Sample records for j-85 afterburning turbojet

  1. Measurement of gaseous emissions from an afterburning turbojet engine at simulated altitude conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.

    1973-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from a J85-GE-13 turbojet engine were measured over a range of fuel-air ratios from idle to full afterburning and simulated altitudes from near sea-level to 12,800 meters (42,000 ft). Without afterburning, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions were highest at idle and lowest at takeoff; oxides of nitrogen exhibited the reverse trend. With afterburning, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions were greater than for military power. Carbon monoxide emissions were altitude dependent. Oxides of nitrogen emissions were less at minimum afterburning than at military power. For power levels above minimum afterburning, the oxides of nitrogen emissions were both power level and altitude dependent.

  2. Preliminary Altitude Performance Data of J71-A2 Turbojet Engine Afterburner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Useller, James W.; Mallett, William E.

    1954-01-01

    The performance and operational characteristics of the J71-A2 turbojet-engine afterburner were investigated for a range of altitudes from 23,000 to 60,000 feet at a flight Mach number of 0,9 and at flight Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.0 at an altitude of 45,000 feet. The combustion performance and altitude operational limits, as well as the altitude starting characteristics have been determined.

  3. Exhaust emission calibration of two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude, supersonic flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, nitric oxide, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude flight conditions are reported. Test conditions included flight speeds from Mach 2 to 3 at altitudes from 16.0 to 23.5 km. For each flight condition exhaust measurements were made for four or five power levels, from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. The data show that exhaust emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the exhaust. Oxides of nitrogen emissions decreased with increasing altitude and increased with increasing flight speed. Oxides of nitrogen emission indices with afterburning were less than half the value without afterburning. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing flight speed. Emissions of these species were substantially higher with afterburning than without.

  4. Thrust and pumping characteristics of cylindrical ejectors using afterburning turbojet gas generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanich, N. E.; Huntley, S. C.

    1969-01-01

    Static tests of cylindrical ejectors having ejector to primary diameter ratios from 1.1 to 1.6 and ejector length to primary nozzle diameter ratios from 0.9 to 2.1 are reported. Power setting of the J85-13 turbojet engine was varied from part power to maximum afterburning. Corrected secondary weight flow ratio was varied from 0.02 to 0.08 over a range of exhaust nozzle pressure ratios from 2.0 to 9.0. Secondary flow temperature rise and pressure drop characteristics through the nacelle secondary flow passage were also obtained.

  5. Summary of NACA Research on Afterburners for Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundin, Bruce T; Gabriel, David S; Fleming, William A

    1956-01-01

    NACA research on afterburners for turbojet engines during the past 5 years is summarized. Although most of this work has been directed toward the development of specific afterburners for various engines rather than toward the accumulation of systematic data, it has, nevertheless, provided a large fund of experimental data and experience in the field. The references cited present over 1000 afterburner configurations and some 3500 hours of operation. In the treatment of the material of this summary, the principal effort has been to convey to the reader the "know-how" acquired by research engineers in the course of the work rather than to formulate a set of design rules.

  6. Analysis of turbojet-engine controls for afterburning starting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W E , Jr

    1956-01-01

    A simulation procedure is developed for studying the effects of an afterburner start on a controlled turbojet engine. The afterburner start is represented by introducing a step decrease in the effective exhaust-nozzle area, after which the control returns the controlled engine variables to their initial values. The degree and speed with which the control acts are a measure of the effectiveness of the particular control system. Data are presented from five systems investigated using an electronic analog computer and the developed simulation procedure. These systems are compared with respect to steady-state errors, speed of response, and transient deviations of the system variables.

  7. Evaluation of a simplified gross thrust calculation method for a J85-21 afterburning turbojet engine in an altitude facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer-Riedhart, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified gross thrust calculation method was evaluated on its ability to predict the gross thrust of a modified J85-21 engine. The method used tailpipe pressure data and ambient pressure data to predict the gross thrust. The method's algorithm is based on a one-dimensional analysis of the flow in the afterburner and nozzle. The test results showed that the method was notably accurate over the engine operating envelope using the altitude facility measured thrust for comparison. A summary of these results, the simplified gross thrust method and requirements, and the test techniques used are discussed in this paper.

  8. A concept for jet noise suppression for an afterburning turbojet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambellan, R. E.; Turek, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design of an afterburner system for turbojet engines which may reduce the jet exhaust noise by approximately 10 decibels is presented in this report. The proposed system consists of an array of swirl-can combustors and jet dividing nozzle tubes. The nozzle tubes translate axially upstream of the swirl cans when not in use. Results of preliminary design calculations and photographs of a kinematic model as applied to a hypothetical turbojet engine are presented.

  9. Emission calibration of a J-58 afterburning turbojet engine at simulated supersonic stratospheric flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide from a J-58 engine at simulated flight conditions of Mach 2.0, 2.4, and 2.8 at 19.8 km altitude are reported. For each flight condition, measurements were made for four engine power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. These measurements were made 7 cm downstream of the engine primary nozzle using a single point traversing gas sample probe. Results show that emissions vary with flight speed, engine power level, and with radial position across the exhaust.

  10. Emission calibration of a J-58 afterburning turbojet engine at simulated supersonic, stratospheric flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide from a J-58 engine at simulated flight conditions of Mach 2.0, 2.4, and 2.8 at 19.8 km altitude are reported. For each flight condition, measurements were made for four engine power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. These measurements were made 7 cm downstream of the engine primary nozzle using a single point traversing gas sample probe. Results show that emissions vary with flight speed, engine power level, and with radial position across the exhaust.

  11. The Effect of Altitude Conditions on the Particle Emissions of a J85-GE-5L Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickey, June Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Particles from a J85-GE-5L turbojet engine were measured over a range of engine speeds at simulated altitude conditions ranging from near sea level to 45,000 ft and at flight Mach numbers of 0.5 and 0.8. Samples were collected from the engine by using a specially designed probe positioned several inches behind the exhaust nozzle. A differential mobility particle sizing system was used to determine particle size. Particle data measured at near sea-level conditions were compared with Navy Aircraft Environmental Support Office (AESO) particle data taken from a GE-J85-4A engine at a sea-level static condition. Particle data from the J85 engine were also compared with particle data from a J85 combustor at three different simulated altitudes.

  12. J85 Rejuvenation Through Technology Insertion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    and Sabre 75 business addition to military production, the J85 was jets . Number Model Produced Aircraft Type(s) Engine Type Thrust (lbs) J85-GE-4 740...REJUVENATION THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INSERTION T.A. Brisken, P.N. Howell, A.C. Ewing Military Engines Operation GE Aircraft Engines 1 Neumann Way Cincinnati...OH 45215, USA Summary thrust to weight ratio turbojet engines with potential application to early cruise missiles and drones. The history of the

  13. Interactive Educational Tool for Turbofan and Afterburning Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    A workstation-based, interactive educational computer program has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to aid in the teaching and understanding of turbine engine design and analysis. This tool has recently been extended to model the performance of two-spool turbofans and afterburning turbojets. The program solves for the flow conditions through the engine by using classical one-dimensional thermodynamic analysis found in various propulsion textbooks. Either an approximately thermally perfect or calorically perfect gas can be used in the thermodynamic analysis. Students can vary the design conditions through a graphical user interface; engine performance is calculated immediately. A variety of graphical formats are used to present results, including numerical results, moving bar charts, and student-generated temperature versus entropy (Ts), pressure versus specific volume (pv), and engine performance plots. The package includes user-controlled printed output, restart capability, online help screens, and a browser that displays teacher-prepared lessons in turbomachinery. The program runs on a variety of workstations or a personal computer using the UNIX operating system and X-based graphics. It is being tested at several universities in the midwestern United States; the source and executables are available free from the author.

  14. Heat-Transfer Characteristics of Partially Film Cooled Plug Nozzle on a J-85 Afterburning Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosek, S. M.; Straight, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    Plug nozzle film cooling data were obtained downstream of a slot located at 42 percent of the total plug length on a J-85 engine. Film cooling reduced the aft end wall temperature as much as 150 K, reduced total pressure loss in the upstream convection cooling passages by 50 percent, and reduced estimated compressor bleed flow requirement by 14 percent compared to an all convectively cooled nozzle. Shock waves along the plug surface strongly influenced temperature distributions on both convection and film cooled portions. The effect was most severe at nozzle pressure ratios below 10 where adverse pressure gradients were most severe.

  15. Altitude Performance of Modified J71 Afterburner with Revised Engine Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Useller, James W.; Russey, Robert E.

    1955-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in an altitude test chamber at the NACA Lewis laboratory to determine the effect of a revision of the rated engine operating conditions and modifications to the afterburner fue1 system, flameholder, and shell cooling on the augmented performance of the J71-A-2 (x-29) turbo jet engine operating at altitude . The afterburner modifications were made by the manufacturer to improve the endurance at sea-level, high-pressure conditions and to reduce the afterburner shell temperatures. The engine operating conditions of rated rotational speed and turbine-outlet gas temperature were increased. Data were obtained at conditions simulating flight at a Mach number of 0.9 and at altitudes from 40,000 to 60,000 feet. The afterburner modifications caused a reduction in afterburner combustion efficiency. The increase in rated engine speed and turbine-outlet temperature coupled with the afterburner modifications resulted in the over-all thrust of the engine and afterburner being unchanged at a given afterburner equivalence ratio, while the specific fuel consumption was increased slightly. A moderate shift in the range of equivalence ratios over which the afterburner would operate was encountered, but the maximum operable altitude remained unaltered. The afterburner-shell temperatures were also slightly reduced because of the modifications to the afterburner.

  16. Effect of Operating Conditions and Design on Afterburner Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, W. A.; Gabriel, D. S.; Lundin, B. T.

    1956-01-01

    Afterburners for turbojet engines have, within the past decade, found increasing application in service aircraft. Practically all engines manufactured today are equipped with some form of afterburner, and its use has increased from what was originally a short-period thrust-augmentation application to an essential feature of the turbojet propulsion system for flight at supersonic speeds. The design of these afterburners has been based on extensive research and development effort in expanded laboratory facilities by both the NACA and the American engine industry. Most of the work of the engine industry, however, has either not been published or is not generally available owing to its proprietary nature. Consequently, the main bulk of research information available for summary and discussion is of NACA origin. However, because industrial afterburner development has closely followed NACA research, the omission is more one of technical detail than method or concept. One principal difficulty encountered in summarizing the work in this field is that sufficient knowledge does not yet exist to rationally or directly integrate the available background of basic combustion principles into combustor design. A further difficulty is that most of the experimental investigations that have been conducted were directed chiefly toward the development of specific afterburners for various engines rather than to the accumulation of systematic data. This work has, nonetheless, provided not only substantial improvements in the performance of afterburners but also a large fund of experimental data and an extensive background of experience in the field. Consequently, it is the purpose of the present chapter to summarize the many, and frequently unrelated, experimental investigations that have been conducted rather than to formulate a set of design rules. In the treatment of this material an effort has been made, however, to convey to the reader the "know how" acquired by research engineers

  17. Internal flow characteristics of a multistage compressor with inlet pressure distortion. [J85-13 turbojet engine studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debogdan, C. E.; Moss, J. E., Jr.; Braithwaite, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    The measured distribution of compressor interstage pressures and temperatures resulting from a 180 deg inlet-total-pressure distortion for a J85-13 turbojet engine is reported. Extensive inner stage instrumentation combined with stepwise rotation of the inlet distortion gave data of high circumferential resolution. The steady-state pressures and temperatures along with the amplitude, extent, and location of the distorted areas are given. Data for 80, 90, and 100 percent of rotor design speed are compared with clean (undistorted) inlet flow conditions to show pressure and temperature behavior within the compressor. Both overall and stagewise compressor performances vary only slightly when clean and distorted inlet conditions are compared. Total and static pressure distortions increase in amplitude in the first few stages of the compressor and then attenuate fairly uniformly to zero at the discharge. Total-temperature distortion induced by the pressure distortion reached a maximum amplitude by the first two stages and decayed only a little through the rest of the compressor. Distortion amplitude tended to peak in line with the screen edges, and, except for total and static pressure in the tip zone, there was little swirl in the axial direction.

  18. Generalized simulation technique for turbojet engine system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seldner, K.; Mihaloew, J. R.; Blaha, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A nonlinear analog simulation of a turbojet engine was developed. The purpose of the study was to establish simulation techniques applicable to propulsion system dynamics and controls research. A schematic model was derived from a physical description of a J85-13 turbojet engine. Basic conservation equations were applied to each component along with their individual performance characteristics to derive a mathematical representation. The simulation was mechanized on an analog computer. The simulation was verified in both steady-state and dynamic modes by comparing analytical results with experimental data obtained from tests performed at the Lewis Research Center with a J85-13 engine. In addition, comparison was also made with performance data obtained from the engine manufacturer. The comparisons established the validity of the simulation technique.

  19. Preliminary Performance Data on Westinghouse Electronic Power Regulator Operating on J34-WE-32 Turbojet Engine in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, James R.; Blivas, Darnold; Pack, George J.

    1950-01-01

    The behavior of the Westinghouse electronic power regulator operating on a J34-WE-32 turbojet engine was investigated in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy. The object of the program was to determine the, steady-state stability and transient characteristics of the engine under control at various altitudes and ram pressure ratios, without afterburning. Recordings of the response of the following parameters to step changes in power lever position throughout the available operating range of the engine were obtained; ram pressure ratio, compressor-discharge pressure, exhaust-nozzle area, engine speed, turbine-outlet temperature, fuel-valve position, jet thrust, air flow, turbine-discharge pressure, fuel flow, throttle position, and boost-pump pressure. Representative preliminary data showing the actual time response of these variables are presented. These data are presented in the form of reproductions of oscillographic traces.

  20. ENGINEL: A single rotor turbojet engine cycle match performance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    ENGINEL is a computer program which was developed to generate the design and off-design performance of a single rotor turbojet engine with or without afterburning using a cycle match procedure. It is capable of producing engine performance over a wide range of altitudes and Mach numbers. The flexibility, of operating with a variable geometry turbine, for improved off-design fuel consumption or with a fixed geometry turbine as in conventional turbojets, has been incorporated. In addition, the option of generation engine performance with JP4, liquid hydrogen or methane as fuel is provided.

  1. Dispersion of turbojet engine exhaust in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The dispersion of the exhaust of turbojet engines into the atmosphere is estimated by using a model developed for the mixing of a round jet with a parallel flow. The analysis is appropriate for determining the spread and dilution of the jet exhaust from the engine exit until it is entrained in the aircraft trailing vortices. Chemical reactions are not expected to be important and are not included in the flow model. Calculations of the dispersion of the exhaust plumes of three aircraft turbojet engines with and without afterburning at typical flight conditions are presented. Calculated average concentrations for the exhaust plume from a single engine jet fighter are shown to be in good agreement with measurements made in the aircraft wake during flight.

  2. Performance analysis and dynamic modeling of a single-spool turbojet engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, Irina-Carmen; Toader, Adrian; Stroe, Gabriela; Frunzulica, Florin

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of modeling and simulation of a turbojet engine are the steady state analysis and transient analysis. From the steady state analysis, which consists in the investigation of the operating, equilibrium regimes and it is based on appropriate modeling describing the operation of a turbojet engine at design and off-design regimes, results the performance analysis, concluded by the engine's operational maps (i.e. the altitude map, velocity map and speed map) and the engine's universal map. The mathematical model that allows the calculation of the design and off-design performances, in case of a single spool turbojet is detailed. An in house code was developed, its calibration was done for the J85 turbojet engine as the test case. The dynamic modeling of the turbojet engine is obtained from the energy balance equations for compressor, combustor and turbine, as the engine's main parts. The transient analysis, which is based on appropriate modeling of engine and its main parts, expresses the dynamic behavior of the turbojet engine, and further, provides details regarding the engine's control. The aim of the dynamic analysis is to determine a control program for the turbojet, based on the results provided by performance analysis. In case of the single-spool turbojet engine, with fixed nozzle geometry, the thrust is controlled by one parameter, which is the fuel flow rate. The design and management of the aircraft engine controls are based on the results of the transient analysis. The construction of the design model is complex, since it is based on both steady-state and transient analysis, further allowing the flight path cycle analysis and optimizations. This paper presents numerical simulations for a single-spool turbojet engine (J85 as test case), with appropriate modeling for steady-state and dynamic analysis.

  3. An Integration of the Turbojet and Single-Throat Ramjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, C. J.; Benson, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    A turbine-engine-based hybrid propulsion system is described. Turbojet engines are integrated with a single-throat ramjet so as to minimize variable geometry and eliminate redundant propulsion components. The result is a simple, lightweight system that is operable from takeoff to high Mach numbers. Non-afterburning turbojets are mounted within the ramjet duct. They exhaust through a converging-diverging (C-D) nozzle into a common ramjet burner section. At low speed the ejector effect of the C-D nozzle aerodynamically isolates the relatively high pressure turbojet exhaust stream from the ramjet duct. As the Mach number increases, and the turbojet pressure ratio diminishes, the system is biased naturally toward ramjet operation. The common ramjet burner is fueled with hydrogen and thermally choked, thus avoiding the weight and complexity of a variable geometry, split-flow exhaust system. The mixed-compression supersonic inlet and subsonic diffuser are also common to both the turbojet and ramjet cycles. As the compressor face total temperature limit is approached, a two-position flap within the inlet is actuated, which closes off the turbojet inlet and provides increased internal contraction for ramjet operation. Similar actuation of the turbojet C-D nozzle flap completes the enclosure of the turbojet. Performance of the hybrid system is compared herein to that of the discrete turbojet and ramjet engines from takeoff to Mach 6. The specific impulse of the hybrid system falls below that of the non-integrated turbojet and ramjet because of ejector and Rayleigh losses. Unlike the discrete turbojet or ramjet however, the hybrid system produces thrust over the entire Mach number range. An alternate mode of operation for takeoff and low speed is also described. In this mode the C-D nozzle flap is deflected to a third position, which closes off the ramjet duct and eliminates the ejector total pressure loss.

  4. Evaluation of Fuel Character Effects on J79 Engine Combustion System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    A. Overall Engine Description The J79 engine is a lightweight, high-thrust, axial - flow turbojet engine with variable afterburner thrust. This engine...thimbles are arranged to provide flow patterns for flame stabilization in the primary zone and mixing and turbine inlet temperature profile control at...measured with stainard )S𔃾Z orifices- Fuel flow races uere measured with calibrated turbine flotaMcers corrected for the density aan viscosity of each

  5. Design and Evaluation of a Turbojet Exhaust Simulator, Utilizing a Solid-Propellant Rocket Motor, for use in Free-Flight Aerodynamic Research Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deMoraes, Carlos A.; Hagginbothom, William K., Jr.; Falanga, Ralph A.

    1954-01-01

    A method has been developed for modifying a rocket motor so that its exhaust characteristics simulate those of a turbojet engine. The analysis necessary to the design is presented along with tests from which the designs are evaluated. Simulation was found to be best if the exhaust characteristics to be duplicated were those of a turbojet engine at high altitudes and with the afterburner operative.

  6. Spectral response of a UV flame sensor for a modern turbojet aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, William E.; Minott, George L.

    1989-12-01

    A flame sensor is incorporated into the F404 turbojet's afterburner section in order to monitor operations. The sensor contains a gaseous-discharge-type UV detector tube. Attention is presently given to the results of a study of the relationship between the flame and the sensor at temperatures of up to 400 F, using a double monochromator-based spectroradiometric system optimized for spectral response measurements in the 200-300 nm wavelength range. Modifications have been instituted as a result of these tests which guarantee a sufficiently high sensor output signal level, irrespective of variability in afterburner flame irradiance associated with differences in engine operating conditions.

  7. General Electric TG-180 Turbojet in the Altitude Wind Tunnel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1947-09-21

    A General Electric TG-180 turbojet installed in the Altitude Wind Tunnel at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. In 1943 the military asked General Electric to develop an axial-flow jet engine which became the TG-180. The military understood that the TG-180 would not be ready during World War II but recognized the axial-flow compressor’s long-term potential. Although the engine was bench tested in April 1944, it was not flight tested until February 1946. The TG-180 was brought to the Altitude Wind Tunnel in 1945 for a series of investigations. The studies, which continued intermittently into 1948, analyzed an array of performance issues. NACA modifications steadily improved the TG-180’s performance, including the first successful use of an afterburner. The Lewis researchers studied a 29-inch diameter afterburner over a range of altitude conditions using several different types of flameholders and fuel systems. Lewis researchers concluded that a three-stage flameholder with its largest stage upstream was the best burner configuration. Although the TG-180 (also known as the J35) was not the breakthrough engine that the military had hoped for, it did power the Douglas D-558-I Skystreak to a world speed record on August 20, 1947. The engines were also used on the Republic F-84 Thunderjet and the Northrup F-89 Scorpion.

  8. A turbojet-boosted two-stage-to-orbit space transportation system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Zeck, H.; Walker, W.; Scharf, W.

    1979-01-01

    The concept to use twin turbo-powered boosters for acceleration to supersonic staging speed followed by an all rocket powered orbiter stage was proposed. A follow-on design study was then made of the concept with the performance objective of placing a 29,483 Kg payload into a .2.6 X 195.3 km orbit. The study was performed in terms of analysis and trade studies, conceptual design, utility and economic analysis, and technology assessment. Design features of the final configuration included: strakes and area rule for improved take off and low transonic drag, variable area inlets, exits and turbine, and low profile fixed landing gear for turbojet booster stage. The payload required an estimated GLOW of 1,270,000 kg for injection in orbit. Each twin booster required afterburning turbojet engines each with a static sea level thrust rating of 444,800 N. Life cycle costs for this concept were comparable to a SSTO/SLED concept except for increased development cost due to the turbojet engine propulsion system.

  9. Simulated afterburner performance with hydrogen peroxide injection for thrust augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzler, Allen J; Grobman, Jack S

    1956-01-01

    Combustion performance of three afterburner configurations was evaluated at simulated altitude flight conditions with liquid augmentation to the primary combustor. Afterburner combustion efficiency and stability were better with injection of high-strength hydrogen peroxide than with no injection or with water injection. Improvements were observed in afterburner configurations with and without flameholders and in a short-length afterburner. At a peroxide-air ratio of 0.3, combustion was stable and 85 to 90 percent efficient in all configurations tested. Calculated augmented net-thrust ratios for peroxide injection with afterburning were approximately 60 percent greater than those for water injection.

  10. Foamed-metal-based catalytic afterburners in automotive exhaust systems

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pestryakov, A.N.; Ametov, V.A.

    1994-08-10

    Properties of exhaust afterburning catalysts based on porous cellular materials (foamed metals) have been investigated. Catalysts containing oxides of base metals provide a two-to-threefold reduction of CO emission. Platinum-containing foamed catalysts lower the toxicity of exhaust by 85-90%. A favorable effect is demonstrated by the combined use of afterburners and a motor oil additive based on ultradispersed copper.

  11. The LRCM: (the Long-Range Strategic Cruise Missile) Asymmetries, Deterrence and SAL (Strategic Arms Limitation)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    about the same pro- portion of the useful payload. The J-85-4A non- afterburning turbojet engines installed in the F5 aircraft occupy about 25% of the...about one kiloton TNT equivalent yield per 1 5 Pretty and Archer, op. cit. 32 pound of warhead weight. Thus, a 200 KT warhead will weigh about 200...explosion is equivalent to a conventional unit of energy release equal to one thousand short tons of TNT , or about 10 calories, 1.15 x 10 kilowatt

  12. Effect of inlet ingestion of a wing tip vortex on compressor face flow and turbojet stall margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    A two-dimensional inlet was alternately mated to a coldpipe plug assembly and a J85-GE-13 turbojet engine, and placed in a Mach 0.4 stream so as to ingest the tip vortex of a forward mounted wing. Vortex properties were measured just forward of the inlet and at the compressor face. Results show that ingestion of a wing tip vortex by a turbojet engine can cause a large reduction in engine stall margin. The loss in stall compressor pressure ratio was primarily dependent on vortex location and rotational direction and not on total-pressure distortion.

  13. Surface temperature measurements from a stator vane doublet in a turbine afterburner flame using a YAG:Tm thermographic phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Allison, Stephen W.; Jenkins, Thomas P.; Gollub, Sarah L.; Hall, Carl A.; Walker, D. Greg

    2016-12-01

    Phosphor thermometry measurements in turbine engine environments can be difficult because of high background radiation levels. To address this challenge, luminescence lifetime-based phosphor thermometry measurements were obtained using thulium-doped Y3Al5O12 (YAG:Tm) to take advantage of the emission wavelengths at 365 nm (1D2  →  3H6 transition) and at 456 nm (1D2  →  3F4 transition). At these wavelengths, turbine engine radiation background is reduced compared with emission from longer wavelength phosphors. Temperature measurements of YAG:Tm coatings were demonstrated using decay of both the 365 and 456 nm emission bands in a furnace environment up to 1400 °C. To demonstrate that reliable surface temperatures based on short-wavelength YAG:Tm emission could be obtained from the surface of an actual engine component in a high gas velocity, highly radiative environment, measurements were obtained from a YAG:Tm-coated Honeywell stator vane doublet placed in the afterburner flame exhaust stream of the augmenter-equipped General Electric J85 turbojet test engine at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Using a probe designed for engine insertion, spot temperature measurements were obtained by measuring luminescence decay times over a range of steady state throttle settings as well as during an engine throttle acceleration. YAG:Tm phosphor thermometry measurements of the stator vane surface in the afterburner exhaust stream using the decay of the 456 nm emission band were successfully obtained at temperatures up to almost 1300 °C. Phosphor thermometry measurements acquired with the engine probe using the decay of the 365 nm emission band were not successful at usefully high temperatures because the probe design allowed transmission of intense unfiltered silica Raman scattering that produced photomultiplier tube saturation with extended recovery times. Recommendations are made for probe modifications that will enable

  14. Preliminary Transient Performance Data on the J73 Turbojet Engine. 3; Altitude, 45,000 Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAulay, John E.; Wallner, Lewis E.

    1953-01-01

    A program was undertaken to determine the J73 turbojet engine compressor stall and surge characteristics and combustor blow-out limits enc ountered during transient engine operation. Data were obtained in the form of oscillograph traces showing the time history of several engi ne parameters with changes in engine fuel flow. The data presented in this report are for step and ramp changes in fuel flow at an altitude of 45,000 feet and flight Mach numbers of 0 and 0.8.

  15. NACA Conference on Turbojet Engines for Supersonic Propulsion. A Compilation of Technical Material Presented

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1953-10-01

    turbojet Pngine with a turbine cooled by compressor air involves several design pruilems that do not e~ist in an uncooled turbo - jet engine . Careful...facilitate testing the sheet-metal blades in the turbojet engine , bases were formed by removing the solid airfoil portion from the standard turbine blade ...OF TURBINE BLADES by J. C. Freche 6. APPLICATION AND OPERATION OF AIR-COOLED TURBINES IN TURBOJET ENGINES

  16. An Extended Combustion Model for the Aircraft Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Andres-Mihăilă, Mihai; Matei, Pericle Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    The paper consists in modelling and simulation of the combustion in a turbojet engine in order to find optimal characteristics of the burning process and the optimal shape of combustion chambers. The main focus of this paper is to find a new configuration of the aircraft engine combustion chambers, namely an engine with two main combustion chambers, one on the same position like in classical configuration, between compressor and turbine and the other, placed behind the turbine but not performing the role of the afterburning. This constructive solution could allow a lower engine rotational speed, a lower temperature in front of the first stage of the turbine and the possibility to increase the turbine pressure ratio by extracting the flow stream after turbine in the inner nozzle. Also, a higher thermodynamic cycle efficiency and thrust in comparison to traditional constant-pressure combustion gas turbine engines could be obtained.

  17. Thermal imaging of afterburning plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajdari, E.; Gutmark, E.; Parr, T. P.; Wilson, K. J.; Schadow, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Afterburning and nonafterburning exhaust plumes were studied experimentally for underexpanded sonic and supersonic conical circular nozzles. The plume structure was visualized using thermal imaging camera and regular photography. IR emission by the plume is mainly dependent on the presence of afterburning. Temperature and reducing power of the exhaust gases, in addition to the nozzle configuration, determine the structure of the plume core, the location where the afterburning is initiated, its size and intensity. Comparison between single shot and average thermal images of the plume show that afterburning is a highly turbulent combustion process.

  18. Comparison of parametric duct-burning turbofan and non-afterburning turbojet engines in a Mach 2.7 transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, J. B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A parametric study was made of duct-burning turbofan and suppressed dry turbojet engines installed in a supersonic transport. A range of fan pressure ratios was considered for the separate-flow-fan engines. The turbofan engines were studied both with and without jet noise suppressors. Single- as well as dual-stream suppression was considered. Attention was concentrated on designs yielding sideline noises of FAR 36 (108 EPNdB) and below. Trades were made between thrust and wing area for a constant takeoff field length. The turbofans produced lower airplane gross weights than the turbojets at FAR 36 and below. The advantage for the turbofans increased as the sideline noise limit was reduced. Jet noise suppression, especially for the duct stream, was very beneficial for the turbofan engines as long as duct burning was permitted during takeoff. The maximum dry unsuppressed takeoff mode, however, yielded better results at extremely low noise levels. Noise levels as low as FAR 36-11 EPNdB were obtained with a turbofan in this takeoff mode, but at a considerable gross weight penalty relative to the best FAR 36 results.

  19. A method for aircraft afterburner combustion without flameholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmaher, Shai

    2009-12-01

    State of the art aircraft afterburners employ spray bars to inject fuel and flameholders to stabilize the combustion process. Such afterburner designs significantly increase the length (and thus weight), pressure losses, and observability of the engine. This thesis presents a feasibility study of a compact 'prime and trigger' (PAT) afterburner concept that eliminates the fuel spray bars and flameholders and, thus, eliminates the above-mentioned problems. In this concept, afterburner fuel is injected just upstream or in between the turbine stages. As the fuel travels through the turbine stages, it evaporates, mixes with the bulk flow, and undergoes some chemical reactions without any significant heat release, a process referred to as 'priming'. Downstream of the turbine stages, combustion could take place through autoignition. However, if fuel autoignition does not occur or if autoignition does not produce a combustion zone that is stable and highly efficient, then a low power pilot, or 'trigger', can be used to control the combustion process. The envisioned trigger for the PAT concept is a jet of product gas from ultra-rich hydrocarbon/air combustion that is injected through the afterburner liner. This 'partial oxidation' (POx) gas, which consists mostly of H2, CO, and diluents, rapidly produces radicals and heat that accelerate the autoignition of the primed mixture and, thus, provide an anchor point for the afterburner combustion process. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the feasibility of the PAT concept by showing that (1) combustion of fuel injected within or upstream of turbine stages can occur only downstream of the turbine stages, and (2) the combustion zone is compact, stable and efficient. This was accomplished using two experimental facilities, a developed theoretical model, and Chemkin simulations. The first facility, termed the Afterburner Facility (AF), simulated the bulk flow temperature, velocity and O2 content through a turbojet

  20. Research on hypersonic aircraft using pre-cooled turbojet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takayuki; Ueno, Atsushi; Imamura, Shunsuke; Hongoh, Motoyuki; Harada, Kenya

    2012-04-01

    Systems analysis of a Mach 5 class hypersonic aircraft is performed. The aircraft can fly across the Pacific Ocean in 2 h. A multidisciplinary optimization program for aerodynamics, structure, propulsion, and trajectory is used in the analysis. The result of each element model is improved using higher accuracy analysis tools. The aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic aircraft is examined through hypersonic wind tunnel tests. A thermal management system based on the data of the wind tunnel tests is proposed. A pre-cooled turbojet engine is adopted as the propulsion system for the hypersonic aircraft. The engine can be operated continuously from take-off to Mach 5. This engine uses a pre-cooling cycle using cryogenic liquid hydrogen. The high temperature inlet air of hypersonic flight would be cooled by the same liquid hydrogen used as fuel. The engine is tested under sea level static conditions. The engine is installed on a flight test vehicle. Both liquid hydrogen fuel and gaseous hydrogen fuel are supplied to the engine from a tank and cylinders installed within the vehicle. The designed operation of major components of the engine is confirmed. A large amount of liquid hydrogen is supplied to the pre-cooler in order to make its performance sufficient for Mach 5 flight. Thus, fuel rich combustion is adopted at the afterburner. The experiments are carried out under the conditions that the engine is mounted upon an experimental airframe with both set up either horizontally or vertically. As a result, the operating procedure of the pre-cooled turbojet engine is demonstrated.

  1. Surface Temperature Measurements from a Stator Vane Doublet in a Turbine Engine Afterburner Flame Using a YAG:Tm Thermographic Phosphor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, J. I.; Walker, D. G.; Gollub, S. L.; Jenkins, T. P.; Allison, S. W.

    2015-01-01

    Luminescence-based surface temperature measurements were obtained from a YAG:Tm-coated stator vane doublet exposed to the afterburner flame of a J85 test engine at University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). The objective of the testing was to demonstrate that reliable surface temperatures based on luminescence decay of a thermographic phosphor producing short-wavelength emission could be obtained from the surface of an actual engine component in a high gas velocity, highly radiative afterburner flame environment. YAG:Tm was selected as the thermographic phosphor for its blue emission at 456 nm (1D23F4 transition) and UV emission at 365 nm (1D23H6 transition) because background thermal radiation is lower at these wavelengths, which are shorter than those of many previously used thermographic phosphors. Luminescence decay measurements were acquired using a probe designed to operate in the afterburner flame environment. The probe was mounted on the sidewall of a high-pressure turbine vane doublet from a Honeywell TECH7000 turbine engine coated with a standard electron-beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) 200-m-thick TBC composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) onto which a 25-m-thick YAG:Tm thermographic phosphor layer was deposited by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). Spot temperature measurements were obtained by measuring luminescence decay times at different afterburner power settings and then converting decay time to temperature via calibration curves. Temperature measurements using the decays of the 456 and 365 nm emissions are compared. While successful afterburner environment measurements were obtained to about 1300C with the 456 nm emission, successful temperature measurements using the 365 nm emission were limited to about 1100C due to interference by autofluorescence of probe optics at short decay times.

  2. F-100A on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    North American F-100A Super Sabre on the ramp near the NACA High-Speed Flight Station in 1957. Some airplane characteristics are: Fuselage length, feet 45.64 Wing span, feet Original wing 36.58 Extended wing 38.58 Power Plant: Pratt & Whitney J57-P7 turbojet engine with afterburner Airplane weight, pounds: Basic (without fuel, oil, water, pilot) 19,662

  3. Preliminary Internal Performance Data for a Variable-Ejector Assembly on the XJ79-GE-1 Turbojet Engine. II; Afterburning Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomer, Harry E.; Groesbeck, Donald E.

    1957-01-01

    Internal performance of an XJ79-GE-1 variable ejector was experimentally determined with the primary nozzle in two representative after-burning positions. Jet-thrust and air-handling data were obtained in quiescent air for 4 selected ejector configurations over a wide range of secondary to primary airflow ratios and primary-nozzle pressure ratios. The experimental ejector data are presented in both graphical and tabulated form.

