities that enable us to remove non-cluster members and many binaries. Our Bayesian fitting technique yields inferred values of age, metallicity, distance modulus, and absorption as a function of the photometric band combinations and stellar models. We show that the historically favored three-band combinations of UBV and VRI can be meaningfully inconsistent with each other and with longer baseline data sets such as UBVRIJHK{sub S}. Differences among model sets can also be substantial. For instance, fitting Yi et al. (2001) and Dotter et al. (2008) models to UBVRIJHK{sub S} photometry for NGC 188 yields the following cluster parameters: age = (5.78 ± 0.03, 6.45 ± 0.04) Gyr, [Fe/H] = (+0.125 ± 0.003, −0.077 ± 0.003) dex, (m−M){sub V} = (11.441 ± 0.007, 11.525 ± 0.005) mag, and A{sub V} = (0.162 ± 0.003, 0.236 ± 0.003) mag, respectively. Within the formal fitting errors, these two fits are substantially and statistically different. Such differences among fits using different filters and models are a cautionary tale regarding our current ability to fit star cluster CMDs. Additional modeling of this kind, with more models and star clusters, and future Gaia parallaxes are critical for isolating and quantifying the most relevant uncertainties in stellar evolutionary models.

  13. Determinants of pharmaceutical expenditures of urban households: A time series study in Kermanshah province (Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Matin, Behzad Karami; Azami, Saeed Reza; Mahmoudi, Saeid; Rezaei, Satar; Shaahmadi, Faramarz; Karyani, Ali Kazemi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In recent decades, the development of medical and pharmaceutical science has led to a heavy financial burden on the government, insurance companies, and the general population. Due to the increasing the cost of pharmaceutical products in the Kermanshah Province, policy makers have tried to identify the factors that resulted in the increases. The aim of this study was to determine the main factors that affect the expenditures for pharmaceutical products by urban households in Kermanshah Province, Iran. Methods This analytical-descriptive study was conducted using time series method. The study population was urban households of Kermanshah Province from 1991 to 2013. The explanatory variables of the log-log model were drug price index (LnDPI), the average income of urban households (LnINC), the number of physicians per 1,000 people (LnPH), and the number of hospital beds per 1,000 people (LnBE).The required data were acquired from the Statistical Center of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The unit root was evaluated by the Dickey-Fuller test. Stata v.11 software was used for the statistical analysis. Results Coefficients of LnDPI and LnPH were 0.97 and 0.77, respectively, and they were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Also, the coefficients of D. LnINC (first difference of LnINC) and LnBE were 0.34 and 1.8, respectively, and both of them were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Conclusion The results showed that drugs are non-elastic and essential for households. It should be noted that the health policy makers in Iran should conduct appropriate planning to ensure both the physical and financial accessibility to drugs by urban households. The development of basic and supplementary health insurance coverage, especially for poor populations and urban areas where there are patients with chronic diseases, can be a suitable solution to reduce barriers to acquiring the required drugs. PMID:26767100

  14. Analysis of geomagnetic data and cosmic ray variations in periods of magnetic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrikova, Oksana; Zalyaev, Timur; Solovev, Igor; Shevtsov, Boris

    field and predicting strong magnetic storms. Using the combination of the wavelet transform and neural networks, we have developed a technique of approximating the time variation of cosmic-ray data. This technique allows us to perform detailed analysis of geomagnetic data and detect anomalies in periods of high solar activity. Approximations of large-scale time variation components of cosmic-ray data have been obtained in the following form: [ c_{j,n+1}(t)=\\varphi^3_m Biggl (sum_i omega^3_{mi}\\varphi^2_i biggl (sum_l omega^2_{il}\\varphi^1_lBigl(sum_n omega^1_{ln}c_{j,n}(t)Bigr )biggr ) Biggr ) ] where c_{j,n}=< y, phi_{j,n} > ;phi_{j,n}=2(j/2) phi(2(j(t)-n)) is the scaling function, omega(1_{ln}) are the weights of the neurons of the network input layer l,omega(2_{il}) are the weights of the neurons of the network hidden layer i, omega(3_{mi}) are the weights of the neurons of the network output layer m, varphi(1_l(z)=varphi^2_i(z)=(2)/(1+exp(-2z))-1) ,varphi(3_m(z)) =a*z+b. Coefficients c_{j,n} are the result of transforming of the original function y to the space with the scale j. Analysis of long geomagnetic data from the Paratunka observatory (Kamchatka region, Russia) provided quantitative estimates of the storminess degree of the geomagnetic field before and during magnetic storms. Furthermore, we have managed to identify local weak increases of the field perturbations prior to the main phase of storms. The intensity of field perturbations rises on average 2.5 days before the onset of a storm. Abnormal time periods connected with increased solar activity have been detected in the flow of cosmic rays. Comparison of the results with the geomagnetic data has shown that the anomalies in the cosmic ray variations occur in periods of strong geomagnetic perturbations. The tools and techniques suggested in the present work, together with other methods of data -analysis will help forecast space weather, estimate more accurately the condition of the Earth’s magnetic

  15. Biorefinery Technologies for Biomass Conversion Into Chemicals and Fuels Towards Zero Emissions (Review) / Nulles Emisiju Princips Biomasas Konversijas Tehnoloģijās Aizstājot Fosilos Resursus (Pārskata Raksts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravitis, J.; Abolins, J.

    2013-10-01

    Exhausting of world resources, increasing pollution, and climate change are compelling the shift of the world economy from continuous growth to a kind of economy based on integration of technologies into zero emissions production systems. Transition from non-renewable fossil resources to renewable resources provided by solar radiation and the current processes in biosphere is seen in the bio-refinery approach - replacing crude oil refineries by biomass refineries. Biotechnology and nano-technologies are getting accepted as important players along with conventional biomass refinery technologies. Systems design is a significant element in the integration of bio-refinery technologies in clusters. A number of case-studies, steam explosion auto-hydrolysis (SEA) in particular, are reviewed to demonstrate conversion of biomass into value-added chemicals and fuels. Analysis of energy flows is made as part of modelling the SEA processes, the eMergy (energy memory) approach and sustainability indices being applied to assess environmental impacts. Resursu izsīkums, vides piesārņojums un globāla mēroga klimatiskās izmaiņas ir civilizācijas izdzīvošanai būtiski faktori, kas virza pasaules ekonomikas pārmaiņas, atsakoties no nepārtrauktas izaugsmes idejas par labu tādai ekonomikai, kas balstās uz atjaunojošamies resursiem un dažādu tehnoloģiju integrācijemisiju principam atbilstošās ražošanas sistēmās. Saules radiācijas ierosinātajos planētas biosfērā notiekošajos procesos radīto organisko vielu pārstrādes kompleksi, kas operē ievērojot sabalansētu nulles emisiju principu, tiek uzlūkoti kā tās ekonomiskās (ražošanas) struktūras, kurām jānodrošina pāreja uz atjaunojošos resursu izmantošanu, aizstājot esošās fosilo resursu (naftas, ogļu) pārstrādes rūpnīcas. Līdzās jau apgūtajām biomasas rafinēšanas tehnoloģijām svarīga un pieaugoša loma ekonomiskās sistēmas resursu bāzes nomaiņā ir bio- un nanotehnolo

  16. Star Formation at z~6: i-Dropouts in the Advanced Camera for Surveys Guaranteed Time Observation Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Rosati, P.; Lidman, C.; Broadhurst, T.; Franx, M.; Ford, H. C.; Magee, D.; Benítez, N.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Meurer, G. R.; Clampin, M.; Hartig, G. F.; Ardila, D. R.; Bartko, F.; Brown, R. A.; Burrows, C. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cross, N. J. G.; Feldman, P. D.; Golimowski, D. A.; Gronwall, C.; Infante, L.; Kimble, R. A.; Krist, J. E.; Lesser, M. P.; Martel, A. R.; Menanteau, F.; Miley, G. K.; Postman, M.; Sirianni, M.; Sparks, W. B.; Tran, H. D.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; White, R. L.; Zheng, W.