  4. Building an Efficient Model for Afterburn Energy Release

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Alves, S; Kuhl, A; Najjar, F

    2012-02-03

    Many explosives will release additional energy after detonation as the detonation products mix with the ambient environment. This additional energy release, referred to as afterburn, is due to combustion of undetonated fuel with ambient oxygen. While the detonation energy release occurs on a time scale of microseconds, the afterburn energy release occurs on a time scale of milliseconds with a potentially varying energy release rate depending upon the local temperature and pressure. This afterburn energy release is not accounted for in typical equations of state, such as the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) model, used for modeling the detonation of explosives. Here wemore » construct a straightforward and efficient approach, based on experiments and theory, to account for this additional energy release in a way that is tractable for large finite element fluid-structure problems. Barometric calorimeter experiments have been executed in both nitrogen and air environments to investigate the characteristics of afterburn for C-4 and other materials. These tests, which provide pressure time histories, along with theoretical and analytical solutions provide an engineering basis for modeling afterburn with numerical hydrocodes. It is toward this end that we have constructed a modified JWL equation of state to account for afterburn effects on the response of structures to blast. The modified equation of state includes a two phase afterburn energy release to represent variations in the energy release rate and an afterburn energy cutoff to account for partial reaction of the undetonated fuel.« less

  5. Noise of High-Performance Aircraft at Afterburner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-30

    Quarterly progress report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 12-15-2014 to 04-03-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Noise of High-Performance Aircraft at Afterburner ...generation of a high- performance aircraft operating at afterburner condition. The new noise components are indirect combustion noise produced by the...spectrum is reported 15. SUBJECT TERMS Jet noise at afterburner 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT u b. ABSTRACT u c. THIS PAGE u 17

  6. Noise of High-Performance Aircraft at Afterburner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-11

    Title : Noise of High-Performance Aircraft at Afterburner Principal Investigator Dr. Christopher Tarn Department of Mathematics Florida State...jet. We found that at intermediate power, the dominant noise components are essentially the same as those of a laboratory jet. However, at afterburner ...useful. The power settings are 80N2 (low power), Mil (military power) and MaxAB ( afterburner ). BII8 BI16 2__Q_il_Q_£l Bill l« C0O3 12 ^ COOS

  7. Development of Emissions Measurement Techniques for Afterburning Turbine Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    are most reactive in the plume, with significant de - creases observed at all afterburning power levels. Cnrhon monoxide call either increas~ e or...Plane) Part B. Near Plume Method (Measurement I’rfc(diLr 3•rC for Sampling at Nozzle Exit Plane) viit ! o E . . LIST uO ILLUSrRATIUNS F igure I1.8.t...36. 1lC Concentration Radial Protile, J79-15 Enghine’ at Mid. :•3 AM B Power Level. 37 (𔃺 \\s. C ( O ) (’onv(ent rat io I m .j 7 4 1- E ngtine aI Mmn. A

  8. Noise of High-Performance Aircraft at Afterburner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-07

    Naval Research Project Title : Noise of High-Performance Aircraft at Afterburner Principal Investigator Dr. Christopher Tam Department...to 08/14/2015 Noise of High-Performance Aircraft at Afterburner Tam, Christopher Sponsored Research Administratiion Florida State University

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT ENGINE - PHASE II-A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    JET TRANSPORT PLANES, *SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT ) (U) TURBOJET ENGINES , PERFORMANCE( ENGINEERING ), TURBOFAN ENGINES , AFTERBURNING, SPECIFICATIONS...COMPRESSORS, GEOMETRY, TURBOJET INLETS, COMBUSTION, TEST EQUIPMENT, TURBINE BLADES , HEAT TRANSFER, AIRFOILS , CASCADE STRUCTURES, EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, PLUG NOZZLES, ANECHOIC CHAMBERS, BEARINGS, SEALS, DESIGN, FATIGUE(MECHANICS)

  10. Numerical study of combustion processes in afterburners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaochun

    1986-01-01

    Mathematical models and numerical methods are presented for computer modeling of aeroengine afterburners. A computer code GEMCHIP is described briefly. The algorithms SIMPLER, for gas flow predictions, and DROPLET, for droplet flow calculations, are incorporated in this code. The block correction technique is adopted to facilitate convergence. The method of handling irregular shapes of combustors and flameholders is described. The predicted results for a low-bypass-ratio turbofan afterburner in the cases of gaseous combustion and multiphase spray combustion are provided and analyzed, and engineering guides for afterburner optimization are presented.

  11. Countercurrent flow afterburner

    DOEpatents

    Leggett, Ronald L.; Presse, Donald E.; Smith, Carl J.; Teter, Alton R.

    1976-01-01

    Afterburner apparatus for receiving from an incinerator products of combustion and distributing them through a domed distributor in counterflow manner throughout a housing, in opposition to a stream of combustible gas.

  12. Investigation of Noise Field and Velocity Profiles of an Afterburning Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, Warren J.; Callaghan, E. E.; Lanzo, C. D.

    1954-01-01

    Sound pressure levels, frequency spectrum, and jet velocity profiles are presented for an engine-afterburner combination at various values of afterburner fuel - air ratio. At the high fuel-air ratios, severe low-frequency resonance was encountered which represented more than half the total energy in the sound spectrum. At similar thrust conditions, lower sound pressure levels were obtained from a current fighter air craft with a different afterburner configuration. The lower sound pressure levels are attributed to resonance-free afterburner operation and thereby indicate the importance of acoustic considerations in afterburner design.

  13. Altitude Performance Characteristics of Tail-pipe Burner with Convergingconical Burner Section on J47 Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, William R; Mcaulay, John E

    1950-01-01

    An investigation of turbojet-engine thrust augmentation by means of tail-pipe burning was conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. Performance data were obtained with a tail-pipe burner having a converging conical burner section installed on an axial-flow-compressor type turbojet engine over a range of simulated flight conditions and tail-pipe fuel-air ratios with a fixed-area exhaust nozzle. A maximum tail-pipe combustion efficiency of 0.86 was obtained at an altitude of 15,000 feet and a flight Mach number of 0.23. Tail-pipe burner operation was possible up to an altitude of 45,000 feet at a flight Mach number of 0.23.

  14. Effects of plume afterburning on infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xijuan; Xu, Ying; Ma, Jing; Duan, Ran; Wu, Jie

    2017-10-01

    Contains H2, CO and unburned components of high-temperature plume of rocket engine, then injected into the atmosphere, continue to carry out the oxidation reaction in the plume near field region with the volume in the plume of oxygen in the air, two times burning. The afterburning is an important cause of infrared radiation intensification of propellant plume, which increases the temperature of the flame and changes the components of the gas, thus enhancing the infrared radiation intensity of the flame. [1]. Two the combustion numerical using chemical reaction mechanism involving HO2 intermediate reaction, the study confirmed that HO2 is a key intermediate, plays a decisive role to trigger early response, on afterburning temperature and flow concentration distribution effect. A finite rate chemical reaction model is used to describe the two burning phenomenon in high temperature plume[2]. In this paper, a numerical simulation of the flame flow field and radiative transfer is carried out for the afterburning phenomenon. The effects of afterburning on the composition, temperature and infrared radiation of the plume are obtained by comparison.

  15. Preliminary Performance Data on General Electric Integrated Electronic Control Operating on J47 RX1-3 Turbojet Engine in NACA Altitude Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blivas, Darnold; Taylor, Burt L., III

    1950-01-01

    Performance data obtained with recording oscillographs are presented to show the transient response of the General Electric Integrated Electronic Control operating on the J47 RXl-3 turbo-Jet engine over a range of altitudes from 10,000 to 45,000 feet and at ram pressure ratios of 1.03 and 1.4. These data represent the performance of the final control configuration developed after an investigation of the engine transient behavior in the NACA altitude wind tunnel. Oscillograph traces of controlled accelerations (throttle bursts),oontrolled decelerations (throttle chops), and controlled altitude starts are presented.

  16. Numerical models for afterburning of TNT detonation products in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, L.; Zhang, F.; Ripley, R. C.

    2013-11-01

    Afterburning occurs when fuel-rich explosive detonation products react with oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. This energy release can further contribute to the air blast, resulting in a more severe explosion hazard particularly in confined scenarios. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the products equation of state (EOS) on the prediction of the efficiency of trinitrotoluene (TNT) afterburning and the times of arrival of reverberating shock waves in a closed chamber. A new EOS is proposed, denoted the Afterburning (AB) EOS. This EOS employs the JWL EOS in the high pressure regime, transitioning to a Variable-Gamma (VG) EOS at lower pressures. Simulations of three TNT charges suspended in a explosion chamber were performed. When compared to numerical results using existing methods, it was determined that the Afterburning EOS delays the shock arrival times giving better agreement with the experimental measurements in the early to mid time. In the late time, the Afterburning EOS roughly halved the error between the experimental measurements and results obtained using existing methods. Use of the Afterburning EOS for products with the Variable-Gamma EOS for the surrounding air further significantly improved results, both in the transient solution and the quasi-static pressure. This final combination of EOS and mixture model is recommended for future studies involving afterburning explosives, particularly those in partial and full confinement.

  17. Performance of J33 turbojet engine with shaft-power extraction III : turbine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huppert, M C; Nettles, J C

    1949-01-01

    The performance of the turbine component of a J33 turbojet engine was determined over a range of turbine speeds from 8000 to 11,500 rpm.Turbine-inlet temperature was varied from the minimum required to drive the compressor to a maximum of approximately 2000 degrees R at each of several intermediate turbine speeds. Data are presented that show the horsepower developed by the turbine per pound of gas flow. The relation between turbine-inlet stagnation pressure, turbine-outlet stagnation pressure, and turbine-outlet static pressure was established. The turbine-weight-flow parameter varied from 39.2 to 43.6. The maximum turbine efficiency measured was 0.86 at a pressure ratio of 3.5 and a ratio of blade speed to theoretical nozzle velocity of 0.39. A generalized performance map of the turbine-horsepower parameter plotted against the turbine-speed parameter indicated that the best turbine efficiency is obtained when the turbine power is 10 percent greater than the compressor horsepower. The variation of efficiency with the ratio of blade speed to nozzle velocity indicated that the turbine operates at a speed above that for maximum efficiency when the engine is operated normally with the 19-inch-diameter jet nozzle.

  18. Investigation of Altitude Starting and Acceleration Characteristics of J47 Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golladay, Richard L; Bloomer, Harry E

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on an axial-flow-compressor type turbojet engine in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel to determine the operational characteristics of several ignition systems, cross-fire tube configurations and fuel systems over a range of simulated flight conditions. The opposite-polarity-type spark plug provided the most satisfactory ignition. Increasing the cross-fire-tube diameter improved intercombustor flame propagation. At high windmilling speeds, accelerations to approximately 6200 rpm could be made at a preset constant throttle position. The use of a variable-area nozzle reduced acceleration time.

  19. PIPSI/Navy - Rapid Evaluation of Propulsion System Effects for the Navy Gas Turbine Engine Code, NEPCOMP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-11

    E.TqIE’JI*c*H* rt IaT F : rti5’ :TFL’-1H E’rl-aFiw liSsTFI’JIt1 riSET.Ir’ 11cisar1 tnt .L Qsa 41W HLUTEEST rU I- AUE DF 1 N(..’t’FE. HUIETO T A ’E...TE’STOLIT UScEF.: LJFABF1’ WPi:Sri281TTY F. ILEES(S) READ’,~ 3FILE NAME FILE CONTENTS BOEING1 Dry Turbofan Engine Uninstalled Data BOEING2 Afterburning ...Turbofan Engine Uninstalled Data BONGTJD Dry Turbojet Engine Uninstalled Data £BONGTJW Afterburning Turbojet Engine Uninstalled Data NADC7 Source Deck

  20. Investigations of Air-cooled Turbine Rotors for Turbojet Engines II : Mechanical Design, Stress Analysis, and Burst Test of Modified J33 Split-disk Rotor / Richard H. Kemp and Merland L. Moseson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, Richard H; Moseson, Merland L

    1952-01-01

    A full-scale J33 air-cooled split turbine rotor was designed and spin-pit tested to destruction. Stress analysis and spin-pit results indicated that the rotor in a J33 turbojet engine, however, showed that the rear disk of the rotor operated at temperatures substantially higher than the forward disk. An extension of the stress analysis to include the temperature difference between the two disks indicated that engine modifications are required to permit operation of the two disks at more nearly the same temperature level.

  1. 14 CFR 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbojet engine thrust reverser system... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.934 Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. Thrust reversers installed on turbojet engines must meet the...

  2. Thermodynamic Model of Afterburning in Explosions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kuhl, A L; Howard, M; Fried, L

    2003-04-23

    Thermodynamic states encountered during afterburning of explosion products gases in air were analyzed with the Cheetah code. Results are displayed in the form of Le Chatelier diagrams: the locus of states of specific internal energy versus temperature, for six different condensed explosives charges. Accuracy of the results was confirmed by comparing the fuel and products curves with the heats of detonation and combustion, and species composition as measured in bomb calorimeter experiments. Results were fit with analytic functions u = f ( T ) suitable for specifying the thermodynamic properties required for gas-dynamic models of afterburning in explosions.

  3. Effects of Altitude on Turbojet Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, William A

    1951-01-01

    Component and over-all performance characteristics of several turbojet engines investigated in the altitude facilities of the NACA Lewis Laboratory during the last several years are summarized to indicate the effects of altitude on turbojet engine performance. Data presented show that failure of turbojet engine performance to generalize for all altitudes can be traced to reductions in compressor efficiency, corrected air flow, and combustion efficiency at altitude. In addition, it is shown that although engines of different design may have equal thrusts at sea level, the thrusts at altitude may vary widely because of differences in compressor performance characteristics from one engine to another.

  4. Process of afterburning combustible constituents of exhaust gases from rotary kilns

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schnabel, W.; Scheu, E.; Serbent, H.

    1984-03-13

    In order to avoid incrustation and an excessively strong thermal attack on the afterburning chamber, the exhaust gases which contain gaseous and solid constituents which are combustible are afterburned in a plurality of stages, which are connected in series. The rate at which oxygen is supplied to each stage is so controlled that part of the combustible constituents is afterburned in each stage. The gas which is about to enter each succeeding stage is cooled by injected water.

  5. Preliminary Data on the Effects of Inlet Pressure Distortions on the J57-P-1 Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallner, Lewis E.; Lubick, Robert J.; Einstein, Thomas H.

    1954-01-01

    An investigation to determine the steady-state and surge characteristics of the J57-P-1 two-spool turbojet engine with various inlet air-flow distortions was conducted in the altitude wind tunnel at the NACA Lewis laboratory. Along with a uniform inlet total-pressure distribution, one circumferential and three radial pressure distortions were investigated. Data were obtained over a complete range of compressor speeds both with and without intercompressor air bleed at a flight Mach number of 0.8 and at altitudes of 35,000 and 50,000 feet. Total-pressure distortions of the magnitudes investigated had very little effect on the steady-state operating line for either the outer or inner compressor. The small radial distortions investigated also had engine over that obtained with the uniform inlet pressure distribution. The circumferential distortion, however, raised the minimum speed at which the engine could operate without encountering surge when the intercompressor bleeds were closed. This increase in minimum speed resulted in a substantial reduction in the operable speed range accompanied by a reduction in the altitude operating limit.

  6. Measurement of Afterburning Effect of Underoxidized Explosives by Underwater Explosion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wei; He, Zhongqi; Chen, Wanghua

    2015-04-01

    The afterburning effect of TNT and a desensitized hexogen RDX-Al explosive was studied in a defined gas volume under water. A double-layer container (DLC) filled with different gases (air, oxygen, and nitrogen) was used to control and distinguish the afterburning effect of explosives. After the charges in the DLC were initiated under water, the shock wave signals were collected and analyzed. It is shown that shock wave peak pressures are duly in compliance with explosion similarity law, pressure, and impulse histories for explosions in oxygen and air are greater than those recorded for explosions in nitrogen due to the afterburing reaction. Moreover, the afterburning energy was calculated. Results show that even though there is excess oxygen in the gas volume, the afterburning energy may not reach the theoretically maximum value. This result is different from that in confined explosion, where the presence of excess oxygen in the compressed gas filling a bomb leads to complete combustion of the detonation products.

  7. 14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan engines must meet the requirements of § 33.97 of this...

  8. Simulating Afterburn with LLNL Hydrocodes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Daily, L D

    2004-06-11

    Presented here is a working methodology for adapting a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed hydrocode, ALE3D, to simulate weapon damage effects when afterburn is a consideration in the blast propagation. Experiments have shown that afterburn is of great consequence in enclosed environments (i.e. bomb in tunnel scenario, penetrating conventional munition in a bunker, or satchel charge placed in a deep underground facility). This empirical energy deposition methodology simulates the anticipated addition of kinetic energy that has been demonstrated by experiment (Kuhl, et. al. 1998), without explicitly solving the chemistry, or resolving the mesh to capture small-scale vorticity. This effortmore » is intended to complement the existing capability of either coupling ALE3D blast simulations with DYNA3D or performing fully coupled ALE3D simulations to predict building or component failure, for applications in National Security offensive strike planning as well as Homeland Defense infrastructure protection.« less

  9. 14 CFR 91.219 - Altitude alerting system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes. 91.219 Section 91.219 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a turbojet-powered U.S.-registered civil airplane unless that airplane is...

  10. 14 CFR 91.219 - Altitude alerting system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes. 91.219 Section 91.219 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a turbojet-powered U.S.-registered civil airplane unless that airplane is...

  11. 14 CFR 91.219 - Altitude alerting system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes. 91.219 Section 91.219 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a turbojet-powered U.S.-registered civil airplane unless that airplane is...

  12. 14 CFR 91.219 - Altitude alerting system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes. 91.219 Section 91.219 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a turbojet-powered U.S.-registered civil airplane unless that airplane is...

  13. 14 CFR 91.219 - Altitude alerting system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes. 91.219 Section 91.219 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a turbojet-powered U.S.-registered civil airplane unless that airplane is...

  14. Conceptual Study on Hypersonic Turbojet Experimental Vehicle (HYTEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Hideyuki; Murakami, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya; Tsuchiya, Takeshi

    Pre-cooled turbojet engines have been investigated aiming at realization of reusable space transportation systems and hypersonic airplanes. Evaluation methods of these engine performances have been established based on ground tests. There are some plans on the demonstration of hypersonic propulsion systems. JAXA focused on hypersonic propulsion systems as a key technology of hypersonic transport airplane. Demonstrations of Mach 5 class hypersonic technologies are stated as a development target at 2025 in the long term vision. In this study, systems analyses of hypersonic turbojet experiment (HYTEX) with Mach 5 flight capability is performed. Aerodynamic coefficients are obtained by CFD analyses and wind tunnel tests. Small Pre-cooled turbojet is fabricated and tested using liquid hydrogen as fuel. As a result, characteristics of the baseline vehicle shape is clarified, . and effects of pre-cooling are confirmed at the firing test.

  15. Sustainability Metrics of a Small Scale Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekici, Selcuk; Sohret, Yasin; Coban, Kahraman; Altuntas, Onder; Karakoc, T. Hikmet

    2018-05-01

    Over the last decade, sustainable energy consumption has attracted the attention of scientists and researchers. The current paper presents sustainability indicators of a small scale turbojet engine, operated on micro-aerial vehicles, for discussion of the sustainable development of the aviation industry from a different perspective. Experimental data was obtained from an engine at full power load and utilized to conduct an exergy-based sustainability analysis. Exergy efficiency, waste exergy ratio, recoverable exergy ratio, environmental effect factor, exergy destruction factor and exergetic sustainability index are evaluated as exergetic sustainability indicators of the turbojet engine under investigation in the current study. The exergy efficiency of the small scale turbojet engine is calculated as 27.25 % whereas the waste exergy ratio, the exergy destruction factor and the sustainability index of the engine are found to be 0.9756, 0.5466 and 0.2793, respectively.

  16. Efficiency of the rocket engines with a supersonic afterburner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, A. A.

    1992-08-01

    The paper is concerned with the problem of regenerative cooling of the liquid-propellant rocket engine combustion chamber at high pressures of the working fluid. It is shown that high combustion product pressures can be achieved in the liquid-propellant rocket engine with a supersonic afterburner than in a liquid-propellant rocket engine with a conventional subsonic combustion chamber for the same allowable heat flux density. However, the liquid-propellant rocket engine with a supersonic afterburner becomes more economical than the conventional engine only at generator gas temperatures of 1700 K and higher.

  17. J-85 jet engine noise measured in the ONERA S1 wind tunnel and extrapolated to far field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Julienne, Alain; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Noise from a J-85 turbojet with a conical, convergent nozzle was measured in simulated flight in the ONERA S1 Wind Tunnel. Data are presented for several flight speeds up to 130 m/sec and for radiation angles of 40 to 160 degrees relative to the upstream direction. The jet was operated with subsonic and sonic exhaust speeds. A moving microphone on a 2 m sideline was used to survey the radiated sound field in the acoustically treated, closed test section. The data were extrapolated to a 122 m sideline by means of a multiple-sideline source-location method, which was used to identify the acoustic source regions, directivity patterns, and near field effects. The source-location method is described along with its advantages and disadvantages. Results indicate that the effects of simulated flight on J-85 noise are significant. At the maximum forward speed of 130 m/sec, the peak overall sound levels in the aft quadrant were attentuated approximately 10 dB relative to sound levels of the engine operated statically. As expected, the simulated flight and static data tended to merge in the forward quadrant as the radiation angle approached 40 degrees. There is evidence that internal engine or shock noise was important in the forward quadrant. The data are compared with published predictions for flight effects on pure jet noise and internal engine noise. A new empirical prediction is presented that relates the variation of internally generated engine noise or broadband shock noise to forward speed. Measured near field noise extrapolated to far field agrees reasonably well with data from similar engines tested statically outdoors, in flyover, in a wind tunnel, and on the Bertin Aerotrain. Anomalies in the results for the forward quadrant and for angles above 140 degrees are discussed. The multiple-sideline method proved to be cumbersome in this application, and it did not resolve all of the uncertainties associated with measurements of jet noise close to the jet. The

  18. Development of a turbojet engine gearbox test rig for prognostics and health management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Aida; Dadouche, Azzedine

    2012-11-01

    Aircraft engine gearboxes represent one of the many critical systems/elements that require special attention for longer and safer operation. Reactive maintenance strategies are unsuitable as they usually imply higher repair costs when compared to condition based maintenance. This paper discusses the main prognostics and health management (PHM) approaches, describes a newly designed gearbox experimental facility and analyses preliminary data for gear prognosis. The test rig is designed to provide full capabilities of performing controlled experiments suitable for developing a reliable diagnostic and prognostic system. The rig is based on the accessory gearbox of the GE J85 turbojet engine, which has been slightly modified and reconfigured to replicate real operating conditions such as speeds and loads. Defect to failure tests (DTFT) have been run to evaluate the performance of the rig as well as to assess prognostic metrics extracted from sensors installed on the gearbox casing (vibration and acoustic). The paper also details the main components of the rig and describes the various challenges encountered. Successful DTFT results were obtained during an idle engine performance test and prognostic metrics associated with the sensor suite were evaluated and discussed.

  19. Prediction of the production of nitrogen oxide (NOx) in turbojet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsague, Louis; Tsogo, Joseph; Tatietse, Thomas Tamo

    Gaseous nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2=NOx) are known as atmospheric trace constituent. These gases remain a big concern despite the advances in low NOx emission technology because they play a critical role in regulating the oxidization capacity of the atmosphere according to Crutzen [1995. My life with O 3, NO x and other YZO x S; Nobel Lecture; Chemistry 1995; pp 195; December 8, 1995] . Aircraft emissions of nitrogen oxides ( NOx) are regulated by the International Civil Aviation Organization. The prediction of NOx emission in turbojet engines by combining combustion operational data produced information showing correlation between the analytical and empirical results. There is close similarity between the calculated emission index and experimental data. The correlation shows improved accuracy when the 2124 experimental data from 11 gas turbine engines are evaluated than a previous semi empirical correlation approach proposed by Pearce et al. [1993. The prediction of thermal NOx in gas turbine exhausts. Eleventh International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, Tokyo, 1993, pp. 6-9]. The new method we propose predict the production of NOx with far more improved accuracy than previous methods. Since a turbojet engine works in an atmosphere where temperature, pressure and humidity change frequently, a correction factor is developed with standard atmospheric laws and some correlations taken from scientific literature [Swartwelder, M., 2000. Aerospace engineering 410 Term Project performance analysis, November 17, 2000, pp. 2-5; Reed, J.A. Java Gas Turbine Simulator Documentation. pp. 4-5]. The new correction factor is validated with experimental observations from 19 turbojet engines cruising at altitudes of 9 and 13 km given in the ICAO repertory [Middleton, D., 1992. Appendix K (FAA/SETA). Section 1: Boeing Method Two Indices, 1992, pp. 2-3]. This correction factor will enable the prediction of cruise NOx emissions of turbojet engines at cruising speeds. The ICAO

  20. Method and apparatus for afterburning flue gases

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sikander, A.; Bjorkman, A.; Jonsson, G.

    1984-11-13

    A method of afterburning flue gases comprises passing impure gases from, for example, an incineration plant such as a destructor, process furnace, crematory furnace or heating boiler, through a burner in an afterburner where through enforced mixture with combustion gas they undergo complete combustion. The combustion gas, depending on the composition of the flue gases, may comprise air or oxygen or either mixed with petroleum gas. In apparatus for implementation of the method, the flue gases and the combustion gas are introduced into a burner which blows the gas mixture into a flame bowl where temperatures in the range ofmore » from 1,500/sup 0/-2,000/sup 0/ C. can be achieved. In one embodiment, the burner produces a conical basket-shaped flame in which the flue gases undergo complete combustion.« less

  1. A CFD Study of Turbojet and Single-Throat Ramjet Ejector Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Ing; Hunter, Louis

    1996-01-01

    Supersonic ejector-diffuse systems have application in driving an advanced airbreathing propulsion system, consisting of turbojet engines acting as the primary and a single throat ramjet acting as the secondary. The turbojet engines are integrated into the single throat ramjet to minimize variable geometry and eliminate redundant propulsion components. The result is a simple, lightweight system that is operable from takeoff to high Mach numbers. At this high Mach number (approximately Mach 3.0), the turbojets are turned off and the high speed ramjet/scramjet take over and drive the vehicle to Mach 6.0. The turbojet-ejector-ramjet system consists of nonafterburning turbojet engines with ducting canted at 20 degrees to supply supersonic flow (downstream of CD nozzle) to the horizontal ramjet duct at a supply total pressure and temperature. Two conditions were modelled by a 2-D full Navier Stokes code at Mach 2.0. The code modelled the Fabri choke as well as the non-Fabri non critical case, using a computational throat to supply the back pressure. The results, which primarily predict the secondary mass flow rate and the mixed conditions at the ejector exit were in reasonable agreement with the 1-D cycle code (TBCC).

  2. Turbojet-type engines for the airbreathing propulsion of reusable winged launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duparcq, J. L.; Hermant, E.; Scherrer, D.

    Combined propulsion systems for hypersonic application have become new challenges for industrial and research organizations. In France, SNECMA and SEP, which have just joined together for a common effort on hypersonics within Hyperspace, and ONERA have been involved, under CNES (French space agency) contracts, in the assessment of new propulsion concepts for reusable winged launchers (SSTO or TSTO). As potential solutions for the airbreathing propulsion, some turbojet-type engines are presented: —the twin spool turbojet or turbofan with reheat —the turbojet with reheat —the twin-duct turbojet ramjet —the precooled turbojet with reheat. All these engines have been sized for a flight Mach number under seven with a cryogenic fuel (liquid hydrogen). Mainly due to total temperature and pressure encountered along the trajectory, the systems will have to withstand severe physical constraints. Coupled with performance and size requirements, like specific thrust and maximum air capture area, these operating conditions have been taken into account in order to select each engine cycle and technical arrangement. Performance and mass criteria make it possible to compare these systems and to emphasize their distinctive features among the propulsion concepts envisioned for the future reusable winged launchers (including airbreathing combined engines under study in France). The first step of the final selection, leading to the best adaptation between the engine and the vehicle, will then be tackled. This will be particularly enhanced by the analysis of potential advantages or technical difficulties, like thrust-to-weight ratio or needs of variable geometry and heat exchangers. The twin-duct turbojet ramjet, for example, is probably one of the best candidates for the first stages of propulsion of a reusable winged launcher.

  3. Surface Temperature Measurements from a Stator Vane Doublet in a Turbine Engine Afterburner Flame using Ultra-Bright Cr-Doped GdAlO3 Thermographic Phosphor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Jenkins, Thomas P.; Allison, Stephen W.; Wolfe, Douglas E.; Howard, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Luminescence-based surface temperature measurements from an ultra-bright Cr-doped GdAlO3 perovskite (GAP:Cr) coating were successfully conducted on an air-film-cooled stator vane doublet exposed to the afterburner flame of a J85 test engine at University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). The objective of the testing at UTSI was to demonstrate that reliable thermal barrier coating (TBC) surface temperatures based on luminescence decay of a thermographic phosphor could be obtained from the surface of an actual engine component in an aggressive afterburner flame environment and to address the challenges of a highly radiant background and high velocity gases. A high-pressure turbine vane doublet from a Honeywell TECH7000 turbine engine was coated with a standard electron-beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) 200-m-thick TBC composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) onto which a 25-m-thick GAP:Cr thermographic phosphor layer was deposited by EB-PVD. The ultra-bright broadband luminescence from the GAP:Cr thermographic phosphor is shown to offer the advantage of over an order-of-magnitude greater emission intensity compared to rare-earth-doped phosphors in the engine test environment. This higher emission intensity was shown to be very desirable for overcoming the necessarily restricted probe light collection solid angle and for achieving high signal-to-background levels. Luminescence-decay-based surface temperature measurements varied from 500 to over 1000C depending on engine operating conditions and level of air film cooling.

  4. Performance Evaluation of an Experimental Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekici, Selcuk; Sohret, Yasin; Coban, Kahraman; Altuntas, Onder; Karakoc, T. Hikmet

    2017-11-01

    An exergy analysis is presented including design parameters and performance assessment, by identifying the losses and efficiency of a gas turbine engine. The aim of this paper is to determine the performance of a small turbojet engine with an exergetic analysis based on test data. Experimental data from testing was collected at full-load of small turbojet engine. The turbojet engine exhaust data contains CO2, CO, CH4, H2, H2O, NO, NO2, N2 and O2 with a relative humidity of 35 % for the ambient air of the performed experiments. The evaluated main components of the turbojet engine are the air compressor, the combustion chamber and the gas turbine. As a result of the thermodynamic analysis, exergy efficiencies (based on product/fuel) of the air compressor, the combustion chamber and the gas turbine are 81.57 %, 50.13 % and 97.81 %, respectively. A major proportion of the total exergy destruction was found for the combustion chamber at 167.33 kW. The exergy destruction rates are 8.20 %, 90.70 % and 1.08 % in the compressor, the combustion chamber and the gas turbine, respectively. The rates of exergy destruction within the system components are compared on the basis of the exergy rate of the fuel provided to the engine. Eventually, the exergy rate of the fuel is calculated to be 4.50 % of unusable due to exergy destruction within the compressor, 49.76 % unusable due to exergy destruction within the combustion chamber and 0.59 % unusable due to exergy destruction within the gas turbine. It can be stated that approximately 55 % of the exergy rate of the fuel provided to the engine can not be used by the engine.

  5. Investigating ground effects on mixing and afterburning during a TNT explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedina, E.; Fureby, C.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the unconfined and semi-confined condensed phase explosions of TNT will be studied using large eddy simulations based on the unsteady, compressible, reacting, multi-species Navier-Stokes equations to gain further understanding of the physical processes involved in a condensed phase explosion and the effect of confinement on the physical processes involved. The analysis of the mixing and afterburning of TNT explosions in free air (unconfined) and near the ground (semi-confined) indicates that the combustion region of detonation products and air is determined by the vorticity patterns, which are induced by the Richtmeyer-Meshkov instabilities that arise during the explosion. When the explosive is detonated in the vicinity of a surface, the surface affects the shock propagation by creating complex shock systems, thereby changing the orientation of the vorticity, giving the afterburning a mushroom shape, and increasing performance of an explosive charge by prolonging the existence of the mixing layer and thereby the afterburning.

  6. Exhaust emission survey of an F100 afterburning turbofan engine at simulated altitude flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, J. E.; Cullom, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Emissions of carbon monoxide, total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide from an F100, afterburning, two spool turbofan engine at simulated flight conditions are reported. For each flight condition emission measurements were made for two or three power levels from intermediate power (nonafterburning) through maximum afterburning. The data showed that emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the nozzle. Carbon monoxide emissions were low for intermediate power (nonafterburning) and partial afterburning, but regions of high carbon monoxide were present downstream of the flame holder at maximum afterburning. Unburned hydrocarbon emissions were low for most of the simulated flight conditions. The local NOX concentrations and their variability with power level increased with increasing flight Mach number at constant altitude, and decreased with increasing altitude at constant Mach number. Carbon dioxide emissions were proportional to local fuel air ratio for all conditions.

  7. Comparison of Performance of AN-F-58 Fuel and Gasoline in J34-WE-22 Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowman, Harry W; Younger, George G

    1949-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the performance of AN-F-58 fuel in various types of turbojet engine, the performance of this fuel in a 3000-pound-thrust turbojet engine has been investigated in an altitude test chamber together with the comparative performance of 62-octane gasoline. The investigation of normal engine performance, which covered a range of engine speeds at altitudes from 5000 to 50,000 feet and flight Mach numbers up to 1.00, showed that both the net thrust and average turbine-outlet temperatures were approximately the same for both fuels. The specific fuel consumption and the combustion efficiency at the maximum engine speeds investigated were approximately the same for both fuels at altitudes up to 35,000 feet, but at an altitude of 50,000 feet the specific fuel consumption was about 9 percent higher and the combustion efficiency was correspondingly lower with the AN-F-58 fuel than with gasoline. The low-engine-speed blow-out limits were about the same for both fuels. Ignition of AN-F-58 fuel with the standard spark plug was possible only with the spark plug in a clean condition; ignition was impossible at all flight conditions investigated when the plug was fouled by an accumulation of liquid fuel from a preceding false start. Use of an extended-electrode spark plug provided satisfactory ignition over a slightly smaller range of altitudes and flight Mach numbers than for gasoline with the standard spark plug.

  8. Simulations of Heterogeneous Detonations and Post Detonation Turbulent Mixing and Afterburning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Suresh; Gottiparthi, Kalyana

    2011-06-01

    Most metal-loaded explosives and thermobaric explosives exploit the afterburning of metals to maintain pressure and temperature conditions.The use of such explosives in complex environment can result in post detonation flow containing many scales of vortical motion, flow jetting and shear, as well as plume-surface interactions due to flow impingement and wall flows. In general, all these interactions can lead to highly turbulent flow fields even if the initial ambient conditions were quiescent. Thus, turbulent mixing can dominate initial mixing and impact the final afterburn. We conduct three-dimensional numerical simulations of the propagation of detonation resulting from metal-loaded (inert or reacting) explosives and analyze the afterburn process as well as the generation of multiple scales of mixing in the post detonation flow field. Impact of the detonation and post-detonation flow field on solid surface is also considered for a variety of initial conditions. Comparison with available data is carried out to demonstrate validity of the simulation method. Supported by Defense Threat Reduction Agency

  9. Altitude Wind Tunnel Investigation of XJ34-WE-32 Engine Performance Without Electronic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomer, Harry E; Walker, William J; Pantages, George L

    1953-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel to evaluate the performance characteristics of an XJ34-WE-32 turbojet engine which was equipped with an afterburner, a variable-area exhaust nozzle, and an integrated electronic control. The data were obtained with the afterburner and electronic control inoperative. Performance data were obtained at altitudes from 5000 to 55,000 feet and flight Mach numbers from 0.28 to 1.06 for a complete range of operable engine speeds at each of four fixed positions of the variable-area exhaust nozzle.

  10. Supersonic Transport Noise Reduction Technology Program - Phase 2, Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    a J85 is shown on Figure 350. The J85 turbojet engine has an eight-stage compressor (with an air bleed system) and a two-stage turbine . Blade ...investigated in this program using a YJ85 engine . Both turbine second-stage spacing ( blade - vane ) and exhaust duct treatment were determined to be...using a J85 engine with massive Inlet suppressor and open nozzle to unmask the turbine . Second-stag« turbine blade /nozzle spacing and exhaust

  11. 75 FR 21161 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CJ610 Series Turbojet Engines and CF700...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CJ610 Series Turbojet Engines and CF700 Series Turbofan... adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for GE CJ610 series turbojet engines and CF700 turbofan engines... part 39 with a proposed AD. The proposed AD applies to GE CJ610 series turbojet engines and CF700...

  12. Aerodynamic stability analysis of NASA J85-13/planar pressure pulse generator installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, K.; Hosny, W. M.; Steenken, W. G.

    1980-01-01

    A digital computer simulation model for the J85-13/Planar Pressure Pulse Generator (P3 G) test installation was developed by modifying an existing General Electric compression system model. This modification included the incorporation of a novel method for describing the unsteady blade lift force. This approach significantly enhanced the capability of the model to handle unsteady flows. In addition, the frequency response characteristics of the J85-13/P3G test installation were analyzed in support of selecting instrumentation locations to avoid standing wave nodes within the test apparatus and thus, low signal levels. The feasibility of employing explicit analytical expression for surge prediction was also studied.

  13. High frequency-heated air turbojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miron, J. H. D.

    1986-01-01

    A description is given of a method to heat air coming from a turbojet compressor to a temperature necessary to produce required expansion without requiring fuel. This is done by high frequency heating, which heats the walls corresponding to the combustion chamber in existing jets, by mounting high frequency coils in them. The current transformer and high frequency generator to be used are discussed.

  14. Noise of High-Performance Aircraft at Afterburner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-22

    Investigation of the importance of indirect combustion noise as a dominant component of military aircraft noise at afterburner. This quarterly...the combustion process is highly unsteady. This creates large temperature fluctuations resulting in the generation of numerous high and low...flow with significant axial velocity gradients, indirect combustion noise is generated (see figure 1). The present research is to investigate this

  15. Operating condition and geometry effects on low-frequency afterburner combustion instability in a turbofan at altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullom, R. R.; Johnsen, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Three afterburner configurations were tested in a low-bypass-ratio turbofan engine to determine the effect of various fuel distributions, inlet conditions, flameholder geometry, and fuel injection location on combustion instability. Tests were conducted at simulated flight conditions of Mach 0.75 and 1.3 at altitudes from 11,580 to 14,020 m (38,000 to 46,000 ft). In these tests combustion instability with frequency from 28 to 90 Hz and peak-to-peak pressure amplitude up to 46.5 percent of the afterburner inlet total pressure level was encountered. Combustion instability was suppressed in these tests by varying the fuel distribution in the afterburner.

  16. Development of Supersonic Vehicle for Demonstration of a Precooled Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Shujiro; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shin'ichiro; Bando, Nobutaka; Kadooka, Shouhei; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki; Miyaji, Koji; Uchiyama, Taku; Hashimoto, Tatsuaki

    JAXA is developing Mach 5 hypersonic turbojet engine technology that can be applied in a future hypersonic transport. Now, Jet Engine Technology Research Center of JAXA conducts the experimental study using a 1 / 10 scale-model engine. In parallel to engine development activities, a new supersonic flight-testing vehicle for the hypersonic turbojet engine is under development since 2004. In this paper, the system configuration of the flight-testing vehicle is outlined and development status is reported.

  17. Abatement of N{sub 2}O emissions from circulating fluidized bed combustion through afterburning

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gustavsson, L.; Leckner, B.

    1995-04-01

    A method for the abatement of N{sub 2}O emission from fluidized bed combustion has been investigated. The method consists of burning a secondary fuel after the normal circulating fluidized bed combustor. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), fuel oil, pulverized coal, and wood, as well as sawdust, were used as the secondary fuel. Experiments showed that the N{sub 2}O emission can be reduced by 90% or more by this technique. The resulting N{sub 2}O emission was principally a function of the gas temperature achieved in the afterburner and independent of afterburning fuel, but the amount of air in the combustion gases frommore » the primary combustion also influences the results. No negative effects on sulfur capture or on NO or CO emissions were recorded. In the experiments, the primary cyclone of the fluidized bed boiler was used for afterburning. If afterburning is implemented in a plant optimized for this purpose, an amount of secondary fuel corresponding to 10% of the total energy input should remove practically all N{sub 2}O. During the present experiments the secondary fuel consumption was greater than 10% of the total energy input due to various losses.« less

  18. Radio Observations of the Tidal Disruption Event XMMSL1 J0740-85

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, K. D.; Wieringa, M. H.; Berger, E.; Saxton, R. D.; Komossa, S.

    2017-03-01

    We present radio observations of the tidal disruption event candidate (TDE) XMMSL1 J0740-85 spanning 592 to 875 days post X-ray discovery. We detect radio emission that fades from an initial peak flux density at 1.6 GHz of 1.19 ± 0.06 mJy to 0.65 ± 0.06 mJy, suggesting an association with the TDE. This makes XMMSL1 J0740-85 at d = 75 Mpc the nearest TDE with detected radio emission to date and only the fifth TDE with radio emission overall. The observed radio luminosity rules out a powerful relativistic jet like that seen in the relativistic TDE Swift J1644+57. Instead, we infer from an equipartition analysis that the radio emission most likely arises from a non-relativistic outflow similar to that seen in the nearby TDE ASASSN-14li, with a velocity of about 104 km s-1 and a kinetic energy of about 1048 erg, expanding into a medium with a density of about 102 cm-3. Alternatively, the radio emission could arise from a weak initially relativistic but decelerated jet with an energy of ˜ 2× {10}50 erg, or (for an extreme disruption geometry) from the unbound debris. The radio data for XMMSL1 J0740-85 continues to support the previous suggestion of a bimodal distribution of common non-relativistic isotropic outflows and rare relativistic jets in TDEs (in analogy with the relation between Type Ib/c supernovae and long-duration gamma-ray bursts). The radio data also provide a new measurement of the circumnuclear density on a sub-parsec scale around an extragalactic supermassive black hole.

  19. Process and apparatus for afterburning of combustible pollutants from an internal combustion engine

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Laurent, P.A.

    1978-07-04

    In a process for the afterburning of the combustible pollutants from an internal combustion engine, in order to automatically reduce the secondary induction rate when power increases without using a controlling valve actuatd by the carburetor venturi depression, there is provided a volumetric efficiency of the secondary air pump linked to and activated by the engine and a volumetric efficiency which decreases when the ratio between its back pressure and suction pressure increases, this reduction being achieved through the proper selection of the pump volumetric compression ratio r: between 0.6 c and 1.3 c when a steeply decreasing trend ismore » required, and above 1.3 c if a slower and slower decreasing trend is required. To perform this process an afterburner apparatus has a nitrogen oxide reducing catalyst placed inside the afterburner reactor on the gas stream immediately at the outlet of a torus, in which the gases are homogenized and their reaction with preinjection air is terminated.« less

  20. A Thermodynamic Study of the Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Karp, Irvin M

    1947-01-01

    Charts are presented for computing thrust, fuel consumption, and other performance values of a turbojet engine for any given set of operating conditions and component efficiencies. The effects of pressure losses in the inlet duct and the combustion chamber, of variation in physical properties of the gas as it passes through the system, of reheating of the gas due to turbine losses, and of change in mass flow by the addition of fuel are included. The principle performance chart shows the effects of primary variables and correction charts provide the effects of secondary variables and of turbine-loss reheat on the performance of the system. The influence of characteristics of a given compressor and turbine on performance of a turbojet engine containing a matched set of these given components is discussed for cases of an engine with a centrifugal-flow compressor and of an engine with an axial-flow compressor.

  1. Optimum flight paths of turbojet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, Angelo

    1955-01-01

    The climb of turbojet aircraft is analyzed and discussed including the accelerations. Three particular flight performances are examined: minimum time of climb, climb with minimum fuel consumption, and steepest climb. The theoretical results obtained from a previous study are put in a form that is suitable for application on the following simplifying assumptions: the Mach number is considered an independent variable instead of the velocity; the variations of the airplane mass due to fuel consumption are disregarded; the airplane polar is assumed to be parabolic; the path curvatures and the squares of the path angles are disregarded in the projection of the equation of motion on the normal to the path; lastly, an ideal turbojet with performance independent of the velocity is involved. The optimum Mach number for each flight condition is obtained from the solution of a sixth order equation in which the coefficients are functions of two fundamental parameters: the ratio of minimum drag in level flight to the thrust and the Mach number which represents the flight at constant altitude and maximum lift-drag ratio.

  2. Performance Charts for a Turbojet System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, Irving M.

    1947-01-01

    Convenient charts are presented for computing the thrust, fuel consumption, and other performance values of a turbojet system. These charts take into account the effects of ram pressure, compressor pressure ratio, ratio of combustion-chamber-outlet temperature to atmospheric temperature, compressor efficiency, turbine efficiency, combustion efficiency, discharge-nozzle coefficient, losses in total pressure in the inlet to the jet-propulsion unit and in the combustion chamber, and variation in specific heats with temperature. The principal performance charts show clearly the effects of the primary variables and correction charts provide the effects of the secondary variables. The performance of illustrative cases of turbojet systems is given. It is shown that maximum thrust per unit mass rate of air flow occurs at a lower compressor pressure ratio than minimum specific fuel consumption. The thrust per unit mass rate of air flow increases as the combustion-chamber discharge temperature increases. For minimum specific fuel consumption, however, an optimum combustion-chamber discharge temperature exists, which in some cases may be less than the limiting temperature imposed by the strength temperature characteristics of present materials.

  3. Annular MHD Physics for Turbojet Energy Bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of annular Hall type MHD generator/accelerator ducts for turbojet energy bypass is evaluated assuming weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges. The equations for a 1-D, axisymmetric MHD generator/accelerator are derived and numerically integrated to determine the generator/accelerator performance characteristics. The concept offers a shockless means of interacting with high speed inlet flows and potentially offers variable inlet geometry performance without the complexity of moving parts simply by varying the generator loading parameter. The cycle analysis conducted iteratively with a spike inlet and turbojet flying at M = 7 at 30 km altitude is estimated to have a positive thrust per unit mass flow of 185 N-s/kg. The turbojet allowable combustor temperature is set at an aggressive 2200 deg K. The annular MHD Hall generator/accelerator is L = 3 m in length with a B(sub r) = 5 Tesla magnetic field and a conductivity of sigma = 5 mho/m for the generator and sigma= 1.0 mho/m for the accelerator. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the generator is eta(sub sg) = 84 percent at an enthalpy extraction ratio, eta(sub Ng) = 0.63. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the accelerator is eta(sub sa) = 81 percent at an enthalpy addition ratio, eta(sub Na) = 0.62. An assessment of the ionization fraction necessary to achieve a conductivity of sigma = 1.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 1.90 X 10(exp -6), and for sigma = 5.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 9.52 X 10(exp -6).

  4. Noise of high-performance aircraft at afterburner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.

    2015-09-01

    The noise from a high-performance aircraft at afterburner is investigated. The main objective is to determine whether the dominant noise components are the same or similar to those of a hot supersonic laboratory jet. For this purpose, measured noise data from F-22A Raptors are analyzed. It is found, based on both spectral and directivity data, that there is a new dominant noise component in addition to the usual turbulent mixing noise. The characteristic features of the new noise component are identified. Measured data indicates that the new noise component is observed only when the rate of fuel burn of the engine is increased significantly above that of the intermediate power setting. This suggests that the new noise component is combustion related. The possibility that it is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of hot spots from the afterburner through the nozzle of the jet is investigated. Because flow and temperature data were not measured in the F-22A engine tests, to provide support to the proposition, numerical simulations of indirect combustion noise generation due to the passing of an entropy wave pulse (a hot spot) through a military-style nozzle are carried out. Sound generation is observed at the front and at the back of the pulse. This creates a fast and a slow acoustic wave as the sound radiates out from the nozzle exit. Quantitative estimates of the principal directions of acoustic radiation due to the emitted fast and slow acoustic waves are made. It is found that there are reasonably good agreements with measured data. To estimate the intensity level (IL) of the radiated indirect combustion noise, a time-periodic entropy wave train of 15 percent temperature fluctuation is used as a model of the hot spots coming out of the afterburner. This yields an IL of 175.5 dB. This is a fairly intense noise source, well capable of causing the radiation of the new jet noise component.

  5. Temperature in a J47-25 Turbojet-engine Combustor and Turbine Sections During Steady-state and Transient Operation in a Sea-level Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, C R; Johnston, J R

    1955-01-01

    In order to determine the conditions of engine operation causing the most severe thermal stresses in the hot parts of a turbojet engine, a J47-25 engine was instrumented with thermocouples and operated to obtain engine material temperatures under steady-state and transient conditions. Temperatures measured during rated take-off conditions of nozzle guide vanes downstream of a single combustor differed on the order of 400 degrees F depending on the relation of the blades position to the highest temperature zone of the burner. Under the same operation conditions, measured midspan temperatures in a nozzle guide vane in the highest temperature zone of a combustor wake ranged from approximately 1670 degrees F at leading and trailing edges to 1340 degrees F at midchord on the convex side of the blade. The maximum measured nozzle-guide-vane temperature of 1920degrees at the trailing edge occurred during a rapid acceleration from idle to rated take-off speed following which the tail-pipe gas temperature exceeded maximum allowable temperature by 125 degrees F.

  6. Altitude test of several afterburner configurations on a turbofan engine with a hydrogen heater to simulate an elevated turbine discharge temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsen, R. L.; Cullom, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    A performance test of several experimental afterburner configurations was conducted with a mixed-flow turbofan engine in an altitude facility. The simulated flight conditions were for Mach 1.4 at two altitudes, 12,190 and 14,630 meters. Turbine discharge temperatures of 889 and 1056 K were used. A production afterburner was tested for comparison. The research afterburners included partial forced mixers with V-gutter flameholders, a carburetted V-gutter flameholder, and a triple ring V-gutter flameholder with four swirl-can fuel mixers. Fuel injection variations were included. Performance data shown include augmented thrust ratio, thrust specific fuel consumption, combustion efficiency, and total pressure drop across the afterburner.

  7. Gp85 genetic diversity of avian leukosis virus subgroup J among different individual chickens from a native flock.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Fu, Jiayuan; Cui, Shuai; Meng, Fanfeng; Cui, Zhizhong; Fan, Jianhua; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2017-05-01

    To compare the genetic diversity and quasispecies evolution of avian leukosis virus (ALV) among different individuals, 5 chickens, raised in Shandong Provice of China, were randomly selected from a local chicken flock associated with serious tumor cases. Blood samples were collected and inoculated into chicken embryo fibroblast and DF-1 cell lines for virus isolation and identification, respectively, of Marek's disease virus (MDV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), and ALV. Five strains of ALV subgroup J (ALV-J) were identified, and the gp85 gene from each strain was amplified and cloned. For each strain, about 20 positive clones of gp85 gene were selected for sequence analyses and the variability of the quasispecies of the 5 strains was compared. The results showed that the nuclear acid length of gp85 gene of 5 ALV-J isolates is 921 bp, 921 bp, 924 bp, 918 bp, and 912 bp respectively, and amino acid homologies of different gp85 clones from the 5 ALV-J strains were 99.3 to 100%, 99.3 to 100%, 99.4 to 100%, 98.4 to 100%, 99.0 to 100%, respectively. The proportions of dominant quasispecies were 65.0%, 85.0%, 85.0%, 50.0%, 84.2%, respectively, and homology of the gp85 among these dominant quasispecies was 89.2 to 92.5%. These data demonstrated the composition of the ALV-J quasispecies varied among infected individuals even within the same flock, and the dominant quasispecies continued to evolve both for their proportion and gene mutation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Thermo-Gas-Dynamic Model of Afterburning in Explosions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kuhl, A L; Ferguson, R E; Bell, J B

    2003-07-27

    A theoretical model of afterburning in explosions created by turbulent mixing of the detonation products from fuel-rich charges with air is described. It contains three key elements: (i) a thermodynamic-equilibrium description of the fluids (fuel, air, and products), (ii) a multi-component gas-dynamic treatment of the flow field, and (iii) a sub-grid model of molecular processes of mixing, combustion and equilibration.

  9. Performance of J-33-A-21 and J-33-A-23 Compressors with and without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beede, William L.

    1948-01-01

    In an investigation of the J-33-A-21 and the J-33-A-23 compressors with and without water injection, it was discovered that the compressors reacted differently to water injection although they were physically similar. An analysis of the effect of water injection on compressor performance and the consequent effect on matching of the compressor and turbine components in the turbojet engine was made. The analysis of component matching is based on a turbine flow function defined as the product of the equivalent weight flow and the reciprocal of the compressor pressure ratio.

  10. Using Underwater Explosion and Cylinder Expansion Tests to Calibrate Afterburn Models for Aluminized Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedberg, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    The study explores the combined use of underwater performance tests and cylinder expansion tests in order to parameterize detonation models for aluminized explosives which exhibit afterburning. The approach is suggested to be used in conjunction with thermochemical computation. A formulation containing RDX and aluminum powder is considered and several charges with varying masses are submerged and detonated. Pressure gauges are employed at horizontal distances scaling with the charge diameter, and the specific shock wave energy is shown to increase with charge mass. This is attributed to the combustion of aluminum particles after the Chapman-Jouguet plane. Cylinder expansion tests are carried out using Photon Doppler Velocimetry to register the wall expansion velocity. The tests are modeled using a multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach with the Guirguis-Miller model describing detonation with afterburning. The equation of state and afterburn rate law parameters are adjusted such that the model reproduces the results from the cylinder expansion and underwater tests. The approach seems promising, and might be valuable for aluminized explosive formulations intended to be used in a variety of confinement conditions. Swedish Armed Forces.

  11. Development and application of the double V type flame stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Jigen

    1994-06-01

    The double V type flame stabilizer is an advanced stabilizer of low drag constructed with a big V type stabilizer overlapping to a small V type one. It has the advantages of good ignition performance, low drag loss, improved afterburning efficiency, low skin temperature, and leaner blowout boundary, hence the overall performance of turbojet engine will be improved and the flight reliability increased. More than 40 tests on stand rig, 10 tests in aircraft and 8 tests in flight were carried out for its birth, and thereafter, it started to be in service for the turbojet engine on a small batch scale in 1986-1987.

  12. Noise of High Performance Aircraft at Afterburner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-10

    Navy F18E and the Air Force F22 aircraft became available to the principal investigator. The present project is to analyze these data to identify...the end of the first year of this project (2015), we were able to clearly identify two new dominant noise components from the F22 at afterburner...F18E and F22 aircraft. Compare the noise spectra with those of laboratory hot supersonic jets. ii. Identify any new dominant noise components emitted

  13. Steam thermolysis of tire shreds: modernization in afterburning of accompanying gas with waste steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalitko, V. A.

    2010-03-01

    On the basis of experience in the commercial operation of tire-shred steam thermolysis in EnresTec Inc. (Taiwan) producing high-grade commercial carbon, liquid pyrolysis fuel, and accompanying fuel gas by this method, we have proposed a number of engineering solutions and calculated-analytical substantiations for modernization and intensification of the process by afterburning the accompanying gas with waste steam condensable in the scrubber of water gas cleaning of afterburning products. The condensate is completely freed of the organic pyrolysis impurities and the necessity of separating it from the liquid fuel, as is the case with the active process, is excluded.

  14. Turbojet-engine Starting and Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Cafferty, R. J.; Straight, D. M.

    1956-01-01

    From considerations of safety and reliability in performance of gas-turbine aircraft, it is clear that engine starting and acceleration are of utmost importance. For this reason extensive efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the factors involved in the starting and acceleration of engines. In chapter III it is shown that certain basic combustion requirements must be met before ignition can occur; consequently, the design and operation of an engine must be tailored to provide these basic requirements in the combustion zone of the engine, particularly in the vicinity of the ignition source. It is pointed out in chapter III that ignition by electrical discharges is aided by high pressure, high temperature, low gas velocity and turbulence, gaseous fuel-air mixture, proper mixture strength, and-an optimum spark. duration. The simultaneous achievement of all these requirements in an actual turbojet-engine combustor is obviously impossible, yet any attempt to satisfy as many requirements as possible will result in lower ignition energies, lower-weight ignition systems, and greater reliability. These factors together with size and cost considerations determine the acceptability of the final ignition system. It is further shown in chapter III that the problem of wall quenching affects engine starting. For example, the dimensions of the volume to be burned must be larger than the quenching distance at the lowest pressure and the most adverse fuel-air ratio encountered. This fact affects the design of cross-fire tubes between adjacent combustion chambers in a tubular-combustor turbojet engine. Only two chambers in these engines contain spark plugs; therefore, the flame must propagate through small connecting tubes between the chambers. The quenching studies indicate that if the cross-fire tubes are too narrow the flame will not propagate from one chamber to another. In order to better understand the role of the basic factors in actual engine operation, many

  15. HYDES: A generalized hybrid computer program for studying turbojet or turbofan engine dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuch, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    This report describes HYDES, a hybrid computer program capable of simulating one-spool turbojet, two-spool turbojet, or two-spool turbofan engine dynamics. HYDES is also capable of simulating two- or three-stream turbofans with or without mixing of the exhaust streams. The program is intended to reduce the time required for implementing dynamic engine simulations. HYDES was developed for running on the Lewis Research Center's Electronic Associates (EAI) 690 Hybrid Computing System and satisfies the 16384-word core-size and hybrid-interface limits of that machine. The program could be modified for running on other computing systems. The use of HYDES to simulate a single-spool turbojet and a two-spool, two-stream turbofan engine is demonstrated. The form of the required input data is shown and samples of output listings (teletype) and transient plots (x-y plotter) are provided. HYDES is shown to be capable of performing both steady-state design and off-design analyses and transient analyses.

  16. Evaluation of Environmental Profiles for Reliability Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    Center, Attn: RBRS, Griffiss AFB, NY 13441. RADC ltr, 3 Mar 1977 ä>> 2s **« ** BEEN 0EUmTE0 ’T8 USE «■ DISCLOSURE. WSTRIBüTION SWTE)( tNT ^ *^VE0 F0R...source for this aircraft is two turbo-jet engines with afterburner , mounted in the aft fuselage, having no fuselage exhaust impingement. The vibration

  17. Experimental cold-flow evaluation of a ram air cooled plug nozzle concept for afterburning turbojet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straight, D. M.; Harrington, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    A concept for plug nozzles cooled by inlet ram air is presented. Experimental data obtained with a small scale model, 21.59-cm (8.5-in.) diameter, in a static altitude facility demonstrated high thrust performance and excellent pumping characteristics. Tests were made at nozzle pressure ratios simulating supersonic cruise and takeoff conditions. Effect of plug size, outer shroud length, and varying amounts of secondary flow were investigated.

  18. Measurements and predictions of flyover and static noise of a TF30 afterburning turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Lasagna, P. L.; Oas, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    The noise of the TF30 afterburning turbofan engine in an F-111 airplane was determined from static (ground) and flyover tests. A survey was made to measure the exhaust temperature and velocity profiles for a range of power settings. Comparisons were made between predicted and measured jet mixing, internal, and shock noise. It was found that the noise produced at static conditions was dominated by jet mixing noise, and was adequately predicted by current methods. The noise produced during flyovers exhibited large contributions from internally generated noise in the forward arc. For flyovers with the engine at nonafterburning power, the internal noise, shock noise, and jet mixing noise were accurately predicted. During flyovers with afterburning power settings, however, additional internal noise believed to be due to the afterburning process was evident; its level was as much as 8 decibels above the nonafterburning internal noise. Power settings that produced exhausts with inverted velocity profiles appeared to be slightly less noisy than power settings of equal thrust that produced uniform exhaust velocity profiles both in flight and in static testing.

  19. The Effect of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Energy Bypass on Specific Thrust for a Supersonic Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benyo, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of a thermodynamic cycle analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy bypass system that explores a wide range of MHD enthalpy extraction parameters. Through the analysis described here, it is shown that applying a magnetic field to a flow path in the Mach 2.0 to 3.5 range can increase the specific thrust of the turbojet engine up to as much as 420 N/(kg/s) provided that the magnitude of the magnetic field is in the range of 1 to 5 Tesla. The MHD energy bypass can also increase the operating Mach number range for a supersonic turbojet engine into the hypersonic flight regime. In this case, the Mach number range is shown to be extended to Mach 7.0.

  20. [Experimental determination of the time-dependent extent of after-burning with reference to possibilities of the plastic surgery reconstruction of 3d degree burns].

    PubMed

    Bäumer, F; Henrich, H A; Ussmüller, J

    1986-02-01

    The present experiments try to answer the question as to the time-dependent extent of the after-burning process after full-thickness burn (third degree). For an early plastic surgical treatment it was of interest to determine the most early time of escharotomy. The time-dependent spreading of the after-burning area reached its maximum five days after the burn injury. The after-burning area was marked by intravenous injections of Patentblau which caused distinct intravital colouring. Subsequently no further progress could be observed. In the present experiments we suggest this time as the earliest time for plastic covering in case it would be dependent upon the end of the after-burning process.

  1. Measurements and predictions of flyover and static noise of an afterburning turbofan engine in an F-111 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The noise of the TF30 afterburning turbofan engine in an F-111 airplane was determined from static (ground) and flyover tests. Exhaust temperatures and velocity profiles were measured for a range of power settings. Comparisons were made between predicted and measured jet mixing, internal, and shock noise. It was found that the noise produced at static conditions was dominated by jet mixing noise, and was adequately predicted by current methods. The noise produced during flyovers exhibited large contributions from internally generated noise in the forward arc. For flyovers with the engine at nonafterburning power, the internal noise, shock noise, and jet mixing noise were accurately predicted. During flyovers with afterburning power settings, however, additional internal noise believed to be due to the afterburning process was evident; its level was as much as 8 decibels above the nonafterburning internal noise.

  2. Modeling of chemical reactions in afterburning for the reduction of N{sub 2}O

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gustavsson, L.; Glarborg, P.; Leckner, B.

    1996-08-01

    Afterburning involves burning a secondary fuel in the flue gases from a fluidized bed combustor to raise the temperature, and thereby decrease the emission of N{sub 2}O. Tests in a 12-MW circulating fluidized bed boiler used the cyclone as an afterburning combustor. The results from these tests are analyzed by chemical kinetic calculations with homogeneous hydrocarbon and nitrogen chemistry. Furthermore, a study is made of the influence on the calculation of particles in the flue gases. The deviation between calculated and measured data is small at high temperatures, but increases at the lower temperatures investigated. The influence of particles ismore » predicted to be small under conditions prevailing in the cyclone.« less

  3. Development of burners for afterburning chambers of heat-recovery boilers at cogeneration stations equipped with combined-cycle plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenok, L. A.

    2007-09-01

    Problems related to efficient afterburning of fuel in the medium of gas-turbine unit exhaust gases, as well as new design arrangements of gas-jet burners used in the chambers for afterburning fuel in heat-recovery boilers at cogeneration stations equipped with combined-cycle plants, are considered. Results obtained from comparative experimental investigations of different gas-jet flame stabilizers at a test facility are presented, and the advantages of jet-ejector stabilizers are demonstrated.

  4. The effects of compressor seventh-stage bleed air extraction on performance of the F100-PW-220 afterburning turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Alison B.

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of seventh-stage compressor bleed on the performance of the F100 afterburning turbofan engine. The effects of bleed on thrust, specific fuel consumption, fan turbine inlet temperature, bleed total pressure, and bleed total temperature were obtained from the engine manufacturer's status deck computer simulation. These effects were determined for power settings of intermediate, partial afterburning, and maximum afterburning for Mach numbers between 0.6 and 2.2 and for altitudes of 30,000, 40,000, and 50,000 ft. It was found that thrust loss and specific fuel consumption increase were approximately linear functions of bleed flow and, based on a percent-thrust change basis, were approximately independent of power setting.

  5. Initial Flow Matching Results of MHD Energy Bypass on a Supersonic Turbojet Engine Using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benyo, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary flow matching has been demonstrated for a MHD energy bypass system on a supersonic turbojet engine. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment was used to perform a thermodynamic cycle analysis to properly match the flows from an inlet to a MHD generator and from the exit of a supersonic turbojet to a MHD accelerator. Working with various operating conditions such as the enthalpy extraction ratio and isentropic efficiency of the MHD generator and MHD accelerator, interfacing studies were conducted between the pre-ionizers, the MHD generator, the turbojet engine, and the MHD accelerator. This paper briefly describes the NPSS environment used in this analysis and describes the NPSS analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with a MHD generator/accelerator energy bypass system. Results from this study have shown that using MHD energy bypass in the flow path of a supersonic turbojet engine increases the useful Mach number operating range from 0 to 3.0 Mach (not using MHD) to an explored and desired range of 0 to 7.0 Mach.

  6. Performance Charts for the Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Karp, Irving M.

    1947-01-01

    Charts are presented for computing the thrust, fuel consumption, and other performance values of a turbojet engine for any given set of operating conditions and component efficiencies. The effects of the pressure losses in the inlet duct and combustion chamber, the variation in the physical properties of the gas as it passes through the cycle, and the change in mass flow by the addition of fuel are included. The principle performance charts show the effects of the primary variables and correction charts provide the effects of the secondary variables.

  7. Genomic diversity of the Avian leukosis virus subgroup J gp85 gene in different organs of an infected chicken.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanfeng; Li, Xue; Fang, Jian; Gao, Yalong; Zhu, Lilong; Xing, Guiju; Tian, Fu; Gao, Yali; Dong, Xuan; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong; Liu, Zhihao

    2016-12-30

    The genomic diversity of Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was investigated in an experimentally infected chicken. ALV-J variants in tissues from four different organs of the same bird were re-isolated in DF-1 cells, and their gp85 gene was amplified and cloned. Ten clones from each organ were sequenced and compared with the original inoculum strain, NX0101. The minimum homology of each organ ranged from 96.7 to 97.6%, and the lowest homology between organs was only 94.9%, which was much lower than the 99.1% homology of inoculum NX0101, indicating high diversity of ALV-J, even within the same bird. The gp85 mutations from the left kidney, which contained tumors, and the right kidney, which was tumor-free, had higher non-synonymous to synonymous mutation ratios than those in the tumor-bearing liver and lungs. Additionally, the mutational sites of gp85 gene in the kidney were similar, and they differed from those in the liver and lung, implying that organ- or tissue-specific selective pressure had a greater influence on the evolution of ALV-J diversity. These results suggest that more ALV-J clones from different organs and tissues should be sequenced and compared to better understand viral evolution and molecular epidemiology in the field.

  8. Installation for the catalytic afterburning of exhaust gases in the exhaust gas system of an internal combustion engine

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lange, K.

    1974-12-06

    An installation is described for the catalytic afterburning of exhaust gases in an internal combustion engine. The system includes a line by-passing the installation for the catalytic afterburning, in which is arranged a throttle valve actuated in dependence on the temperature of the installation. The throttle valve also can be actuated independently of the temperature of the installation, but in dependence of the oil pressure which continues to exist for a short period of time after turning off the engine.

  9. 78 FR 34550 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbojet Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbojet Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Rolls-Royce plc..., contact Defence Aerospace Communications at Rolls-Royce plc, P.O. Box 3, Gypsy Patch Lane, Filton, Bristol...

  10. Combustion Limits and Efficiency of Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, H. C.; Jonash, E. R.

    1956-01-01

    Combustion must be maintained in the turbojet-engine combustor over a wide range of operating conditions resulting from variations in required engine thrust, flight altitude, and flight speed. Furthermore, combustion must be efficient in order to provide the maximum aircraft range. Thus, two major performance criteria of the turbojet-engine combustor are (1) operatable range, or combustion limits, and (2) combustion efficiency. Several fundamental requirements for efficient, high-speed combustion are evident from the discussions presented in chapters III to V. The fuel-air ratio and pressure in the burning zone must lie within specific limits of flammability (fig. 111-16(b)) in order to have the mixture ignite and burn satisfactorily. Increases in mixture temperature will favor the flammability characteristics (ch. III). A second requirement in maintaining a stable flame -is that low local flow velocities exist in the combustion zone (ch. VI). Finally, even with these requirements satisfied, a flame needs a certain minimum space in which to release a desired amount of heat, the necessary space increasing with a decrease in pressure (ref. 1). It is apparent, then, that combustor design and operation must provide for (1) proper control of vapor fuel-air ratios in the combustion zone at or near stoichiometric, (2) mixture pressures above the minimum flammability pressures, (3) low flow velocities in the combustion zone, and (4) adequate space for the flame.

  11. Turbulent Mixing and Afterburn in Post-Detonation Flow with Dense Particle Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Suresh

    2015-06-01

    Reactive metal particles are used as additives in most explosives to enhance afterburn and augment the impact of the explosive. The afterburn is highly dependent on the particle dispersal and mixing in the post-detonation flow. The post-detonation flow is generally characterized by hydrodynamic instabilities emanating from the interaction of the blast waves with the detonation product gases and the ambient air. Further, influenced by the particles, the flow evolves and develops turbulent structures, which play vital role in determining mixing and combustion. Past studies in the field in open literature are reviewed along with some recent studies conducted using three dimensional numerical simulations of particle dispersal and combustion in the post-detonation flow. Spherical nitromethane charges enveloped by particle shells of varying thickness are considered along with dense loading effects. In dense flows, the particles block the flow of the gases and therefore, the role of the inter-particle interactions on particle dispersal cannot be ignored. Thus, both dense and dilute effects must be modeled simultaneously to simulate the post-detonation flow. A hybrid equation of state is employed to study the evolution of flow from detonation initiation till the late time mixing and afterburn. The particle dispersal pattern in each case is compared with the available experimental results. The burn rate and the energy release in each case is quantified and the effect of total mass of the particles and the particle size is analyzed in detail. Strengths and limitations of the various methods used for such studies as well as the uncertainties in the modeling strategies are also highlighted. Supported by Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  12. Cooling techniques for turbojet pre-heater channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desaulty, M.; Troullot, P.; Coutor, S.

    1985-09-01

    Increases in the performance of turbojets with pre-heating are dependent upon technological research in the area of protection of the wall in pre-heater channels. The procedures used to cool the thermal protection jackets have undergone important improvements which have optimized performance, reduced weight and improved cooling efficiency. This report presents a comparison of the thermal protection jackets for several SNECMA engines, as well as the principal stages of development for the jacket from the design stages through static engines tests.

  13. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

  14. Effects of entrained water and strong turbulence on afterburning within solid rocket motor plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomberg, R. I.; Wilmoth, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    During the first few seconds of the space shuttle trajectory, the solid rocket boosters will be in the proximity of the launch pad. Because of the launch pad structures and the surface of the earth, the turbulent mixing experienced by the exhaust gases will be greatly increased over that for the free flight situation. In addition, a system will be present, designed to protect the lifting vehicle from launch structure vibrations, which will inject quantities of liquid water into the hot plume. The effects of these two phenomena on the temperatures, chemical composition, and flow field present in the afterburning solid rocket motor exhaust plumes of the space shuttle were studied. Results are included from both a computational model of the afterburning and supporting measurements from Titan 3 exhaust plumes taken at Kennedy Space Center with infrared scanned radiometers.