    2003-10-01

    Using an i-z dropout criterion, we determine the space density of z~6 galaxies from two deep ACS GTO fields with deep optical-IR imaging. A total of 23 objects are found over 46 arcmin2, or ~0.5+/-0.1 objects arcmin-2 down to zAB~27.3 (6 σ), or a completeness-corrected ~0.5+/-0.2 objects arcmin-2 down to zAB~26.5 (including one probable z~6 active galactic nucleus). Combining deep ISAAC data for our RDCS 1252-2927 field (JAB~25.7 and Ks,AB~25.0 5 σ) and NICMOS data for the Hubble Deep Field-North (J110,AB and H160,AB~27.3, 5 σ), we verify that these dropouts have relatively flat spectral slopes, as one would expect for star-forming objects at z~6. Compared with the average-color (β=-1.3) U-dropout in the Steidel et al. z~3 sample, i-dropouts in our sample range in luminosity from ~1.5L* (zAB~25.6) to ~0.3L* (zAB~27.3) with the exception of one very bright candidate at z850,AB~24.2. The half-light radii vary from 0.09" to 0.21", or 0.5 kpc to 1.3 kpc. We derive the z~6 rest-frame UV luminosity density (or star formation rate density) by using three different procedures. All three procedures use simulations based on a slightly lower redshift (z~5) V606-dropout sample from Chandra Deep Field-South ACS images. First, we make a direct comparison of our findings with a no-evolution projection of this V-dropout sample, allowing us to automatically correct for the light lost at faint magnitudes or lower surface brightnesses. We find 23%+/-25% more i-dropouts than we predict, consistent with no strong evolution over this redshift range. Adopting previous results to z~5, this works out to a mere 20%+/-29% drop in the luminosity density from z~3 to z~6. Second, we use the same V-dropout simulations to derive a detailed selection function for our i-dropout sample and compute the UV-luminosity density [(7.2+/-2.5)×1025 ergs s-1 Hz-1 Mpc-3 down to zAB~27]. We find a 39%+/-21% drop over the same redshift range (z~3-6), consistent with the first estimate. This is our

  17. The TRAPPIST comet survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehin, E.; Opitom, C.; Manfroid, J.; Hutsemékers, D.; Gillon, M.

    2014-07-01

    TRAPPIST (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope) is a 60-cm robotic telescope that has been installed in June 2010 at the ESO La Silla Observatory [1]. Operated from Liège (Belgium) it is devoted to the detection and characterisation of exoplanets and to the study of comets and other small bodies in the Solar System. We describe here the hardware and the goals of the project and give an overview of the comet production rates monitoring after three years of operations. The telescope and observatory --- TRAPPIST's optical tube unit is a Ritchey-Chretien 0.6 meter telescope with a focal length of 4.8 meter. It is associated with a German equatorial mount that is, thanks to its direct drive system, extremely fast (up to 50 deg/s), accurate (tracking accuracy without autoguider better than 2'' in 10 min), and free of periodic error. The instrument is a Peltier cooled commercial camera equipped with a Fairchild 3041 back-illuminated 2k×2k chip. The pixel scale is 0.64''/pixel. Three read-out modes are available, the shortest read-out time being 2s. The total field of view of the camera is 22'×22'. It is associated to a custom-made dual filter wheel. One of the filter wheel contains broad band filters (Johnson B, V, R, Cousins Ic, Sloan z, and a special I+z filter), while the other contains the narrow-band NASA HB cometary filters (OH, NH, CN, CO+, C3, and C2 gaseous species; UC, BC, GC and RC solar continuum windows and a NaI D filter) [2]. The telescope is protected by a 5 meter diameter dome that was totally refurbished and automatized. The observatory is fully robotic and equipped with a weather station, an UPS and webcams. The la Silla site is excellent with more than 300 clear nights per year and the telescope has proven to be very reliable with a small amount of technical downtime. Comet monitoring --- For relatively bright comets (V < 12) we measure several times a week the gaseous production rates (using a Haser model) and the spatial

  18. Biorefinery Technologies for Biomass Conversion Into Chemicals and Fuels Towards Zero Emissions (Review) / Nulles Emisiju Princips Biomasas Konversijas Tehnoloģijās Aizstājot Fosilos Resursus (Pārskata Raksts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravitis, J.; Abolins, J.

    2013-10-01

    Exhausting of world resources, increasing pollution, and climate change are compelling the shift of the world economy from continuous growth to a kind of economy based on integration of technologies into zero emissions production systems. Transition from non-renewable fossil resources to renewable resources provided by solar radiation and the current processes in biosphere is seen in the bio-refinery approach - replacing crude oil refineries by biomass refineries. Biotechnology and nano-technologies are getting accepted as important players along with conventional biomass refinery technologies. Systems design is a significant element in the integration of bio-refinery technologies in clusters. A number of case-studies, steam explosion auto-hydrolysis (SEA) in particular, are reviewed to demonstrate conversion of biomass into value-added chemicals and fuels. Analysis of energy flows is made as part of modelling the SEA processes, the eMergy (energy memory) approach and sustainability indices being applied to assess environmental impacts. Resursu izsīkums, vides piesārņojums un globāla mēroga klimatiskās izmaiņas ir civilizācijas izdzīvošanai būtiski faktori, kas virza pasaules ekonomikas pārmaiņas, atsakoties no nepārtrauktas izaugsmes idejas par labu tādai ekonomikai, kas balstās uz atjaunojošamies resursiem un dažādu tehnoloģiju integrācijemisiju principam atbilstošās ražošanas sistēmās. Saules radiācijas ierosinātajos planētas biosfērā notiekošajos procesos radīto organisko vielu pārstrādes kompleksi, kas operē ievērojot sabalansētu nulles emisiju principu, tiek uzlūkoti kā tās ekonomiskās (ražošanas) struktūras, kurām jānodrošina pāreja uz atjaunojošos resursu izmantošanu, aizstājot esošās fosilo resursu (naftas, ogļu) pārstrādes rūpnīcas. Līdzās jau apgūtajām biomasas rafinēšanas tehnoloģijām svarīga un pieaugoša loma ekonomiskās sistēmas resursu bāzes nomaiņā ir bio- un nanotehnolo

  19. Relativistic central-field Green's functions for the RATIP package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, Peter; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2005-11-01

    /output CPU time required to execute test data: 2 min on a 450 MHz Pentium III processor No. of lines in distributed program, including test data etc.: 82 042 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data etc.: 814 096 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of the physical problem: In atomic perturbation theory, Green's functions may help carry out the summation over the complete spectrum of atom and ions, including the (summation over the) bound states as well as an integration over the continuum [R.A. Swainson, G.W.F. Drake, J. Phys. A 24 (1991) 95]. Analytically, however, these functions are known only for free electrons ( V(r)≡0) and for electrons in a pure Coulomb field ( V(r)=-Z/r). For all other choices of the potential, in contrast, the Green's functions must be determined numerically. Method of solution: Relativistic Green's functions are generated for an arbitrary central-field potential V(r)=-Z(r)/r by using a piecewise linear approximation of the effective nuclear charge function Z(r) on some grid r(i=1,…,N): Z(r)=Z0i+Z1ir. Then, following McGuire's algorithm [E.J. McGuire, Phys. Rev. A 23 (1981) 186], the radial Green's functions are constructed from the (two) linear-independent solutions of the homogeneous equation [P. Morse, H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics, McGraw-Hill, New York 1953 (Part 1, p. 825)]. In the computation of these radial functions, the Kummer and Tricomi functions [J. Spanier, B. Keith, An Atlas of Functions, Springer, New York, 1987] are used extensively. Restrictions onto the complexity of the problem: The main restrictions of the program concern the shape of the effective nuclear charge Z(r)=-rV(r), i.e. the choice of the potential, and the allowed energies. Apart from obeying the proper boundary conditions for a point-like nucleus, namely, Z(r→0)=Z>0 and Z(r→∞)=Z-N⩾0, the first derivative of the charge function Z(r) must be smaller than the (absolute value of the) energy of the Green's function, {

  20. HUBBLE'S PANORAMIC PORTRAIT OF A VAST STAR-FORMING REGION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    giant shell, devoid of gas and dust. Still later, all of the most massive stars and gas will have disappeared from the entire region. Only older, less massive stars will remain in a region cleared of gas and dust. The mosaic image of 30 Doradus consists of five overlapping pictures taken between January 1994 and September 2000 by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Several color filters were used to enhance important details in the stars and the nebula. Blue corresponds to the hot stars. The greenish color denotes hot gas energized by the central cluster of stars. Pink depicts the glowing edges of the gas and dust clouds facing the cluster, which are being bombarded by winds and radiation. Reddish-brown represents the cooler surfaces of the clouds, which are not receiving direct radiation from the central cluster. Credits: NASA, N. Walborn and J. Ma`iz-Apell`aniz (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD), R. Barb`a (La Plata Observatory, La Plata, Argentina)

  1. A Survey of z>5.8 Quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Discovery of Three New Quasars and the Spatial Density of Luminous Quasars at z~6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaohui; Narayanan, Vijay K.; Lupton, Robert H.; Strauss, Michael A.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Becker, Robert H.; White, Richard L.; Pentericci, Laura; Leggett, S. K.; Haiman, Zoltán; Gunn, James E.; Ivezić, Željko; Schneider, Donald P.; Anderson, Scott F.; Brinkmann, J.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Csabai, István; Doi, Mamoru; Fukugita, Masataka; Geballe, Tom; Grebel, Eva K.; Harbeck, Daniel; Hennessy, Gregory; Lamb, Don Q.; Miknaitis, Gajus; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Nichol, Robert; Okamura, Sadanori; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Prada, Francisco; Richards, Gordon T.; Szalay, Alex; York, Donald G.

    2001-12-01

    We present the results from a survey of i-dropout objects selected from ~1550 deg2 of multicolor imaging data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to search for luminous quasars at z>~5.8. Objects with i*-z*>2.2 and z*<20.2 are selected, and follow-up J-band photometry is used to separate L- and T-type cool dwarfs from high-redshift quasars. We describe the discovery of three new quasars, SDSSp J083643.85+005453.3 (z=5.82), J130608.26+035626.3 (z=5.99), and J103027.10+052455.0 (z=6.28). The quasar SDSSp J083643.85+005453.3 is a radio source with flux of 1.1 mJy at 20 cm. The spectra of all three quasars show strong and broad Lyα+N V emission lines and very strong Lyα forest absorption, with a mean continuum decrement DA>0.90. The ARC 3.5 m spectrum of SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0 shows that over a range of ~300 Å immediately blueward of the Lyα emission, the average transmitted flux is only 0.003+/-0.020 times that of the continuum level, consistent with zero flux over a ~300 Å range of the Lyα forest region and suggesting a tentative detection of the complete Gunn-Peterson trough. The existence of strong metal lines in the quasar spectra suggests early metal enrichment in the quasar environment. The three new objects, together with the previously published z=5.8 quasar SDSSp J104433.04-012502.2, form a complete color-selected flux-limited sample at z>~5.8. We estimate the selection function of this sample, taking into account the estimated variations in the quasar spectral energy distribution, as well as observational photometric errors. We find that at z=6, the comoving density of luminous quasars at M1450<-26.8 (H0=50 km s-1 Mpc-1, Ω=1) is 1.1×10-9 Mpc-3. This is a factor of ~2 lower than that at z~5 and is consistent with an extrapolation of the observed quasar evolution at z<5. Using the current sample, we discuss the constraint on the shape of the quasar luminosity function and the implications for the contribution of quasars to the ionizing background at z

  2. HAT-P-20b-HAT-P-23b: FOUR MASSIVE TRANSITING EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, G. A.; Hartman, J.; Torres, G.; Latham, D. W.; Noyes, R. W.; Kipping, D.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Beky, B.; Perumpilly, G.; Everett, M.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stefanik, R. P.; Kovacs, Geza; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Marcy, G. W.; Howard, A. W.; Shporer, A.; Buchhave, L. A.; Lazar, J.; and others

    2011-12-01

    We report the discovery of four relatively massive (2-7 M{sub J}) transiting extrasolar planets. HAT-P-20b orbits the moderately bright V = 11.339 K3 dwarf star GSC 1910-00239 on a circular orbit, with a period P = 2.875317 {+-} 0.000004 days, transit epoch T{sub c} = 2455080.92661 {+-} 0.00021 (BJD{sub UTC}), and transit duration 0.0770 {+-} 0.0008 days. The host star has a mass of 0.76 {+-} 0.03 M{sub Sun }, radius of 0.69 {+-} 0.02 R{sub Sun }, effective temperature 4595 {+-} 80 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = +0.35 {+-} 0.08. The planetary companion has a mass of 7.246 {+-} 0.187 M{sub J} and a radius of 0.867 {+-} 0.033 R{sub J} yielding a mean density of 13.78 {+-} 1.50 g cm{sup -3}. HAT-P-21b orbits the V = 11.685 G3 dwarf star GSC 3013-01229 on an eccentric (e = 0.228 {+-} 0.016) orbit, with a period P = 4.124481 {+-} 0.000007 days, transit epoch T{sub c} = 2454996.41312 {+-} 0.00069, and transit duration 0.1530 {+-} 0.0027 days. The host star has a mass of 0.95 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun }, radius of 1.10 {+-} 0.08 R{sub Sun }, effective temperature 5588 {+-} 80 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = +0.01 {+-} 0.08. The planetary companion has a mass of 4.063 {+-} 0.161 M{sub J} and a radius of 1.024 {+-} 0.092 R{sub J} yielding a mean density of 4.68{sup +1.59}{sub -0.99} g cm{sup -3}. HAT-P-21b is a borderline object between the pM and pL class planets, and the transits occur near apastron. HAT-P-22b orbits the bright V = 9.732 G5 dwarf star HD 233731 on a circular orbit, with a period P = 3.212220 {+-} 0.000009 days, transit epoch T{sub c} = 2454930.22001 {+-} 0.00025, and transit duration 0.1196 {+-} 0.0014 days. The host star has a mass of 0.92 {+-} 0.03 M{sub Sun }, radius of 1.04 {+-} 0.04 R{sub Sun }, effective temperature 5302 {+-} 80 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = +0.24 {+-} 0.08. The planet has a mass of 2.147 {+-} 0.061 M{sub J} and a compact radius of 1.080 {+-} 0.058 R{sub J} yielding a mean density of 2.11{sup +0.40}{sub -0.29} g cm{sup -3}. The host star also

  3. The web system for operative description of air quality in the city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, A. A.; Starchenko, A. V.; Fazliev, A. Z.