  15. High Velocity Jet Noise Source Location and Reduction. Task 3 - Experimental Investigation of Suppression Principles. Volume I. Suppressor Concepts Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    multinational corporation in the 1960’s placed extreme emphasis on the need for effective and efficient noise suppression devices. Phase I of work...through model and engine testing applicable to an afterburning turbojet engine. Suppressor designs were based primarily on empirical methods. Phase II...using "ray" acoustics. This method is in contrast to the purely empirical method which consists of the curve -fitting of normalized data. In order to

  16. Preparation of the Secretory Recombinant ALV-J gp85 Protein Using Pichia pastoris and Its Immunoprotection as Vaccine Antigen Combining with CpG-ODN Adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Jing, Weifang; Zhou, Jinrun; Wang, Chunyang; Qiu, Jianhua; Guo, Huijun; Li, Hongmei

    2018-04-26

    This study focuses on preparing the secretory recombinant J subgroup of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) gp85 protein using Pichia pastoris and evaluating its immunoprotection as vaccine antigen combining with CpG-ODN adjuvant. The secretory recombinant plasmid pPIC9-gp85 containing ALV-J gp85 gene was designed and was transfected into the genome of P. pastoris (GS115) cells. The recombinant plasmid was expressed under the induction of methanol. The expressed products in the medium of the cells were purified and identified with endoglycosidase digestion assay and western blot mediated with monoclonal antibody (MAb) JE9. The purified product combining with CpG-ODN adjuvant was inoculated intramuscularly into 7-day-old chickens and three booster inoculations were performed on 21 days post first inoculation (dpfi), 42, and 56 dpfi. The antibody responses and cellular immune responses were detected, and the protective effects were analyzed after challenge with ALV-J. The results showed that the secretory pPIC9-gp85 plasmid was successfully constructed and could be stably expressed in GS115 cells. The expressed products were N-acetylglucosylated and could specifically combine with MAb (JE9). The secreted gp85 protein combining with CpG-ODN adjuvant could induce higher antibody response and spleen lymphocyte proliferation response and IFN-γ-inducing response, and could protect all the inoculated chickens against the viremia and the immunosuppressive lesions caused by ALV-J challenge. The results of neutralizing test in vitro suggested that the antisera with some ALV-J antibody titers could neutralize ALV-J strain and inhibit the growth of virus in vitro. The result of IFA showed that IgG antibody in the antisera could specifically combine with ALV-J strain in cells. It can be concluded that the secretory recombinant gp85 protein, as a new acetylglucosylated gp85 protein, was successfully prepared and combining with CpG-ODN adjuvant could protect the inoculated chickens

  17. Factors that Affect Operational Reliability of Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    The problem of improving operational reliability of turbojet engines is studied in a series of papers. Failure statistics for this engine are presented, the theory and experimental evidence on how engine failures occur are described, and the methods available for avoiding failure in operation are discussed. The individual papers of the series are Objectives, Failure Statistics, Foreign-Object Damage, Compressor Blades, Combustor Assembly, Nozzle Diaphrams, Turbine Buckets, Turbine Disks, Rolling Contact Bearings, Engine Fuel Controls, and Summary Discussion.

  18. Destructive treatment of waste gas by catalytic afterburning and adsorption

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Eppel, S.A.; Kochetkova, R.P.; Kolisnyk, G.P.

    1983-07-01

    Because of the considerable energy costs involved in the use of catalytic afterburning to clean up waste gases, an alternative method is suggested: adsorption with the use of low-cost adsorbents that are regenerated by destruction of the substances that has been taken up. Activated semicoke (ASK) is proposed as an adsorbent and tested. On the basis of the results, ASK is recommended for the treatment of waste gases to remove oxygen-containing, sulfurcontaining, and tarry compounds.

  19. Performance of Compressor of XJ-41-V Turbojet Engine. 1 - Preliminary Investigation at Equivalent Compressor Speed of 8000 rpm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-01-01

    Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory Cleveland, Ohio Restriction Cancelled ^mmmmmmmm ^Md’^| 5;-;» <^~ k NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMTTErUf0...AEEONAUTICS RESEARCH MEMORANDUM for the Air Materiel Command’, Army Air Forces PERFORMANCE OF COMPRESSOR OF XJ-41-V TURBOJET ENGINE I - PRELIMINARY...of the XJ-41-V turbojet - engine compressor. . .’ The complete compressor was amounted on a collecting chamber having an annular air-flow

  20. GE Fan in Wing VZ-11 VTOL airplane in Ames 40x80 Foot Wind Tunnel.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-12-27

    3/4 front view VZ-11 ground test - variable height struts. Engines of the VZ-11 are a pair of General Electric J85-5 turbojets, mounted in high in the centre fuselage, well away from fan disturbance. Designed in the Ames 40x80 foot wind tunnel.

  1. The Appearance of a Boric Oxide Exhaust Cloud from a Turbojet Engine Operating on Trimethylborate Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Albert M; Kaufman, Warner B

    1956-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the size and density of the boric oxide exhaust cloud from a J47-25 turbojet engine operating on trimethylborate fuel at sea-level static condition. Movies and still photographs were taken from the ground and from a helicopter. Objects could not be perceived through the main body of the cloud at distances up to 800 feet from the engine. Data are included on the amount of fallout from the cloud and the concentration of boric oxide in the cloud. A radiation detection device was set up to determine whether the glowing oxide particles would be more susceptible than hydrocarbon exhaust gases to this type of tracking device. The device showed an increase in radiation by a factor of 3 for trimethylborate over that for JP-4.

  2. Determining the maximal capacity of a combined-cycle plant operating with afterburning of fuel in the gas conduit upstream of the heat-recovery boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovkov, V. M.; Osmanova, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect gained from afterburning of fuel in the gas conduit upstream of the heat-recovery boiler used as part of a PGU-450T combined-cycle plant is considered. The results obtained from calculations of the electric and thermal power outputs produced by the combined-cycle plant equipped with an afterburning chamber are presented.

  3. Magnetic design of an Apple-X afterburner for the SASE3 undulator of the European XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Wei, Tao; Li, Yuhui; Pflueger, Joachim

    2017-10-01

    In its startup configuration the SASE3 beamline of the European XFEL provides only soft X-ray radiation, linearly polarized in the horizontal plane. In order to enhance capabilities of this beamline an afterburner scheme is proposed. It will be used as a coherent radiator using the micro-bunched electron beam of the linear SASE3 system. Radiation with variable polarization, which covers the full SASE3 wavelength range can be generated. For the radiator a new type of undulator design called Apple-X will be used. In this paper the design is described and magnet parameters, which are compatible with the SASE3 afterburner are determined using RADIA simulations. The end structure of such a device is optimized for minimum 1st field integrals.

  4. Active chlorine and nitric oxide formation from chemical rocket plume afterburning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, D. M.; Turns, S. R.

    Chlorine and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) released into the atmosphere contribute to acid rain (ground level or low-altitude sources) and ozone depletion from the stratosphere (high-altitude sources). Rocket engines have the potential for forming or activating these pollutants in the rocket plume. For instance, H2/O2 rockets can produce thermal NO(x) in their plumes. Emphasis, in the past, has been placed on determining the impact of chlorine release on the stratosphere. To date, very little, if any, information is available to understand what contribution NO(x) emissions from ground-based engine testing and actual rocket launches have on the atmosphere. The goal of this work is to estimate the afterburning emissions from chemical rocket plumes and determine their local stratospheric impact. Our study focuses on the space shuttle rocket motors, which include both the solid rocket boosters (SRB's) and the liquid propellant main engines (SSME's). Rocket plume afterburning is modeled employing a one-dimensional model incorporating two chemical kinetic systems: chemical and thermal equilibria with overlayed nitric oxide chemical kinetics (semi equilibrium) and full finite-rate chemical kinetics. Additionally, the local atmospheric impact immediately following a launch is modeled as the emissions diffuse and chemically react in the stratosphere.

  5. Active chlorine and nitric oxide formation from chemical rocket plume afterburning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, D. M.; Turns, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Chlorine and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) released into the atmosphere contribute to acid rain (ground level or low-altitude sources) and ozone depletion from the stratosphere (high-altitude sources). Rocket engines have the potential for forming or activating these pollutants in the rocket plume. For instance, H2/O2 rockets can produce thermal NO(x) in their plumes. Emphasis, in the past, has been placed on determining the impact of chlorine release on the stratosphere. To date, very little, if any, information is available to understand what contribution NO(x) emissions from ground-based engine testing and actual rocket launches have on the atmosphere. The goal of this work is to estimate the afterburning emissions from chemical rocket plumes and determine their local stratospheric impact. Our study focuses on the space shuttle rocket motors, which include both the solid rocket boosters (SRB's) and the liquid propellant main engines (SSME's). Rocket plume afterburning is modeled employing a one-dimensional model incorporating two chemical kinetic systems: chemical and thermal equilibria with overlayed nitric oxide chemical kinetics (semi equilibrium) and full finite-rate chemical kinetics. Additionally, the local atmospheric impact immediately following a launch is modeled as the emissions diffuse and chemically react in the stratosphere.

  6. Analysis of internal flow of J85-13 multistage compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Interstage data recorded on a J85-13 engine were used to analyze the internal flow of the compressor. Measured pressures and temperatures were used as input to a streamline analysis program to calculate the velocity diagrams at the inlet and outlet of each blade row. From the velocity diagrams and blade geometry, selected blade-element performance parameters were calculated. From the detailed analysis it is concluded that the compressor is probably hub critical (stall initiates at the hub) in the latter stages for the design speed conditions. As a result, the casing treatment over the blade tips has little or no effect on stall margin at design speed. Radial inlet distortion did not appear to change the flow in the stages that control stall because of the rapid attenuation of the distortion within the compressor.

  7. Integrated pneumatic transporter-incinerator-afterburner subsystem development. [for spacecraft waste disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a prototype automatic transport system to move wastes to an incinerator onboard a spacecraft are described. The commode and debris collector, subsystems to treat noncondensible gases, oxygen supply to incinerator and afterburner, and removal and ash collection from the incinerator are considered, as well as a zero gravity condenser. In-depth performance testing of a totally integrated incineration system and autoclaving as a waste treatment method are included.

  8. Numerical Investigation on Aerodynamic and Combustion Performance of Chevron Mixer Inside an Afterburner.

    PubMed

    Yong, Shan; JingZhou, Zhang; Yameng, Wang

    2014-11-01

    To improve the performance of the afterburner for the turbofan engine, an innovative type of mixer, namely, the chevron mixer, was considered to enhance the mixture between the core flow and the bypass flow. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations investigated the aerodynamic performances and combustion characteristics of the chevron mixer inside a typical afterburner. Three types of mixer, namely, CC (chevrons tilted into core flow), CB (chevrons tilted into bypass flow), and CA (chevrons tilted into core flow and bypass flow alternately), respectively, were studied on the aerodynamic performances of mixing process. The chevrons arrangement has significant effect on the mixing characteristics and the CA mode seems to be advantageous for the generation of the stronger streamwise vortices with lower aerodynamic loss. Further investigations on combustion characteristics for CA mode were performed. Calculation results reveal that the local temperature distribution at the leading edge section of flame holder is improved under the action of streamwise vortices shedding from chevron mixers. Consequently, the combustion efficiency increased by 3.5% compared with confluent mixer under the same fuel supply scheme.

  9. NACA Conference on Turbojet-Engine Thrust Augmentation Research: A Compilation of the Papers Presented by NACA Staff Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1948-01-01

    The conference on Turbojet-Engine Thrust-Augmentation Research was organized by the NACA to present in summarized form the results of the latest experimental and analytical investigations conducted at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory on methods of augmenting the thrust of turbojet engines. The technical discussions are reproduced herewith in the same form in which they were presented. The original presentation in this record are considered as complementary to, rather than substitutes for, the committee's system of complete and formal reports.

  10. Turbofan compressor dynamics during afterburner transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, A. P.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of afterburner light-off and shut-down transients on compressor stability were investigated. Experimental results are based on detailed high-response pressure and temperature measurements on the Tf30-p-3 turbofan engine. The tests were performed in an altitude test chamber simulating high-altitude engine operation. It is shown that during both types of transients, flow breaks down in the forward part of the fan-bypass duct. At a sufficiently low engine inlet pressure this resulted in a compressor stall. Complete flow breakdown within the compressor was preceded by a rotating stall. At some locations in the compressor, rotating stall cells initially extended only through part of the blade span. For the shutdown transient, the time between first and last detected occurrence of rotating stall is related to the flow Reynolds number. An attempt was made to deduce the number and speed of propagation of rotating stall cells.

  11. Flow Matching Results of an MHD Energy Bypass System on a Supersonic Turbojet Engine Using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benyo, Theresa L.

    2011-01-01

    Flow matching has been successfully achieved for an MHD energy bypass system on a supersonic turbojet engine. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment helped perform a thermodynamic cycle analysis to properly match the flows from an inlet employing a MHD energy bypass system (consisting of an MHD generator and MHD accelerator) on a supersonic turbojet engine. Working with various operating conditions (such as the applied magnetic field, MHD generator length and flow conductivity), interfacing studies were conducted between the MHD generator, the turbojet engine, and the MHD accelerator. This paper briefly describes the NPSS environment used in this analysis. This paper further describes the analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with an MHD generator/accelerator energy bypass system. Results from this study have shown that using MHD energy bypass in the flow path of a supersonic turbojet engine increases the useful Mach number operating range from 0 to 3.0 Mach (not using MHD) to a range of 0 to 7.0 Mach with specific net thrust range of 740 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 3.25) to 70 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 7). These results were achieved with an applied magnetic field of 2.5 Tesla and conductivity levels in a range from 2 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 7) to 5.5 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 3.5) for an MHD generator length of 3 m.

  12. An Investigation of Landing-Contact Conditions for a Large Turbojet Transport During Routine Daylight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, Joseph W.; Silsby, Norman S.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation has been made by the NASA to obtain statistical measurements of landing-contact conditions for a large turbojet transport in commercial airline operations. The investigation was conducted at the Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, California. Measurements were taken photographically during routine daylight operations. The quantities determined were vertical velocity, horizontal velocity, rolling velocity, bank angle, and distance from runway threshold, just prior to ground contact. The results indicated that the mean vertical velocity for the turbojet-transport landings was 1.62 feet per second and that 1 landing out of 100 would be expected to equal or exceed about 4.0 feet per second. The mean airspeed at contact was 132.0 knots, with 1 landing in 100 likely to equal or exceed about 153.0 knots. The mean rolling velocity was about 1.6 deg per second. One lending in 100 would probably equal or exceed a rolling velocity of about 4.0 deg. per second in the direction of the first wheel to touch. The mean bank angle for the turbojet transports was 1.04 deg, and right and left angles of bank were about evenly divided. One lending in 100 would be likely to equal or exceed a bank angle of about 3.5 deg. The mean value of distance to touchdown from the runway threshold was 1,560 feet. One lending in 100 would be expected to touchdown at or beyond about 2,700 feet from the runway threshold. The mean values for vertical velocity, airspeed, and distance t o touch-down for the turbojet transports were somewhat higher than those found previously for piston-engine transports. No significant differences were found for values of rolling velocity and bank angle.

  13. Performance and control study of a low-pressure-ratio turbojet engine for a drone aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seldner, K.; Geyser, L. C.; Gold, H.; Walker, D.; Burgner, G.

    1972-01-01

    The results of analog and digital computer studies of a low-pressure-ratio turbojet engine system for use in a drone vehicle are presented. The turbojet engine consists of a four-stage axial compressor, single-stage turbine, and a fixed area exhaust nozzle. Three simplified fuel schedules and a generalized parameter fuel control for the engine system are presented and evaluated. The evaluation is based on the performance of each schedule or control during engine acceleration from a windmill start at Mach 0.8 and 6100 meters to 100 percent corrected speed. It was found that, because of the higher acceleration margin permitted by the control, the generalized parameter control exhibited the best dynamic performance.

  14. An Investigation of Landing-Contact Conditions for Two Large Turbojet Transports and a Turboprop Transport During Routine Daylight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, Joseph W.

    1961-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently completed a statistical investigation of landing-contact conditions for two large turbojet transports and a turboprop transport landing on a dry runway during routine daylight operations at the Los Angeles International Airport. Measurements were made to obtain vertical velocity, airspeed, rolling velocity, bank angle, and distance from the runway threshold, just prior to ground contact. The vertical velocities at touchdown for one of the turbojet airplanes measured in this investigation were essentially the same as those measured on the same type of airplane during a similar investigation (see NASA Technical Note D-527) conducted approximately 8 months earlier. Thus, it appeared that 8 months of additional pilot experience has had no noticeable tendency toward lowering the vertical velocities of this transport. Distributions of vertical velocities for the turbojet transports covered in this investigation were similar and considerably higher than'those for the turboprop transport. The data for the turboprop transport were in good agreement with the data for the piston-engine transports (see NACA Report 1214 and NASA Technical Note D-147) for all the measured parameters. For the turbojet transports, 1 landing in 100 would be expected to equal or exceed a vertical velocity of approximately 4.2 ft/sec; whereas, for the turboprop transport, 1 landing in 100 would be expected to equal or exceed 3.2 ft/sec. The mean airspeeds at touchdown for the three transports ranged from 22.5 percent to 26.6 percent above the stalling speed. Rolling velocities for the turbojet transports were considerably higher than those for the turboprop transport. Distributions of bank angles at contact for the three transports were similar. For each type of airplane, 1 landing in 100 would be expected to equal or exceed a bank angle at touchdown of approximately 3.0 deg. Distributions of touchdown distances for the three transports

  15. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon and particulate emissions from two-stage combustion of polystyrene: the effects of the secondary furnace (afterburner) temperature and soot filtration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Richter, Henning; Howard, Jack B; Levendis, Yiannis A; Carlson, Joel

    2002-02-15

    Laboratory experiments were conducted in a two-stage horizontal muffle furnace in order to monitor emissions from batch combustion of polystyrene (PS) and identify conditions that minimize them. PS is a dominant component of municipal and hospital waste streams. Bench-scale combustion of small samples (0.5 g) of shredded styrofoam cups was conducted in air, using an electrically heated horizontal muffle furnace, kept at Tgas = 1000 degrees C. Upon devolatilization, combustion of the polymer took place in a diffusion flame over the sample. The gaseous combustion products were mixed with additional air in a venturi and were channeled to a secondary muffle furnace (afterburner) kept at Tgas = 900-1100 degrees C; residence time therein varied between 0.6 and 0.8 s. At the exits of the primary and the secondary furnace the emissions of CO, CO2, O2, NOx, particulates as well as volatile and semivolatile hydrocarbons, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), were monitored. Online analyzers, gravimetric techniques, and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used. Experiments were also conducted with a high-temperature barrier filter, placed just before the exit of the primary furnace to prevent the particulates from entering into the secondary furnace. Results demonstrated the beneficial effect of the afterburner in reducing PAH concentrations, including those of mutagenic species such as benzo[a]pyrene. Concentrations of individual PAH exhibited a pronounced after burner temperature dependence, typically ranging from a small decrease at 900 degrees C to a larger degree of consumption at 1100 degrees C. Consumption of PAH was observed to be the dominant feature at 900 degrees C, while significant quantities of benzene and some of its derivatives, captured by means of carbosieve/Carbotrap adsorbents, were formed in the afterburner at a temperature of 1000 degrees C. In the primary furnace, about 30% of the mass of the initial polystyrene was

  16. Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

  17. A 3-D Navier-Stokes CFD study of turbojet/ramjet nozzle plume interactions at Mach 3.0 and comparison with data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Ing; Hunter, Louis G.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced airbreathing propulsion systems used in Mach 4-6 mission scenarios, usually consist of a single integrated turboramjet or as in this study, a turbojet housed in an upper bay with a separate ramjet housed in a lower bay. As the engines transition from turbojet to ramjet, there is an operational envelope where both engines operate simultaneously. One nozzle concept under consideration has a common nozzle, where the plumes from the turbojet and ramjet interact with one another as they expand to ambient conditions. In this paper, the two plumes interact at the end of a common 2-D cowl, when they both reach an approximate Mach 3.0 condition and then jointly expand to Mach 3.6 at the common nozzle exit plane. At this condition, the turbojet engine operated at a higher NPR than the ramjet, where the turbojet overpowers the ramjet plume, deflecting it approximately 12 degrees downward and in turn the turbojet plume is deflected 6 degrees upward. In the process, shocks were formed at the deflections and a shear layer formed at the confluence of the two jets. This particular case was experimentally tested and the data used to compare with the PARC3D code with k-kl two equation turbulence model. The 2-D and 3-D centerline CFD solutions are in good agreement, but as the CFD solutions approach the outer sidewall, a slight variance occurs. The outer wall boundary layers are thin and do not present much of an interaction, however, where the confluence interaction shocks interact with the thin boundary layer on the outer wall, strong vortices run down each shock causing substantial disturbances in the boundary layer. These disturbances amplify somewhat as they propagate downstream axially from the confluence point. The nozzle coefficient (CFG) is reduced 1/2 percent as a result of this sidewall interaction, from 0.9850 to 0.9807. This three-dimensional reduction is in better agreement with the experimental value of 0.9790.

  18. Laboratory generation of free chlorine from HCl under stratospheric afterburning conditions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Burke, M.L.; Zittel, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted using a low pressure laboratory flame apparatus to examine the chemistry of solid rocket motor (SRM) afterburning relevant for stratospheric altitudes. It was found that a significant fraction of the HCl injected into H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-CO-O{sub 2} flames can be consumed, with observed losses of up to 40%. The extent of conversion of HCl was found to increase with increasing oxygen:fuel (O/F) ratio and decreasing pressure; the loss at a given O/F was also higher for flames with equal flows of H{sub 2} and CO compared to flames with no CO in themore » fuel. The major product of HCl reaction was found to be Cl{sub 2}, with no other chlorine-contained products observed via mass spectrometry. Distinct Cl{sub 2} B {yields} X emission bands were observed along with very weak CIO A {yields} C bands and a bright, white continuum emission that apparently arose from one or more chlorine-containing compounds. The general findings concerning the magnitude of HCl conversion and the formation of Cl{sub 2} are consistent with published modeling results for SRM stratospheric afterburning. This formation of free chlorine could lead to catalytic destruction of ozone in regions near the path the launch vehicle follows during boost through the stratosphere.« less

  19. Sea-level evaluation of digitally implemented turbojet engine control functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpasi, D. J.; Cwynar, D. S.; Wallhagen, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The standard hydromechanical control system of a turbojet engine was replaced with a digital control system that implemented the same control laws. A detailed discussion of the digital control system in use with the engine is presented. The engine was operated in a sea-level test stand. The effects of control update interval are defined, and a method for extending this interval by using digital compensation is discussed.

  20. AIRCRAFT REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM APPLICABLE TO TURBOJET AND TURBOPROP POWER PLANTS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gorker, G.E.

    1955-07-19

    Control systems proposed for direct cycle nuclear powered aircraft commonly involve control of engine speed, nuclear energy input, and chcmical energy input. A system in which these parameters are controlled by controlling the total energy input, the ratio of nuclear and chemical energy input, and the engine speed is proposed. The system is equally applicable to turbojet or turboprop applications. (auth)

  1. Self-teaching digital-computer program for fail-operational control of a turbojet engine in a sea-level test stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallhagen, R. E.; Arpasi, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The design and evaluation are described of a digital turbojet engine control which is capable of sensing catastrophic failures in either the engine rotor speed or the compressor discharge static-pressure signal and is capable of switching control modes to maintain near normal operation. The control program was developed for and tested on a turbojet engine located in a sea-level test stand. The control program is also capable of acquiring all the data that are necessary for the fail-operational control to function.

  2. Comparison of High-Speed Operating Characteristics of Size 215 Cylindrical-Roller Bearings as Determined in Turbojet Engine and in Laboratory Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E Fred; Nemeth, Zolton N

    1951-01-01

    A comparison of the operating characteristics of 75-millimeter-bore (size 215) cylindrical-roller one-piece inner-race-riding cage-type bearings was made using a laboratory test rig and a turbojet engine. Cooling correlation parameters were determined by means of dimensional analysis, and the generalized results for both the inner- and outer-race bearing operating temperatures are compared for the laboratory test rig and the turbojet engine. Inner- and outer-race cooling-correlation curves were obtained for the turbojet-engine turbine-roller bearing with the same inner- and outer-race correlation parameters and exponents as those determined for the laboratory test-rig bearing. The inner- and outer-race turbine roller-bearing temperatures may be predicted from a single curve, regardless of variations in speed, load, oil flow, oil inlet temperature, oil inlet viscosity, oil-jet diameter or any combination of these parameters. The turbojet-engine turbine-roller-bearing inner-race temperatures were 30 to 60 F greater than the outer-race-maximum temperatures, the exact values depending on the operating condition and oil viscosity; these results are in contrast to the laboratory test-rig results where the inner-race temperatures were less than the outer-race-maximum temperatures. The turbojet-engine turbine-roller bearing, maximum outer-race circumferential temperature variation was approximately 30 F for each of the oils used. The effect of oil viscosity on inner- and outer-race turbojet-engine turbine-roller-bearing temperatures was found to be significant. With the lower viscosity oil (6x10(exp -7) reyns (4.9 centistokes) at 100 F; viscosity index, 83), the inner-race temperature was approximately 30 to 35 F less than with the higher viscosity oil (53x10(exp -7) reyns (42.8 centistokes) at 100 F; viscosity index, 150); whereas the outer-race-maximum temperatures were 12 to 28 F lower with the lower viscosity oil over the DN range investigated.

  3. Altitude-Test-Chamber Investigation of a Solar Afterburner on the 24C Engine I - Operational Characteristics and Altitude Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1948-01-01

    An altitude-test-chamber investigation was conducted to determine the operational characteristics and altitude blow-out limits of a Solar afterburner in a 24C engine. At rated engine speed and maximum permissible turbine-discharge temperature, the altitude limit as determined by combustion blow-out occurred as a band of unstable operation of about 8000 feet altitude in width with maximum altitude limits from 32,000 feet at a Mach number of 0.3 to about 42,000 feet at a Mach number of 1.0. The maximum fuel-air ratio of the afterburner, as limited by maximum permissible turbine-discharge gas temperatures at rated engine speed, varied between 0.0295 and 0.0380 over a range of flight Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.0 and at altitudes of 20,000 and 30,000 feet. Over this range of operating conditions, the fuel-air ratio at which lean blow-out occurred was from 10 to 19 percent below these maximum fuel-air ratios. Combustion was very smooth and uniform during operation; however, ignition of the burner was very difficult throughout the investigation. A failure of the flame holder after 12 hours and 15 minutes of afterburner operation resulted in termination of the investigation.

  4. Extended Operation of Turbojet Engine with Pentaborane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Useller, James W; Jones, William L

    1957-01-01

    A full-scale turbojet engine was operated with pentaborane fuel continuously for 22 minutes at conditions simulating flight at a Mach number of 0.8 at an altitude of 50,000 feet. This period of operation is approximately three times longer than previously reported operation times. Although the specific fuel consumption was reduced from 1.3 with JP-4 fuel to 0.98 with pentaborane, a 13.2-percent reduction in net thrust was also encountered. A portion of this thrust loss is potentially recoverable with proper design of the engine components. The boron oxide deposition and erosion processes within the engine approached an equilibrium condition after approximately 22 minutes of operation with pentaborane.

  5. Noise emissions and building structural vibration levels from the Supersonic Concorde and subsconic turbojet aircraft

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-03-01

    Noise emissions and building structural vibration levels were measured during landing and take off operations of the Anglo/French supersonic aircraft (Concorde) and from some conventional subsonic turbojet aircraft. Measurements were made at both the...

  6. Preliminary Results of the Determination of Inlet-Pressure Distortion Effects on Compressor Stall and Altitude Operating Limits of the J57-P-1 Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallner, L. E.; Lubick, R. J.; Chelko, L. J.

    1955-01-01

    During an investigation of the J57-P-1 turbojet engine in the Lewis altitude wind tunnel, effects of inlet-flow distortion on engine stall characteristics and operating limits were determined. In addition to a uniform inlet-flow profile, the inlet-pressure distortions imposed included two radial, two circumferential, and one combined radial-circumferential profile. Data were obtained over a range of compressor speeds at an altitude of 50,000 and a flight Mach number of 0.8; in addition, the high- and low-speed engine operating limits were investigated up to the maximum operable altitude. The effect of changing the compressor bleed position on the stall and operating limits was determined for one of the inlet distortions. The circumferential distortions lowered the compressor stall pressure ratios; this resulted in less fuel-flow margin between steady-state operation and compressor stall. Consequently, the altitude operating Limits with circumferential distortions were reduced compared with the uniform inlet profile. Radial inlet-pressure distortions increased the pressure ratio required for compressor stall over that obtained with uniform inlet flow; this resulted in higher altitude operating limits. Likewise, the stall-limit fuel flows required with the radial inlet-pressure distortions were considerably higher than those obtained with the uniform inlet-pressure profile. A combined radial-circumferential inlet distortion had effects on the engine similar to the circumferential distortion. Bleeding air between the two compressors eliminated the low-speed stall limit and thus permitted higher altitude operation than was possible without compressor bleed.

  7. NACA Researcher Measures Ice on a Turbojet Engine Inlet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1948-11-21

    The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory conducted an extensive icing research program in the late 1940s that included studies in the Icing Research Tunnel and using specially modified aircraft. One facet of this program was the investigation of the effects of icing on turbojets. Although jet engines allowed aircraft to pass through inclement weather at high rates of speed, ice accumulation was still a concern. The NACA’s B-24M Liberator was initially reconfigured with a General Electric I-16 engine installed in the aircraft’s waist compartment with an air scoop and spray nozzles to produce the artificial icing conditions. The centrifugal engine appeared nearly impervious to the effects of icing. Axial-flow jet engines, however, were much more susceptible to icing damage. The inlet guide vanes were particularly vulnerable, but the cowling’s leading edge, the main bearing supports, and accessory housing could also ice up. If pieces of ice reached the engine’s internal components, the compressor blades could be damaged. To study this phenomenon, a Westinghouse 24C turbojet, seen in this photograph, was installed under the B-24M’s right wing. In January 1948 flight tests of the 24C in icing conditions began. Despite ice buildup into the second stage of the compressor, the engine was able to operate at takeoff speeds. Researchers found the ice on the inlet vanes resulted in half of the engine’s decreased performance.

  8. The development of turbojet aircraft in Germany, Britain, and the United States: A multi-national comparison of aeronautical engineering, 1935--1946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelec, Sterling Michael

    In the 1930s aeronautical engineering needed revision. A presumptive anomaly was envisaged as piston-engine aircraft flew higher and faster. Radical alternatives to piston engines were considered in the unending quest for speed. Concurrently, but unwittingly, two turbojet engine programs were undertaken in Europe. The air-breathing three-stage turbojet engine was based on previous turbine technology; the revolutionary idea was the gas turbine as a prime mover for aircraft. In Germany, Dr. Hans von Ohain was the first to complete a flight-worthy turbojet engine for aircraft. Installed in a Heinkel designed aircraft, the Germans began the jet age on 27 August 1939. The Germans led throughout the war and were the first to produce jet aircraft for combat operations. The principal limiting factor for the German jet program was a lack of reliable engines. The continuing myths that Hitler orders, too little fuel, or too few pilots hindered the program are false. In England, Frank Whittle, without substantial support, but with dogged determination, also developed a turbojet engine. The British came second in the jet race when the Whittle engine powered the Gloster Pioneer on 15 May 1941. The Whittle-Gloster relationship continued and produced the only Allied combat jet aircraft during the war, the Meteor, which was confined to Home Defense in Britain. The American turbojet program was built directly from the Whittle engine. General Electric copied the Whittle designs and Bell Aircraft was contracted to build the first American jet plane. The Americans began the jet age on 1 October 1942 with a lackluster performance from their first jet, the Airacomet. But the Americans forged ahead, and had numerous engine and airframe programs in development by the end of the war. But, the Germans did it right and did it first. Partly because of a predisposition towards excellent engineering and physics, partly out of necessity, the Germans were able to produce combat turbojet aircraft

  9. DYNGEN: A program for calculating steady-state and transient performance of turbojet and turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, J. F.; Daniele, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The DYNGEN, a digital computer program for analyzing the steady state and transient performance of turbojet and turbofan engines, is described. The DYNGEN is based on earlier computer codes (SMOTE, GENENG, and GENENG 2) which are capable of calculating the steady state performance of turbojet and turbofan engines at design and off-design operating conditions. The DYNGEN has the combined capabilities of GENENG and GENENG 2 for calculating steady state performance; to these the further capability for calculating transient performance was added. The DYNGEN can be used to analyze one- and two-spool turbojet engines or two- and three-spool turbofan engines without modification to the basic program. A modified Euler method is used by DYNGEN to solve the differential equations which model the dynamics of the engine. This new method frees the programmer from having to minimize the number of equations which require iterative solution. As a result, some of the approximations normally used in transient engine simulations can be eliminated. This tends to produce better agreement when answers are compared with those from purely steady state simulations. The modified Euler method also permits the user to specify large time steps (about 0.10 sec) to be used in the solution of the differential equations. This saves computer execution time when long transients are run. Examples of the use of the program are included, and program results are compared with those from an existing hybrid-computer simulation of a two-spool turbofan.

  10. Preliminary MIPCC Enhanced F-4 and F-15 Preformance Characteristics for a First Stage Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloesel, Kurt J.; Clark, Casie M.

    2013-01-01

    Performance increases in turbojet engines can theoretically be achieved through Mass Injection Pre-Compressor Cooling (MIPCC), a process involving injecting water or oxidizer or both into an afterburning turbojet engine. The injection of water results in pre-compressor cooling, allowing the propulsion system to operate at high altitudes and Mach numbers. In this way, a MIPCC-enhanced turbojet engine could be used to power the first stage of a reusable launch vehicle or be integrated into an existing aircraft that could launch a 100-lbm payload to a reference 100-nm altitude orbit at 28 deg inclination. The two possible candidates for MIPCC flight demonstration that are evaluated in this study are the F-4 Phantom II airplane and the F-15 Eagle airplane (both of McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois), powered by two General Electric Company (Fairfield, Connecticut) J79 engines and two Pratt & Whitney (East Hartford, Connecticut) F100-PW-100 engines, respectively. This paper presents a conceptual discussion of the theoretical performance of each of these aircraft using MIPCC propulsion techniques. Trajectory studies were completed with the Optimal Trajectories by Implicit Simulation (OTIS) software (NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio) for a standard F-4 airplane and a standard F-15 airplane. Standard aircraft simulation models were constructed, and the thrust in each was altered in accordance with estimated MIPCC performance characteristics. The MIPCC and production aircraft model results were then reviewed to assess the feasibility of a MIPCC-enhanced propulsion system for use as a first-stage reusable launch vehicle; it was determined that the MIPCC-enhanced F-15 model showed a significant performance advantage over the MIPCC-enhanced F-4 model.

  11. Preliminary MIPCC Enhanced F-4 and F-15 Performance Characteristics for a First Stage Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloesel, Kurt J.

    2013-01-01

    Performance increases in turbojet engines can theoretically be achieved through Mass Injection Pre-Compressor Cooling (MIPCC), a process involving injecting water or oxidizer or both into an afterburning turbojet engine. The injection of water results in pre-compressor cooling, allowing the propulsion system to operate at high altitudes and Mach numbers. In this way, a MIPCC-enhanced turbojet engine could be used to power the first stage of a reusable launch vehicle or be integrated into an existing aircraft that could launch a 100-lbm payload to a reference 100-nm altitude orbit at 28 deg inclination. The two possible candidates for MIPCC flight demonstration that are evaluated in this study are the F-4 Phantom II airplane and the F-15 Eagle airplane (both of McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois), powered by two General Electric Company (Fairfield, Connecticut) J79 engines and two Pratt & Whitney (East Hartford, Connecticut) F100-PW-100 engines, respectively. This paper presents a conceptual discussion of the theoretical performance of each of these aircraft using MIPCC propulsion techniques. Trajectory studies were completed with the Optimal Trajectories by Implicit Simulation (OTIS) software (NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio) for a standard F-4 airplane and a standard F-15 airplane. Standard aircraft simulation models were constructed, and the thrust in each was altered in accordance with estimated MIPCC performance characteristics. The MIPCC and production aircraft model results were then reviewed to assess the feasibility of a MIPCC-enhanced propulsion system for use as a first-stage reusable launch vehicle; it was determined that the MIPCC-enhanced F-15 model showed a significant performance advantage over the MIPCC-enhanced F-4 model.

  12. Diode end-pumped passively Q-switched Tm:YAP laser with 1.85-mJ pulse energy.

    PubMed

    Sebbag, Daniel; Korenfeld, Arik; Ben-Ami, Udi; Elooz, David; Shalom, Eran; Noach, Salman

    2015-04-01

    Passive Q switching of a Tm:YAP solid-state laser at 1935 nm with Cr:ZnSe and Cr:ZnS polycrystalline saturable absorbers is demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. With Cr:ZnS, a maximum pulse energy of 1.85 mJ is obtained for a pulse duration of 35.8 ns, resulting in a peak power of 51.7 kW. With Cr:ZnSe, the achieved pulse energy of 1.55 mJ with a pulse duration of 42.2 ns leads to 36.7-kW peak power. These high pulse energies, together with the unique lasing wavelength at 1935 nm, make this laser a promising tool for biomedical and microsurgery applications.