    2009-04-01

    geostrophic wind components on the base of Eckman equations; The applications for solution of the equations derived from ABL and transport of impurity models. The application for representation of calculation results in tabular and graphical forms. "Cyberia" cluster [6] located in Tomsk State University is used for computation of the impurity transport equations. References: Gordov E.P., V. N. Lykosov, and A. Z. Fazliev, Web portal on environmental sciences "ATMOS"// Advances in Geoscience, 2006, v. 8, p. 33-38. ATMOS web-portal http://atmos.iao.ru/middleware/ Belikov D.A., Starchenko A.V. Numerical investigation of secondary air pollutions formation near industrial center // Computational technologies. 2005. V. 10. Special issue. Proceedings of the International Conference and the School of Young Scientists "Computational and informational technologies for environmental sciences" (CITES 2005). Tomsk, 13-23 March 2005. Part 2. P. 99-105 Sudo, K., Takahashi M., Kurokawa J., Akimoto H. CHASER: A global chemical model of the troposphere. Model description, J. Geophys. Res., 2002, Vol.107(D17), P. 4339. Tolstykh M.A., Fadeev R.Y. Semi-Lagrangian variable-resolution weather prediction model and its further development // Computational technologies. 2006. V. 11. Special issue. P. 176-184 ATMOS web-portal http://climate.atmos.math.tsu.ru/ Tomsk state university, Interregional computational center http://skif.tsu.ru

  4. Titer-plate formatted continuous flow thermal reactors: Design and performance of a nanoliter reactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin-Chuan; Park, Daniel S; You, Byoung-Hee; Kim, Namwon; Park, Taehyun; Soper, Steven A; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E; Murphy, Michael C

    2010-08-01

    Arrays of continuous flow thermal reactors were designed, configured, and fabricated in a 96-device (12 × 8) titer-plate format with overall dimensions of 120 mm × 96 mm, with each reactor confined to a 8 mm × 8 mm footprint. To demonstrate the potential, individual 20-cycle (740 nL) and 25-cycle (990 nL) reactors were used to perform the continuous flow polymerase chain reaction (CFPCR) for amplification of DNA fragments of different lengths. Since thermal isolation of the required temperature zones was essential for optimal biochemical reactions, three finite element models, executed with ANSYS (v. 11.0, Canonsburg, PA), were used to characterize the thermal performance and guide system design: (1) a single device to determine the dimensions of the thermal management structures; (2) a single CFPCR device within an 8 mm × 8 mm area to evaluate the integrity of the thermostatic zones; and (3) a single, straight microchannel representing a single loop of the spiral CFPCR device, accounting for all of the heat transfer modes, to determine whether the PCR cocktail was exposed to the proper temperature cycling. In prior work on larger footprint devices, simple grooves between temperature zones provided sufficient thermal resistance between zones. For the small footprint reactor array, 0.4 mm wide and 1.2 mm high fins were necessary within the groove to cool the PCR cocktail efficiently, with a temperature gradient of 15.8°C/mm, as it flowed from the denaturation zone to the renaturation zone. With temperature tolerance bands of ±2°C defined about the nominal temperatures, more than 72.5% of the microchannel length was located within the desired temperature bands. The residence time of the PCR cocktail in each temperature zone decreased and the transition times between zones increased at higher PCR cocktail flow velocities, leading to less time for the amplification reactions. Experiments demonstrated the performance of the CFPCR devices as a function of flow

  5. Launch Pad Flame Trench Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Bucherl, Cori; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Steve; Whitten, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The launch complexes at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are critical support facilities for the successful launch of space-based vehicles. These facilities include a flame trench that bisects the pad at ground level. This trench includes a flame deflector system that consists of an inverted, V-shaped steel structure covered with a high temperature concrete material five inches thick that extends across the center of the flame trench. One side of the "V11 receives and deflects the flames from the orbiter main engines; the opposite side deflects the flames from the solid rocket boosters. There are also two movable deflectors at the top of the trench to provide additional protection to shuttle hardware from the solid rocket booster flames. These facilities are over 40 years old and are experiencing constant deterioration from launch heat/blast effects and environmental exposure. The refractory material currently used in launch pad flame deflectors has become susceptible to failure, resulting in large sections of the material breaking away from the steel base structure and creating high-speed projectiles during launch. These projectiles jeopardize the safety of the launch complex, crew, and vehicle. Post launch inspections have revealed that the number and frequency of repairs, as well as the area and size of the damage, is increasing with the number of launches. The Space Shuttle Program has accepted the extensive ground processing costs for post launch repair of damaged areas and investigations of future launch related failures for the remainder of the program. There currently are no long term solutions available for Constellation Program ground operations to address the poor performance and subsequent failures of the refractory materials. Over the last three years, significant liberation of refractory material in the flame trench and fire bricks along the adjacent trench walls following Space Shuttle launches have resulted in extensive investigations of

  6. Analysis of astronomy knowledge of the students in the Federal Institute Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, A. C.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    abordados e os alunos obtiveram uma melhora significativa no aprendizado dos conceitos relacionados à astronomia. Nota-se que a astronomia está presente e é elemento importante dos parâmetros curriculares nacionais e que há muito interesse por parte dos alunos com relação ao tema. Diante dos resultados obtidos no pós-curso, pode-se afirmar que o curso básico em astronomia, realizado na própria escola, mas externo ao conteúdo programático, proporcionou uma integração entre os alunos, estreitando os laços de amizade e do conhecimento entre eles não importando a turma ou o período pois a dificuldade inicial foi vencida por todos, com muita dedicação e comprometimento entre todos; hoje estes alunos podem seguramente continuar estudando estes conceitos de astronomia. ALBRECHT, E.; VOELZKE, M. R.Teaching of Astronomy and scientific literacy. Journal of Science Education, v. 11, n. 1, p.35-38, 2010.

  7. Titer-plate formatted continuous flow thermal reactors: Design and performance of a nanoliter reactor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pin-Chuan; Park, Daniel S.; You, Byoung-Hee; Kim, Namwon; Park, Taehyun; Soper, Steven A.; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E.; Murphy, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Arrays of continuous flow thermal reactors were designed, configured, and fabricated in a 96-device (12 × 8) titer-plate format with overall dimensions of 120 mm × 96 mm, with each reactor confined to a 8 mm × 8 mm footprint. To demonstrate the potential, individual 20-cycle (740 nL) and 25-cycle (990 nL) reactors were used to perform the continuous flow polymerase chain reaction (CFPCR) for amplification of DNA fragments of different lengths. Since thermal isolation of the required temperature zones was essential for optimal biochemical reactions, three finite element models, executed with ANSYS (v. 11.0, Canonsburg, PA), were used to characterize the thermal performance and guide system design: (1) a single device to determine the dimensions of the thermal management structures; (2) a single CFPCR device within an 8 mm × 8 mm area to evaluate the integrity of the thermostatic zones; and (3) a single, straight microchannel representing a single loop of the spiral CFPCR device, accounting for all of the heat transfer modes, to determine whether the PCR cocktail was exposed to the proper temperature cycling. In prior work on larger footprint devices, simple grooves between temperature zones provided sufficient thermal resistance between zones. For the small footprint reactor array, 0.4 mm wide and 1.2 mm high fins were necessary within the groove to cool the PCR cocktail efficiently, with a temperature gradient of 15.8°C/mm, as it flowed from the denaturation zone to the renaturation zone. With temperature tolerance bands of ±2°C defined about the nominal temperatures, more than 72.5% of the microchannel length was located within the desired temperature bands. The residence time of the PCR cocktail in each temperature zone decreased and the transition times between zones increased at higher PCR cocktail flow velocities, leading to less time for the amplification reactions. Experiments demonstrated the performance of the CFPCR devices as a function of flow

  8. Symbiotic variable V4018 Sgr in outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizabeth O. Waagen

    2012-09-01

    The symbiotic variable V4018 Sgr is undergoing an outburst, according to observations reported to the AAVSO and confirmed by spectroscopy by Ulisse Munari et al. Prompted by an observation and comment from John Bortle (Stormville, NY) (16 June 2012, visual magnitude 12.2) about a possible outburst, Steven O'Connor (St. George's, Bermuda) obtained an observation (10 August 2012, 11.44V) that confirmed V4018 Sgr was bright. His subsequent BVRI observations in September and visual observations by Bortle and Andrew Pearce (Nedlands, Western Australia) show the system brightening and at V magnitude 11.07 as of 2012 Sep. 17.091 UT. Ulisse Munari (INAF Astr. Obs. Padua, Italy) and colleagues Paolo Valisa and Sergio Dallaporta (ANS Collaboration), after being informed by the AAVSO of the bright state of V4018 Sgr, carried out spectroscopy. Munari writes: "A low resolution, absolutely fluxed 4000-8650 Ang spectrum of V4018 Sgr was obtained on Sept 13.90 UT with the 0.6m telescope ! of the Schiaparelli Observatory in Varese (Italy). It shows the spectrum of the M giant overwhelmed by a blue continuum up to 6000 Ang, and all high ionization emission lines typical of quiescence are gone, leaving only hydrogen Balmer and weak HeI lines in emission. The spectrum looks like a template one for a symbiotic star in outburst. CCD photometry was obtained on Sept 13.79 UT and provides V=11.027 ± 0.002, B-V=+0.621 ± 0.003. The B-V color is appreciably bluer and the V magnitude much brighter than typical in quiescence (on average V=13.3, B-V=+1.09; Henden and Munari 2008, Baltic Astronomy 17, 293), and support the idea V4018 Sgr is undergoing an outburst." According to Munari, the last bright outburst of V4018 Sgr was underway in June 1990. Observations in the AAVSO International Database from Albert Jones (Nelson, New Zealand) beginning in May 1992 show the variable at visual magnitude 11.0, with fluctuations between 10.5 and 11.9 through October 1995. Numerous ! other observers

  9. History and Eruptive Style of Mount Veniaminof, a Huge Alaskan Basalt-to-Dacite Volcano With Pleistocene and Holocene Caldera-Forming Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, C. R.; Calvert, A. T.; Nye, C. J.; Sisson, T. W.

    2003-12-01

    . Although the caldera may have collapsed further during two large Holocene andesitic explosive eruptions, eroded lava displaying ice-contact jointing drapes the caldera wall and indicates that a caldera was present in the late Pleistocene. The youngest dated Veniaminof lavas on the south, ice-blanketed side of the caldera are ˜50 ka; a few south flank cinder cones may be latest Pleistocene/early Holocene. Despite the absence of an exposed southern caldera wall, no debris-avalanche-deposit evidence has been found for an alternative, sector-collapse origin of the caldera structure. Two voluminous andesitic Holocene pyroclastic eruptions (3700 yr BP and >4700 yr BP; Miller et al., 2002) emplaced pyroclastic-flow deposits on Veniaminof's flanks and in surrounding valleys. The younger deposited lithic breccia at higher elevations, including plutonic clasts with textures ranging from coarse-grained cumulate gabbro to medium-to-fine-grained miarolytic hornblende tonalite compositionally like Veniaminof dacite. A still younger (subplinian?), widespread dacitic (63.5% SiO2) fall deposit up to ˜30 cm thick suggests that this long-lived magmatic system may produce explosive silicic eruptions in addition to the historically-known basaltic andesitic strombolian and effusive eruptions from the intracaldera cone. Miller, T.P., Waythomas, C.F., and Gardner, J.E., 2002, Possible multiple late Quaternary caldera-forming eruptions at Mount Veniaminof volcano, Alaska: Eos Trans. AGU 83(47), V11A-1376.

  10. Stereotactic Arrhythmia Radioablation (STAR) of Ventricular Tachycardia: A Treatment Planning Study

    PubMed Central

    Fahimian, Benjamin; Soltys, Scott G; Zei, Paul; Lo, Anthony; Gardner, Edward A; Maguire, Patrick J; Loo Jr., Billy W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The first stereotactic arrhythmia radioablation (STAR) of ventricular tachycardia (VT) was delivered at Stanford on a robotic radiosurgery system (CyberKnife® G4) in 2012. The results warranted further investigation of this treatment. Here we compare dosimetrically three possible treatment delivery platforms for STAR. Methods The anatomy and target volume of the first treated patient were used for this study. A dose of 25 Gy in one fraction was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV). Treatment plans were created on three treatment platforms: CyberKnife® G4 system with Iris collimator (Multiplan, V. 4.6)(Plan #1), CyberKnife® M6 system with InCise 2TM multileaf collimator (Multiplan V. 5.3)(Plan #2) and Varian TrueBeamTM STx with HD 120TM MLC and 10MV flattening filter free (FFF) beam (Eclipse planning system, V.11) (Plan #3 coplanar and #4 noncoplanar VMAT plans). The four plans were compared by prescription isodose line, plan conformity index, dose gradient, as well as dose to the nearby critical structures. To assess the delivery efficiency, planned monitor units (MU) and estimated treatment time were evaluated. Results Plans #1-4 delivered 25 Gy to the PTV to the 75.0%, 83.0%, 84.3%, and 84.9% isodose lines and with conformity indices of 1.19, 1.16, 1.05, and 1.05, respectively. The dose gradients for plans #1-4 were 3.62, 3.42, 3.93, and 3.73 with the CyberKnife® MLC plan (Plan #2) the best, and the TrueBeamTM STx co-planar plan (Plan #3) the worst. The dose to nearby critical structures (lung, stomach, bowel, and esophagus) were all well within tolerance. The MUs for plans #1-4 were 27671, 16522, 6275, and 6004 for an estimated total-treatment-time/beam-delivery-time of 99/69, 65/35, 37/7, and 56/6 minutes, respectively, under the assumption of 30 minutes pretreatment setup time. For VMAT gated delivery, a 40% duty cycle, 2400MU/minute dose rate, and an extra 10 minutes per extra arc were assumed. Conclusion Clinically acceptable plans were

  11. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and size of infarct, left ventricular function, and survival in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Werf, F.; Arnold, A. E.

    1988-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To assess effect of intravenous recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator on size of infarct, left ventricular function, and survival in acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Double blind, randomised, placebo controlled prospective trial of patients with acute myocardial infarction within five hours after onset of symptoms. SETTING--Twenty six referral centres participating in European cooperative study for recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator. PATIENTS--Treatment group of 355 patients with acute myocardial infarction allocated to receive intravenous recombinant plasminogen activator. Controls comprised 366 similar patients allocated to receive placebo. INTERVENTION--All patients were given aspirin 250 mg and bolus injection of 5000 IU heparin immediately before start of trial. Patients in treatment group were given 100 mg recombinant tissue plasminogen activator over three hours (10 mg intravenous bolus, 50 mg during one hour, and 40 mg during next two hours) by infusion. Controls were given placebo by same method. Full anticoagulation treatment and aspirin were given to both groups until angiography (10-22 days after admission). beta Blockers were given at discharge. END POINT--Left ventricular function at 10-22 days, enzymatic infarct size, clinical course, and survival to three month follow up. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Mortality was reduced by 51% (95% confidence interval -76 to 1) in treated patients at 14 days after start of treatment and by 36% (-63 to 13) at three months. For treatment within three hours after myocardial infarction mortality was reduced by 82% (-95 to -31) at 14 days and by 59% (-83 to -2) at three months. During 14 days in hospital incidence of cardiac complications was lower in treated patients than controls (cardiogenic shock, 2.5% v 6.0%; ventricular fibrillation, 3.4% v 6.3%; and pericarditis, 6.2% v 11.0% respectively), but that of angioplasty or artery bypass, or both was higher (15.8% v 9

  12. About the temperature, pressure and viscosity distributions in the Earth's mantle on it's accumulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod

    2010-05-01

    boundary for heat balance it is needed to calculate the distribution of the pressure and matter viscosity, because the viscosity distribution depends from the intensity of convective heat transfer. Additionally using known estimations the matter viscosity significantly depends from the content, temperature and pressure. By numerical modeling on each step by time we had defined a new density distribution. Then we calculated a new distribution of litho static pressure and melting pressure. Then for different model relations for viscosity from temperature and pressure we define the viscosity distribution and calculate the effective thermal conductivity, which approximate the convective heat transfer. Then we calculate the new temperature distribution. As results we had obtained a set of possible changing of viscosity and temperature in the mantle matter with depth during the accumulation process. References 1.Anfiligov V.N., Khachay Yu.V. DAN. 2005, V. 403, № 6, P. 803-806. 2. Khachay Yu.V, Anfilogov V.N. // Geophysical Research Abstracts, v.11.EGU2009-3702-1, 2009. EGU General Assembly 2009.