  13. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a large scale model with a swept wing and augmented jet flap in ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falarski, M. D.; Koenig, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    The investigation of the in-ground-effect, longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a large scale swept augmentor wing model is presented, using 40 x 80 ft wind tunnel. The investigation was conducted at three ground heights; h/c equals 2.01, 1.61, and 1.34. The induced effect of underwing nacelles, was studied with two powered nacelle configurations. One configuration used four JT-15D turbofans while the other used two J-85 turbojet engines. Two conical nozzles on each J-85 were used to deflect the thrust at angles from 0 to 120 deg. Tests were also performed without nacelles to allow comparison with previous data from ground effect.

  14. Altitude Investigation of Gas Temperature Distribution at Turbine of Three Similar Axial-Flow Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, W.R.; Schulze, F.W.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of inlet pressure, corrected engine speed, and turbine temperature level on turbine-inlet gas temperature distributions was conducted on a J40-WE-6, interim J40-WE-6, and prototype J40-WE-8 turbojet engine in the altitude wind tunnel at the NAC.4 Lewis laboratory. The engines were investigated over a range of simulated pressure altitudes from 15,000 to 55,000 feet, flight Mach numbers from 0.12 to 0.64, and corrected engine speeds from 7198 to 8026 rpm, The gas temperature distribution at the turbine of the three engines over the range of operating conditions investigated was considered satisfactory from the standpoint of desired temperature distribution with one exception - the distribution for the J40-WE-6 engine indicated a trend with decreasing engine-inlet pressure for the temperature to exceed the desired in the region of the blade hub. Installation of a compressor-outlet mixer vane assembly remedied this undesirable temperature distribution, The experimental data have shown that turbine-inlet temperature distributions are influenced in the expected manner by changes in compressor-outlet pressure or mass-flow distribution and by changes in combustor hole-area distribution. The similarity between turbine-inlet and turbine-outlet temperature distribution indicated only a small shift in temperature distribution imposed by the turbine rotors. The attainable jet thrusts of the three engines were influenced in different degrees and directions by changes in temperature distributions with change in engine-inlet pressure. Inability to match the desired temperature distribution resulted, for the J40-WE-6 engine, in an 11-percent thrust loss based on an average turbine-inlet temperature of 1500 F at an engine-inlet pressure of 500 pounds per square foot absolute. Departure from the desired temperature distribution in the Slade tip region results, for the prototype J40-WE-8 engine, in an attainable thrust increase of 3 to 4 percent as

  15. Investigation of Rotating Stall Phenomena in Axial Flow Compressors. Volume I. Basic Studies of Rotating Stall

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    rotating stall control system which was tested both on a low speed rig and a J-85-S engine. The second objective was to perform fundamental studies of the...Stator Stage 89 6 Annular Cascade Configuration Used for Rotating Stall Studies on Rotoi-Stator Stage ..... .............. ... 90 7 Static Pressure Rise...ground tests on a J-8S-S turbojet engine. The work i3 reported in three separate volumes. Volume I entitled, "Basic Studies of Rotating Stall", covers

  16. 76 FR 75735 - Certification of Part 23 Turbofan- and Turbojet-Powered Airplanes and Miscellaneous Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... airplanes in air commerce by prescribing minimum standards required in the interest of safety for the design... prescribes new safety standards for the design of normal, utility, acrobatic, and commuter category airplanes... Category To Include Turbojets C. Performance, Flight Characteristics, and Other Design Considerations D...

  17. A Study on Application of Fuzzy Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter to Nonlinear Turbojet Engine Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dongju

    2018-05-01

    Safe and efficient flight powered by an aircraft turbojet engine relies on the performance of the engine controller preventing compressor surge with robustness from noises or disturbances. This paper proposes the effective nonlinear controller associated with the nonlinear filter for the real turbojet engine with highly nonlinear dynamics. For the feasible controller study the nonlinearity of the engine dynamics was investigated by comparing the step responses from the linearized model with the original nonlinear dynamics. The fuzzy-based PID control logic is introduced to control the engine efficiently and FAUKF is applied for robustness from noises. The simulation results prove the effectiveness of FAUKF applied to the proposed controller such that the control performances are superior over the conventional controller and the filer performance using FAUKF indicates the satisfactory results such as clearing the defects by reducing the distortions without compressor surge, whereas the conventional UKF is not fully effective as occurring some distortions with compressor surge due to a process noise.

  18. Effect of Axially Staged Fuel Introduction on Performance of One-quarter Sector of Annular Turbojet Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zettle, Eugene V; Mark, Herman

    1953-01-01

    The design principle of injecting liquid fuel at more than one axial station in an annual turbojet combustor was investigated. Fuel was injected into the combustor as much as 5 inches downstream of the primary fuel injectors. Many fuel-injection configurations were examined and the performance results are presented for 11 configurations that best demonstrate the trends in performance obtained. The performance investigations were made at a constant combustor-inlet pressure of 15 inches of mercury absolute and at air flows up to 70 percent higher than values typical of current design practice. At these higher air flows, staging the fuel introduction improved the combustion efficiency considerably over that obtained in the combustor when no fuel staging was employed. At air flows currently encountered in turbojet engines, fuel staging was of minor value. Radial temperature distribution seemed relatively unaffected by the location of fuel-injection stations.

  19. Flight investigation of an air-cooled plug nozzle with afterburning turbojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanich, N. E.

    1972-01-01

    A convectively cooled plug nozzle, using 4 percent of the engine air as the coolant, was tested in 1967 K (3540 R) temperature exhaust gas. No significant differences in cooling characteristics existed between flight and static results. At flight speeds above Mach 1.1, nozzle performance was improved by extending the outer shroud. Increasing engine power improved nozzle efficiency considerably more at Mach 1.2 than at 0.9. The effect of nozzle pressure ratio and secondary weight flow on nozzle performance are also presented.

  20. An Investigation of the McDonnell XP-85 Airplane in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel: Pressure-Distribution Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunton, Lynn W.; James, Harry A.

    1948-01-01

    Pressure measurements were made during wind-tunnel tests of the McDonnell XP-85 parasite fighter. Static-pressure orifices were located over the fuselage nose, over the canopy, along the wing root, and along the upper and lower stabilizer roots. A total-pressure and static-pressure rake was located in the turbojet engine air-intake duct. It was installed at the station where the compressor face would be located. Pressure data were obtained for two airplane conditions, clean and with skyhook extended, through a range of angle of attack and a range of yaw.

  1. Afterburning in spherical premixed turbulent explosions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bradley, D.; Lawes, M.; Scott, M.J.

    1994-12-01

    During the early stages of spherical turbulent flame propagation, more than half of the gas behind the visible flame front may be unburned. Previous models of the afterburning of the gas behind the apparent flame front have been extended in the present work, to include the effects of flame quenching, consequent upon localized flame stretch. The predictions of the model cover, the spatial and temporal variations of the fraction burned, the flame propagation rate, and the mass burning rate. They are all in dimensionless form and are well supported by associated experimental measurements in a fan-stirred bomb with controlled turbulence.more » The proportion of the gas that is unburned decreases with time and increases with the product of the Karlovitz stretch factor and the Lewis number. Simultaneous photographs were taken of the spherical schlieren image and of that due to Mie scattering from small seed particles in a thin laser sheet that sectioned the spherical flame. These clearly showed the amount of unburned gas within the sphere and, along with other evidence suggest laminar flamelet burning across a scale of distance which is close to the Taylor confirm the predictions of the fraction of gas unburned and of the rate at which it is burning.« less

  2. Diversity and evolution analysis of glycoprotein GP85 from avian leukosis virus subgroup J isolates from chickens of different genetic backgrounds during 1989-2016: Coexistence of five extremely different clusters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peikun; Lin, Lulu; Li, Haijuan; Yang, Yongli; Huang, Teng; Wei, Ping

    2018-02-01

    ALV-J has caused the most serious losses to the poultry industry in China. The gp85-coding sequence of ALV-J is known to be prone to mutation, but any association between the gp85 gene and breed of chicken remains unclear. A comprehensive and systematic study of the evolutionary process of ALV-J in China is needed. In this study, we compared and analyzed gp85 gene sequences from 198 ALV-J isolates, originating from China, USA, UK and France during 1989-2016. These were sorted into five clusters. Cluster 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 included isolates from chicken types of different genetic backgrounds, e.g. white-feather broiler, Guangxi indigenous chicken breeds, Yellow chickens and layer chickens respectively. A correlation comparison of amino acid sequence similarities in the gp85 protein among the five clusters showed significant differences (P < 0.01) with the exception being when the third and fifth cluster were compared (P > 0.05). Results of entropy analysis of the gp85 sequences revealed that cluster 3 had the largest variation and cluster 1 had the least variation. The N-glycosylation sites in the majority of isolates numbered 14, 16, 17, 16 and 16, respectively, with regards to clusters 1-5. In addition, 5 isolates from cluster 3 had one more glycosylation site than the other isolates from cluster 3. Our study provides evidence that there were five extremely different ALV-J clusters during 1989-2016 and that the gp85 genes isolated from indigenous chicken breed isolates had the largest variation.

  3. Net thrust calculation sensitivity of an afterburning turbofan engine to variations in input parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, D. L.; Ray, R. J.; Walton, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    The calculated value of net thrust of an aircraft powered by a General Electric F404-GE-400 afterburning turbofan engine was evaluated for its sensitivity to various input parameters. The effects of a 1.0-percent change in each input parameter on the calculated value of net thrust with two calculation methods are compared. This paper presents the results of these comparisons and also gives the estimated accuracy of the overall net thrust calculation as determined from the influence coefficients and estimated parameter measurement accuracies.

  4. UV Spectroradiometric Output Of An F404 Turbojet Aircraft Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, William E.; Spaberg, Gordon H.

    1989-09-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements of the ultraviolet output of a GE F404 aircraft engine were made over the wavelength range of 200 to 320 nm. The tests were conducted at the GE Lynn, Mass. Riverworks facility in the F404 ram cell. The severe environmental conditions associated with the test cell required a special acoustical noise-proof and mechanical shock-proof enclosure for the double monochromator and UV detectors along with special long cabling to the externally located radiometer and automatic data reduction system. The tests successfully provided spectral irradiance measurements of the afterburner over the 225-320 nm wavelength range with a UV-enhanced silicon detector and over the 200-260 nm range with a PMT detector.

  5. Calculated and measured stresses in simple panels subject to intense random acoustic loading including the near noise field of a turbojet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, Leslie W; Hess, Robert W

    1958-01-01

    Flat 2024-t3 aluminum panels measuring 11 inches by 13 inches were tested in the near noise fields of a 4-inch air jet and turbojet engine. The stresses which were developed in the panels are compared with those calculated by generalized harmonic analysis. The calculated and measured stresses were found to be in good agreement. In order to make the stress calculations, supplementary data relating to the transfer characteristics, damping, and static response of flat and curved panels under periodic loading are necessary and were determined experimentally. In addition, an appendix containing detailed data on the near pressure field of the turbojet engine is included.

  6. Simulations of heterogeneous detonations and post-detonation turbulent mixing and afterburning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottiparthi, Kalyana Chakravarthi; Menon, Suresh

    2012-03-01

    We conduct three-dimensional numerical simulations of the propagation of blast waves resulting from detonation of a nitromethane charge of radius 5.9 cm loaded with aluminum particles and analyze the afterburn process as well as the generation of multiple scales ofmixing in the post detonation flow field. In the current study, the particle combustion is observed to be dependent on particle dispersal and mixing of gases in the flow where particle dispersal spreads aluminum within the flow and mixing provides the necessary oxidizer. Thus, 5 μm aluminum particles are burnt more effectively in comparison to 10 μm particles for a fixed initial mass of particles. Also, for a fixed initial particle size, increase in the initial mass of aluminum particles resulted in greater mixing.

  7. Small, low-cost, expendable turbojet engine. 1: Design, fabrication, and preliminary testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dengler, R. P.; Macioce, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    A small experimental axial-flow turbojet engine in the 2,669-Newton (600-lbf) thrust class was designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of several low-cost concepts. Design simplicity was stressed in order to reduce the number of components and machining operations. Four engines were built and tested for a total of 157 hours. Engine testing was conducted at both sea-level static and simulated flight conditions for engine speeds as high as 38,000 rpm and turbine-inlet temperatures as high as 1,255 K (1,800 F).

  8. Comparison of High-Speed Operating Characteristics of Size 215 Cylindrical-Roller Bearings as Determined in Turbojet Engine and in Laboratory Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E Fred; Nemeth, Zolton N

    1952-01-01

    A comparison of the operating characteristics of 75-millimeter-bore (size 215) cylindrical-roller one-piece inner-race-riding cage-type bearings was made by means of a laboratory test rig and a turbojet engine. Cooling correlation parameters were determined by means of dimensional analysis, and the generalized results for both the inner- and the outer-race bearing operating temperatures are computed for the laboratory test rig and the turbojet engine. A method is given that enables the designer to predict the inner- and outer-race turbine roller-bearing temperatures from single curves, regardless of variations in speed, load, oil flow, oil inlet temperature, oil inlet viscosity, oil-jet diameter, or any combination of these parameters.

  9. Hydrogen-methane fuel control systems for turbojet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, J. S.; Bennett, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Design, development, and test of a fuel conditioning and control system utilizing liquid methane (natural gas) and liquid hydrogen fuels for operation of a J85 jet engine were performed. The experimental program evaluated the stability and response of an engine fuel control employing liquid pumping of cryogenic fuels, gasification of the fuels at supercritical pressure, and gaseous metering and control. Acceptably stable and responsive control of the engine was demonstrated throughout the sea level power range for liquid gas fuel and up to 88 percent engine speed using liquid hydrogen fuel.

  10. Performance potential of an advanced technology Mach 3 turbojet engine installed on a conceptual high-speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Shelby J., Jr.; Geiselhart, Karl A.; Coen, Peter G.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of an advanced technology conceptual turbojet optimized for a high-speed civil aircraft is presented. This information represents an estimate of performance of a Mach 3 Brayton (gas turbine) cycle engine optimized for minimum fuel burned at supersonic cruise. This conceptual engine had no noise or environmental constraints imposed upon it. The purpose of this data is to define an upper boundary on the propulsion performance for a conceptual commercial Mach 3 transport design. A comparison is presented demonstrating the impact of the technology proposed for this conceptual engine on the weight and other characteristics of a proposed high-speed civil transport. This comparison indicates that the advanced technology turbojet described could reduce the gross weight of a hypothetical Mach 3 high-speed civil transport design from about 714,000 pounds to about 545,000 pounds. The aircraft with the baseline engine and the aircraft with the advanced technology engine are described.

  11. Influence of Thrust Level on the Architecture and Optimal Working Process Parameters of a Small-scale Turbojet for UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz`michev, V. S.; Filinov, E. P.; Ostapyuk, Ya A.

    2018-01-01

    This article describes how the thrust level influences the turbojet architecture (types of turbomachines that provide the maximum efficiency) and its working process parameters (turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and overall pressure ratio (OPR)). Functional gasdynamic and strength constraints were included, total mass of fuel and the engine required for mission and the specific fuel consumption (SFC) were considered optimization criteria. Radial and axial turbines and compressors were considered. The results show that as the engine thrust decreases, optimal values of working process parameters decrease too, and the regions of compromise shrink. Optimal engine architecture and values of working process parameters are suggested for turbojets with thrust varying from 100N to 100kN. The results show that for the thrust below 25kN the engine scale factor should be taken into the account, as the low flow rates begin to influence the efficiency of engine elements substantially.

  12. Odor intensity and characterization studies of exhaust from a turbojet engine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butze, H. F.; Kendall, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    Sensory odor tests of the exhaust from a turbojet combustor operating at simulated idle conditions were made by a human panel sniffing diluted exhaust gas. Simultaneously, samples of undiluted exhaust gas were collected on adsorbent substrates, subsequently removed by solvent flushing, and analyzed chemically by liquid chromatographic methods. The concentrations of the principal malodorous species, the aromatic (unburned fuel-related) and the oxygenated (partially burned fuel) fractions, as determined chromatographically, correlated well with the intensity of the odor as determined by sniffing. Odor intensity increased as combustion efficiency decreased. Combustor modifications which increased combustion efficiency decreased odor intensity.

  13. A simplified gross thrust computing technique for an afterburning turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamer, M. J.; Kurtenbach, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    A simplified gross thrust computing technique extended to the F100-PW-100 afterburning turbofan engine is described. The technique uses measured total and static pressures in the engine tailpipe and ambient static pressure to compute gross thrust. Empirically evaluated calibration factors account for three-dimensional effects, the effects of friction and mass transfer, and the effects of simplifying assumptions for solving the equations. Instrumentation requirements and the sensitivity of computed thrust to transducer errors are presented. NASA altitude facility tests on F100 engines (computed thrust versus measured thrust) are presented, and calibration factors obtained on one engine are shown to be applicable to the second engine by comparing the computed gross thrust. It is concluded that this thrust method is potentially suitable for flight test application and engine maintenance on production engines with a minimum amount of instrumentation.

  14. Internal combustion engine having a reactor for afterburning of unburned exhaust gas constituents

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Maurhoff, G.; Steinwart, J.

    1974-08-07

    An internal combustion engine is described which has an engine housing and a reactor for afterburning of unburned constituents in the exhaust gas. The reactor has a shell with a periphery and contains a heat-insulated, reactor chamber which is freely movable beyond the point of connection to the shell. The reactor has an inlet nozzle extending freely through the shell and connected to an outlet passage of the engine and has an outlet for escape of the exhaust gases from the reactor chamber. The inlet nozzle protrudes freely into the outlet passage, and the shell has a portion around themore » inlet nozzle in contact with the engine housing.« less

  15. Comparison of Theoretically and Experimentally Determined Effects of Oxide Coatings Supplied by Fuel Additives on Uncooled Turbine-blade Temperature During Transient Turbojet-engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schafer, Louis J; Stepka, Francis S; Brown, W Byron

    1953-01-01

    An analysis was made to permit the calculation of the effectiveness of oxide coatings in retarding the transient heat flow into turbine blades when the combustion gas temperature of a turbojet engine is suddenly changed. The analysis is checked with experimental data obtained from a turbojet engine whose blades were coated with two different coating materials (silicon dioxide and boric oxide) by adding silicone oil and tributyl borate to the engine fuel. The very thin coatings (approximately 0.001 in.) that formed on the blades produced a negligible effect on the turbine-blade transient temperature response. With the analysis discussed here, it was possible to predict the turbine rotor-blade temperature response with a maximum error of 40 F.

  16. Installation for the catalytic afterburning of exhaust gases of a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lange, K.

    1974-04-24

    An installation for the catalytic afterburning of exhaust gases of a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine has two cylinder rows with two exhaust gas lines, each of which includes at least one catalyst. A temperature-responsive control is operable during engine start-up to conduct substantially the entire exhaust gas flow from the internal combustion engine during warmup for a predetermined time by way of only one of the two catalyst and then, after a short period of time, to conduct the exhaust gas flow from each row of cylinders by way of its associated gas line and catalyst.

  17. The Mission Defines the Cycle: Turbojet, Turbofan and Variable Cycle Engines for High Speed Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    RTO-EN-AVT-185 2 - 1 The Mission Defines the Cycle: Turbojet, Turbofan and Variable Cycle Engines for High Speed Propulsion Joachim Kurzke...following turbine parts 1 %. With T4=2000K the amounts of cooling air are 10% and 6% respectively. Burner pressure ratio is taken into account with 0.97 and...Figure 2 . Figure 3 shows specific thrust (i.e. thrust per unit of air flow) and specific fuel consumption SFC for three altitude / Mach number

  18. Generalization of turbojet and turbine-propeller engine performance in windmilling condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallner, Ewis E; Welna, Henry J

    1951-01-01

    Windmilling characteristics of several turbojet and turbine-propeller engines were investigated individually over a wide range of flight conditions in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. A study was made of all these data and windmilling performance of gas turbine engines was generalized. Although internal-drag, air-flow, and total-pressure-drop parameters were generalized to a single curve for both the axial-flow type engines and another for the centrifugal-flow engine. The engine speed, component pressure changes, and windmilling-propeller drag were generalized to single curves for the two turbine-propeller-type engines investigated. By the use of these curves the windmilling performance can be estimated for axial-flow type gas turbine engines similar to the types investigated over a wide range of flight conditions.

  19. Proposed regulations submitted by the Environmental Protection Agency to the FAA: moise abatement minimum altitudes for turbojet-powered airplanes in terminal areas; turbojet-powered airplanes. Decision not to prescribe requlations: delayed landing flap procedure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1976-11-29

    The Federal Aviation Administration has determined not to prescribe the proposed amendment to the FAA Regulations as submitted by the Environmental Protection Agency (40 F.R. 1072) on January 6, 1975, regarding noise abatement minimum altitudes for civil turbojet-powered airplanes. Instead, an internal directive is being issued aimed at the air traffic control function, which is designed to firmly integrate safety, fuel conservation, and noise abatement objectives into a single national program. It provides the flexibility needed to allow and encourage change with experience. (PCS)

  20. Effect of Fuel on Performance of a Single Combustor of an I-16 Turbojet Engine at Simulated Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zettle, Eugene V; Bolz, Ray E; Dittrich, R T

    1947-01-01

    As part of a study of the effects of fuel composition on the combustor performance of a turbojet engine, an investigation was made in a single I-16 combustor with the standard I-16 injection nozzle, supplied by the engine manufacturer, at simulated altitude conditions. The 10 fuels investigated included hydrocarbons of the paraffin olefin, naphthene, and aromatic classes having a boiling range from 113 degrees to 655 degrees F. They were hot-acid octane, diisobutylene, methylcyclohexane, benzene, xylene, 62-octane gasoline, kerosene, solvent 2, and Diesel fuel oil. The fuels were tested at combustor conditions simulating I-16 turbojet operation at an altitude of 45,000 feet and at a rotor speed of 12,200 rpm. At these conditions the combustor-inlet air temperature, static pressure, and velocity were 60 degrees F., 12.3 inches of mercury absolute, and 112 feet per second respectively, and were held approximately constant for the investigation. The reproducibility of the data is shown by check runs taken each day during the investigation. The combustion in the exhaust elbow was visually observed for each fuel investigated.

  1. An afterburner-powered methane/steam reformer for a solid oxide fuel cells application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozdzierz, Marcin; Chalusiak, Maciej; Kimijima, Shinji; Szmyd, Janusz S.; Brus, Grzegorz

    2018-04-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems can be fueled by natural gas when the reforming reaction is conducted in a stack. Due to its maturity and safety, indirect internal reforming is usually used. A strong endothermic methane/steam reforming process needs a large amount of heat, and it is convenient to provide thermal energy by burning the remainders of fuel from a cell. In this work, the mathematical model of afterburner-powered methane/steam reformer is proposed. To analyze the effect of a fuel composition on SOFC performance, the zero-dimensional model of a fuel cell connected with a reformer is formulated. It is shown that the highest efficiency of a solid oxide fuel cell is achieved when the steam-to-methane ratio at the reforming reactor inlet is high.

  2. Radiant heat transfer from flames in a single tubular turbojet combustor / Leonard Topper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topper, Leonard

    1952-01-01

    An experimental investigation of thermal radiation from the flame of a single tubular turbojet-engine combustor to the combustor liner is presented. The effects of combustor inlet-air pressure, air mass flow, and fuel-air ratio on the radiant intensity and the temperature and emissivity of the flame are reported. The total radiation of the "luminous" flames (containing incandescent soot particles) was much greater (4 to 21 times) than the "nonluminous" molecular radiation. The intensity of radiation from the flame increased rapidly with an increase in combustor inlet-air pressure; it was affected to a lesser degree by variations in fuel-air ratio and air mass flow.

  3. Turbojet Performance and Operation at High Altitudes with Hydrogen and Jp-4 Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, W A; Kaufman, H R; Harp, J L , Jr; Chelko, L J

    1956-01-01

    Two current turbojet engines were operated with gaseous-hydrogen and JP-4 fuels at very high altitudes and a simulated Mach number of 0.8. With gaseous hydrogen as the fuel stable operation was obtained at altitudes up to the facility limit of about 90,000 feet and the specific fuel consumption was only 40 percent of that with JP-4 fuel. With JP-4 as the fuel combustion was unstable at altitudes above 60,000 to 65,000 feet and blowout limits were reached at 75,000 to 80,000 feet. Over-all performance, component efficiencies, and operating range were reduced considerable at very high altitudes with both fuels.

  4. Performance of a small annular turbojet combustor designed for low cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fear, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Performance investigations were conducted on a combustor utilizing several cost-reducing innovations and designed for use in a low-cost 4448-N thrust turbojet engine for commercial light aircraft. Low-cost features included simple, air-atomizing fuel injectors; combustor liners of perforated sheet; and the use of inexpensive type 304 stainless-steel material. Combustion efficiencies at the cruise and sea-level-takeoff design points were approximately 97 and 98 percent, respectively. The combustor isothermal pressure loss was 6.3 percent at the cruise-condition diffuser inlet Mach number of 0.34. The combustor exit temperature pattern factor was less than 0.24 at both the cruise and sea-level-takeoff design points. The combustor exit average radial temperature profiles at all conditions were in very good agreement with the design profile.

  5. GENENG: A program for calculating design and off-design performance for turbojet and turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, R. W.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program entitled GENENG employs component performance maps to perform analytical, steady state, engine cycle calculations. Through a scaling procedure, each of the component maps can be used to represent a family of maps (different design values of pressure ratios, efficiency, weight flow, etc.) Either convergent or convergent-divergent nozzles may be used. Included is a complete FORTRAN 4 listing of the program. Sample results and input explanations are shown for one-spool and two-spool turbojets and two-spool separate- and mixed-flow turbofans operating at design and off-design conditions.

  6. An experimental investigation of compressor stall using an on-line distortion indicator and signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costakis, W. G.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The relation of the steady-state and dynamic distortions and the stall margin of a J85-13 turbojet engine was investigated. A distortion indicator capable of computing two distortion indices was used. A special purpose signal conditioner was also used as an interface between transducer signals and distortion indicator. A good correlation of steady-state distortion and stall margin was established. The prediction of stall by using the indices as instantaneous distortion indicators was not successful. A sensitivity factor that related the loss of stall margin to the turbulence level was found.

  7. Control installation for the proportioning of a secondary air quantity for improvement of the combustion in internal combustion engines or the afterburning of the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bockelmann, W.; Groezinger, H.; Woebky, P.U.

    1977-01-04

    A control installation is described for the dosing or proportioning of a secondary air quantity for the improvement of combustion in internal combustion engines, or the after-burning of the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. An auxiliary arrangement is responsive to an emergency signal for effecting the prompt shutting-off of the secondary air. The emergency signal may be initiated in response to a failure in the ignition voltage of the internal combustion engine; an increase in the hydrocarbon content of the exhaust gases; a disparity between the position of the mixture dosing element and the engine rotational speed; the exceedingmore » of a limiting temperature in the exhaust gas manifold; or the exceeding of a limiting temperature in the afterburner.« less

  8. Observation of Flame Stabilized at a Hydrogen-Turbojet-Engine Injector Installed into a Lab-Scale Combustion Wind Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michishita, Kazutaka; Nomura, Hiroshi; Ujiie, Yasushige; Okai, Keiichi

    A lab-scale combustion wind tunnel was developed for investigation of low-pressure ignition and flame holding in a sub-scale pre-cooled turbojet engine with hydrogen fuel in order to make engine start at high altitudes sure. The combustion wind tunnel is a blow-down type. A fuel injector of the sub-scale pre-cooled turbojet engine was installed into the combustion wind tunnel. Conditions in which a flame can be stabilized at the fuel injector were examined. The combustor pressure and equivalence ratio were varied from 10 to 40 kPa and from 0.4 to 0.8, respectively. The mean inlet air velocity was varied from 2 to 48 m/s. Flames stabilized at 20 kPa in pressure and 0.6 in equivalence ratio were observed. It was found that the decrease in the combustor pressure narrows the mean inlet air velocity range for successful flame holdings. Flame holding at lower combustor pressures is realized at the equivalence ratio of 0.4 in the low mean inlet air velocity range, and at the equivalence ratio of 0.6 in the high mean inlet air velocity range. Flame luminosity is the largest near the fuel injector. The flame luminosity distribution becomes flatter as the increase in the mean inlet air velocity.

  9. Performance gains by using heated natural-gas fuel in an annular turbojet combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.

    1973-01-01

    A full-scale annular turbojet combustor was tested with natural gas fuel heated from ambient temperature to 800 K (980 F). In all tests, heating the fuel improved combustion efficiency. Two sets of gaseous fuel nozzles were tested. Combustion instabilities occurred with one set of nozzles at two conditions: one where the efficiency approached 100 percent with the heated fuel; the other where the efficiency was very poor with the unheated fuel. The second set of nozzles exhibited no combustion instability. Altitude relight tests with the second set showed that relight was improved and was achievable at essentially the same condition as blowout when the fuel temperature was 800 K (980 F).

  10. Investigation of acceleration characteristics of a single-spool turbojet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheimer, Frank L; Pack, George J

    1953-01-01

    Operation of a single-spool turbojet engine with constant exhaust-nozzle area was investigated at one flight condition. Data were obtained by subjecting the engine to approximate-step changes in fuel flow, and the information necessary to show the relations of acceleration to the sensed engine variables was obtained. These data show that maximum acceleration occurred prior to stall and surge. In the low end of the engine-speed range the margin was appreciable; in the high-speed end the margin was smaller but had not been completely defined by these data. Data involving acceleration as a function of speed, fuel flow, turbine-discharge temperature, compressor-discharge pressure, and thrust have been presented and an effort has been made to show how a basic control system could be improved by addition of an override in which the acceleration characteristic is used not only to prevent the engine from entering the surge region but also to obtain acceleration along the maximum acceleration line during throttle bursts.

  11. Triggered instabilities in rocket motors and active combustion control for an incinerator afterburner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicker, Josef M.

    1999-11-01

    Two branches of research are conducted in this thesis. The first deals with nonlinear combustion response as a mechanism for triggering combustion instabilities in solid rocket motors. A nonlinear wave equation is developed to study a wide class of combustion response functions to second-order in fluctuation amplitude. Conditions for triggering are derived from analysis of limit cycles, and regions of triggering are found in parametric space. Introduction of linear cross-coupling and quadratic self-coupling among the acoustic modes appears to be how the nonlinear combustion response produces triggering to a stable limit cycle. Regions of initial conditions corresponding to stable pulses were found, suggesting that stability depends on initial phase angle and harmonic content, as well as the composite amplitude, of the pulse. Also, dependence of nonlinear stability upon system parameters is considered. The second part of this thesis presents research for a controller to improve the emissions of an incinerator afterburner. The developed controller was experimentally tested at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), on a 50kW-scale model of an afterburner for Naval shipboard incinerator applications. Acoustic forcing of the combustor's reacting shear layer is used to control the formation of coherent vortical structures, within which favorable fuel-air mixing and efficient combustion can occur. Laser-based measurements of CO emissions are used as the performance indicator for the combustor. The controller algorithm is based on the downhill simplex method and adjusts the shear layer forcing parameters in order to minimize the CO emissions. The downhill simplex method was analyzed with respect to its behavior in the face of time-variation of the plant and noise in the sensor signal, and was modified to account for these difficulties. The control system has experimentally demonstrated the ability (1) to find optimal control action for single- and multi-variable control, (2

  12. A computer simulation of the afterburning processes occurring within solid rocket motor plumes in the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomberg, R. I.; Stewart, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    As part of a continuing study of the environmental effects of solid rocket motor (SRM) operations in the troposphere, a numerical model was used to simulate the afterburning processes occurring in solid rocket motor plumes and to predict the quantities of potentially harmful chemical species which are created. The calculations include the effects of finite-rate chemistry and turbulent mixing. It is found that the amount of NO produced is much less than the amount of HCl present in the plume, that chlorine will appear predominantly in the form of HCl although some molecular chlorine is present, and that combustion is complete as is evident from the predominance of carbon dioxide over carbon monoxide.

  13. Performance of the Components of the XJ34-WE-32 Turbojet Engine over a Range of Engine and Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, John E; Sobolewski, Adam E; Smith, Ivan D

    1952-01-01

    Performance of the compressor, combustor, and turbine operating as integral parts of the XJ34-WE-32 turbojet engine was determined in the Lewis altitude wind tunnel over a range of altitudes from 5000 to 55,000 feet and flight Mach numbers from 0.28 to 1.05. Data were obtained for each of four exhaust-nozzle areas and are presented in graphical and tabular form.

  14. Spontaneous ignition in afterburner segment tests at an inlet temperature of 1240 K and a pressure of 1 atmosphere with ASTM jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.; Branstetter, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    A brief testing program was undertaken to determine if spontaneous ignition and stable combustion could be obtained in a jet engine afterburning operating with an inlet temperature of 1240 K and a pressure of 1 atmosphere with ASTM Jet-A fuel. Spontaneous ignition with 100-percent combustion efficiency and stable burning was obtained using water-cooled fuel spraybars as flameholders.

  15. The OmegaWhite Survey for short-period variable stars - IV. Discovery of the warm DQ white dwarf OW J175358.85-310728.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, S. A.; Woudt, P. A.; Dufour, P.; Ramsay, G.; Groot, P. J.; Toma, R.; Warner, B.; Paterson, K.; Kupfer, T.; van Roestel, J.; Berdnikov, L.; Dagne, T.; Hardy, F.

    2017-09-01

    We present the discovery and follow-up observations of the second known variable warm DQ white dwarf OW J175358.85-310728.9 (OW J1753-3107). OW J1753-3107 is the brightest of any of the currently known warm or hot DQ and was discovered in the OmegaWhite Survey as exhibiting optical variations on a period of 35.5452 (2) min, with no evidence for other periods in its light curves. This period has remained constant over the last 2 yr and a single-period sinusoidal model provides a good fit for all follow-up light curves. The spectrum consists of a very blue continuum with strong absorption lines of neutral and ionized carbon, a broad He I λ4471 line and possibly weaker hydrogen lines. The C I lines are Zeeman split, and indicate the presence of a strong magnetic field. Using spectral Paschen-Back model descriptions, we determine that OW J1753-3107 exhibits the following physical parameters: Teff = 15 430 K, log (g) = 9.0, log (N(C)/N(He)) = -1.2 and the mean magnetic field strength is Bz =2.1 MG. This relatively low temperature and carbon abundance (compared to the expected properties of hot DQs) is similar to that seen in the other warm DQ SDSS J1036+6522. Although OW J1753-3107 appears to be a twin of SDSS J1036+6522, it exhibits a modulation on a period slightly longer than the dominant period in SDSS J1036+6522 and has a higher carbon abundance. The source of variations is uncertain, but they are believed to originate from the rotation of the magnetic white dwarf.

  16. Blade row dynamic digital compressor program. Volume 1: J85 clean inlet flow and parallel compressor models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesch, W. A.; Steenken, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of a one-dimensional dynamic digital blade row compressor model study of a J85-13 engine operating with uniform and with circumferentially distorted inlet flow. Details of the geometry and the derived blade row characteristics used to simulate the clean inlet performance are given. A stability criterion based upon the self developing unsteady internal flows near surge provided an accurate determination of the clean inlet surge line. The basic model was modified to include an arbitrary extent multi-sector parallel compressor configuration for investigating 180 deg 1/rev total pressure, total temperature, and combined total pressure and total temperature distortions. The combined distortions included opposed, coincident, and 90 deg overlapped patterns. The predicted losses in surge pressure ratio matched the measured data trends at all speeds and gave accurate predictions at high corrected speeds where the slope of the speed lines approached the vertical.