  13. Voltage—clamp analysis of the early current in frog skeletal muscle fibre using the double sucrose-gap method

    PubMed Central

    Ildefonse, Michèle; Rougier, Oger

    1972-01-01

    accurately its maximum amplitude and its time course: yet, the instantaneous current—voltage relation seems to show a slight rectification for the largest depolarizations, as observed on the Ranvier node membrane. 6. The inactivation properties of the sodium current are studied in experiments similar to those described by Hodgkin & Huxley. As in nerve fibres the ability of the membrane to undergo an increase of the sodium permeability depends on the membrane potential. In our experimental conditions, the availability of the sodium carrying system is 90 per cent at the resting potential; the half-inactivation occurs for V = +11 mV. This potential value corresponds to the smallest value of τh-1, in agreement with the equations proposed by Hodgkin & Huxley (1952d) for the inactivation process. 7. The activation parameters (m∞, τm) are determined by a fitting method, taking account of the values of τh previously established. The potential of half-activation is near V = +40 mV. PMID:4537514

  14. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. VIII. CoRoT-7b: the first super-Earth with measured radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, A.; Rouan, D.; Schneider, J.; Barge, P.; Fridlund, M.; Samuel, B.; Ollivier, M.; Guenther, E.; Deleuil, M.; Deeg, H. J.; Auvergne, M.; Alonso, R.; Aigrain, S.; Alapini, A.; Almenara, J. M.; Baglin, A.; Barbieri, M.; Bruntt, H.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Catala, C.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Foing, B.; Fressin, F.; Gandolfi, D.; Gillon, M.; Gondoin, Ph.; Grasset, O.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Hébrard, G.; Jorda, L.; Lammer, H.; Llebaria, A.; Loeillet, B.; Mayor, M.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Pätzold, M.; Pont, F.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Renner, S.; Samadi, R.; Shporer, A.; Sotin, Ch.; Tingley, B.; Wuchterl, G.; Adda, M.; Agogu, P.; Appourchaux, T.; Ballans, H.; Baron, P.; Beaufort, T.; Bellenger, R.; Berlin, R.; Bernardi, P.; Blouin, D.; Baudin, F.; Bodin, P.; Boisnard, L.; Boit, L.; Bonneau, F.; Borzeix, S.; Briet, R.; Buey, J.-T.; Butler, B.; Cailleau, D.; Cautain, R.; Chabaud, P.-Y.; Chaintreuil, S.; Chiavassa, F.; Costes, V.; Cuna Parrho, V.; de Oliveira Fialho, F.; Decaudin, M.; Defise, J.-M.; Djalal, S.; Epstein, G.; Exil, G.-E.; Fauré, C.; Fenouillet, T.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gallic, A.; Gamet, P.; Gavalda, P.; Grolleau, E.; Gruneisen, R.; Gueguen, L.; Guis, V.; Guivarc'h, V.; Guterman, P.; Hallouard, D.; Hasiba, J.; Heuripeau, F.; Huntzinger, G.; Hustaix, H.; Imad, C.; Imbert, C.; Johlander, B.; Jouret, M.; Journoud, P.; Karioty, F.; Kerjean, L.; Lafaille, V.; Lafond, L.; Lam-Trong, T.; Landiech, P.; Lapeyrere, V.; Larqué, T.; Laudet, P.; Lautier, N.; Lecann, H.; Lefevre, L.; Leruyet, B.; Levacher, P.; Magnan, A.; Mazy, E.; Mertens, F.; Mesnager, J.-M.; Meunier, J.-C.; Michel, J.-P.; Monjoin, W.; Naudet, D.; Nguyen-Kim, K.; Orcesi, J.-L.; Ottacher, H.; Perez, R.; Peter, G.; Plasson, P.; Plesseria, J.-Y.; Pontet, B.; Pradines, A.; Quentin, C.; Reynaud, J.-L.; Rolland, G.; Rollenhagen, F.; Romagnan, R.; Russ, N.; Schmidt, R.; Schwartz, N.; Sebbag, I.; Sedes, G.; Smit, H.; Steller, M. B.; Sunter, W.; Surace, C.; Tello, M.; Tiphène, D.; Toulouse, P.; Ulmer, B.; Vandermarcq, O.; Vergnault, E.; Vuillemin, A.; Zanatta, P.

    2009-10-01

    Aims: We report the discovery of very shallow (Δ F/F ≈ 3.4× 10-4), periodic dips in the light curve of an active V = 11.7 G9V star observed by the CoRoT satellite, which we interpret as caused by a transiting companion. We describe the 3-colour CoRoT data and complementary ground-based observations that support the planetary nature of the companion. Methods: We used CoRoT colours information, good angular resolution ground-based photometric observations in- and out- of transit, adaptive optics imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, and preliminary results from radial velocity measurements, to test the diluted eclipsing binary scenarios. The parameters of the host star were derived from optical spectra, which were then combined with the CoRoT light curve to derive parameters of the companion. Results: We examined all conceivable cases of false positives carefully, and all the tests support the planetary hypothesis. Blends with separation >0.40´´or triple systems are almost excluded with a 8 × 10-4 risk left. We conclude that, inasmuch we have been exhaustive, we have discovered a planetary companion, named CoRoT-7b, for which we derive a period of 0.853 59 ± 3 × 10-5 day and a radius of Rp = 1.68 ± 0.09 R_Earth. Analysis of preliminary radial velocity data yields an upper limit of 21 M_Earth for the companion mass, supporting the finding. Conclusions: CoRoT-7b is very likely the first Super-Earth with a measured radius. This object illustrates what will probably become a common situation with missions such as Kepler, namely the need to establish the planetary origin of transits in the absence of a firm radial velocity detection and mass measurement. The composition of CoRoT-7b remains loosely constrained without a precise mass. A very high surface temperature on its irradiated face, ≈1800-2600 K at the substellar point, and a very low one, ≈50 K, on its dark face assuming no atmosphere, have been derived. The CoRoT space mission, launched on 27

  15. Acquisition and Evaluation of Thermodynamic Data for Morenosite-Retgersite Equilibria at 0.1 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, I.; Seal, R. R.

    2002-12-01

    .65 and 9.56 kJ/mol calculated from the data compiled by Wagman et al. (1982, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, v. 11, Sup. No. 2) and DeKock (1982, Bur. Mines Inf. Cir., 9810), respectively. Many previous observations indicate that the temperature of the invariant point for the assemblage morenosite-retgersite-aqueous solution-vapor is near 31.2°C (Link, 1965, Solubilities, vol. 2). When extrapolated to this temperature, our data predict RH = 95.6% at this invariant point, which agrees reasonably well with RH = 92.0% predicted by Pitzer,s model for solutions saturated with both morenosite and retgersite (Reardon, 1989, J. Phys. Chem., 93, p. 4630, and pers. comm.).

  16. Outbursts In Symbiotic Binaries (FUSE 2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the past year, we made good progress on analysis of FUSE observations of the symbiotic binary Z And. For background, Z And is a binary system composed of a red giant and a hot component of unknown status. The orbital period is roughly 750 days. The hot component undergoes large-scale eruptions every 10-20 yr. An outburst began several years ago, triggering this FUSE opportunity. First, we obtained an excellent set of ground-based optical data in support, of the FUSE observations. We used FAST, a high throughput low resolution spectrograph on the 1.5-m telescope at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. A 300 g/ mm grating blazed at 4750 A, a 3 in. slit, and a thinned Loral 512 x 2688 CCD gave us spectra covering 3800-7500 A at a resolution of 6 A. The wavelength solution for each spectrum has a probable error of +/- 0.5 A or better. Most of the resulting spectra have moderate signal-to-noise, S/.N approx. greater than 30 per pixel. The time coverage for these spectra is excellent. Typically, we acquired spectra every 1-2 nights during dark runs at Mt. Hopkins. These data cover most of the rise and all of the decline of the recent outburst. The spectra show a wealth of emission lines, including H I, He I, He II, [Fe V11], and the Raman scattering bands at 6830 A and 7088 A. The Raman bands and other high ionization features vary considerably throughout the outburst. These features will enable us to correlate variations in the FUSE spectra with variations in the optical spectra. Second, we began an analysis of FUSE spectra of Z And. We have carefully examined the spectra, identifying real features and defects. We have identified and measured fluxes for all strong emission lines, including the O VI doublet at 1032 A and 1038 A. These and several other strong emission lines display pronounced P Cygni absorption components indicative of outgrowing gas. We will attempt to correlate these velocities with similar profiles observed on optical spectra. The line velocities - together

  17. Numerical Modeling of Thermal Pollution of Large Water Bodies from Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Lyakhin, Yury; Parshakova, Yanina; Tiunov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    Currently, the major manufacturers of electrical energy are the thermal and nuclear power plants including the cooling ponds in the processing chains. For a wide range of both environmental and technological problems, the evaluation of the temperature fields in the cooling ponds at certain critical values of hydrological and meteorological parameters is important. The present paper deals with the evaluation of the thermal effect of one of the largest thermal power plant in Europe - Perm GRES - to its cooling pond which is the Kama Reservoir. Since the area of the possible impact is rather large and the reservoir itself is characterized by a very complex morphometry, numerical modeling of thermal spot propagation in the Kama River due to the discharge of warm water by Perm GRES for the entire area in the 3D-formulation with the desired detail setting morphometric characteristics of the water body meets very serious difficulties. Because of that, to solve the problem, a combined scheme of calculations based on the combination of hydrodynamic models in 2D and 3D formulations was used. At the first stage of the combined scheme implementation, 2D hydrodynamical model was developed for all possible area, using software SMS v.11.1. The boundary and initial conditions for this model were formulated on the basis of calculations made using 1D hydrodynamical model developed and applied for the entire Kama Reservoir. Application of 2D hydrodynamical model for solving the problem under consideration was needed to obtain the necessary information for setting the boundary conditions for the 3D model. Software package ANSYS Fluent v.6.3 was used for the realization of 3D model. 3D modeling was performed for different wind speeds and directions and quantitative characteristics of the discharge of warm water. To verify the models, the data of the detailed field measurements in the zones of thermal pollution of the Kama reservoir due to impact of the Perm GRES were used. A

  18. Impact of dose calculation accuracy during optimization on lung IMRT plan quality.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Rodrigues, Anna; Li, Taoran; Yuan, Lulin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q Jackie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dose calculation accuracy and the use of an intermediate dose calculation step during the optimization of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning on the final plan quality for lung cancer patients. This study included replanning for 11 randomly selected free-breathing lung IMRT plans. The original plans were optimized using a fast pencil beam convolution algorithm. After optimization, the final dose calculation was performed using the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA). The Varian Treatment Planning System (TPS) Eclipse v11, includes an option to perform intermediate dose calculation during optimization using the AAA. The new plans were created using this intermediate dose calculation during optimization with the same planning objectives and dose constraints as in the original plan. Differences in dosimetric parameters for the planning target volume (PTV) dose coverage, organs-at-risk (OARs) dose sparing, and the number of monitor units (MU) between the original and new plans were analyzed. Statistical significance was determined with a p-value of less than 0.05. All plans were normalized to cover 95% of the PTV with the prescription dose. Compared with the original plans, the PTV in the new plans had on average a lower maximum dose (69.45 vs. 71.96Gy, p = 0.005), a better homogeneity index (HI) (0.08 vs. 0.12, p = 0.002), and a better conformity index (CI) (0.69 vs. 0.59, p = 0.003). In the new plans, lung sparing was increased as the volumes receiving 5, 10, and 30 Gy were reduced when compared to the original plans (40.39% vs. 42.73%, p = 0.005; 28.93% vs. 30.40%, p = 0.001; 14.11%vs. 14.84%, p = 0.031). The volume receiving 20 Gy was not significantly lower (19.60% vs. 20.38%, p = 0.052). Further, the mean dose to the lung was reduced in the new plans (11.55 vs. 12.12 Gy, p = 0.024). For the esophagus, the mean dose, the maximum dose, and the volumes receiving 20 and 60 Gy were lower in

  19. Changes realized from extended bit-depth and metal artifact reduction in CT

    SciTech Connect

    Glide-Hurst, C.; Chen, D.; Zhong, H.; Chetty, I. J.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: High-Z material in computed tomography (CT) yields metal artifacts that degrade image quality and may cause substantial errors in dose calculation. This study couples a metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithm with enhanced 16-bit depth (vs standard 12-bit) to quantify potential gains in image quality and dosimetry. Methods: Extended CT to electron density (CT-ED) curves were derived from a tissue characterization phantom with titanium and stainless steel inserts scanned at 90-140 kVp for 12- and 16-bit reconstructions. MAR was applied to sinogram data (Brilliance BigBore CT scanner, Philips Healthcare, v.3.5). Monte Carlo simulation (MC-SIM) was performed on a simulated double hip prostheses case (Cerrobend rods embedded in a pelvic phantom) using BEAMnrc/Dosxyz (400 000 0000 histories, 6X, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} beam traversing Cerrobend rod). A phantom study was also conducted using a stainless steel rod embedded in solid water, and dosimetric verification was performed with Gafchromic film analysis (absolute difference and gamma analysis, 2% dose and 2 mm distance to agreement) for plans calculated with Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA, Eclipse v11.0) to elucidate changes between 12- and 16-bit data. Three patients (bony metastases to the femur and humerus, and a prostate cancer case) with metal implants were reconstructed using both bit depths, with dose calculated using AAA and derived CT-ED curves. Planar dose distributions were assessed via matrix analyses and using gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm. Results: For 12-bit images, CT numbers for titanium and stainless steel saturated at 3071 Hounsfield units (HU), whereas for 16-bit depth, mean CT numbers were much larger (e.g., titanium and stainless steel yielded HU of 8066.5 {+-} 56.6 and 13 588.5 {+-} 198.8 for 16-bit uncorrected scans at 120 kVp, respectively). MC-SIM was well-matched between 12- and 16-bit images except downstream of the Cerrobend rod, where 16-bit dose was {approx}6

  20. Characterization of the flowing afterglows of an N2 O2 reduced-pressure discharge: setting the operating conditions to achieve a dominant late afterglow and correlating the NOβ UV intensity variation with the N and O atom densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudam, M. K.; Saoudi, B.; Moisan, M.; Ricard, A.