  17. Integrated Turbine-Based Combined Cycle Dynamic Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haid, Daniel A.; Gamble, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    A Turbine-Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) dynamic simulation model has been developed to demonstrate all modes of operation, including mode transition, for a turbine-based combined cycle propulsion system. The High Mach Transient Engine Cycle Code (HiTECC) is a highly integrated tool comprised of modules for modeling each of the TBCC systems whose interactions and controllability affect the TBCC propulsion system thrust and operability during its modes of operation. By structuring the simulation modeling tools around the major TBCC functional modes of operation (Dry Turbojet, Afterburning Turbojet, Transition, and Dual Mode Scramjet) the TBCC mode transition and all necessary intermediate events over its entire mission may be developed, modeled, and validated. The reported work details the use of the completed model to simulate a TBCC propulsion system as it accelerates from Mach 2.5, through mode transition, to Mach 7. The completion of this model and its subsequent use to simulate TBCC mode transition significantly extends the state-of-the-art for all TBCC modes of operation by providing a numerical simulation of the systems, interactions, and transient responses affecting the ability of the propulsion system to transition from turbine-based to ramjet/scramjet-based propulsion while maintaining constant thrust.

  18. Compact high-speed MWIR spectrometer applied to monitor CO2 exhaust dynamics from a turbojet engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares-Herrero, R.; Vergara, G.; Gutiérrez Álvarez, R.; Fernández Montojo, C.; Gómez, L. J.; Villamayor, V.; Baldasano Ramírez, A.; Montojo, M. T.; Archilla, V.; Jiménez, A.; Mercader, D.; González, A.; Entero, A.

    2013-05-01

    Dfgfdg Due to international environmental regulations, aircraft turbojet manufacturers are required to analyze the gases exhausted during engine operation (CO, CO2, NOx, particles, unburned hydrocarbons (aka UHC), among others).Standard procedures, which involve sampling the gases from the exhaust plume and the analysis of the emissions, are usually complex and expensive, making a real need for techniques that allow a more frequent and reliable emissions measurements, and a desire to move from the traditional gas sampling-based methods to real time and non-intrusive gas exhaust analysis, usually spectroscopic. It is expected that the development of more precise and faster optical methods will provide better solutions in terms of performance/cost ratio. In this work the analysis of high-speed infrared emission spectroscopy measurements of plume exhaust are presented. The data was collected during the test trials of commercial engines carried out at Turbojet Testing Center-INTA. The results demonstrate the reliability of the technique for studying and monitoring the dynamics of the exhausted CO2 by the observation of the infrared emission of hot gases. A compact (no moving parts), high-speed, uncooled MWIR spectrometer was used for the data collection. This device is capable to register more than 5000 spectra per second in the infrared band ranging between 3.0 and 4.6 microns. Each spectrum is comprised by 128 spectral subbands with aband width of 60 nm. The spectrometer operated in a passive stand-off mode and the results from the measurements provided information of both the dynamics and the concentration of the CO2 during engine operation.

  19. An improved method for predicting the effects of flight on jet mixing noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A method for predicting the effects of flight on jet mixing noise has been developed on the basis of the jet noise theory of Ffowcs-Williams (1963) and data derived from model-jet/free-jet simulated flight tests. Predicted and experimental values are compared for the J85 turbojet engine on the Bertin Aerotrain, the low-bypass refanned JT8D engine on a DC-9, and the high-bypass JT9D engine on a DC-10. Over the jet velocity range from 280 to 680 m/sec, the predictions show a standard deviation of 1.5 dB.

  20. Flight Reynolds number effects on a fighter-type, circular-arc-19 deg conic boattail nozzle at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.

    1974-01-01

    A circular-arc - conic boattail nozzle, typical of those used on a twin engine fighter, was tested on an underwing nacelle mounted on an F-106B aircraft. The boattail had a radius ratio r/r sub c of 0.41 and a terminal boattail angle of approximately 19 deg. The gas generator was a J85-GE-13 turbojet engine. The effects of Reynolds number and angle of attack on boattail pressure drag and boattail pressure profiles were investigated. Increasing Reynolds number resulted in reduced boattail drag at both Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.9.

  1. Experience with integrally-cast compressor and turbine components for a small, low-cost, expendable-type turbojet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dengler, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Experiences with integrally-cast compressor and turbine components during fabrication and testing of four engine assemblies of a small (29 cm (11 1/2 in.) maximum diameter) experimental turbojet engine design for an expendable application are discussed. Various operations such as metal removal, welding, and re-shaping of these components were performed in preparation of full-scale engine tests. Engines with these components were operated for a total of 157 hours at engine speeds as high as 38,000 rpm and at turbine inlet temperatures as high as 1256 K (1800 F).

  2. Performance of 4600-pound-thrust centrifugal-flow-type turbojet engine with water-alcohol injection at inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasser, Philip W

    1950-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of injecting a water-alcohol mixture of 2:1 at the compressor inlet of a centrifugal-flow type turbojet engine was conducted in an altitude test chamber at static sea-level conditions and at an altitude of 20,000 feet with a flight Mach number of 0.78 with an engine operating at rated speed. The net thrust was augmented by 0.16 for both flight conditions with a ratio of injected liquid to air flow of 0.05. Further increases in the liquid-air ratio did not give comparable increases in thrust.

  3. Performance and component frontal areas of a hypothetical two-spool turbojet engine for three modes of operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, James F , Jr

    1955-01-01

    Engine performance is better for constant outer-spool mechanical-speed operation than for constant inner-spool mechanical-speed operation over most of the flight range considered. Combustor and afterburner frontal areas are about the same for the two modes. Engine performance for a mode characterized by a constant outer-spool equivalent speed over part of the flight range and a constant outer-spool mechanical speed over the rest of the flight range is better that that for constant outer-spool mechanical speed operation. The former mode requires larger outer-spool centrifugal stresses and larger component frontal areas.

  4. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=85

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Singh, Balraj; Chen, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Evaluated experimental data are presented for 13 known nuclides of mass 85 (Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo). Since the previous 1990 evaluation of A=85, {sup 85}Zn, {sup 85}Ga, {sup 85}Ge and {sup 85}nuclides are newly added here. Excited state data for {sup 85}Se, {sup 85}Zr have become available from radioactive decay and in–beam γ–ray studies. New and improved high–spin data are available for {sup 85}Br, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 85}Rb, {sup 85}Y, {sup 85}Nb and {sup 85}Mo. New direct and precise measurement of atomic masses of {sup 85}Ge, {sup 85}As, {sup 85}Se, {supmore » 85}Br, {sup 85}Rb, {sup 85}Zr, {sup 85}Nb and {sup 85}Mo have greatly improved the landscape of β decay–Q values and separation energies in this mass region. In spite of extensive experimental work on the isobaric nuclei of this mass chain several deficiencies remain. No excited states are known in {sup 85}Zn, {sup 85}Ga, {sup 85}As. Only a few excited state are assigned in {sup 85}Ge from {sup 85}Ga β– decay. From radioactivity studies, the decay schemes of {sup 85}Zn and {sup 85}Mo are not known, and those for {sup 85}Ga, {sup 85}Ge, {sup 85}As and 10.9–s isomer of {sup 85}Zr are incomplete. Level lifetimes are not known for excited states in {sup 85}Se, {sup 85}Br, {sup 85}Nb and {sup 85}Mo. The {sup 85}Tc nuclide has not been detected in fragmentation experiments at GANIL, alluding to its unbound nature for proton emission. The {sup 85}Kr, {sup 85}Rb, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 85}Y nuclides remain the most extensively studied from many different reactions and decays. The evaluation of A=85 nuclides has been done after a span of 23 years, thus includes an extensive amount of new data for almost each nuclide. This work supersedes the data for A=85 nuclides presented in earlier full NDS publication by J. Tepel in 1980Te04 and a later one published in an update mode by H. Sievers in 1991Si01.« less

  5. Afterburner performance of film-vaporizing V-gutters for inlet temperatures up to 1255 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, J. R.; Reck, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    Combustion tests of five variations of an integral, spray-bar - flameholder combination were conducted in a 0.49-m-diameter duct. Emphasis was on low levels of augmentation. Fuel impinged on guide plates, mixed with a controlled amount of inlet air, vaporized, and was guided into the V-gutter wake. Combustor length was 0.92 m. Good performance was demonstrated at fuel-air ratios less than 0.025 for inlet temperatures of 920 to 1255 K. Maximum combustion efficiency occured in the vicinity of fuel-air ratios of 0.02 and was 92 to 100 percent, depending on the inlet temperature. Lean blowout fuel-air ratios were in the vicinity of 0.005. Improvements in rich-limit blowout resulted from enlarging the guide-flow passageway areas. Other means of extending the operating range are suggested. A simplified afterburner concept for application to advanced engines is described.

  6. A Hydrogen Peroxide Hot-Jet Simulator for Wind-Tunnel Tests of Turbojet-Exit Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runckel, Jack F.; Swihart, John M.

    1959-01-01

    A turbojet-engine-exhaust simulator which utilizes a hydrogen peroxide gas generator has been developed for powered-model testing in wind tunnels with air exchange. Catalytic decomposition of concentrated hydrogen peroxide provides a convenient and easily controlled method of providing a hot jet with characteristics that correspond closely to the jet of a gas turbine engine. The problems associated with simulation of jet exhausts in a transonic wind tunnel which led to the selection of a liquid monopropellant are discussed. The operation of the jet simulator consisting of a thrust balance, gas generator, exit nozzle, and auxiliary control system is described. Static-test data obtained with convergent nozzles are presented and shown to be in good agreement with ideal calculated values.

  7. Thrust performance of a variable-geometry, divergent exhaust nozzle on a turbojet engine at altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straight, D. M.; Collom, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A variable geometry, low aspect ratio, nonaxisymmetric, two dimensional, convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle was tested at simulated altitude on a turbojet engine to obtain baseline axial, dry thrust performance over wide ranges of operating nozzle pressure ratios, throat areas, and internal expansion area ratios. The thrust data showed good agreement with theory and scale model test results after the data were corrected for seal leakage and coolant losses. Wall static pressure profile data were also obtained and compared with one dimensional theory and scale model data. The pressure data indicate greater three dimensional flow effects in the full scale tests than with models. The leakage and coolant penalties were substantial, and the method to determine them is included.

  8. Results of turbojet engine operation tests using a 50-50 mixture of JP-4 and tributyl borate as the fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schafer, Louis J , Jr; Stepka, Francis S

    1957-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on a centrifugal-type turbojet engine using a 50-50 mixture of tributyl borate and JP-4 as the fuel to determine the magnitude and the location of the boric oxide deposits in the engine as well as the effect of these deposits on the engine performance. Large deposits of boric acid formed in the combustor walls and on the turbine rotor and stator blades. The deposits had no effect on the engine thrust.

  9. Development of integrated, zero-G pneumatic transporter/rotating paddle incinerator/catalytic afterburner subsystem for processing human wastes on board spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, S. F.; Labak, L. J.; Honegger, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A four component system was developed which consists of a particle size reduction mechanism, a pneumatic waste transport system, a rotating-paddle incinerator, and a catalytic afterburner to be integrated into a six-man, zero-g subsystem for processing human wastes on board spacecraft. The study included the development of different concepts or functions, the establishment of operational specifications, and a critical evaluation for each of the four components. A series of laboratory tests was run, and a baseline subsystem design was established. An operational specification was also written in preparation for detailed design and testing of this baseline subsystem.

  10. Aerodynamic tests and analysis of a turbojet-boosted launch vehicle concept (spacejet) over a Mach number range of 1.50 to 2.86. [Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, G. D.; Small, W. J.; Morris, O. A.

    1981-01-01

    Results from analytical and experimental studies of the aerodynamic characteristics of a turbojet-boosted launch vehicle concept through a Mach number range of 1.50 to 2.86 are presented. The vehicle consists of a winged orbiter utilizing an area-ruled axisymmetric body and two winged turbojet boosters mounted underneath the orbiter wing. Drag characteristics near zero lift were of prime interest. Force measurements and flow visualization techniques were employed. Estimates from wave drag theory, supersonic lifting surface theory, and impact theory are compared with data and indicate the ability of these theories to adequately predict the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. Despite the existence of multiple wings and bodies in close proximity to each other, no large scale effects of boundary layer separation on drag or lift could be discerned. Total drag levels were, however, sensitive to booster locations.

  11. Magnetic force study for the helical afterburner for the European XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Wei, Tao; Li, Yuhui; Pflueger, Joachim

    2017-05-01

    At present the SASE3 undulator line at the European XFEL is using a planar undulator producing linear polarized soft Xray radiation only. In order to satisfy the demand for circular polarized radiation a helical undulator system, the so-called afterburner is in construction. It will be operated as a radiator using the pre-bunched beam of the SASE3 undulator system. Among several options for the magnetic structure the Apple-X geometry was chosen. This is a pure permanent magnet undulator using NdFeB material. Four magnet arrays are arranged symmetrically the beam axis. Polarization can be changed by adjusting the phase shift (PS) between the two orthogonal structures. The field strength can be adjusted either by gap adjustment or alternatively by the amplitude shift (AS) scheme. For an engineering design the maximum values of forces and torques on each of the components under worst case operational conditions are important. The superposition principle is used to reduce calculation time. It is found that the maximum forces Fx, Fy and Fz for a 2m long Apple-X undulator are 1.8*104N, 2.4*104N and 2.3*104N, respectively. More results are presented in this paper.

  12. Vertical transmission of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) from hens infected through artificial insemination with ALV-J infected semen.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Cui, Shuai; Li, Weihua; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Zhao, Peng; Chang, Shuang

    2017-06-29

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is one of the main causes of tumour development within the poultry industry in China. The subgroup J avian leukosis viruses (ALV-J), which induce erythroblastosis and myelocytomatosis, have the greatest pathogenicity and transmission ability within this class of viruses. ALV can be transmitted both horizontally and vertically; however, the effects of ALV infection in chickens-especially roosters-during the propagation, on future generations is not clear. Knowing the role of the cock in the transmission of ALV from generation to generation might contribute to the eradication programs for ALV. The results showed that two hens inseminated with ALV-J-positive semen developed temporary antibody responses to ALV-J at 4-5 weeks post insemination. The p27 antigen was detected in cloacal swabs of six hens, and in 3 of 26 egg albumens at 1-6 weeks after insemination. Moreover, no viremia was detected at 6 weeks after insemination even when virus isolation had been conducted six times at weekly intervals for each of the 12 females. However, ALV-J was isolated from 1 of their 34 progeny chicks at 1 week of age, and its gp85 had 98.4%-99.2% sequence identity with the gp85 of ALV-J isolated from semen samples of the six cocks. Our findings indicated that females that were late horizontally infected with ALV-J by artificial insemination might transmit the virus to progeny through eggs, which amounts to vertical transmission.

  13. Numerical analysis and design optimization of supersonic after-burning with strut fuel injectors for scramjet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candon, M. J.; Ogawa, H.

    2018-06-01

    Scramjets are a class of hypersonic airbreathing engine that offer promise for economical, reliable and high-speed access-to-space and atmospheric transport. The expanding flow in the scramjet nozzle comprises of unburned hydrogen. An after-burning scheme can be used to effectively utilize the remaining hydrogen by supplying additional oxygen into the nozzle, aiming to augment the thrust. This paper presents the results of a single-objective design optimization for a strut fuel injection scheme considering four design variables with the objective of maximizing thrust augmentation. Thrust is found to be augmented significantly owing to a combination of contributions from aerodynamic and combustion effects. Further understanding and physical insights have been gained by performing variance-based global sensitivity analysis, scrutinizing the nozzle flowfields, analyzing the distributions and contributions of the forces acting on the nozzle wall, and examining the combustion efficiency.

  14. Comparison of combustion characteristics of ASTM A-1, propane, and natural-gas fuels in an annular turbojet combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The performance of an annular turbojet combustor using natural-gas fuel is compared with that obtained using ASTM A-1 and propane fuels. Propane gas was used to simulate operation with vaporized kerosene fuels. The results obtained at severe operating conditions and altitude relight conditions show that natural gas is inferior to both ASTM A-1 and propane fuels. Combustion efficiencies were significantly lower and combustor pressures for relight were higher with natural-gas fuel than with the other fuels. The inferior performance of natural gas is shown to be caused by the chemical stability of the methane molecule.

  15. Experimental investigation of a unique airbreathing pulsed laser propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, H. T.; Manka, C.; Lyons, P. W.; Jones, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Investigations were conducted into unique methods of converting pulsed laser energy into propulsive thrust across a flat impulse surface under atmospheric conditions. The propulsion experiments were performed with a 1-micron neodymium-glass laser at the Space Plasma Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory. Laser-induced impulse was measured dynamically by ballistic pendulums and statically using piezoelectric pressure transducers on a stationary impulse surface. The principal goal was to explore methods for increasing the impulse coupling performance of airbreathing laser-propulsion engines. A magnetohydrodynamic thrust augmentation effect was discovered when a tesla-level magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the impulse surface. The impulse coupling coefficient performance doubled and continued to improve with increasing laser-pulse energies. The resultant performance of 180 to 200 N-s/MJ was found to be comparable to that of the earliest afterburning turbojets.

  16. Coke Deposition and Smoke Formation in Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, R. R.; Wear, J. D.

    1956-01-01

    In the early development of jet engines, it was occasionally found that excessive amounts of coke or other carbonaceous deposits were formed in the combustion chamber. Sometimes a considerable amount of smoke was noted in the-exhaust gases. Excessive coke deposits may adversely affect jet-engine performance in several ways. The formation of excessive amounts of coke on or just downstream of a fuel nozzle (figs. 116(a) and (b)) changes the fuel-spray pattern and possibly affects combustor life and performance. Similar effects on performance can result from the deposition of coke on primary-air entry ports (fig. 116(c)). Sea-level or altitude starting may be impaired by the deposition of coke on spark-plug electrodes (fig. 116(b)), deposits either grounding the electrodes completely or causing the spark to occur at positions other than the intended gap. For some time it was thought that large deposits of coke in turbojet combustion chambers (fig. 116(a)) might break away and damage turbine blades; however, experience has indicated that for metal blades this problem is insignificant. (Cermet turbine blades may be damaged by loose coke deposits.) Finally, the deposition of coke may cause high-temperature areas, which promote liner warping and cracking (fig. 116(d)) from excessive temperature gradients and variations in thermal-expansion rates. Smoke in the exhaust gases does not generally impair engine performance but may be undesirable from a tactical or a nuisance standpoint. Appendix B of reference 1 and references 2 to 4 present data obtained from full-scale engines operated on test stands and from flight tests that indicate some effects on performance caused by coke deposits and smoke. Some information about the mechanism of coke formation is given in reference 5 and chapter IX. The data indicate that (1) high-boiling fuel residuals and partly polymerized products may be mixed with a large amount of smoke formed in the gas phase to account for the consistency

  17. Apparatus for afterburning the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine to remove pollutants therefrom

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Laurent, P.A.

    1976-09-28

    An apparatus is described for afterburning the combustible pollutants from the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine in a reactor, in which secondary air is introduced. Upstream of the reactor, a chamber in the form of a torus is provided, through which the exhaust gases from a maximum number of cylinders flow before entering the reactor. A first obstacle, acting as a flame holder is disposed inside the torus. The reactor comprises a chamber whose inner surface is approximately a surface of revolution, and mounted inside of which is a second obstacle, acting as flame holder, substantially along themore » axis of revolution. The second flame holder has a diameter large enough to provide a contact time of 1 to 3 x 10/sup -3/ seconds of the gas flow in a recirculation zone surrounding the second flame holder, the diameter of the second flame holder being 15 to 40 percent of the reactor diameter.« less

  18. Increase in the efficiency of electric melting of pellets in an arc furnace with allowance for the energy effect of afterburning of carbon oxide in slag using fuel-oxygen burners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, V. A.; Krakht, L. N.; Merker, E. E.; Sazonov, A. V.; Chermenev, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The problems of increasing the efficiency of electric steelmaking using fuel-oxygen burners to supply oxygen for the afterburning of effluent gases in an arc furnace are considered. The application of a new energy-saving regime based on a proposed technology of electric melting is shown to intensify the processes of slag formation, heating, and metal decarburization.

  19. Analysis of a Turbine Blade Failure in a Military Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Benudhar; Satpathy, R. K.; Panigrahi, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with failure analysis of a low-pressure turbine blade of a straight flow turbojet engine. The blade is made of a wrought precipitation hardened Nickel base superalloy with oxidation-resistant diffusion aluminizing coating. The failure mode is found to be fatigue with multiple cracks inside the blade having crack origin at metal carbides. In addition to the damage in the coating, carbide banding has been observed in few blades. Carbide banding may be defined as inclusions in the form of highly elongated along deformation direction. The size, shape and banding of carbides and their location critically affect the failure of blades. Carbon content needs to be optimized to reduce interdendritic segregation and thereby provide improved fatigue and stress rupture life. Hence, optimization of size, shape and distribution of carbides in the billet and forging parameters during manufacturing of blade play a vital role to eliminate/reduce extent of banding. Reference micrographs as acceptance criteria are essential for evaluation of raw material and blade. There is a need to define the acceptance criteria for carbide bandings and introduce more sensitive ultrasonic check during billet and on finished blade inspection.

  20. Organic Compounds in the Exhaust of a J85-5 Turbine Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    8217 rcoe E)a•se, Teyxes uno r job vrder 79?31D-11-1H ilhen J.. averegt , spe: i czt ~ 1 -s , oir r=the data are used -’) an 7,rx~se oither than 2: rei...the USAFSAM sorption tube atmospheric sample system ( AF Invention No. 12,052; U.S. Patent No. 4,170,901). The collected samples were analyzed with a...f ’a- @1. 06 a C L v M~~I w ,a!j 1 ’l l .1 cNm l c0 w EL In c , .0 0 ) d’ 3 G)I’ c af a c. I%0 111 , 3 >1u w z w" r ojn 3..c N m enj m L. Nuw X >- 12

  1. Investigation of Thrust Augmentation of a 1600-pound Thrust Centrifugal-flow-type Turbojet Engine by Injection of Refrigerants at Compressor Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William L.; Dowman, Harry W.

    1947-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to determine effectiveness of refrigerants in increasing thrust of turbojet engines. Mixtures of water an alcohol were injected for a range of total flows up to 2.2 lb/sec. Kerosene was injected into inlets covering a range of injected flows up to approximately 30% of normal engine fuel flow. Injection of 2.0 lb/sec of water alone produced an increase in thrust of 35.8% of rate engine conditions and kerosene produced a negligible increase in thrust. Carbon dioxide increased thrust 23.5 percent.

  2. Linearized blade row compression component model. Stability and frequency response analysis of a J85-3 compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesch, W. A.; Moszee, R. H.; Steenken, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    NASA developed stability and frequency response analysis techniques were applied to a dynamic blade row compression component stability model to provide a more economic approach to surge line and frequency response determination than that provided by time-dependent methods. This blade row model was linearized and the Jacobian matrix was formed. The clean-inlet-flow stability characteristics of the compressors of two J85-13 engines were predicted by applying the alternate Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion to the Jacobian matrix. The predicted surge line agreed with the clean-inlet-flow surge line predicted by the time-dependent method to a high degree except for one engine at 94% corrected speed. No satisfactory explanation of this discrepancy was found. The frequency response of the linearized system was determined by evaluating its Laplace transfer function. The results of the linearized-frequency-response analysis agree with the time-dependent results when the time-dependent inlet total-pressure and exit-flow function amplitude boundary conditions are less than 1 percent and 3 percent, respectively. The stability analysis technique was extended to a two-sector parallel compressor model with and without interstage crossflow and predictions were carried out for total-pressure distortion extents of 180 deg, 90 deg, 60 deg, and 30 deg.

  3. Operational procedure for computer program for design point characteristics of a gas generator or a turbojet lift engine for V/STOL applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    The computer program described calculates the design-point characteristics of a gas generator or a turbojet lift engine for V/STOL applications. The program computes the dimensions and mass, as well as the thermodynamic performance of the model engine and its components. The program was written in FORTRAN 4 language. Provision has been made so that the program accepts input values in either SI Units or U.S. Customary Units. Each engine design-point calculation requires less than 0.5 second of 7094 computer time.

  4. A T8.5 BROWN DWARF MEMBER OF THE {xi} URSAE MAJORIS SYSTEM

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wright, Edward L.; Mace, Gregory; McLean, Ian S.

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has revealed a T8.5 brown dwarf (WISE J111838.70+312537.9) that exhibits common proper motion with a solar-neighborhood (8 pc) quadruple star system-{xi} Ursae Majoris. The angular separation is 8.'5, and the projected physical separation is Almost-Equal-To 4000 AU. The sub-solar metallicity and low chromospheric activity of {xi} UMa A argue that the system has an age of at least 2 Gyr. The infrared luminosity and color of the brown dwarf suggests the mass of this companion ranges between 14 and 38 M{sub J} for system ages of 2 and 8 Gyr, respectively.

  5. 40 CFR 85.2205-85.2206 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 85.2205-85.2206 Section 85.2205-85.2206 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short...

  6. LAUNCH - STS-28/51J - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-11-20

    S85-44776 (3 Oct 1985) --- Space Shuttle Atlantis soars toward Florida blue skies to mark the maiden mission of NASA's fourth and newest orbiter vehicle. Launch occurred at 11:15 a.m. (EDT), October 3, 1985. A five member crew mans the orbiter for the DOD flight. They are Karol J. Bobko, Ronald J. Grabe, Robert L. Stewart, David C. Hilmers-- all of NASA-- and William A. Pailes of the USAF.

  7. Performance Investigations of a Large Centrifugal Compressor from an Experimental Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginsburg, Ambrose; Creagh, John W. R.; Ritter, William K.

    1948-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a large centrifugal compressor from an experimental turbojet engine to determine the performance of the compressor and to obtain fundamental information on the aerodynamic problems associated with large centrifugal-type compressors. The results of the research conducted on the compressor indicated that the compressor would not meet the desired engine-design air-flow requirements (78 lb/sec) because of an air-flow restriction in the vaned collector (diffuser). Revision of the vaned collector resulted in an increased air-flow capacity over the speed range and showed improved matching of the impeller and diffuser components. At maximum flow, the original compressor utilized approximately 90 percent of the available geometric throat area at the vaned-collector inlet and the revised compressor utilized approximately 94 percent, regardless of impeller speed. The ratio of the maximum weight flows of the revised and original compressors were less than the ratio of effective critical throat areas of the two compressors because of the large pressure losses in the impeller near the impeller inelt and the difference increased with an increase in impeller speed. In order to further increase the pressure ratio and maximum weight flow of the compressor, the impeller must be modified to eliminate the pressure losses therein.

  8. The Performance of a Subsonic Diffuser Designed for High Speed Turbojet-Propelled Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor); Wendt, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    An initial-phase subsonic diffuser has been designed for the turbojet flowpath of the hypersonic x43B flight demonstrator vehicle. The diffuser fit into a proposed mixed-compression supersonic inlet system and featured a cross-sectional shape transitioning flowpath (high aspect ratio rectangular throat-to-circular engine face) and a centerline offset. This subsonic diffuser has been fabricated and tested at the W1B internal flow facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. At an operating throat Mach number of 0.79, baseline Pitot pressure recovery was found to be just under 0.9, and DH distortion intensity was about 0.4 percent. The diffuser internal flow stagnated, but did not separate on the offset surface of this initial-phase subsonic diffuser. Small improvements in recovery (+0.4 percent) and DH distortion (-32 percent) were obtained from using vane vortex generator flow control applied just downstream of the diffuser throat. The optimum vortex generator array patterns produced inflow boundary layer divergence (local downwash) on the offset surface centerline of the diffuser, and an inflow boundary layer convergence (local upwash) on the centerline of the opposite surface.

  9. Cavity-actuated supersonic mixing and combustion control

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yu, K.H.; Schadow, K.C.

    1994-11-01

    Compressible shear layers in supersonic jets are quite stable and spread very slowly compared with incompressible shear layers. In this paper, a novel use of a cavity-actuated forcing technique is demonstrated for increasing the spreading rate of compressible shear layers. Periodic modulations were applied to Mach 2.0 reacting and nonreacting jets using the cavities that were attached at the exit of a circular supersonic nozzle. The effect of cavity-actuated forcing was studied as a function of the cavity geometry, in particular, the length and the depth of the cavity. When the cavities were tuned to certain frequencies, large-scale highly coherentmore » structures were produced in the shear layers substantially increasing the growth rate. The cavity excitation was successfully applied to both cold and hot supersonic jets. When applied to cold Mach 2.0 air jets. the cavity-actuated forcing increased the spreading rate of the initial shear layers with the convective Mach number (M[sub C]) of 0.85 by a factor of three. For high-temperature Mach 2.0 jets with M[sub C] of 1.4, a 50% increase in the spreading rate was observed with the forcing. Finally, the cavity-actuated forcing was applied to reacting supersonic jets with ethylene-oxygen afterburning. For this case, the forcing caused a 20%--30% reduction in the afterburning flame length and modified the afterburning intensity significantly. The direction of the modification depended on the characteristics of the afterburning flames. The intensity was reduced with forcing for unstable flames with weak afterburning while it was increased for stable flames with strong afterburning.« less

  10. 40 CFR 85.2231 - On-board diagnostic test equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false On-board diagnostic test equipment... Warranty Short Tests § 85.2231 On-board diagnostic test equipment requirements. (a) The test system interface to the vehicle shall include a plug that conforms to SAE J1962 “Diagnostic Connector.” The...

  11. 40 CFR 85.2231 - On-board diagnostic test equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false On-board diagnostic test equipment... Warranty Short Tests § 85.2231 On-board diagnostic test equipment requirements. (a) The test system interface to the vehicle shall include a plug that conforms to SAE J1962 “Diagnostic Connector.” The...

  12. 40 CFR 85.2231 - On-board diagnostic test equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false On-board diagnostic test equipment... Warranty Short Tests § 85.2231 On-board diagnostic test equipment requirements. (a) The test system interface to the vehicle shall include a plug that conforms to SAE J1962 “Diagnostic Connector.” The...

  13. On the leading edge; Combining maturity and advanced technology on the F404 turbofan engine

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Powel, S.F. IV

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the overall design concept of the F404 afterburning turbofan engine is reviewed together with some of the lessons learned from over 2 million flight hours in service. GE Aircraft Engines' derivative and growth plans for the F404 family are then reviewed including the Building Block component development approach. Examples of advanced technologies under development for introduction into new F404 derivative engine models are presented in the areas of materials, digital and fiber optic controls systems, and vectoring exhaust nozzles. The design concept and details of the F404-GE-402, F412-GE-400, and other derivative engines under full-scale development are described.more » Studies for future growth variants and the benefits of the F404 derivative approach to development of afterburning engines in the 18,000-24,000 lb (80--107 kN) thrust class and non- afterburning engines in the 12,000--19,000 lb (53--85 kN) class are discussed.« less

  14. Homo-β-amino acid containing MBP(85–99) analogs alleviate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ravi; Pasi, Shweta; Surolia, Avadhesha

    2015-01-01

    MBP(85–99), an immuno-dominant epitope of myelin basic protein which binds to the major histocompatibility complex haplotype HLA-DR2 is widely implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. J5, an antagonist of MBP(85–99), that blocks the binding of MBP(85–99) to soluble HLA-DR2b much more efficiently than glatiramer acetate (a random copolymer comprising major MHC and T-cell receptor contact residues), was transformed into analogs with superior biological half-lives and antagonistic-activities by substitution of some of its residues with homo-β-amino acids. S18, the best analog obtained ameliorated symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis at least twice more effectively than glatiramer acetate or J5. S18 displayed marked resistance to proteolysis in-vitro; biological impact of which was evident in the form of delayed clinical onset of disease and prolonged therapeutic-benefits. Besides active suppression of MBP(85–99)-reactive CD4+ T-cells in-vitro and in-vivo S18 treatment also generated IL-4 producing CD4+ T-cell clones, through which protective effect could be transferred passively. PMID:25644378

  15. UGC Galaxies Stronger than 25 MJy at 4.85 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, J. J.; Frayer, D. T.; Broderick, J. J.

    1995-11-01

    UGC galaxies in the declination band +5 degrees < delta < +75 degrees were identified by position coincidence with radio sources stronger than 25 mJy on the Green Bank 4.85 GHz sky maps. Candidate identifications were confirmed or rejected with the aid of published aperture-synthesis maps (including those in the companion directory UGC20CM.DIR) and new 4.86 GHz VLA D-array maps having 15 or 18 arcsec FWHM resolution. The 4.86 GHz maps in this directory cover both confirmed identifications and candidates rejected because of confusion, low flux density, etc. For more information on this study, please see the following references: Condon, J. J., Frayer, D. T., and Broderick, J. J. 1991, AJ, 101, 362. The image(s) and related TeX file come from the NRAO CDROM "Images From the Radio Universe" (c. 1992 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, used with permission).

  16. LANDING - STS-28/51J - DRYDEN FLIGHT RESEARCH FACILITY (DFRF), CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-10-08

    S85-41802 (7 Sept 1985) --- Wheels of the Space Shuttle Atlantis touch down on the dry lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base to mark successful completion of the STS 51-J mission. Crewmembers onboard for the flight were Astronauts Karol J. Bobko, Ronald J. Grabe, David C. Hilmers, and Robert L. Stewart; and USAF Maj. William A. Pailes.

  17. Altitude Performance of Annular Combustor Type Turbojet Engine with JFC-2 Fuel /james W. Useller, James L. Harp, Jr. and Zelmar Barson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Useller, James W; Harp, James L JR; Barson, Zelmar

    1952-01-01

    An investigation was made comparing the performance of JFC-2 fuel and unleaded, clear gasoline in a 3000-pound-thrust turbojet engine. The JFC-2 fuel was a blend of percent diesel fuel and 25 percent aviation gasoline. Engine combustion efficiency was equal to that obtained with gasoline at rated engine speed and altitudes up to 35,000 feet, but at lower engine speeds or at higher altitudes the JFC-2 fuel gave lower combustion efficiency. No discernible difference was obtained in starting or low-speed combustiion blow-out characteristics of the two fuels. Turbine-discharge radial temperature profiles were nearly the same at altitudes up to 35,000 feet.

  18. Biofuels E0, E15, E85 Neurophysiology Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Visual, auditory, somatosensory, and peripheral nerve evoked responses.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Herr , D., D. Freeborn , L. Degn , S.A. Martin, J. Ortenzio, L. Pantlin, C. Hamm , and W. Boyes. Neurophysiological Assessment of Auditory, Peripheral Nerve, Somatosensory, and Visual System Function After Developmental Exposure to Gasoline, E15 and E85 Vapors. NEUROTOXICOLOGY AND TERATOLOGY. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 54: 78-88, (2016).

  19. An Anaylsis of Control Requirements and Control Parameters for Direct-Coupled Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novik, David; Otto, Edward W.

    1947-01-01

    Requirements of an automatic engine control, as affected by engine characteristics, have been analyzed for a direct-coupled turbojet engine. Control parameters for various conditions of engine operation are discussed. A hypothetical engine control is presented to illustrate the use of these parameters. An adjustable speed governor was found to offer a desirable method of over-all engine control. The selection of a minimum value of fuel flow was found to offer a means of preventing unstable burner operation during steady-state operation. Until satisfactory high-temperature-measuring devices are developed, air-fuel ratio is considered to be a satisfactory acceleration-control parameter for the attainment of the maximum acceleration rates consistent with safe turbine temperatures. No danger of unstable burner operation exists during acceleration if a temperature-limiting acceleration control is assumed to be effective. Deceleration was found to be accompanied by the possibility of burner blow-out even if a minimum fuel-flow control that prevents burner blow-out during steady-state operation is assumed to be effective. Burner blow-out during deceleration may be eliminated by varying the value of minimum fuel flow as a function of compressor-discharge pressure, but in no case should the fuel flow be allowed to fall below the value required for steady-state burner operation.

  20. Afterburner Performance of Circular V-Gutters and a Sector of Parallel V-Gutters for a Range of Inlet Temperatures to 1255 K (1800 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandstetter, J. Robert; Reck, Gregory M.