    2007-03-01

    The flowing afterglow of an N2-O2 discharge in the 0.6-10 Torr range is examined in the perspective of achieving sterilization of medical devices (MDs) under conditions ensuring maximum UV intensity with minimum damage to polymer-based MDs. The early afterglow is shown to be responsible for creating strong erosion damage, requiring that the sterilizer be operated in a dominant late-afterglow mode. These two types of afterglow can be characterized by optical emission spectroscopy: the early afterglow is distinguished by an intense emission from the N_{2}^{+} 1st negative system (band head at 391.4 nm) while the late afterglow yields an overpopulation of the v' = 11 ro-vibrational level of the N2(B) state, indicating a reduced contribution from the early afterglow N2 metastable species. We have studied the influence of operating conditions (pressure, O2 content in the N2-O2 mixture, distance of the discharge from the entrance to the afterglow (sterilizer) chamber) in order to achieve a dominant late afterglow that also ensures maximum and almost uniform UV intensity in the sterilization chamber. As far as operating conditions are concerned, moving the plasma source sufficiently far from the chamber entrance is shown to be a practical means for significantly reducing the density of the characteristic species of the early afterglow. Using the NO titration method, we obtain the (absolute) densities of N and O atoms in the afterglow at the NO injection inlet, a few cm before the chamber entrance: the N atom density goes through a maximum at approximately 0.3-0.5% O2 and then decreases, while the O atom density increases regularly with the O2 percentage. The spatial variation of the N atom (relative) density in the chamber is obtained by recording the emission intensity from the 1st positive system at 580 nm: in the 2-5 Torr range, this density is quite uniform everywhere in the chamber. The (relative) densities of N and O atoms in the discharge are determined by using

  1. Carbonyl compounds emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and biodiesel-diesel blends: Sampling optimization and emissions profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    75). The ΣCC of the emission concentrations were 20.5 ppmV for B0 and 15.7 ppmV for B100. When considering fuel blends, the measured ΣCC were 21.4 ppmV, 22.5 ppmV, 20.4 ppmV, 14.2 ppmV, 11.4 ppmV and 14.7 ppmV, respectively, for B2, B5, B10, B20, B50 and B75. Among the target CC, both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the major contributors to the observed total CC levels. Except for acrolein and formaldehyde, all CC showed a clear trend of reduction in the emissions from B2 to B100 (40% reduction, on average). Both individual and total CC emission factors (pg g -1 of fuel burnt) were calculated for all tested biodiesel-diesel blends. The lowest total CC emission factor (2271 pg g -1) was found when B50 was used; the individual emission factors determined (pg g -1) were: 539.7 (formaldehyde), 1411 (acetaldehyde), 30.83 (acrolein), and 310.7 (propionaldehyde).

  2. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany--results and a comparison of two surveys performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa).

    PubMed

    Russ, Hagen; Busta, Susanne; Jost, Bertfried; Bethke, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    hnlich ist. Die häufigsten Einwände betreffen die Patienteninformation und Einwilligungserklärung, in absteigender Reihenfolge gefolgt von Einwänden bezüglich Prüfplaninhalten, nicht-kategorisierende Einwände („Andere“), Einwände zu „Sonstigen Antragsunterlagen“ nach § 7 (2) und (3) GCP-V, Formmängel nach § 8 (1) GCP-V sowie Einwände, die sich auf Unterlagen zur Prüfer- und Prüfstellenqualifikation beziehen. Tendenziell zu beobachten war eine leicht erhöhte Rate von Einwänden bezüglich der Patienteninformation und Einwilligungserklärung (+4%) sowie eine geringfügige Abnahme von Einwänden, die sich auf Unterlagen zur Prüfer- und Prüfstellenqualifikation bezogen (–2%).Wie in 2007 ist etwa jeder sechste Antrag unvollständig und weist formale Einwände zu den Antragsunterlagen auf. Während der Anteil der Studienanträge mit Einwänden bezüglich der Patienteninformation und Einwilligungserklärung (+7,2%), den Prüfplaninhalten (+11,6%) und „Sonstigen Antragsunterlagen“ nach § 7 (2) und (3) GCP-V (+11,8%) in 2011 im Vergleich zu 2007 zunahm, nahm der Anteil der Studienanträge mit Einwänden, die Unterlagen zur Prüfer- und Prüfstellenqualifikation betrafen, um 6,3% ab.Schlussfolgerungen: Die Ergebnisse der ersten Umfrage in 2008 im Hinblick auf die Quantität, die Qualität und die Schwerpunkte der Einwände seitens der EKs, finden sich überwiegend auch in der Umfrage 2012. Dies zeigt ein übereinstimmendes Verständnis von Auftraggebern (Sponsoren) und EKs hinsichtlich der anzuwendenden Maßnahmen und Kriterien zur Sicherstellung der Rechte und des Wohlergehens der Patienten, der Datenintegrität und einer qualitativ hochwertigen Dokumentation in klinischen Prüfungen.

  3. Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    .L. Phanerozoic granite-metamorphic domes at Russian North-East. Paper 2. Magmatism, metamorphism and migmatization in Late Mesozoic domes // Pacific geology. 1996. V. 15. № 1. P. 84-93. (in Russian) 13. Bering Strait Geologic Field Party, Koolen metamorphic complex, NE Russia: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Bering Strait region // Tectonics, vol. 16, no. 5, p. 713-729 14. Bondarenko G.E., Luchitskaya M.V. Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Alarmaut rise // Byul. MOIP. Otd. Geol. V. 78. Is. 3. P. 25-38. (in Russian) 15. Katkov S.M., Strikland A., Miller E.L. Age of granite batholiths in the Anyui-Chukotka Foldbelt // Doklady. Earth Sciences. 2007. Vol. 414. № 4. P. 515-518. 16. Amato J.M., Wright J.E. Potassic mafic magtism in the Kigluaik gneiss dome, northern Alaska: a geochemical study of arc magmatism in an extensional tectonic setting // J. Geophys. Res. 1997. Vol.102. N B4. P.8065-8084 17. Tikhomirov P.L., Luchitskaya M.V., Kravchenko-Berezhnoy I.R. Comparison of Cretaceous granitoids of the Chaun tectonic zone to those of the Taigonos Peninsula, NE Asia: rock chemistry, composition of rock forming minerals, and conditions of formation // Stephan Mueller series. Geology and Tectonic Origins of Northeast Russia: A Tribute to Leonid Parfenov (in press) 28. Velikoslavinsky S.D. Geochemical typification of acid magmatic rocks of leading geodynamic settings // Petrology. 2003. V. 11. № 4. P.363-380. (in Russian) 19. Pearce J.A. Sources and settings of granitic rocks // Episodes. 1996. V. 19. N. 4. P. 120-125

  4. Intrastromal Corneal Ring Implants for Corneal Thinning Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    . Search results were limited to human and English-language published between January 2000 and April 17, 2008. The resulting citations were downloaded into Reference Manager, v.11 (ISI Researchsoft, Thomson Scientific, U.S.A), and duplicates were removed. The Web sites of several other health technology agencies were also reviewed including the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH), ECRI, and the United Kingdom National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). The bibliographies of relevant articles were scanned. Inclusion Criteria English language reports and human studies Any corneal thinning disorder Reports with corneal implants used alone or in conjunction with other interventions Original reports with defined study methodology Reports including standardized measurements on outcome events such as technical success, safety, effectiveness, durability, vision quality of life or patient satisfaction Case reports or case series for complications and adverse events Exclusion Criteria Non-systematic reviews, letters, comments and editorials Reports not involving outcome events such as safety, effectiveness, durability, vision quality or patient satisfaction following an intervention with corneal implants Reports not involving corneal thinning disorders and an intervention with corneal implants Summary of Findings In the MAS evidence review on intrastromal corneal ring implants, 66 reports were identified on the use of implants for management of corneal thinning disorders. Reports varied according to their primary clinical indication, type of corneal implant, and whether or not secondary procedures were used in conjunction with the implants. Implants were reported to manage post LASIK thinning and/or uncorrected refractive error and were also reported as an adjunctive intervention both during and after corneal transplant to manage recurrent thinning and/or uncorrected refractive error. Ten pre-post cohort longitudinal follow-up studies were identified