    1973-01-01

    Combustion tests of two V-gutter types were conducted in a 19.25-in. diameter duct using vitiated air. Fuel spraybars were mounted in line with the V-gutters. Combustor length was set by flame-quench water sprays which were part of a calorimeter for measuring combustion efficiency. Although the levels of performance of the parallel and circular array afterburners were different, the trends with geometry variations were consistent. Therefore, parallel arrays can be used for evaluating V-gutter geometry effects on combustion performance. For both arrays, the highest inlet temperature produced combustion efficiencies near 100 percent. A 5-in. spraybar - to - V-gutter spacing gave higher efficiency and better lean blowout performance than a spacing twice as large. Gutter durability was good.

  1. Calculated effects of turbine rotor-blade cooling-air flow, altitude, and compressor bleed point on performance of a turbojet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arne, Vernon L; Nachtigall, Alfred J

    1951-01-01

    Effects of air-cooling turbine rotor blades on performance of a turbojet engine were calculated for a range of altitudes from sea level to 40,000 feet and a range of coolant flows up to 3 percent of compressor air flow, for two conditions of coolant bleed from the compressor. Bleeding at required coolant pressure resulted in a sea-level thrust reduction approximately twice the percentage coolant flow and in an increase in specific fuel consumption approximately equal to percentage coolant flow. For any fixed value of coolant flow ratio the percentage thrust reduction and percentage increase in specific fuel consumption decreased with altitude. Bleeding coolant at the compressor discharge resulted in an additional 1 percent loss in performance at sea level and in smaller increase in loss of performance at higher altitudes.

  2. Surge-Inception Study in a Two-Spool Turbojet Engine. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallner, Lewis E.; Lubick, Robert J.; Saari, Martin J.

    1957-01-01

    A two-spool turbojet engine was operated in the Lewis altitude wind tunnel to study the inception of compressor surge. In addition to the usual steady-state pressure and temperature measurements, the compressors were extensively instrumented with fast-response interstage pressure transducers. Thus it was possible to obtain maps for both compressors, pressure oscillations during rotating stall, effects of stall on efficiency, and stage-loading curves. In addition, with the transient measurements, it was possible to record interstage pressures and then compute stage performance during accelerations to the stall limit. Rotating stall was found to exist at low speeds in the outer spool. Although the stall arose from poor flow conditions at the inlet-stage blade tips, the low-energy air moved through the machine from the tip at the inlet to the outer spool to the hub at the inlet to the inner spool. This tip stall ultimately resulted in compressor surge in the mid-speed region, and necessitated inter-compressor air bleed. Interstage pressure measurements during acceleration to the compressor stall limit indicated that rotating stall was not a necessary condition for compressor surge and that, at the critical stall point, the circumferential interstage pressure distribution was uniform. The exit-stage group of the inner spool was first t o stall; then, the stages upstream stalled in succession until the inlet stage of the outer spool was stalled. With a sufficiently high fuel rate, the process repeated with a cycle time of about 0.1 second. It was possible to construct reproducible stage stall lines as a function of compressor speed from the stage stall points of several such compressor surges. This transient stall line was checked by computing the stall line from a steady-state stage-loading curve. Good agreement between the stage stall lines was obtained by these two methods.

  3. J-2 Engine ready to go into test stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Two technicians watch carefully as cables prepare to lift a J-2 engine into a test stand. The J-2 powered the second stage and the third stage of the Saturn V moon rocket. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  4. Advanced supersonic propulsion study. [with emphasis on noise level reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatella, J. A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the promising propulsion systems for advanced supersonic transport application, and to identify the critical propulsion technology requirements. It is shown that noise constraints have a major effect on the selection of the various engine types and cycle parameters. Several promising advanced propulsion systems were identified which show the potential of achieving lower levels of sideline jet noise than the first generation supersonic transport systems. The non-afterburning turbojet engine, utilizing a very high level of jet suppression, shows the potential to achieve FAR 36 noise level. The duct-heating turbofan with a low level of jet suppression is the most attractive engine for noise levels from FAR 36 to FAR 36 minus 5 EPNdb, and some series/parallel variable cycle engines show the potential of achieving noise levels down to FAR 36 minus 10 EPNdb with moderate additional penalty. The study also shows that an advanced supersonic commercial transport would benefit appreciably from advanced propulsion technology. The critical propulsion technology needed for a viable supersonic propulsion system, and the required specific propulsion technology programs are outlined.

  5. Performance of Axial-Flow Supersonic Compressor of XJ55-FF-1 Turbojet Engine. III; Over-All Performance of Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Melvin J.; Tysl, Edward R.

    1949-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the rotor and inlet guide vanes used in the axial-flow supersonic compressor of the XJ55-FF-1 turbojet engine. Outlet stators used in the engine were omitted to facilitate study of the supersonic rotor. The extent of the deviation from design performance indicates that the design-shock configuration was not obtained. A maximum pressure ratio of 2.26 was obtained at an equivalent tip speed of 1614 feet per second and an adiabatic efficiency of 0.61. The maximum efficiency obtained was 0.79 at an equivalent tip speed of 801 feet per second and a pressure ratio of 1.29. The performance obtained was considerably below design performance. The effective aerodynamic forces encountered appeared to be large enough to cause considerable damage to the thin aluminum leading edges of the rotor blades.

  6. Turbojet engine blade damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, A. V.; Cutts, D. G.; Sridhar, S.

    1981-01-01

    The potentials of various sources of nonaerodynamic damping in engine blading are evaluated through a combination of advanced analysis and testing. The sources studied include material hysteresis, dry friction at shroud and root disk interfaces as well as at platform type external dampers. A limited seris of tests was conducted to evaluate damping capacities of composite materials (B/AL, B/AL/Ti) and thermal barrier coatings. Further, basic experiments were performed on titanium specimens to establish the characteristics of sliding friction and to determine material damping constants J and n. All the tests were conducted on single blades. Mathematical models were develthe several mechanisms of damping. Procedures to apply this data to predict damping levels in an assembly of blades are developed and discussed.

  7. Entropy-Based Performance Analysis of Jet Engines; Methodology and Application to a Generic Single-Spool Turbojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Mohammad

    Recently developed methodology that provides the direct assessment of traditional thrust-based performance of aerospace vehicles in terms of entropy generation (i.e., exergy destruction) is modified for stand-alone jet engines. This methodology is applied to a specific single-spool turbojet engine configuration. A generic compressor performance map along with modeled engine component performance characterizations are utilized in order to provide comprehensive traditional engine performance results (engine thrust, mass capture, and RPM), for on and off-design engine operation. Details of exergy losses in engine components, across the entire engine, and in the engine wake are provided and the engine performance losses associated with their losses are discussed. Results are provided across the engine operating envelope as defined by operational ranges of flight Mach number, altitude, and fuel throttle setting. The exergy destruction that occurs in the engine wake is shown to be dominant with respect to other losses, including all exergy losses that occur inside the engine. Specifically, the ratio of the exergy destruction rate in the wake to the exergy destruction rate inside the engine itself ranges from 1 to 2.5 across the operational envelope of the modeled engine.

  8. Experimental Investigation of an Air-Cooled Turbine Operating in a Turbojet Engine at Turbine Inlet Temperatures up to 2500 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Reeves P.; Dengler, Robert P.

    1961-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of an air-cooled turbine at average turbine inlet temperatures up to 2500 F. A modified production-model 12-stage axial-flow-compressor turbojet engine operating in a static sea-level stand was used as the test vehicle. The modifications to the engine consisted of the substitution of special combustor and turbine assemblies and double-walled exhaust ducting for the standard parts of the engine. All of these special parts were air-cooled to withstand the high operating temperatures of the investigation. The air-cooled turbine stator and rotor blades were of the corrugated-insert type. Leading-edge tip caps were installed on the rotor blades to improve leading-edge cooling by diverting the discharge of coolant to regions of lower gas pressure toward the trailing edge of the blade tip. Caps varying in length from 0.15- to 0.55-chord length were used in an attempt to determine the optimum cap length for this blade. The engine was operated over a range of average turbine inlet temperatures from about 1600 to about 2500 F, and a range of average coolant-flow ratios of 0.012 to 0.065. Temperatures of the air-cooled turbine rotor blades were measured at all test conditions by the use of thermocouples and temperature-indicating paints. The results of the investigation indicated that this type of blade is feasible for operation in turbojet engines at the average turbine inlet temperatures and stress levels tested(maximums of 2500 F and 24,000 psi, respectively). An average one-third-span blade temperature of 1300 F could be maintained on 0.35-chord tip cap blades with an average coolant-flow ratio of about 0.022 when the average turbine inlet temperature was 2500 F and cooling-air temperature was about 260 F. All of the leading-edge tip cap lengths improved the cooling of the leading-edge region of the blades, particularly at low average coolant-flow ratios. At high gas temperatures, such parts as the turbine stator and the combustor

  9. Development of a Noninterference Technique for Measurement of Turbine Engine Compressor Blade Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    TECHNIQUE FOR MEASUREMENT OF TURBINE ENGINE COMPRESSOR BLADE STRESS 7 A U T H O R ( s ) P . E. M c C a r t y a n d J . W. Thompson , J r...e a e a ~ and tdentJ~ by b|ock numbe~ A noninterference technique for measuring stress in compressor blades of turbine engines is being developed...43 4 AEDC-TR-79-78 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND Compressor rotor blades in turbojet engines are subjected to

  10. Spectroscopic classification of PSN J16303221+0913530 as a Type Ia Supernova at maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piascik, A. S.; Steele, I. A.; Mikuz, H.

    2015-08-01

    PSN J16303221+0913530 (RA=16:30:32.21 DEC=+09:13:53.0, mag=18.2) was discovered by Crni Vrh Observatory on 2015-08-05.85 UT, refer to CBAT report http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/unconf/followups/J16303221+0913530.html for details.

  11. Full-length genome sequence analysis of an avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) as contaminant in live poultry vaccine: The commercial live vaccines might be a potential route for ALV-J transmission.

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Lin, L; Li, H; Shi, M; Gu, Z; Wei, P

    2018-02-25

    One avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) strain was isolated from 67 commercial live poultry vaccines produced by various manufacturers during 2013-2016 in China. The complete genomes of the isolate were sequenced and it was found that the genes gag and pol of the strain were relatively conservative, while the gp85 gene of the strain GX14YYA1 had the highest similarities with a field strain GX14ZS14, which was isolated from the chickens of a farm that had once used the same vaccine as the one found to be contaminated with the GX14YYA1. This is the first report of ALV-J contaminant in live poultry vaccine in China. Our finding demonstrates that vaccination of the commercial live vaccines might be a potential new route for ALV-J transmission in chickens and highlights the need for more extensive monitoring of the commercial live vaccines in China. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Design of Single Stage Axial Turbine with Constant Nozzle Angle Blading for Small Turbojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra Adnan, F.; Hartono, Firman

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, an aerodynamic design of a single stage gas generator axial turbine for small turbojet engine is explained. As per design requirement, the turbine should be able to deliver power output of 155 kW at 0.8139 kg/s gas mass flow, inlet total temperature of 1200 K and inlet total pressure of 335330 Pa. The design phase consist of several steps, i.e.: determination of velocity triangles in 2D plane, 2D blading design and 3D flow analysis at design point using Computational Fluid Dynamics method. In the determination of velocity triangles, two conditions are applied: zero inlet swirl (i.e. the gas flow enter the turbine at axial direction) and constant nozzle angle design (i.e. the inlet and outlet angle of the nozzle blade are constant from root to tip). The 2D approach in cascade plane is used to specify airfoil type at root, mean and tip of the blade based on inlet and outlet flow conditions. The 3D approach is done by simulating the turbine in full configuration to evaluate the overall performance of the turbine. The observed parameters including axial gap, stagger angle, and tip clearance affect its output power. Based on analysis results, axial gap and stagger angle are positively correlated with output power up to a certain point at which the power decreases. Tip clearance, however, gives inversely correlation with output power.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Air-Cooled Turbine Blades in Turbojet Engine. 7: Rotor-Blade Fabrication Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Roger A.; Esgar, Jack B.

    1951-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the cooling effectiveness of a wide variety of air-cooled turbine-blade configurations. The blades, which were tested in the turbine of a - commercial turbojet engine that was modified for this investigation by replacing two of the original blades with air-cooled blades located diametrically opposite each other, are untwisted, have no aerodynamic taper, and have essentially the same external profile. The cooling-passage configuration is different for each blade, however. The fabrication procedures were varied and often unique. The blades were fabricated using methods most suitable for obtaining a small number of blades for use in the cooling investigations and therefore not all the fabrication procedures would be directly applicable to production processes, although some of the ideas and steps might be useful. Blade shells were obtained by both casting and forming. The cast shells were either welded to the blade base or cast integrally with the base. The formed shells were attached to the base by a brazing and two welding methods. Additional surface area was supplied in the coolant passages by the addition of fins or tubes that were S-brazed. to the shell. A number of blades with special leading- and trailing-edge designs that provided added cooling to these areas were fabricated. The cooling effectiveness and purposes of the various blade configurations are discussed briefly.

  14. STS-28/51J - OFFICIAL CREW INSIGNIA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-09-06

    S85-39862 (1 Sept. 1985) --- The 51-J mission insignia, designed by Atlantis's first crew, pays tribute to the Statue of Liberty and the ideas it symbolizes. The historical gateway figure bears additional significance for astronauts Karol J. Bobko, mission commander; and Ronald J. Grabe, pilot, both New York natives. Other members of the five-man crew, whose surnames encircle the artwork, are Robert L. Stewart and David C. Hilmers, mission specialists; and William A. Pailes, payload specialist. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  15. Residues 28 to 39 of the Extracellular Loop 1 of Chicken Na+/H+ Exchanger Type I Mediate Cell Binding and Entry of Subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaolu; Zhang, Yao; Yu, Mengmeng; Ren, Chaoqi; Gao, Yanni; Yun, Bingling; Liu, Yongzhen; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Liu, Changjun; Cui, Hongyu; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Pan, Qing; Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2018-01-01

    Chicken Na + /H + exchanger type I (chNHE1), a multispan transmembrane protein, is a cellular receptor of the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J). To identify the functional determinants of chNHE1 responsible for the ALV-J receptor activity, a series of chimeric receptors was created by exchanging the extracellular loops (ECL) of human NHE1 (huNHE1) and chNHE1 and by ECL replacement with a hemagglutinin (HA) tag. These chimeric receptors then were used in binding and entry assays to map the minimal ALV-J gp85-binding domain of chNHE1. We show that ECL1 of chNHE1 (chECL1) is the critical functional ECL that interacts directly with ALV-J gp85; ECL3 is also involved in ALV-J gp85 binding. Amino acid residues 28 to 39 of the N-terminal membrane-proximal region of chECL1 constitute the minimal domain required for chNHE1 binding of ALV-J gp85. These residues are sufficient to mediate viral entry into ALV-J nonpermissive cells. Point mutation analysis revealed that A30, V33, W38, and E39 of chECL1 are the key residues mediating the binding between chNHE1 and ALV-J gp85. Further, the replacement of residues 28 to 39 of huNHE1 with the corresponding chNHE1 residues converted the nonfunctional ALV-J receptor huNHE1 to a functional one. Importantly, soluble chECL1 and huECL1 harboring chNHE1 residues 28 to 39 both could effectively block ALV-J infection. Collectively, our findings indicate that residues 28 to 39 of chNHE1 constitute a domain that is critical for receptor function and mediate ALV-J entry. IMPORTANCE chNHE1 is a cellular receptor of ALV-J, a retrovirus that causes infections in chickens and serious economic losses in the poultry industry. Until now, the domains determining the chNHE1 receptor function remained unknown. We demonstrate that chECL1 is critical for receptor function, with residues 28 to 39 constituting the minimal functional domain responsible for chNHE1 binding of ALV-J gp85 and efficiently mediating ALV-J cell entry. These residues are

  16. Performance Evaluation of Reduced-Chord Rotor Blading as Applied to J73 Two-Stage Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurn, Harold J.

    1957-01-01

    The multistage turbine from the J73 turbojet engine has previously been investigated with standard and with reduced-chord rotor blading in order to determine the individual performance characteristics of each configuration over a range of over-all pressure ratio and speed. Because both turbine configurations exhibited peak efficiencies of over 90 percent, and because both units had relatively wide efficient operating ranges, it was considered of interest to determine the performance of the first stage of the turbine as a separate component. Accordingly, the standard-bladed multistage turbine was modified by removing the second-stage rotor disk and stator and altering the flow passage so that the first stage of the unit could be operated independently. The modified single-stage turbine was then operated over a range of stage pressure ratio and speed. The single-stage turbine operated at a peak brake internal efficiency of over 90 percent at an over-all stage pressure ratio of 1.4 and at 90 percent of design equivalent speed. Furthermore, the unit operated at high efficiencies over a relatively wide operating range. When the single-stage results were compared with the multistage results at the design operating point, it was found that the first stage produced approximately half the total multistage-turbine work output.

  17. Dynamic response of a Mach 2.5 axisymmetric inlet and turbojet engine with a poppet-value controlled inlet stability bypass system when subjected to internal and external airflow transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    The throat of a Mach 2.5 inlet that was attached to a turbojet engine was fitted with a poppet-valve-controlled stability bypass system that was designed to provide a large, stable airflow range. Propulsion system response and stability bypass performance were determined for several transient airflow disturbances, both internal and external. Internal airflow disturbances included reductions in overboard bypass airflow, power lever angle, and primary-nozzle area as well as compressor stall. For reference, data are also included for a conventional, fixed-exit bleed system. The poppet valves greatly increased inlet stability and had no adverse effects on propulsion system performance. Limited unstarted-inlet bleed performance data are presented.

  18. Flow Quality for Turbine Engine Loads Simulator (TELS) Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    2.2 GAS INGESTION A mathematical simulation of the turbojet engine and jet deflector was formulated to estimate the severity of the recirculating...3. Swain. R. L. and Mitchell, J. G. "’Smlulatlon of Turbine Engine Operational Loads." Journal of Aircraft Vol. 15, No. 6, June 1978• 4. Ryan, J...3 AEDC-TR-79-83 ~...~ i ,i g - Flow Quality for Turbine Engine Loads Simulator (TELS) Facility R..I. Schulz ARO, Inc. June 1980

  19. Jet Engine Operating and Support Cost Estimating Relationship Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    0 H COX UCSSFE SEP 85 RFIT/GSM/LSY/85S-S F/G 14/1 M liiiI~ 1.8 2. I...~ 0 1.8 11111 ~ *& 11110 .8 MICR~OCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART N AT-N AL BUEA O... testing equipment, and more highly skilled laborers to maintain the engines. Variables indicative of technology and performance are specific fuel...Qualification Test (MlOT) date. October 1942 was slected because it was the date when the first US turbojet- 50 powered aircraft -Flew (26s14. Another time

  20. WISE J061213.85-303612.5: a new T-dwarf binary candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huélamo, N.; Ivanov, V. D.; Kurtev, R.; Girard, J. H.; Borissova, J.; Mawet, D.; Mužić, K.; Cáceres, C.; Melo, C. H. F.; Sterzik, M. F.; Minniti, D.

    2015-06-01

    Context. T and Y dwarfs are among the coolest and least luminous objects detected, and they can help to understand the properties of giant planets. Up to now, there are more than 350 T dwarfs that have been identified thanks to large imaging surveys in the infrared, and their multiplicity properties can shed light on the formation process. Aims: The aim of this work is to look for companions around a sample of seven ultracoool objects. Most of them have been discovered by the WISE observatory and have not been studied before for multiplicity. Methods: We observed a sample six T dwarfs and one L9 dwarf with the Laser Guide Star (LGS) and NAOS-CONICA, the adaptive optics (AO) facility, and the near infrared camera at the ESO Very Large Telescope. We observed all the objects in one or more near-IR filters (JHKs). Results: From the seven observed objects, we have identified a subarcsecond binary system, WISE J0612-3036, composed of two similar components with spectral types of T6. We measure a separation of ρ = 350 ± 5 mas and a position angle of PA = 235 ± 1°. Using the mean absolute magnitudes of T6 dwarfs in the 2MASS JHKs bands, we estimate a distance of d = 31 ± 6 pc and derive a projected separation of ρ ~ 11 ± 2 au. Another target, WISE J2255-3118, shows a very faint object at 1.̋3 in the Ks image. The object is marginally detected in H, and we derive a near infrared color of H - Ks> 0.1 mag. HST/WFC3 public archival data reveals that the companion candidate is an extended source. Together with the derived color, this suggests that the source is most probably a background galaxy. The five other sources are apparently single, with 3-σ sensitivity limits between H = 19-21 for companions at separations ≥0.̋5. Conclusions: WISE 0612-3036 is probably a new T-dwarf binary composed of two T6 dwarfs. As in the case of other late T-dwarf binaries, it shows a mass ratio close to 1, although its projected separation, ~11 au, is larger than the average (~5 au

  1. The effect of forward speed on J85 engine noise from suppressor nozzles as measured in the NASA-Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation to determine the effect of forward speed on the exhaust noise from a conical ejector nozzle and three suppressor nozzles mounted behind a J85 engine was performed in a 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel. The nozzles were tested at three engine power settings and at wind tunnel forward speeds up to 91 m/sec (300 ft/sec). In addition, outdoor static tests were conducted to determine (1) the differences between near field and far field measurements, (2) the effect of an airframe on the far field directivity of each nozzle, and (3) the relative suppression of each nozzle with respect to the baseline conical ejector nozzle. It was found that corrections to near field data are necessary to extrapolate to far field data and that the presence of the airframe changed the far field directivity as measured statically. The results show that the effect of forward speed was to reduce the noise from each nozzle more in the area of peak noise, but the change in forward quadrant noise was small or negligible. A comparison of wind tunnel data with available flight test data shows good agreement.

  2. SR-71A on Ramp with Dual Max Afterburner Engines Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This night shot shows one of NASA's SR-71 Blackbird research aircraft on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, with both engines running in max afterburner. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward

  3. J-PET: A New Technology for the Whole-body PET Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedźwiecki, S.; Białas, P.; Curceanu, C.; Czerwiński, E.; Dulski, K.; Gajos, A.; Głowacz, B.; Gorgol, M.; Hiesmayr, B. C.; Jasińska, B.; Kapłon, Ł.; Kisielewska-Kamińska, D.; Korcyl, G.; Kowalski, P.; Kozik, T.; Krawczyk, N.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Mohammed, M.; Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M.; Pałka, M.; Raczyński, L.; Rudy, Z.; Sharma, N. G.; Sharma, S.; Shopa, R. Y.; Silarski, M.; Skurzok, M.; Wieczorek, A.; Wiślicki, W.; Zgardzińska, B.; Zieliński, M.; Moskal, P.

    The Jagiellonian Positron Emission Tomograph (J-PET) is the first PET built from plastic scintillators. J-PET prototype consists of 192 detection modules arranged axially in three layers forming a cylindrical diagnostic chamber with the inner diameter of 85 cm and the axial field-of-view of 50 cm. An axial arrangement of long strips of plastic scintillators, their small light attenuation, superior timing properties, and relative ease of the increase of the axial field-of-view opens promising perspectives for the cost effective construction of the whole-body PET scanner, as well as construction of MR and CT compatible PET inserts. Present status of the development of the J-PET tomograph will be presented and discussed.

  4. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited--The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    1998-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, "high leverage" technologies--liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Ironrich volcanic glass, or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way, LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging front the engine's choked sonic throat--essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  5. 46 CFR 147.85 - Oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oxygen. 147.85 Section 147.85 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.85 Oxygen. (a) Eighty five cubic meters (3000 standard cubic feet) or less of oxygen may be on board any vessel. (b) More than 85 m3 (3000 standard cubic feet...

  6. 46 CFR 147.85 - Oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oxygen. 147.85 Section 147.85 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.85 Oxygen. (a) Eighty five cubic meters (3000 standard cubic feet) or less of oxygen may be on board any vessel. (b) More than 85 m3 (3000 standard cubic feet...

  7. 46 CFR 147.85 - Oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oxygen. 147.85 Section 147.85 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.85 Oxygen. (a) Eighty five cubic meters (3000 standard cubic feet) or less of oxygen may be on board any vessel. (b) More than 85 m3 (3000 standard cubic feet...

  8. 46 CFR 147.85 - Oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oxygen. 147.85 Section 147.85 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.85 Oxygen. (a) Eighty five cubic meters (3000 standard cubic feet) or less of oxygen may be on board any vessel. (b) More than 85 m3 (3000 standard cubic feet...

  9. 46 CFR 147.85 - Oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen. 147.85 Section 147.85 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.85 Oxygen. (a) Eighty five cubic meters (3000 standard cubic feet) or less of oxygen may be on board any vessel. (b) More than 85 m3 (3000 standard cubic feet...

  10. Preliminary Results of Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of X24C-4B Turbojet Engine. IV - Performance of Modified Compressor. Part 4; Performance of Modified Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorman, H. Carl; Dupree, David T.

    1947-01-01

    The performance of the 11-stage axial-flow compressor, modified to improve the compressor-outlet velocity, in a revised X24C-4B turbojet engine is presented and compared with the performance of the compressor in the original engine. Performance data were obtained from an investigation of the revised engine in the MACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. Compressor performance data were obtained for engine operation with four exhaust nozzles of different outlet area at simulated altitudes from 15,OOO to 45,000 feet, simulated flight Mach numbers from 0.24 to 1.07, and engine speeds from 4000 to 12,500 rpm. The data cover a range of corrected engine speeds from 4100 to 13,500 rpm, which correspond to compressor Mach numbers from 0.30 to 1.00.

  11. ATel 7498: The Orbital Period of the Be/X-ray Binary SXP6.85 (XMMU J010253.1-724433)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, P. C.; Cowley, A. P.; Udalski, A.

    2015-05-01

    SXP6.85 was identified with a Be star in the Small Magellanic Cloud by Haberl, Pietsch, & Kahabka (2007, ATel #1095). The source shows long-term optical variability of ~0.5 mag with a recurrence time of ~658 d (see Fig. ...

  12. Performance of Compressor of XJ-41-V Turbojet Engine. 4; Performance Analysis Over Range of Compressor Speeds from 5000 to 10,000 RPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creagh, John W. R.; Ginsburg, Ambrose

    1948-01-01

    An investigation of the XJ-41-V turbojet-engine compressor was conducted to determine the performance of the compressor and to obtain fundamental information on the aerodynamic problems associated with large centrifugal-type compressors. The results of the research conducted on the original compressor indicated the compressor would not meet the desired engine-design air-flow requirements because of an air-flow restriction in the vaned collector. The compressor air-flow choking point occurred near the entrance to the vaned-collector passage and was instigated by a poor mass-flow distribution at the vane entrance and from relatively large negative angles of attack of the air stream along the entrance edges of the vanes at the outer passage wall and large positive angles of attack at the inner passage wall. As a result of the analysis, a design change of the vaned collector entrance is recommended for improving the maximum flow capacity of the compressor.

  13. Acceleration of high-pressure-ratio single-spool turbojet engine as determined from component performance characteristics I : effect of air bleed at compressor outlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebeske, John J , Jr; Rohlik, Harold E

    1953-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made to determine from component performance characteristics the effect of air bleed at the compressor outlet on the acceleration characteristics of a typical high-pressure-ratio single-spool turbojet engine. Consideration of several operating lines on the compressor performance map with two turbine-inlet temperatures showed that for a minimum acceleration time the turbine-inlet temperature should be the maximum allowable, and the operating line on the compressor map should be as close to the surge region as possible throughout the speed range. Operation along such a line would require a continuously varying bleed area. A relatively simple two-step area bleed gives only a small increase in acceleration time over a corresponding variable-area bleed. For the modes of operation considered, over 84 percent of the total acceleration time was required to accelerate through the low-speed range ; therefore, better low-speed compressor performance (higher pressure ratios and efficiencies) would give a significant reduction in acceleration time.

  14. 2001: A Space Odyssey Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2003-01-01

    The prospects for 24 hour commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, high leverage technologies: liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and lunar-derived oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass, or orange soil, discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4 percent oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an afterburner into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat, essentially scramjet propulsion in reverse. By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that big engine performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or in-line Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an expendable mode initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is

  15. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2001-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon. similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale. are examined using two near term. "high leverage" technologies-liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass. or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow. has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat-essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller. more affordable. easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  16. Optical Pressure Measurements of Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    near field detonation product gases can have a significant effect upon afterburn ignition times (4). The implication being that afterburning times...can be tuned to bring detonation product afterburning into proximity of the leading shock, influencing brisance, and explosive impulse on target. 3...R. Z.; McAndrew, B. A. Afterburn Ignition Delay and Shock Augmentation in Fuel Rich Solid Explosives. Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 2010

  17. When routine D-J implantation necessary during PNL?

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Omer; Seckiner, Ilker; Erturhan, Sakip M; Bulut, Ersan; Demirbag, Asaf; Erbagci, Asaf

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the characteristics of patients who underwent Double-J catheter (D-J) implantation, the risk factors for prolonged urine leakage (PUL), and prediction of patients who require medical treatment. The data of 535 adult patients who underwent PNL due to kidney stone disease between January 2005 and December 2011 in our clinic were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group 1 (n=77) (14.39%) included patients with Double-J catheter due to prolonged (> 24 h) urinary leakage and Group 2 (n=458) (85.61%) patients without urinary leakage. The mean stone burden was 951.94 ± 539.09 mm2 in Group 1, and 676.35 ±296.65 mm2 in Group 2 (p<0.05). DJ catheter was implanted in 11.33% of the patients with stone burden below 1000 mm2 versus in 51.21% of the patients with stone burden above 1000 mm2. In Group 1, the number of patients with two or more accesses performed was 18.18, whereas in Group 2 it was 8.5% (p<0.05). Among all patients, DJ implantation was performed in 13.07% of patients with a single access versus 26.41% of patients with two or more accesses. Also, DJ catheter was implanted in 41.46%of patients with residual stones versus 12.14% of stone-free patients. Three patients with stone burden above 1000 mm2, two or more accesses, and residual stone, all of them required DJ implantation. DJ implantation due to PUL had approximately 5-fold increase stone burden above 1000 mm2, 2-fold increase in patients undergoing two or more access and 3-fold increase in patients with residual stones. Therefore, we think that the D-J implantation is highly advisable in case of a stone load above 1000 mm2, two or more accesses, and in patients with residual stones.

  18. 34 CFR 85.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency. 85.910 Section 85.910 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency...

  19. 34 CFR 85.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agency. 85.910 Section 85.910 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency...

  20. 40 CFR 85.2201 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 85.2201 Section 85.2201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2201...

  1. 40 CFR 85.1901 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 85.1901 Section 85.1901 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Defect Reporting Requirements § 85.1901 Applicability. The...

  2. 40 CFR 85.1413 - Decertification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decertification. 85.1413 Section 85.1413 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1413 Decertification. (a...

  3. 40 CFR 85.1406 - Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification. 85.1406 Section 85.1406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1406 Certification. (a) Certification...

  4. 40 CFR 85.505 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling. 85.505 Section 85.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Exemption of Aftermarket Conversions From Tampering Prohibition § 85.505...

  5. Altitude-wind-tunnel investigation of tail-pipe burning with a Westinghouse X24C-4B axial-flow turbojet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, William A; Wallner, Lewis E

    1948-01-01

    Thrust augmentation of an axial-flow type turbojet engine by burning fuel in the tail pipe has been investigated in the NACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. The performance was determined over a range of simulated flight conditions and tail-pipe fuel flows. The engine tail pipe was modified for the investigation to reduce the gas velocity at the inlet of the tail-pipe combustion chamber and to provide an adequate seat for the flame; four such modifications were investigated. The highest net-thrust increase obtained in the investigation was 86 percent with a net thrust specific fuel consumption of 2.91 and a total fuel-air ratio of 0.0523. The highest combustion efficiencies obtained with the four configurations ranged from 0.71 to 0.96. With three of the tail-pipe burners, for which no external cooling was provided, the exhaust nozzle and the rear part of the burner section were bright red during operation at high tail-pipe fuel-air ratios. With the tail-pipe burner for which fuel and water cooling were provided, the outer shell of the tail-pipe burner showed no evidence of elevated temperatures at any operating condition.

  6. 40 CFR 85.2221 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 85.2221 Section 85.2221 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2221 [Reserved] ...

  7. 40 CFR 85.1405 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 85.1405 Section 85.1405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1405 Applicability. The provisions of...

  8. Precise measurement of spin-averaged {chi}{sub cJ}(1P) mass using photon conversions in {psi}(2S){yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub cJ}

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ablikim, M.; Bai, J.Z.; Bian, J.G.

    2005-05-01

    Using photon conversions to e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs, the energy spectrum of inclusive photons from {psi}(2S) radiative decays is measured with photon energy resolution ({sigma}{sub E{sub {gamma}}}) in the range from 2.3 to 3.8 MeV by BESII at the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider. The {chi}{sub cJ}(1P) states (J=0,1,2) are clearly observed, and their masses and the spin-averaged {chi}{sub cJ} mass are determined to be M{sub {chi}{sub c}{sub 0}}=3414.21{+-}0.39{+-}0.27, M{sub {chi}{sub c}{sub 1}}=3510.30{+-}0.14{+-}0.16, M{sub {chi}{sub c}{sub 2}}=3555.70{+-}0.59{+-}0.39, and M({sup 3}P{sub cog})=3524.85{+-}0.32{+-}0.30 MeV/c{sup 2}, respectively.

  9. 24 CFR 85.30 - Changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes. 85.30 Section 85.30... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.30 Changes. (a) General... unanticipated requirements and may make limited program changes to the approved project. However, unless waived...

  10. 24 CFR 85.32 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 85.32 Section 85.32 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.32 Equipment. (a) Title...

  11. 34 CFR 85.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal. 85.995 Section 85.995 Education Office of...) Definitions § 85.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant with management or supervisory responsibilities related to a...

  12. 40 CFR 85.1409 - Warranty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warranty. 85.1409 Section 85.1409 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1409 Warranty. (a) As a condition of...

  13. 50 CFR 27.85 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gambling. 27.85 Section 27.85 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.85 Gambling. Gambling in any form, or the operation of gambling devices, for money or otherwise, on any national wildlife...

  14. 50 CFR 27.85 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gambling. 27.85 Section 27.85 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.85 Gambling. Gambling in any form, or the operation of gambling devices, for money or otherwise, on any national wildlife...

  15. 50 CFR 27.85 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gambling. 27.85 Section 27.85 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.85 Gambling. Gambling in any form, or the operation of gambling devices, for money or otherwise, on any national wildlife...

  16. 50 CFR 27.85 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gambling. 27.85 Section 27.85 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.85 Gambling. Gambling in any form, or the operation of gambling devices, for money or otherwise, on any national wildlife...

  17. 50 CFR 27.85 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gambling. 27.85 Section 27.85 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.85 Gambling. Gambling in any form, or the operation of gambling devices, for money or otherwise, on any national wildlife...

  18. 24 CFR 85.33 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplies. 85.33 Section 85.33... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.33 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest, upon acquisition, in the grantee or...

  19. 31 CFR 8.5 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Records. 8.5 Section 8.5 Money and... AND FIREARMS General Requirements § 8.5 Records. (a) Availability. Registers of all persons admitted... inspection at the Office of the Director. Other records may be disclosed upon specific request in accordance...

  20. 45 CFR 1356.85 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance. 1356.85 Section 1356.85 Public Welfare....85 Compliance. (a) File submission standards. A State agency must submit a data file in accordance... compliance. (1) ACF will determine whether a State agency's data file for each reporting period is in...

  1. 45 CFR 1356.85 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compliance. 1356.85 Section 1356.85 Public Welfare....85 Compliance. (a) File submission standards. A State agency must submit a data file in accordance... compliance. (1) ACF will determine whether a State agency's data file for each reporting period is in...

  2. 32 CFR 85.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 85.1 Section 85.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN HEALTH PROMOTION § 85.1 Purpose. (a) This part establishes a health promotion policy within the Department of Defense to improve and maintain military readiness an...

  3. 10 CFR 9.85 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees. 9.85 Section 9.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS Privacy Act Regulations Fees § 9.85 Fees. Fees shall not be charged for search or... available for review, although fees may be charged for additional copies. Fees established under 31 U.S.C...

  4. J domain independent functions of J proteins.

    PubMed

    Ajit Tamadaddi, Chetana; Sahi, Chandan

    2016-07-01

    Heat shock proteins of 40 kDa (Hsp40s), also called J proteins, are obligate partners of Hsp70s. Via their highly conserved and functionally critical J domain, J proteins interact and modulate the activity of their Hsp70 partners. Mutations in the critical residues in the J domain often result in the null phenotype for the J protein in question. However, as more J proteins have been characterized, it is becoming increasingly clear that a significant number of J proteins do not "completely" rely on their J domains to carry out their cellular functions, as previously thought. In some cases, regions outside the highly conserved J domain have become more important making the J domain dispensable for some, if not for all functions of a J protein. This has profound effects on the evolution of such J proteins. Here we present selected examples of J proteins that perform J domain independent functions and discuss this in the context of evolution of J proteins with dispensable J domains and J-like proteins in eukaryotes.

  5. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The firstmore » quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and

  6. Concept development of a Mach 4 high-speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Christopher S.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.; Geiselhart, Karl A.; Mcgraw, Marvin E., Jr.; Shields, Elwood W.; Swanson, Edward E.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to configure and analyze a 250 passenger, Mach 4 High Speed Civil Transport with a design range of 6500 n.mi. The design mission assumed an all-supersonic cruise segment and no community noise or sonic boom constraints. The study airplane was developed in order to examine the technology requirements for such a vehicle and to provide an unconstrained baseline from which to assess changes in technology levels, sonic boom limits, or community noise constraints in future studies. The propulsion, structure, and materials technologies utilized in the sizing of the study aircraft were assumed to represent a technology availability date of 2015. The study airplane was a derivative of a previously developed Mach 3 concept and utilized advanced afterburning turbojet engines and passive airframe thermal protection. Details of the configuration development, aerodynamic design, propulsion system, mass properties, and mission performance are presented. The study airplane was estimated to weigh approx. 866,000 lbs. Although an aircraft of this size is a marginally acceptable candidate to fit into the world airport infrastructure, it was concluded that the inclusion of community noise or sonic boom constraints would quickly cause the aircraft to grow beyond acceptable limits using the assumed technology levels.

  7. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix E: Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    R0287, R0549, R0662, R0740 Concerned that the afterburner was not factored into the noise zone equation. Afterburner takeoffs were factored into...the noise assessment. The F-35s at Burlington International Airport are proposed to use afterburners on only 5 percent of their takeoffs (vice the...90 percent done now by F-16s). However, the afterburner would be turned off shortly after the aircraft becomes airborne, much prior to crossing the

  8. Experimental and Computational Analysis of a Miniature Ramjet at Mach 4.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data...sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden...intermittent after the second World War, with the most well-known example being Lockheed Martin’s SR-71 Blackbird using the Pratt & Whitney J58 turbojet

  9. Journal of Engineering Thermophysics (Selected Articles),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-20

    A SURGE TEST OF A TWIN-SHAFT TURBOJET ENGINE ON GROUND TEST BED* Chiang Feng (Shengyang Aeroengine Company) ABSTRACT Instrument technique for...oscillogram for the static pressure behind the two compressors. This noise was analyzed and believed to have arisen from the vibrations of the rotating blades...booms are heard. The vibrational energy of the surge is enormous, especially in the range of 85-90% of rotational speed. One can feel the vibrations

  10. INTEGRAL observation of SWIFT J1756.9-2508 in outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzola, S.; Bozzo, E.; Kuulkers, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Savchenko, V.; Ducci, L.

    2018-04-01

    Following the discovery of a new outburst from the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SWIFT J1756.9-2508 (ATel #11497, #11502, #11505), a dedicated target of opportunity observation with INTEGRAL was carried out from 2018 April 1 at 08:30 to 23:15 (UTC; total exposure time 85 ks). The source was detected in the 20-40 keV IBIS/ISGRI mosaic at a significance level of 20 sigma.

  11. [The post-burn process--a determinant in local surgical treatment of deep burns].

    PubMed

    Bäumer, F; Henrich, H A

    1988-12-01

    Afterburning has been studied in the animal experiment by use of intravital dye indicators and by measuring partial oxygen pressure. After third degree burn the oxygen conduction of the damaged skin increased. The afterburning was seen to be finished on the 5th day after the burn trauma. The histological changes in the depth of the afterburn area reaches to the subcutis. The extend of the afterburn area was not related to the applied temperature or the duration of the experimental burn injury.

  12. A One Dimensional, Time Dependent Inlet/Engine Numerical Simulation for Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, Doug; Davis, Milt, Jr.; Cole, Gary

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) have developed a closely coupled computer simulation system that provides a one dimensional, high frequency inlet/engine numerical simulation for aircraft propulsion systems. The simulation system, operating under the LeRC-developed Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL), closely coupled a supersonic inlet with a gas turbine engine. The supersonic inlet was modeled using the Large Perturbation Inlet (LAPIN) computer code, and the gas turbine engine was modeled using the Aerodynamic Turbine Engine Code (ATEC). Both LAPIN and ATEC provide a one dimensional, compressible, time dependent flow solution by solving the one dimensional Euler equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Source terms are used to model features such as bleed flows, turbomachinery component characteristics, and inlet subsonic spillage while unstarted. High frequency events, such as compressor surge and inlet unstart, can be simulated with a high degree of fidelity. The simulation system was exercised using a supersonic inlet with sixty percent of the supersonic area contraction occurring internally, and a GE J85-13 turbojet engine.

  13. 38 CFR 3.953 - Pub. L. 85-56 and Pub. L. 85-857.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... privileges or benefits as a retired emergency officer of World War I, on December 31, 1958, under the laws in... laws, repealed by Pub. L. 85-56, including those service connected under the second proviso of section 200 of the World War Veterans' Act, 1924, as amended, are protected by section 2316(b), Pub. L. 85-56...

  14. TSCA Section 5(a)(3)(C) Determination for Microbial Commercial Activity Notice (MCAN) J-16-0011, J-16-0012, J-16-0013, J-16-0014, J-16-0015, and J-16-0016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes EPA's Microbial Commercial Activity Notice (MCAN) review determination under amended TSCA for J-16-0011, J-16-0012, J-16-0013, J-16-0014, J-16-0015, and J-16-0016, a biofuel producing organism.

  15. 20 CFR 631.85 - Participant eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Participant eligibility. 631.85 Section 631.85 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.85 Participant...

  16. 40 CFR 85.1401 - General applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General applicability. 85.1401 Section 85.1401 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1401 General...

  17. 40 CFR 85.2202 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 85.2202 Section 85.2202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85...

  18. 40 CFR 85.1411 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling requirements. 85.1411 Section 85.1411 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1411 Labeling...

  19. 38 CFR 3.953 - Pub. L. 85-56 and Pub. L. 85-857.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... privileges or benefits as a retired emergency officer of World War I, on December 31, 1958, under the laws in... 200 of the World War Veterans' Act, 1924, as amended, are protected by section 2316(b), Pub. L. 85-56... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pub. L. 85-56 and Pub. L...

  20. 34 CFR 85.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 85.965 Section 85.965 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...

  1. 34 CFR 85.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 85.965 Section 85.965 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...

  2. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3 General...

  3. 14 CFR 33.85 - Calibration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calibration tests. 33.85 Section 33.85 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.85 Calibration tests. (a) Each engine...

  4. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device...

  5. 7 CFR 3570.85 - Programmatic changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Programmatic changes. 3570.85 Section 3570.85... AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.85 Programmatic changes. The grantee shall obtain prior Agency approval for any change to the objectives of the approved project. (For...

  6. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3 General...

  7. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3 General...

  8. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3 General...

  9. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3 General...

  10. 40 CFR 85.1504 - Conditional admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditional admission. 85.1504 Section 85.1504 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Engines § 85...

  11. 9 CFR 381.85 - Special diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special diseases. 381.85 Section 381.85 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.85 Special diseases. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of any disease which is characterized...

  12. 9 CFR 381.85 - Special diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special diseases. 381.85 Section 381.85 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.85 Special diseases. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of any disease which is characterized...

  13. 40 CFR 85.2107 - Warranty remedy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warranty remedy. 85.2107 Section 85... Voluntary Aftermarket Part Certification Program § 85.2107 Warranty remedy. (a) The manufacturer's... Emissions Performance Warranty, the manufacturer shall be liable for the total cost of the remedy for any...

  14. 40 CFR 85.2107 - Warranty remedy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Warranty remedy. 85.2107 Section 85... Voluntary Aftermarket Part Certification Program § 85.2107 Warranty remedy. (a) The manufacturer's... Emissions Performance Warranty, the manufacturer shall be liable for the total cost of the remedy for any...

  15. 28 CFR 85.1 - In general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In general. 85.1 Section 85.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 85.1 In general. (a) In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of...

  16. 9 CFR 381.85 - Special diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special diseases. 381.85 Section 381.85 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.85 Special diseases. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of any disease which is characterized...

  17. 9 CFR 381.85 - Special diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special diseases. 381.85 Section 381.85 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.85 Special diseases. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of any disease which is characterized...

  18. 9 CFR 381.85 - Special diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special diseases. 381.85 Section 381.85 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.85 Special diseases. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of any disease which is characterized...

  19. 19 CFR 122.85 - Final airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Final airport. 122.85 Section 122.85 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.85 Final airport. When an aircraft enters at the last domestic airport of discharge, the traveling general declaration...

  20. 19 CFR 122.85 - Final airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Final airport. 122.85 Section 122.85 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.85 Final airport. When an aircraft enters at the last domestic airport of discharge, the traveling general declaration...

  1. 19 CFR 122.85 - Final airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final airport. 122.85 Section 122.85 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.85 Final airport. When an aircraft enters at the last domestic airport of discharge, the traveling general declaration...

  2. 19 CFR 122.85 - Final airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Final airport. 122.85 Section 122.85 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.85 Final airport. When an aircraft enters at the last domestic airport of discharge, the traveling general declaration...

  3. 19 CFR 122.85 - Final airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Final airport. 122.85 Section 122.85 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.85 Final airport. When an aircraft enters at the last domestic airport of discharge, the traveling general declaration...

  4. 45 CFR 85.61 - Compliance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compliance procedures. 85.61 Section 85.61 Public... SERVICES § 85.61 Compliance procedures. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, this... Federal government entity. (f) OCR shall notify the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance...

  5. 2 CFR 200.85 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Real property. 200.85 Section 200.85 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.85 Real property. Real property means...

  6. 24 CFR 85.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Real property. 85.31 Section 85.31... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.31 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property...

  7. 24 CFR 85.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real property. 85.31 Section 85.31... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.31 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property...

  8. 24 CFR 85.31 - Real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Real property. 85.31 Section 85.31... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 85.31 Real property. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to real property...

  9. 50 CFR 85.31 - Grant selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant selection. 85.31 Section 85.31...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CLEAN VESSEL ACT GRANT PROGRAM Grant Selection § 85.31 Grant selection. The Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Federal Aid, will convene a ranking...

  10. 14 CFR 33.85 - Calibration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calibration tests. 33.85 Section 33.85... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.85 Calibration tests. (a) Each engine must be subjected to those calibration tests necessary to establish its power characteristics and the...

  11. 14 CFR 33.85 - Calibration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calibration tests. 33.85 Section 33.85... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.85 Calibration tests. (a) Each engine must be subjected to those calibration tests necessary to establish its power characteristics and the...

  12. 14 CFR 33.85 - Calibration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calibration tests. 33.85 Section 33.85... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.85 Calibration tests. (a) Each engine must be subjected to those calibration tests necessary to establish its power characteristics and the...

  13. 24 CFR 85.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 85.25 Section 85.25... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees...

  14. Turbojet-exhaust-nozzle secondary-airflow pumping as an exit control of an inlet-stability bypass system for a Mach 2.5 axisymmetric mixed-compression inlet. [Lewis 10- by 10-ft. supersonic wind tunnel test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    The throat of a Mach 2.5 inlet that was attached to a turbojet engine was fitted with large, porous bleed areas to provide a stability bypass system that would allow a large, stable airflow range. Exhaust-nozzle, secondary-airflow pumping was used as the exit control for the stability bypass airflow. Propulsion system response and stability bypass performance were obtained for several transient airflow disturbances, both internal and external. Internal airflow disturbances included reductions in overboard bypass airflow, power lever angle, and primary-nozzle area, as well as compressor stall. Nozzle secondary pumping as a stability bypass exit control can provide the inlet with a large stability margin with no adverse effects on propulsion system performance.

  15. 20 CFR 401.85 - Exempt systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exempt systems. 401.85 Section 401.85... INFORMATION The Privacy Act § 401.85 Exempt systems. (a) General policy. The Privacy Act permits certain types of specific systems of records to be exempt from some of its requirements. Our policy is to exercise...

  16. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas rights will not be acquired except where the development thereof would interfere with project purposes...

  17. 40 CFR 85.1709 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 85.1709 Section 85... Engines § 85.1709 Export exemptions. (a) A new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged on the outside of the container and on the vehicle or engine...

  18. 20 CFR 401.85 - Exempt systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt systems. 401.85 Section 401.85... INFORMATION The Privacy Act § 401.85 Exempt systems. (a) General policy. The Privacy Act permits certain types of specific systems of records to be exempt from some of its requirements. Our policy is to exercise...

  19. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate their...

  20. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate their...

  1. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate their...

  2. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas..., but mineral rights not acquired will be subordinated to the Government's right to regulate their...

  3. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  4. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  5. 7 CFR 993.85 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separability. 993.85 Section 993.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA...

  6. 7 CFR 993.85 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Separability. 993.85 Section 993.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA...

  7. 7 CFR 993.85 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Separability. 993.85 Section 993.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA...

  8. 7 CFR 993.85 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separability. 993.85 Section 993.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA...

  9. 40 CFR 407.85 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 407.85 Section 407.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Miscellaneous...

  10. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a temporary...

  11. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a temporary...

  12. 24 CFR 85.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 85.44 Section 85.44 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... § 85.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 85.43 awards may be terminated in whole or...

  13. 34 CFR 85.345 - What happens if I fail to disclose information required under § 85.335?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if I fail to disclose information required... Disclosing Information-Primary Tier Participants § 85.345 What happens if I fail to disclose information required under § 85.335? If we later determine that you failed to disclose information under § 85.335 that...

  14. 34 CFR 85.345 - What happens if I fail to disclose information required under § 85.335?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What happens if I fail to disclose information required... Disclosing Information-Primary Tier Participants § 85.345 What happens if I fail to disclose information required under § 85.335? If we later determine that you failed to disclose information under § 85.335 that...

  15. 45 CFR 85.51 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Communications. 85.51 Section 85.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS....51 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with...

  16. 45 CFR 85.51 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Communications. 85.51 Section 85.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS....51 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with...

  17. 9 CFR 3.85 - Employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employees. 3.85 Section 3.85 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Nonhuman...

  18. 24 CFR 85.37 - Subgrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subgrants. 85.37 Section 85.37 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  19. 24 CFR 85.50 - Closeout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Closeout. 85.50 Section 85.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  20. 24 CFR 85.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment. 85.21 Section 85.21 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  1. 24 CFR 85.30 - Changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Changes. 85.30 Section 85.30 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  2. 24 CFR 85.50 - Closeout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Closeout. 85.50 Section 85.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  3. 24 CFR 85.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 85.3 Section 85.3 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  4. 24 CFR 85.30 - Changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Changes. 85.30 Section 85.30 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  5. 24 CFR 85.50 - Closeout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Closeout. 85.50 Section 85.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  6. 24 CFR 85.32 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equipment. 85.32 Section 85.32 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  7. 24 CFR 85.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment. 85.21 Section 85.21 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  8. 24 CFR 85.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment. 85.21 Section 85.21 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  9. 24 CFR 85.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 85.3 Section 85.3 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  10. 24 CFR 85.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 85.3 Section 85.3 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  11. 24 CFR 85.50 - Closeout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Closeout. 85.50 Section 85.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  12. 24 CFR 85.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment. 85.21 Section 85.21 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  13. 24 CFR 85.34 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copyrights. 85.34 Section 85.34 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  14. 24 CFR 85.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment. 85.21 Section 85.21 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  15. 24 CFR 85.50 - Closeout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Closeout. 85.50 Section 85.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL AND FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED INDIAN...

  16. 45 CFR 85.51 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Communications. 85.51 Section 85.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS....51 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with...

  17. 45 CFR 85.51 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Communications. 85.51 Section 85.51 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS....51 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with...

  18. 42 CFR 85.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 85.1 Section 85.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH... channels of communication with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to obtain...

  19. 45 CFR 85.51 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications. 85.51 Section 85.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS....51 Communications. (a) The agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with...

  20. 45 CFR 85.31 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 85.31 Section 85.31 Public Welfare....31 Employment. No qualified individuals with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The...

  1. Seminar on the Structure of Aeronautical R&D Held in Lisbon, Portugal on 31 May-1 Jun 1990, Patras, Greece on 4-5 June 1990 and Ankara, Turkey on 7-8 June 1990 (La Structure de la Recherche et Developpement en Aeronautique)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    comprehension du processus de la R&D a6ronautiquc, mais elles sont loin d𔄀tre exhaustives . Les opinions et les exp6riences pr6sent6es dmanent de lAm6rique...into the exhaust nozzle, possibly with some low level of F Liquid ..... j afterburning during the acceleration phase. Advanced engine technology...hypersonic vehicles show stagnation temperatures much lower, Obviously, advanced cooling methods such as heat pipes will be required. However. at lower

  2. 1 CFR 8.5 - Ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ancillaries. 8.5 Section 8.5 General Provisions... been affected by documents published during the period January 1, 1949, to December 31, 1963, and January 1, 1964, to December 31, 1972, respectively.) 1 Listings shall refer to Federal Register pages and...

  3. 1 CFR 8.5 - Ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ancillaries. 8.5 Section 8.5 General Provisions... been affected by documents published during the period January 1, 1949, to December 31, 1963, and January 1, 1964, to December 31, 1972, respectively.) 1 Listings shall refer to Federal Register pages and...

  4. 1 CFR 8.5 - Ancillaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ancillaries. 8.5 Section 8.5 General Provisions... been affected by documents published during the period January 1, 1949, to December 31, 1963, and January 1, 1964, to December 31, 1972, respectively.) 1 Listings shall refer to Federal Register pages and...

  5. Bibliography of Books and Published Reports on Gas Turbines, Jet Propulsion, and Rocket Power Plants, January 1950 through December 1953

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1953-12-01

    Vt. J. V. Casamassa, Jet aircraft power systems . McGraw-Hill, New York. C. C. Chapel, Jet aircraft simplified. Aero Pubs. Inc., Los Angeles. V. C...combination. NACA Tech. Note No. 1951 (Sept.). A. F. Lietzke and H. M. Henneberry, Evaluation of piston-type gas- generator engine for subsonic transport...Dynamics of a turbojet engine considered as a quasi-static system . NACA Tech. Note No. 2091 (May). A. E. Puckett, Optimum performance of rocket- powered

  6. Circulating ApoJ is closely associated with insulin resistance in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji A; Kang, Min-Cheol; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Kim, Sang Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Choe, Charles; Hwang, Won Min; Lim, Dong Mee; Farr, Olivia; Mantzoros, Christos; Henry, Robert R; Kim, Young-Bum

    2018-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. ApolipoproteinJ (ApoJ) has been implicated in altered pathophysiologic states including cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease. However, the function of ApoJ in regulation of glucose homeostasis remains unclear. This study sought to determine whether serum ApoJ levels are associated with insulin resistance in human subjects and if they change after interventions that improve insulin sensitivity. Serum ApoJ levels and insulin resistance status were assessed in nondiabetic (ND) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects. The impacts of rosiglitazone or metformin therapy on serum ApoJ levels and glucose disposal rate (GDR) during a hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp were evaluated in a separate cohort of T2D subjects. Total ApoJ protein or that associated with the HDL and LDL fractions was measured by immunoblotting or ELISA. Fasting serum ApoJ levels were greatly elevated in T2D subjects (ND vs T2D; 100±8.3 vs. 150.6±8.5AU, P<0.0001). Circulating ApoJ levels strongly correlated with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and BMI. ApoJ levels were significantly and independently associated with HOMA-IR, even after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI. Rosiglitazone treatment in T2D subjects resulted in a reduction in serum ApoJ levels (before vs. after treatment; 100±13.9 vs. 77±15.2AU, P=0.015), whereas metformin had no effect on ApoJ levels. The change in ApoJ levels during treatment was inversely associated with the change in GDR. Interestingly, ApoJ content in the LDL fraction was inversely associated with HOMA-IR. Serum ApoJ levels are closely correlated with the magnitude of insulin resistance regardless of obesity, and decrease along with improvement of insulin resistance in response only to rosiglitazone in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 34 CFR 85.1005 - State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State. 85.1005 Section 85.1005 Education Office of the....1005 State. (a) State means— (1) Any of the states of the United States; (2) The District of Columbia; (3) The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; (4) Any territory or possession of the United States; or (5) Any...

  8. Six-Year Outcome of Subjects Without Overt Heart Disease With an Early Repolarization/J Wave Electrocardiographic Pattern.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Gaetano Antonio; Argirò, Alessia; Mollo, Roberto; De Vita, Antonio; Spera, Francesco; Golino, Michele; Rota, Elisabetta; Filice, Monica; Crea, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    "Early repolarization" (ER) is a frequent finding at standard electrocardiogram (ECG). In this study we assessed whether ER is associated with an increased risk of events, as recently suggested by some studies. We prospectively enrolled 4,176 consecutive subjects without any heart disease who underwent routine ECG recording. ER was diagnosed in case of typical concave ST-segment elevation ≥0.1 mV; a J wave was diagnosed when the QRS showed a notch or a slur in its terminal part. In this study we compared the 6-year outcome of all 687 subjects with ER/J wave and 687 matched subjects without ER/J wave (controls). Both groups included 335 males and 352 females, and age was 48.8 ± 18 years. Overall, 145 deaths occurred (11%), only 11 of which attributed to cardiac causes. No sudden death was reported. Cardiac deaths occurred in 5 (0.8%) and 6 (0.9%) ER/J wave subjects and controls, respectively (odds ratio [OR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.26 to 2.80, p = 0.79). Both ER (OR 1.68, 95% CI 0.21 to 13.3, p = 0.62) and J wave (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.28 to 3.00, p = 0.88) showed no association with cardiac death. Total mortality was 11.5% in the ER/J wave group and 10.6% in the control group (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.56, p = 0.58). Both ER (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.24, p = 0.12) and J wave (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.70, p = 0.30) showed also no association with all-cause death. In subjects without any evidence of heart disease, we found no significant association of ER/J wave with the risk of cardiac, as well as all-cause, death at medium-term follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 40 CFR 763.85 - Inspection and reinspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection and reinspections. 763.85 Section 763.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.85 Inspection and reinspections. (a...

  10. 40 CFR 763.85 - Inspection and reinspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection and reinspections. 763.85 Section 763.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.85 Inspection and reinspections. (a...

  11. 40 CFR 763.85 - Inspection and reinspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection and reinspections. 763.85 Section 763.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.85 Inspection and reinspections. (a...

  12. 40 CFR 763.85 - Inspection and reinspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection and reinspections. 763.85 Section 763.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.85 Inspection and reinspections. (a...

  13. 40 CFR 763.85 - Inspection and reinspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection and reinspections. 763.85 Section 763.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.85 Inspection and reinspections. (a...

  14. 14 CFR 151.85 - Special treatment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special treatment areas. 151.85 Section 151.85 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.85 Special treatment areas. The...

  15. 14 CFR 151.85 - Special treatment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special treatment areas. 151.85 Section 151.85 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.85 Special treatment areas. The...

  16. 40 CFR 85.1414 - Alternative test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative test procedures. 85.1414 Section 85.1414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1414 Alternative...

  17. 40 CFR 85.1408 - Objections to certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objections to certification. 85.1408 Section 85.1408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1408 Objections...

  18. 40 CFR 85.1905 - Alternative report formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative report formats. 85.1905 Section 85.1905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Defect Reporting Requirements § 85.1905...

  19. 40 CFR 85.1410 - Changes after certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes after certification. 85.1410 Section 85.1410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements § 85.1410 Changes...

  20. 9 CFR 85.9 - Other interstate movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other interstate movements. 85.9 Section 85.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.9...

  1. 9 CFR 85.11 - Permits and certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permits and certificates. 85.11 Section 85.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.11...

  2. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.85 Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential accidents and consequences to...

  3. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.85 Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential accidents and consequences to...

  4. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.85 Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential accidents and consequences to...

  5. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.85 Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential accidents and consequences to...

  6. 10 CFR 76.85 - Assessment of accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment of accidents. 76.85 Section 76.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.85 Assessment of accidents. The Corporation shall perform an analysis of potential accidents and consequences to...

  7. 40 CFR 85.1713 - Delegated-assembly exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Delegated-assembly exemption. 85.1713 Section 85.1713 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Vehicle Engines § 85.1713 Delegated-assembly exemption. The provisions of 40 CFR 1068.261 related to...

  8. 40 CFR 85.1713 - Delegated-assembly exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delegated-assembly exemption. 85.1713 Section 85.1713 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Vehicle Engines § 85.1713 Delegated-assembly exemption. The provisions of 40 CFR 1068.261 related to...

  9. 40 CFR 85.1713 - Delegated-assembly exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delegated-assembly exemption. 85.1713 Section 85.1713 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Vehicle Engines § 85.1713 Delegated-assembly exemption. The provisions of 40 CFR 1068.261 related to...

  10. 40 CFR 85.1713 - Delegated-assembly exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegated-assembly exemption. 85.1713 Section 85.1713 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Vehicle Engines § 85.1713 Delegated-assembly exemption. The provisions of 40 CFR 1068.261 related to...

  11. 40 CFR 85.1713 - Delegated-assembly exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delegated-assembly exemption. 85.1713 Section 85.1713 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Vehicle Engines § 85.1713 Delegated-assembly exemption. The provisions of 40 CFR 1068.261 related to...

  12. 9 CFR 85.11 - Permits and certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permits and certificates. 85.11 Section 85.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.11...

  13. 9 CFR 85.11 - Permits and certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permits and certificates. 85.11 Section 85.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.11...

  14. 9 CFR 85.11 - Permits and certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permits and certificates. 85.11 Section 85.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.11...

  15. 9 CFR 85.11 - Permits and certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permits and certificates. 85.11 Section 85.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.11...

  16. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its termination...

  17. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its termination...

  18. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its termination...

  19. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its termination...

  20. 28 CFR 85.2 - Calculation of adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 85.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 85.2 Calculation of adjustment. (a) The inflation adjustments described in § 85.3 were... Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101-410. Any increase so determined was rounded to the nearest— (1...

  1. 49 CFR 38.85 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Between-car barriers. 38.85 Section 38.85... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.85 Between-car barriers. Where..., deter or warn individuals from inadvertently stepping off the platform between cars. Appropriate devices...

  2. 49 CFR 38.85 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Between-car barriers. 38.85 Section 38.85... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.85 Between-car barriers. Where..., deter or warn individuals from inadvertently stepping off the platform between cars. Appropriate devices...

  3. 49 CFR 38.85 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Between-car barriers. 38.85 Section 38.85... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.85 Between-car barriers. Where..., deter or warn individuals from inadvertently stepping off the platform between cars. Appropriate devices...

  4. 49 CFR 38.85 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Between-car barriers. 38.85 Section 38.85... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.85 Between-car barriers. Where..., deter or warn individuals from inadvertently stepping off the platform between cars. Appropriate devices...

  5. 49 CFR 38.85 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Between-car barriers. 38.85 Section 38.85... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.85 Between-car barriers. Where..., deter or warn individuals from inadvertently stepping off the platform between cars. Appropriate devices...

  6. 50 CFR 17.85 - Special rules-invertebrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-invertebrates. 17.85 Section 17.85 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....85 Special rules—invertebrates. (a) Seventeen mollusks in the Tennessee River. The species in the...

  7. 49 CFR 230.85 - Audible warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audible warning device. 230.85 Section 230.85... Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.85 Audible warning device. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive shall be equipped with an audible warning device that produces a minimum sound...

  8. 49 CFR 230.85 - Audible warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Audible warning device. 230.85 Section 230.85... Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.85 Audible warning device. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive shall be equipped with an audible warning device that produces a minimum sound...

  9. 49 CFR 230.85 - Audible warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audible warning device. 230.85 Section 230.85... Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.85 Audible warning device. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive shall be equipped with an audible warning device that produces a minimum sound...

  10. 49 CFR 230.85 - Audible warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Audible warning device. 230.85 Section 230.85... Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.85 Audible warning device. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive shall be equipped with an audible warning device that produces a minimum sound...

  11. 49 CFR 230.85 - Audible warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Audible warning device. 230.85 Section 230.85... Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.85 Audible warning device. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive shall be equipped with an audible warning device that produces a minimum sound...

  12. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years beginning...

  13. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years beginning...

  14. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years beginning...

  15. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years beginning...

  16. 27 CFR 44.85 - Trade name certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade name certificate. 44.85 Section 44.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Proprietors § 44.85 Trade name certificate. Every person, before commencing business under a trade name as an...

  17. 27 CFR 44.85 - Trade name certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade name certificate. 44.85 Section 44.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Proprietors § 44.85 Trade name certificate. Every person, before commencing business under a trade name as an...

  18. 27 CFR 44.85 - Trade name certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trade name certificate. 44.85 Section 44.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Proprietors § 44.85 Trade name certificate. Every person, before commencing business under a trade name as an...

  19. 27 CFR 44.85 - Trade name certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trade name certificate. 44.85 Section 44.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Proprietors § 44.85 Trade name certificate. Every person, before commencing business under a trade name as an...

  20. 27 CFR 44.85 - Trade name certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Trade name certificate. 44.85 Section 44.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Proprietors § 44.85 Trade name certificate. Every person, before commencing business under a trade name as an...

  1. 21 CFR 312.85 - Phase 4 studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phase 4 studies. 312.85 Section 312.85 Food and...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.85 Phase 4 studies. Concurrent with marketing approval, FDA may seek agreement from the sponsor to conduct certain postmarketing (phase 4) studies to delineate additional information...

  2. 21 CFR 312.85 - Phase 4 studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phase 4 studies. 312.85 Section 312.85 Food and...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.85 Phase 4 studies. Concurrent with marketing approval, FDA may seek agreement from the sponsor to conduct certain postmarketing (phase 4) studies to delineate additional information...

  3. 32 CFR 85.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 85.2 Section 85.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN HEALTH PROMOTION § 85.2 Applicability and scope. (a) This part applies to the Office of the Secretary of...

  4. 40 CFR 85.1905 - Alternative report formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative report formats. 85.1905... Alternative report formats. (a) Any manufacturer may submit a plan for making either of the reports required by §§ 85.1903 and 85.1904 on computer cards, magnetic tape or other machine readable format. The...

  5. 40 CFR 85.1905 - Alternative report formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative report formats. 85.1905... Alternative report formats. (a) Any manufacturer may submit a plan for making either of the reports required by §§ 85.1903 and 85.1904 on computer cards, magnetic tape or other machine readable format. The...

  6. 40 CFR 85.1905 - Alternative report formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative report formats. 85.1905... Alternative report formats. (a) Any manufacturer may submit a plan for making either of the reports required by §§ 85.1903 and 85.1904 on computer cards, magnetic tape or other machine readable format. The...

  7. 40 CFR 85.1905 - Alternative report formats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative report formats. 85.1905... Alternative report formats. (a) Any manufacturer may submit a plan for making either of the reports required by §§ 85.1903 and 85.1904 on computer cards, magnetic tape or other machine readable format. The...

  8. 34 CFR 85.340 - If I disclose unfavorable information required under § 85.335, will I be prevented from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false If I disclose unfavorable information required under § 85.335, will I be prevented from participating in the transaction? 85.340 Section 85.340 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT...

  9. 34 CFR 85.340 - If I disclose unfavorable information required under § 85.335, will I be prevented from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If I disclose unfavorable information required under § 85.335, will I be prevented from participating in the transaction? 85.340 Section 85.340 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT...

  10. [Analysis of articles published in Chin J Surg since founded in 1951].

    PubMed

    Xia, Shuang; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    To discuss the characteristics of the articles published in Chin J Surg from 1951 to 2015. The journals and articles of Acad Surg from 1951 to 1952 and Chin J Surg from 1953 to 2015 were analyzed. The subjects, foundation, basic medical study, international cooperation of the articles were recorded. In 65 years, there were 20 090 academic articles published in Chin J Surg. The proportions of general surgery, orthopedic surgery, thoracocardiac surgery, urology surgery and neurosurgery articles were 34.08%, 17.96%, 13.09%, 11.91% and 5.85%, respectively. There were 14.83% (1 728/11 653) articles receiving foundation, and 9.42% (1 817/19 290) articles reporting basic medical study. There were 14.8% articles from international authors and 119 articles with international cooperation. From 2000 to 2003, 29 articles in original English were published. The coverage of Chin J Surg contains all the fields of surgery. It tends to publish the studies focus on clinical issues.Through reinforcing the content plan and optimizing the show form, the more Chinese surgical research achievements could be shared by the surgeons worldwide.

  11. Numerical Investigation of Aluminum Burning Behind Blast Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Lai, and K.S. Im, “ Afterburning of TNT Explosive Products in Air with Aluminum Particles,” AIAA-2008-1029, 2008 [2] K. Balakrishnan and S. Menon...phase flow was applied. The modeled HE includes a significant percentage of aluminum particles, whose long-time afterburning and energy release must...the physical mechanisms are even more complex. The flow environment is significantly different from bare charge detonation and afterburn . As long

  12. Peak Overpressures for Internal Blast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    fuels that also are oxygen- deficient (trinitrotoluene ( TNT ), for example), the initial detonation is followed by combustion in an afterburn ; it is...and consequently show lesser afterburn effects. Figure 8 shows overpressures for reference internal explo- sions with TNT , an oxygen-deficient...excplosive (oxygen balance of -14% to C02 and -257 to CO) 8 with pronounced afterburn effects that depend on the TNT -air ratio. Shown for compari- soa are

  13. 45 CFR 81.85 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offer of proof. 81.85 Section 81.85 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.85 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with...

  14. 45 CFR 81.85 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of proof. 81.85 Section 81.85 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.85 Offer of proof. An offer of proof made in connection with...

  15. 40 CFR 68.85 - Hot work permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hot work permit. 68.85 Section 68.85... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.85 Hot work permit. (a) The owner or operator shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process. (b...

  16. 40 CFR 68.85 - Hot work permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hot work permit. 68.85 Section 68.85... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.85 Hot work permit. (a) The owner or operator shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process. (b...

  17. 40 CFR 68.85 - Hot work permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hot work permit. 68.85 Section 68.85... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.85 Hot work permit. (a) The owner or operator shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process. (b...

  18. 40 CFR 68.85 - Hot work permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hot work permit. 68.85 Section 68.85... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.85 Hot work permit. (a) The owner or operator shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations conducted on or near a covered process. (b...

  19. 34 CFR 5.85 - Decisions on review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... L. 90-23 (Eff. until 7-14-10) Administrative Review § 5.85 Decisions on review. (a) Decisions on review shall be in writing within 20 working days from receipt of the request for review. Extension of... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisions on review. 5.85 Section 5.85 Education Office...

  20. 7 CFR 955.85 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 955.85 Section 955.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA...