Science.gov

Sample records for ja mao kohtuvad

  1. Evidence That Brain MAO A Activity Does Not Correspond to MAO A Genotype in Healthy Male Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Kriplani, Aarti; Logan, Jean; Williams, Benjamin; Zhu, Wei; Craig, Ian W.; Telang, Frank; Goldstein, Rita; Volkow, Nora D.; Vaska, Paul; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2009-01-01

    Background A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) gene has two common alleles that are referred to as the high and low MAO A genotypes. We report the first in vivo human study to determine whether there is an association between MAO A genotype and brain MAO A activity in healthy male subjects. Methods Brain MAO A activity was measured with positron emission tomography and [11C]clorgyline in 38 healthy adult male nonsmokers genotyped for MAO A polymorphism. Results There was no significant difference in brain MAO A activity between the high (n = 26) and low (n = 12) MAO A genotypes. Conclusions The lack of an association between the high and low MAO A genotype and brain MAO A activity suggests that this polymorphism by itself does not contribute to differences in brain MAO A activity in healthy adult male subjects. PMID:17141746

  2. MAO-inhibitors in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-I) belong to the earliest drugs tried in Parkinson's disease (PD). They have been used with or without levodopa (L-DOPA). Non-selective MAO-I due to their side-effect/adverse reaction profile, like tranylcypromine have limited use in the treatment of depression in PD, while selective, reversible MAO-A inhibitors are recommended due to their easier clinical handling. For the treatment of akinesia and motor fluctuations selective irreversible MAO-B inhibitors selegiline and rasagiline are recommended. They are safe and well tolerated at the recommended daily doses. Their main differences are related to (1) metabolism, (2) interaction with CYP-enzymes and (3) quantitative properties at the molecular biological/genetic level. Rasagiline is more potent in clinical practise and has a hypothesis driven more favourable side effect/adverse reaction profile due to its metabolism to aminoindan. Both selegiline and rasagiline have a neuroprotective and neurorestaurative potential. A head-to head clinical trial would be of utmost interest from both the clinical outcome and a hypothesis-driven point of view. Selegiline is available as tablet and melting tablet for PD and as transdermal selegiline for depression, while rasagiline is marketed as tablet for PD. In general, the clinical use of MAO-I nowadays is underestimated. There should be more efforts to evaluate their clinical potency as antidepressants and antidementive drugs in addition to the final proof of their disease-modifying potential. In line with this are recent innovative developments of MAO-I plus inhibition of acetylcholine esterase for Alzheimer's disease as well as combined MAO-I and iron chelation for PD. PMID:22110357

  3. Inhibitors of MAO-A and MAO-B in Psychiatry and Neurology

    PubMed Central

    Finberg, John P. M.; Rabey, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of MAO-A and MAO-B are in clinical use for the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders respectively. Elucidation of the molecular structure of the active sites of the enzymes has enabled a precise determination of the way in which substrates and inhibitor molecules are metabolized, or inhibit metabolism of substrates, respectively. Despite the knowledge of the strong antidepressant efficacy of irreversible MAO inhibitors, their clinical use has been limited by their side effect of potentiation of the cardiovascular effects of dietary amines (“cheese effect”). A number of reversible MAO-A inhibitors which are devoid of cheese effect have been described in the literature, but only one, moclobemide, is currently in clinical use. The irreversible inhibitors of MAO-B, selegiline and rasagiline, are used clinically in treatment of Parkinson's disease, and a recently introduced reversible MAO-B inhibitor, safinamide, has also been found efficacious. Modification of the pharmacokinetic characteristics of selegiline by transdermal administration has led to the development of a new drug form for treatment of depression. The clinical potential of MAO inhibitors together with detailed knowledge of the enzyme's binding site structure should lead to future developments with these drugs. PMID:27803666

  4. Inhibitors of MAO-A and MAO-B in Psychiatry and Neurology.

    PubMed

    Finberg, John P M; Rabey, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of MAO-A and MAO-B are in clinical use for the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders respectively. Elucidation of the molecular structure of the active sites of the enzymes has enabled a precise determination of the way in which substrates and inhibitor molecules are metabolized, or inhibit metabolism of substrates, respectively. Despite the knowledge of the strong antidepressant efficacy of irreversible MAO inhibitors, their clinical use has been limited by their side effect of potentiation of the cardiovascular effects of dietary amines ("cheese effect"). A number of reversible MAO-A inhibitors which are devoid of cheese effect have been described in the literature, but only one, moclobemide, is currently in clinical use. The irreversible inhibitors of MAO-B, selegiline and rasagiline, are used clinically in treatment of Parkinson's disease, and a recently introduced reversible MAO-B inhibitor, safinamide, has also been found efficacious. Modification of the pharmacokinetic characteristics of selegiline by transdermal administration has led to the development of a new drug form for treatment of depression. The clinical potential of MAO inhibitors together with detailed knowledge of the enzyme's binding site structure should lead to future developments with these drugs.

  5. The Mao Ethic and Environmental Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orleans, Leo A.; Suttmeier, Richard P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews reports on efforts to improve the Communist Chinese natural environment. National campaigns for water and air pollution control, sanitation improvement, and industrial development are related to Mao Tse-tung's philosophy of frugality and comprehensive resource use. Concern is expressed regarding possible ecological consequences from…

  6. Speech after Mao: Literature and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Victoria Linda

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to understand the apparent failure of speech in post-Mao literature to fulfill its conventional functions of representation and communication. In order to understand this pattern, I begin by looking back on the utility of speech for nation-building in modern China. In addition to literary analysis of key authors and works,…

  7. Selective MAO-B inhibitors: a lesson from natural products.

    PubMed

    Carradori, Simone; D'Ascenzio, Melissa; Chimenti, Paola; Secci, Daniela; Bolasco, Adriana

    2014-02-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are mitochondrial bound enzymes, which catalyze the oxidative deamination of monoamine neurotransmitters. Inside the brain, MAOs are present in two isoforms: MAO-A and MAO-B. The activity of MAO-B is generally higher in patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Therefore, the search for potent and selective MAO-B inhibitors is still a challenge for medicinal chemists. Nature has always been a source of inspiration for the discovery of new lead compounds. Moreover, natural medicine is a major component in all traditional medicine systems. In this review, we present the latest discoveries in the search for selective MAO-B inhibitors from natural sources. For clarity, compounds have been classified on the basis of structural analogy or source: flavonoids, xanthones, tannins, proanthocyanidins, iridoid glucosides, curcumin, alkaloids, cannabinoids, and natural sources extracts. MAO inhibition values reported in the text are not always consistent due to the high variability of MAO sources (bovine, pig, rat brain or liver, and human) and to the heterogeneity of the experimental protocols used.

  8. Norrie disease and MAO genes: nearest neighbors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z Y; Denney, R M; Breakefield, X O

    1995-01-01

    The Norrie disease and MAO genes are tandemly arranged in the p11.4-p11.3 region of the human X chromosome in the order tel-MAOA-MAOB-NDP-cent. This relationship is conserved in the mouse in the order tel-MAOB-MAOA-NDP-cent. The MAO genes appear to have arisen by tandem duplication of an ancestral MAO gene, but their positional relationship to NDP appears to be random. Distinctive X-linked syndromes have been described for mutations in the MAOA and NDP genes, and in addition, individuals have been identified with contiguous gene syndromes due to chromosomal deletions which encompass two or three of these genes. Loss of function of the NDP gene causes a syndrome of congenital blindness and progressive hearing loss, sometimes accompanied by signs of CNS dysfunction, including variable mental retardation and psychiatric symptoms. Other mutations in the NDP gene have been found to underlie another X-linked eye disease, exudative vitreo-retinopathy. An MAOA deficiency state has been described in one family to date, with features of altered amine and amine metabolite levels, low normal intelligence, apparent difficulty in impulse control and cardiovascular difficulty in affected males. A contiguous gene syndrome in which all three genes are lacking, as well as other as yet unidentified flanking genes, results in severe mental retardation, small stature, seizures and congenital blindness, as well as altered amine and amine metabolites. Issues that remain to be resolved are the function of the NDP gene product, the frequency and phenotype of the MAOA deficiency state, and the possible occurrence and phenotype of an MAOB deficiency state.

  9. A Grammar of Northern Mao (Mawes Aas'e)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahland, Michael Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Northern Mao is an endangered Afroasiatic-Omotic language of western Ethiopia with fewer than 5,000 speakers. This study is a comprehensive grammar of the language, written from a functional/typological perspective which embraces historical change as an explanation for synchronic structure. The grammar introduces the Northern Mao people, aspects…

  10. Synthesis of New Hydrazone Derivatives for MAO Enzymes Inhibitory Activity.

    PubMed

    Can, Nafiz Öncü; Osmaniye, Derya; Levent, Serkan; Sağlık, Begüm Nurpelin; İnci, Beril; Ilgın, Sinem; Özkay, Yusuf; Kaplancıklı, Zafer Asım

    2017-08-20

    In the present work, 14 new 1-substituted-2-phenylhydrazone derivatives were synthesized to evaluate their inhibitory activity against hMAO enzymes. The structures of the newly synthesized hydrazones 2a-2n were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HR-MS spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity of compounds 2a-2n against hMAO-A and hMAO-B enzymes was elucidated by using an in-vitro Amplex Red® reagent assay based on fluorometric methods. According to the activity studies, 2a and 2b were found to be the most active compounds against hMAO-A enzyme, with IC50 values of 0.342 µM and 0.028 µM, respectively. The most active compounds 2a-2b were evaluated by means of enzyme kinetics and docking studies. Moreover, these compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests to establish their preliminary toxicological profiles and were found to be non-cytotoxic and non-genotoxic. Consequently, the findings of this study display the biological importance of compounds 2a, 2b as selective, irreversible and competitive inhibitors of hMAO-A. Docking studies revealed that there is a strong interaction between hMAO-A and the most active compound 2b.

  11. Beijing--ten years after Mao.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    10 years after Mao's death, Beijing is a different place; the average resident has more money to spend in a considerably freer marketplace, but still not a lot by Western standards. Clearly the biggest advertisers in China over the longest period, the Japanese sell more consumer products in China than any other country. The 1982 Chinese census placed the population of the municipality of Beijing at 9,230,687 people. Due mainly to the extensive development of heavy industry in Beijing and the creation of over 1 million jobs in this sector between 1949 and 1979, Beijing's population jumped to 8.7 million by 1979. Beijing's population will continue to grow despite its 1 child policy and drastically reduced fertility rates. A 1981 survey polling 8000 Beijing women found that the average age of 1st marriage and 1st childbirth is gradually rising while the interval between marriage and 1st childbirth is gradually rising while the interval between marriage and 1st birth is shortening. China's 1982 census indicates that 26% of city dwellers are under age 15, 21.6% between the ages of 15 and 24, 47.7% are between the ages of 25 and 64, and 4.7% 65 or over. As the burden shifts from supporting the dependent old, China will need to revamp its policies to alleviate the stress placed on Chinese families and to increase financial aid the elderly. In 1982, Beijing households averaged 3.9 persons per household, slightly lower than the 4.1. persons per urban household 1982 national figure. Demographic sources for China are listed and critiqued.

  12. MAO inhibitors and their wider applications: a patent review.

    PubMed

    Carradori, Simone; Secci, Daniela; Petzer, Jacques P

    2018-03-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, after the initial 'golden age', are currently used as third-line antidepressants (selective MAO-A inhibitors) or clinically enrolled as co-adjuvants for neurodegenerative diseases (selective MAO-B inhibitors). However, the research within this field is always increasing due to their pivotal role in modulating synaptic functions and monoamines metabolism. Areas covered: In this paper, MAO inhibitors (2015-2017) are disclosed ordering all the patents according to their chemical scaffold. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) are extrapolated for the most investigated chemotypes (coumarins, pyrazole/oxazepinones, (hetero)arylamides). 108 Compounds are divided into two main groups: newly synthesized molecules and naturally-occurring metabolites. Finally, new therapeutic options are outlined to ensure a more complete view on the potential of these inhibitors. Expert opinion: New proposed MAO inhibitors are endowed with a marked isoform selectivity, with innovative therapeutic potential toward other targets (gliomas, inflammation, muscle dystrophies, migraine, chronic pain, pseudobulbar affect), and with a promising ability to address multi-faceted pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease. The increasing number of patents is analyzed collecting data from 2002 to 2017.

  13. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) inhibitors decrease glioma progression.

    PubMed

    Kushal, Swati; Wang, Weijun; Vaikari, Vijaya Pooja; Kota, Rajesh; Chen, Kevin; Yeh, Tzu-Shao; Jhaveri, Niyati; Groshen, Susan L; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z; Chen, Thomas C; Hofman, Florence M; Shih, Jean C

    2016-03-22

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumor which is currently treated with temozolomide (TMZ). Tumors usually become resistant to TMZ and recur; no effective therapy is then available. Monoamine Oxidase A (MAO A) oxidizes monoamine neurotransmitters resulting in reactive oxygen species which cause cancer. This study shows that MAO A expression is increased in human glioma tissues and cell lines. MAO A inhibitors, clorgyline or the near-infrared-dye MHI-148 conjugated to clorgyline (NMI), were cytotoxic for glioma and decreased invasion in vitro. Using the intracranial TMZ-resistant glioma model, clorgyline or NMI alone or in combination with low-dose TMZ reduced tumor growth and increased animal survival. NMI was localized specifically to the tumor. Immunocytochemistry studies showed that the MAO A inhibitor reduced proliferation, microvessel density and invasion, and increased macrophage infiltration. In conclusion, we have identified MAO A inhibitors as potential novel stand-alone drugs or as combination therapy with low dose TMZ for drug-resistant gliomas. NMI can also be used as a non-invasive imaging tool. Thus has a dual function for both therapy and diagnosis.

  14. Inhibition of MAO by fractions and constituents of hypericum extract.

    PubMed

    Bladt, S; Wagner, H

    1994-10-01

    The inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) by six fractions from hypericum extract and three characteristic constituents (as pure substances) were analyzed in vitro and ex vivo to study the antidepressive mechanism of action. Rat brain homogenates were used as the in vitro model, while the ex vivo analysis was performed after intraperitoneal application of the test substances to albino rats. Massive inhibition of MAO-A could be shown with the total extract and all fractions only at the concentration of 10(-3) mol/L. At 10(-4) mol/L, one fraction rich in flavonoides showed an inhibition of 39%, and all other fractions demonstrated less than 25% inhibition. Using pure hypericin as well as in all ex vivo experiments, no relevant inhibiting effects could be shown. From the results it can be concluded that the clinically proven antidepressive effect of hypericum extract cannot be explained in terms of MAO inhibition.

  15. New pyrrole inhibitors of monoamine oxidase: synthesis, biological evaluation, and structural determinants of MAO-A and MAO-B selectivity.

    PubMed

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Silvestri, Romano; Artico, Marino; Lavecchia, Antonio; Novellino, Ettore; Befani, Olivia; Turini, Paola; Agostinelli, Enzo

    2007-03-08

    A series of new pyrrole derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B inhibitory activity and selectivity. N-Methyl,N-(benzyl),N-(pyrrol-2-ylmethyl)amine (7) and N-(2-benzyl),N-(1-methylpyrrol-2-ylmethyl)amine (18) were the most selective MAO-B (7, SI = 0.0057) and MAO-A (18, SI = 12500) inhibitors, respectively. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations gave structural insights into the MAO-A and MAO-B selectivity. Compound 18 forms an H-bond with Gln215 through its protonated amino group into the MAO-A binding site. This H-bond is absent in the 7/MAO-A complex. In contrast, compound 7 places its phenyl ring into an aromatic cage of the MAO-B binding pocket, where it forms charge-transfer interactions. The slightly different binding pose of 18 into the MAO-B active site seems to be forced by a bulkier Tyr residue, which replaces a smaller Ile residue present in MAO-A.

  16. Update on the pharmacology of selective inhibitors of MAO-A and MAO-B: focus on modulation of CNS monoamine neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Finberg, John P M

    2014-08-01

    Inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO) were initially used in medicine following the discovery of their antidepressant action. Subsequently their ability to potentiate the effects of an indirectly-acting sympathomimetic amine such as tyramine was discovered, leading to their limitation in clinical use, except for cases of treatment-resistant depression. More recently, the understanding that: a) potentiation of indirectly-acting sympathomimetic amines is caused by inhibitors of MAO-A but not by inhibitors of MAO-B, and b) that reversible inhibitors of MAO-A cause minimal tyramine potentiation, has led to their re-introduction to clinical use for treatment of depression (reversible MAO-A inhibitors and new dose form MAO-B inhibitor) and treatment of Parkinson's disease (MAO-B inhibitors). The profound neuroprotective properties of propargyl-based inhibitors of MAO-B in preclinical experiments have drawn attention to the possibility of employing these drugs for their neuroprotective effect in neurodegenerative diseases, and have raised the question of the involvement of the MAO-mediated reaction as a source of reactive free radicals. Despite the long-standing history of MAO inhibitors in medicine, the way in which they affect neuronal release of monoamine neurotransmitters is still poorly understood. In recent years, the detailed chemical structure of MAO-B and MAO-A has become available, providing new possibilities for synthesis of mechanism-based inhibitors. This review describes the latest advances in understanding the way in which MAO inhibitors affect the release of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin (5-HT) in the CNS, with an accent on the importance of these effects for the clinical actions of the drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rhetoric, Literacy, and Social Change in Post-Mao China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Steven

    2009-01-01

    State, citizen, and corporate readings of a multifarious "Chineseness" fundamentally shape the space where East and West clash in post-Mao China. This dialectic represents a citizen's working-through a crisis of agency and a nation's negotiation of its role within a global economy. Given that China's subaltern literacies operate within…

  18. Evidence that formulations of the selective MAO-B inhibitor, selegiline, which bypass first-pass metabolism, also inhibit MAO-A in the human brain

    SciT

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Logan, Jean; Volkow, Nora D.

    Selegiline (L-deprenyl) is a selective, irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) at the conventional dose (10 mg/day oral) that is used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. However, controlled studies have demonstrated antidepressant activity for high doses of oral selegiline and for transdermal selegiline suggesting that when plasma levels of selegiline are elevated, brain MAO-A might also be inhibited. Zydis selegiline (Zelapar®) is an orally disintegrating formulation of selegiline, which is absorbed through the buccal mucosa producing higher plasma levels of selegiline and reduced amphetamine metabolites compared to equal doses of conventional selegiline. Although there is indirect evidence thatmore » Zydis selegiline at high doses loses its selectivity for MAO-B, there is no direct evidence that it also inhibits brain MAO-A in humans. We measured brain MAO-A in 18 healthy men after a 28-day treatment with Zydis selegiline (2.5, 5.0, or 10 mg/day) and in 3 subjects receiving the selegiline transdermal system (Emsam patch, 6 mg/day) using PET and the MAO-A radiotracer [¹¹C]clorgyline. We also measured dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in three subjects from the 10 mg group. The 10 mg Zydis selegiline dose significantly inhibited MAO-A (36.9 ± 19.7%, range 11–70%, p<0.007)) but not DAT; and while Emsam also inhibited MAO-A (33.2 ± 28.9 (range 9-68%) the difference did not reach significance (p=0.10)) presumably because of the small sample size. Our results provide the first direct evidence of brain MAO-A inhibition in humans by formulations of selegiline, which are currently postulated but not verified to target brain MAO-A in addition to MAO-B.« less

  19. Evidence that formulations of the selective MAO-B inhibitor, selegiline, which bypass first-pass metabolism, also inhibit MAO-A in the human brain

    DOE PAGES

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Logan, Jean; Volkow, Nora D.; ...

    2015-10-29

    Selegiline (L-deprenyl) is a selective, irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) at the conventional dose (10 mg/day oral) that is used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. However, controlled studies have demonstrated antidepressant activity for high doses of oral selegiline and for transdermal selegiline suggesting that when plasma levels of selegiline are elevated, brain MAO-A might also be inhibited. Zydis selegiline (Zelapar®) is an orally disintegrating formulation of selegiline, which is absorbed through the buccal mucosa producing higher plasma levels of selegiline and reduced amphetamine metabolites compared to equal doses of conventional selegiline. Although there is indirect evidence thatmore » Zydis selegiline at high doses loses its selectivity for MAO-B, there is no direct evidence that it also inhibits brain MAO-A in humans. We measured brain MAO-A in 18 healthy men after a 28-day treatment with Zydis selegiline (2.5, 5.0, or 10 mg/day) and in 3 subjects receiving the selegiline transdermal system (Emsam patch, 6 mg/day) using PET and the MAO-A radiotracer [¹¹C]clorgyline. We also measured dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in three subjects from the 10 mg group. The 10 mg Zydis selegiline dose significantly inhibited MAO-A (36.9 ± 19.7%, range 11–70%, p<0.007)) but not DAT; and while Emsam also inhibited MAO-A (33.2 ± 28.9 (range 9-68%) the difference did not reach significance (p=0.10)) presumably because of the small sample size. Our results provide the first direct evidence of brain MAO-A inhibition in humans by formulations of selegiline, which are currently postulated but not verified to target brain MAO-A in addition to MAO-B.« less

  20. First results of MAO NASU SS bodies photographic archive digitizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakuliak, L.; Andruk, V.; Shatokhina, S.; Golovnya, V.; Yizhakevych, O.; Kulyk, I.

    2013-05-01

    MAO NASU glass archive encloses about 1800 photographic plates with planets and their satellites (including near 80 images of Uranus, Pluto and Neptune), about 1700 plates with minor planets and about 900 plates with comets. Plates were made during 1949-1999 using 11 telescopes of different focus, mostly the Double Wide-angle Astrograph (F/D=2000/400) and the Double Long-focus Astrograph (F/D=5500/400) of MAO NASU. Observational sites are Kyiv, Lviv (Ukraine), Biurakan (Armenia), Abastumani (Georgia), Mt. Maidanak (Uzbekistan), Quito (Equador). Tables contain data about the most significant numbers of plates sub-divided by years and objects. The database with metadata of plates (DBGPA) is available on the computer cluster of MAO (http://gua.db.ukr-vo.org) via open access. The database accumulates archives of four Ukrainian observatories, involving the UkrVO national project. Together with the archive managing system, the database serves as a test area for JDA - Joint Digital Archive - the core of the UkrVO.

  1. Therapeutic, Molecular and Computational Aspects of Novel Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Muthusamy; Dokurugu, Yussif M; Thompson, Michael D; Soliman, Mahmoud E

    2017-01-01

    Background Due to the limited number of MAO inhibitors in the clinics, several research efforts are aimed at the discovery of novel MAO inhibitors. At present, a high specificity and a reversible mode of inhibition of MAO-A/B are cited as desirable traits in drug discovery process. This will help to reduce the probability of causing target disruption and may increase the duration of action of drug. Most of the existing MAO inhibitors lead to side effects due to the lack of affinity and selectivity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to design novel, potent, reversible and selective inhibitors for MAO-A/B. Selective inhibition of MAO-A results in the elevated level of serotonin and noradrenaline. Hence, MAO-A inhibitors can be used for improving the symptoms of depression. The selective MAO-B inhibitors are used with L-DOPA and/or dopamine agonists in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study was aimed to describe the recently developed hits of MAO inhibitors. At present, CADD techniques are gaining an attention in rationale drug discovery of MAO inhibitors, and several research groups employed CADD approaches on various chemical scaffolds to identify novel MAO inhibitors. These computational techniques assisted in the development of lead molecules with improved pharmacodynamics / pharmacokinetic properties toward MAOs. Further, CADD techniques provided a better understanding of structural aspects of molecular targets and lead molecules. The present review describes the importance of structural features of potential chemical scaffolds as well as the role of computational approaches like ligand docking, molecular dynamics, QSAR and pharmacophore modeling in the development of novel MAO inhibitors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Social deficits and perseverative behaviors, but not overt aggression, in MAO-A hypomorphic mice.

    PubMed

    Bortolato, Marco; Chen, Kevin; Godar, Sean C; Chen, Gao; Wu, Weihua; Rebrin, Igor; Farrell, Mollee R; Scott, Anna L; Wellman, Cara L; Shih, Jean C

    2011-12-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A is a key enzyme for the degradation of brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE). In humans and mice, total MAO-A deficiency results in high 5-HT and NE levels, as well as elevated reactive aggression. Here we report the generation of MAO-A(Neo) mice, a novel line of hypomorphic MAO-A mutants featuring the insertion of a floxed neomycin-resistance cassette in intron-12 of the Maoa gene. This construct resulted in a chimeric, non-functional variant of the Maoa-Neo transcript, with a truncated C-terminus, likely due to aberrant splicing; these deficits notwithstanding, small amounts of functional Maoa transcript were found in the brain of MAO-A(Neo) mice. In the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, MAO-A(Neo) mice showed low, yet detectable, MAO-A catalytic activity, as well as 5-HT levels equivalent to WT littermates; conversely, the hippocampus and midbrain of MAO-A(Neo) mice featured a neurochemical profile akin to MAO-A-knockout (KO) mice, with undetectable MAO-A activity and high 5-HT concentrations. MAO-A(Neo) mice showed significant increases in dendritic length in the pyramidal neurons of orbitofrontal cortex, but not basolateral amygdala, in comparison with WT littermates; by contrast, the orbitofrontal cortex of MAO-A KO mice showed significant reductions in basilar dendritic length, as well as a profound increase in apical dendritic length. MAO-A(Neo) mice showed a unique set of behavioral abnormalities, encompassing reduced open-field locomotion, perseverative responses, such as marble burying and water mist-induced grooming, and a lack of anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus-maze and light-dark box paradigms. Notably, whereas MAO-A(Neo) and KO mice showed significant reductions in social interaction, only the latter genotype showed increases in resident-intruder aggression. Taken together, our findings indicate that MAO A hypomorphism results in behavioral and morphological alterations distinct from

  3. The MAO NASU Plate Archive Database. Current Status and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakuliak, L. K.; Sergeeva, T. P.

    2006-04-01

    The preliminary online version of the database of the MAO NASU plate archive is constructed on the basis of the relational database management system MySQL and permits an easy supplement of database with new collections of astronegatives, provides a high flexibility in constructing SQL-queries for data search optimization, PHP Basic Authorization protected access to administrative interface and wide range of search parameters. The current status of the database will be reported and the brief description of the search engine and means of the database integrity support will be given. Methods and means of the data verification and tasks for the further development will be discussed.

  4. Combined treatment with MAO-A inhibitor and MAO-B inhibitor increases extracellular noradrenaline levels more than MAO-A inhibitor alone through increases in beta-phenylethylamine.

    PubMed

    Kitaichi, Yuji; Inoue, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shin; Boku, Shuken; Izumi, Takeshi; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2010-07-10

    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors) have been widely used as antidepressants. However, it remains unclear whether a difference exists between non-selective MAO inhibitors and selective MAO-A inhibitors in terms of their antidepressant effects. Using in vivo microdialysis methods, we measured extracellular noradrenaline and serotonin levels following administration of Ro 41-1049, a reversible MAO-A inhibitor and/or lazabemide, a reversible MAO-B inhibitor in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats. We examined the effect of local infusion of beta-phenylethylamine to the mPFC of rats on extracellular noradrenaline and serotonin levels. Furthermore, the concentrations of beta-phenylethylamine in the tissue of the mPFC after combined treatment with Ro 41-1049 and lazabemide were measured. The Ro 41-1049 alone and the combined treatment significantly increased extracellular noradrenaline levels compared with vehicle and lazabemide alone. Furthermore, the combined treatment increased noradrenaline levels significantly more than Ro 41-1049 alone did. The Ro 41-1049 alone and the combined treatment significantly increased extracellular serotonin levels compared with vehicle and lazabemide alone, but no difference in serotonin levels was found between the combined treatment group and the Ro 41-1049 group. Local infusion of low-dose beta-phenylethylamine increased extracellular noradrenaline levels, but not that of serotonin. Only the combined treatment significantly increased beta-phenylethylamine levels in tissues of the mPFC. Our results suggest that the combined treatment with a MAO-A inhibitor and a MAO-B inhibitor strengthens antidepressant effects because the combined treatment increases extracellular noradrenaline levels more than a MAO-A inhibitor alone through increases in beta-phenylethylamine. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular insights into human monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition by 1,4-naphthoquinone: evidences for menadione (vitamin K3) acting as a competitive and reversible inhibitor of MAO.

    PubMed

    Coelho Cerqueira, Eduardo; Netz, Paulo Augusto; Diniz, Cristiane; Petry do Canto, Vanessa; Follmer, Cristian

    2011-12-15

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and exogenous amines and its inhibitors have therapeutic value for several conditions including affective disorders, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases and aging. The discovery of 2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (TMN) as a nonselective and reversible inhibitor of MAO, has suggested 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) as a potential scaffold for designing new MAO inhibitors. Combining molecular modeling tools and biochemical assays we evaluate the kinetic and molecular details of the inhibition of human MAO by 1,4-NQ, comparing it with TMN and menadione. Menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a multitarget drug that acts as a precursor of vitamin K and an inducer of mitochondrial permeability transition. Herein we show that MAO-B was inhibited competitively by 1,4-NQ (K(i)=1.4 μM) whereas MAO-A was inhibited by non-competitive mechanism (K(i)=7.7 μM). Contrasting with TMN and 1,4-NQ, menadione exhibited a 60-fold selectivity for MAO-B (K(i)=0.4 μM) in comparison with MAO-A (K(i)=26 μM), which makes it as selective as rasagiline. Fluorescence and molecular modeling data indicated that these inhibitors interact with the flavin moiety at the active site of the enzyme. Additionally, docking studies suggest the phenyl side groups of Tyr407 and Tyr444 (for MAO-A) or Tyr398 and Tyr435 (for MAO-B) play an important role in the interaction of the enzyme with 1,4-NQ scaffold through forces of dispersion as verified for menadione, TMN and 1,4-NQ. Taken together, our findings reveal the molecular details of MAO inhibition by 1,4-NQ scaffold and show for the first time that menadione acts as a competitive and reversible inhibitor of human MAO. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Year of the Dragon: The Succession to Mao Tse-tung

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, John Michael, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the conflict over succession to Mao Tse-tung and China's future developmental patterns and strategic orientation. Theorizes that Hua Kuo-feng was Mao's personal choice for succession although opposed by party radicals. Discusses the purge of Teng Hsiao-ping, the Tienanmen riot, and the designation of Hua as First Vice Chairman after the…

  7. Tert-Butylalumoxanes: Synthetic Analogs for Methylalumoxane (MAO) and New Catalytic Routes to Polyolefins and Polyketones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-16

    butylalumoxanes: synthetic analogs for methylalumoxane (MAO) and new catalytic routes to polyolefins and polyketones by C. Jeff Harlan, Mark R. Mason...Tert-butylalumoxanes: synthetic analogs for methylalumoxane. (MAO) and new catalytic routes to polyolefins and polyketones IN00014-91-J-1934 o...JTHGRIS

  8. On Mao Tse-tung: A Bibliographic Guide. East Asia Series, Occasional Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shu, Austin C. W.

    This bibliography is a selected reference source on the life, politics, philosophy, and works of Mao Tse-tung. It contains 800 documents in Chinese, Japanese, and Western languages that were selected from monographs and journal articles. Most of the entries pertain to Mao's role after 1949 when he emerged as the new leader in Mainland China. The…

  9. Perinatal MAO Inhibition Produces Long-Lasting Impairment of Serotonin Function in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mark W; Fillion, Myriam; Mejia, Jose; Ervin, Frank R; Palmour, Roberta M

    2018-06-11

    In addition to transmitter functions, many neuroamines have trophic or ontogenetic regulatory effects important to both normal and disordered brain development. In previous work (Mejia et al., 2002), we showed that pharmacologically inhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity during murine gestation increases the prevalence of behaviors thought to reflect impulsivity and aggression. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which this treatment influences dopamine and serotonin innervation of murine cortical and subcortical areas, as measured by regional density of dopamine (DAT) and serotonin transporters (SERT). We measured DAT and SERT densities at 3 developmental times (PND 14, 35 and 90) following inhibition of MAO A, or MAO B or both throughout murine gestation and early post-natal development. DAT binding was unaltered within the nigrostriatal pathway, but concurrent inhibition of MAO-A and MAO-B significantly and specifically reduced SERT binding by 10⁻25% in both the frontal cortex and raphe nuclei. Low levels of SERT binding persisted (PND 35, 90) after the termination (PND 21) of exposure to MAO inhibitors and was most marked in brain structures germane to the previously described behavioral changes. The relatively modest level of enzyme inhibition (25⁻40%) required to produce these effects mandates care in the use of any compound which might inhibit MAO activity during gestation.

  10. LSP/MAO composite bio-coating on AZ80 magnesium alloy for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ying; Hu, Qiang; Song, Renguo; Hu, Xiaxia

    2017-06-01

    A composite bio-coating was fabricated on AZ80 magnesium (Mg) alloy by using micro-arc oxidation (MAO) under the pretreatment of laser shock peening (LSP) in order to improve the bio-corrosion resistance and the mechanical integrity. LSP treatment could induce grain refinement and compressive residual stress field on the surface of material. MAO bio-coating was grown in alkaline electrolyte with hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca 10 (PO4) 6 (OH) 2 ) to improve the biological properties of the material. The microstructure, element and phase composition for untreated based material (BM) and treated samples (LSP layer, MAO bio-coating and LSP/MAO composite bio-coating) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical tests and slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) tests were used to evaluate the corrosion resistance and the stress corrosion susceptibility in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results indicated that LSP/MAO composite bio-coating can not only improve the corrosion resistance of Mg alloy substrate evidently but also increase the mechanical properties in SBF compared to LSP layer and MAO bio-coating. Mg alloy treated by LSP/MAO composite technique should be better suited as biodegradable orthopedic implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rines E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates MAO-A levels and emotional responses.

    PubMed

    Kabayama, Miyuki; Sakoori, Kazuto; Yamada, Kazuyuki; Ornthanalai, Veravej G; Ota, Maya; Morimura, Naoko; Katayama, Kei-ichi; Murphy, Niall P; Aruga, Jun

    2013-08-07

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), the catabolic enzyme of norepinephrine and serotonin, plays a critical role in emotional and social behavior. However, the control and impact of endogenous MAO-A levels in the brain remains unknown. Here we show that the RING finger-type E3 ubiquitin ligase Rines/RNF180 regulates brain MAO-A subset, monoamine levels, and emotional behavior. Rines interacted with MAO-A and promoted its ubiquitination and degradation. Rines knock-out mice displayed impaired stress responses, enhanced anxiety, and affiliative behavior. Norepinephrine and serotonin levels were altered in the locus ceruleus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala in either stressed or resting conditions, and MAO-A enzymatic activity was enhanced in the locus ceruleus in Rines knock-out mice. Treatment of Rines knock-out mice with MAO inhibitors showed genotype-specific effects on some of the abnormal affective behaviors. These results indicated that the control of emotional behavior by Rines is partly due to the regulation of MAO-A levels. These findings verify that Rines is a critical regulator of the monoaminergic system and emotional behavior and identify a promising candidate drug target for treating diseases associated with emotion.

  12. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) by Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Lin, R D; Hou, W C; Yen, K Y; Lee, M H

    2003-11-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic amines accompaned by the release of H2O2. Two subtypes, MAO-A and MAO-B, exist on the basis of their specificities to substrates and inhibitors. The regulation of MAO-B activity is important in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Twenty-seven species of plants used in traditional Chinese medicines, selected from an enthnobotanical survey, were used in an investigation of their inhibitory effect on MAO-B in rat brain homogenates. The 50% aqueous methanol extracts of four active extracts, Arisaema amurense, Lilium brownii var. colchesteri, Lycium chinense, and Uncaria rhynchophylla, exhibited the best activity and selectivity towards MAO-B with IC50 values of 0.44, 0.29, 0.40, and 0.03 mg/ml, respectively. A kinetic study of MAO-B inhibition by the four extracts using the Lineweaver-Burk plot for each active extract revealed the IC50 concentrations, and results show that: Ki = 0.59 mg/ml for A. amurense for the mixed-type mode, Ki = 0.58 mg/ml for L. brownii var. colchesteri for the mixed-type mode, Ki = 5.01 mg/ml for L. chinense for the uncompetitive mode, and Ki = 0.02 mg/ml for U. rhynchophylla for the uncompetitive mode. These may therefore be candidates for use in delaying the progressive degeneration caused by neurological diseases.

  13. Analysis of monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymatic activity by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection combined with an assay of oxidation with a peroxidase and its application to MAO inhibitors from foods and plants.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Tomás; Flores, Andrea; Fernández, Lidia

    2018-01-15

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes catalyze the oxidative deamination of biogenic amines and neurotransmitters and produce ammonia, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide which is involved in oxidative processes. Inhibitors of MAO-A and -B isozymes are useful as antidepressants and neuroprotectants. The assays of MAO usually measure amine oxidation products or hydrogen peroxide by spectrophotometric techniques. Those assays are often compromised by interfering compounds resulting in poor results. This research describes a new method that combines in the same assay the oxidative deamination of kynuramine to 4-hydroxyquinoline analyzed by HPLC-DAD with the oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) (or Amplex Rex) by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The new method was applied to study the inhibition of human MAO-A and -B by bioactive compounds including β-carboline alkaloids and flavonoids occurring in foods and plants. As determined by HPLC-DAD, β-carbolines, methylene blue, kaempferol and clorgyline inhibited MAO-A and methylene blue, 5-nitroindazole, norharman and deprenyl inhibited MAO-B, and all of them inhibited the oxidation of TMB in the same extent. The flavonoids catechin and cyanidin were not inhibitors of MAO by HPLC-DAD but highly inhibited the oxidation of TMB (or Amplex Red) by peroxidase whereas quercetin and resveratrol were moderate inhibitors of MAO-A by HPLC-DAD, but inhibited the peroxidase assay in a higher level. For some phenolic compounds, using the peroxidase-coupled assay to measure MAO activity led to mistaken results. The new method permits to discern between true inhibitors of MAO from those that are antioxidants and which interfere with peroxidase assays but do not inhibit MAO. For true inhibitors of MAO, inhibition as determined by HPLC-DAD correlated well with inhibition of the oxidation of TMB and this approach can be used to assess the in vitro antioxidant activity (less hydrogen peroxide production) resulting

  14. Down-regulation of MAO-B activity and imidazoline receptors in rat brain following chronic treatment of morphine.

    PubMed

    Su, R B; Li, J; Li, X; Qin, B Y

    2001-07-01

    To study the regulation of monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) activity and imidazoline receptors (I-R) during long term treatment of morphine. MAO-B activity was detected by high performance liquid chromatography; I-R was detected by [3H]idazoxan binding test. Idazoxan and morphine inhibited whole brain homogenate MAO-B activity in a dose-dependent manner, while agmatine, an endogenous imidazoline ligand, didn't affect the activity of MAO-B, and it had no effect on the inhibition of MAO-B activity by idazoxan or morphine. MAO-B activity of rats decreased markedly in all five brain regions detected (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebellum, and striatum) after chronic administration of morphine for 16 d (P < 0.01). Acute challenge with naloxone or idazoxan did not influence MAO-B activity in morphine chronically treated rats. Although agmatine itself did not affect MAO-B activity, co-administration of agmatine with morphine could reverse the effect of morphine on MAO-B activity. Chronic administration of morphine significantly decreased the density of [3H]idazoxan binding sites and increased the binding affinity in cerebral cortex and cerebellum (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). MAO-B activity was relevant to the abstinent syndrome of morphine dependent rats, but not related to the effect of agmatine on morphine analgesia; influence of agmatine on the pharmacological effects of morphine was based on its activation of imidazoline receptors.

  15. Differential expression of IL-6/IL-6R and MAO-A regulates invasion/angiogenesis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Rashmi; Dey, Goutam; Das, Anjan Kumar; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2018-04-26

    Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are mitochondrial enzymes functioning in oxidative metabolism of monoamines. The action of MAO-A has been typically described in neuro-pharmacological domains. Here, we have established a co-relation between IL-6/IL-6R and MAO-A and their regulation in hypoxia induced invasion/angiogenesis. We employed various in-vitro and in-vivo techniques and clinical samples. We studied a co-relation among MAO-A and IL-6/IL-6R and tumour angiogenesis/invasion in hypoxic environment in breast cancer model. Activation of IL-6/IL-6R and its downstream was found in hypoxic cancer cells. This elevation of IL-6/IL-6R caused sustained inhibition of MAO-A in hypoxic environment. Inhibition of IL-6R signalling or IL-6R siRNA increased MAO-A activity and inhibited tumour angiogenesis and invasion significantly in different models. Further, elevation of MAO-A with 5-azacytidine (5-Aza) modulated IL-6 mediated angiogenesis and invasive signatures including VEGF, MMPs and EMT in hypoxic breast cancer. High grade invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) clinical specimen displayed elevated level of IL-6R and depleted MAO-A expression. Expression of VEGF and HIF-1α was unregulated and loss of E-Cadherin was observed in high grade IDC tissue specimen. Suppression of MAO-A by IL-6/IL-6R activation promotes tumour angiogenesis and invasion in hypoxic breast cancer environment.

  16. Design, synthesis and biological assessment of new thiazolylhydrazine derivatives as selective and reversible hMAO-A inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Can, Nafiz Öncü; Osmaniye, Derya; Levent, Serkan; Sağlık, Begüm Nurpelin; Korkut, Büşra; Atlı, Özlem; Özkay, Yusuf; Kaplancıklı, Zafer Asım

    2018-01-20

    In the recent works, it was shown that numerous thiazolylhydrazine derivatives display hMAO inhibitory activity in the range of micromolar concentration. Hence, in the present study a new series of new thiazole-hydrazines (3a-3n) were designed, synthesized, characterized and screened for their hMAO-A and hMAO-B inhibitory activity by an in vitro flurometric method. The enzyme inhibition assay revealed that most of the synthesized compounds have selective inhibition potency against hMAO-A. The compounds 3f and 3h showed promising hMAO-A inhibition with an IC 50 values of 0.012 μM and 0.011 μM and significant selectivity indexes of 1214 and 1601 towards hMAO-A, respectively. The mechanism of hMAO-A inhibition of compounds 3f and 3h was investigated by Lineweaver-Burk graphics and reversible-competitive inhibition of hMAO-A was determined. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies were carried out and the compound 3h was found as non-cytotoxic and non-genotoxic. Theoretical calculation of ADME properties suggested that synthesized compounds may have a good pharmacokinetic profile. The docking study of compound 3f and 3h revealed that there is a strong interaction between the active sites of hMAO-A and analyzed compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Biochemistry and pharmacology of reversible inhibitors of MAO-A agents: focus on moclobemide.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, N P; Ahmed, S K; Kin, N M

    1993-01-01

    Moclobemide, p-chloro-N-[morpholinoethyl]benzamide, is a prototype of RIMA (reversible inhibitor of MAO-A) agents. The compound possesses antidepressant efficacy that is comparable to that of tricyclic and polycyclic antidepressants. In humans, moclobemide is rapidly absorbed after a single oral administration and maximum concentration in plasma is reached within an hour. It is moderately to markedly bound to plasma proteins. MAO-A inhibition rises to 80% within two hours; the duration of MAO inhibition is usually between eight and ten hours. The activity of MAO is completely reestablished within 24 hours of the last dose, so that a quick switch to another antidepressant can be safely undertaken if clinical circumstances demand. RIMAs are potent inhibitors of MAO-A in the brain; they increase the free cytosolic concentrations of norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine in neuronal cells and in synaptic vesicles. Extracellular concentrations of these monoamines also increase. In the case of moclobemide, increase in the level of serotonin is the most pronounced. Moclobemide administration also leads to increased monoamine receptor stimulation, reversal of reserpine induced behavioral effects, selective depression of REM sleep, down regulation of beta-adrenoceptors and increases in plasma prolactin and growth hormone levels. It reduces scopolamine-induced performance decrement and alcohol induced performance deficit which suggest a neuroprotective role. Tyramine potentiation with moclobemide and most other RIMA agents is negligible. PMID:7905288

  18. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A): a signature marker of alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cathcart, Martha K.; Bhattacharjee, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are versatile cells centrally involved in host defense and immunity. Th1 cytokines induce a classical activation program in monocytes/macrophages leading to a proinflammatory M1 macrophage phenotype while Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 promote monocyte differentiation into an alternatively activated, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Although monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is primarily known for its action in the nervous system, several recent studies have identified MAO-A as a signature marker of alternative activation of monocytes/macrophages. In this brief review we explore the signaling pathways/molecules that regulate MAO-A expression in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages. We further discuss the contribution of MAO-A to the resolution of inflammation and identify potential therapeutic targets for controlling inflammation. Altogether this review provides deeper insight into the role of MAO-A in alternative activation of monocytes/macrophages and their participation in the inflammatory response. PMID:26052543

  19. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A): a signature marker of alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Martha K; Bhattacharjee, Ashish

    Monocytes/macrophages are versatile cells centrally involved in host defense and immunity. Th1 cytokines induce a classical activation program in monocytes/macrophages leading to a proinflammatory M1 macrophage phenotype while Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 promote monocyte differentiation into an alternatively activated, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Although monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is primarily known for its action in the nervous system, several recent studies have identified MAO-A as a signature marker of alternative activation of monocytes/macrophages. In this brief review we explore the signaling pathways/molecules that regulate MAO-A expression in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages. We further discuss the contribution of MAO-A to the resolution of inflammation and identify potential therapeutic targets for controlling inflammation. Altogether this review provides deeper insight into the role of MAO-A in alternative activation of monocytes/macrophages and their participation in the inflammatory response.

  20. Monoamine oxidases (MAO) in the pathogenesis of heart failure and ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Kaludercic, Nina; Carpi, Andrea; Menabò, Roberta; Di Lisa, Fabio; Paolocci, Nazareno

    2011-07-01

    Recent evidence highlights monoamine oxidases (MAO) as another prominent source of oxidative stress. MAO are a class of enzymes located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, deputed to the oxidative breakdown of key neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine, and in the process generate H(2)O(2). All these monoamines are endowed with potent modulatory effects on myocardial function. Thus, when the heart is subjected to chronic neuro-hormonal and/or peripheral hemodynamic stress, the abundance of circulating/tissue monoamines can make MAO-derived H(2)O(2) production particularly prominent. This is the case of acute cardiac damage due to ischemia/reperfusion injury or, on a more chronic stand, of the transition from compensated hypertrophy to overt ventricular dilation/pump failure. Here, we will first briefly discuss mitochondrial status and contribution to acute and chronic cardiac disorders. We will illustrate possible mechanisms by which MAO activity affects cardiac biology and function, along with a discussion as to their role as a prominent source of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we will speculate on why MAO inhibition might have a therapeutic value for treating cardiac affections of ischemic and non-ischemic origin. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondria and Cardioprotection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure reveals regulatory mechanisms of a MaoC-like hydratase from Phytophthora capsici involved in biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huizheng; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Jie; Song, Weiwei; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Xiuguo

    2013-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have attracted increasing attention as "green plastic" due to their biodegradable, biocompatible, thermoplastic, and mechanical properties, and considerable research has been undertaken to develop low cost/high efficiency processes for the production of PHAs. MaoC-like hydratase (MaoC), which belongs to (R)-hydratase involved in linking the β-oxidation and the PHA biosynthetic pathways, has been identified recently. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of (R)-hydratase catalysis is critical for efficient production of PHAs that promise synthesis an environment-friendly plastic. We have determined the crystal structure of a new MaoC recognized from Phytophthora capsici. The crystal structure of the enzyme was solved at 2.00 Å resolution. The structure shows that MaoC has a canonical (R)-hydratase fold with an N-domain and a C-domain. Supporting its dimerization observed in structure, MaoC forms a stable homodimer in solution. Mutations that disrupt the dimeric MaoC result in a complete loss of activity toward crotonyl-CoA, indicating that dimerization is required for the enzymatic activity of MaoC. Importantly, structure comparison reveals that a loop unique to MaoC interacts with an α-helix that harbors the catalytic residues of MaoC. Deletion of the loop enhances the enzymatic activity of MaoC, suggesting its inhibitory role in regulating the activity of MaoC. The data in our study reveal the regulatory mechanism of an (R)-hydratase, providing information on enzyme engineering to produce low cost PHAs.

  2. Direct led-fluorescence method for Mao-B inactivation in the treatment of Parkinson's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Jimmy A.; Hung, Jannett; Rodriguez, M.; Bastidas, E.; Laboren, I.; Jaimes, A.

    2004-10-01

    A led-fluorescence spectroscopy method determinate the inhibitory effects of probe compounds on MAO-B activity is described. In this assay, we demonstrate the possibility of determinate the activity of MAO-B efficiently and rapidly without the use of reference substrate. Measuring variations in fluorescence intensity of MAO-B enzyme during the reaction with inhibitors, L-deprenyl and berberine IC50 and KI values were obtained. For L-deprenyl (IC50 = 0.017 μM and KI = 0.019 μM) and berberine (IC50 = 90 μM and KI = 47 μM) were in agreement to the values obtained with a standard method and literature reported.

  3. Prefrontal cortex lesions and MAO-A modulate aggression in penetrating traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, M.; Krueger, F.; Hodgkinson, C.; Raymont, V.; Ferrier, C.; Goldman, D.; Strenziok, M.; Guida, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the interaction between brain lesion location and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) in the genesis of aggression in patients with penetrating traumatic brain injury (PTBI). Methods: We enrolled 155 patients with PTBI and 42 controls drawn from the Vietnam Head Injury Study registry. Patients with PTBI were divided according to lesion localization (prefrontal cortex [PFC] vs non-PFC) and were genotyped for the MAO-A polymorphism linked to low and high transcriptional activity. Aggression was assessed with the aggression/agitation subscale of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-a). Results: Patients with the highest levels of aggression preferentially presented lesions in PFC territories. A significant interaction between MAO-A transcriptional activity and lesion localization on aggression was revealed. In the control group, carriers of the low-activity allele demonstrated higher aggression than high-activity allele carriers. In the PFC lesion group, no significant differences in aggression were observed between carriers of the 2 MAO-A alleles, whereas in the non-PFC lesion group higher aggression was observed in the high-activity allele than in the low-activity allele carriers. Higher NPI-a scores were linked to more severe childhood psychological traumatic experiences and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology in the control and non-PFC lesion groups but not in the PFC lesion group. Conclusions: Lesion location and MAO-A genotype interact in mediating aggression in PTBI. Importantly, PFC integrity is necessary for modulation of aggressive behaviors by genetic susceptibilities and traumatic experiences. Potentially, lesion localization and MAO-A genotype data could be combined to develop risk-stratification algorithms and individualized treatments for aggression in PTBI. PMID:21422455

  4. MAO enzymes inhibitory activity of new benzimidazole derivatives including hydrazone and propargyl side chains.

    PubMed

    Can, Özgür Devrim; Osmaniye, Derya; Demir Özkay, Ümide; Sağlık, Begüm Nurpelin; Levent, Serkan; Ilgın, Sinem; Baysal, Merve; Özkay, Yusuf; Kaplancıklı, Zafer Asım

    2017-05-05

    In the present work, 15 new N'-(arylidene)-4-(1-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzohydrazide (4a-4o) were designed and synthesized. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated using FT-IR, 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, and HRMS spectral data. The inhibitory activity of the compounds 4a-4o against hMAO-A and hMAO-B enzymes was evaluated by using in vitro Amlex Red ® reagent based fluorometric method. Due to lots of high-cost kits including this assay, we determined the ingredients of the kits from the data sheets of several suppliers, and adjusted a protocol by working with various concentrations and volumes of these ingredients. As a result, a fast and sensitive assay was applied as in the commercially available MAO kits with lower costs and clearer ingredients than those of the kits. The enzyme inhibition assay revealed that synthesized compounds have selective inhibition potency against hMAO-B. The compound 4e and 4f displayed IC 50 values of 0.075 μM and 0.136 μM against hMAO-B, respectively. The reference drugs selegiline (IC 50  = 0.040 μM) and rasagiline (IC 50  = 0.066 μM) also displayed a significant inhibition against hMAO-B. The enzyme kinetic study was performed in order to observe the effect of the most active compound 4e on substrate-enzyme relationship and non-competitive inhibition of hMAO-B was determined. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies were carried out and the compound 4e was found as non-cytotoxic and non-genotixic. Theoretical calculation of ADME properties suggested that compound 4e may have a good pharmacokinetic profile. The docking study of compound 4e revealed that there is a strong interaction between the active sites of hMAO-B and analyzed compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. First-harmonic nonlinearities can predict unseen third-harmonics in medium-amplitude oscillatory shear (MAOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey-De La Torre, Olivia; Ewoldt, Randy H.

    2018-02-01

    We use first-harmonic MAOS nonlinearities from G 1' and G 1″ to test a predictive structure-rheology model for a transient polymer network. Using experiments with PVA-Borax (polyvinyl alcohol cross-linked by sodium tetraborate (borax)) at 11 different compositions, the model is calibrated to first-harmonic MAOS data on a torque-controlled rheometer at a fixed frequency, and used to predict third-harmonic MAOS on a displacement controlled rheometer at a different frequency three times larger. The prediction matches experiments for decomposed MAOS measures [ e 3] and [ v 3] with median disagreement of 13% and 25%, respectively, across all 11 compositions tested. This supports the validity of this model, and demonstrates the value of using all four MAOS signatures to understand and test structure-rheology relations for complex fluids.

  6. Rasagiline – a novel MAO B inhibitor in Parkinson’s disease therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lecht, Shimon; Haroutiunian, Simon; Hoffman, Amnon; Lazarovici, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative, dopamine deficiency disorder. The main therapeutic strategies for PD treatment relies on dopamine precursors (levodopa), inhibition of dopamine metabolism (monoamine oxidase [MAO] B and catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors), and dopamine receptor agonists. Recently, a novel selective and irreversible MAO B propargylamine inhibitor rasagiline (N-propargyl-1-R-aminoindan, Azilect®) was approved for PD therapy. In contrast to selegiline, the prototype of MAO B inhibitors, rasagiline is not metabolized to potentially toxic amphetamine metabolites. The oral bioavailability of rasagiline is 35%, it reaches Tmax after 0.5–1 hours and its half-life is 1.5–3.5 hours. Rasagiline undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism primarily by cytochrome P450 type 1A2 (CYP1A2). Rasagiline is initiated at 1 mg once-daily dosage as monotherapy in early PD patients and at 0.5–1 mg once-daily as adjunctive to levodopa in advanced PD patients. Rasagiline treatment was not associated with “cheese effect” and up to 20 mg per day was well tolerated. In PD patients with hepatic impairment, rasagiline dosage should be carefully adjusted. Rasagiline should not be administered with other MAO inhibitors and co-administration with certain antidepressants and opioids should be avoided. Although further clinical evidence is needed on the neuroprotective effects of rasagiline in PD patients, this drug provides an additional tool for PD therapy. PMID:18488080

  7. Gandhi and Mao on manual labour in the school: A retrospective analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachariah, Mathew; Hoffman, Arlene

    1985-12-01

    Mahatma Gandhi's views on relating the world of formal education to the world of work were developed first in his experimental `Tolstoy Farm' in South Africa. On his return to India, Gandhi insisted that a required manual labour component in the curriculum would help regenerate India's village economy, develop in India's children a deeper understanding of India's cultural roots, motivate children to relate `book learning' to life in society, and destroy invidious caste distinctions. The major proposals and suggestions in Gandhi's writing will be discussed in the context of his hopes for using schooling as an agent of progress in India. Mao Ze-Dong's views, on the other hand, were developed in the context of his Yenan experience in the 1930s, i.e. the decision to consolidate a power base in the interior of China before waging a class war against the landlords and capitalists of China. Mao's views were also, to some extent, rooted in the Chinese reality of stagnant, poverty-stricken rural areas. But, Mao's writings indicate that Marxist hopes to relate theory and practice (as understood in dialectical materialism) and to ensure that everyone participated in mental as well as manual labour in a socialist society had led him to formulate his proposals. Both Gandhi's and Mao's views and proposals have been more or less abandoned in India and China respectively. The similar and dissimilar reasons which led to such a fate are examined in this retrospective analysis.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of quinazoline amino acid derivatives as mono amine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Sherine Nabil; Haiba, Nesreen Saied; Asal, Ahmed Mosaad; Bekhit, Adnan A; Amer, Adel; Abdel-Rahman, Hamdy M; El-Faham, Ayman

    2015-07-01

    A series of quinazolinone amino acid ester and quinazolinone amino acid hydrazides were prepared under microwave irradiation as well as conventional condition. The microwave irradiation afforded the product in less reaction time, higher yield and purity. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, NMR, and elemental analysis. The new synthesized compounds were studied for their monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity. They showed more selective inhibitory activity toward MAO-A than MAO-B. Compounds 7, 10, and 15 showed MAO-A inhibition activity (IC50=3.6×10(-9), 2.8×10(-9), 2.1×10(-9) M, respectively) comparable to that of the standard clorgyline (IC50=2.9×10(-9)M). 2-(2-(Benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-4-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)acetohydrazide 15 showed selective MAO-A inhibition activity (SI=39524) superior to that of the standard clorgyline (SI=33793). The acute toxicity of the synthesized compounds was determined. In addition, computer-assisted simulated docking experiments were performed to rationalize the biological activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-Mao Chinese Literary Women's Rhetoric Revisited: A Case for an "Enlightened" Feminist Rhetorical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Identifying the specific complexities and historical context of post-Mao Chinese literary women's rhetoric, along with ways they have been misread, the author argues in general that Western feminist critics need to be cautious about applying their concepts to non-Western women's literature. (Contains 7 notes.)

  10. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibition by active principles from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wen-Chi; Lin, Rong-Dih; Chen, Cheng-Tang; Lee, Mei-Hsien

    2005-08-22

    Attenuation of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity may provide protection against oxidative neurodegeneration. For this reason, inhibition of MAO-B activity is used as part of the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's patients. The hook of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks. (Rubiaceae) is a traditional Chinese herbal drug that is generally used to treat convulsive disorders. In this study, the fractionation and purification of Uncaria rhynchophylla extracts using a bioguided assay isolated two known compounds, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. The compounds inhibited MAO-B, as measured by an assay of rat brain MAO-B separated by electrophoresis on a 7.5% native polyacrylamide gel. The IC(50) values of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were 88.6 and 58.9 microM, respectively, and inhibition occurred in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by the fluorescence method. The Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed K(i) values for (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin of 74 and 21 microM, respectively. This suggests that these two compounds, isolated here for the first time from Uncaria rhynchophylla, might be able to protect against neurodegeneration in vitro, and, therefore, the molecular mechanism deserves further study. This finding may also increase interest in the health benefits of Uncaria rhynchophylla.

  11. Are MAO-A deficiency states in the general population and in putative high-risk populations highly uncommon?

    PubMed

    Murphy, D L; Sims, K; Eisenhofer, G; Greenberg, B D; George, T; Berlin, F; Zametkin, A; Ernst, M; Breakefield, X O

    1998-01-01

    Lack of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) due to either Xp chromosomal deletions or alterations in the coding sequence of the gene for this enzyme are associated with marked changes in monoamine metabolism and appear to be associated with variable cognitive deficits and behavioral changes in humans and in transgenic mice. In mice, some of the most marked behavioral changes are ameliorated by pharmacologically-induced reductions in serotonin synthesis during early development, raising the question of possible therapeutic interventions in humans with MAO deficiency states. At the present time, only one multi-generational family and a few other individuals with marked MAO-A deficiency states have been identified and studied in detail. Although MAO deficiency states associated with Xp chromosomal deletions were identified by distinct symptoms (including blindness in infancy) produced by the contiguous Norrie disease gene, the primarily behavioral phenotype of individuals with the MAO mutation is less obvious. This paper reports a sequential research design and preliminary results from screening several hundred volunteers in the general population and from putative high-risk groups for possible MAO deficiency states. These preliminary results suggest that marked MAO deficiency states are very rare.

  12. MAO-A Phenotype Effects Response Sensitivity and the Parietal Old/New Effect during Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Robert S.; Smolen, Andrew; Curran, Tim; Nyhus, Erika

    2018-01-01

    A critical problem for developing personalized treatment plans for cognitive disruptions is the lack of understanding how individual differences influence cognition. Recognition memory is one cognitive ability that varies from person to person and that variation may be related to different genetic phenotypes. One gene that may impact recognition memory is the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAO-A), which influences the transcription rate of MAO-A. Examination of how MAO-A phenotypes impact behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) correlates of recognition memory may help explain individual differences in recognition memory performance. Therefore, the current study uses electroencephalography (EEG) in combination with genetic phenotyping of the MAO-A gene to determine how well-characterized ERP components of recognition memory, the early frontal old/new effect, left parietal old/new effect, late frontal old/new effect, and the late posterior negativity (LPN) are impacted by MAO-A phenotype during item and source memory. Our results show that individuals with the MAO-A phenotype leading to increased transcription have lower response sensitivity during both item and source memory. Additionally, during item memory the left parietal old/new effect is not present due to increased ERP amplitude for correct rejections. The results suggest that MAO-A phenotype changes EEG correlates of recognition memory and influences how well individuals differentiate between old and new items. PMID:29487517

  13. Characterization of 1-Aminobenzotriazole and Ketoconazole as Novel Inhibitors of Monoamine Oxidase (MAO): An In Vitro Investigation.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Abdul Naveed; LeDuc, Barbara W; Khan, Ansar A

    2017-10-01

    1-Aminobenzotriazole, a known time-dependent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, and ketoconazole, a strong inhibitor of the human CYP3A4 isozyme, are used as standard probe inhibitors to characterize the CYP and/or non-CYP-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics. In the present investigation, 1-Aminobenzotriazole and ketoconazole are characterized as potent monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors in vitro using mouse, rat and human liver microsomes and S9 fractions. Inhibition potential of 1-aminobenzotriazole and ketoconazole was studied in mice, rat and human liver microsomes, S9 fractions, MAO-A and MAO-B expressed enzymes by monitoring the formation of 4-hydroxyquinoline (4-HQ) from kynuramine, a specific substrate of MAO by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Mechanism of MAO inhibition was studied by incubating varying concentration of kynuramine with mouse, rat and human S9 fractions at varying concentration of 1-aminobenzatriazole and ketoconazole and monitoring the formation of 4-HQ. 1-aminobenzotriazole and ketoconazole inhibited both MAO isozymes (MAO-A and MAO-B) with more specificity towards MAO-B. Kynuramine substrate kinetics in mouse, rat and human S9 fractions with varying 1-aminobenzotriazole and ketoconazole concentrations showed decreased maximum rate (V max ) for 4-HQ formation without affecting the Michaelis-Menten constant (K m ). A non-competitive inhibition model was constructed and inhibition constants (K i ) for 1-aminobenzotriazole (7.87 ± 0.61, 8.61 ± 0.92, 65.2 ± 1.61 µM for mice, rat and humans, respectively) and ketoconazole (0.12 ± 0.01, 2.04 ± 0.08, 5.52 ± 0.47 µM for mice, rat and humans, respectively) were determined. 1-Aminobenzotriazole and ketoconazole are characterized as non-competitive inhibitors of mice, rat and human MAO in vitro and the extent of their MAO inhibition potential is species specific. 1-Aminobenzotriazole or ketoconazole can be used as a probe inhibitor in vitro

  14. Effects of analogues of substance P fragments on the MAO activity in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Turska, E; Lachowicz, L; Koziołkiewicz, W; Wasiak, T

    1985-01-01

    The influence in vitro of analogues of Sp5-11 and SP6-11 substance P fragments on the activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in homogenates and crude mitochondrial fractions of rat brain was examined. The rat brain was divided into: I--cerebral cortex, II--hippocampus, III--midbrain, IV--thalamus with hypothalamus, V--cerebellum and VI--medulla oblongata. The obtained results proved that the analogues of SP fragments inhibit selectively the activity of the enzyme in the homogenates of cerebral cortex, hippocampus, midbrain and cerebellum. In the crude mitochondrial fractions the applied analogues of SP fragments caused a slight increase of the enzyme activity. The most significant changes in the activity of MAO were observed in hippocampus homogenate fraction.

  15. PCT MAO’s Enhanced Performance by Specially Designed Sealers for Superior Service & Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    PCT’s Process is with low silicon content. • Aluminized Steel + PCT MAO can be a cost effective alternative to Stainless Steel, Super Duplex...is applied PCT – P seal • Typical Layer thickness: 40-80 micron* • Organic sealer • Hydrophobic surface, reduces sedimentation...PCT - S seal • Typical Layer thickness: 10-40 micron* • Organo-ceramic sealer • Hydrophobic surface, reduces sedimentation. PCT Classic 1000

  16. Tert-butylalumoxanes: Synthetic Analogs for Methylalumoxane (MAO) and New Catalytic Routes to Polyolefins and Polyketones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-15

    91-J-1934 R&T Code 4132060 Tert-butylalumoxanes: synthetic analogs for methylalumoxane (MAO) and new catalytic routes to polyolef’ms and polyketones ...and Principal Investigator: new catalytic routes to polyolefins and polyketones A. R. Barron Mailing Address: Dept. of.Chemistry Harvard University...catalyst complex,[CP2Zr(Me)] [(t~u)6,Al6(O)6(Me)]. Our studies with Pd/alumoxane polyketone synthesis have now demonstrated that high molecular weight

  17. Body fat reduction without cardiovascular changes in mice after oral treatment with the MAO inhibitor phenelzine.

    PubMed

    Carpéné, Christian; Mercader, Josep; Le Gonidec, Sophie; Schaak, Stéphane; Mialet-Perez, Jeanne; Zakaroff-Girard, Alexia; Galitzky, Jean

    2018-03-26

    Phenelzine is an antidepressant drug known to increase the risk of hypertensive crisis when dietary tyramine is not restricted. However, this MAO inhibitor inhibits other enzymes not limited to the nervous system. Here we investigated if its antiadipogenic and antilipogenic effects in cultured adipocytes could contribute to decreased body fat in vivo, without unwanted hypertensive or cardiovascular effects. Mice were fed a standard chow and given 0.028% phenelzine in drinking water for 12 weeks. Body composition was determined by NMR. Cardiovascular dysfunction was assessed by heart rate variability analyses and by evaluation of cardiac oxidative stress markers. MAO activity, hydrogen peroxide release and triacylglycerol turnover were assayed in white adipose tissue (WAT), alongside determination of glucose and lipid circulating levels. Phenelzine-treated mice exhibited lower body fat content, subcutaneous WAT mass and lipid content in skeletal muscles than control, without decreased body weight gain or food consumption. A modest alteration of cardiac sympathovagal balance occurred without depressed aconitase activity. In WAT, phenelzine impaired the lipogenic but not the antilipolytic actions of insulin, MAO activity and hydrogen peroxide release. Phenelzine treatment lowered non-fasting blood glucose and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression. In vitro, high doses of phenelzine decreased both lipolytic and lipogenic responses in mouse adipocytes. As phenelzine reduced body fat content without affecting cardiovascular function in mice, it may be of benefit in the treatment of obesity-associated complications, with the precautions of use recommended for antidepressant therapy. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. New coumarin derivatives: design, synthesis and use as inhibitors of hMAO.

    PubMed

    He, Xu; Chen, Yan-Yan; Shi, Jing-Bo; Tang, Wen-Jiang; Pan, Zhi-Xiang; Dong, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Bao-An; Li, Jun; Liu, Xin-Hua

    2014-07-15

    A series new 2H-chromene-3-carboxamides (4a-4i) and S-2H-chromene-3-carbothioates (5j-5t) were synthesized and evaluated as monoamine oxidase A and B inhibitors. Among them, compound 5k (IC50=0.21μM, IC50 iproniazid=7.65μM) showed the most activity and higher MAO-B selectivity (189.2-fold vs 1-fold) with respect to the MAO-A isoform. The need to clarify at a 3D level some important molecular aspects of discussed SAR, we undertaked a number of docking simulations to better assess. The steric effect was analyzed interms of both posing and scoring by investigating the nature of the binding interactions. The docking results of active compound 5k with hMAO-B complex indicated that conserved residue ILE 199 was important for ligand binding via Sigma-Pi interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mars Atmospheric Oxidant Sensor (MAOS): An In-Situ Heterogeneous Chemistry Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, A. P.; Quinn, R. C.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Hecht, M. H.; Buehler, M. G.; McKay, C. P.; Ricco, A. J.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a chemometric array sensor, the Mars Atmospheric Oxidant Sensor (MAOS, pronounced "mouse '') that is designed measure the oxidation rate of thin films on the martian surface. We select films that are sensitive to particular types of oxidants, that represent key elements in the martian soil, or that emulate prebiotic materials. Concern that naturally arising martian oxidants may have destroyed evidence of ancient life on Mars was raised by the Viking mission in the 1970's. The possibility that oxidants may limit the viability of biologica1 habitats is particularly timely in light of recent suggestions of contemporary flowing water on Mars. By controlling the temperature of the films, as well as their exposure to dust and ultraviolet light, MAOS will discriminate among leading hypotheses for oxidant production. MAOS weighs 55 grams, fits in a 6 x 7 x 2 cm envelope, and uses 250 mW power. Much of the enabling technology was developed for the MOx experiment, lost on the Russian Mars '96 mission.

  20. SIRT1 Activates MAO-A in the Brain to Mediate Anxiety and Exploratory Drive

    PubMed Central

    Libert, Sergiy; Pointer, Kelli; Bell, Eric L.; Das, Abhirup; Cohen, Dena E.; Asara, John M.; Kapur, Karen; Bergmann, Sven; Preisig, Martin; Otowa, Takeshi; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Chen, Xiangning; Hettema, John M.; van den Oord, Edwin J.; Rubio, Justin P.; Guarente, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY SIRT1 is a NAD+-dependent deacetylase that governs a number of genetic programs to cope with changes in the nutritional status of cells and organisms. Behavioral responses to food abundance are important for the survival of higher animals. Here we used mice with increased or decreased brain SIRT1 to show that this sirtuin regulates anxiety and exploratory drive by activating transcription of the gene encoding the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) to reduce serotonin levels in the brain. Indeed, treating animals with MAO-A inhibitors or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) normalized anxiety differences between wild-type and mutant animals. SIRT1 deacetylates the brain-specific helix-loop-helix transcription factor NHLH2 on lysine 49 to increase its activation of the MAO-A promoter. Both common and rare variations in the SIRT1 gene were shown to be associated with risk of anxiety in human population samples. Together these data indicate that SIRT1 mediates levels of anxiety, and this regulation may be adaptive in a changing environment of food availability. PMID:22169038

  1. Increased L-DOPA-derived dopamine following selective MAO-A or-B inhibition in rat striatum depleted of dopaminergic and serotonergic innervation

    PubMed Central

    Sader-Mazbar, O; Loboda, Y; Rabey, M J; Finberg, J P M

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Selective MAO type B (MAO-B) inhibitors are effective in potentiation of the clinical effect of L-DOPA in Parkinson's disease, but dopamine (DA) is deaminated mainly by MAO type A (MAO-A) in rat brain. We sought to clarify the roles of MAO-A and MAO-B in deamination of DA formed from exogenous L-DOPA in rat striatum depleted of dopaminergic, or both dopaminergic and serotonergic innervations. We also studied the effect of organic cation transporter-3 (OCT-3) inhibition by decinium-22 on extracellular DA levels following L-DOPA. Experimental Approach Striatal dopaminergic and/or serotonergic neuronal innervations were lesioned by 6-hydroxydopamine or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine respectively. Microdialysate DA levels after systemic L-DOPA were measured after inhibition of MAO-A or MAO-B by clorgyline or rasagiline respectively. MAO subtype localization in the striatum was determined by immunofluorescence. Key Results Rasagiline increased DA extracellular levels following L-DOPA to a greater extent in double-than in single-lesioned rats (2.8-and 1.8-fold increase, respectively, relative to saline treatment); however, clorgyline elevated DA levels in both models over 10-fold. MAO-A was strongly expressed in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in intact and lesioned striata, while MAO-B was localized in glia and to a small extent in MSNs. Inhibition of OCT-3 increased DA levels in the double-more than the single-lesion animals. Conclusions and Implications In striatum devoid of dopaminergic and serotonergic inputs, most deamination of L-DOPA-derived DA is mediated by MAO-A in MSN and a smaller amount by MAO-B in both MSN and glia. OCT-3 plays a significant role in uptake of DA from extracellular space. Inhibitors of OCT-3 are potential future targets for anti-Parkinsonian treatments. PMID:23992249

  2. Psychomotor stimulant effects of beta-phenylethylamine in monkeys treated with MAO-B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bergman, J; Yasar, S; Winger, G

    2001-12-01

    Sufficiently high doses of beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA), a trace amine that is rapidly metabolized by monoamine oxidase-type B (MAO-B), can produce effects comparable to those of cocaine or methamphetamine (MA). The present experiments were conducted to study how the discriminative-stimulus (S(D)) and reinforcing-stimulus (S(R)) effects of beta-PEA in monkeys are modified by treatment with inhibitors of MAO-B [R-(-)-deprenyl and MDL 72974]. In studies of its S(D) effects, doses of beta-PEA up to 30 mg/kg engendered only sporadic responding on the drug-associated lever in squirrel monkeys that discriminated intramuscular injections of 0.3 mg/kg MA from vehicle whereas lower doses of 0.3-1.0 mg/kg beta-PEA produced full substitution when administered after either R-(-)-deprenyl or MDL 72974 (0.3 mg/kg). The MA-like S(D) effects of beta-PEA were attenuated by either dopamine D(1) or D(2) receptor blockers. In studies of its S(R) effects, high doses of beta-PEA maintained responding in two of three monkeys under a second-order fixed-interval schedule (3.0 or 10 mg/kg per injection) and two of three monkeys under a simple fixed ratio (FR) schedule (0.3-1.0 mg/kg per injection) of intravenous (i.v.) self-administration. MAO-B inhibition by R-(-)-deprenyl or MDL 72974 enhanced the S(R) effects of beta-PEA in all monkeys and, under the FR schedule, induced a 30-fold or greater leftward shift in the dose-response function for its i.v. self-administration. Based on time-course determinations, the enhanced S(R) effects of beta-PEA under the FR schedule were long-lasting and dissipated gradually over 3-7 days. These results show that inhibition of MAO-B enhances S(D) and S(R) effects of beta-PEA in monkeys, presumably by delaying its inactivation. MAO-B inhibition leading to increased levels of beta-PEA may be useful, alone or in combination with other therapeutic agents, in the pharmacological management of selected aspects of drug dependence.

  3. Chemoinformatics Profiling of the Chromone Nucleus as a MAO-B/A2AAR Dual Binding Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Monteagudo, Maykel; Borges, Fernanda; Cordeiro, M. Natália D. S.; Helguera, Aliuska Morales; Tejera, Eduardo; Paz-y-Miño, Cesar; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Perera-Sardiña, Yunier; Perez-Castillo, Yunierkis

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the context of the current drug discovery efforts to find disease modifying therapies for Parkinson´s disease (PD) the current single target strategy has proved inefficient. Consequently, the search for multi-potent agents is attracting more and more attention due to the multiple pathogenetic factors implicated in PD. Multiple evidences points to the dual inhibition of the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), as well as adenosine A2A receptor (A2AAR) blockade, as a promising approach to prevent the neurodegeneration involved in PD. Currently, only two chemical scaffolds has been proposed as potential dual MAO-B inhibitors/A2AAR antagonists (caffeine derivatives and benzothiazinones). Methods: In this study, we conduct a series of chemoinformatics analysis in order to evaluate and advance the potential of the chromone nucleus as a MAO-B/A2AAR dual binding scaffold. Results: The information provided by SAR data mining analysis based on network similarity graphs and molecular docking studies support the suitability of the chromone nucleus as a potential MAO-B/A2AAR dual binding scaffold. Additionally, a virtual screening tool based on a group fusion similarity search approach was developed for the prioritization of potential MAO-B/A2AAR dual binder candidates. Among several data fusion schemes evaluated, the MEAN-SIM and MIN-RANK GFSS approaches demonstrated to be efficient virtual screening tools. Then, a combinatorial library potentially enriched with MAO-B/A2AAR dual binding chromone derivatives was assembled and sorted by using the MIN-RANK and then the MEAN-SIM GFSS VS approaches. Conclusion: The information and tools provided in this work represent valuable decision making elements in the search of novel chromone derivatives with a favorable dual binding profile as MAO-B inhibitors and A2AAR antagonists with the potential to act as a disease-modifying therapeutic for Parkinson´s disease. PMID:28093976

  4. Binge ethanol exposure increases the Krüppel-like factor 11-monoamine oxidase (MAO) pathway in rats: Examining the use of MAO inhibitors to prevent ethanol-induced brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Jeremy W.; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Niping; Johnson, Shakevia; Harris, Sharonda; Udemgba, Chinelo; Ou, Xiao-Ming; Youdim, Moussa B.; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Wang, Jun Ming

    2016-01-01

    Binge drinking induces several neurotoxic consequences including oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Because of these effects, drugs which prevent ethanol-induced damage to the brain may be clinically beneficial. In this study, we investigated the ethanol-mediated KLF11-MAO cell death cascade in the frontal cortex of Sprague–Dawley rats exposed to a modified Majchowicz 4-day binge ethanol model and control rats. Moreover, MAO inhibitors (MAOIs) were investigated for neuroprotective activity against binge ethanol. Binge ethanol-treated rats demonstrated a significant increase in KLF11, both MAO isoforms, protein oxidation and caspase-3, as well as a reduction in BDNF expression in the frontal cortex compared to control rats. MAOIs prevented these binge ethanol-induced changes, suggesting a neuroprotective benefit. Neither binge ethanol nor MAOI treatment significantly affected protein expression levels of the oxidative stress enzymes, SOD2 or catalase. Furthermore, ethanol-induced antinociception was enhanced following exposure to the 4-day ethanol binge. These results demonstrate that the KLF11-MAO pathway is activated by binge ethanol exposure and MAOIs are neuroprotective by preventing the binge ethanol-induced changes associated with this cell death cascade. This study supports KLF11-MAO as a mechanism of ethanol-induced neurotoxicity and cell death that could be targeted with MAOI drug therapy to alleviate alcohol-related brain injury. Further examination of MAOIs to reduce alcohol use disorder-related brain injury could provide pivotal insight to future pharmacotherapeutic opportunities. PMID:26805422

  5. Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension treated with levodopa and MAO inhibitor: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, J.; Marquez-Julio, A.; Ashby, P.

    1972-01-01

    The clinical and pathophysiological features of a case of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension (Shy-Drager syndrome) are presented. Recent reports on the pathological findings in this condition indicate that there may be a defect in catecholamine synthesis in the pigmented brain stem nuclei and sympathetic ganglia similar to that in idiopathic parkinsonism. On this basis a new form of therapy using levodopa combined with MAO inhibition is derived. The results of a trial of this therapy, which produced improvements in both the hypotension and in the extrapyramidal features of the disease, are reported. PMID:5056115

  6. AMF3 ARM's Research Facility and MAOS at Oliktok Point Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsel, F.; Ivey, M.; Dexheimer, D.; Hardesty, J.; Lucero, D. A.; Roesler, E. L.

    2016-12-01

    Scientific Infrastructure To Support Atmospheric Science And Aerosol Science For The Department Of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs Mobile Facility 3 Located At Oliktok Point, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Mobile Facility 3 (AMF3) located at Oliktok Point, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site designed to collect data to determine the impact that clouds and aerosols have on solar radiation. The site provides a scientific infrastructure and data archives for the international Arctic research community. The infrastructure at Oliktok is designed to be mobile and it may be relocated in the future to support other ARM science missions. AMF3's present instruments include: scanning precipitation Radar-cloud radar, Raman Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Balloon sounding system, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL), Millimeter cloud radar along with all the standard metrological measurements. A Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) has been added to AMF3 in 2016 more details of the instrumentation at www.arm.gov/sites/amf/mobile-aos. Data from these instruments are placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments are at the ARM Program's AMF3 and highlight the newest addition to AMF3, the Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS).

  7. COMT and MAO-A Polymorphisms and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Family-Based Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Aline Santos; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Petribú, Kátia; Cappi, Carolina; Morais, Ivanil; Vallada, Homero; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Fargeness, Jesen; Mathews, Carol; Arnold, Paul; Hanna, Gregory L.; Richter, Margaret; Kennedy, James; Fontenelle, Leonardo; de Bragança Pereira, Carlos Alberto; Pauls, David L.; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and debilitating psychiatric illness. Although a genetic component contributes to its etiology, no single gene or mechanism has been identified to the OCD susceptibility. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) genes have been investigated in previous OCD studies, but the results are still unclear. More recently, Taylor (2013) in a comprehensive meta-analysis of genetic association studies has identified COMT and MAO-A polymorphisms involved with OCD. In an effort to clarify the role of these two genes in OCD vulnerability, a family-based association investigation was performed as an alternative strategy to the classical case-control design. Methods Transmission disequilibrium analyses were performed after genotyping 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (eight in COMT and five in MAO-A) in 783 OCD trios (probands and their parents). Four different OCD phenotypes (from narrow to broad OCD definitions) and a SNP x SNP epistasis were also analyzed. Results OCD, broad and narrow phenotypes,were not associated with any of the investigated COMT and MAO-A polymorphisms. In addition, the analyses of gene-gene interaction did not show significant epistatic influences on phenotype between COMT and MAO-A. Conclusions The findings do not support an association between DSM-IV OCD and the variants of COMT or MAO-A. However, results from this study cannot exclude the contribution of these genes in the manifestation of OCD. The evaluation of broader spectrum phenotypes could help to understand the role of these and other genes in the pathophysiology of OCD and its spectrum disorders. PMID:25793616

  8. Mao-to Prolongs the Survival of and Reduces TNF-α Expression in Mice with Viral Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Shijie, Zhu; Moriya, Junji; Yamakawa, Jun’ichi; Chen, Rui; Takahashi, Takashi; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Nakahashi, Takeshi; Iwai, Kunimitsu; Morimoto, Shigeto; Yamaguchi, Nobuo

    2010-01-01

    Goal of this study was to evaluate effects of Mao-to on development of myocarditis induced by encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus in mice. Mice were randomly divided into five groups. Group N included uninfected controls (n = 18), while group A, B and C underwent intraperitoneal injection of EMC virus. Group A was administered oral saline from day 0 to day 4. Group B was administered oral Mao-to (500 mg−1 kg−1 day−1) from day 0 to day 4. Group C was administered Mao-to from day 2 to day 6. Group D was administered Mao-to from day 5 to day 10. Treated mice were followed for survival rates during 2 weeks after infection. Body weight (BW) and organ weights including heart (HW), lungs, thymus and spleen were examined on days 4, 6 and 14. Survival rate of group C (36.4%) was significantly improved compared with group A, B or D (0% of each, P < 0.05). HW and HW/BW ratio in group C was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in group A, B or D. Viral titers of hearts were significantly different among groups A, B and C. Cardiac expression in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly reduced in group C in comparison with group A, B or D on day 6 by immunohistochemical study. Administration of Mao-to starting on day 2 improves mortality resulting from viral myocarditis in mice with reduced expression of cardiac TNF-α. These findings suggest that timing of Mao-to is crucial for preventing cardiac damage in mice with viral myocarditis. PMID:20671770

  9. An Analysis of Mao Tse-Tung's Three Main Rules of Discipline and Eight Points for Attention. Occasional Paper No. 77-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massie, Michael

    The document analyzes Mao Tse-Tung's "Three Main Rules of Discipline" and "Eight Points For Attention" and presents, by way of comparison, the text of the "Code of Conduct" issued by the President of the United States for members of the armed forces during the Vietnam War. Mao's regulations were revised by the General…

  10. Proposing Novel MAO-B Hit Inhibitors Using Multidimensional Molecular Modeling Approaches and Application of Binary QSAR Models for Prediction of Their Therapeutic Activity, Pharmacokinetic and Toxicity Properties.

    PubMed

    Is, Yusuf Serhat; Durdagi, Serdar; Aksoydan, Busecan; Yurtsever, Mine

    2018-05-07

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes MAO-A and MAO-B play a critical role in the metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters. Hence, MAO inhibitors are very important for the treatment of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, 256 750 molecules from Otava Green Chemical Collection were virtually screened for their binding activities as MAO-B inhibitors. Two hit molecules were identified after applying different filters such as high docking scores and selectivity to MAO-B, desired pharmacokinetic profile predictions with binary quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. Therapeutic activity prediction as well as pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles were investigated using MetaCore/MetaDrug platform which is based on a manually curated database of molecular interactions, molecular pathways, gene-disease associations, chemical metabolism, and toxicity information. Particular therapeutic activity and toxic effect predictions are based on the ChemTree ability to correlate structural descriptors to that property using recursive partitioning algorithm. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were also performed to make more detailed assessments beyond docking studies. All these calculations were made not only to determine if studied molecules possess the potential to be a MAO-B inhibitor but also to find out whether they carry MAO-B selectivity versus MAO-A. The evaluation of docking results and pharmacokinetic profile predictions together with the MD simulations enabled us to identify one hit molecule (ligand 1, Otava ID: 3463218) which displayed higher selectivity toward MAO-B than a positive control selegiline which is a commercially used drug for PD therapeutic purposes.

  11. Synthesis and Evaluation of Phenylxanthine Derivatives as Potential Dual A2AR Antagonists/MAO-B Inhibitors for Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuebao; Han, Chao; Xu, Yong; Wu, Kaiqi; Chen, Shuangya; Hu, Mangsha; Wang, Luyao; Ye, Yun; Ye, Faqing

    2017-06-17

    The aim of this research was to prove the speculation that phenylxanthine (PX) derivatives possess adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-blocking properties and to screening and evaluate these PX derivatives as dual A2AR antagonists/MAO-B inhibitors for Parkinson's disease. To explore this hypothesis, two series of PX derivatives were prepared and their antagonism against A2AR and inhibition against MAO-B were determined in vitro. In order to evaluate further the antiparkinsonian properties, pharmacokinetic and haloperidol-induced catalepsy experiments were carried out in vivo. The PX-D and PX-E analogues acted as potent A2AR antagonists with Ki values ranging from 0.27 to 10 μM, and these analogues displayed relatively mild MAO-B inhibition potencies, with inhibitor dissociation constants (Ki values) ranging from 0.25 to 10 μM. Further, the compounds PX-D-P6 and PX-E-P8 displayed efficacious antiparkinsonian properties in haloperidol-induced catalepsy experiments, verifying that these two compounds were potent A2AR antagonists and MAO-B inhibitors. We conclude that PX-D and PX-E analogues are a promising candidate class of dual-acting compounds for treating Parkinson's disease.

  12. Effects of different components of Mao Dongqing's total flavonoids and total saponins on transient ischemic attack (TIA) model of rats.

    PubMed

    Miao, Ming-San; Peng, Meng-Fan; Ma, Rui-Juan; Bai, Ming; Liu, Bao-Song

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To study the effects of the different components of the total flavonoids and total saponins from Mao Dongqing's active site on the rats of TIA model, determine the optimal reactive components ratio of Mao Dongqing on the rats of TIA. Methods: TIA rat model was induced by tail vein injection of tert butyl alcohol, the blank group was injected with the same amount of physiological saline, then behavioral score wasevaluated. Determination the level of glutamic acid in serum, the activity of Na+-K+-ATP enzyme, CA ++ -ATP enzyme and Mg ++ -ATP enzyme in Brain tissue, observe the changes of hippocampus in brain tissue, the comprehensive weight method was used to evaluate the efficacy of each component finally. Results: The contents of total flavonoids and total saponins in the active part of Mao Dongqing can significantly improve the pathological changes of brain tissue in rats, improve the activity of Na + -K + -ATP enzyme, Ca ++ -ATP enzyme and Mg ++ -ATP enzyme in the brain of rats, and reduce the level of glutamic acid in serum. The most significant of the contents was the ratio of 10:6. The different proportions of total flavonoids and total saponins in the active part of Mao Dongqing all has a better effect on the rats with TIA, and the ratio of 10:6 is the best active component for preventing and controlling TIA.

  13. A Student-Centered First-Semester Introductory Organic Laboratory Curriculum Facilitated by Microwave-Assisted Synthesis (MAOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Cianán B.; Mason, Jeremy D.; Bean, Theodore G.; Murphree, S. Shaun

    2014-01-01

    An instructional laboratory curriculum for a first-semester introductory organic chemistry course has been developed using microwave-assisted organic synthesis (MAOS). Taking advantage of short reaction times, materials were developed to facilitate collaborative experimental design, analysis, and debriefing of results during the normal laboratory…

  14. Riding over Socialism and Global Capitalism: Changing Education Governance and Social Policy Paradigms in Post-Mao China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2005-01-01

    In coping with the challenges of globalization, various reform measures, in the field of social policy, have been initiated in post-Mao China. Strategies such as privatization, marketization, commodification and societalization have been adopted to redefine the relationship between the state, the market and other non-state sectors involved in…

  15. Effect of Borates and Silicates on Wearing Properties of Mao Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Yan-Wei; Xiang, Nan; Song, Ren-Guo

    In the present study, microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings were formed on ZL101A aluminum alloy in an electrolytic bath containing 3g/L KOH + 2g/L Na2WO4+ 4g/L KF. The morphology and wearing behavior were investigated. In both electrolytes, the additives were borates (Na2B4O718g/L) and silicates (Na2SiO3 18g/L), respectively. It was found that the coating formed in borates-containing electrolyte was of compact and smooth structure than that of the one formed in silicates-containing electrolyte at the optimum treatment time. It was found that all the coatings were composed of á-Al2O3 and ã-Al2O3. The microhardness and wear tests proved that the coating formed in borates-containing electrolyte was having better mechanical properties than those of the coating formed in silicates-containing electrolyte.

  16. Pharmacology of Rasagiline, a New MAO-B Inhibitor Drug for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease with Neuroprotective Potential

    PubMed Central

    Finberg, John P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Rasagiline (Azilect) is a highly selective and potent propargylamine inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) type B. Like other similar propargylamine inhibitors, rasagiline binds covalently to the N5 nitrogen of the flavin residue of MAO, resulting in irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. Therapeutic doses of the drug which inhibit brain MAO-B by 95% or more cause minimal inhibition of MAO-A, and do not potentiate the pressor or other pharmacological effects of tyramine. Metabolic conversion of the compound in vivo is by hepatic cytochrome P450-1A2, with generation of 1-aminoindan as the major metabolite. Rasagiline possesses no amphetamine-like properties, by contrast with the related compound selegiline (Deprenyl, Jumex, Eldepryl). Although the exact distribution of MAO isoforms in different neurons and tissues is not known, dopamine behaves largely as a MAO-A substrate in vivo, but following loss of dopaminergic axonal varicosities from the striatum, metabolism by glial MAO-B becomes increasingly important. Following subchronic administration to normal rats, rasagiline increases levels of dopamine in striatal microdialysate, possibly by the build-up of β-phenylethylamine, which is an excellent substrate for MAO-B, and is an effective inhibitor of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT). Both of these mechanisms may participate in the anti-Parkinsonian effect of rasagiline in humans. Rasagiline possesses neuroprotective properties in a variety of primary neuronal preparations and neuron-like cell lines, which is not due to MAO inhibition. Recent clinical studies have also demonstrated possible neuroprotective properties of the drug in human Parkinsonian patients, as shown by a reduced rate of decline of symptoms over time. PMID:23908775

  17. A combined quantum mechanical and statistical mechanical study of the equilibrium of trimethylaluminum (TMA) and oligomers of (AlOCH(3))(n) found in methylaluminoxane (MAO) solution.

    PubMed

    Zurek, E; Ziegler, T

    2001-07-02

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been used to calculate the energies of over 30 different structures with the general formula (AlOMe)(n).(AlMe(3))(m) where n ranges from 6 to 13 and m ranges between 1 and 4, depending upon the structure of the parent (AlOMe)(n) cage. The way in which TMA (trimethylaluminum) bonds to MAO (methylaluminoxane) has been determined as well as the location of the acidic sites present in MAO caged structures. Topological arguments have been used to show that TMA does not bind to MAO cages where n = 12 or n > or = 14. The ADF energies in conjunction with frequency calculations based on molecular mechanics have been used to estimate the finite temperature enthalpies, entropies, and free energies of the TMA containing MAO structures. Using the Gibbs free energies found for pure MAO structures calculated in a previous work, in conjunction with the free energies of TMA containing MAO structures obtained in the present study, it was possible to determine the percent abundance of each TMA containing MAO within the temperature range of 198.15 K-598.15 K. We have found that very little TMA is actually bound to MAO. The Me/Al ratio on the MAO cages is determined as being approximately 1.00, 1.01, 1.02, and 1.03 at 198, 298, 398, and 598 K, respectively. Moreover, the percentage of Al found as TMA has been calculated as being 0.21%, 0.62%, 1.05%, and 1.76% and the average unit formulas of (AlOMe)(18.08).(TMA)(0.04), (AlOMe)(17.04).(TMA)(0.11), (AlOMe)(15.72).(TMA)(0.17), and (AlOMe)(14.62).(TMA)(0.26) have been determined at the aforementioned temperatures.

  18. Molecular dynamics, flexible docking, virtual screening, ADMET predictions, and molecular interaction field studies to design novel potential MAO-B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Braun, Glaucia H; Jorge, Daniel M M; Ramos, Henrique P; Alves, Raquel M; da Silva, Vinicius B; Giuliatti, Silvana; Sampaio, Suley Vilela; Taft, Carlton A; Silva, Carlos H T P

    2008-02-01

    Monoamine oxidase is a flavoenzyme bound to the mitochondrial outer membranes of the cells, which is responsible for the oxidative deamination of neurotransmitter and dietary amines. It has two distinct isozymic forms, designated MAO-A and MAO-B, each displaying different substrate and inhibitor specificities. They are the well-known targets for antidepressant, Parkinson's disease, and neuroprotective drugs. Elucidation of the x-ray crystallographic structure of MAO-B has opened the way for the molecular modeling studies. In this work we have used molecular modeling, density functional theory with correlation, virtual screening, flexible docking, molecular dynamics, ADMET predictions, and molecular interaction field studies in order to design new molecules with potential higher selectivity and enzymatic inhibitory activity over MAO-B.

  19. Knowledge based identification of MAO-B selective inhibitors using pharmacophore and structure based virtual screening models.

    PubMed

    Boppana, Kiran; Dubey, P K; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Vadivelan, S; Rambabu, G

    2009-09-01

    Monoamine Oxidase B interaction with known ligands was investigated using combined pharmacophore and structure based modeling approach. The docking results suggested that the pharmacophore and docking models are in good agreement and are used to identify the selective MAO-B inhibitors. The best model, Hypo2 consists of three pharmacophore features, i.e., one hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor and one ring aromatic. The Hypo2 model was used to screen an in-house database of 80,000 molecules and have resulted in 5500 compounds. Docking studies were performed, subsequently, on the cluster representatives of 530 hits from 5500 compounds. Based on the structural novelty and selectivity index, we have suggested 15 selective MAO-B inhibitors for further synthesis and pharmacological screening.

  20. Parkinson's disease management. Part II- discovery of MAO-B inhibitors based on nitrogen heterocycles and analogues.

    PubMed

    Reis, Joana; Encarnação, Igor; Gaspar, Alexandra; Morales, Aliuska; Milhazes, Nuno; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by a progressive neurodegeneration of the dopaminergic neurons. The available pharmacological therapy for PD aims to stop the progress of symptoms, reduce disability, slowing the neurodegenerative process and/or preventing long-term complications along the therapy. The main strategic developments that have led to progress in the medical management of PD have focused on improvements in dopaminergic therapies. Despite all the recent research, there are only a few classes of drugs approved for the treatment of motor related symptoms of PD which primarily act on the dopaminergic neurons system: L-dopa, dopamine agonists, monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitors. Anticholinergic drugs and glutamate antagonists are also available but are not commonly used in routine practice. As no effective therapeutic strategy has yet been attended, other solutions must be investigated. Privileged structures, such as indoles, arylpiperazines, biphenyls and benzopyranes are currently ascribed as helpful approaches. Different families of nitrogen and oxygen heterocycles, such as pyrazoles, hydrazinylthiazoles, xanthones, coumarins or chromones have also been extensively used as scaffolds in medicinal chemistry programs for searching novel MAO-B inhibitors. Nitrogen derivatives play a key role in this subject with several studies pointing out hydrazines, thiazoles or indoles as important scaffolds for the development of novel MAO-B inhibitors. This review comprises an overview of the state of the art on the actual pharmacological therapy for PD followed by a specific focus on the discovery and development of nitrogen-based heterocyclic compounds analogues as promising MAO-B inhibitors.

  1. Early postnatal inhibition of serotonin synthesis results in long-term reductions of perseverative behaviors, but not aggression, in MAO A-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Bortolato, Marco; Godar, Sean C.; Tambaro, Simone; Li, Felix G.; Devoto, Paola; Coba, Marcelo P.; Chen, Kevin; Shih, Jean C.

    2013-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, the major enzyme catalyzing the oxidative degradation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), plays a key role in emotional regulation. In humans and mice, MAO-A deficiency results in high 5-HT levels, antisocial, aggressive, and perseverative behaviors. We previously showed that the elevation in brain 5-HT levels in MAO-A knockout (KO) mice is particularly marked during the first two weeks of postnatal life. Building on this finding, we hypothesized that the reduction of 5-HT levels during these early stages may lead to enduring attenuations of the aggression and other behavioral aberrances observed in MAO-A KO mice. To test this possibility, MAO-A KO mice were treated with daily injections of a 5-HT synthesis blocker, the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor p-chloro-phenylalanine (pCPA, 300 mg/kg/day, IP), from postnatal day 1 through 7. As expected, this regimen significantly reduced 5-HT forebrain levels in MAO-A KO pups. These neurochemical changes persisted throughout adulthood, and resulted in significant reductions in marble-burying behavior, as well as increases in spontaneous alternations within a T-maze. Conversely, pCPA-treated MAO-A KO mice did not exhibit significant changes in anxiety-like behaviors in a novel open-field and elevated plus-maze; furthermore, this regimen did not modify their social deficits, aggressive behaviors and impairments in tactile sensitivity. Treatment with pCPA from postnatal day 8 through 14 elicited similar, yet milder, behavioral effects on marble-burying behavior. These results suggest that early developmental enhancements in 5-HT levels have long-term effects on the modulation of behavioral flexibility associated with MAO-A deficiency. PMID:23871843

  2. [The role of the MAO-B inhibitor razagiline in the treatment of Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, N V; Tekaeva, F K; Bel'gusheva, M E

    2011-01-01

    The features of the new selective MAO-B inhibitor razagiline (azilect) are reviewed against the background of latest advances in the field of treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). The authors present the results of treatment of 20 patients in the full-blown stage of disease (mean age of patients 61.4±7.0 years). One of the objectives was to study the effect of razagiline on speech disorders in PD. A battery of scales was used to assess the global efficacy of treatment and the effect of the drug on the groups of symptoms. The high symptomatic effect of the drug used as monotherapy in early stages and in the combination with levodopa drugs in the full-blown stages of disease was revealed. It has been concluded that razagiline has a neuroprotective effect and modifies the course of PD. It exerts an effect on axial symptoms of PD: reduces speech disorders, postural instability, frequency of freezing episodes, severity of pharmacological dyskinesias.

  3. Globalization of tertiary nursing education in post-Mao China: a preliminary qualitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Xu, Y; Sun, J; Zhang, J

    2001-12-01

    This article examines China's collaborative initiatives with Western countries to assess the impact of globalization on Chinese nursing education, especially at the post-secondary level, in the post-Mao era. Through the theoretical framework of mutuality, it evaluates the outcomes of globalization in two broad domains: pedagogy and system-institution-program building. In addition, case studies on two collaborative projects between Chinese nursing programs and Western institutions were conducted to further illustrate the principles of mutuality. This qualitative assessment is primarily based on a systematic review of published studies on the multifaceted dimensions of globalization in Chinese post-secondary nursing education in both English and Chinese nursing literature since 1990. It is supplemented by unpublished documents and data obtained from a research trip to China in 2000. The study concludes that globalization has been, and will remain, one of the major forces underpinning Chinese nursing education (and the nursing profession in general), which is moving towards integration into the global nursing community. However, there is a significant imbalance in the knowledge transfer equation both in the national and international context. Great efforts need to be made to synthesize nursing knowledge in the East and West to achieve an integrative nursing science.

  4. In vitro degradation of MAO/PLA coating on Mg-1.21Li-1.12Ca-1.0Y alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Rong-Chang; Qi, Wei-Chen; Song, Ying-Wei; He, Qin-Kun; Cui, Hong-Zhi; Han, En-Hou

    2014-12-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are promising biomaterials due to their biocompatibility and osteoinduction. The plasticity and corrosion resistance of commercial magnesium alloys cannot meet the requirements for degradable biomaterials completely at present. Particularly, the alkalinity in the microenvironment surrounding the implants, resulting from the degradation, arouses a major concern. Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composite (MAO/PLA) coating on biomedical Mg-1.21Li-1.12Ca-1.0Y alloy was prepared to manipulate the pH variation in an appropriate range. Surface morphologies were discerned using SEM and EMPA. And corrosion resistance was evaluated via electrochemical polarization and impedance and hydrogen volumetric method. The results demonstrated that the MAO coating predominantly consisted of MgO, Mg2SiO4 and Y2O3. The composite coating markedly improved the corrosion resistance of the alloy. The rise in solution pH for the MAO/PLA coating was tailored to a favorable range of 7.5-7.8. The neutralization caused by the alkalinity of MAO and Mg substrate and acidification of PLA was probed. The result designates that MAO/PLA composite coating on Mg-1.21Li-1.12Ca-1.0Y alloys may be a promising biomedical coating.

  5. Evidence that the methylation state of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene predicts brain activity of MAO A enzyme in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Shumay, Elena; Logan, Jean; Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S

    2012-10-01

    Human brain function is mediated by biochemical processes, many of which can be visualized and quantified by positron emission tomography (PET). PET brain imaging of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A)-an enzyme metabolizing neurotransmitters-revealed that MAO A levels vary widely between healthy men and this variability was not explained by the common MAOA genotype (VNTR genotype), suggesting that environmental factors, through epigenetic modifications, may mediate it. Here, we analyzed MAOA methylation in white blood cells (by bisulphite conversion of genomic DNA and subsequent sequencing of cloned DNA products) and measured brain MAO A levels (using PET and [(11)C]clorgyline, a radiotracer with specificity for MAO A) in 34 healthy non-smoking male volunteers. We found significant interindividual differences in methylation status and methylation patterns of the core MAOA promoter. The VNTR genotype did not influence the methylation status of the gene or brain MAO A activity. In contrast, we found a robust association of the regional and CpG site-specific methylation of the core MAOA promoter with brain MAO A levels. These results suggest that the methylation status of the MAOA promoter (detected in white blood cells) can reliably predict the brain endophenotype. Therefore, the status of MAOA methylation observed in healthy males merits consideration as a variable contributing to interindividual differences in behavior.

  6. Effect of MAO-A inhibition on the pharmacokinetics of almotriptan, an antimigraine agent in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fleishaker, Joseph C; Ryan, Kristi K; Jansat, Josep M; Carel, Barabara J; Bell, David J A; Burke, Moira T; Azie, Nkechi E

    2001-01-01

    Aims To assess the effect of a reversible MAO-A inhibitor, moclobemide, on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of almotriptan and assess the clinical consequences of any interaction. Methods Twelve healthy volunteers received the following treatments in a randomized, open-label, two-way crossover design (with a 1 week washout between treatments): (A) one 150 mg moclobemide tablet every 12 h for 8 days and one 12.5 mg almotriptan tablet on the morning of day 8; and (B) one 12.5 mg almotriptan tablet on day 8. Plasma almotriptan was quantified by h.p.l.c.-MS-MS, while urinary concentrations were measured by h.p.l.c.-u.v. Vital signs, ECGs, and adverse events were evaluated after almotriptan administration. Treatment effects on pharmacokinetics and vital signs were assessed by analysis of variance. Results Mean almotriptan AUC was higher (483 ± 99.9 vs 352 ± 75.4 ng ml−1 h, P = 0.0001) and oral clearance was lower (26.6 ± 4.00 vs 36.6 ± 5.89 l h−1, P = 0.0001) when almotriptan was administered with moclobemide. Mean half-life was longer (4.22 ± 0.78 vs 3.41 ± 0.45 h, P = 0.0002) after coadministration with moclobemide. Renal clearance of almotriptan was unaffected by moclobemide. No serious adverse events occurred and no clinically significant vital sign changes were observed. Conclusions Moclobemide increased plasma concentrations of almotriptan on average by 37%, but the combined administration of these two compounds was well tolerated. The degree of interaction was much less than that seen previously for sumatriptan or zolmitriptan given with moclobemide. PMID:11422001

  7. The genotypes and methylation of MAO genes as factors behind smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Tiili, Emmi M; Mitiushkina, Natalia V; Sukhovskaya, Olga A; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Hirvonen, Ari P

    2017-11-01

    Smoking dependence is the main cause for tobacco-related illnesses. The addiction-causing substance in tobacco, nicotine, acts through the dopamine pathway in the brain, causing several pleasurable experiences through cigarette smoking. Thus, both genetic and epigenetic factors related to dopamine metabolism may play an important role in influencing an individual's smoking behavior. We studied the 1460 C/T variation and the variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the MAOA gene and A/G variation in intron 13 in the MAOB gene together with four DNA methylation sites in both of these genes in relation to several smoking-related phenotypes in a study population of 1230 Whites of Russian origin. The genotypes studied were found to be associated with smoking status in women; the MAOB G variant allele was more prevalent in female smokers than nonsmokers [odds ratio (OR): 2.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-4.33], whereas a reverse relation was observed for the MAOA 1460 T-variant allele (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21-0.91) and variable number tandem repeat low-activity alleles (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.24-0.98). Moreover, the mean methylation values of the CpG sites studied in the MAOA gene were related to smoking behavior in women. Similarly, several methylation patterns in the MAOB gene were associated with a smoking history, with each CpG site showing a remarkable sex dependence. Smoking behavior seems to be related to the genetic and epigenetic profile of MAO genes, with considerable individual and sex-related differences.

  8. 5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole (5-IT): a psychoactive substance used for recreational purposes is an inhibitor of human monoamine oxidase (MAO).

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Tomás; Brandt, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole (5-IT) is a psychoactive compound that has recently been associated with several fatal and non-fatal intoxications in a number of European countries. There are indications that acute effects may include symptoms of monoaminergic (e.g. serotonin) toxicity and one mechanism involved in the increase of serotonin levels includes the inhibition of monoamine oxidase. This study investigated the effect of 5-IT on human MAO-A and -B isozymes using kynuramine as the substrate. Substrate conversion to 4-hydroxyquinoline was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection. This method was employed to determine the extent of MAO inhibition (IC50 and Ki ) and it was found that 5-IT was a selective, competitive and reversible inhibitor of MAO-A. 5-IT revealed a relatively potent ability to inhibit MAO-A (IC50  =1.6 μM and Ki  =0.25 μM) while MAO-B inhibition was not observed (0-500 μM 5-IT). Under identical experimental conditions, other established inhibitors of MAO-A and antidepressants provided the following IC50 values: clorgyline 16 nM, harmaline 20 nM, toloxatone 6.7 μM and moclobemide >500 μM. These data indicated that 5-IT was less potent than clorgyline and harmaline but more potent than toloxatone and moclobemide under the in-vitro conditions studied. The inhibition of MAO-A suggests that 5-IT by itself or in combination with other substances may be able to potentiate serotonergic/monoaminergic effects and further studies are needed to clarify its relevance to the adverse effects reported for 5-IT. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Cognitive aspects of congenital learned helplessness and its reversal by the monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor deprenyl

    SciT

    Schulz, D.; Schulz, D.; Mirrione, M.

    2009-11-29

    Cognitive processes are assumed to change with learned helplessness, an animal model of depression, but little is known about such deficits. Here we investigated the role of cognitive and related functions in selectively bred helpless (cLH, n = 10), non-helpless (cNLH, n = 12) and wild type (WT, n = 8) Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were exposed to an open field for 10 min on each of two test days. On the third day, an object exploration paradigm was carried out. The animals were later tested for helplessness. Both cLH and cNLH rats were more active than WTs onmore » the first day in the open field. Over trials, cNLH and WT rats lowered their activity less than cLH rats. This resistance-to-habituation co-varied with a resistance to develop helplessness. In cLH rats, higher 'anxiety' or less time spent in the center of the open field co-varied with severe helplessness. In WTs, a greater reactivity to novel objects and to a spatially relocated object predicted lower levels of helplessness. In cLH rats (n = 4-5 per group), chronic treatment with a high dose of the monoamineoxidase (MAO)-Binhibitordeprenyl (10 mg/kg; i.p.), an anti-Parkinson, nootropic and antidepressant drug, attenuated helplessness. Remarkably, helplessness reversal required the experience of repeated test trials, reminiscent of a learning process. Chronic deprenyl (10 mg/kg; i.p.) did not alter locomotion/exploration or 'anxiety' in the open field. In conclusion, helplessness may be related to altered mechanisms of reinforcement learning and working memory, and to abnormalities in MAO-A and/or MAO-B functioning.« less

  10. Cognitive aspects of congenital learned helplessness and its reversal by the monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor deprenyl.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Daniela; Mirrione, Martine M; Henn, Fritz A

    2010-02-01

    Cognitive processes are assumed to change with learned helplessness, an animal model of depression, but little is known about such deficits. Here we investigated the role of cognitive and related functions in selectively bred helpless (cLH, n=10), non-helpless (cNLH, n=12) and wild type (WT, n=8) Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were exposed to an open field for 10min on each of two test days. On the third day, an object exploration paradigm was carried out. The animals were later tested for helplessness. Both cLH and cNLH rats were more active than WTs on the first day in the open field. Over trials, cNLH and WT rats lowered their activity less than cLH rats. This resistance-to-habituation co-varied with a resistance to develop helplessness. In cLH rats, higher 'anxiety' or less time spent in the center of the open field co-varied with severe helplessness. In WTs, a greater reactivity to novel objects and to a spatially relocated object predicted lower levels of helplessness. In cLH rats (n=4-5 per group), chronic treatment with a high dose of the monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor deprenyl (10mg/kg; i.p.), an anti-Parkinson, nootropic and antidepressant drug, attenuated helplessness. Remarkably, helplessness reversal required the experience of repeated test trials, reminiscent of a learning process. Chronic deprenyl (10mg/kg; i.p.) did not alter locomotion/exploration or 'anxiety' in the open field. In conclusion, helplessness may be related to altered mechanisms of reinforcement learning and working memory, and to abnormalities in MAO-A and/or MAO-B functioning. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular Docking and Prediction of Pharmacokinetic Properties of Dual Mechanism Drugs that Block MAO-B and Adenosine A2A Receptors for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Faizul; Madi, Arwa M.; Ali, Hamed I.

    2012-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitory potential of adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR) antagonists has raised the possibility of designing dual-target–directed drugs that may provide enhanced symptomatic relief and that may also slow the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) by protecting against further neurodegeneration. To explain the dual inhibition of MAO-B and AA2AR at the molecular level, molecular docking technique was employed. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was used for flexible ligand docking studies. A good correlation (R2= 0.524 and 0.627 for MAO-B and AA2AR, respectively) was established between docking predicted and experimental Ki values, which confirms that the molecular docking approach is reliable to study the mechanism of dual interaction of caffeinyl analogs with MAO-B and AA2AR. Parameters for Lipinski's “Rule-of-Five” were also calculated to estimate the pharmacokinetic properties of dual-target–directed drugs where both MAO-B inhibition and AA2AR antagonism exhibited a positive correlation with calculated LogP having a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.535 and 0.607, respectively. These results provide some beneficial clues in structural modification for designing new inhibitors as dual-target–directed drugs with desired pharmacokinetic properties for the treatment of PD. PMID:23112538

  12. Inhibition potential of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolites on the in vitro monoamine oxidase (MAO)-catalyzed deamination of the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Andrea E; Boxler, Martina I; Stock, Lorena; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-01-22

    Neurotoxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is still controversially discussed. Formation of reactive oxygen species e.g. based on elevated dopamine (DA) concentrations and DA quinone formation is discussed among others. Inhibition potential of MDMA metabolites regarding neurotransmitter degradation by catechol-O-methyltransferase and sulfotransferase was described previously. Their influence on monoamine oxidase (MAO) - the major DA degradation pathway-has not yet been studied in humans. Therefore the inhibition potential of MDMA and its metabolites on the deamination of the neurotransmitters DA and serotonin (5-HT) by MAO-A and B using recombinant human enzymes in vitro should be investigated. In initial studies, MDMA and MDA showed relevant inhibition (>30%) toward MAO A for 5-HT and DA. No relevant effects toward MAO B were observed. Further investigation on MAO-A revealed MDMA as a competitive inhibitor of 5-HT and DA deamination with Ki 24.5±7.1 μM and 18.6±4.3 μM respectively and MDA as a mixed-type inhibitor with Ki 7.8±2.6 μM and 8.4±3.2 μM respectively. Although prediction of in vivo relevance needs to be done with care, relevant inhibitory effects at expected plasma concentrations after recreational MDMA consumption seems unlikely based on the obtained data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of MAO-A and stimulation of behavioural activities in mice by the inactive prodrug form of the anti-influenza agent oseltamivir.

    PubMed

    Hiasa, Miki; Isoda, Yumiko; Kishimoto, Yasushi; Saitoh, Kenta; Kimura, Yasuaki; Kanai, Motomu; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Hatakeyama, Dai; Kirino, Yutaka; Kuzuhara, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    Oseltamivir is the most widely prescribed anti-influenza medication. However, in rare instances, it has been reported to stimulate behavioural activities in adolescents. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism responsible for these behavioural activities. We performed an in vitro assay of MAO-A, the enzyme responsible for neurotransmitter degradation, using either the active form - oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) or the inactive prodrug - oseltamivir ethyl ester (OEE). We also analysed the docking of MAO-A with OEE or OC in silico. Mouse behaviours after OEE or OC administration were monitored using automated video and computer analysis. OEE, but not OC, competitively and selectively inhibited human MAO-A. The estimated Ki value was comparable with the Km values of native substrates of MAO-A. Docking simulations in silico based on the tertiary structure of MAO-A suggested that OEE could fit into the inner pocket of the enzyme. Behavioural monitoring using automated video analysis further revealed that OEE, not OC, significantly enhanced spontaneous behavioural activities in mice, such as jumping, rearing, sniffing, turning and walking. Our multilevel analyses suggested OEE to be the cause of the side effects associated with oseltamivir and revealed the molecular mechanism underlying the stimulated behaviours induced by oseltamivir in some circumstances. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Inhibition of MAO-A and stimulation of behavioural activities in mice by the inactive prodrug form of the anti-influenza agent oseltamivir

    PubMed Central

    Hiasa, Miki; Isoda, Yumiko; Kishimoto, Yasushi; Saitoh, Kenta; Kimura, Yasuaki; Kanai, Motomu; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Hatakeyama, Dai; Kirino, Yutaka; Kuzuhara, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Oseltamivir is the most widely prescribed anti-influenza medication. However, in rare instances, it has been reported to stimulate behavioural activities in adolescents. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism responsible for these behavioural activities. Experimental Approach We performed an in vitro assay of MAO-A, the enzyme responsible for neurotransmitter degradation, using either the active form – oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) or the inactive prodrug – oseltamivir ethyl ester (OEE). We also analysed the docking of MAO-A with OEE or OC in silico. Mouse behaviours after OEE or OC administration were monitored using automated video and computer analysis. Key Results OEE, but not OC, competitively and selectively inhibited human MAO-A. The estimated Ki value was comparable with the Km values of native substrates of MAO-A. Docking simulations in silico based on the tertiary structure of MAO-A suggested that OEE could fit into the inner pocket of the enzyme. Behavioural monitoring using automated video analysis further revealed that OEE, not OC, significantly enhanced spontaneous behavioural activities in mice, such as jumping, rearing, sniffing, turning and walking. Conclusions and Implications Our multilevel analyses suggested OEE to be the cause of the side effects associated with oseltamivir and revealed the molecular mechanism underlying the stimulated behaviours induced by oseltamivir in some circumstances. PMID:23320399

  15. Treatment with the MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline elevates monoamine neurotransmitter levels and improves affective phenotypes in a mouse model of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Miralles, Marta; Ooi, Jolene; Ferrari Bardile, Costanza; Tan, Liang Juin; George, Maya; Drum, Chester L; Lin, Rachel Yanping; Hayden, Michael R; Pouladi, Mahmoud A

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal monoamine oxidase A and B (MAO-A/B) activity and an imbalance in monoamine neurotransmitters have been suggested to underlie the pathobiology of depression, a major psychiatric symptom observed in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington disease (HD). Increased MAO-A/B activity has been observed in brain tissue from patients with HD and in human and rodent HD neural cells. Using the YAC128 mouse model of HD, we studied the effect of an irreversible MAO-A inhibitor, clorgyline, on the levels of select monoamine neurotransmitters associated with affective function. We observed a decrease in striatal levels of the MAO-A/B substrates, dopamine and norepinephrine, in YAC128 HD mice compared with wild-type mice, which was accompanied by increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour at five months of age. Treatment for 26 days with clorgyline restored dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine neurotransmitter levels in the striatum and reduced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in YAC128 HD mice. This study supports a potential therapeutic use for MAO-A inhibitors in the treatment of depression and anxiety in patients with HD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of three novel fluorine-18 labeled analogues of L-deprenyl for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).

    PubMed

    Nag, Sangram; Lehmann, Lutz; Heinrich, Tobias; Thiele, Andrea; Kettschau, Georg; Nakao, Ryuji; Gulyás, Balázs; Halldin, Christer

    2011-10-27

    The aim in this project was to synthesize and to study fluorine-18 labeled analogues of l-deprenyl which bind selectively to the enzyme monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). Three fluorinated l-deprenyl analogues have been generated in multistep organic syntheses. The most promising fluorine-18 compound N-[(2S)-1-[(18)F]fluoro-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]-N-methylprop-2-yn-1-amine (4c) was synthesized by a one-step fluorine-18 nucleophilic substitution reaction. Autoradiography on human brain tissue sections demonstrated specific binding for compound 4c to brain regions known to have a high content of MAO-B. In addition, the corresponding nonradioactive fluorine-19 compound (13) inhibited recombinant human MAO-B with an IC(50) of 170.5 ± 29 nM but did not inhibit recombinant human MAO-A (IC(50) > 2000 nM), demonstrating its specificity. Biodistribution of 4c in mice showed high initial brain uptake leveling at 5.2 ± 0.04%ID/g after 2 min post injection. In conclusion, compound 4c is a specific inhibitor of MAO-B with high initial brain uptake in mice and is, therefore, a candidate for further investigation in PET.

  17. Rotigotine in Combination with the MAO-B Inhibitor Selegiline in Early Parkinson's Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis.

    PubMed

    Giladi, Nir; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Bauer, Lars; Grieger, Frank; Boroojerdi, Babak

    2016-04-02

    Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors and dopamine receptor agonists are common first-line treatment options in early Parkinson's disease (PD). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rotigotine transdermal patch as an add-on therapy to an MAO-B inhibitor in patients with early-PD. In two Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in early-PD (SP512, SP513), patients were randomized to rotigotine (titrated to optimal dose ≤8 mg/24 h) or placebo, and maintained for 24 (SP512) or 33 (SP513) weeks. Post hoc analyses were performed on pooled data for patients receiving an MAO-B inhibitor (selegiline) at a stable dose at randomization and throughout the studies, with groups defined as "Selegiline+Rotigotine" and "Selegiline+Placebo". Outcome measures included change from baseline in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II (activities of daily living), III (motor), UPDRS II+III and responders (patients achieving ≥20%, ≥25% or ≥30% decrease in UPDRS II+III). As post hoc analyses, p-values are exploratory. 130 patients were evaluable for efficacy analyses ("Selegiline+Rotigotine": 84, "Selegiline+Placebo": 46). Combined treatment with rotigotine and selegiline improved UPDRS III and UPDRS II+III scores versus selegiline alone (LS-mean [95% CI] treatment difference for UPDRS III: -4.89 [-7.87 to -1.91], p = 0.0015; for UPDRS II+III: -5.76 [-9.71 to -1.82], p = 0.0045). Higher proportion of patients in the "Selegiline+Rotigotine" group were classified as ≥20%, ≥25% or ≥30% responders (all p < 0.001). Combined treatment appeared more effective in patients aged ≤65 years versus > 65 years (although patient numbers in the subgroups were low). Adverse event profile was consistent with the known safety profile of rotigotine. In these post hoc analyses, adjunctive treatment with rotigotine in patients already receiving an MAO-B inhibitor improved UPDRS II+III score; this appeared to be largely driven by

  18. Rotigotine in Combination with the MAO-B Inhibitor Selegiline in Early Parkinson’s Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giladi, Nir; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Bauer, Lars; Grieger, Frank; Boroojerdi, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors and dopamine receptor agonists are common first-line treatment options in early Parkinson’s disease (PD). Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rotigotine transdermal patch as an add-on therapy to an MAO-B inhibitor in patients with early-PD. Methods: In two Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in early-PD (SP512, SP513), patients were randomized to rotigotine (titrated to optimal dose ≤8 mg/24 h) or placebo, and maintained for 24 (SP512) or 33 (SP513) weeks. Post hoc analyses were performed on pooled data for patients receiving an MAO-B inhibitor (selegiline) at a stable dose at randomization and throughout the studies, with groups defined as “Selegiline+Rotigotine” and “Selegiline+Placebo”. Outcome measures included change from baseline in Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II (activities of daily living), III (motor), UPDRS II+III and responders (patients achieving ≥20%, ≥25% or ≥30% decrease in UPDRS II+III). As post hoc analyses, p-values are exploratory. Results: 130 patients were evaluable for efficacy analyses (“Selegiline+Rotigotine”: 84, “Selegiline+Placebo”: 46). Combined treatment with rotigotine and selegiline improved UPDRS III and UPDRS II+III scores versus selegiline alone (LS-mean [95% CI] treatment difference for UPDRS III: –4.89 [–7.87 to –1.91], p = 0.0015; for UPDRS II+III: –5.76 [–9.71 to –1.82], p = 0.0045). Higher proportion of patients in the “Selegiline+Rotigotine” group were classified as ≥20%, ≥25% or ≥30% responders (all p < 0.001). Combined treatment appeared more effective in patients aged ≤65 years versus > 65 years (although patient numbers in the subgroups were low). Adverse event profile was consistent with the known safety profile of rotigotine. Conclusions: In these post hoc analyses, adjunctive treatment with rotigotine in patients already receiving an

  19. Dual functional cholinesterase and MAO inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: synthesis, pharmacological analysis and molecular modeling of homoisoflavonoid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yali; Sun, Yang; Guo, Yueyan; Wang, Zechen; Huang, Ling; Li, Xingshu

    2016-01-01

    Because of the complexity of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the multi-target-directed ligand (MTDL) strategy is expected to provide superior effects for the treatment of AD, instead of the classic one-drug-one-target strategy. In this context, we focused on the design, synthesis and evaluation of homoisoflavonoid derivatives as dual acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO-B) inhibitors. Among all the synthesized compounds, compound 10 provided a desired balance of AChE and hMAO-B inhibition activities, with IC50 value of 3.94 and 3.44 μM, respectively. Further studies revealed that compound 10 was a mixed-type inhibitor of AChE and an irreversible inhibitor of hMAO-B, which was also confirmed by molecular modeling studies. Taken together, the data indicated that 10 was a promising dual functional agent for the treatment of AD.

  20. New isoxazolidinone and 3,4-dehydro-β-proline derivatives as antibacterial agents and MAO-inhibitors: A complex balance between two activities.

    PubMed

    Ferrazzano, Lucia; Viola, Angelo; Lonati, Elena; Bulbarelli, Alessandra; Musumeci, Rosario; Cocuzza, Clementina; Lombardo, Marco; Tolomelli, Alessandra

    2016-11-29

    Among the different classes of antibiotics, oxazolidinone derivatives represent important drugs, since their unique mechanism of action overcomes commonly diffused multidrug-resistant bacteria. Anyway, the structural similarity of these molecules to monoamino oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, like toloxatone and blefoxatone, induces in many cases loss of selectivity as a major concern. A small library of compounds based on isoxazolidinone and dehydro-β-proline scaffold was designed with the aim to obtain antibacterial agents, evaluating at the same time the potential effects of structural features on MAO inhibitory behaviour. The structural modification introduced in the backbone, starting from Linezolid model, lead to a significant loss in antibiotic activity, while a promising inhibitory effect could be observed on monoamino oxidases. These interesting results are also in agreement with docking experiments suggesting a good binding pose of the synthesized compounds into the pocket of the oxidase enzymes, in particular of MAO-B. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of magnesium ions release, biocorrosion, and hemocompatibility of MAO/PLLA-modified magnesium alloy WE42.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Cao, Lu; Liu, Yin; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium alloys may potentially be applied as biodegradable metallic materials in cardiovascular stent. However, the high corrosion rate hinders its clinical application. In this study, a new approach was adopted to control the corrosion rate by fabricating a biocompatible micro-arc oxidation/poly-L-lactic acid (MAO/PLLA) composite coating on the magnesium alloy WE42 substrate and the biocompatibility of the modified samples was investigated. The scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images were used to demonstrate the morphology of the samples before and after being submerged in hanks solution for 4 weeks. The degradation was evaluated through the magnesium ions release rate and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The biocompatibility of the samples was demonstrated by coagulation time and hemolysis behavior. The result shows that the poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) effectively improved the corrosion resistance by sealing the microcracks and microholes on the surface of the MAO coating. The modified samples had good compatibility. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Modeling the dynamic equilibrium between oligomers of (AlOCH3)n in methylaluminoxane (MAO). A theoretical study based on a combined quantum mechanical and statistical mechanical approach.

    PubMed

    Zurek, E; Woo, T K; Firman, T K; Ziegler, T

    2001-01-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to calculate the energies of 36 different methylaluminoxane (MAO) cage structures with the general formula (MeAlO)n, where n ranges from 4 to 16. A least-squares fit has been used to devise a formula which predicts the total energies of the MAO with different n's giving an rms deviation of 4.70 kcal/mol. These energies in conjunction with frequency calculations based on molecular mechanics have been used to estimate the finite temperature enthalpies, entropies, and free energies for these MAO structures. Furthermore, formulas have been devised which predict finite temperature enthalpies and entropies for MAO structures of any n for a temperature range of 198.15-598.15 K. Using these formulas, the free energies at different temperatures have been predicted for MAO structures where n ranges from 17 to 30. The free energy values were then used to predict the percentage of each n found at a given temperature. Our calculations give an average n value of 18.41, 17.23, 16.89, and 15.72 at 198.15, 298.15, 398.15, and 598.15 K, respectively. Topological arguments have also been used to show that the MAO cage structure contains a limited amount of square faces as compared to octagonal and hexagonal ones. It is also suggested that the limited number of square faces with their strained Al-O bonds explain the high molar Al:catalyst ratio required for activation. Moreover, in this study we outline a general methodology which may be used to calculate the percent abundance of an equilibrium mixture of oligomers with the general formula (X)n.

  3. Menière's disease: combined pharmacotherapy with betahistine and the MAO-B inhibitor selegiline-an observational study.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Michael; Kraus, Ludwig; Schautzer, Franz; Rujescu, Dan

    2018-03-12

    Since oral betahistine has a very high first-pass effect (ca. 99%), metabolized by monoamine oxidases (MAO), the benefits of a high-dosage betahistine monotherapy were compared with those of a lower dosage of betahistine in combination with the MAO-B inhibitor (MAO-B) selegiline on the frequency of acute attacks of vertigo in patients with Menière's disease (MD). Thirteen adults aged 40-75 years (mean 58.9 years; six females) had initially been treated with a high dosage of betahistine dihydrochloride for at least 1 year. Under this therapy, all of them had ≤ 1 attack for ≥ 3 months prior to the combination pharmacotherapy. Subsequently, they received 5 mg/day selegiline and the dosage of betahistine was reduced to about one tenth and then individually adjusted to the dosage needed to achieve the same treatment response (≤ 1 per 3 months, observational period of at least 6 months). The initial dosage for the long-term "titration" of the attacks of vertigo was 9-80 24-mg tablets/day (mean 37.3), i.e. 216-1920 mg/day (mean 895.4 mg/day). After the combination with selegiline, the dosage needed to achieve the same benefit for ≥ 3 months was 3-36 24-mg tablets (mean 8.5), i.e., 72-864 mg/day [mean 204.9 mg/day, p < 0.001 (paired t test)]. One patient transiently stopped the treatment with selegiline, another one reduced the dosage to 2.5 mg/day and the attacks re-occurred after 2-4 weeks. Six out of 13 patients reported transient fullness of the head during the combined treatment; in 2 of them this went away when they switched to 2.5 mg bid. In the longer term (> 9 months), one patient had to increase the selegiline dosage to 5 mg bd, one patient stopped the treatment with selegiline. The achievement of the same clinical effect with a significantly lower (about 1/5) dosage of betahistine can be explained by the inhibition of the MAO-B by selegiline leading to higher serum concentrations of betahistine. This approach is in

  4. Neuroprotective effects of multifaceted hybrid agents targeting MAO, cholinesterase, iron and β-amyloid in ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, Orly; Amit, Tamar; Bar-Am, Orit; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accepted nowadays as a complex neurodegenerative disorder with multifaceted cerebral pathologies, including extracellular deposition of amyloid β peptide-containing plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, progressive loss of cholinergic neurons, metal dyshomeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, glutamate excitoxicity, oxidative stress and increased MAO enzyme activity. This may explain why it is currently widely accepted that a more effective therapy for AD would result from the use of multifunctional drugs, which may affect more than one brain target involved in the disease pathology. The current review will discuss the potential benefits of novel multimodal neuroprotective, brain permeable drugs, recently developed by Youdim and collaborators, as a valuable therapeutic approach for AD treatment. The pharmacological and neuroprotective properties of these multitarget-directed ligands, which target MAO enzymes, the cholinergic system, iron accumulation and amyloid β peptide generation/aggregation are described, with a special emphasis on their potential therapeutic value for ageing and AD-associated cognitive functions. This review is conceived as a tribute to the broad neuropharmacology work of Professor Moussa Youdim, Professor Emeritus in the Faculty of Medicine and Director of Eve Topf Center of Excellence in Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, and Chief Scientific Officer of ABITAL Pharma Pipeline Ltd., at the occasion of his 75th birthday. This article is part of a themed section on Updating Neuropathology and Neuropharmacology of Monoaminergic Systems. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v173.13/issuetoc. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Photographic Observations of Major Planets and Their Moons During 1961-1990 at the MAO NAS of Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizhakevych, O. M.; Andruk, V. M.; Pakuliak, L. K.

    We present the results of photographic observations' processing of Saturn's moons, Uranus, Neptune and their moons on the basis of MAO NAS of Ukraine photographic observational archive. The analysis of the results is given. Observations were obtained using 4 telescopes: Double Long-Focus Astrograph (DLFA, D/F = 400/5500), Zeiss Double Astrograph (DAZ, D/F= 400/3000), Reflector Zeiss-600 (D/F= 600/7500), Wideangle Astrograph, (DWA, D/F= 400/2000). Observations were carried out during 1961 - 1990 (http://gua.db.ukrvo. org). Digitizing of plates has been done by EPSON EXPRESSION 10000XL (EE) flatbed scanner in 16-bit gray color range with resolution 1200dpi.(Andruk et al.: 2005, 2012; Golovnja et al.: 2010;. Protsyuk et al. 2014a, 2014b). The reduction of plates was made using the software developed in MAO NASU in the enhanced LINUX-MIDAS software kit. (Andruk V. et al.: 2016a, 2016b). Tycho2 was used as a reference system. The internal accuracy of the reduction for the first three instruments is ±0.08 - ±0.13 arcsec for both coordinates. For the wide angle astrograph DWA, RMS errors appeared 2 - 2.5 times higher. The total amount of processed plates with images of Saturn's moons is 209 (511 frames), 33 plates contain the images of Uranus and U1,U2,U3,U4 moons, 29 plates have images of Neptune and N1 moon (Yizhakevych et al., 2015, 2016, 2017; Protsyuk et al., 2015). The online comparison of calculated positions of objects with IMCCE ephemeris data was made (http://lnfm1.sai.msu.ru/neb/nss/nssephmf.htm).

  6. Subnanomolar indazole-5-carboxamide inhibitors of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) continued: indications of iron binding, experimental evidence for optimised solubility and brain penetration.

    PubMed

    Tzvetkov, Nikolay T; Antonov, Liudmil

    2017-12-01

    Pharmacological and physicochemical studies of N-unsubstituted indazole-5-carboxamides (subclass I) and their structurally optimised N1-methylated analogues (subclass II), initially developed as drug and radioligand candidates for the treatment and diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD), are presented. The compounds are highly brain permeable, selective, reversible, and competitive monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors with improved water-solubility and subnanomolar potency (pIC 50  >8.8). Using a well-validated, combined X-ray/modelling technology platform, we performed a semi-quantitative analysis of the binding modes of all compounds and investigated the role of the indazole N1 position for their MAO-B inhibitory activity. Moreover, compounds NTZ-1006, 1032, and 1441 were investigated for their ability to bind Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ions using UV-visible spectroscopy.

  7. Tautomerism of N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-indazole-5-carboxamide - A new selective, highly potent and reversible MAO-B inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzvetkov, Nikolay T.; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Antonov, Liudmil

    2017-12-01

    The tautomeric properties of an N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-indazole-5-carboxamide (NTZ-1006, 2) derivative, developed as highly potent, reversible and selective MAO-B inhibitor useful for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurological disorders, have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. The theoretical data (M06-2X, B3LYP and MP2-4 quantum chemical calculations) have shown that due to aromaticity reasons the 1H tautomer strongly dominates over the 2H form. There are no substantial spectral changes by changing the solvent and the concentration, which leads to a conclusion that compound 2 exists in solution as 1H tautomer and its tautomerism is not influenced by the solvents and the concentration. The results are in line with the understanding for the tautomerism of 1H-indazole and shows that substitution at the C5 position in the indazole unit does not influence the tautomeric state. The isolated crystal structure of 2 is in an excellent agreement with the computation in respect of the most stable tautomer. Combined single X-ray/molecular modeling studies including HYdrogen-DEsolvation (HYDE) analysis provided not only insights into the enzyme-inhibitor interaction within the binding site of the human MAO-B isoform, but also a valuable information regarding the most stable 1H-indazole tautomeric form of NTZ-1006 that contributes to its high potency against hMAO-B enzyme (IC50 0.586 nm) and selectivity (>17000-fold) over the hMAO-A isoenzyme.

  8. Partial reversal of the effort-related motivational effects of tetrabenazine with the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl (selegiline): Implications for treating motivational dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Mora, Hector; Rowland, Margaret A; Yohn, Samantha E; Correa, Merce; Salamone, John D

    2018-03-01

    People with depression and Parkinsonism frequently show effort-related motivational symptoms, such as anergia, psychomotor retardation, and fatigue. Tasks that assess effort-related choice are being used as animal models of these motivational symptoms. The present studies characterized the ability of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors with varying selectivity profiles to reverse the low effort bias induced by the monoamine storage inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine produces depressive symptoms in humans, and because of its selective inhibition of VMAT-2, it preferentially depletes DA at low doses. Effort-based decision making is studied with tasks offering choices between high effort options leading to highly valued reinforcers vs. low effort/low reward options. Tetrabenazine shifted choice behavior, reducing selection of fixed ratio 5 lever pressing, but increasing intake of the concurrently available but less preferred lab chow. These effects of 0.75mg/kg tetrabenazine were attenuated by co-administration of the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl (selegiline). The ability of deprenyl to reverse the effects of tetrabenazine was marked by an inverted-U shaped dose response curve, with the middle dose (2.5mg/kg) being effective. In contrast, neither the MAO-A selective antagonist moclobemide nor the nonselective drug pargyline reversed the effects of tetrabenazine, and moclobemide decreased lever pressing when administered alone. Deprenyl was originally developed as an antiparkinsonian drug, but it also has been shown to have antidepressant effects in humans and induce antidepressant-like effects in classical rodent models of depression. These studies have implications for the potential use of MAO-B inhibitors as treatments for the motivational symptoms of depression and Parkinsonism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Multipotent MAO and cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: synthesis, pharmacological analysis and molecular modeling of heterocyclic substituted alkyl and cycloalkyl propargyl amine.

    PubMed

    Samadi, Abdelouahid; de los Ríos, Cristóbal; Bolea, Irene; Chioua, Mourad; Iriepa, Isabel; Moraleda, Ignacio; Bartolini, Manuela; Andrisano, Vincenza; Gálvez, Enrique; Valderas, Carolina; Unzeta, Mercedes; Marco-Contelles, José

    2012-06-01

    The synthesis, pharmacological evaluation and molecular modeling of heterocyclic substituted alkyl and cycloalkyl propargyl amines 1-7 of type I, and 9-12 of type II, designed as multipotent inhibitors able to simultaneously inhibit monoamine oxidases (MAO-A/B) as well as cholinesterase (AChE/BuChE) enzymes, as potential drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, are described. Indole derivatives 1-7 of type I are well known MAO inhibitors whose capacity to inhibit AChE and BuChE was here investigated for the first time. As a result, compound 7 was identified as a MAO-B inhibitor (IC(50) = 31 ± 2 nM) and a moderately selective eqBuChE inhibitor (IC(50) = 4.7 ± 0.2 μM). Conversely, the new and readily available 5-amino-7-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-b][1,6]naphthyridine derivatives 9-13 of type II are poor MAO inhibitors, but showed AChE selective inhibition, compound 12 being the most attractive as it acts as a non-competitive inhibitor on EeAChE (IC(50) = 25 ± 3 nM, K(i) = 65 nM). The ability of this compound to interact with the AChE peripheral binding site was confirmed by kinetic studies and by molecular modeling investigation. Studies on human ChEs confirmed that 12 is a selective AChE inhibitor with inhibitory potency in the submicromolar range. Moreover, in agreement with its mode of action, 12 was shown to be able to inhibit Aβ aggregation induced by hAChE by 30.6%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis, biological assessment and molecular modeling of new multipotent MAO and cholinesterase inhibitors as potential drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Samadi, Abdelouahid; Chioua, Mourad; Bolea, Irene; de Los Ríos, Cristóbal; Iriepa, Isabel; Moraleda, Ignacio; Bastida, Agatha; Esteban, Gerard; Unzeta, Mercedes; Gálvez, Enrique; Marco-Contelles, José

    2011-09-01

    The synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling of new multipotent inhibitors of type I and type II, able to simultaneously inhibit monoamine oxidases (MAO) as well as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), is described. Compounds of type I were prepared by sequential reaction of 2,6-dichloro-4-phenylpyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile (14) [or 2,6-dichloropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile (15)] with prop-2-yn-1-amine (or N-methylprop-2-yn-1-amine) and 2-(1-benzyl-piperidin-4-yl)alkylamines 22-25. Compounds of type II were prepared by Friedländer type reaction of 6-amino-5-formyl-2-(methyl(prop-2-yn-1-yl)amino)nicotinonitriles 32 and 33 with 4-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)butan-2-one (31). The biological evaluation of molecules 1-11 showed that most of these compounds are potent, in the nanomolar range, and selective AChEI, with moderate and equipotent selectivity for MAO-A and MAO-B inhibition. Kinetic studies of compound 8 proved that this is a EeAChE mixed type inhibitor (IC(50) = 16 ± 2; Ki = 12 ± 3 nM). Molecular modeling investigation on compound 8 confirmed its dual AChE inhibitory profile, binding simultaneously at the catalytic active site (CAS) and at the peripheric anionic site (PAS). In overall, compound 11, as a potent and selective dual AChEI, showing a moderate and selective MAO-A inhibitory profile, can be considered as an attractive multipotent drug for further development on two key pharmacological targets playing key roles in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Symptom relief in Parkinson disease by safinamide: Biochemical and clinical evidence of efficacy beyond MAO-B inhibition.

    PubMed

    Stocchi, F; Vacca, L; Grassini, P; De Pandis, M F; Battaglia, G; Cattaneo, C; Fariello, R G

    2006-10-10

    In an open pilot study, doses of safinamide (100, 150, and 200 mg once a day, higher than previously tested) were administered to 13 parkinsonian patients along with a stable dose of dopamine (DA) agonist, causing a significant progressive improvement in motor performance as evaluated by the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part III over an 8-week period (4.2 points; P < 0.001). In association with levodopa, the same doses of safinamide in another group of patients (N = 11) induced a significant decrease in motor fluctuations (UPDRS part IV, 2.1 points; P < 0.001), accompanied by a dose-proportional increase of the levodopa AUC, up to 77% from baseline. Because MAO-B was fully inhibited (95%) at all doses tested, we suggest that these biochemical and symptomatic dose-dependent effects must be related to additional mechanisms of action, such as inhibition of glutamate release, increased dopamine release, or inhibition of dopamine re-uptake. These hypotheses are under investigation and will pursue confirmation in controlled clinical trials.

  12. Characteristics of MAO coating obtained on ZK60 Mg alloy under two and three steps voltage-increasing modes in dual electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Ze-Xin; Lu, Sheng; Lv, Wei-gang; Jiang, Xi-zhi; Sun, Lei

    2017-03-01

    The micro-arc oxidation process was conducted on ZK60 Mg alloy under two and three steps voltage-increasing modes by DC pulse electrical source. The effect of each mode on current-time responses during MAO process and the coating characteristic were analysed and discussed systematically. The microstructure, thickness and corrosion resistance of MAO coatings were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), microscope with super-depth of field and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results indicate that two and three steps voltage-increasing modes can improve weak spark discharges with insufficient breakdown strength in later period during the MAO process. Due to higher value of voltage and voltage increment, the coating with maximum thickness of about 20.20μm formed under two steps voltage-increasing mode shows the best corrosion resistance. In addition, the coating fabricated under three steps voltage-increasing mode shows a smoother coating with better corrosion resistance due to the lower amplitude of voltage-increasing.

  13. Effects of MAO inhibition and a combination of minor alkaloids, β-carbolines, and acetaldehyde on nicotine self-administration in adult male rats*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tracy T.; Schaff, Matthew B.; Rupprecht, Laura E.; Schassburger, Rachel L.; Buffalari, Deanne M.; Murphy, Sharon E.; Sved, Alan F.; Donny, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although nicotine is the primary reinforcing constituent in cigarettes, there is evidence that other constituents in cigarette smoke may interact with nicotine to reinforce smoking behavior. Methods The present experiments investigated whether a novel combination of these cigarette smoke constituents would increase nicotine self-administration in adult male rats. The constituents included five minor alkaloids (anabasine, nornicotine, cotinine, myosmine, and anatabine), two β-carbolines (harman and norharman), and acetaldehyde. All doses were indexed to be proportional to concentrations in cigarette smoke given a standard dose of nicotine used in rodent self-administration, or ten times higher than this standard. To model MAO inhibition seen in chronic smokers, some groups received separate injections of tranylcypromine prior to each self-administration session. Results Tranylcypromine increased low-dose nicotine self-administration independent of other smoke constituents, which had no effect on self-administration behavior. The effect of tranylcypromine was confirmed across a large range of reinforcement schedules. The effect of tranylcypromine on low-dose nicotine self-administration was observed regardless of whether the injection was delivered 1-hr or 23-hrs prior to the self-administration session, consistent with the interpretation that MAO inhibition was responsible for the increase in self-administration, instead of acute off-target effects. Conclusions These data suggest that this cocktail of constituents does not significantly alter the primary reinforcing effects of nicotine, but constituents that inhibit MAO may increase the primary reinforcing effects of nicotine, especially at low doses. PMID:26257022

  14. In vivo assessments of bioabsorbable AZ91 magnesium implants coated with nanostructured fluoridated hydroxyapatite by MAO/EPD technique for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-03-01

    Although magnesium (Mg) is a unique biodegradable metal which possesses mechanical property similar to that of the natural bone and can be an attractive material to be used as orthopedic implants, its quick corrosion rate restricts its actual clinical applications. To control its rapid degradation, we have modified the surface of magnesium implant using fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA: Ca10(PO4)6OH2-xFx) through the combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) techniques, which was presented in our previous paper. In this article, the biocompatibility examinations were conducted on the coated AZ91 magnesium alloy by implanting it into the greater trochanter area of rabbits. The results of the in vivo animal test revealed a significant enhancement in the biocompatibility of FHA/MAO coated implant compared to the uncoated one. By applying the FHA/MAO coating on the AZ91 implant, the amount of weight loss and magnesium ion release in blood plasma decreased. According to the histological results, the formation of the new bone increased and the inflammation decreased around the implant. In addition, the implantation of the uncoated AZ91 alloy accompanied by the release of hydrogen gas around the implant; this release was suppressed by applying the coated implant. Our study exemplifies that the surface coating of magnesium implant using a bioactive ceramic such as fluoridated hydroxyapatite may improve the biocompatibility of the implant to make it suitable as a commercialized biomedical product. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA.

  16. Banisteriopsis caapi, a unique combination of MAO inhibitory and antioxidative constituents for the activities relevant to neurodegenerative disorders and Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Rahman, Md. Mostafizur; Tekwani, Babu L.; Tripathi, Lalit M.; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Shabana I.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Miller, Loren S.; Joshi, Vaishali C.; Muhammad, Ilias

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the study Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder mostly effecting the elder population of the world. Currently there is no definitive treatment or cure for this disease. Therefore, in this study the composition and constituents of the aqueous extract of B. caapi for monoamine oxidases (MAO) inhibitory and antioxidant activities were assessed, which are relevant to the prevention of neurological disorders, including Parkinsonism. Materials and methods The aqueous extract of B. caapi stems was standardized and then fractionated using reversed-phase (RP) chromatography. Pure compounds were isolated either by reversed-phase (RP) chromatography or centrifugal preparative TLC, using a Chromatotron®. Structure elucidation was carried out by 1D and 2D NMR, Mass, IR and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy and chemical derivatization. Chemical profiling of the extract was carried out with RP-HPLC. The inhibitory activity of MAO-A, MAO-B, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and catechol-O-methyl transferase enzymes, as well as antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of both B. caapi extract and isolated compounds were evaluated. Results An examination of the aqueous extracts of B. caapi cultivar Da Vine yielded two new alkaloidal glycosides, named banistenoside A (1) and banistenoside B (2), containing “azepino[1,2-a]tetrahydro-β-carboline” unique carbon framework. One additional new natural tetrahydronorharmine (4), four known β-carbolines harmol (3), tetrahydroharmine (5), harmaline (6) and harmine (7), two known proanthocyanidines (−)-epicatechin (8) and (−)-procyanidin B2 (9), and a new disaccharide β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→5)-fructopyranose (14) together with known sacharose (15) and β-D-glucose (16) were also isolated. In addition, the acetates of 1, 2, 8, 9, 14 and 15 (compounds 10–13, 17, 18) were also prepared. Harmaline (6) and harmine (7) showed potent in vitro inhibitory activity against recombinant human brain monoamine oxidase

  17. Banisteriopsis caapi, a unique combination of MAO inhibitory and antioxidative constituents for the activities relevant to neurodegenerative disorders and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Tekwani, Babu L; Tripathi, Lalit M; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A; Miller, Loren S; Joshi, Vaishali C; Muhammad, Ilias

    2010-02-03

    Parkinson's disease is a neurological disorder mostly effecting the elder population of the world. Currently there is no definitive treatment or cure for this disease. Therefore, in this study the composition and constituents of the aqueous extract of Banisteriopsis caapi for monoamine oxidases (MAO) inhibitory and antioxidant activities were assessed, which are relevant to the prevention of neurological disorders, including Parkinsonism. The aqueous extract of Banisteriopsis caapi stems was standardized and then fractionated using reversed-phase (RP) chromatography. Pure compounds were isolated either by reversed-phase (RP) chromatography or centrifugal preparative TLC, using a Chromatotron. Structure elucidation was carried out by 1D and 2D NMR, Mass, IR and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy and chemical derivatization. Chemical profiling of the extract was carried out with RP-HPLC. The inhibitory activity of MAO-A, MAO-B, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and catechol-O-methyl transferase enzymes, as well as antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of both Banisteriopsis caapi extract and isolated compounds was evaluated. An examination of the aqueous extracts of Banisteriopsis caapi cultivar Da Vine yielded two new alkaloidal glycosides, named banistenoside A (1) and banistenoside B (2), containing "azepino[1,2-a]tetrahydro-beta-carboline" unique carbon framework. One additional new natural tetrahydronorharmine (4), four known beta-carbolines harmol (3), tetrahydroharmine (5), harmaline (6) and harmine (7), two known proanthocyanidines (-)-epicatechin (8) and (-)-procyanidin B2 (9), and a new disaccharide beta-d-fructofuranosyl-(2-->5)-fructopyranose (14) together with known sacharose (15) and beta-d-glucose (16) were also isolated. In addition, the acetates of 1, 2, 8, 9, 14 and 15 (compounds 10-13, 17, 18) were also prepared. Harmaline (6) and harmine (7) showed potent in vitro inhibitory activity against recombinant human brain monoamine oxidase (MAO

  18. PF 9601N [N-(2-propynyl)-2-(5-benzyloxy-indolyl) methylamine], a new MAO-B inhibitor, attenuates MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine levels in C57/BL6 mice.

    PubMed

    Perez, Virgili; Unzeta, Mercedes

    2003-02-01

    Monoamine oxidase isoform B (MAO-B) is involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxin (MPTP) in human and non-human-primate. MAO-B inhibitors, such as L-deprenyl have shown to prevent against MPTP-toxicity in different species, and it has been used in Parkinson therapy, however, the fact that it is metabolized to (-)-methamphetamine and (-)-amphetamine highlights the need to find out new MAO-B inhibitors without a structural amphetaminic moiety. In this context we herein report, for the first time, anywhere a novel non-amphetamine-like MAO-B inhibitor, PF 9601N, N-(2-propynyl)-2-(5-benzyloxy-indolyl) methylamine. This attenuates the MPTP-induced striatal dopamine depletion in young-adult and adult-old C57/BL mice, using different schedules of administration, and which behave "ex vivo" as a slightly more potent and selective MAO-B inhibitor than L-deprenyl, assayed for comparative purposes in the same experimental conditions. The MAO-B ID(50) values were calculated from the total MAO-B activity measured against [14C] phenylethylamine (22 microM) as substrate, at each inhibitor concentration. The MAO-B ID(50) values resulted to be 381 and 577 nmol/kg for PF 9601N and L-deprenyl, respectively. The intraperitoneally (i.p.) co-administration to young-adult C57/BL6 mice of MPTP (30 mg/kg), with different concentrations of PF 9601N or L-deprenyl (29.5-0.357 micromol/kg) showed a dose-dependent protective effect against striatal dopamine depletion, measuring the dopamine contents and its metabolites by HPLC. The ED(50) value proved to be 3.07 micromol/kg without any significant differences between either MAO-B inhibitor. Nevertheless, lower doses of PF 9601N (1.5 micromol/kg) were necessary to get almost total protection, without any change in the DOPAC and HVA content, when administered 2 h before MPTP (30 mg/kg), whereas partial protection (45%) against dopamine depletion was observed in the case of L-deprenyl. In

  19. Biological nutrient removal and molecular biological characteristics in an anaerobic-multistage anaerobic/oxic (A-MAO) process to treat municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Dong, Wenyi; Wang, Hongjie; Jiang, Shilong

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to present an anaerobic-multistage anaerobic/oxic (A-MAO) process to treat municipal wastewater. The average COD, NH 4 + -N, TN, and TP removal efficiency were 91.81%, 96.26%, 83.73% and 94.49%, respectively. Temperature plunge and C/N decrease have a certain impact on the modified process. Characteristics of microbial community, function microorganism, and correlation of microbial community with environmental variables in five compartments were carried out by Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. The differences of microbial community were observed and Blastocatella, Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas were the dominant genus. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira occupied a dominant position in AOB and NOB, respectively. Rhodospirillaceae and Rhodocyclaceae owned a considerable proportion in phosphorus removal bacteria. DO and COD played significant roles on affecting the microbial components. The A-MAO process in this study demonstrated a high potential for nutrient removal from municipal wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bifunctional drug derivatives of MAO-B inhibitor rasagiline and iron chelator VK-28 as a more effective approach to treatment of brain ageing and ageing neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Youdim, Moussa B H; Fridkin, Mati; Zheng, Hailin

    2005-02-01

    Degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons and cholinergic cortical neurones are the main pathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD) and for the cognitive deficit in dementia of the Alzheimer' type (AD) and in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), respectively. Many PD and DLB subjects have dementia and depression resulting from possible degeneration of cholinergic and noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons. On the other hand, AD patients may also develop extrapyramidal features as well as depression. In both PD and AD there is, respectively, accumulation of iron within the melanin containing dopamine neurons of pars compacta and with in the plaques and tangle. It has been suggested that iron accumulation may contribute to the oxidative stress induced apoptosis reported in both diseases. This may result from increased glia hydrogen peroxide producing monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity that can generate of reactive hydroxyl radical formed from interaction of iron and hydrogen peroxide. We have therefore prepared a series of novel bifunctional drugs from the neuroprotective-antiapoptotic antiparkinson monoamine oxidase B inhibitor, rasagiline, by introducing a carbamate cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitory moiety into it. Ladostigil (TV-3326, N-propargyl-3R-aminoindan-5yl)-ethyl methylcarbamate), has both ChE and MAO-AB inhibitory activity, as potential treatment of AD and DLB or PD subjects with dementia Being a brain selective MAO-AB inhibitor it has limited potentiation of the pressor response to oral tyramine and exhibits antidepressant activity similar to classical non-selective MAO inhibitor antidepressants by increasing brain serotonin and noradrenaline. Ladostigil inhibits brain acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase in rats and antagonizes scopolamine-induced inhibition of spatial learning. Ladostigil like MAO-B inhibitor it prevents MPTP Parkinsonism in mice model and retains the in vitro and in vivo neuroprotective activity of rasagiline. Ladostigil, rasagiline

  1. Catalytic activity during copolymerization of ethylene and 1-hexene via mixed TiO2/SiO2-supported MAO with rac-Et[Ind]2ZrCl2 metallocene catalyst.

    PubMed

    Jongsomjit, Bunjerd; Ngamposri, Sutti; Praserthdam, Piyasan

    2005-07-14

    Activities during ethylene/1-hexene copolymerization were found to increase using the mixed titania/silica-supported MAO with rac-Et[Ind]2ZrCl2 metallocene catalyst. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectorcopy (EDX) indicated that the titania was apparently located on the outer surface of silica and acted as a spacer to anchor MAO to the silica surface. IR spectra revealed the Si-O-Ti stretching at 980 cm(-1) with low content of titania. The presence of anchored titania resulted in less steric hindrance and less interaction due to supporting effect.

  2. Phytochemical and ethnomedicinal study of Huperzia species used in the traditional medicine of Saraguros in Southern Ecuador; AChE and MAO inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Armijos, Chabaco; Gilardoni, Gianluca; Amay, Luis; Lozano, Antonio; Bracco, Francesco; Ramirez, Jorge; Bec, Nicole; Larroque, Christian; Finzi, Paola Vita; Vidari, Giovanni

    2016-12-04

    This study concerns seven Huperzia species (Lycopodiaceae), namely H. brevifolia, H. columnaris, H. compacta, H. crassa, H. espinosana, H. tetragona, H. weberbaueri, which are considered sacred plants by the Saraguro community, living in the Southern Andes of Ecuador; these plants are widely used in traditional medicine and ritual ceremonies. The plants were selected on the basis of written interviews with 10 visionary healers (yachak) (2 women, 8 men), indicated as the most credible by the Saraguro Healers Council. The Informant Consensus Factor (F ic ) was determined. The first phytochemical study of the plants was performed by standard procedures, while the AChE and MAO-A inhibition by fractions enriched in high MW alkaloids, was measured in vitro. i) to investigate the uses of some Huperzia plants in healing and magical-religious practices of Saraguros; ii) to identify the main components of plant hydromethanolic extracts; iiì) to test the effects of alkaloidal fractions on the activity of two enzymes linked to mental health. All the interviewed Saraguro yachak showed a high consensus about the uses of the seven Huperzia plants as purgatives and against supernatural diseases, such as the "espanto" (startle). In admixtures with other plants, some species also induce a state of trance or hallucinations in participants in magical-religious rituals. GC-MS of the volatile alkaloid fractions allowed the identification of some lycodine-type and lycopodine-type alkaloids (1-5) in H. compacta, H. columnaris, and H. tetragona. The flavones selgin) (6) and tricin (7) were isolated from H. brevifolia and H. espinosana. Tricin (7) was also detected in the other five species. The rare serratene triterpenes serratenediol (8) serratenediol-3-O-acetate (9), 21-episerratenediol (10), and 21-episerratenediol-3-O-acetate (11) were isolated from H. crassa. In addition, the presence of an unprecedented group of high molecular weight alkaloids has been determined. Alkaloid fractions

  3. Effects of Condensed Tannins in Mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg.) Seed Meal on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Nitrogen Utilization in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Gunun, P.; Wanapat, M.; Gunun, N.; Cherdthong, A.; Sirilaophaisan, S.; Kaewwongsa, W.

    2016-01-01

    Mao seed is a by-product of the wine and juice industry, which could be used in animal nutrition. The current study was designed to determine the effect of supplementation of mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg.) seed meal (MOSM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on rumen fermentation, nitrogen (N) utilization and microbial protein synthesis in goats. Four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) goats with initial body weight (BW) 20±2 kg were randomly assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were MOSM supplementation at 0%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 2.4% of total dry matter (DM) intake, respectively. During the experimental periods, all goats were fed a diet containing roughage to concentrate ratio of 60:40 at 3.0% BW/d and pangola grass hay was used as a roughage source. Results showed that supplementation with MOSM did not affect feed intake, nutrient intakes and apparent nutrient digestibility (p>0.05). In addition, ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) were not influenced by MOSM supplementation, whilst blood urea nitrogen was decreased quadraticly (p<0.05) in goats supplemented with MOSM at 2.4% of total DM intake. Propionate was increased linearly with MOSM supplementation, whereas acetate and butyrate were remained the same. Moreover, estimated ruminal methane (CH4) was decreased linearly (p<0.05) when goats were fed with MOSM at 1.6% and 2.4% of total DM intake. Numbers of bacteria and protozoa were similar among treatments (p>0.05). There were linear decreases in urinary N (p<0.01) and total N excretion (p<0.01) by MOSM supplementation. Furthermore, N retention was increased linearly (p<0.05) when goats were fed with MOSM supplementation at 1.6% and 2.4% of total DM intake. Microbial protein synthesis were not significantly different among treatments (p>0.05). From the current study, it can be concluded that supplementation of MOSM at 1.6% to 2.4% of total DM intake can be used to modify ruminal fermentation, especially propionate

  4. Structure and Infrared Emissivity Properties of the MAO Coatings Formed on TC4 Alloys in K2ZrF6-Based Solution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Hu, Dan; Xi, Zhengping

    2018-01-01

    Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) ceramic coatings were formed on TC4 alloy surface in silicate and metaphosphate electrolytes based with K2ZrF6 for various concentrations. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the phase composition, microstructure and chemical compositions of the coatings. The infrared emissivity of the coatings was measured at 50 °C in a wavelength range of 8–20 µm. The microstructural observations all revealed the typical porousstructures. Moreover, adecline in roughness and thickness of the prepared coatings can be observed when the concentration of K2ZrF6 increases. Combined with the results of XRD and XPS, it was found that all the oxides existed as the amorphous form in the coatings except the TiO2 phase. The coatings exhibited the highest infrared emissivity value (about 0.89) when the concentration of K2ZrF6 was 6 g/L, which was possibly attributed to the defect microstructure and the optimal role of ZrO2. PMID:29414841

  5. Mutations in monoamine oxidase (MAO) genes in mice lead to hypersensitivity to serotonin-enhancing drugs: implications for drug side effects in humans.

    PubMed

    Fox, M A; Panessiti, M G; Moya, P R; Tolliver, T J; Chen, K; Shih, J C; Murphy, D L

    2013-12-01

    A possible side effect of serotonin-enhancing drugs is the serotonin syndrome, which can be lethal. Here we examined possible hypersensitivity to two such drugs, the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) and the atypical opioid tramadol, in mice lacking the genes for both monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and MAOB. MAOA/B-knockout (KO) mice displayed baseline serotonin syndrome behaviors, and these behavioral responses were highly exaggerated following 5-HTP or tramadol versus baseline and wild-type (WT) littermates. Compared with MAOA/B-WT mice, baseline tissue serotonin levels were increased ∼2.6-3.9-fold in MAOA/B-KO mice. Following 5-HTP, serotonin levels were further increased ∼4.5-6.2-fold in MAOA/B-KO mice. These exaggerated responses are in line with the exaggerated responses following serotonin-enhancing drugs that we previously observed in mice lacking the serotonin transporter (SERT). These findings provide a second genetic mouse model suggestive of possible human vulnerability to the serotonin syndrome in individuals with lesser-expressing MAO or SERT polymorphisms that confer serotonergic system changes.

  6. Mutations in monoamine oxidase (MAO) genes in mice lead to hypersensitivity to serotonin-enhancing drugs: implications for drug side effects in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fox, MA; Panessiti, MG; Moya, PR; Tolliver, TJ; Chen, K; Shih, JC; Murphy, DL

    2012-01-01

    A possible side effect of serotonin-enhancing drugs is the serotonin syndrome, which can be lethal. Here we examined possible hypersensitivity to two such drugs, the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) and the atypical opioid tramadol, in mice lacking the genes for both monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and MAOB. MAOA/B-knockout (KO) mice displayed baseline serotonin syndrome behaviors, and these behavioral responses were highly exaggerated following 5-HTP or tramadol versus baseline and wild-type (WT) littermates. Compared with MAOA/B-WT mice, baseline tissue serotonin levels were increased ~2.6–3.9-fold in MAOA/B-KO mice. Following 5-HTP, serotonin levels were further increased ~4.5–6.2-fold in MAOA/B-KO mice. These exaggerated responses are in line with the exaggerated responses following serotonin-enhancing drugs that we previously observed in mice lacking the serotonin transporter (SERT). These findings provide a second genetic mouse model suggestive of possible human vulnerability to the serotonin syndrome in individuals with lesser-expressing MAO or SERT polymorphisms that confer serotonergic system changes. PMID:22964922

  7. Endogenous Bioactive Jasmonate Is Composed of a Set of (+)-7-iso-JA-Amino Acid Conjugates1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suhua; Li, Yuwen; Chen, Juan; Yang, Mai; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Nan, Fajun; Xie, Daoxin

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) regulate a wide range of plant defense and development processes. The bioactive JA is perceived by its receptor COI1 to trigger the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and subsequently derepress the JAZ-repressed transcription factors for activation of expression of JA-responsive genes. So far, (+)-7-iso-JA-l-Ile has been the only identified endogenous bioactive JA molecule. Here, we designed coronafacic acid (CFA) conjugates with all the amino acids (CFA-AA) to mimic the JA amino acid conjugates, and revealed that (+)-7-iso-JA-Leu, (+)-7-iso-JA-Val, (+)-7-iso-JA-Met, and (+)-7-iso-JA-Ala are new endogenous bioactive JA molecules. Furthermore, our studies uncover the general characteristics for all the bioactive JA molecules, and provide a new strategy to synthetically generate novel active JA molecules. PMID:27756820

  8. Rats bred for helplessness exhibit positive reinforcement learning deficits which are not alleviated by an antidepressant dose of the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Daniela; Henn, Fritz A; Petri, David; Huston, Joseph P

    2016-08-04

    Principles of negative reinforcement learning may play a critical role in the etiology and treatment of depression. We examined the integrity of positive reinforcement learning in congenitally helpless (cH) rats, an animal model of depression, using a random ratio schedule and a devaluation-extinction procedure. Furthermore, we tested whether an antidepressant dose of the monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor deprenyl would reverse any deficits in positive reinforcement learning. We found that cH rats (n=9) were impaired in the acquisition of even simple operant contingencies, such as a fixed interval (FI) 20 schedule. cH rats exhibited no apparent deficits in appetite or reward sensitivity. They reacted to the devaluation of food in a manner consistent with a dose-response relationship. Reinforcer motivation as assessed by lever pressing across sessions with progressively decreasing reward probabilities was highest in congenitally non-helpless (cNH, n=10) rats as long as the reward probabilities remained relatively high. cNH compared to wild-type (n=10) rats were also more resistant to extinction across sessions. Compared to saline (n=5), deprenyl (n=5) reduced the duration of immobility of cH rats in the forced swimming test, indicative of antidepressant effects, but did not restore any deficits in the acquisition of a FI 20 schedule. We conclude that positive reinforcement learning was impaired in rats bred for helplessness, possibly due to motivational impairments but not deficits in reward sensitivity, and that deprenyl exerted antidepressant effects but did not reverse the deficits in positive reinforcement learning. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy and safety of Lian-Ju-Gan-Mao capsules for treating the common cold with wind-heat syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengjun; Jiang, Hongli; Yu, Qin; She, Bin; Mao, Bing

    2017-01-05

    The common cold is a common and frequent respiratory disease mainly caused by viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. Chinese herbal medicine has been increasingly prescribed to treat the common cold; however, there is a lack of evidence to support the wide utility of this regimen. This protocol describes an ongoing phase II randomized controlled clinical trial, based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with the objective of evaluating the efficacy and safety of Lian-Ju-Gan-Mao capsules (LJGMC), a Chinese patent medicine, compared with placebo in patients suffering from the common cold with wind-heat syndrome (CCWHS). This is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial. A total of 240 patients will be recruited and randomly assigned to a high-dose group, medium-dose group, low-dose group, and placebo-matched group in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. The treatment course is 3 consecutive days, with a 5-day follow-up. The primary outcome is time to all symptoms' clearance. Secondary outcomes include time to the disappearance of primary symptoms and each secondary symptom, time to fever relief, time to fever clearance, and change in TCM symptom and sign scores. This trial is a well-designed study according to principles and regulations issued by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA). The results will provide high-quality evidence on the efficacy and safety of LJGMC in treating CCWHS and help to optimize the dose for the next phase III clinical trial. Moreover, the protocol presents a detailed and practical methodology for future clinical trials of drugs developed based on TCM. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-IPR-15006504 . Registered on 4 June 2015.

  10. Applying dam height-storage curve to geomorphic features analysis within virtual geographic environment: a case study of the Hong-Shi-Mao watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Daojun; Gong, Jianhua; Ma, Ainai; Li, Wenhang; Wang, Xijun

    2005-10-01

    There are generally two kinds of approaches to studying geomorphic features in terms of the quantification level and difference of major considerations. One is the earlier qualitative characterization, and the other is the 2-dimension measurement that includes section pattern and projection pattern. With the development of geo-information technology, especially the 3-D geo-visualization and virtual geographic environments (VGE), 3-dimension measurement and dynamic interactive between users and geo-data/geo-graphics can be developed to understand geomorphic features deeply, and to benefit to the effective applications of such features for geographic projects like dam construction. Storage-elevation curve is very useful for site selection of projects and flood dispatching in water conservancy region, but it is just a tool querying one value from the other one. In fact, storage-elevation curve can represent comprehensively the geomorphic features including vertical section, cross section of the stream and the landform nearby. In this paper, we use quadratic regression equation shaped like y = ax2 + bx + c and the DEM data of Hong-Shi-Mao watershed, Zi Chang County, ShaanXi Province, China to find out the relationship between the coefficients of the equation and the geomorphic features based on VGE platform. It's exciting that the coefficient "a" appear to be correlative strongly with the stream scale, and the coefficient "b" may give an index to the valley shape. In the end, we use a sub-basin named Hao-Jia-Gou of the watershed as an application. The result of correlative research about quadratic regression equation and geomorphic features can save computing and improve the efficiency in silt dam systems planning.

  11. Evaluating the Effect of Rainfall Infiltration on the Slope Stability of T16 tower of Taipei Mao-kong Gondola by Numerical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RUNG, J.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, a series of rainfall-stability analyses were performed to simulate the failure mechanism and the function of remediation works of the down slope of T-16 tower pier, Mao-Kong gondola (or T-16 Slope) at the hillside of Taipei City using two-dimensional finite element method. The failure mechanism of T-16 Slope was simulated using the rainfall hyetograph of Jang-Mi typhoon in 2008 based on the field investigation data, monitoring data, soil/rock mechanical testing data and detail design plots of remediation works. Eventually, the numerical procedures and various input parameters in the analysis were verified by comparing the numerical results with the field observations. In addition, 48 hrs design rainfalls corresponding to 5, 10, 25 and 50 years return periods were prepared using the 20 years rainfall data of Mu-Zha rainfall observation station, Central Weather Bureau for the rainfall-stability analyses of T-16 Slope to inspect the effect of the compound stabilization works on the overall stability of the slope. At T-16 Slope, without considering the longitudinal and transverse drainages on the ground surface, there totally 4 types of stabilization works were installed to stabilize the slope. From the slope top to the slope toe, the stabilization works of T-16 Slope consists of RC-retaining wall with micro-pile foundation at the up-segment, earth anchor at the up-middle-segment, soil nailing at the middle-segment and retaining pile at the down-segment of the slope. The effect of each individual stabilization work on the slope stability under rainfall condition was examined and evaluated by raising field groundwater level.

  12. An analysis on flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids contents in brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact fermentation techniques of Mao Luang ripe fruits (Antidesma bunius) harvested from Phupan Valley in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samappito, S; Butkhup, L

    2008-07-01

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand during the 2006. The study aimed to determine amounts of flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids in ripe fruits and brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact winemaking techniques where Mao Luang ripe fruits of both Fapratan and Sangkrow2 cultivars were used. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that mean values of primary data of fresh Mao Luang ripe fruits on weight of 100 berries (g) and mean values of juice:solids, pH, total soluble solid (TSS, 0brix), total organic acids (TOA, mg L(-1)), TSS:TOA (%), total flavonoids contents (TFC, mg L(-l)), total phenolic acids (TPA, mg L(-1)), total procyanidins contents (TPC, mg L(-1)) and reducing sugar (g L(-1)) were 65.62, 3.28, 3.51, 16.50, 49.36, 28.10, 397.90, 76.04, 156.21 and 184.32, respectively. Skin contact Mao Luang red wine gave higher amounts of flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins of procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2, organic acids than non-skin contact red wine. The differences were highly significant. Furthermore, ethanol (%) and total acidity (g L(-1) citric acid) were much higher for skin contact wine than non-skin contact wine but a reverse was found with total soluble solids (0brix), pH where non-skin contact wine gave higher mean values than skin contact wine.

  13. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its ro...

  14. Immobility and hyperthermia in the tail suspension test: association with the Porsolt test and the reflex startle reaction in 11 inbred mouse strains and the effects of genetic knockout of MAO A.

    PubMed

    Popova, N K; Tibeikina, M A

    2010-06-01

    Immobility and hyperthermia induced by unavoidable stress imposed by the tail suspension test (TST) and the acoustic startle reaction were assessed in mice of 11 inbred strains and in Tg8 mice, which have genetic knockout of MAO A. Sharp genotypic differences in immobility were seen, while there was no correlation with the hyperthermic response to the TST. A correlation was found between the extent of immobility in the TST and the startle reaction. Studies of 11 strains of mice revealed a positive correlation between the duration of immobility in the TST and the Porsolt "despair test." Genetic knockout of MAO A, one of the key enzymes in catecholamine and serotonin metabolism in the brain, weakened the startle reaction and TST-induced hyperthermia but had no significant effect on the immobility of Tg8 mice, which provides evidence of differences in the neurochemical regulation of these reactions. These data provide grounds for using the TST as a "dry" Porsolt test and identify TST-induced hyperthermia as a model for reactions to unavoidable stress.

  15. Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-02-15

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 μmol l(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °C for 6 days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity of two diastereomeric JA-Ile macrolactones.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Machado, Ricardo A R; Görls, Helmar; Baldwin, Ian T; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-06-07

    Jasmonates are phytohormones involved in a wide range of plant processes, including growth, development, senescence, and defense. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile, 2), an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA, 1), has been identified as a bioactive endogenous jasmonate. However, JA-Ile (2) analogues trigger different responses in the plant. ω-Hydroxylation of the pentenyl side chain leads to the inactive 12-OH-JA-Ile (3) acting as a “stop” signal. On the other hand, a lactone derivative of 12-OH-JA (5) (jasmine ketolactone, JKL) occurs in nature, although with no known biological function. Inspired by the chemical structure of JKL (6) and in order to further explore the potential biological activities of 12-modified JA-Ile derivatives, we synthesized two macrolactones (JA-Ile-lactones (4a) and (4b)) derived from 12-OH-JA-Ile (3). The biological activity of (4a) and (4b) was tested for their ability to elicit nicotine production, a well-known jasmonate dependent secondary metabolite. Both macrolactones showed strong biological activity, inducing nicotine accumulation to a similar extent as methyl jasmonate does in Nicotiana attenuata leaves. Surprisingly, the highest nicotine contents were found in plants treated with the JA-Ile-lactone (4b), which has (3S,7S) configuration at the cyclopentanone not known from natural jasmonates. Macrolactone (4a) is a valuable standard to explore for its occurrence in nature.

  17. The assessment of the relationship between personality, the presence of the 5HTT and MAO-A polymorphisms, and the severity of climacteric and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Jurczak, Anna; Szkup, Małgorzata; Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Grzywacz, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Karakiewicz, Beata; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Grochans, Elżbieta

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between personality, the serotonin transporter (5HTT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) polymorphisms and the severity of climacteric and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women. The study involved 272 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. This survey-based study was performed using the following: the Beck Depression Inventory for depressive symptoms, the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index and the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness-Five Factor Inventory for personality. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to identify the DNA polymorphisms. The women were aged 55.4 ± 5.5 years on average. Significant correlations were proved between the allele frequency of the 30-bp variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the MAO-A promoter region and the incidence of depressive symptoms in the women analysed (p ≤ 0.05), as well as between the severity of climacteric symptoms in the postmenopausal women and the allele frequency of the polymorphism in the 5HTT gene (the 5HTT 's' variant) (p ≤ 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the severity of climacteric and depressive symptoms (p < 0.001). (1) The severity of climacteric and depressive symptoms depends on personality traits. (2) Personality traits are biologically determined, and the level of their expression is associated with the 5HTT polymorphism. (3) Identification of homogeneous groups of women having predispositions to depressive and severe climacteric symptoms may help to implement early prevention programmes for this group of recipients.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and protective effects of MT-031, a novel multitarget MAO-A and AChE/BuChE inhibitor in scopolamine mouse model and inflammatory cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Rabinovich, Alon; Nash, Yuval; Frenkel, Dan; Wang, Yuqiang; Youdim, Moussa B H; Weinreb, Orly

    2017-02-01

    Previous study demonstrated that the novel multitarget compound, MT-031 preserved in one molecule entity the beneficial properties of its parent drugs, rasagiline and rivastigmine, and exerted high dual potencies of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in acute-treated mice and neuroprotective effects against H 2 O 2 -induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The present study aimed to further investigate the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of MT-031 in scopolamine mouse model and inflammatory cell cultures. Our findings demonstrated that once daily chronic administration of MT-031 (5-10 mg/kg) to mice antagonized scopolamine-induced memory and cognitive impairments, displayed brain selective MAO-A and AChE/BuChE inhibition, increased the levels of striatal dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine and prevented the metabolism of DA and 5-HT. In addition, MT-031 upregulated mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2, the neurotrophic factors, (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF)), the antioxidant enzyme catalase and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor (Ntrk), and down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of the pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 in scopolamine-induced mice. In accordance, MT-031 was shown to reduce reactive oxygen species accumulation, increase the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and decrease the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in activated mouse splenocytes and microglial cells. Taken together, these pharmacological properties of MT-031 can be of clinical importance for developing this novel multitarget compound as a novel drug candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Substantial protection against MPTP-associated Parkinson's neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo by anti-cancer agent SU4312 via activation of MEF2D and inhibition of MAO-B.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baojian; Hu, Shengquan; Zheng, Chengyou; Wang, Hongyu; Luo, Fangcheng; Li, Haitao; Cui, Wei; Yang, Xifei; Cui, Guozhen; Mak, Shinghung; Choi, Tony Chung-Lit; Ma, Edmond Dik-Lung; Wang, Yuqiang; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Zhang, Zaijun; Han, Yifan

    2017-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated the unexpected neuroprotection of the anti-cancer agent SU4312 in cellular models associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the precise mechanisms underlying its neuroprotection are still unknown, and the effects of SU4312 on rodent models of PD have not been characterized. In the current study, we found that the protection of SU4312 against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP + )-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells was achieved through the activation of transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), as evidenced by the fact that SU4312 stimulated myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcriptional activity and prevented the inhibition of MEF2D protein expression caused by MPP + , and that short hairpin RNA (ShRNA)-mediated knockdown of MEF2D significantly abolished the neuroprotection of SU4312. Additionally, Western blotting analysis revealed that SU4312 potentiated pro-survival PI3-K/Akt pathway to down-regulate MEF2D inhibitor glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3β). Furthermore, using the in vivo PD model of C57BL/6 mice insulted with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), we found that intragastrical administration of SU4312 (0.2 and 1 mg/kg) greatly ameliorated Parkinsonian motor defects, and restored protein levels of MEF2D, phosphorylated-Ser473-Akt and phosphorylated-Ser9-GSK3β. Meanwhile, SU4312 effectively reversed the decrease in protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons, inhibited oxidative stress, maintained mitochondrial biogenesis and partially prevented the depletion of dopamine and its metabolites. Very encouragingly, SU4312 was able to selectively inhibit monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) activity both in vitro and in vivo, with an IC 50 value of 0.2 μM. These findings suggest that SU4312 provides therapeutic benefits in cellular and animal models of PD, possibly through multiple mechanisms including enhancement of MEF2D

  20. [Remain true to our original aspiration for farewell to the God of Plague, compose the new chapter for the national schistosomiasis control programme scientifically-Commemoration of 60th anniversary of publishing Chairman Mao Zedong's two poems "Farewell to the God of Plague"].

    PubMed

    Xiao-Nong, Zhou; Shi-Zhu, Li; Qing-Biao, Hong; Kun, Yang; Shan, Lü; Jing, Xu

    2018-02-26

    This paper reviews the huge promotion of Chairman Mao Zedong's two poems entitled "Farewell to the God of Plague" which were published 60 years ago, and the great achievements of the national schistosomiasis control programme in China. The publication of the two poems promotes the establishment of the mechanism for the national schistosomiasis control programme in China, and in addition, the schistosomiasis control spirit of the people from Yujiang County is still the source of power for the promotion of transferring the schistosomiasis control to elimination stage in China. Now, that we commemorate the 60th anniversary of publishing Chairman Mao Zedong's two poems entitled "Farewell to the God of Plague" means we remain the true to our original aspiration to serve the people forever, which is also to promote the progress of schistosomiasis elimination in China according to the law, the scientific principle, and local conditions, so as to contribute our efforts for realizing the healthy China's dream.

  1. Sequence analysis and transcript identification within 1.5 MB of DNA deleted together with the NDP and MAO genes in atypical Norrie disease patients presenting with a profound phenotype.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Merino, B; Bye, J; McDowall, J; Ross, M; Craig, I W

    2001-06-01

    Mutations at the Norrie disease gene locus, NDP, manifest in a broad range of defects. These range from a relatively mild, late-onset, exudative vitreoretinopathy to congenital blindness and sensorineural deafness combined, in some cases, with mental retardation. In addition, extensive deletions involving the NDP locus, located at Xp11.3, the adjacent monoamine oxidadase genes MAOA and MAOB, and additional material, result in a more severe pattern of symptoms. The phenotypes include all or some of the following; mental retardation, involuntary movements, hypertensive crises and hypogonadism. We extended an existing YAC contig to embrace the boundaries of three of the largest deletions and converted this into four PAC contigs. Computer analysis and experimental data have resulted in the identification of several putative loci, including a phosphatase inhibitor 2-like gene (dJ154.1) and a 250-bp sequence which resembles a homeobox domain (dA113.3), 1.2 Mb and 400 kb respectively from the MAO/NDP cluster. The pattern of expression of dJ154.1 suggests that it may represent an important factor contributing to the complex phenotypes of these deletion patients. Hum Mutat 17:523, 2001. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. High-Rate Mechanical Properties of JA2 Propellant at Temperatures from -50 to 80 deg C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    panorama of postcompression JA2 grain sample (uniaxially compressed at a rate of ~100 s–1, 80 °C, and strain greater than 40%), 50× magnification...19 Fig. 36 SEM panorama of postcompression JA2 grain sample...19 Fig. 37 SEM panorama of postcompression JA2 grain sample (uniaxially compressed at a rate of ~100 s–1, 60 °C, and strain

  3. JaSTA-2: Second version of the Java Superposition T-matrix Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, Prithish; Das, Himadri Sekhar

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we announce the development of a new version of the Java Superposition T-matrix App (JaSTA-2), to study the light scattering properties of porous aggregate particles. It has been developed using Netbeans 7.1.2, which is a java integrated development environment (IDE). The JaSTA uses double precision superposition T-matrix codes for multi-sphere clusters in random orientation, developed by Mackowski and Mischenko (1996). The new version consists of two options as part of the input parameters: (i) single wavelength and (ii) multiple wavelengths. The first option (which retains the applicability of older version of JaSTA) calculates the light scattering properties of aggregates of spheres for a single wavelength at a given instant of time whereas the second option can execute the code for a multiple numbers of wavelengths in a single run. JaSTA-2 provides convenient and quicker data analysis which can be used in diverse fields like Planetary Science, Atmospheric Physics, Nanoscience, etc. This version of the software is developed for Linux platform only, and it can be operated over all the cores of a processor using the multi-threading option.

  4. Integrated metabolomic and proteomic analysis reveals systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Prasuna, M Lakshmi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch Venkata

    2015-02-06

    Aromatic amines are widely distributed in the environment and are major environmental pollutants. Although degradation of aromatic amines is well studied in bacteria, physiological adaptations and stress response to these toxic compounds is not yet fully understood. In the present study, systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress were deciphered using metabolite and iTRAQ-labeled protein profiling. Strain JA2 tolerated high concentrations of aniline (30 mM) with trace amounts of aniline being transformed to acetanilide. GC-MS metabolite profiling revealed aniline stress phenotype wherein amino acid, carbohydrate, fatty acid, nitrogen metabolisms, and TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) were modulated. Strain JA2 responded to aniline by remodeling the proteome, and cellular functions, such as signaling, transcription, translation, stress tolerance, transport and carbohydrate metabolism, were highly modulated. Key adaptive responses, such as transcription/translational changes, molecular chaperones to control protein folding, and efflux pumps implicated in solvent extrusion, were induced in response to aniline stress. Proteo-metabolomics indicated extensive rewiring of metabolism to aniline. TCA cycle and amino acid catabolism were down-regulated while gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated, leading to the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, increased saturated fatty acid ratios in membranes due to aniline stress suggest membrane adaptation. The present study thus indicates that strain JA2 employs multilayered responses: stress response, toxic compound tolerance, energy conservation, and metabolic rearrangements to aniline.

  5. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona sequentially induces JA and SA defence pathways in tomato.

    PubMed

    Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C; Felton, Gary W; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2010-02-01

    While plant responses to herbivores and pathogens are well characterized, responses to attack by other plants remain largely unexplored. We measured phytohormones and C(18) fatty acids in tomato attacked by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona, and used transgenic and mutant plants to explore the roles of the defence-related phytohormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). Parasite attachment to 10-day-old tomato plants elicited few biochemical changes, but a second attachment 10 d later elicited a 60-fold increase in JA, a 30-fold increase in SA and a hypersensitive-like response (HLR). Host age also influenced the response: neither Cuscuta seedlings nor established vines elicited a HLR in 10-day-old hosts, but both did in 20-day-old hosts. Parasites grew larger on hosts deficient in SA (NahG) or insensitive to JA [jasmonic acid-insensitive1 (jai1)], suggesting that both phytohormones mediate effective defences. Moreover, amounts of JA peaked 12 h before SA, indicating that defences may be coordinated via sequential induction of these hormones. Parasitism also induced increases in free linolenic and linoleic acids and abscisic acid. These findings provide the first documentation of plant hormonal signalling induced by a parasitic plant and show that tomato responses to C. pentagona display characteristics similar to both herbivore- and pathogen-induced responses.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Yan; Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis.

  7. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  8. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  9. 2D MI-DRAGON: a new predictor for protein-ligands interactions and theoretic-experimental studies of US FDA drug-target network, oxoisoaporphine inhibitors for MAO-A and human parasite proteins.

    PubMed

    Prado-Prado, Francisco; García-Mera, Xerardo; Escobar, Manuel; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Yañez, Matilde; Riera-Fernandez, Pablo; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2011-12-01

    large DPIs databases in order to discover both new drugs and/or targets. Finally, we illustrated in one theoretic-experimental study the practical use of 2D MI-DRAGON. We reported the prediction, synthesis, and pharmacological assay of 10 different oxoisoaporphines with MAO-A inhibitory activity. The more active compound OXO5 presented IC(50) = 0.00083 μM, notably better than the control drug Clorgyline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiological Characteristics and Production of Folic Acid of Lactobacillus plantarum JA71 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid, one of the B group of vitamins, is an essential substance for maintaining the functions of the nervous system, and is also known to decrease the level of homocysteine in plasma. Homocysteine influences the lowering of the cognitive function in humans, and especially in elderly people. In order to determine the strains with a strong capacity to produce folic acid, 190 bacteria were isolated from various kinds of jeotgal and chungkuk-jang. In our test experiment, JA71 was found to contain 9.03μg/mL of folic acid after 24 h of incubation in an MRS broth. This showed that JA71 has the highest folic acid production ability compared to the other lactic acid bacteria that were isolated. JA71 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16s rDNA sequence. JA71 was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of JA71 was 37℃, and the cultures took 12 h to reach pH 4.4. JA71 proved more sensitive to bacitracin when compared with fifteen different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to neomycin and vancomycin. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant of bile juice and acid, and displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus with restraint rates of 60.4%, 96.7%, and 76.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate that JA71 could be an excellent strain for application to functional products. PMID:26760752

  11. New enhanced artificial bee colony (JA-ABC5) algorithm with application for reactive power optimization.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Noorazliza; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita; Abro, Abdul Ghani

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement.

  12. New Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (JA-ABC5) Algorithm with Application for Reactive Power Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement. PMID:25879054

  13. Aniline Is an Inducer, and Not a Precursor, for Indole Derivatives in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mujahid; Ch, Sasikala; Ch, Ramana V.

    2014-01-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 and other anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria produce indole derivatives when exposed to aniline, a xenobiotic compound. Though this phenomenon has been reported previously, the role of aniline in the production of indoles is still a biochemical riddle. The present study aims at understanding the specific role of aniline (as precursor or stimulator) in the production of indoles and elucidating the biochemical pathway of indoles in aniline-exposed cells by using stable isotope approaches. Metabolic profiling revealed tryptophan accumulation only in aniline exposed cells along with indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-aldehyde (IAld), the two major catabolites of tryptophan. Deuterium labelled aniline feeding studies revealed that aniline is not a precursor of indoles in strain JA2. Further, production of indoles only in aniline-exposed cells suggests that aniline is an indoles stimulator. In addition, production of indoles depended on the presence of a carbon source, and production enhanced when carbon sources were added to the culture. Isotope labelled fumarate feeding identified, fumarate as the precursor of indole, indicating de novo synthesis of indoles. Glyphosate (shikimate pathway inhibitor) inhibited the indoles production, accumulation of tryptophan, IAA and IAld indicating that indoles synthesis in strain JA2 occurs via the de novo shikimate pathway. The up-regulation of anthranilate synthase gene and induction of anthranilate synthase activity correlated well with tryptophan production in strain JA2. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activities corroborated well with IAA levels, suggesting that tryptophan catabolism occurs simultaneously in aniline exposed cells. Our study demonstrates that aniline (stress) stimulates tryptophan/indoles synthesis via the shikimate pathway by possibly modulating the metabolic pathway. PMID:24533057

  14. Aniline is an inducer, and not a precursor, for indole derivatives in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Mohammed; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-01-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 and other anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria produce indole derivatives when exposed to aniline, a xenobiotic compound. Though this phenomenon has been reported previously, the role of aniline in the production of indoles is still a biochemical riddle. The present study aims at understanding the specific role of aniline (as precursor or stimulator) in the production of indoles and elucidating the biochemical pathway of indoles in aniline-exposed cells by using stable isotope approaches. Metabolic profiling revealed tryptophan accumulation only in aniline exposed cells along with indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-aldehyde (IAld), the two major catabolites of tryptophan. Deuterium labelled aniline feeding studies revealed that aniline is not a precursor of indoles in strain JA2. Further, production of indoles only in aniline-exposed cells suggests that aniline is an indoles stimulator. In addition, production of indoles depended on the presence of a carbon source, and production enhanced when carbon sources were added to the culture. Isotope labelled fumarate feeding identified, fumarate as the precursor of indole, indicating de novo synthesis of indoles. Glyphosate (shikimate pathway inhibitor) inhibited the indoles production, accumulation of tryptophan, IAA and IAld indicating that indoles synthesis in strain JA2 occurs via the de novo shikimate pathway. The up-regulation of anthranilate synthase gene and induction of anthranilate synthase activity correlated well with tryptophan production in strain JA2. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activities corroborated well with IAA levels, suggesting that tryptophan catabolism occurs simultaneously in aniline exposed cells. Our study demonstrates that aniline (stress) stimulates tryptophan/indoles synthesis via the shikimate pathway by possibly modulating the metabolic pathway.

  15. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-31

    months 22-28) 2i. Assess mossy fiber sprouting, cell loss and glial proliferation 10 weeks post injury using Timm and Nissl staining (40 mice...1e. Assess protein levels and regional/cellular expression of JaK1 and 2, pSTAT1-5 using fluorescent immunohistochemistry with co- staining for cell...treated with CCI, 10 of which were treated with WP1066. Early post-injury experiments are underway; Timm staining has not revealed mossy fiber

  16. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of ABA/JA-Dual Responsive Genes in Rice Shoot and Root.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Ae; Bhatnagar, Nikita; Kwon, Soon Jae; Min, Myung Ki; Moon, Seok-Jun; Yoon, In Sun; Kwon, Taek-Ryoun; Kim, Sun Tae; Kim, Beom-Gi

    2018-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) enables plants to adapt to adverse environmental conditions through the modulation of metabolic pathways and of growth and developmental programs. We used comparative microarray analysis to identify genes exhibiting ABA-dependent expression and other hormone-dependent expression among them in Oryza sativa shoot and root. We identified 854 genes as significantly up- or down-regulated in root or shoot under ABA treatment condition. Most of these genes had similar expression profiles in root and shoot under ABA treatment condition, whereas 86 genes displayed opposite expression responses in root and shoot. To examine the crosstalk between ABA and other hormones, we compared the expression profiles of the ABA-dependently regulated genes under several different hormone treatment conditions. Interestingly, around half of the ABA-dependently expressed genes were also regulated by jasmonic acid based on microarray data analysis. We searched the promoter regions of these genes for cis-elements that could be responsible for their responsiveness to both hormones, and found that ABRE and MYC2 elements, among others, were common to the promoters of genes that were regulated by both ABA and JA. These results show that ABA and JA might have common gene expression regulation system and might explain why the JA could function for both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance.

  18. MAPK-dependent JA and SA signalling in Nicotiana attenuata affects plant growth and fitness during competition with conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Induced defense responses to herbivores are generally believed to have evolved as cost-saving strategies that defer the fitness costs of defense metabolism until these defenses are needed. The fitness costs of jasmonate (JA)-mediated defenses have been well documented. Those of the early signaling units mediating induced resistance to herbivores have yet to be examined. Early signaling components that mediate herbivore-induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata, have been well characterized and here we examine their growth and fitness costs during competition with conspecifics. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK) are rapidly activated after perception of herbivory and both kinases regulate herbivory-induced JA levels and JA-mediated defense metabolite accumulations. Since JA-induced defenses result in resource-based trade-offs that compromise plant productivity, we evaluated if silencing SIPK (irSIPK) and WIPK (irWIPK) benefits the growth and fitness of plants competiting with wild type (WT) plants, as has been shown for plants silenced in JA-signaling by the reduction of Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3) levels. Results As expected, irWIPK and LOX3-silenced plants out-performed their competing WT plants. Surprisingly, irSIPK plants, which have the largest reductions in JA signaling, did not. Phytohormone profiling of leaves revealed that irSIPK plants accumulated higher levels of SA compared to WT. To test the hypothesis that these high levels of SA, and their presumed associated fitness costs of pathogen associated defenses in irSIPK plants had nullified the JA-deficiency-mediated growth benefits in these plants, we genetically reduced SA levels in irSIPK plants. Reducing SA levels partially recovered the biomass and fitness deficits of irSIPK plants. We also evaluated whether the increased fitness of plants with reduced SA or JA levels resulted from

  19. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. Early dust formation and a massive progenitor for SN 2011ja?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. E.; Krafton, Kelsie M.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Montiel, E.; Wesson, R.; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M.; Drass, H.

    2016-04-01

    SN 2011ja was a bright (I = -18.3) Type II supernova occurring in the nearby edge on spiral galaxy NGC 4945. Flat-topped and multipeaked H α and H β spectral emission lines appear between 64 and 84 d post-explosion, indicating interaction with a disc-like circumstellar medium inclined ˜45° from edge-on. After day 84, an increase in the H- and K-band flux along with heavy attenuation of the red wing of the emission lines are strong indications of early dust formation, likely located in the cool dense shell created between the forward shock of the SN ejecta and the reverse shock created as the ejecta plows into the existing circumstellar material. Radiative transfer modelling reveals both ≈1 × 10-5 M⊙ of pre-existing dust located ˜1016.7 cm away and up to ≈6 × 10-4 M⊙ of newly formed dust. Spectral observations after 1.5 yr reveal the possibility that the fading SN is located within a young (3-6 Myr) massive stellar cluster, which when combined with tentative 56Ni mass estimates of 0.2 M⊙ may indicate a massive (≥25 M⊙) progenitor for SN 2011ja.

  1. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility and maintenance in JA-CMS cotton.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Han, Jinfeng; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE) genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS) and microsporocyte stage (MS) (the two most important stages for pollen abortion in JA-CMS) between JA-CMS and its fertile maintainer line JB cotton plants, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 709 (1.8%) DE genes including 293 up-regulated and 416 down-regulated genes were identified in JA-CMS line comparing with its maintainer line at the SS stage, and 644 (1.6%) DE genes with 263 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes were detected at the MS stage. By comparing the two stages in the same material, there were 8 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JA-CMS line and 29 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JB maintainer line at the MS stage. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate 7 randomly selected DE genes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes involved in reduction-oxidation reactions and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism were down-regulated, while genes pertaining to photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated in JA-CMS floral buds compared with their JB counterparts at the SS and/or MS stages. All these four biological processes play important roles in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, which may be an important factor contributing to the sterile trait of JA-CMS. Further experiments are warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms of these genes that lead to CMS.

  2. Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Maintenance in JA-CMS Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Han, Jinfeng; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE) genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS) and microsporocyte stage (MS) (the two most important stages for pollen abortion in JA-CMS) between JA-CMS and its fertile maintainer line JB cotton plants, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 709 (1.8%) DE genes including 293 up-regulated and 416 down-regulated genes were identified in JA-CMS line comparing with its maintainer line at the SS stage, and 644 (1.6%) DE genes with 263 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes were detected at the MS stage. By comparing the two stages in the same material, there were 8 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JA-CMS line and 29 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JB maintainer line at the MS stage. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate 7 randomly selected DE genes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes involved in reduction-oxidation reactions and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism were down-regulated, while genes pertaining to photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated in JA-CMS floral buds compared with their JB counterparts at the SS and/or MS stages. All these four biological processes play important roles in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, which may be an important factor contributing to the sterile trait of JA-CMS. Further experiments are warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms of these genes that lead to CMS. PMID:25372034

  3. Application of a JA-Ile Biosynthesis Inhibitor to Methyl Jasmonate-Treated Strawberry Fruit Induces Upregulation of Specific MBW Complex-Related Genes and Accumulation of Proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Laura D; Zúñiga, Paz E; Figueroa, Nicolás E; Pastene, Edgar; Escobar-Sepúlveda, Hugo F; Figueroa, Pablo M; Garrido-Bigotes, Adrián; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2018-06-13

    Fleshy fruits are an important source of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs), which protect plants against stress, and their consumption provides beneficial effects for human health. In strawberry fruit, the application of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) upregulates anthocyanin accumulation, although the relationship between the jasmonate pathway and anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis in fruits remains to be understood. Anthocyanin and PA accumulation is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level through R2R3-MYB and bHLH transcription factors in different plant species and organs. Here, the effect of jarin-1, a specific inhibitor of bioactive JA (jasmonoyl-isoleucine, JA-Ile) biosynthesis, on anthocyanin and PA accumulation was evaluated during strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa ) fruit development using an in vitro ripening system for 48 h. Also, we observed the effects of MeJA and the application of jarin-1 to MeJA-treated fruits (MeJA + jarin-1 treatment). We assessed changes of expression levels for the JA-Ile and MeJA biosynthetic ( FaJAR1.2 and FaJMT ), JA signaling-related ( FaMYC2 and FaJAZ1 ), MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complex-related ( FabHLH3/33 , FaMYB9/10/11 , and repressor FaMYB1 ), and anthocyanin and PA biosynthetic (FaANS , FaUFGT , FaANR , and FaLAR ) genes. In addition, the promoter region of MBW complex-related MYB genes was isolated and sequenced. We found a higher redness of strawberry fruit skin and anthocyanin content in MeJA-treated fruits with respect to jarin-1-treated ones concomitant with an upregulation of FaANS and FaUFGT genes. Inversely, the PA content was higher in jarin-1- and MeJA + jarin-1-treated than in MeJA-treated fruits. MeJA + jarin-1 treatment resulted in an upregulation of FaANR and associated transcription factors such as FabHLH33 and FaMYB9/11 along with FaJMT and FaJAR1.2 . Finally, we found JA-responsive elements in the promoter regions of FaMYB1/9/10/11 genes. It is proposed that PA biosynthesis-related genes

  4. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Effect of MeJA on Scutellarin Biosynthesis in Erigeron breviscapus

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ying; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Jun-feng; Ji, Qian; Tan, He-Xin; Huang, Xin; Feng, Hao; Huang, Bao-Kang; Chen, Wan-Sheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background Erigeron breviscapus, a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal herb, is broadly used in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. Scutellarin, a kind of flavonoids, is considered as the material base of the pharmaceutical activities in E. breviscapus. The stable and high content of scutellarin is critical for the quality and efficiency of E. breviscapus in the clinical use. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanism of scutellarin biosynthesis is crucial for metabolic engineering to increase the content of the active compound. However, there is virtually no study available yet concerning the genetic research of scutellarin biosynthesis in E. breviscapus. Results Using Illumina sequencing technology, we obtained over three billion bases of high-quality sequence data and conducted de novo assembly and annotation without prior genome information. A total of 182,527 unigenes (mean length = 738 bp) were found. 63,059 unigenes were functionally annotated with a cut-off E-value of 10−5. Next, a total of 238 (200 up-regulated and 38 down-regulated genes) and 513 (375 up-regulated and 138 down-regulated genes) differentially expressed genes were identified at different time points after methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment, which fell into categories of ‘metabolic process’ and ‘cellular process’ using GO database, suggesting that MeJA-induced activities of signal pathway in plant mainly led to re-programming of metabolism and cell activity. In addition, 13 predicted genes that might participate in the metabolism of flavonoids were found by two co-expression analyses in E. breviscapus. Conclusions Our study is the first to provide a transcriptome sequence resource for E. breviscapus plants after MeJA treatment and it reveals transcriptome re-programming upon elicitation. As the result, several putative unknown genes involved in the metabolism of flavonoids were predicted. These data provide a valuable resource for the genetic and genomic studies of

  5. Two bHLH-type transcription factors, JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE2 and JAM3, are transcriptional repressors and affect male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Masaru; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The jasmonate (JA) plant hormones regulate responses to biotic and abiotic stress and aspects of plant development, including male fertility in Arabidopsis thaliana. The bHLH-type transcription factor JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1) negatively regulates JA signaling and gain-of-function JAM1 transgenic plants have impaired JA-mediated male fertility. Here we report that JAM2 and JAM3, 2 bHLHs closely related to JAM1, also act as transcriptional repressors. Moreover, overexpression of JAM2 and JAM3 also results in reduced male fertility. These results suggest that JAM1, JAM2, and JAM3 act redundantly as negative regulators of JA-mediated male fertility. PMID:24056034

  6. OsMPK3 positively regulates the JA signaling pathway and plant resistance to a chewing herbivore in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Li, Jiancai; Hu, Lingfei; Zhang, Tongfang; Zhang, Guren; Lou, Yonggen

    2013-07-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Silencing OsMPK3 decreased elicited JA levels, which subsequently reduced levels of herbivore-induced trypsin protease inhibitors (TrypPIs) and improved the performance of SSB larvae, but did not influence BPH. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) are known to play an important role in plant defense by transferring biotic and abiotic signals into programmed cellular responses. However, their functions in the herbivore-induced defense response in rice remain largely unknown. Here, we identified a MPK3 gene from rice, OsMPK3, and found that its expression levels were up-regulated in response to infestation by the larvae of the striped stem borer (SSB) (Chilo suppressalis), to mechanical wounding and to treatment with jasmonic acid (JA), but not to infestation by the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens or to treatment with salicylic acid. Moreover, mechanical wounding and SSB infestation induced the expression of OsMPK3 strongly and quickly, whereas JA treatment induced the gene more weakly and slowly. Silencing OsMPK3 (ir-mpk3) reduced the expression of the gene by 50-70 %, decreased elicited levels of JA and diminished the expression of a lipoxygenase gene OsHI-LOX and an allene oxide synthase gene OsAOS1. The reduced JA signaling in ir-mpk3 plants decreased the levels of herbivore-induced trypsin protease inhibitors (TrypPIs) and improved the performance of SSB larvae, but did not influence BPH. Our findings suggest that the gene OsMPK3 responds early in herbivore-induced defense and can be regulated by rice plants to activate a specific and appropriate defense response to different herbivores.

  7. Arabidopsis GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors activate jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent disease susceptibility to the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, as well as JA-independent plant immunity against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Murmu, Jhadeswar; Wilton, Michael; Allard, Ghislaine; Pandeya, Radhey; Desveaux, Darrell; Singh, Jas; Subramaniam, Rajagopal

    2014-02-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK1 and 2) transcription factors regulate chloroplast development in a redundant manner. Overexpression of AtGLK1 (35S:AtGLK1) in Arabidopsis also confers resistance to the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. To further elucidate the role of GLK transcription factors in plant defence, the Arabidopsis glk1 glk2 double-mutant and 35S:AtGLK1 plants were challenged with the virulent oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) Noco2. Compared with Col-0, glk1 glk2 plants were highly resistant to Hpa Noco2, whereas 35S:AtGLK1 plants showed enhanced susceptibility to this pathogen. Genetic studies suggested that AtGLK-mediated plant defence to Hpa Noco2 was partially dependent on salicylic acid (SA) accumulation, but independent of the SA signalling protein NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1 (NPR1). Pretreatment with jasmonic acid (JA) dramatically reversed Hpa Noco2 resistance in the glk1 glk2 double mutant, but only marginally affected the 35S:AtGLK1 plants. In addition, overexpression of AtGLK1 in the JA signalling mutant coi1-16 did not increase susceptibility to Hpa Noco2. Together, our GLK gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments suggest that GLK acts upstream of JA signalling in disease susceptibility to Hpa Noco2. In contrast, glk1 glk2 plants were more susceptible to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, whereas 35S:AtGLK1 plants exhibited heightened resistance which could be maintained in the absence of JA signalling. Together, the data reveal that AtGLK1 is involved in JA-dependent susceptibility to the biotrophic pathogen Hpa Noco2 and in JA-independent resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen B. cinerea. © 2013 HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN IN RIGHT OF CANADA. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2013 BSPP. REPRODUCED WITH THE PERMISSION OF THE MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE AND AGRI-FOOD CANADA.

  8. JA, a new type of polyunsaturated fatty acid isolated from Juglans mandshurica Maxim, limits the survival and induces apoptosis of heptocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiu-Li; Lin, Hua; Zhao, Wei; Hou, Ya-Qin; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Zhen-Bo; Sun, Lu-Guo; Tian, Shang-Yi; Liu, Biao; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-03-01

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim (Juglandaceae) is a famous folk medicine for cancer treatment and some natural compounds isolated from it have been studied extensively. Previously we isolated a type of ω-9 polyunsaturated fatty acid (JA) from the bark of J. mandshurica, however little is known about its activity and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we studied anti-tumor activity of JA on several human cancer cell lines. Results showed that JA is cytotoxic to HepG2, MDA-MB-231, SGC-7901, A549 and Huh7 cells at a concentration exerting minimal toxic effects on L02 cells. The selective toxicity of JA was better than other classical anti-cancer drugs. Further investigation indicated that JA could induce cell apoptosis, characterized by chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and activation of the apoptosis-associated proteins such as Caspase-3 and PARP-1. Moreover, we investigated the cellular apoptosis pathway involved in the apoptosis process in HepG2 cells. We found that proteins involved in mitochondrion (cleaved-Caspase-9, Apaf-1, HtrA2/Omi, Bax, and Mitochondrial Bax) and endocytoplasmic reticulum (XBP-1s, GRP78, cleaved-Caspase-7 and cleaved-Caspase-12) apoptotic pathways were up-regulated when cells were treated by JA. In addition, a morphological change in the mitochondrion was detected. Furthermore, we found that JA could inhibit DNA synthesis and induce G2/M cell cycle arrest. The expression of G2-to-M transition related proteins, such as CyclinB1 and phosphorylated-CDK1, were reduced. In contrast, the G2-to-M inhibitor p21 was increased in JA-treated cells. Overall, our results suggest that JA can induce mitochondrion- and endocytoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis, and G2/M phase arrest in HepG2 cells, making it a promising therapeutic agent against hepatoma.

  9. Seed germination ecology of feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes].

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha(-1) was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies.

  10. Changes in ABA, IAA and JA levels during calyx, fruit and leaves development in cape gooseberry plants (Physalis peruviana L.).

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Flórez, F; López-Cristoffanini, C; Jáuregui, O; Melgarejo, L M; López-Carbonell, M

    2017-06-01

    Changes in abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) content in developing calyx, fruits and leaves of Physalis peruviana L. plants were analysed. Plant hormones have been widely studied for their roles in the regulation of various aspects related to plant development and, in particular, into their action during development and ripening of fleshly fruits. The obtained evidences suggest that the functions of these hormones are no restricted to a particular development stage, and more than one hormone is involved in controlling various aspects of plant development. Our results will contribute to understand the role of these hormones during growth and development of calyx, fruits and leaves in cape gooseberry plants. This work offers a good, quickly and efficiently protocol to extract and quantify simultaneously ABA, IAA and JA in different tissues of cape gooseberry plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Cyclic lipopeptide iturin A structure-dependently induces defense response in Arabidopsis plants by activating SA and JA signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Yumi; Shiraishi, Soma; Kondo, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Shoko; Aoki, Yoshinao; Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-05-15

    Iturin A is the most well studied antifungal cyclic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus species that are frequently utilized as biological control agents. Iturin A not only shows strong antifungal activity against phytopathogens but also induces defense response in plants, thereby reducing plant disease severity. Here we report the defense signaling pathways triggered by iturin A in Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)-insensitive mutants. Iturin A activated the transcription of defense genes PR1 and PDF1.2 through the SA and JA signaling pathways, respectively. The role of iturin A as an elicitor was dependent on the cyclization of the seven amino acids and/or the β-hydroxy fatty acid chain. The iturin A derivative peptide, NH2-(L-Asn)-(D-Tyr)-(D-Asn)-(L-Gln)-(L-Pro)-(D-Asn)-(L-Ser)-COOH, completely suppressed PR1 and PDF1.2 gene expression in wild Arabidopsis plants. The identification of target molecules binding to iturin A and its derivative peptide is expected to shed new light on defense response in plants through the SA and JA signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stable Isotope-Assisted Metabolic Profiling Reveals Growth Mode Dependent Differential Metabolism and Multiple Catabolic Pathways of l-Phenylalanine in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2.

    PubMed

    Mekala, Lakshmi Prasuna; Mohammed, Mujahid; Chintalapati, Sasikala; Chintalapati, Venkata Ramana

    2018-01-05

    Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are metabolically versatile and survive under different growth modes using diverse organic compounds, yet their metabolic diversity is largely unexplored. In the present study, we employed stable-isotope-assisted metabolic profiling to unravel the l-phenylalanine catabolism in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 under varying growth modes. Strain JA2 grows under anaerobic and aerobic conditions by utilizing l-phenylalanine as a nitrogen source. Furthermore, ring-labeled 13 C 6 -phenylalanine feeding followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry exometabolite profiling revealed 60 labeled metabolic features (M + 6, M + 12, and M + 18) derived solely from l-phenylalanine, of which 11 were identified, 7 putatively identified, and 42 unidentified under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. However, labeled metabolites were significantly higher in aerobic compared to anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, detected metabolites and enzyme activities indicated multiple l-phenylalanine catabolic routes mainly Ehrlich, homogentisate-dependent melanin, benzenoid, and unidentified pathways operating under anaerobic and aerobic conditions in strain JA2. Interestingly, the study indicated l-phenylalanine-dependent and independent benzenoid biosynthesis in strain JA2 and a differential flux of l-phenylalanine to Ehrlich and benzenoid pathways under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Additionally, unidentified labeled metabolites strongly suggest the presence of unknown phenylalanine catabolic routes in strain JA2. Overall, the study uncovered the l-phenylalanine catabolic diversity in strain JA2 and demonstrated the potential of stable isotope-assisted metabolomics in unraveling the hidden metabolic repertoire.

  13. ["The madhouse" by W. Kaulbach and the meaning of the picture interpreted by J.A. Schilling, 1863].

    PubMed

    Rothkopf, A

    1980-01-01

    This article deals with the picture "Das Narrenhaus" (the Madhouse) by W. Kaulbach and its interpretation by the psychiatrist J.A. Schilling, which he gave in his book "Psychiatrische Briefe" (psychiatric letters) in 1863. This picture is often used as a contemporary document for the situation in the treatment of the mentally ill at the beginning of the last century. The article points out doubts in this procedure. The interpretation by Schilling cannot be considered a document for psychiatric records; on the contrary, it is influenced by contemporary romantic medicine and utilises the picture to exemplify the theoretical concept of culpable human offence as the cause for mental illness.

  14. NtWRKY-R1, a Novel Transcription Factor, Integrates IAA and JA Signal Pathway under Topping Damage Stress in Nicotiana tabacum

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Weihuan; Zhou, Qi; Wei, Yuanfang; Yang, Jinmiao; Hao, Fengsheng; Cheng, Zhipeng; Guo, Hongxiang; Liu, Weiqun

    2018-01-01

    Topping damage can induce the nicotine synthesis in tobacco roots, which involves the activation of JA and auxin signal transduction. It remains unclear how these hormone signals are integrated to regulate nicotine synthesis. Here we isolated a transcription factor NtWRKY-R1 from the group IIe of WRKY family and it had strong negative correlation with the expression of putrescine N-methyltransferase, the key enzyme of nicotine synthesis pathway. NtWRKY-R1 was specifically and highly expressed in tobacco roots, and it contains two transcriptional activity domains in the N- and C-terminal. The promoter region of NtWRKY-R1 contains two cis-elements which are responding to JA and auxin signals, respectively. Deletion of NtWRKY-R1 promoter showed that JA and auxin signals were subdued by NtWRKY-R1, and the expression of NtWRKY-R1 was more sensitive to auxin than JA. Furthermore, Yeast two-hybrid experiment demonstrated that NtWRKY-R1 can interact with the actin-binding protein. Our data showed that the intensity of JA and auxin signals can be translated into the expression of NtWRKY-R1, which regulates the balance of actin polymerization and depolymerization through binding actin-binding protein, and then regulates the expression of genes related to nicotine synthesis. The results will help us better understand the function of the WRKY-IIe family in the signaling crosstalk of JA and auxin under damage stress. PMID:29379516

  15. From Chaos To MAOS: Launching an Oceanography High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Marlene

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the background of a specialty high school in Monterey Bay, California focusing on oceanography. Describes the collaborative research relationship that exists between the school and the scientific community. (DDR)

  16. MAOS: An Innovative Way to Teach High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harray, Nancy; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an innovative high school program that uses oceanography, mathematics, and science as common threads in the instructional program. The program utilizes an innovative class structure, community involvement, and hands on activities. (DDR)

  17. Communicable disease control in China: From Mao to now

    PubMed Central

    Hipgrave, David

    2011-01-01

    China’s progress on communicable disease control (CDC) in the 30 years after establishment of the People’s Republic in 1949 is widely regarded as remarkable. Life expectancy soared by around 30 years, infant mortality plummeted and smallpox, sexually transmitted diseases and many other infections were either eliminated or decreased massively in incidence, largely as a result of CDC. By the mid-1970s, China was already undergoing the epidemiologic transition, years ahead of other nations of similar economic status. These early successes can be attributed to population mobilization, mass campaigns and a focus on sanitation, hygiene, clean water and clean delivery, and occurred despite political instability and slow economic progress. The 10-year Cultural Revolution from 1966 brought many hardships, but also clinical care and continuing public health programs to the masses through community-funded medical schemes and the establishment of community-based health workers. These people-focused approaches broke down with China’s market reforms from 1980. Village doctors turned to private practice as community funding ceased, and the attention paid to rural public health declined. CDC relied on vertical programs, some of them successful (such as elimination of lymphatic filariasis and child immunisation), but others (such as control of schistosomiasis and tuberculosis) demonstrating only intermittent progress due to failed strategies or reliance on support by the poorest governments and health workers, who could not or would not collaborate. In addition, China’s laissez-faire approach to public health placed it at great risk, as evidenced by the outbreak in 2003 of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Since then, major changes to disease reporting, the priority given to CDC including through major new domestic resources and reform of China’s health system offer encouragement for CDC. While decentralized funding and varying quality diagnosis, reporting and treatment of infectious diseases remain major challenges, national priority on CDC in China is high. PMID:23198121

  18. Post-Mao China: Educational Services for Exceptional Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yi; Yang, Ling-Yan; Xiao, Fei; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    When William Moore, a Scottish Presbyterian pastor, established the first special school in China in 1874, the country began her long and circuitous journey toward establishing formal educational services for individuals with special needs. Special education in China developed slowly on the infertile soil of continual wars, political instability,…

  19. Changes in Chinese Education Since the Death of Mao Zedong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, S.R.; Sheean, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses education in contemporary China, with emphasis on educating working class intellectuals, instituting basic compulsory schooling, centralizing educational policy, and raising academic standards. Journal availability: Comparative and International Education Society of Canada, Althouse College, University of Western Ontario, London, On, N6G…

  20. Privatization or Marketization: Educational Development in Post-Mao China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    1999-01-01

    Examines how the flourishing market economy and the policy of decentralization have affected the development of China's higher education, specifically the movement away from relying solely on public schools. Rather, private and minban educational institutions are becoming more popular in the new socialist market system. Concludes with a discussion…

  1. Beijing--ten years after Mao: country profile.

    PubMed

    Rusoff, D

    1987-03-01

    An examination of demographic trends in Beijing--China's capital and the center of its political and cultural life--can yield important information on future consumer trends for the country as a whole. Age and income are the most influential demographic characteristics in determining what people will buy. As a result of economic reforms under Deng Xiaoping, per capita income available for living expenses in urban China almost doubled between 1978 and 1984, from 316 to 608 yuan. By the year 2000, the purchase of commodities in urban staff and worker households is projected to account for 88% of total expenditures, with noncommodity expenditures accounting for the remaining 12%. The average age of 1st marriage and 1st childbirth is gradually rising, while the interval between marriage and 1st birth is decreasing. The fertility rate in Beijing was 1.6 births/woman in 1981 and 91% of all births in 1983 were 1st births. Despite its one-child policy and drastically reduced fertility rates, Beijing's population will continue to grow until the large numbers of young people born during the high fertility period of the 1950s and 1960s pass out of their childbearing years. Given a life expectancy of 78 years for men and 80 years for women and an average of 1.5 births/woman, the proportion of those over age 65 years in China is projected to stand at 29% by 2040. This trend toward demographic aging suggests a need to revamp social policies to alleviate the stress placed on Chinese families and increase financial aid to the elderly. There have been proposals to adopt a norm that would allow couples 2 children spaced 8-10 years apart. The average household size in Beijing in 1982 was 3.9 persons, with 2.3 jobholders/household. Between 1981 and 1984, the percentage of urban households having annual per capita incomes above 600 yuan rose from 18% to 49%.

  2. Factions in Communist China -- Around the Leadership of Mao.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-07-11

    leader ?«* pongeet porsonal historv of struggle. This was an important fact for tue SoÄsfpa"ty!Swhioh places great W^*?™^^ of r >arty affiliation. One...participated over long period in extralegal activities, under difficult conditions without once being apprlhended, wounded or bedridden from ^e« 1B

  3. Integrated Performance of Next Generation High Data Rate Receiver and AR4JA LDPC Codec for Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Lyubarev, Mark; Nakashima, Michael A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Lee, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are the state-of-the-art in forward error correction (FEC) technology that exhibits capacity approaching performance. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has designed a family of LDPC codes that are similar in structure and therefore, leads to a single decoder implementation. The Accumulate-Repeat-by-4-Jagged- Accumulate (AR4JA) code design offers a family of codes with rates 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 and lengths 1024, 4096, 16384 information bits. Performance is less than one dB from capacity for all combinations.Integrating a stand-alone LDPC decoder with a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) receiver faces additional challenges than building a single receiver-decoder unit from scratch. In this work, we outline the issues and show that these additional challenges can be over-come by simple solutions. To demonstrate that an LDPC decoder can be made to work seamlessly with a COTS receiver, we interface an AR4JA LDPC decoder developed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with a modern high data rate receiver and mea- sure the combined receiver-decoder performance. Through optimizations that include an improved frame synchronizer and different soft-symbol scaling algorithms, we show that a combined implementation loss of less than one dB is possible and therefore, most of the coding gain evidence in theory can also be obtained in practice. Our techniques can benefit any modem that utilizes an advanced FEC code.

  4. Assessment of iodine nutritional status in the general population in the province of Jaén.

    PubMed

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Serrano Quero, Manuel; Moreno Martínez, Macarena; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Santiago Fernández, Piedad

    2015-10-01

    Iodine deficiency affecting both pregnant women and schoolchildren has been reported in Jaén. Iodine deficiency is one of the leading causes of thyroid dysfunction and goiter, and adequate iodine prophylaxis with iodized salt, milk, and dairy products, or iodine supplementation have been shown to significantly improve iodine status in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to assess iodine nutritional status in the general population of a iodine-deficient area with no previous institutional campaigns of iodine prophylaxis. A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Urinary iodine levels were measured in subjects from the Jaén healthcare district. The data were stratified by sex and age groups, and a survey was conducted on iodized salt consumption. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59 mcg/L and 130.11 mcg/L respectively. Urinary iodine levels were significantly higher in schoolchildren as compared to other age groups (161.52μg/L vs 109.33μg/L in subjects older than 65 years). Forty-three percent of the population had urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L, and 68% of women of childbearing age had levels less than 150μg/L. Iodine nutritional status appears to be adequate, but the proportion of the population with urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L is still very high, and iodized salt consumption is much less common than recommended by the WHO. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome Analysis of the Biotechnologically Relevant Acidophilic Iron Oxidising Strain JA12 Indicates Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity within the Novel Genus “Ferrovum”

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Sophie R.; Poehlein, Anja; Tischler, Judith S.; González, Carolina; Ossandon, Francisco J.; Daniel, Rolf; Holmes, David S.; Schlömann, Michael; Mühling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the genus “Ferrovum” are ubiquitously distributed in acid mine drainage (AMD) waters which are characterised by their high metal and sulfate loads. So far isolation and microbiological characterisation have only been successful for the designated type strain “Ferrovum myxofaciens” P3G. Thus, knowledge about physiological characteristics and the phylogeny of the genus “Ferrovum” is extremely scarce. Objective In order to access the wider genetic pool of the genus “Ferrovum” we sequenced the genome of a “Ferrovum”-containing mixed culture and successfully assembled the almost complete genome sequence of the novel “Ferrovum” strain JA12. Phylogeny and Lifestyle The genome-based phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain JA12 and the type strain represent two distinct “Ferrovum” species. “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is characterised by an unusually small genome in comparison to the type strain and other iron oxidising bacteria. The prediction of nutrient assimilation pathways suggests that “Ferrovum” strain JA12 maintains a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle utilising carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, ammonium and urea, sulfate, phosphate and ferrous iron as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and energy sources, respectively. Unique Metabolic Features The potential utilisation of urea by “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is moreover remarkable since it may furthermore represent a strategy among extreme acidophiles to cope with the acidic environment. Unlike other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs “Ferrovum” strain JA12 exhibits a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, a metabolic feature shared with the closer related neutrophilic iron oxidisers among the Betaproteobacteria including Sideroxydans lithotrophicus and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Furthermore, the absence of characteristic redox proteins involved in iron oxidation in the well-studied acidophiles Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (rusticyanin) and Acidithiobacillus

  6. Risk of malnutrition (over and under-nutrition): validation of the JaNuS screening tool.

    PubMed

    Donini, Lorenzo M; Ricciardi, Laura Maria; Neri, Barbara; Lenzi, Andrea; Marchesini, Giulio

    2014-12-01

    Malnutrition (over and under-nutrition) is highly prevalent in patients admitted to hospital and it is a well-known risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems are often misdiagnosed, and especially the coexistence of over and undernutrition is not usually recognized. We aimed to develop and validate a screening tool for the easy detection and reporting of both undernutrition and overnutrition, specifically identifying the clinical conditions where the two types of malnutrition coexist. The study consisted of three phases: 1) selection of an appropriate study population (estimation sample) and of the hospital admission parameters to identify overnutrition and undernutrition; 2) combination of selected variables to create a screening tool to assess the nutritional risk in case of undernutrition, overnutrition, or the copresence of both the conditions, to be used by non-specialist health care professionals; 3) validation of the screening tool in a different patient sample (validation sample). Two groups of variables (12 for undernutrition, 7 for overnutrition) were identified in separate logistic models for their correlation with the outcome variables. Both models showed high efficacy, sensitivity and specificity (overnutrition, 97.7%, 99.6%, 66.6%, respectively; undernutrition, 84.4%, 83.6%, 84.8%). The logistic models were used to construct a two-faced test (named JaNuS - Just A Nutritional Screening) fitting into a two-dimension Cartesian coordinate graphic system. In the validation sample the JaNuS test confirmed its predictive value. Internal consistency and test-retest analysis provide evidence for the reliability of the test. The study provides a screening tool for the assessment of the nutritional risk, based on parameters easy-to-use by health care personnel lacking nutritional competence and characterized by excellent predictive validity. The test might be confidently applied in the clinical setting to determine the importance of

  7. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J A; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Julian, V; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Carrascosa, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system.

  8. The JaCVAM international validation study on the in vivo comet assay: Selection of test chemicals.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takeshi; Uno, Yoshifumi; Honma, Masamitsu; Kojima, Hajime; Hayashi, Makoto; Tice, Raymond R; Corvi, Raffaella; Schechtman, Leonard

    2015-07-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) sponsored an international prevalidation and validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline pH comet assay. The main objective of the study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for correctly identifying genotoxic carcinogens, as compared with the traditional rat liver unscheduled DNA synthesis assay. Based on existing carcinogenicity and genotoxicity data and chemical class information, 90 chemicals were identified as primary candidates for use in the validation study. From these 90 chemicals, 46 secondary candidates and then 40 final chemicals were selected based on a sufficiency of carcinogenic and genotoxic data, differences in chemical class or genotoxic or carcinogenic mode of action (MOA), availability, price, and ease of handling. These 40 chemicals included 19 genotoxic carcinogens, 6 genotoxic non-carcinogens, 7 non-genotoxic carcinogens and 8 non-genotoxic non-carcinogens. "Genotoxicity" was defined as positive in the Ames mutagenicity test or in one of the standard in vivo genotoxicity tests (primarily the erythrocyte micronucleus assay). These chemicals covered various chemicals classes, MOAs, and genotoxicity profiles and were considered to be suitable for the purpose of the validation study. General principles of chemical selection for validation studies are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  10. Gene-to-metabolite network for biosynthesis of lignans in MeJA-elicited Isatis indigotica hairy root cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruibing; Li, Qing; Tan, Hexin; Chen, Junfeng; Xiao, Ying; Ma, Ruifang; Gao, Shouhong; Zerbe, Philipp; Chen, Wansheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Root and leaf tissue of Isatis indigotica shows notable anti-viral efficacy, and are widely used as “Banlangen” and “Daqingye” in traditional Chinese medicine. The plants' pharmacological activity is attributed to phenylpropanoids, especially a group of lignan metabolites. However, the biosynthesis of lignans in I. indigotica remains opaque. This study describes the discovery and analysis of biosynthetic genes and AP2/ERF-type transcription factors involved in lignan biosynthesis in I. indigotica. MeJA treatment revealed differential expression of three genes involved in phenylpropanoid backbone biosynthesis (IiPAL, IiC4H, Ii4CL), five genes involved in lignan biosynthesis (IiCAD, IiC3H, IiCCR, IiDIR, and IiPLR), and 112 putative AP2/ERF transcription factors. In addition, four intermediates of lariciresinol biosynthesis were found to be induced. Based on these results, a canonical correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient was performed to construct gene-to-metabolite networks and identify putative key genes and rate-limiting reactions in lignan biosynthesis. Over-expression of IiC3H, identified as a key pathway gene, was used for metabolic engineering of I. indigotica hairy roots, and resulted in an increase in lariciresinol production. These findings illustrate the utility of canonical correlation analysis for the discovery and metabolic engineering of key metabolic genes in plants. PMID:26579184

  11. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves. PMID:27375495

  12. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves.

  13. Investigation of sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine in the alkaline comet assay: Part of the JaCVAM comet validation exercise.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Carol; Henderson, Debbie; Lillford, Lucinda

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine. Using the JaCVAM approved study protocol version 14.2, each chemical was tested in male rats up to maximum tolerated dose levels and DNA damage in the liver and stomach was assessed approximately 3h after the final administration by gavage. Histopathology assessments of liver and stomach sections from the same animals were also examined for evidence of cytotoxicity or necrosis. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach of animals treated with sodium arsenite at 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day. However, equivocal findings were found in the liver, where increases in DNA migration were observed in two independent experiments, but not in all treated animals and not at the same dose levels. Thioacetamide caused an increase in DNA migration in the stomach of rats treated at 19, 38, and 75 mg/kg/day, but not in the liver, despite evidence of marked hepatotoxicity following histopathology assessments. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach or liver of animals treated with diethanolamine at 175, 350, or 700 mg/kg/day. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pro Memoria. Professor Bolesław Jałowy (1906-1943): Mortui viventes obligant - the livings are obligated to the dead.

    PubMed

    Wincewicz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Professor Bolesław Jałowy (1906-1943) was a chairman of Department of Histology and Embryology at Faculty of Medicine of King John Casimir University (Polish: Universytet Jana Kazimierza: UJK) in Lvov. He succeeded Professor Władysław Szymonowicz (1869-1939) who held this position for decades. As the most skillful followers of his tutor, Bolesław Jałowy was a great investigator of physiology of human tissue, embryogenesis, histological consequences of female sex hormones on blood clotting action as well as regeneration of nerves in addition to description of silver staining technique for reticulin fibers of skin. He was a hard working person with gentle attitude to such a subtle matter as microscopic structure of human body. However, he happened to live in brutal conditions of nationalistic struggles. His example shows how much a dedicated scientist could do in a very short time as his life was tragically ended with murdering him during World War Two. His story is a great lesson for generations of academic workers how to meet high moral standards with efficient and creative scientific work in evil and destructive, nationalistic climate that occurs usually in wartime.

  15. GA3 and other signal regulators (MeJA and IAA) improve xanthumin biosynthesis in different manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Li, Changfu; Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-08-25

    Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound) biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberrellin A3 (GA3) at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM) or IAA (200 µM) treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM) led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment.

  16. RNA sequencing on Amomum villosum Lour. induced by MeJA identifies the genes of WRKY and terpene synthases involved in terpene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    He, Xueying; Wang, Huan; Yang, Jinfen; Deng, Ke; Wang, Teng

    2018-02-01

    Amomum villosum Lour. is an important Chinese medicinal plant that has diverse medicinal functions, and mainly contains volatile terpenes. This study aims to explore the WRKY transcription factors (TFs) and terpene synthase (TPS) unigenes that might be involved in terpene biosynthesis in A. villosum, and thus providing some new information on the regulation of terpenes in plants. RNA sequencing of A. villosum induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) revealed that the WRKY family was the second largest TF family in the transcriptome. Thirty-six complete WRKY domain sequences were expressed in response to MeJA. Further, six WRKY unigenes were highly correlated with eight deduced TPS unigenes. Ultimately, we combined the terpene abundance with the expression of candidate WRKY TFs and TPS unigenes to presume a possible model wherein AvWRKY61, AvWRKY28, and AvWRKY40 might coordinately trans-activate the AvNeoD promoter. We propose an approach to further investigate TF unigenes that might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis, and identified four unigenes for further analyses.

  17. European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA): a process evaluation performed by questionnaires and documentary analysis.

    PubMed

    Woodford Guegan, Eleanor; Cook, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA) project's overarching objective was to 'establish an effective and sustainable HTA [Health technology assessment] collaboration in Europe that brings added value at the regional, national and European level'. Specific objectives were to develop a strategy and business model for sustainable European collaboration on HTA, develop HTA tools and methods and promote good practice in HTA methods and processes. We describe activities performed on behalf of the National Institute for Health Research HTA programme; evaluating the project processes and developing a data set for a registry of planned clinical studies of relevance to public funders. Annual self-completion online questionnaires were sent to project participants and external stakeholders to identify their views about the project processes. Documentary review was undertaken at the project end on the final technical reports from the work packages to examine whether or not their deliverables had been achieved. The project's impact was assessed by whether or not the deliverables were produced, the objectives met and additional 'added value' generated. The project's effectiveness was evaluated by its processes, communication, administration, workings of individual work packages and involvement of external stakeholders. A two-stage Delphi exercise was undertaken to identify the data elements that should be included in a registry of planned clinical studies of relevance to public funders. The data set was validated by an efficacy testing exercise. High response rates were achieved for the questionnaires sent to project participants and this was attributed to the evidence-based strategy implemented. Response rates to questionnaires sent to external stakeholders were disappointingly lower. Most of the high-level objectives were achieved, although applying the developed tools in practice will be implemented in the European network for Health

  18. European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA): a process evaluation performed by questionnaires and documentary analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Woodford Guegan, Eleanor; Cook, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA) project's overarching objective was to 'establish an effective and sustainable HTA [Health technology assessment] collaboration in Europe that brings added value at the regional, national and European level'. Specific objectives were to develop a strategy and business model for sustainable European collaboration on HTA, develop HTA tools and methods and promote good practice in HTA methods and processes. We describe activities performed on behalf of the National Institute for Health Research HTA programme; evaluating the project processes and developing a data set for a registry of planned clinical studies of relevance to public funders. METHODS Annual self-completion online questionnaires were sent to project participants and external stakeholders to identify their views about the project processes. Documentary review was undertaken at the project end on the final technical reports from the work packages to examine whether or not their deliverables had been achieved. The project's impact was assessed by whether or not the deliverables were produced, the objectives met and additional 'added value' generated. The project's effectiveness was evaluated by its processes, communication, administration, workings of individual work packages and involvement of external stakeholders. A two-stage Delphi exercise was undertaken to identify the data elements that should be included in a registry of planned clinical studies of relevance to public funders. The data set was validated by an efficacy testing exercise. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION High response rates were achieved for the questionnaires sent to project participants and this was attributed to the evidence-based strategy implemented. Response rates to questionnaires sent to external stakeholders were disappointingly lower. Most of the high-level objectives were achieved, although applying the developed tools in practice will be

  19. Mechanical Properties of Aerojet, Thiokol, and JA2 High-Energy Gun Propellants at 1.5 m/s Deformation Rate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    a2 6 n -32 4C La /C A> i c 4S Figure 5. Remains of specimens tested at 210, 630, and -32 0C. 5 I AUg 2001 "-1t AERQJET/"THIDKOL LOTS 0111W PM 4-40.00...10.00 +78.00 STRESS (Mra) -THIOKOL LOT LA -10T3--01 +5.C THIOKOL LOT JA-IEZ35--Z-02 JAZ LOT HCL03JO14-001 -28.00 AE J>:T? +0.00 4.00 0.0 .0 *20.0 O30 +40M0...WARREN MI 48397-5000 MATERIAL SCIENCE TEAM AMSSB RSS 14 BENET LABORATORIES J HERBERT AMSTA AR CCB M SENNETT R FISCELLA KANSAS ST M SOJA NATICK MA 01760

  20. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  1. LOW-TEMPERATURE ION TRAP STUDIES OF N{sup +}({sup 3} P{sub ja} ) + H{sub 2}(j) {yields} NH{sup +} + H

    SciT

    Zymak, I.; Hejduk, M.; Mulin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Using a low-temperature 22-pole ion trap apparatus, detailed measurements for the title reaction have been performed between 10 K and 100 K in order to get some state specific information about this fundamental hydrogen abstraction process. The relative population of the two lowest H{sub 2} rotational states, j = 0 and 1, has been varied systematically. NH{sup +} formation is nearly thermo-neutral; however, to date, the energetics are not known with the accuracy required for low-temperature astrochemistry. Additional complications arise from the fact that, so far, there is no reliable theoretical or experimental information on how the reactivity of themore » N{sup +} ion depends on its fine-structure (FS) state {sup 3} P{sub ja} . Since in the present trapping experiment, thermalization of the initially hot FS population competes with hydrogen abstraction, the evaluation of the decay of N{sup +} ions over long storage times and at various He and H{sub 2} gas densities provides information on these processes. First assuming strict adiabatic behavior, a set of state specific rate coefficients is derived from the measured thermal rate coefficients. In addition, by recording the disappearance of the N{sup +} ions over several orders of magnitude, information on nonadiabatic transitions is extracted including FS-changing collisions.« less

  2. Partial amino acid sequence of the branched chain amino acid aminotransferase (TmB) of E. coli JA199 pDU11

    SciT

    Feild, M.J.; Armstrong, F.B.

    1987-05-01

    E. coli JA199 pDU11 harbors a multicopy plasmid containing the ilv GEDAY gene cluster of S. typhimurium. TmB, gene product of ilv E, was purified, crystallized, and subjected to Edman degradation using a gas phase sequencer. The intact protein yielded an amino terminal 31 residue sequence. Both carboxymethylated apoenzyme and (/sup 3/H)-NaBH-reduced holoenzyme were then subjected to digestion by trypsin. The digests were fractionated using reversed phase HPLC, and the peptides isolated were sequenced. The borohydride-treated holoenzyme was used to isolate the cofactor-binding peptide. The peptide is 27 residues long and a comparison with known sequences of other aminotransferases revealedmore » limited homology. Peptides accounting for 211 of 288 predicted residues have been sequenced, including 9 residues of the carboxyl terminus. Comparison of peptides with the inferred amino acid sequence of the E. coli K-12 enzyme has helped determine the sequence of the amino terminal 59 residues; only two differences between the sequences are noted in this region.« less

  3. Multimorbidity care model: Recommendations from the consensus meeting of the Joint Action on Chronic Diseases and Promoting Healthy Ageing across the Life Cycle (JA-CHRODIS).

    PubMed

    Palmer, Katie; Marengoni, Alessandra; Forjaz, Maria João; Jureviciene, Elena; Laatikainen, Tiina; Mammarella, Federica; Muth, Christiane; Navickas, Rokas; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Rijken, Mieke; Rothe, Ulrike; Souchet, Laurène; Valderas, Jose; Vontetsianos, Theodore; Zaletel, Jelka; Onder, Graziano

    2018-01-01

    Patients with multimorbidity have complex health needs but, due to the current traditional disease-oriented approach, they face a highly fragmented form of care that leads to inefficient, ineffective, and possibly harmful clinical interventions. There is limited evidence on available integrated and multidimensional care pathways for multimorbid patients. An expert consensus meeting was held to develop a framework for care of multimorbid patients that can be applied across Europe, within a project funded by the European Union; the Joint Action on Chronic Diseases and Promoting Healthy Ageing across the Life Cycle (JA-CHRODIS). The experts included a diverse group representing care providers and patients, and included general practitioners, family medicine physicians, neurologists, geriatricians, internists, cardiologists, endocrinologists, diabetologists, epidemiologists, psychologists, and representatives from patient organizations. Sixteen components across five domains were identified (Delivery of Care; Decision Support; Self Management Support; Information Systems and Technology; and Social and Community Resources). The description and aim of each component are described in these guidelines, along with a summary of key characteristics and relevance to multimorbid patients. Due to the lack of evidence-based recommendations specific to multimorbid patients, this care model needs to be assessed and validated in different European settings to examine specifically how multimorbid patients will benefit from this care model, and whether certain components have more importance than others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Condensed-Phase Processes during Solid Propellant Combustion. Part 2: Chemical and Microscopic Examination of Conductively Quenched Samples of RDX, XM39, JA2, M30, and HMX-Binder Compositions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    combustion of most of the propellants, with the possible exception of JA2; scanning electron microcope examination shows the existence of a liquid layer but... compounds are similar (Fifer et Sl. 1985; Hoffsommer, Glover, and Elban 1985), the relative Intensities In Table 2 should provide rough, order-of...top of the liquid layer. In addition, the HPLC chromatograms contained a number of very weak, unknown peaks apparently corresponding to compounds

  5. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for detection of genotoxic carcinogens: II. Summary of definitive validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Beevers, Carol; De Boeck, Marlies; Burlinson, Brian; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Kitamoto, Sachiko; Kraynak, Andrew R; McNamee, James; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Pant, Kamala; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Priestley, Catherine; Takasawa, Hironao; Wada, Kunio; Wirnitzer, Uta; Asano, Norihide; Escobar, Patricia A; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Nakajima, Madoka; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this exercise was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The study protocol was optimized in the pre-validation studies, and then the definitive (4th phase) validation study was conducted in two steps. In the 1st step, assay reproducibility was confirmed among laboratories using four coded reference chemicals and the positive control ethyl methanesulfonate. In the 2nd step, the predictive capability was investigated using 40 coded chemicals with known genotoxic and carcinogenic activity (i.e., genotoxic carcinogens, genotoxic non-carcinogens, non-genotoxic carcinogens, and non-genotoxic non-carcinogens). Based on the results obtained, the in vivo comet assay is concluded to be highly capable of identifying genotoxic chemicals and therefore can serve as a reliable predictor of rodent carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. La–Ce isotope measurements by multicollector-ICPMS† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7ja00256d

    PubMed Central

    Münker, Carsten; Strub, Erik

    2017-01-01

    radiogenic 138Ce and to perform isochron dating, a protocol was developed where La and Ce concentrations are determined by isotope dilution (ID), using an isotope tracer enriched in 138La and 142Ce. The new protocols were applied to determine the variations of Ce isotope compositions and La–Ce concentrations of certified geochemical reference materials (CRMs): BCR-2, BCR-1, BHVO-2, JR-1, JA-2, JB-3, JG-1, JR-1, JB-1b, AGV-1 and one in-house La Palma standard. PMID:29456283

  7. Comparative genomic analysis of single-molecule sequencing and hybrid approaches for finishing the Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1 strain DSM 10061 genome

    SciT

    Brown, Steven D; Nagaraju, Shilpa; Utturkar, Sagar M

    Background Clostridium autoethanogenum strain JA1-1 (DSM 10061) is an acetogen capable of fermenting CO, CO2 and H2 (e.g. from syngas or waste gases) into biofuel ethanol and commodity chemicals such as 2,3-butanediol. A draft genome sequence consisting of 100 contigs has been published. Results A closed, high-quality genome sequence for C. autoethanogenum DSM10061 was generated using only the latest single-molecule DNA sequencing technology and without the need for manual finishing. It is assigned to the most complex genome classification based upon genome features such as repeats, prophage, nine copies of the rRNA gene operons. It has a low G +more » C content of 31.1%. Illumina, 454, Illumina/454 hybrid assemblies were generated and then compared to the draft and PacBio assemblies using summary statistics, CGAL, QUAST and REAPR bioinformatics tools and comparative genomic approaches. Assemblies based upon shorter read DNA technologies were confounded by the large number repeats and their size, which in the case of the rRNA gene operons were ~5 kb. CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Paloindromic Repeats) systems among biotechnologically relevant Clostridia were classified and related to plasmid content and prophages. Potential associations between plasmid content and CRISPR systems may have implications for historical industrial scale Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation failures and future large scale bacterial fermentations. While C. autoethanogenum contains an active CRISPR system, no such system is present in the closely related Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528. A common prophage inserted into the Arg-tRNA shared between the strains suggests a common ancestor. However, C. ljungdahlii contains several additional putative prophages and it has more than double the amount of prophage DNA compared to C. autoethanogenum. Other differences include important metabolic genes for central metabolism (as an additional hydrogenase and the absence of a

  8. Collected Works of Mao Tse-Tung (1917-1949). Volumes 5-6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-16

    general mobilization of the army, navy, and air force and the people of all of China for a sacred anti-Japanese national revolutionary war , in order to...Japan Red Army of China have continuously appealed to the people of the entire nation to unite and wage war against Japan. They sent the main force of...organize, wage a national revolutionary war , and oust Japanese imperial- ism and the Chinese warlords from the territory of Inner Mongolia, no one will

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UV and IR properties for galaxies (Mao+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Y.-W.; Kong, X.; Lin, L.

    2017-03-01

    Broadband FUV and NUV imaging data were obtained from GALEX observations and downloaded from the Multimission Archive at Space Telescope Science Institute (MAST) Web site (http://galex.stsci.edu/); 8um (dust-only) and 24um images were observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope (Spitzer) and retrieved from the SINGS data distribution service (http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu/data/SPITZER/SINGS/). Hα narrowband imaging data are also employed in this work. The Hα narrowband image for NGC 3031 was observed by the 60/90 cm Schmidt telescope at Xing-Long station of the National Astronomical Observatories of China with the filter of transmission profile FWHM~120Å. (2 data files).

  10. Collected Works of Mao Tse-Tung (1917-1949), Volumes 1-2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-22

    or even a family an individual, is not properly handled. " Jackals of the same lair, that s what they are! It is not easy to discuss the great...nation of China will be achieved ahead of any area and any nation. Gentlemen! Gentlemen! We must exert ourselves! We must strive forward! Our golden ...arrival of the Red Army in Hsing-kuo when the jackals of the Pacification Corps ran away into the hills. There was no land distribution then. In

  11. From Mao to Memphis: Chinese Immigrant Fathers' Involvement with Their Children's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alan

    2008-01-01

    How do adults adapt when they have been inculcated into a particular philosophy of parenting and education and are then expected to adjust to a cultural framework possibly at odds with their worldview? Mainland Chinese fathers represent one immigrant group that has had to successfully learn to navigate various challenges while interacting with…

  12. Influence of Polarity and Activation Energy in Microwave–Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS)

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Antonio M; Prieto, Pilar; de la Hoz, Antonio; Díaz-Ortiz, Ángel; Martín, D Raúl; García, José I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the parameters that have decisive roles in microwave-assisted reactions and to develop a model, using computational chemistry, to predict a priori the type of reactions that can be improved under microwaves. For this purpose, a computational study was carried out on a variety of reactions, which have been reported to be improved under microwave irradiation. This comprises six types of reactions. The outcomes obtained in this study indicate that the most influential parameters are activation energy, enthalpy, and the polarity of all the species that participate. In addition to this, in most cases, slower reacting systems observe a much greater improvement under microwave irradiation. Furthermore, for these reactions, the presence of a polar component in the reaction (solvent, reagent, susceptor, etc.) is necessary for strong coupling with the electromagnetic radiation. We also quantified that an activation energy of 20–30 kcal mol−1 and a polarity (μ) between 7–20 D of the species involved in the process is required to obtain significant improvements under microwave irradiation. PMID:26246993

  13. A Study of a Classical Leader: Sun Tzu and His Influence on Mao Tse-Tung

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    lived. The primary source for this chapter is Dr. Samuel B. Griffith’s translation of the treatise from Sun Hsing- yen , a leading Chinese authority on Sun...Ch in, Wei, Han, Chao, Yen , and Yueh. The latter two states played no major parts in the wars which were to eventually unite China. Because all the...troops. 8. The nine variables: The nine variables of tactics are as follows: (.) You should not encamp in low-lying ground. (2.) In communicating

  14. An exploration of China's mortality decline under Mao: A provincial analysis, 1950–80

    PubMed Central

    Babiarz, Kimberly Singer; Eggleston, Karen; Miller, Grant; Zhang, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    China's growth in life expectancy between 1950 and 1980 ranks as among the most rapid sustained increases in documented global history. However, no study of which we are aware has quantitatively assessed the relative importance of various explanations proposed for these gains. We create and analyse a new province-level panel data set spanning 1950-80 using historical information from Chinese public health archives, official provincial yearbooks, and infant and child mortality records contained in the 1988 National Survey of Fertility and Contraception. Although exploratory, our results suggest that increases in educational attainment and public health campaigns jointly explain 50-70 per cent of the dramatic reductions in infant and under-five mortality during our study period. These results are consistent with the importance of non-medical determinants of population health improvement – and under some circumstances, how general education may amplify the effectiveness of public health interventions. PMID:25495509

  15. The Effectiveness of Mao’s Influence Operations at the Beginning of the Chinese Civil War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    the merchants. This class was not only comprised of the local shop keepers and trade merchants but was also home to many wealthy monopolists traders...relied on the village-and- market center community.14 These communities would be the basis in which the farmer classes received many of their basic and...1-7. 20 public relations and communications, social marketing , statistics, and trend analysis

  16. Mao Was My Neighbour: Yao Zhongda and the "Opening" of Chinese Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    2013-01-01

    After Deng Xiaoping's 1978 reform and opening, foreigners had a chance to see adult education in China. As a result, many met Yao Zhongda, Chief of the Bureau of Workers' and Peasants Education. From 1921 onwards, adult education has been a vital corollary of Communist revolution. Although Yao's biography was extremely relevant to what foreigners…

  17. Collected Works of Mao Tse-Tung (1917-1949), Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-10

    Spanking of children had not been com- pletely stopped, but it was reduced. (There should be no spanking at all.) The children had become more...intelligent. In the past, when spanked or scolded by their parents, they seldom retorted, but now more of them re- torted. (If the parents did not... spank or scold them, the children would not be retorting.) About 1 percent of the women married 3 times in the 4-1/2 years after the uprising

  18. Further evidence of MAO-A gene variants associated with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel J; Serretti, Alessandro; Sicard, Tricia; Tharmalingam, Subi; King, Nicole; Artioli, Paola; Mandelli, Laura; Lorenzi, Cristina; Kennedy, James L

    2007-01-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate MAOA gene variants in bipolar disorder by using a family-based association approach. The first sample included 331 nuclear families from Western and Central Canada with at least 1 offspring affected with bipolar disorder comprising a total of 1,044 individuals. All subjects were genotyped for MAOA-941T > G and -uVNTR gene variants using PCR techniques. Haplotype TDT was statistically significant (LRS = 12.17; df = 3; P = 0.0068; permutation global significance = 0.00098), with the T-4 haplotype significantly associated with bipolar disorder (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.11-2.37). Single marker analysis evidenced a borderline association for MAOA-941T > G (P = 0.04), but not for the uVNTR. Pooling the Canadian sample with a second previously reported Italian sample genotyped for the uVNTR variant, negative results were obtained as well. No different results were detected when analyzing female subjects separately. In conclusion, our family-based association study gives mild but further support of the involvement of MAOA variants in bipolar disorder.

  19. MAO-derived hydroxyapatite/TiO2 nanostructured multi-layer coatings on titanium substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, S.; Golestani-Fard, F.; Rezaie, H. R.; Mirhosseini, S. M. M.

    2012-11-01

    In this study, titanium substrates which previously oxidized through Micro arc oxidation method, was coated by Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating once more by means of the same method. Morphology, topography and chemical properties as well as phase composition and thickness of layers were studied to reveal the effect of the electrolyte concentration on coating features. According to results, the obtained coatings are consisted of HAp and titania as the major phases along with minor amounts of calcium titanate and α-tri calcium phosphate. Ca and P are present on surface of obtained layers as well as predictable Ti and O based on the XPS results. Thickness profile of coatings figured out that by increasing the electrolyte concentration, especially by addition of more Calcium Acetate (CA) to electrolyte, the thickness of HAp layer would rise, consequently. However, the influence of coating time on thickness of obtained coatings would be more considerable than electrolyte concentration. High specific area coatings with nest morphology were obtained in Electrolyte containing 5 g/L β-Glycero Phosphate (β-GP) and 5 g/L CA. Increasing coating duration time in this kind of coatings would cause deduction of the nesting in their structure.

  20. Artificial Satellites Observations Using the Complex of Telescopes of RI "MAO"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sybiryakova, Ye. S.; Shulga, O. V.; Vovk, V. S.; Kaliuzny, M. P.; Bushuev, F. I.; Kulichenko, M. O.; Haloley, M. I.; Chernozub, V. M.

    2017-02-01

    Special methods, means and software for cosmic objects' observation and processing of obtained results were developed. Combined method, which consists in separated accumulation of images of reference stars and artificial objects, is the main method used in observations of artificial cosmic objects. It is used for observations of artificial objects at all types of orbits.

  1. Old Book, New Lessons: Mao, Osama, and the Global Qutbist Insurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    peel back the veneer of the religious rhetoric, Al Qaeda is uncovered as an organization with tenable political goals. Al Qaeda’s objective of...ofSayyid Qutb and other Islamic theoreticians (e.g. AbuldAla Muaduid and Hassan Banna ) who provide the intellectual rationale underpinning Islamic

  2. JPRS Report, China, Maos Legacy in Anhui, Rural Reform 1978-80.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-28

    boil some noodles , and then asked Zhan Shaozhou: "What brought you here?" "To report to you!" "Report what?" "It has begun. More is being done...policy of looking after serious disaster areas on holidays, providing each person with 3 jin of rice, 2 jin of noodles , and xh jin of meat. They went...abandon for an instant ! Chapter 6. A Tragedy Not To Be Repeated—1980: The Great Anhui Flood History Continues To Testify 1 The Earth, which nurtures us

  3. Collected Works of Mao Tse-Tung (1917-1949), Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-05

    factories) are to be nationalized. Lend- lease contracts will be re- negotiated on some foreign business enterprises currently being allowed to operate...holds that all negotiations and agreements between them and imperialism are null and void. With regard to the Manchuria incident, we 39 propose the...all negotiations and secret treaties between the Kuomintang and imperialism! Overthrow the counterrevolutionary rule of the Kuomintang! Down with

  4. The electromagnetic wave energy effect(s) in microwave-assisted organic syntheses (MAOS).

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Tomoki; Narita, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yumiko; Serpone, Nick

    2018-03-26

    Organic reactions driven by microwaves have been subjected for several years to some enigmatic phenomenon referred to as the microwave effect, an effect often mentioned in microwave chemistry but seldom understood. We identify this microwave effect as an electromagnetic wave effect that influences many chemical reactions. In this article, we demonstrate its existence using three different types of microwave generators with dissimilar oscillation characteristics. We show that this effect is operative in photocatalyzed TiO 2 reactions; it negatively influences electro-conductive catalyzed reactions, and yet has but a negligible effect on organic syntheses. The relationship between this electromagnetic wave effect and chemical reactions is elucidated from such energetic considerations as the photon energy and the reactions' activation energies.

  5. Mass Media Decision in China's Post-Mao Zedong Modernization Program: Some Unanticipated Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Charles M.

    In 1978, China launched its "Four Modernizations" program, which included modernization in agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology. To promote this program and to mobilize the Chinese masses to take a more positive and active attitude toward modernization, the government called upon the forces of the mass…

  6. Confucius, Mao, and Modernization: Social Studies in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouts, Jeffrey T.; Chan, Jack C. K.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the communist Chinese national curriculum in social studies, a broad term that includes moral and political education, as well as traditional subjects. Includes a sample moral and political education lesson, " Socialism is Good," and lists of several textbook contents and curriculum guides. Provides a brief educational history.…

  7. Why am I not disabled? Making state subjects, making statistics in post--Mao China.

    PubMed

    Kohrman, Matthew

    2003-03-01

    In this article I examine how and why disability was defined and statistically quantified by China's party-state in the late 1980s. I describe the unfolding of a particular epidemiological undertaking--China's 1987 National Sample Survey of Disabled Persons--as well as the ways the survey was an extension of what Ian Hacking has called modernity's "avalanche of numbers." I argue that, to a large degree, what fueled and shaped the 1987 survey's codification and quantification of disability was how Chinese officials were incited to shape their own identities as they negotiated an array of social, political, and ethical forces, which were at once national and transnational in orientation.

  8. Diagnosis postponed: shenjing shuairuo and the transformation of psychiatry in post-mao China.

    PubMed

    Lee, S

    1999-09-01

    Building on Arthur Kleinman's seminal work in Hunan, this paper examines the social context in which shenjing shuairuo (neurasthenia), a ubiquitous psychiatric disease in China prior to 1980, is contested, marginalized, and reconstituted as the popular Western disease of depression among academic psychiatrists in urban China. It is argued that this dramatic change of diagnostic labelling is not only based on empirical evidence. Rather, it is also a product of interests and strategies that are themselves embedded in a confluence of historical, social, political, and economic forces. Specifically, China's open door policy, the hegemony of DSM discourse, the depoliticization of experience, and the transnational commercialization of suffering have all played a role in creating the new-found disease of depression. As a new social construct in China, depression may serve different social functions for different institutional groups, such as drug companies' marketing of new antidepressant therapy, and academic psychiatrists' effort to render the study of suicide more admissible to the state. Because of the government's budgetary limitations and drastic changes in health care financing, however, global diagnostic technology and markets for drugs merely reinforce people's markedly unequal access to health care, which is but one facet of the pervasive social inequity that is China nowadays.

  9. From Mao toward Modernity: The Increasing Westernization of the People’s Liberation Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    42Xiaoping Deng and Zhongguo gong chan dang. Zhong yang Makesi En’gesi Liening Sidalin zhu zuo bian yi ju., Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, 1982...1992. vol. 3, 1st ed. ( Beijing , China: Foreign Languages Press, 1994), 133. 43Information Office of the State Council, The People’s Republic of China...its sovereign interests in what Beijing considered its backyard. The result was Beijing’s adoption of a strategy that sought to compel greater

  10. The Shining Path: The Successful Blending of Mao and Mariategui in Peru

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-05

    the textbook models such that those familiar with the situation are unsure as to the current balance of forces and how the Peruvian government... familiar with the power of the Shining Path. The growth of the Shining Path in Lima and in the Upper Huallaga Valley is connected. By 1987 the Shining...California Press, 1972. Rojas Samanez, Alvaro, and Ouillermo Blanco Woolcott, ed. Sendero de Violencia : Testimonios Periodisticos 1980- 1989

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radiative recombination electron energy loss data (Mao+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Kaastra, J.; Badnell, N. R.

    2016-11-01

    The weighted electron energy loss factors (dimensionless) are defined by weighting the electron energy loss rate coefficients (per ion) with respect to the total radiative recombination rates. Both the unparameterized and parameterized weighted electron energy-loss factors for H-like to Ne-like ions from H (z=1) up to and including Zn (z=30), in a wide temperature range, are available here. For the unparameterized data set, the temperatures are set to the conventional ADAS temperature grid, i.e. c2*(10,20,50,100,200,...,2*106,5*106,107)K, where c is the ionic charge of the recombined ion. For the fitting parameters, the temperature should be in units of eV. We refer to the recombined ion when we speak of the radiative recombination of a certain ion, for example, for a bare oxygen ion capturing a free electron via radiative recombination to form H-like oxygen (O VIII, s=1, z=8). The fitting accuracies are better than 4%. (2 data files).

  12. Collected Works of Mao Tse-Tung (1917-1949). Volumes 7-10

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-16

    Take Note Who Is the True Ruler of Our Country Today (18 May 1941) 58 Yenan Commentator on Current Affairs (24 May 1941) 63 Rumor and...resistance war and save the nation and the significance of initiating the political life of the nation toward true democracy. Therefore, besides continuing...especially to prepare for a true counteroffensive when the conditions are favorable and to expel the enemy bandits, a new national defense army must

  13. A New Measure of Text Formality: An Analysis of Discourse of Mao Zedong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Haiying; Graesser, Arthur C.; Conley, Mark; Cai, Zhiqiang; Pavlik, Philip I., Jr.; Pennebaker, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Formality has long been of interest in the study of discourse, with periodic discussions of the best measure of formality and the relationship between formality and text categories. In this research, we explored what features predict formality as humans perceive the construct. We categorized a corpus consisting of 1,158 discourse samples published…

  14. Citrus leprosis virus C Infection Results in Hypersensitive-Like Response, Suppression of the JA/ET Plant Defense Pathway and Promotion of the Colonization of Its Mite Vector

    PubMed Central

    Arena, Gabriella D.; Ramos-González, Pedro L.; Nunes, Maria A.; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Camargo, Luis E. A.; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Machado, Marcos A.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Leprosis is a serious disease of citrus caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C, genus Cilevirus) whose transmission is mediated by false spider mites of the genus Brevipalpus. CiLV-C infection does not systemically spread in any of its known host plants, thus remaining restricted to local lesions around the feeding sites of viruliferous mites. To get insight into this unusual pathosystem, we evaluated the expression profiles of genes involved in defense mechanisms of Arabidopsis thaliana and Citrus sinensis upon infestation with non-viruliferous and viruliferous mites by using reverse-transcription qPCR. These results were analyzed together with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the appearance of dead cells as assessed by histochemical assays. After interaction with non-viruliferous mites, plants locally accumulated ROS and triggered the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate/ethylene (JA/ET) pathways. ERF branch of the JA/ET pathways was highly activated. In contrast, JA pathway genes were markedly suppressed upon the CiLV-C infection mediated by viruliferous mites. Viral infection also intensified the ROS burst and cell death, and enhanced the expression of genes involved in the RNA silencing mechanism and SA pathway. After 13 days of infestation of two sets of Arabidopsis plants with non-viruliferous and viruliferous mites, the number of mites in the CiLV-C infected Arabidopsis plants was significantly higher than in those infested with the non-viruliferous ones. Oviposition of the viruliferous mites occurred preferentially in the CiLV-C infected leaves. Based on these results, we postulated the first model of plant/Brevipalpus mite/cilevirus interaction in which cells surrounding the feeding sites of viruliferous mites typify the outcome of a hypersensitive-like response, whereas viral infection induces changes in the behavior of its vector. PMID:27933078

  15. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) Sprout Treated with Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) Improved Anti-Adipogenic Activity Associated with the Oxidative Stress System in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Yoon, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties. PMID:23344050

  16. Evaluation of methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene and 5-fluorouracil: Part of the Japanese center for the validation of alternative methods (JaCVAM) international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Junker-Walker, Ursula; Martus, Hans-Joerg

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene, and 5-fluorouracil under coded test conditions. Rats were treated orally with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and two additional descending doses of the respective compounds. In the MMS treated groups liver and stomach showed significantly elevated DNA damage at each dose level and a significant dose-response relationship. 2,6-diaminotoluene induced significantly elevated DNA damage in the liver at each dose and a statistically significant dose-response relationship whereas no DNA damage was obtained in the stomach. 5-fluorouracil did not induce DNA damage in either liver or stomach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of a standardized JaCVAM in vivo rat comet assay protocol to assess the genotoxicity of three coded test compounds; ampicillin trihydrate, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), our laboratory examined ampicillin trihydrate (AMP), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDA) using a standard comet assay validation protocol (v14.2) developed by the JaCVAM validation management team (VMT). Coded samples were received by our laboratory along with basic MSDS information. Solubility analysis and range-finding experiments of the coded test compounds were conducted for dose selection. Animal dosing schedules, the comet assay processing and analysis, and statistical analysis were conducted in accordance with the standard protocol. Based upon our blinded evaluation, AMP was not found to exhibit evidence of genotoxicity in either the rat liver or stomach. However, both NDA and DMH were observed to cause a significant increase in % tail DNA in the rat liver at all dose levels tested. While acute hepatoxicity was observed for these compounds in the high dose group, in the investigators opinion there were a sufficient number of consistently damaged/measurable cells at the medium and low dose groups to judge these compounds as genotoxic. There was no evidence of genotoxicity from either NDA or DMH in the rat stomach. In conclusion, our laboratory observed increased DNA damage from two blinded test compounds in rat liver (later identified as genotoxic carcinogens), while no evidence of genotoxicity was observed for the third blinded test compound (later identified as a non-genotoxic, non-carcinogen). This data supports the use of a standardized protocol of the in vivo comet assay as a cost-effective alternative genotoxicity assay for regulatory testing purposes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether in the rat comet assay: Part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Priestley, Catherine C; Walker, Joanne S; O'Donovan, Michael R; Doherty, Ann T

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (DPE), a known rodent genotoxic carcinogen, was tested in this laboratory. Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of DPE, 24 and 21 h apart and liver or stomach sampled 3h after the final dose. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage in liver and stomach were observed with DPE (up to 200 mg/kg/day). A dose-dependent decrease in DNA migration, compared to vehicle controls, was noted for DPE in rat stomach. Further analysis is required to elucidate fully whether this decrease is a consequence of the mode of action or due to the toxicity of DPE. What is perhaps surprising is the inability of the comet assay to detect a known rat genotoxic carcinogen in liver. Further investigation is needed to clarify whether this apparent lack of response results from limited tissue exposure or metabolic differences between species. This finding highlights a need for careful consideration of study design when evaluating assay performance as a measure of in vivo genotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitors: implications for disease-modification in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental parkinsonian models to show the neuroprotective effects of monoamine oxidase-B (MAOB) inhibitors. They have been studied for their potential disease-modifying effects in Parkinson’s disease (PD) for over 20 years in various clinical trials. This review provides a summary of the clinical trials and discusses the implications of their results in the context of disease-modification in PD. Earlier clinical trials on selegiline were confounded by symptomatic effects of this drug. Later clinical trials on rasagiline using delayed-start design provide newer insights in disease-modification in PD but success in achieving the aims of this strategy remain elusive due to obstacles, some of which may be insurmountable. PMID:24011391

  1. Corticostriatal Connectivity in Antisocial Personality Disorder by MAO-A Genotype and Its Relationship to Aggressive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Nathan J; Dunlop, Katharine; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Downar, Jonathan

    2018-05-09

    The influence of genetic variation on resting-state neural networks represents a burgeoning line of inquiry in psychiatric research. Monoamine oxidase A, an X-linked gene, is one example of a molecular target linked to brain activity in psychiatric illness. Monoamine oxidase A genetic variants, including the high and low variable nucleotide tandem repeat polymorphisms, have been shown to differentially affect brain functional connectivity in healthy humans. However, it is currently unknown whether these same polymorphisms influence resting-state brain activity in clinical conditions. Given its high burden on society and strong connection to violent behavior, antisocial personality disorder is a logical condition to study, since in vivo markers of monoamine oxidase A brain enzyme are reduced in key affect-modulating regions, and striatal levels of monoamine oxidase A show a relation with the functional connectivity of this same region. We utilized monoamine oxidase A genotyping and seed-to-voxel-based functional connectivity to investigate the relationship between genotype and corticostriatal connectivity in 21 male participants with severe antisocial personality disorder and 19 male healthy controls. Dorsal striatal connectivity to the frontal pole and anterior cingulate gyrus differentiated antisocial personality disorder subjects and healthy controls by monoamine oxidase A genotype. Furthermore, the linear relationship of proactive aggression to superior ventral striatal-angular gyrus functional connectivity differed by monoamine oxidase A genotype in the antisocial personality disorder groups. These results suggest that monoamine oxidase A genotype may affect corticostriatal connectivity in antisocial personality disorder and that these functional connections may also underlie use of proactive aggression in a genotype-specific manner.

  2. "Mao Might Cheat": The Interactional Construction of the Imaginary Situation in a Fifth Dimension After-School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This article explores Vygtosky's (1978) notion of the imaginary situation through analysis of interaction and activity in a Fifth Dimension after-school setting, one of a network of programs designed with an aim to realize developmental concepts proposed by Vygotsky and others in the cultural-historical tradition (see, e.g., Cole & the…

  3. Interaction between Schoolteachers and Migrants' Children: (Based on Materials of a Concrete Sociological Survey in KhMAO-Iugra)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zasypkin, Z. P.; Zborovskii, G. E.; Shuklina, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the adaptation of children of migrants in Russia shows that while they adapt successfully in many ways, there is a need for teachers to be better equipped to deal with the cultural conflicts these children often experience.

  4. Pressure ulcers prevention efficacy of an alternating pressure air mattress in elderly patients: E²MAO a randomised study.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, P; Touflet, M; Pradere, C; Portalier, F; Michel, J-M; Charru, P; Passadori, Y; Fevrier, R; Hallet-Lezy, A-M; Beauchêne, F; Scherrer, B

    2017-06-02

    Our aim was to compare Axtair One, an alternating pressure air mattress (APAM), with a viscoelastic foam mattress (VFM) in elderly patients at moderate to high risk of developing pressure ulcers (PUs). A randomised, controlled, superiority, parallel-group, open-label, multicentre study, was conducted, between February 2012 and March 2015, in nine French, medium- and long-term stay facilities. Eligible patients were aged 70 and over, had no PUs on enrolment, were bedridden for at least 15 hours per day, had reduced mobility, an absent or minimal positioning capability, a Braden score <14, a nutritional status score >12 and a Karnofsky score <40%. The primary endpoint was the appearance of PUs over a 30-day monitoring period. The primary objective was to demonstrate a 50% reduction in instantaneous risk of PUs in the APAM versus the VFM group. Secondary objectives were to determine if preventive care was less frequent in the APAM group, the instantaneous relative risk of PUs (hazard ratio) was constant over time and the comfort experienced was higher in the APAM group and to verify the uniformity of the preventive benefit of an APAM, regardless of the level of exposure to major risk factors for PUs. We randomised 76 patients (39 in the APAM group and 37 in the VFM group). The groups were comparable on enrolment and throughout the study. The cumulative risk of PUs was estimated at 6.46% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64; 23.66] in the APAM group and at 38.91% [95% CI: 24.66; 57.59] in the VFM group, p=0.001 (log-rank test). The adjusted hazard ratio according to the Cox model with four prognostic factors for the appearance of PUs was 7.57 [95% CI: 1.67; 34.38, p=0.009]. Preventive care proved to be equivalent in both groups. The only risk factor significantly associated with an increased risk of PUs was the type of mattress (VFM). The comfort and tolerance perceived by the patients were both high and similar in the two groups. The constancy over time of the preventive benefit of an APAM could not be verified because of the lack of a sufficient number of events (appearance of PUs) in the APAM group. The APAM was superior to a VFM for preventing PUs in elderly patients, bedridden for more than 15 hours per day, severely dependent, at moderate-to high-risk of PUs, with an instantaneous risk for the appearance of PUs 7.57 times greater in the VFM group than in the APAM group. This study provides descriptive information and evidence for practice.

  5. Transitional Rhetoric of Chinese Communist Party Leaders in the Post-Mao Reform Period: Dilemmas and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Xing; Simons, Herbert W.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1978 China's ruling Communist Party has moved China's economy increasingly toward capitalism and its foreign policy toward strategic partnership with its old enemies in the West. These changes have required Party leaders to reconcile the reforms rhetorically with continued homage to their predecessors, to Chinese traditions, and to…

  6. Association of Positive and Negative Parenting Behavior with Childhood ADHD: Interactions with Offspring Monoamine Oxidase A (MAO-A) Genotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the potential interplay between genetic and environmental influences on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including gene-environment interaction (GxE). There is evidence that parenting behavior interacts with offspring genotype in the development of externalizing problems, but studies have largely…

  7. Realization of Vilnius UPXYZVS photometric system for AltaU42 CCD camera at the MAO NAS of Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vid'Machenko, A. P.; Andruk, V. M.; Samoylov, V. S.; Delets, O. S.; Nevodovsky, P. V.; Ivashchenko, Yu. M.; Kovalchuk, G. U.

    2005-06-01

    The description of two-inch glass filters of the Vilnius UPXYZVS photometric system, which are made at the Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine for AltaU42 CCD camera with format of 2048×2048 pixels, is presented in the paper. Reaction curves of instrumental system are shown. Estimations of minimal star's magnitudes for each filter's band in comparison with the visual V one are obtained. New software for automation of CCD frames processing is developed in program shell of LINUX/MIDAS/ROMAFOT. It is planned to carry out observations with the purpose to create the catalogue of primary UPXYZVS CCD standards in selected field of the sky for some radio-sources, globular and open clusters, etc. Numerical estimations of astrometric and photometric accuracy are obtained.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A cosmic void catalog of SDSS DR12 BOSS galaxies (Mao+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Q.; Berlind, A. A.; Scherrer, R. J.; Neyrinck, M. C.; Scoccimarro, R.; Tinker, J. L.; McBride, C. K.; Schneider, D. P.; Pan, K.; Bizyaev, D.; Malanushenko, E.; Malanushenko, V.

    2017-08-01

    We present a cosmic void catalog using the large-scale structure galaxy catalog from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This galaxy catalog is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 12 and is the final catalog of SDSS-III. We take into account the survey boundaries, masks, and angular and radial selection functions, and apply the ZOBOV (Neyrinck 2008MNRAS.386.2101N) void finding algorithm to the Galaxy catalog. We identify a total of 10643 voids. After making quality cuts to ensure that the voids represent real underdense regions, we obtain 1228 voids with effective radii spanning the range 20-100h-1Mpc and with central densities that are, on average, 30% of the mean sample density. We release versions of the catalogs both with and without quality cuts. We discuss the basic statistics of voids, such as their size and redshift distributions, and measure the radial density profile of the voids via a stacking technique. In addition, we construct mock void catalogs from 1000 mock galaxy catalogs, and find that the properties of BOSS voids are in good agreement with those in the mock catalogs. We compare the stellar mass distribution of galaxies living inside and outside of the voids, and find no large difference. These BOSS and mock void catalogs are useful for a number of cosmological and galaxy environment studies. (1 data file).

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Parameterization of level-resolved RR data fro SPEX (Mao+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Kaastra, J.

    2016-02-01

    The fitting parameters for the level-resolved radiative recombination rate coefficients for H-like to Na-like ions from H (z=1) up to and including (z=30), in a wide temperature range. The electron temperature should be in units of eV. We refer to the recombined ion when we speak of the radiative recombination of a certain ion, e.g. for a bare oxygen ion capturing a free electron via radiative recombination to form H-like oxygen (O VIII, s=1, z=8). The fitting accuracies are better than 5% for ~99% of the levels considered here. (1 data file).

  10. Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    signals that would satisfy the hazard of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance (HERO) requirements of modern munitions. Such integrated circuits can...NUMBER (Include area code) 410-278-6098 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 iii Contents List of Figures iv 1...fabricated as an integral element of a silicon chip. Integrated circuits that filter the firing command signal could remove extraneous electromagnetic

  11. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along su...

  12. [Effect of centrophenoxine, piracetam and aniracetam on the monoamine oxidase activity in different brain structures of rats].

    PubMed

    Stancheva, S L; Alova, L G

    1988-01-01

    In vitro studies of effects of some nootropic drugs (centrophenoxine, piracetam and aniracetam) on monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in the rat striatum and hypothalamus, using tyramine, serotonin and beta-phenylethylamine as substrates, were carried out. At all concentrations used (5.10(-5)-1.10(-3) M) centrophenoxine inhibited total MAO, MAO A and MAO B in both brain structures. Piracetam activated striatal and hypothalamic total MAO, hypothalamic MAO A and MAO B but exerted a pronounced inhibitory effect on MAO A and MAO B activity in the striatum. Aniracetam inhibited total MAO and MAO A in both brain structures but activated striatal and hypothalamic MAO B. The different effects of centrophenoxine, piracetam and aniracetam on MAO activity in the brain structures support the view for the independent mode of action of nootropic drugs in spite of their similar molecular and metabolic activity.

  13. Evaluation of p-phenylenediamine, o-phenylphenol sodium salt, and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the rat comet assay as part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Marlies; van der Leede, Bas-jan; De Vlieger, Kathleen; Geys, Helena; Vynckier, An; Van Gompel, Jacky

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (PPD), o-phenylphenol sodium salt (OPP), and 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), were analyzed in this laboratory as coded test chemicals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of the test compounds, 24 and 21 h apart and liver and stomach were sampled 3h after the final dose administration. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage were observed in liver and stomach with PPD and OPP up to 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively. 2,4-DAT, a known genotoxic carcinogen, induced a weak but reproducible, dose-related and statistically significant increase in DNA damage in liver cells while no increases were observed in stomach cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Short Bibliographic Guide to Tibetan Dependent Socialism: The Economic Development of the Tibetan Minority of the People's Republic of China Under Mao.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, James Joseph

    Today's Tibet is a remote and impoverished region within the People's Republic of China. This bibliography is intended as a research guide for those interested in contemporary Tibet. The 49 entries include: atlases; historical books on Tibet prior to and after World War II; journal articles on traditional Tibet prior to Chinese control, after the…

  15. Results of the International Validation of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: Individual data for 1,2-dibromoethane, p-anisidine, and o-anthranilic acid in the 2nd step of the 4th phase Validation Study under the JaCVAM initiative.

    PubMed

    Takasawa, Hironao; Takashima, Rie; Narumi, Kazunori; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hattori, Akiko; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Hamada, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative International Validation Study of an in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), p-anisidine (ASD), and o-anthranilic acid (ANT) to investigate the effectiveness of the comet assay in detecting genotoxic carcinogens. Each of the three test chemicals was administered to 5 male Sprague-Dawley rats per group by oral gavage at 48, 24, and 3h before specimen preparation. Single cells were collected from the liver and glandular stomach at 3h after the final dosing, and the specimens prepared from these two organs were subjected to electrophoresis under alkaline conditions (pH>13). The percentage of DNA intensity in the comet tail was then assessed using an image analysis system. A micronucleus (MN) assay was also conducted using these three test chemicals with the bone marrow (BM) cells collected from the same animals simultaneously used in the comet assay, i.e., combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay. A genotoxic (Ames positive) rodent carcinogen, DBE gave a positive result in the comet assay in the present study, while a genotoxic (Ames positive) non-carcinogen, ASD and a non-genotoxic (Ames negative) non-carcinogen, ANT showed negative results in the comet assay. All three chemicals produced negative results in the BM MN assay. While the comet assay findings in the present study were consistent with those obtained from the rodent carcinogenicity studies for the three test chemicals, we consider the positive result in the comet assay for DBE to be particularly meaningful, given that this chemical produced a negative result in the BM MN assay. Therefore, the combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay is a useful method to detect genotoxic carcinogens that are undetectable with the BM MN assay alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a) | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex internal feedbacks, and non-linearity that often interferes with desired management outcomes, and insufficient understanding of nature and people. Adaptive management was developed to reduce such uncertainty. We present a framework for the application of adaptive management for ecosystem services that explicitly accounts for cross-scale tradeoffs in the production of ecosystem services. Our framework focuses on identifying key spatiotemporal scales (plot, patch, ecosystem, landscape, and region) that encompass dominant structures and processes in the system, and includes within- and cross-scale dynamics, ecosystem service tradeoffs, and management controllability within and across scales. Resilience theory recognizes that a limited set of ecological processes in a given system regulate ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes is poorly understood. If management actions erode or remove these processes, the system may shift into an alternative state unlikely to support the production of desired services. Adaptive management provides a process to assess the underlying within and cross-scale tradeoffs associated with production of ecosystem services while proceeding with manage

  17. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex intern...

  18. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA) | Science Inventory | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along sustainable trajectories. Ecology for the shrinking city therefore acknowledges that urban transformations to sustainable trajectories may be quite different in shrinking cities as compared with growing cities. Shrinking cities are well poised for transformations, because shrinking is perceived as a crisis and can mobilize the social capacity to change. Ecology is particularly well suited to contribute solutions because of the extent of vacant land in shrinking cities that can be leveraged for ecosystem-services provisioning. A crucial role of an ecology for the shrinking city is identifying innovative pathways that create locally desired amenities that provide ecosystem services and contribute to urban sustainability at multiple scales. This paper brings together the concepts of ecology for the city and shrinking cities – the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss. Ecology for the city is the application of social-ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along sustainable trajectories. Ecology for the shrinking city acknowledges that urban transformations to sustainable trajectories may be quite different in shrinking cities as compa

  19. Treatment Plan Adherence for Your Child With JA

    MedlinePlus

    ... afternoon. “I tell them every time there’s a commercial, the TV goes mute,” says Wright. “Do 10 ... afternoon. “I tell them every time there’s a commercial, the TV goes mute,” says Wright. “Do 10 ...

  20. The effect of diabetes mellitus on the morphology and physiology of monoamine oxidase in the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Adeghate, Ernest; Parvez, Hasan

    2004-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an ubiquitous, non-soluble, membrane-bound enzyme, located in the outer membrane of mitochondria. MAO consists of two subtypes, MAO-A and MAO-B, depending on their substrates and sensitivity to inhibitors. MAO consists of two units joined together by a disulphide bond. The two units of MAO and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) form a polymer in the outer membrane of mitochondria. The function of MAO-A is highly dependent on the lipid constituent of mitochondrial membrane, whereas the function of MAO-B does not depend on the lipid status of mitochondrial membrane. Hydrogen peroxide and ammonia are generated during MAO-induced metabolism of its substrates. MAO and its substrates are present in both the exocrine as well as the endocrine parts of the pancreas. In the islet of Langerhans, MAO-A is observed in about 50% of the cells, whereas MAO-B is less abundant and located mainly in the periphery of pancreatic islets. MAO-B is also demonstrated in centroacinar cells and in pancreatic ducts. Electron microscopy studies suggest that MAO is co-localised with insulin in secretory granules of pancreatic beta cells. Pharmacologically, beta-2-adrenoreceptors agonists such as terbutaline can stimulate MAO activity. In contrast, cholinergic muscarinic stimulation does not affect islet MAO activity. MAO activity in pancreatic tissue is significantly reduced in diabetes. This decrease in MAO activity is associated with an increase in pancreatic tissue levels of adrenaline (ADR) and noradrenaline (NA). Studies on the level of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid of pancreatic tissues suggest that serotonin level is also increased in diabetics. Many studies show that MAO inhibits insulin secretion. However, some of its substrates including, serotonin, adrenaline and noradrenaline have been shown to stimulate insulin secretion. In conclusion, the activity and subcellular localisation of MAO suggests that MAO may play an important role in pancreatic beta cell

  1. The properties of B-form monoamine oxidase in mitochondria from monkey platelet.

    PubMed

    Obata, Toshio; Aomine, Masahiro

    The present study was examined the effect of the properties of monkey platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) based on inhibitor sensitivity. Monkey platelet showed a high MAO activity with beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA) as substrate and a very low A-form MAO activity with 5 hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) as substrate. Moreover, monkey platelet MAO was sensitive to the drugs deprenyl as B-form MAO inhibitor and less sensitive to clorgyline and harmaline as A form MAO inhibitor with beta-PEA as the B-form MAO substrate. B-form MAO from monkey platelet was more stable against heat treatment at 55 degrees C than B-form MAO in brain. After digestion with trypsin at 37 degrees C for 4 hrs, it was found that MAO from platelet was inhibited about 70% with beta-PEA as substrate with brain. The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine and nortriptyline inhibited B-form MAO activity more potency than B-form MAO in brain. However, when the noncyclic antidepressant nomifensine was used, monkey platelet B-form MAO activities were less potently inhibited. All these reagents were noncompetitive inhibitors of B form MAO in monkey platelet. The present studies demonstrated that monkey platelet MAO is a single of B-form MAO and sensitive to tricyclic antidepressants.

  2. Operational Art in the Sino-Vietnamese War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    Operational art is not a checklist, but “presupposes freedom of 15 ADP 3-0, 9. 16 JP 1-02, 194. 17 Mao Tse -Tung, Selected Military Writings of Mao Tse ...theories. Sun-tzu and Mao Tse -tung did not use the term operational art, but the connection and interdependence between strategic aims and tactical...Ibid., 31 24 Ibid. 25 Mao Tse -Tung, Selected Military Writings of Mao Tse -Tung, 81-82. 8

  3. Islet-specific monoamine oxidase A and B expression depends on MafA transcriptional activity and is compromised in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ganic, Elvira; Johansson, Jenny K; Bennet, Hedvig; Fex, Malin; Artner, Isabella

    2015-12-25

    Lack or dysfunction of insulin producing β cells results in the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Insulin secretion is controlled by metabolic stimuli (glucose, fatty acids), but also by monoamine neurotransmitters, like dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Intracellular monoamine levels are controlled by monoamine oxidases (Mao) A and B. Here we show that MaoA and MaoB are expressed in mouse islet β cells and that inhibition of Mao activity reduces insulin secretion in response to metabolic stimuli. Moreover, analysis of MaoA and MaoB protein expression in mouse and human type 2 diabetic islets shows a significant reduction of MaoB in type 2 diabetic β cells suggesting that loss of Mao contributes to β cell dysfunction. MaoB expression was also reduced in β cells of MafA-deficient mice, a mouse model for β cell dysfunction, and biochemical studies showed that MafA directly binds to and activates MaoA and MaoB transcriptional control sequences. Taken together, our results show that MaoA and MaoB expression in pancreatic islets is required for physiological insulin secretion and lost in type 2 diabetic mouse and human β cells. These findings demonstrate that regulation of monoamine levels by Mao activity in β cells is pivotal for physiological insulin secretion and that loss of MaoB expression may contribute to the β cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of scopoletin on monoamine oxidases and brain amines.

    PubMed

    Basu, Mahua; Mayana, Kamlesh; Xavier, S; Balachandran, S; Mishra, Nibha

    2016-02-01

    Naturally, occurring compounds with MAO inhibitory property may provide promising lead molecules against neurodegenerative disorders. We report MAO inhibitory activity of a naturally occurring coumarin (validated chemical scaffold as MAO inhibitors), scopoletin. It selectively (and reversibly) inhibits human (Ki = 20.7 μM) and mouse (Ki = 22 μM) MAO-B, ∼3.5 times more selective towards MAO-B than MAO-A. Docking studies revealed its molecular recognition and explained the selectivity mechanism towards MAO isoforms. Scopoletin occupied the hydrophobic aromatic pockets showing favorable interactions for MAO-B; experimental Ki agreed with the predicted Ki. In vivo, scopoletin (80 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment significantly increases dopamine level and decreases its metabolite DOPAC in striatum. Overall, scopoletin is a partially selective MAO-B inhibitor that increases brain dopamine level. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. [Effect of Kaixinsan on monoamine oxidase activity].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi; Dong, Xian-Zhe; Tan, Xiao; Wang, Yu-Ning; Liu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    To observe the effect of antidepressant medicine prescription, Kaixinsan (KXS) on monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, and explore the mechanism of KXS in elevating the levels of monoamine neurotransmitter from the perspective of metabolism, in vitro enzyme reaction system and C6 neuroglial cells, the effect of KXS at different concentrations on MAO-A and MAO-B activity was observed. In animal studies, the effect of KXS at different concentrations on MAO-A and MAO-B activities of brain mitochondrialin normal rats and solitary chronic unpredictable moderate stress (CMS) model rats after intragastric administration for 1, 2, 3 weeks. Results showed that 10 g•L⁻¹ KXS could significantly reduce the activity of MAO-A and MAO-B in enzyme reaction system; and in C6 cells, KXS within 0.625-10 g•L⁻¹ concentration range had no significant effect on the activity of MAO-A, but had obvious inhibitory effect on the activity of MAO-B in a dose dependent manner. KXS had no significant effect on the activity of MAO-A and MAO-B in brains of normal rats after action for 1, 2, 3 weeks. After 2 and 3 weeks treatment with 338 mg•kg⁻¹ dose KXS, MAO-A activity in the brain of CMS rats was decreased as compared with the model group (P<0.05), while KXS had no significant effect on MAO-B activity after 1, 2, 3 weeks of treatment. The results indicated that KXS had certain effect on in vitro MAO-A and MAO-B activity, had no effect on brain MAO-A and MAO-B activity in vivo in normal rats, and had certain inhibitory effect on MAO-A activity in brains of CMS rats. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Interactions of Monoamine Oxidases with the Antiepileptic Drug Zonisamide: Specificity of Inhibition and Structure of the Human Monoamine oxidase B Complex

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Claudia; Aldeco, Milagros; Mattevi, Andrea; Edmondson, Dale E.

    2010-01-01

    The binding of zonisamide to purified, recombinant monoamine oxidases (MAOs) has been investigated. It is a competitive inhibitor of human MAO B (Ki = 3.1 ± 0.3 μM), of rat MAO B (Ki = 2.9 ± 0.5 μM), and of zebrafish MAO (Ki = 30.8 ± 5.3 μM). No inhibition is observed with purified human or rat MAO A. The 1.8 Å structure of the MAO B complex demonstrates that it binds within the substrate cavity. PMID:21175212

  7. Monoamine oxidase inhibitory naphthoquinones from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Hoi; Hong, Seong Su; Lee, Seon A; Han, Xiang Hua; Lee, Kyong Soon; Lee, Myung Koo; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Ro, Jai Seup

    2005-04-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of a hexane-soluble extract of the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, using a mouse brain monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition assay, led to the isolation of two known naphthoquinones, acetylshikonin and shikonin, and a furylhydroquinone, shikonofuran E. These compounds were shown to inhibit MAO with IC50 values of 10.0, 13.3, and 59.1 microM, respectively. Although no specificity for MAO-A and MAO-B was shown by acetylshikonin and shikonin, a Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that the inhibition was competitive for both MAO-A and MAO-B activity.

  8. Different modes of data processing and statistical testing applied to the same set of pharmaco-EEG recordings: effects on the evaluation of a selective and reversible MAO A inhibitor (brofaromine).

    PubMed

    Reimann, I W; Jobert, M; Gleiter, C H; Turri, M; Bieck, P R; Herrmann, W M

    1996-01-01

    The comparison of two different modes of data processing and two different approaches to statistical testing both applied to the same set of EEG recordings was the main objective of this pharmacological study. Brofaromine (CGP 11,305 A), a new selective and reversible monoamine oxidase type A inhibitor was used as an example for investigating a potentially antidepressant drug in clinical development. The two modes of pharmaco-EEG (PEEG) data processing differed mainly in the sampling frequency and definition of spectral parameters. Patterns of significant changes were noted in terms of descriptive data analysis using either a nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test or an ANOVA of transformed data, as suggested by Conover and Iman. These data clearly demonstrate that slight discrepancies in the results may simply arise from differences in data processing and statistical approach applied. In spite of these discrepancies, the pattern of brofaromine-induced PEEG changes was very similar regardless of the mode of data handling used.

  9. Evaluation of the Inhibitory Effects of Bavachinin and Bavachin on Human Monoamine Oxidases A and B

    PubMed Central

    Zarmouh, Najla O.; Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Elshami, Faisel M.; Messeha, Samia S.; Eyunni, Suresh V. K.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors (MAO-BIs) are used in the early management of Parkinson's disease (PD). Long-term suspected side effects of MAO-B classical inhibitors established the need for safer alternative therapeutic agents. In our study, the flavanone bavachinin (BNN) and its analog bavachin (BVN) found in the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. ethanolic extract (PCSEE) were investigated for their human MAO-A and MAO-B (hMAO-A and hMAO-B) inhibition. Both PCSEE and BNN effectively reduced hMAO-B activity more than hMAO-A while BVN had activating effects. BNN showed selective hMAO-B inhibition (IC50 ~ 8.82 μM) more than hMAO-A (IC502009;~ 189.28 μM). BNN in the crude extract was determined by HPLC, also validated by TLC showing a yield of 0.21% PCSEE dry weight. BNN competitively inhibited hMAO-A and hMAO-B, with a lower hMAO-B K i than hMAO-A K i by 10.33-fold, and reduced hMAO-B K m/V max efficiency ratio to be comparable to the standard selegiline. Molecular docking examination of BNN and BVN predicted an indirect role of BNN C7-methoxy group for its higher affinity, selectivity, and reversibility as an MAO-BI. These findings suggest that BNN, which is known to be a potent PPAR-γ agonist, is a selective and competitive hMAO-B inhibitor and could be used in the management of PD. PMID:26557867

  10. Topological Probes of Monoamine Oxidases A and B in Rat Liver Mitochondria: Inhibition by TEMPO-Substituted Pargyline Analogues and Inactivation by Proteolysis†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Edmondson, Dale E.

    2011-01-01

    TEMPO-substituted pargyline analogues differentially inhibit recombinant human Monoamine Oxidase A (MAO A) and B (MAO B) in intact yeast mitochondria suggesting these membrane-bound enzymes are located on differing faces of the mitochondrial outer membrane (Upadhyay, A. and Edmondson, D.E., Biochemistry 48, 3928, 2009). This approach is extended to the recombinant rat enzymes and to rat liver mitochondria. The differential specificities exhibited for human MAO A and MAO B by the meta- and para-amido TEMPO pargylines are not as absolute with the rat enzymes. Similar patterns of reactivity are observed for rat MAO A and B in mitochondrial outer membrane preparations expressed in Pichia pastoris or isolated from rat liver. In intact yeast mitochondria, recombinant rat MAO B is inhibited by the pargyline analogue whereas MAO A activity shows no inhibition. Intact rat liver mitochondria exhibit an opposite inhibition pattern to that observed in yeast where MAO A is inhibited and MAO B activity is unaffected. Protease inactivation studies show specificity in that MAO A is sensitive to trypsin whereas MAO B is sensitive to β-chymotrypsin. In intact mitochondrial preparations, MAO A is readily inactivated in rat liver but not in yeast on trypsin treatment and MAO B is readily inactivated by β-chymotrypsin in yeast but not in rat liver. These data show MAO A is oriented on the cytosolic face and MAO B is situated on the surface facing the intermembrane space of the mitochondrial outer membrane in rat liver. The differential mitochondrial outer membrane topology of MAO A and MAO B is relevant to their inhibition by drugs designed to be cardio-protectants or neuro-protectants. PMID:21341713

  11. Monoamine oxidases are mediators of endothelial dysfunction in the mouse aorta.

    PubMed

    Sturza, Adrian; Leisegang, Matthias S; Babelova, Andrea; Schröder, Katrin; Benkhoff, Sebastian; Loot, Annemarieke E; Fleming, Ingrid; Schulz, Rainer; Muntean, Danina M; Brandes, Ralf P

    2013-07-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) generate H(2)O(2) as a by-product of their catalytic cycle. Whether MAOs are mediators of endothelial dysfunction is unknown and was determined here in the angiotensin II and lipopolysaccharide-models of vascular dysfunction in mice. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that mouse aortas contain enzymes involved in catecholamine generation and MAO-A and MAO-B mRNA. MAO-A and -B proteins could be detected by Western blot not only in mouse aortas but also in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Ex vivo incubation of mouse aorta with recombinant MAO-A increased H(2)O(2) formation and induced endothelial dysfunction that was attenuated by polyethylene glycol-catalase and MAO inhibitors. In vivo lipopolysaccharide (8 mg/kg IP overnight) or angiotensin II (1 mg/kg per day, 2 weeks, minipump) treatment induced vascular MAO-A and -B expressions and resulted in attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta in response to acetylcholine. MAO inhibitors reduced the lipopolysaccharide- and angiotensin II-induced aortic reactive oxygen species formation by 50% (ferrous oxidation xylenol orange assay) and partially normalized endothelium-dependent relaxation. MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitors had an additive effect; combined application completely restored endothelium-dependent relaxation. To determine how MAO-dependent H(2)O(2) formation induces endothelial dysfunction, cyclic GMP was measured. Histamine stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to activate endothelial NO synthase resulted in an increase in cyclic GMP, which was almost abrogated by MAO-A exposure. MAO inhibition prevented this effect, suggesting that MAO-induced H(2)O(2) formation is sufficient to attenuate endothelial NO release. Thus, MAO-A and MAO-B are both expressed in the mouse aorta, induced by in vivo lipopolysaccharide and angiotensin II treatment and contribute via the generation of H(2)O(2) to endothelial dysfunction in vascular disease

  12. Demonstration of isoleucine 199 as a structural determinant for the selective inhibition of human monoamine oxidase B by specific reversible inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Frantisek; Binda, Claudia; Khalil, Ashraf; Li, Min; Mattevi, Andrea; Castagnoli, Neal; Edmondson, Dale E

    2005-04-22

    Several reversible inhibitors selective for human monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) that do not inhibit MAO A have been described in the literature. The following compounds: 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine, 1,4-diphenyl-2-butene, and trans,trans-farnesol are shown to inhibit competitively human, horse, rat, and mouse MAO B with K(i) values in the low micromolar range but are without effect on either bovine or sheep MAO B or human MAO A. In contrast, the reversible competitive inhibitor isatin binds to all known MAO B and MAO A with similar affinities. Sequence alignments and the crystal structures of human MAO B in complex with 1,4-diphenyl-2-butene or with trans,trans-farnesol provide molecular insights into these specificities. These inhibitors span the substrate and entrance cavities with the side chain of Ile-199 rotated out of its normal conformation suggesting that Ile-199 is gating the substrate cavity. Ile-199 is conserved in all known MAO B sequences except bovine MAO B, which has Phe in this position (the sequence of sheep MAO B is unknown). Phe is conserved in the analogous position in MAO A sequences. The human MAO B I199F mutant protein of MAO B binds to isatin (K(i) = 3 microM) but not to the three inhibitors listed above. The crystal structure of this mutant demonstrates that the side chain of Phe-199 interferes with the binding of those compounds. This suggests that the Ile-199 "gate" is a determinant for the specificity of these MAO B inhibitors and provides a molecular basis for the development of MAO B-specific reversible inhibitors without interference with MAO A function in neurotransmitter metabolism.

  13. Potent inhibition of monoamine oxidase A by decursin from Angelica gigas Nakai and by wogonin from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Woo; Ryu, Hyung Won; Kang, Myung-Gyun; Park, Daeui; Lee, Hanna; Shin, Heung Mook; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Kim, Hoon

    2017-04-01

    During the ongoing search for new monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, five coumarin derivatives and eight flavonoids were isolated from the roots of Angelica gigas Nakai and Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, respectively. Of the phytochemicals, decursin (4) was found to potently and selectively inhibit human MAO-A (IC 50 =1.89μM). The IC 50 value of 4 for MAO-A belonged to the lowest group in herbal sources and was similar to that of toloxatone (1.78μM), a marketed drug. Wogonin (11) effectively inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B (IC 50 =6.35 and 20.8μM, respectively). Furthermore, compounds 5 (decursinol angelate) and 10 (baicalein) were observed to selectively and moderately inhibit MAO-A. In addition, compound 4 reversibly and competitively inhibited MAO-A with a K i of 0.17μM. Compound 11 also competitively inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B (K i =0.56 and 1.96μM, respectively). Molecular docking simulation revealed that 4 interacts with Asn181 residue of MAO-A or Asn116 residue of MAO-B by formation of hydrogen bond. The findings suggest compounds 4 and 11 be considered as new potent and reversible MAO-A inhibitors or useful lead compounds for the developments of MAO inhibitors for the treatment of disorders like depression, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Monoamine oxidase deficiency in males with an X chromosome deletion.

    PubMed

    Sims, K B; de la Chapelle, A; Norio, R; Sankila, E M; Hsu, Y P; Rinehart, W B; Corey, T J; Ozelius, L; Powell, J F; Bruns, G

    1989-01-01

    Mapping of the human MAOA gene to chromosomal region Xp21-p11 prompted our study of two affected males in a family previously reported to have Norrie disease resulting from a submicroscopic deletion in this chromosomal region. In this investigation we demonstrate in these cousins deletion of the MAOA gene, undetectable levels of MAO-A and MAO-B activities in their fibroblasts and platelets, respectively, loss of mRNA for MAO-A in fibroblasts, and substantial alterations in urinary catecholamine metabolites. The present study documents that a marked deficiency of MAO activity is compatible with life and that genes for MAO-A and MAO-B are near each other in this Xp chromosomal region. Some of the clinical features of these MAO deletion patients may help to identify X-linked MAO deficiency diseases in humans.

  15. Preparation of Composite Coating on AZ91D Magnesium Alloy by Silica Sol-Micro Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhongcai; Zhang, Feifei; Zhao, Ruiqiang; Shen, Xiaoyi

    2016-03-01

    Composite coating was prepared on AZ91D magnesium alloy with a new method which combined silica sol with micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The MAO coating was prepared on the basis of MAO solution, and then coated by sol-gel process. The composite coating was obtained after second MAO treatment. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy spectrum analysis and electrochemical testing was applied to characterize the properties of MAO coating and composite coating. The experimental test results indicated that the Si element derived from SiO2 gel particle embedded into the MAO coating by second MAO treatment. The surface of composite coating became dense and the holes were smaller with silica sol sealing process. The corrosion resistance of composite coating was improved than the MAO coating.

  16. 78 FR 12757 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... the cap on blended county benchmarks that would otherwise limit QBPs. Through this demonstration, CMS... (MAOs) and up to 10 case studies with MAOs in order to supplement what can be learned from the analyses...

  17. Automation of the micro-arc oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubkov, P. E.; Pecherskaya, E. A.; Karpanin, O. V.; Shepeleva, Y. V.; Zinchenko, T. O.; Artamonov, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    At present the significantly increased interest in micro-arc oxidation (MAO) encourages scientists to look for the solution of the problem of this technological process controllability. To solve this problem an automated technological installation MAO was developed, its structure and control principles are presented in this article. This device will allow to provide the controlled synthesis of MAO coatings and to identify MAO process patterns which contributes to commercialization of this technology.

  18. Calcium alters monoamine oxidase-A parameters in human cerebellar and rat glial C6 cell extracts: possible influence by distinct signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xia; Li, Xin-Min; Mousseau, Darrell D

    2009-07-31

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is known to augment monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity in cell cultures as well as in brain extracts from several species. This association between Ca(2+) and MAO-A could contribute to their respective roles in cytotoxicity. However, the effect of Ca(2+) on MAO-A function in human brain has as yet to be examined as does the contribution of specific signalling cascades. We examined the effects of Ca(2+) on MAO-A activity and on [(3)H]Ro 41-1049 binding to MAO-A in human cerebellar extracts, and compared this to its effects on MAO-A activity in glial C6 cells following the targeting of signalling pathways using specific chemical inhibitors. Ca(2+) enhances MAO-A activity as well as the association of [(3)H]Ro 41-1049 to MAO-A in human cerebellar extracts. The screening of neuronal and glial cell cultures reveals that MAO-A activity does not always correlate with the expression of either mao-A mRNA or MAO-A protein. Inhibition of the individual PI3K/Akt, ERK and p38(MAPK) signalling pathways in glial C6 cells all augment basal MAO-A activity. Inhibition of the p38(MAPK) pathway also augments Ca(2+)-sensitive MAO-A activity. We also observe the inverse relation between p38(MAPK) activation and MAO-A function in C6 cultures grown to full confluence. The Ca(2+)-sensitive component to MAO-A activity is present in human brain and in vitro studies link it to the p38(MAPK) pathway. This means of influencing MAO-A function could explain its role in pathologies as diverse as neurodegeneration and cancers.

  19. Potent selective monoamine oxidase B inhibition by maackiain, a pterocarpan from the roots of Sophora flavescens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Woo; Ryu, Hyung Won; Kang, Myung-Gyun; Park, Daeui; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Kim, Hoon

    2016-10-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidation of monoamines and its two isoforms, MAO-A and MAO-B, break down neurotransmitter amines. Of the compounds isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens, (-)-maackiain (4), a pterocarpan, was found to potently and selectively inhibit human MAO-B, with an IC50 of 0.68μM, and to have a selectivity index of 126.2 for MAO-B. As compared with other herbal natural products, the IC50 value of 4 for MAO-B is one of the lowest reported to date. Genistein (1) highly, effectively and non-selectively inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B with IC50 values of 3.9μM and 4.1μM, respectively. (-)-4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-8,9-methylenedioxypterocarpan (2) effectively and non-selectively inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B with IC50 values of 20.3μM and 10.3μM, respectively. In addition, compound 4 reversibly and competitively inhibited MAO-B with a Ki value of 0.054μM. Molecular docking simulation revealed that the binding affinity of 4 for MAO-B (-26.6kcal/mol) was greater than its affinity for MAO-A (-8.3kcal/mol), which was in-line with our inhibitory activity findings. Furthermore, Cys172 of MAO-B was found to be a key residue for hydrogen bonding with compound 4. The findings of this study suggest compound 4 be viewed as a new potent, selective, and reversible MAO-B inhibitor, and that compounds 1 and 2 be considered useful lead compounds for the developments of nonselective and reversible MAO inhibitors for the treatment of disorders like Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer disease, and depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterizations of Ca- and Mg-incorporating micro/nano-structured surfaces on titanium fabricated by microarc oxidation and hydrothermal treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Sang-Hoon; Hwang, Moon-Jin; Moon, Won-Jin; Park, Yeong-Joon; Song, Ho-Jun

    2015-12-01

    The micro/nano-surface characteristics of magnesium- and calcium-incorporating titanium oxide layers fabricated on titanium metal using microarc oxidation (MAO) and hydrothermal (HT) treatments were investigated. Calcium acetate monohydrate (CA), magnesium acetate monohydrate (MA), and β-glycerophosphoric acid disodium salt pentahydrate were used as electrolytes for MAO treatment of titanium disks. CA/MA electrolyte concentrations (all in M) were 0.2/0.0 (CA20-MAO), 0.15/0.05 (CA15MA5-MAO), 0.1/0.1 (CA10MA10-MAO), 0.05/0.15 (CA5MA15-MAO), and 0.0/0.2 (MA20-MAO). MAO-HT groups were prepared by hydrothermal treatment of MAO groups. The porous surface morphology was consistent even after HT treatment. The incorporation of Mg ions in the oxide layer during MAO treatment was more favorable than incorporation of Ca ions. However, Mg ions were released more rapidly than Ca ions after HT treatment. The anatase TiO2 structure was dominant for all the groups and an increase in the rutile TiO2 structure was observed with an increase in MA concentration. Nano-sized crystallites were observed on the porous surface for all MAO-HT groups. Nano-needle-like crystallites were observed on the surface of CA20-MAO-HT. The crystallites exhibited shorter and thicker characteristics with an increase in Mg concentration.

  1. Forebrain-specific expression of monoamine oxidase A reduces neurotransmitter levels, restores the brain structure, and rescues aggressive behavior in monoamine oxidase A-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kevin; Cases, Olivier; Rebrin, Igor; Wu, Weihua; Gallaher, Timothy K; Seif, Isabelle; Shih, Jean Chen

    2007-01-05

    Previous studies have established that abrogation of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A expression leads to a neurochemical, morphological, and behavioral specific phenotype with increased levels of serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine, and dopamine, loss of barrel field structure in mouse somatosensory cortex, and an association with increased aggression in adults. Forebrain-specific MAO A transgenic mice were generated from MAO A knock-out (KO) mice by using the promoter of calcium-dependent kinase IIalpha (CaMKIIalpha). The presence of human MAO A transgene and its expression were verified by PCR of genomic DNA and reverse transcription-PCR of mRNA and Western blot, respectively. Significant MAO A catalytic activity, autoradiographic labeling of 5-HT, and immunocytochemistry of MAO A were found in the frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus but not in the cerebellum of the forebrain transgenic mice. Also, compared with MAO A KO mice, lower levels of 5-HT, norepinephrine, and DA and higher levels of MAO A metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were found in the forebrain regions but not in the cerebellum of the transgenic mice. These results suggest that MAO A is specifically expressed in the forebrain regions of transgenic mice. This forebrain-specific differential expression resulted in abrogation of the aggressive phenotype. Furthermore, the disorganization of the somatosensory cortex barrel field structure associated with MAO A KO mice was restored and became morphologically similar to wild type. Thus, the lack of MAO A in the forebrain of MAO A KO mice may underlie their phenotypes.

  2. The inhibition of monoamine oxidase by phenformin and pentamidine.

    PubMed

    Barkhuizen, M; Petzer, A; Petzer, J P

    2014-09-01

    A computational study has suggested that phenformin, an oral hypoglycaemic drug, may bind to the active sites of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B enzymes. The present study therefore investigates the MAO inhibitory properties of phenformin. Pentamidine, a structurally related diamidine compound, has previously been reported to be a MAO inhibitor and was included in this study as a reference compound. Using recombinant human MAO-A and MAO-B, this study finds that phenformin acts as a moderately potent MAO-A selective inhibitor with an IC50 value of 41 µM. Pentamidine, on the other hand, potently inhibits both MAO-A and MAO-B with IC50 values of 0.61 μM and 0.22 μM, respectively. An examination of the recoveries of the enzymatic activities after dilution and dialysis of the enzyme-inhibitor complexes shows that both compounds interact reversibly with the MAO enzymes. A kinetic analysis suggests that pentamidine acts as a competitive inhibitor with estimated Ki values of 0.41 μM and 0.22 μM for the inhibition of MAO-A and MAO-B, respectively. Phenformin also exhibited a competitive mode of MAO-A inhibition with an estimated Ki value of 65 µM. This study concludes that biguanide and amidine functional groups are most likely important structural features for the inhibition of the MAOs by phenformin and pentamidine, and compounds containing these and closely related functional groups should be considered as potential MAO inhibitors. Furthermore, the biguanide and amidine functional groups may act as useful moieties in the future design of MAO inhibitors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Monoamine oxidase-A physically interacts with presenilin-1(M146V) in the mouse cortex.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zelan; Gabriel, Geraldine G; Rui, Lewei; Cao, Xia; Pennington, Paul R; Chlan-Fourney, Jennifer; Nazarali, Adil J; Baker, Glen B; Mousseau, Darrell D

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of presenilin-1 (PS-1) protein at the mitochondrial-associated aspect of the endoplasmic reticulum supports the potential for a mitochondrial influence of PS-1. Given that carriers of certain Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related PS-1 variants are predisposed to clinical depression and that depression has been historically associated with the mitochondrial enzyme, monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), we investigated cortical MAO-A function in the AD-related PS-1(M146V) knock-in mouse. The MAO-A system was clearly altered in the PS-1(M146V) mouse as revealed by (a) a mismatch between MAO-A protein expression and MAO-A activity; (b) changes in MAO-A-mediated monoaminergic neurotransmitter metabolism; (c) changes in non-cognitive behavior following treatment with the irreversible MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline; and (d) an increase in the potency of clorgyline in these same mice. We next investigated whether PS-1(M146V) could be influencing MAO-A directly. We observed (a) an enhanced MAO-A activity in necropsied PS-1(M146V) mouse cortical extracts incubated with DAPT (a PS-1 substrate-competitor); (b) the proximity of PS-1 with MAO-A and mitochondrial markers in cortical sections and in primary cortical neurons; (c) the co-segregation and co-immunoprecipitation of PS-1 and MAO-A within the mitochondrial fraction; and (d) the co-immunoprecipitation of overexpressed PS-1(M146V) and MAO-A proteins from N2a lysates. The PS-1(ΔEx9) and PS-1(D257A) variants, known to have low substrate-binding capacity, co-immunoprecipitated weakly with MAO-A. These combined data support a physical interaction between PS-1 and MAO-A that could influence MAO-A activity and contribute to the monoaminergic disruptions common to disorders as seemingly diverse as depression and AD.

  4. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    necessary because, although global pSTAT upregulation has been identified after status epilepticus following pilocarpine treatment in rats (Kim et...100 mg/kg, i.p.) in pilocarpine-treated rats indicated that it was able to suppress pSTAT3 upregulation after status epilepticus , this procedure had...cellular responses n status epilepticus models (Schauwecker and Steward, 1997), nd/or are often used in transgenic studies. Severe brain injury was

  5. The Flintlock Site (8JA1763): An Unusual Underwater Deposit in the Apalachicola River, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrell, Christopher E.; Scott-Ireton, Della A.; Smith, Roger C.; Levy, James; Knetsch, Joe

    2009-06-01

    In the fall of 2001, staff of the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research were led by river divers to an underwater site in the Apalachicola River containing a large concentration of prehistoric and historic artifacts lying on the riverbed. Subsequent inspection of the submerged river bank and scoured limestone river channel revealed a myriad of objects, which included iron fasteners, metal tools and implements, broken glass bottles, stone projectile points, scattered bricks and stone blocks, and other materials. Discovery of two large fragments of a wooden watercraft, a bayonet, a copper arrowhead, and flintlock gun barrels initially prompted researchers to hypothesize that the site might represent the remains of a U.S. Army boat that was attacked in 1817 by Seminole Indians while en route upriver. The episode, which caused the deaths of more than 30 soldiers and several women who were aboard the boat, led to the First Seminole War and the U.S. Army invasion of Florida. To investigate this hypothesis, a systematic survey of the riverbed was undertaken in the spring of 2002 to record underwater features and recover additional diagnostic artifacts. These activities employed side-scan sonar as well as diver visual investigations. This paper presents a case study of the value and broader significance of aggregate data where interpretation was underpinned by artefactual, historical and environmental analysis.

  6. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a frequently medically intractable and permanent epilepsy syndrome. Unlike many TLE models, which cause global brain injury...addresses the FY10 PRMRP topic area of Epilepsy . Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a well-established etiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a...is one of the most common causes of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Changes in inhibitory signaling after CCI include hilar inhibitory neuron loss

  7. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a well-established inducer of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE...INTRODUCTION: This research addresses the FY10 PRMRP topic area of Epilepsy . Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a well- established etiology of temporal ... lobe epilepsy (TLE), a frequently medically intractable and often progressive epilepsy syndrome. Much evidence indicates that abnormalities in

  8. JaMBES: A "New" Way of Calculating Plate Tectonic Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambord, A. I.; Smith, E. G. C.; Sutherland, R.

    2014-12-01

    Calculating the paleoposition of tectonic plates using marine geophysical data has been usually done by using the Hellinger criterion [Hellinger, 1981]. However, for the Hellinger software [Kirkwood et al., 1999] to produce stable results, we find that the input data must be abundant and spatially well distributed. Although magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data have been increasingly abundant since the 1960s, some parts of the globe remain too sparsely explored to provide enough data for the Hellinger code to provide satisfactory rotations. In this poster, we present new software to calculate the paleopositions of tectonic plates using magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data. Our method is based on the theory of plate tectonics as introduced by [Bullard et al., 1965] and [Morgan, 1968], which states that ridge segments (ie. magnetic lineations) and fracture zones are at right angles to each other. In order to test our software, we apply it to a region of the world where climatic conditions hinder the acquisition of magnetic data: the Southwest Pacific, between New Zealand and Antarctica from breakup time to chron 20 (c43Ma). Bullard, E., J. E. Everett, and A. G. Smith (1965), The fit of continents around the atlantic, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 258(1088), 41-51. Hellinger, S. J. (1981), The uncertainties of finite rotations in plate tectonics, Journal of Geophysical Research, 86(B10), 9312-9318. Kirkwood, B. H., J. Y. Royer, T. C. Chang, and R. G. Gordon (1999), Statistical tools for estimating and combining finite rotations and their uncertainties, Geophysical Journal International, 137(2), 408-428. Morgan, W. J. (1968), Rises, trenches, great faults, and crustal blocks, Journal of Geophysical Research, 73(6), 1959-1982.

  9. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a well-established inducer of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a frequently medically intractable... epilepsy syndrome. The controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of posttraumatic epilepsy in mice is a well established animal model of TBI that results...reduce development of post-traumatic epilepsy , and did not significantly improve memory function, but did enhance the motor recovery. These findings

  10. Greener routes to organics and nanomaterials: Sustainable applications of nano-catalysts (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic activity involving alternate energy input and greener reaction medium in aqueous or under solvent-free conditions is summarized. This includes the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a variety of reactions catalyzed by basic water o...

  11. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona sequentially induces JA and SA defence pathways in tomato

    Justin B. Runyon; Mark C. Mescher; Gary W. Felton; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2010-01-01

    While plant responses to herbivores and pathogens are well characterized, responses to attack by other plants remain largely unexplored. We measured phytohormones and C18 fatty acids in tomato attacked by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona, and used transgenic and mutant plants to explore the roles of the defence-related phytohormones salicylic...

  12. "City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Company": The Decision and Some of Its Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, A. Fleming, II

    1989-01-01

    The Supreme Court's "Croson" decision has major implications for local government and school administrative units that wish to encourage the use of minority contractors. Discusses the decision and some of the effects that the rules announced in the case may have on North Carolina's local governments and schools. (MLF)

  13. Visualization and Measurement of the Deflagration of JA2 Bonded to Various Metal Foils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Disclaimers The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other... design tools. There are numerous design parameters, including 1) the wires’ thermophysical properties and diameter(s), 2) their quantity, spacing, and...gasified by combustion. This is suggested by Figs. 7 and 8, which present posttest examinations of 2- and 3-mil-thick foils. On the 2-mil-thick Cu foils, a

  14. Judge Advocate (NGB-JA) - Personal Staff - Joint Staff - The National Guard

    training. Assists in identifying NG JAs to meet service operational requirements. And Coordinates and ARNG Command Sergeant Major of the ARNG State Mission Sustainability Training ARNG Distributed Learning Program Training & Technology Battle Lab (T3BL) Civil Support Simulation Exercises Regional Training

  15. Japan Link Center (JaLC): link management and DOI assignment for Japanese electronic scholarly contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takafumi; Tsuchiya, Eri; Kubota, Soichi; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    JST, cooperated with several national institutes, is currently developing “Japan Link Center”, which manages Japanese electronic scholarly contents (journal articles, books, dissertations etc.) in an integrated fashion using Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Japan Link Center will manage metadata and whereabouts information of the contents in the digital environment and provide domestic and international linking information, cite/cited information to activate dissemination of S&T information, furthermore, to strengthen transmission of S&T information from Japan. Japan Link Center is expected to be appointed as the 9th DOI registration agency (RA) in the world by the International DOI Foundation (IDF) this spring.

  16. 2-acetylphenol analogs as potent reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Legoabe, Lesetja J; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2015-01-01

    Based on a previous report that substituted 2-acetylphenols may be promising leads for the design of novel monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, a series of C5-substituted 2-acetylphenol analogs (15) and related compounds (two) were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of human MAO-A and MAO-B. Generally, the study compounds exhibited inhibitory activities against both MAO-A and MAO-B, with selectivity for the B isoform. Among the compounds evaluated, seven compounds exhibited IC50 values <0.01 µM for MAO-B inhibition, with the most selective compound being 17,000-fold selective for MAO-B over the MAO-A isoform. Analyses of the structure-activity relationships for MAO inhibition show that substitution on the C5 position of the 2-acetylphenol moiety is a requirement for MAO-B inhibition, and the benzyloxy substituent is particularly favorable in this regard. This study concludes that C5-substituted 2-acetylphenol analogs are potent and selective MAO-B inhibitors, appropriate for the design of therapies for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

  17. Novel 2H-chromen-2-one derivatives of resveratrol: Design, synthesis, modeling and use as human monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ban-Feng; Cheng, Hui-Jie; Ren, Jing; Li, Hong-Lin; Guo, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Xing-Xing; Liao, Chenzhong

    2015-10-20

    Using a fragment-based drug design strategy, two biomedical interesting fragments, resveratrol and coumarin were linked to design a series of novel human monoamine oxidase (hMAO) inhibitors with a scaffold of 3-((E)-3-(2-((E)-styryl)phenyl)acryloyl)-2H-chromen-2-one, which demonstrated a very interesting selectivity profile against hMAO-A and hMAO-B: some compounds with this scaffold are selective hMAO-A inhibitors, whereas some are selective hMAO-B inhibitors. The small changes in the substituents of the coumarin moiety led to this interesting selectivity profile. The most potent selective hMAO-B inhibitor D7 has a selectivity ratio of 20.93, with an IC₅₀ value of 2.78 μM, similar or better than selegiline (IC₅₀ = 2.89 μM), a selective hMAO-B inhibitor currently in the market for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Our modeling study indicates that Tyr 326 of hMAO-B (or corresponded Ile 335 of hMAO-A) may be the determinant for the specificity of these compounds. The selectivity profile of compounds reported herein suggests that we can further develop both selective hMAO-A and hMAO-B inhibitors based on this novel scaffold. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Monoamine oxidase: Radiotracer chemistry and human studies

    SciT

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Logan, Jean; Shumay, Elena

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) oxidizes amines from both endogenous and exogenous sources thereby regulating the concentration of neurotransmitter amines such as serot onin, norepinephrine and dopamine as well as many xenobiotics. MAO inhibitor drugs are used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and in depression stimulating the development of radiotracer tools to probe the role of MAO in normal human biology and in disease. Over the past 30 since the first radiotracers were developed and the first PET images of MAO in humans were carried out, PET studies of brain MAO in healthy volunteers and in patients have identified different variablesmore » which have contributed to different MAO levels in brain and in peripheral organs. MAO radiotracers and PET have also been used to study the current and developing MAO inhibitor drugs including the selection of doses for clinical trials. In this article, we describe (1) the development of MAO radiotracers; (2) human studies including the relationship of brain MAO levels to genotype, personality, neurological and psychiatric disorders; (3) examples of the use of MAO radiotracers in drug research and development. We will conclude with outstanding needs to improve the radiotracers which are currently used and possible new applications.« less

  19. Norrie disease gene is distinct from the monoamine oxidase genes.

    PubMed

    Sims, K B; Ozelius, L; Corey, T; Rinehart, W B; Liberfarb, R; Haines, J; Chen, W J; Norio, R; Sankila, E; de la Chapelle, A

    1989-09-01

    The genes for MAO-A and MAO-B appear to be very close to the Norrie disease gene, on the basis of loss and/or disruption of the MAO genes and activities in atypical Norrie disease patients deleted for the DXS7 locus; linkage among the MAO genes, the Norrie disease gene, and the DXS7 locus; and mapping of all these loci to the chromosomal region Xp11. The present study provides evidence that the MAO genes are not disrupted in "classic" Norrie disease patients. Genomic DNA from these "nondeletion" Norrie disease patients did not show rearrangements at the MAOA or DXS7 loci. Normal levels of MAO-A activities, as well as normal amounts and size of the MAO-A mRNA, were observed in cultured skin fibroblasts from these patients, and MAO-B activity in their platelets was normal. Catecholamine metabolites evaluated in plasma and urine were in the control range. Thus, although some atypical Norrie disease patients lack both MAO-A and MAO-B activities, MAO does not appear to be an etiologic factor in classic Norrie disease.

  20. Monoamine oxidase: Radiotracer chemistry and human studies

    DOE PAGES

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Logan, Jean; Shumay, Elena; ...

    2015-03-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) oxidizes amines from both endogenous and exogenous sources thereby regulating the concentration of neurotransmitter amines such as serot onin, norepinephrine and dopamine as well as many xenobiotics. MAO inhibitor drugs are used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and in depression stimulating the development of radiotracer tools to probe the role of MAO in normal human biology and in disease. Over the past 30 since the first radiotracers were developed and the first PET images of MAO in humans were carried out, PET studies of brain MAO in healthy volunteers and in patients have identified different variablesmore » which have contributed to different MAO levels in brain and in peripheral organs. MAO radiotracers and PET have also been used to study the current and developing MAO inhibitor drugs including the selection of doses for clinical trials. In this article, we describe (1) the development of MAO radiotracers; (2) human studies including the relationship of brain MAO levels to genotype, personality, neurological and psychiatric disorders; (3) examples of the use of MAO radiotracers in drug research and development. We will conclude with outstanding needs to improve the radiotracers which are currently used and possible new applications.« less

  1. Distinct structure and activity of monoamine oxidase in the brain of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Anichtchik, Oleg; Sallinen, Ville; Peitsaro, Nina; Panula, Pertti

    2006-10-10

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a mitochondrial flavoprotein involved in the metabolism of, e.g., aminergic neurotransmitters and the parkinsonism-inducing neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). We have reported earlier MPTP-related alterations of brain catecholaminergic system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain. Here we describe the structural and functional properties of zebrafish MAO and the distribution of MAO mRNA and activity in zebrafish brain. The gene is located in chromosome 9 and consists of 15 exons. The amino acid composition of the active center resembles both human MAO-A and MAO-B. The enzyme displayed the highest substrate specificity for tyramine, followed by serotonin, phenylethylamine, MPTP, and dopamine; isoform-specific antagonists blocked the activity of the enzyme with equal potency. Zebrafish MAO mRNA, which was present in several tissues, and enzyme displayed differential distribution in the brain; dopaminergic cell clusters had low to moderate levels of MAO activity, whereas the highest levels of MAO activity were detected in noradrenergic and serotonergic cell groups and the habenulointerpeduncular pathway, including its caudal projection to the medial ventral rhombencephalon. The results of this study confirm the presence of functionally active MAO in zebrafish brain and other tissues and characterize the neural systems that express MAO and areas of intense activity in the brain. They also suggest that MPTP toxicity not related to MAO may affect the zebrafish brain.

  2. A rational approach to elucidate human monoamine oxidase molecular selectivity.

    PubMed

    Mangiatordi, Giuseppe Felice; Alberga, Domenico; Pisani, Leonardo; Gadaleta, Domenico; Trisciuzzi, Daniela; Farina, Roberta; Carotti, Andrea; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Catto, Marco; Nicolotti, Orazio

    2017-04-01

    Designing highly selective human monoamine oxidase (hMAO) inhibitors is a challenging goal on the road to a more effective treatment of depression and anxiety (inhibition of hMAO-A isoform) as well as neurodegenerative diseases (inhibition of hMAO-B isoform). To uncover the molecular rationale of hMAOs selectivity, two recently prepared 2H-chromene-2-ones, namely compounds 1 and 2, were herein chosen as molecular probes being highly selective toward hMAO-A and hMAO-B, respectively. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) studies on four different complexes, cross-simulating one at a time the two hMAO-isoforms (dimer embedded in a lipid bilayer) with the two considered probes. Our comparative analysis on the obtained 100ns trajectories discloses a stable H-bond interaction between 1 and Gln215 as crucial for ligand selectivity toward hMAO-A whereas a water-mediated interaction might explain the observed hMAO-B selectivity of compound 2. Such hypotheses are further supported by binding free energy calculations carried out applying the molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) method and allowing us to evaluate the contribution of each residue to the observed isoform selectivity. Taken as whole, this study represents the first attempt to explain at molecular level hMAO isoform selectivity and a valuable yardstick for better addressing the design of new and highly selective MAO inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Norrie disease gene is distinct from the monoamine oxidase genes

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Katherine B.; Ozelius, Laurie; Corey, Timothy; Rinehart, William B.; Liberfarb, Ruth; Haines, Jonathan; Chen, Wei Jane; Norio, Reijo; Sankila, Eeva; de la Chapelle, Albert; Murphy, Dennis L.; Gusella, James; Breakefield, Xandra O.

    1989-01-01

    The genes for MAO-A and MAO-B appear to be very close to the Norrie disease gene, on the basis of loss and /or disruption of the MAO genes and activities in atypical Norrie disease patients deleted for the DXS7 locus; linkage among the MAO genes, the Norrie disease gene, and the DXS7 locus; and mapping of all these loci to the chromosomal region Xp11. The present study provides evidence that the MAO genes are not disrupted in “classic” Norrie disease patients. Genomic DNA from these “nondeletion” Norrie disease patients did not show rearrangements at the MAOA or DXS7 loci. Normal levels of MAO-A activities, as well as normal amounts and size of the MAO-A mRNA, were observed in cultured skin fibroblasts from these patients, and MAO-B activity in their platelets was normal. Catecholamine metabolites evaluated in plasma and urine were in the control range. Thus, although some atypical Norrie disease patients lack both MAO-A and MAO-B activities, MAO does not appear to be an etiologic factor in classic Norrie disease. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:2773935

  4. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase A and B activities by imidazol(ine)/guanidine drugs, nature of the interaction and distinction from I2-imidazoline receptors in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Ozaita, Andrés; Olmos, Gabriel; Assumpció Boronat, M; Miguel Lizcano, José; Unzeta, Mercedes; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    1997-01-01

    I2-Imidazoline sites ([3H]-idazoxan binding) have been identified on monoamine oxidase (MAO) and proposed to modulate the activity of the enzyme through an allosteric inhibitory mechanism (Tesson et al., 1995). The main aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effects and nature of the inhibition of imidazol(ine)/guanidine drugs on rat liver MAO-A and MAO-B isoforms and to compare their inhibitory potencies with their affinities for the sites labelled by [3H]-clonidine in the same tissue. Competition for [3H]-clonidine binding in rat liver mitochondrial fractions by imidazol(ine)/guanidine compounds revealed that the pharmacological profile of the interaction (2 - styryl - 2 - imidazoline, LSL 61112>idazoxan>2 - benzofuranyl - 2 - imidazoline, 2-BFI=cirazoline>guanabenz>oxymetazoline>>clonidine) was typical of that for I2-sites. Clonidine inhibited rat liver MAO-A and MAO-B activities with very low potency (IC50s: 700 μM and 6 mM, respectively) and displayed the typical pattern of competitive enzyme inhibition (Lineweaver-Burk plots: increased Km and unchanged Vmax values). Other imidazol(ine)/guanidine drugs also were weak MAO inhibitors with the exception of guanabenz, 2-BFI and cirazoline on MAO-A (IC50s: 4–11 μM) and 2-benzofuranyl-2-imidazol (LSL 60101) on MAO-B (IC50: 16 μM). Idazoxan was a full inhibitor, although with rather low potency, on both MAO-A and MAO-B isoenzymes (IC50s: 280 μM and 624 μM, respectively). Kinetic analyses of MAO-A inhibition by these drugs revealed that the interactions were competitive. For the same drugs acting on MAO-B the interactions were of the mixed type inhibition (increased Km and decreased Vmax values), although the greater inhibitory effects on the apparent value of Vmax/Km than on the Vmax value indicated that the competitive element of the MAO-B inhibition predominated. Competition for [3H]-Ro 41-1049 binding to MAO-A or [3H]-Ro 19-6327 binding to MAO-B in rat liver

  5. The “gating” residues Ile199 and Tyr326 in human monoamine oxidase B function in substrate and inhibitor recognition

    PubMed Central

    Milczek, Erika M.; Binda, Claudia; Rovida, Stefano; Mattevi, Andrea; Edmondson, Dale E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The major structural difference between human monoamine oxidases A (MAO A) and B (MAO B) is that MAO A has a monopartite substrate cavity of ~550 Å3 volume and MAO B contains a dipartite cavity structure with volumes of ~290 Å3 (entrance cavity) and ~400 Å3 (substrate cavity). Ile199 and Tyr326 side chains separate these two cavities in MAO B. To probe the function of these gating residues, Ile199Ala and Ile199Ala Tyr326Ala mutant forms of MAO B were investigated. Structural data on the Ile199Ala MAO B mutant show no alterations in active site geometries compared to WT enzyme while the Ile199Ala-Tyr326Ala MAO B mutant exhibits alterations in residues 100–103 which are part of the loop gating the entrance to the active site. Both mutant enzymes exhibit catalytic properties with increased amine KM but unaltered kcat values. The altered KM values on mutation are attributed to the influence of the cavity structure in the binding and subsequent deprotonation of the amine substrate. Both mutant enzymes exhibit weaker binding affinities relative to WT enzyme for small reversible inhibitors. Ile199Ala MAO B exhibits an increase in binding affinity for reversible MAO B specific inhibitors which bridge both cavities. The Ile199Ala-Tyr326Ala double mutant exhibits inhibitor binding properties more similar to those of MAO A than to MAO B. These results demonstrate the bipartite cavity structure in MAO B plays an important role in substrate and inhibitor recognition to distinguish its specificities from those of MAO A and provides insights into specific reversible inhibitor design for these membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:21978362

  6. Sensitive and Selective Ratiometric Fluorescence Probes for Detection of Intracellular Endogenous Monoamine Oxidase A.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofeng; Li, Lihong; Shi, Wen; Gong, Qiuyu; Li, Xiaohua; Ma, Huimin

    2016-01-19

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is known to widely exist in most cell lines in the body, and its dysfunction (unusually high or low levels of MAO-A) is thought to be responsible for several psychiatric and neurological disorders. Thus, a sensitive and selective method for evaluating the relative MAO-A levels in different live cells is urgently needed to better understand the function of MAO-A, but to our knowledge such a method is still lacking. Herein, we rationally design two new ratiometric fluorescence probes (1 and 2) that can sensitively and selectively detect MAO-A. The probes are constructed by incorporating a recognition group of propylamine into the fluorescent skeleton of 1,8-naphthalimide, and the detection mechanism is based on amine oxidation and β-elimination to release the fluorophore (4-hydroxy-N-butyl-1,8-naphthalimide), which is verified by HPLC analysis. Reaction of the probes with MAO-A produces a remarkable fluorescence change from blue to green, and the ratio of fluorescence intensity at 550 and 454 nm is directly proportional to the concentration of MAO-A in the ranges of 0.5-1.5 and 0.5-2.5 μg/mL with detection limits of 1.1 and 10 ng/mL (k = 3) for probes 1 and 2, respectively. Surprisingly, these probes show strong fluorescence responses to MAO-A but almost none to MAO-B (one of two isoforms of MAO), indicating superior ability to distinguish MAO-A from MAO-B. The high specificity of the probes for MAO-A over MAO-B is further supported by different inhibitor experiments. Moreover, probe 1 displays higher sensitivity than probe 2 and is thus investigated to image the relative MAO-A levels in different live cells, such as HeLa and NIH-3T3 cells. It is found that the concentration of endogenous MAO-A in HeLa cells is approximately 1.8 times higher than that in NIH-3T3 cells, which is validated by the result from an ELISA kit. Additionally, the proposed probes may find more uses in the specific detection of MAO-A between the two isoforms of MAO

  7. A study of monoamine oxidase activity in fetal membranes.

    PubMed

    Sekizawa, A; Ishikawa, H; Morimoto, T; Hirose, K; Suzuki, A; Saito, H; Yanaihara, T; Arai, Y; Oguchi, K

    1996-05-01

    To study the role of decidual monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A and -B activities before delivery, the relationship between MAO activity in fetal membranes and catecholamine (CA) concentration in amniotic fluid (AF) was determined. Fetal membranes and AF were obtained at the time of elective Cesarean section (CS group, n = 11) and Cesarean section due to fetal distress without labor pains (FD group, n = 5). MAO-A and -B activities were radiometrically measured using 14C-5-hydroxytriptamine for MAO-A substrate and 14C-benzylamine for MAO-B substrate. CA concentrations in AF were measured by high performance liquid chromatograph with an electro-chemical detector. Both MAO-A and -B activities in decidua obtained from CS were significantly lower than those obtained from FD. Both norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EP) concentrations were significantly lower in the CS group than the FD group. A significant positive correlation between decidual MAO-A activity and NE concentration in AF was observed. No significant correlation was observed between MAO-B activity and the concentration of NE in AF. There was no correlation between EP concentrations and MAO activities. These results suggest that CA concentration in AF may be related to the activity of MAO in fetal membranes, determined by certain physiological processes during pregnancy. It has been suggested that metabolism of monoamines in fetal membranes also plays an important role in reducing monoamine influx into maternal myometrium from the AF.

  8. Molecular aspects of monoamine oxidase B.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Rona R

    2016-08-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAO) influence the monoamine levels in brain by virtue of their role in neurotransmitter breakdown. MAO B is the predominant form in glial cells and in platelets. MAO B structure, function and kinetics are described as a background for the effect of alterations in its activity on behavior. The need to inhibit MAO B to combat decreased brain amines continues to drive the search for new drugs. Reversible and irreversible inhibitors are now designed using data-mining, computational screening, docking and molecular dynamics. Multi-target ligands designed to combat the elevated activity of MAO B in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases incorporate MAO inhibition (usually irreversible) as well as iron chelation, antioxidant or neuroprotective properties. The main focus of drug design is the catalytic activity of MAO, but the imidazoline I2 site in the entrance cavity of MAO B is also a pharmacological target. Endogenous regulation of MAO B expression is discussed briefly in light of new studies measuring mRNA, protein, or activity in healthy and degenerative samples, including the effect of DNA methylation on the expression. Overall, this review focuses on examples of recent research on the molecular aspects of the expression, activity, and inhibition of MAO B. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of Excessive Monoamine Oxidase A/B Activity Protects Against Stress-induced Neuronal Death in Huntington Disease.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Jolene; Hayden, Michael R; Pouladi, Mahmoud A

    2015-12-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are important components of the homeostatic machinery that maintains the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters, including dopamine, in balance. Given the imbalance in dopamine levels observed in Huntington disease (HD), the aim of this study was to examine MAO activity in a mouse striatal cell model of HD and in human neural cells differentiated from control and HD patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines. We show that mouse striatal neural cells expressing mutant huntingtin (HTT) exhibit increased MAO expression and activity. We demonstrate using luciferase promoter assays that the increased MAO expression reflects enhanced epigenetic activation in striatal neural cells expressing mutant HTT. Using cellular stress paradigms, we further demonstrate that the increase in MAO activity in mutant striatal neural cells is accompanied by enhanced susceptibility to oxidative stress and impaired viability. Treatment of mutant striatal neural cells with MAO inhibitors ameliorated oxidative stress and improved cellular viability. Finally, we demonstrate that human HD neural cells exhibit increased MAO-A and MAO-B expression and activity. Altogether, this study demonstrates abnormal MAO expression and activity and suggests a potential use for MAO inhibitors in HD.

  10. Serine 209 resides within a putative p38(MAPK) consensus motif and regulates monoamine oxidase-A activity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xia; Rui, Lewei; Pennington, Paul R; Chlan-Fourney, Jennifer; Jiang, Zhongjian; Wei, Zelan; Li, Xin-Min; Edmondson, Dale E; Mousseau, Darrell D

    2009-10-01

    The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade as well as the enzyme monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) have both been associated with oxidative stress. We observed that the specific inhibition of the p38(MAPK) protein [using either a chemical inhibitor or a dominant-negative p38(MAPK) clone] selectively induces MAO-A activity and MAO-A-sensitive toxicity in several neuronal cell lines, including primary cortical neurons. Over-expression of a constitutively active p38(MAPK) results in the phosphorylation of the MAO-A protein and inhibition of MAO-A activity. The MAO-A(Ser209Glu) phosphomimic - bearing a targeted substitution within a putative p38(MAPK) consensus motif - is neither active nor neurotoxic. In contrast, the MAO-A(Ser209Ala) variant (mimics dephosphorylation) does not associate with p38(MAPK), and is both very active and very toxic. Substitution of the homologous serine in the MAO-B isoform, i.e. Ser200, with either Glu or Ala does not affect the catalytic activity of the corresponding over-expressed proteins. These combined in vitro data strongly suggest a direct p38(MAPK)-dependent inhibition of MAO-A function. Based on published observations, this endogenous means of selectively regulating MAO-A function could provide for an adaptive response to oxidative stress associated with disorders as diverse as depression, reperfusion/ischemia, and the early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-benzylidene-1-tetralone derivatives for monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Amakali, Klaudia T; Legoabe, Lesetja Jan; Petzer, Anel; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2018-05-01

    Chalcone has been identified as a promising lead for the design of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. This study attempted to discover potent and selective chalcone-derived MAO inhibitors by synthesising a series consisting of various cyclic chalcone derivatives. The cyclic chalcones were selected based on the possibility that their restricted structures would confer a higher degree of MAO isoform selectivity, and included the following chemical classes: 1-indanone, 1-tetralone, 1-benzosuberone, chromone, thiochromone, 4-chromanone and 4-thiochromanone. The results showed that the cyclic chalcones are in general good potency, and in most instances specific inhibitors of the human MAO-B isoform. Among these compounds, the 4-chromanone derivative was the most potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.156 µM. To further investigate the MAO inhibition of cyclic chalcones, a series of twenty-three 2-benzylidene-1-tetralone derivatives were synthesised and evaluated as MAO inhibitors. Most 2-benzylidene-1-tetralones possess good inhibitory activity and specificity for MAO-B with the most potent inhibitor displaying an IC50 value of 0.0064 µM, while the most potent MAO-A inhibitor possessed an IC50 value of 0.754 µM. This study thus shows that certain cyclic chalcones are human MAO-B inhibitors, compounds that could be suitable for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. 3-Coumaranone derivatives as inhibitors of monoamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Van Dyk, Adriaan S; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél; Legoabe, Lesetja J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory properties of a series of 20 3-coumaranone [benzofuran-3(2H)-one] derivatives. The 3-coumaranone derivatives are structurally related to series of α-tetralone and 1-indanone derivatives, which have recently been shown to potently inhibit MAO, with selectivity for MAO-B (in preference to the MAO-A isoform). 3-Coumaranones are similarly found to selectively inhibit human MAO-B with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.004-1.05 µM. Nine compounds exhibited IC50<0.05 µM for the inhibition of MAO-B. For the inhibition of human MAO-A, IC50 values ranged from 0.586 to >100 µM, with only one compound possessing an IC50<1 µM. For selected 3-coumaranone derivatives, it is established that MAO-A and MAO-B inhibition are reversible since dialysis of enzyme-inhibitor mixtures almost completely restores enzyme activity. On the basis of the selectivity profiles and potent action, it may be concluded that the 3-coumaranone derivatives are suitable leads for the development of selective MAO-B inhibitors as potential treatment for disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

  13. 3-Coumaranone derivatives as inhibitors of monoamine oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyk, Adriaan S; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél; Legoabe, Lesetja J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory properties of a series of 20 3-coumaranone [benzofuran-3(2H)-one] derivatives. The 3-coumaranone derivatives are structurally related to series of α-tetralone and 1-indanone derivatives, which have recently been shown to potently inhibit MAO, with selectivity for MAO-B (in preference to the MAO-A isoform). 3-Coumaranones are similarly found to selectively inhibit human MAO-B with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.004–1.05 µM. Nine compounds exhibited IC50<0.05 µM for the inhibition of MAO-B. For the inhibition of human MAO-A, IC50 values ranged from 0.586 to >100 µM, with only one compound possessing an IC50<1 µM. For selected 3-coumaranone derivatives, it is established that MAO-A and MAO-B inhibition are reversible since dialysis of enzyme–inhibitor mixtures almost completely restores enzyme activity. On the basis of the selectivity profiles and potent action, it may be concluded that the 3-coumaranone derivatives are suitable leads for the development of selective MAO-B inhibitors as potential treatment for disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26491258

  14. Inactivation of purified human recombinant monoamine oxidases A and B by rasagiline and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Frantisek; Binda, Claudia; Li, Min; Herzig, Yaacov; Sterling, Jeffrey; Youdim, Moussa B H; Mattevi, Andrea; Edmondson, Dale E

    2004-03-25

    The inactivation of purified human recombinant monoamine oxidases (MAO) A and B by rasagiline [N-propargyl-1(R)-aminoindan] and four of its analogues [N-propargyl-1(S)-aminoindan (S-PAI), 6-hydroxy-N-propargyl-1(R)-aminoindan (R-HPAI), N-methyl-N-propargyl-1(R)-aminoindan (R-MPAI), and 6-(N-methyl-N-ethyl carbamoyloxy)-N-propargyl-1(R)-aminoindan (R-CPAI)] has been investigated. All compounds tested, with the exception of R-CPAI, form stoichiometric N(5) flavocyanine adducts with the FAD moiety of either enzyme. No H(2)O(2) is produced during either MAO A or MAO B inactivation, which demonstrates that covalent addition occurs in a single turnover. Rasagiline has the highest specificity for MAO B, as demonstrated by a 100-fold higher inhibition potency (k(inact)/K(i)) compared to MAO A, with the remaining compounds exhibiting lower isozyme specificities. MAO B and MAO A are more selective for the R-enantiomer (rasagiline) compared to the S-enantiomer (S-PAI) by 2500-fold and 17-fold, respectively. Differences in UV/vis and CD spectral data of the complexes of the studied compounds with both MAO A and MAO B are interpreted in light of crystallographic data of complexes of MAO B with rasagiline and its analogues (Binda, C.; et al. J. Med. Chem. 2004, 47, 1767-1774.

  15. Monoamine Oxidase B Prompts Mitochondrial and Cardiac Dysfunction in Pressure Overloaded Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Kaludercic, Nina; Carpi, Andrea; Nagayama, Takahiro; Sivakumaran, Vidhya; Zhu, Guangshuo; Lai, Edwin W.; Bedja, Djahida; De Mario, Agnese; Chen, Kevin; Gabrielson, Kathleen L.; Lindsey, Merry L.; Pacak, Karel; Takimoto, Eiki; Shih, Jean C.; Kass, David A.; Di Lisa, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are mitochondrial flavoenzymes responsible for neurotransmitter and biogenic amines catabolism. MAO-A contributes to heart failure progression via enhanced norepinephrine catabolism and oxidative stress. The potential pathogenetic role of the isoenzyme MAO-B in cardiac diseases is currently unknown. Moreover, it is has not been determined yet whether MAO activation can directly affect mitochondrial function. Results: In wild type mice, pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) resulted in enhanced dopamine catabolism, left ventricular (LV) remodeling, and dysfunction. Conversely, mice lacking MAO-B (MAO-B−/−) subjected to TAC maintained concentric hypertrophy accompanied by extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activation, and preserved LV function, both at early (3 weeks) and late stages (9 weeks). Enhanced MAO activation triggered oxidative stress, and dropped mitochondrial membrane potential in the presence of ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin both in neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes. The MAO-B inhibitor pargyline completely offset this change, suggesting that MAO activation induces a latent mitochondrial dysfunction, causing these organelles to hydrolyze ATP. Moreover, MAO-dependent aldehyde formation due to inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activity also contributed to alter mitochondrial bioenergetics. Innovation: Our study unravels a novel role for MAO-B in the pathogenesis of heart failure, showing that both MAO-driven reactive oxygen species production and impaired aldehyde metabolism affect mitochondrial function. Conclusion: Under conditions of chronic hemodynamic stress, enhanced MAO-B activity is a major determinant of cardiac structural and functional disarrangement. Both increased oxidative stress and the accumulation of aldehyde intermediates are likely liable for these adverse morphological and mechanical changes by directly targeting mitochondria. Antioxid. Redox

  16. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory, 1 January - 31 December 1991. Volume 17

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    FIBER OPTIC ANALOG LINK MS-9183 MS-8873 FABRY - PEROT LASER FIBER OPTIC APPLICATIONS JA-6656 JA-6686 FABRY - PEROT SCANNING FIBER OPTIC LINK JA-6567 MS...8532, MS-9353 FABRY - PEROT SPECTRUM ANALYZER FIBER OPTICS TECHNOLOGY JA-6682 JA-6458 FAR-FIELD BEAM DIVERGENCE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS JA-6505 JA-6662...8734 JA-6604, JA-6680 CRAMER-RAO LOWER BOUND DELAY LINES JA-6461 MS-8890 CROSS-CORRELATION DEMODULATION MS-8734 TR-91 0 CROSSLINK DEPOSITION METHODS JA

  17. Improving the corrosion resistance of Mg-4.0Zn-0.2Ca alloy by micro-arc oxidation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Y H; Zhang, B P; Lu, C X; Geng, L

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, corrosion resistance of the Mg-4.0Zn-0.2Ca alloy was modified by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process. The microstructure and phase constituents of MAO layer were characterized by SEM, XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion resistance of MAO treated Mg-4.0Zn-0.2Ca alloy in the simulated body fluid were characterized by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The microstructure results indicated that a kind of ceramic film was composed by MgO and MgF2 was formed on the surface of Mg-4.0Zn-0.2Ca alloy after MAO treatment. The electrochemical test reveals that the corrosion resistance of MAO treated samples increase 1 order of magnitude. The mechanical intensity test showed that the MAO treated samples has suitable mechanical properties. © 2013.

  18. Deletion of MAOA and MAOB in a male patient causes severe developmental delay, intermittent hypotonia and stereotypical hand movements

    PubMed Central

    Whibley, Annabel; Urquhart, Jill; Dore, Jonathan; Willatt, Lionel; Parkin, Georgina; Gaunt, Lorraine; Black, Graeme; Donnai, Dian; Raymond, F Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and MAO-B) have a key role in the degradation of amine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. We identified an inherited 240 kb deletion on Xp11.3–p11.4, which encompasses both monoamine oxidase genes but, unlike other published reports, does not affect the adjacent Norrie disease gene (NDP). The brothers who inherited the deletion, and thus have no monoamine oxidase function, presented with severe developmental delay, intermittent hypotonia and stereotypical hand movements. The clinical features accord with published reports of larger microdeletions and selective MAO-A and MAO-B deficiencies in humans and mouse models and suggest considerable functional compensation between MAO-A and MAO-B under normal conditions. PMID:20485326

  19. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory 1 January - 31 December 1994, Volume 20.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-31

    J. Ehrlich, DJ. Hollis, M.A. Kosicki, B.B. Powdrill, T. Beattie, K. Smith, S. Varma, R. Gangadharan, R. Mallik , A. Burke, B.E. Wallace, D...JA-6972, JA-7028 Mallik , A., JA-7164 Manfra, M.J., JA-7027, MS-10604 Mankiewich, P.M., JA-7001 Maragos, P., JA-6764, JA-6888 Marcus, S., JA-6898

  20. Comparison of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors in Decreasing Production of the Autotoxic Dopamine Metabolite 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Sullivan, Patti; Holmes, Courtney; Kopin, Irwin J.; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2016-01-01

    According to the catecholaldehyde hypothesis, the toxic dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) contributes to the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease. Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) catalyzes the conversion of intraneuronal dopamine to DOPAL and may serve as a therapeutic target. The “cheese effect”—paroxysmal hypertension evoked by tyramine-containing foodstuffs—limits clinical use of irreversible MAO-A inhibitors. Combined MAO-A/B inhibition decreases DOPAL production in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, but whether reversible MAO-A inhibitors or MAO-B inhibitors decrease endogenous DOPAL production is unknown. We compared the potencies of MAO inhibitors in attenuating DOPAL production and examined possible secondary effects on dopamine storage, constitutive release, synthesis, and auto-oxidation. Catechol concentrations were measured in cells and medium after incubation with the irreversible MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline, three reversible MAO-A inhibitors, or the MAO-B inhibitors selegiline or rasagiline for 180 minutes. Reversible MAO-A inhibitors were generally ineffective, whereas clorgyline (1 nM), rasagiline (500 nM), and selegiline (500 nM) decreased DOPAL levels in the cells and medium. All three drugs also increased dopamine and norepinephrine, decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, and increased cysteinyl-dopamine concentrations in the medium, suggesting increased vesicular uptake and constitutive release, decreased dopamine synthesis, and increased dopamine spontaneous oxidation. In conclusion, clorgyline, rasagiline, and selegiline decrease production of endogenous DOPAL. At relatively high concentrations, the latter drugs probably lose their selectivity for MAO-B. Possibly offsetting increased formation of potentially toxic oxidation products and decreased formation of DOPAL might account for the failure of large clinical trials of MAO-B inhibitors to demonstrate slowing of neurodegeneration in

  1. Civil Affairs in Unconventional Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    goals as Mao Tse -tung states, “Military action is a method used to attain a political goal. While military affairs and political affairs are not...OSS to Green Beret: The Birth at Special Forces (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1986), 149-51. 25Mao Tse -tung, On Guerrilla Warfare (New York: Classic...House Books, 2009), 39. 26David Galula, Counterinsurgency Warfare, 4; and Mao Tse -tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, 3-4. 27Ibid., 12-13. 28Ibid

  2. Training and Advising Foreign Militaries: We’ve Done This Before

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-10

    by Mao Tse -tung, Chinese Nationalist forces needed arms, equipment and training. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt moved quickly to...Nationalist forces against the Japanese invaders. Simultaneously, Chaing was involved in a civil war with Mao Tse -tung’s Communist Army. Although...1931, the Communist established a 54 Ibid., 8-10. 16 Government with Mao Tse -tung as its Chairman. This began the internal struggles between

  3. Decentralized and Distributed Airpower for the Modern Counterinsurgency Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    period 1965-1968 marks the portion of the conflict that Mao Tse -Tung, in his work On Protracted War, would describe as the second stage of a...fighting the Viet Cong insurgency in South Vietnam at the low 6 Mao Tse -tung, “On Protracted War,” May...1938, Selected Works of Mao Tse -tung, Vol II (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1967), 210-219. 7 Mcgee, “Guerrilla Lessons From Nicaragua,” 32. 8

  4. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors from Gentiana lutea.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Kabbash, Amal; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Ishizu, Takashi; Yagi, Akira

    2004-08-01

    Three monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors were isolated from Gentiana lutea. Their structures were elucidated to be 3-3''linked-(2'-hydroxy-4-O-isoprenylchalcone)-(2'''-hydroxy-4''-O-isoprenyldihydrochalcone) (1), 2-methoxy-3-(1,1'-dimethylallyl)-6a,10a-dihydrobenzo(1,2-c)chroman-6-one and 5-hydroxyflavanone. These compounds, and the hydrolysis product of 1, displayed competitive inhibitory properties against MAO-B which was more effective than MAO-A.

  5. Plasma amine oxidase activities in Norrie disease patients with an X-chromosomal deletion affecting monoamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D L; Sims, K B; Karoum, F; Garrick, N A; de la Chapelle, A; Sankila, E M; Norio, R; Breakefield, X O

    1991-01-01

    Two individuals with an X-chromosomal deletion were recently found to lack the genes encoding monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) and MAO-B. This abnormality was associated with almost total (90%) reductions in the oxidatively deaminated urinary metabolites of the MAO-A substrate, norepinephrine, and with marked (100-fold) increases in an MAO-B substrate, phenylethylamine, confirming systemic functional consequences of the genetic enzyme deficiency. However, urinary concentrations of the deaminated metabolites of dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) were essentially normal. To investigate other deaminating systems besides MAO-A and MAO-B that might produce these metabolites of dopamine and 5-HT, we examined plasma amine oxidase (AO) activity in these two patients and two additional patients with the same X-chromosomal deletion. Normal plasma AO activity was found in all four Norrie disease-deletion patients, in four patients with classic Norrie disease without a chromosomal deletion, and in family members of patients from both groups. Marked plasma amine metabolite abnormalities and essentially absent platelet MAO-B activity were found in all four Norrie disease-deletion patients, but in none of the other subjects in the two comparison groups. These results indicate that plasma AO is encoded by gene(s) independent of those for MAO-A and MAO-B, and raise the possibility that plasma AO, and perhaps the closely related tissue AO, benzylamine oxidase, as well as other atypical AOs or MAOs encoded independently from MAO-A and MAO-B may contribute to the oxidative deamination of dopamine and 5-HT in humans.

  6. In vitro monoamine oxidase inhibition potential of alpha-methyltryptamine analog new psychoactive substances for assessing possible toxic risks.

    PubMed

    Wagmann, Lea; Brandt, Simon D; Kavanagh, Pierce V; Maurer, Hans H; Meyer, Markus R

    2017-04-15

    Tryptamines have emerged as new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are distributed and consumed recreationally without preclinical studies or safety tests. Within the alpha-methylated tryptamines, some of the psychoactive effects of the prototypical alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT) have been described decades ago and a contributing factor of its acute toxicity appears to involve the inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO). However, detailed information about analogs is scarce. Therefore, thirteen AMT analogs were investigated for their potential to inhibit MAO. An in vitro assay analyzed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The AMT analogs were incubated with recombinant human MAO-A or B and kynuramine, a non-selective MAO substrate to determine the IC 50 values. The known MAO-A inhibitors 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-IT), harmine, harmaline, yohimbine, and the MAO-B inhibitor selegiline were tested for comparison. AMT and all analogs showed MAO-A inhibition properties with IC 50 values between 0.049 and 166μM, whereas four analogs inhibited also MAO-B with IC 50 values between 82 and 376μM. 7-Me-AMT provided the lowest IC 50 value against MAO-A comparable to harmine and harmaline and was identified as a competitive MAO-A inhibitor. Furthermore, AMT, 7-Me-AMT, and nine further analogs inhibited MAO activity in human hepatic S9 fraction used as model for the human liver which expresses both isoforms. The obtained results suggested that MAO inhibition induced by alpha-methylated tryptamines might be clinically relevant concerning possible serotonergic and adrenergic effects and interactions with drugs (of abuse) particularly acting as monoamine reuptake inhibitors. However, as in vitro assays have only limited conclusiveness, further studies are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Monoamine oxidase inhibitory activities of heterocyclic chalcones.

    PubMed

    Minders, Corné; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél; Lourens, Anna C U

    2015-11-15

    Studies have shown that natural and synthetic chalcones (1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-ones) possess monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition activities. Of particular importance to the present study is a report that a series of furanochalcones acts as MAO-B selective inhibitors. Since the effect of heterocyclic substitution, other than furan (and more recently thiophene, piperidine and quinoline) on the MAO inhibitory properties of the chalcone scaffold remains unexplored, the aim of this study was to synthesise and evaluate further heterocyclic chalcone analogues as inhibitors of the human MAOs. For this purpose, heterocyclic chalcone analogues that incorporate pyrrole, 5-methylthiophene, 5-chlorothiophene and 6-methoxypyridine substitution were examined. Seven of the nine synthesised compounds exhibited IC50 values <1 μM for the inhibition of MAO-B, with all compounds exhibiting higher affinities for MAO-B compared to the MAO-A isoform. The most potent MAO-B inhibitor (4h) displays an IC50 value of 0.067 μM while the most potent MAO-A inhibitor (4e) exhibits an IC50 value of 3.81 μM. It was further established that selected heterocyclic chalcones are reversible and competitive MAO inhibitors. 4h, however, may exhibit tight-binding to MAO-B, a property linked to its thiophene moiety. We conclude that high potency chalcones such as 4h represent suitable leads for the development of MAO-B inhibitors for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution of monoamine oxidase proteins in human brain: implications for brain imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Junchao; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Boileau, Isabelle; Chang, Li-Jan; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Kish, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of monoamine oxidases (MAO-A: [11C]harmine, [11C]clorgyline, and [11C]befloxatone; MAO-B: [11C]deprenyl-D2) has been actively pursued given clinical importance of MAOs in human neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is unknown how well PET outcome measures for the different radiotracers are quantitatively related to actual MAO protein levels. We measured regional distribution (n=38) and developmental/aging changes (21 hours to 99 years) of both MAOs by quantitative immunoblotting in autopsied normal human brain. MAO-A was more abundant than MAO-B in infants, which was reversed as MAO-B levels increased faster before 1 year and, unlike MAO-A, kept increasing steadily to senescence. In adults, regional protein levels of both MAOs were positively and proportionally correlated with literature postmortem data of MAO activities and binding densities. With the exception of [11C]befloxatone (binding potential (BP), r=0.61, P=0.15), correlations between regional PET outcome measures of binding in the literature and MAO protein levels were good (P<0.01) for [11C]harmine (distribution volume, r=0.86), [11C]clorgyline (λk3, r=0.82), and [11C]deprenyl-D2 (λk3 or modified Patlak slope, r=0.78 to 0.87), supporting validity of the latter imaging measures. However, compared with in vitro data, the latter PET measures underestimated regional contrast by ∼2-fold. Further studies are needed to address cause of the in vivo vs. in vitro nonproportionality. PMID:23403377

  9. Monoamine oxidase A and repressor R1 are involved in apoptotic signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Kevin; Shih, Jean C

    2006-07-18

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) degrades serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine and produces reactive oxygen that may cause neuronal cell death. We have previously reported that a novel transcription factor R1 (RAM2/CDCA7L/JPO2) inhibits the MAO A promoter and enzymatic activities. This study reports the roles of MAO A and R1 in apoptosis and proliferation. We have found that in serum starvation-induced apoptosis, p38 kinase, MAO A, and caspase-3 were increased, whereas Bcl-2 and R1 were reduced. Using a p38 kinase inhibitor, R1 overexpression, and MAO A inhibitor, we have shown that MAO A and R1 are downstream of p38 kinase and Bcl-2, but upstream of caspase-3. Inhibition of MAO A prevents cell apoptosis. This notion was further supported by the finding that serum starvation-induced apoptosis is reduced in cortical brain cells from MAO A-deficient mice compared with WT. In addition, we found that MAO A and R1 are involved in the c-Myc-induced proliferative signaling pathway in the presence of serum. Immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry experiments indicate that the oncogene c-Myc colocalizes with R1 and induces R1 gene expression. Using R1 overexpression, R1 small interfering RNA, and a MAO A inhibitor, we found that R1 and MAO A act upstream of cyclin D1 and E2F1. In summary, this study demonstrates the functions of MAO A and its repressor R1 in apoptotic signaling pathways.

  10. Monoamine oxidase: isoforms and inhibitors in Parkinson's disease and depressive illness

    PubMed Central

    Youdim, Moussa B H; Bakhle, Y S

    2006-01-01

    A few years after the foundation of the British Pharmacological Society, monoamine oxidase (MAO) was recognized as an enzyme of crucial interest to pharmacologists because it catalyzed the major inactivation pathway for the catecholamine neurotransmitters, noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine (and, later, 5-hydroxytryptamine, as well). Within the next decade, the therapeutic value of inhibitors of MAO in the treatment of depressive illness was established. Although this first clinical use exposed serious side effects, pharmacological interest in, and investigation of, MAO continued, resulting in the characterization of two isoforms, MAO-A and -B, and isoform-selective inhibitors. Selective inhibitors of MAO-B have found a therapeutic role in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and further developments have provided reversible inhibitors of MAO-A, which offer antidepressant activity without the serious side effects of the earlier inhibitors. Clinical observation and subsequent pharmacological analysis have also generated the concept of neuroprotection, reflecting the possibility of slowing, halting and maybe reversing, neurodegeneration in Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Increased levels of oxidative stress in the brain may be critical for the initiation and progress of neurodegeneration and selective inhibition of brain MAO could contribute importantly to lowering such stress. There are complex interactions between free iron levels in brain and MAO, which may have practical outcomes for depressive disorders. These aspects of MAO and its inhibition and some indication of how this important area of pharmacology and therapeutics might develop in the future are summarized in this review. PMID:16402116

  11. Contribution of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibition to Tobacco Dependence: A Review of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Ron C

    2016-05-01

    There is a hypothesis that substances present in, or derived from, tobacco smoke inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the brains of smokers, reducing the degradation of catecholamine neurotransmitters involved in central reward pathways and acting synergistically with nicotine to increase its addictive effects. The objective of this review was to evaluate the evidence for a role of MAO inhibition by tobacco-derived substances in tobacco dependence. Relevant studies on the effects of tobacco use on MAO levels or activity in humans were identified by electronic searches. The identified data show a clear association between smoking and lower density of MAO-A and MAO-B binding sites in the brains of smokers and strong evidence that MAO is inhibited by a substance or substances in, or derived from, tobacco smoke. There was little evidence to support the hypothesis that low MAO levels/activity is a predictive factor for tobacco use. Substances that inhibit MAO in in vitro assays have been isolated from tobacco leaves and tobacco smoke; however, no single substance has been shown to be absorbed from tobacco smoke and to inhibit MAO in the brains of human smokers. Nevertheless, it is possible that MAO inhibition in smokers could result from additive or synergistic effects of several tobacco-derived substances. MAO inhibition potentiates the reinforcing effects of intravenous nicotine in rodents; however, no data were identified to support the hypothesis that MAO inhibitors in or derived from tobacco or tobacco additives affect tobacco dependence in human smokers. This comprehensive review describes the available evidence for the role of MAO inhibition in tobacco dependence and points the way for further research in this field. In view of the large number of MAO inhibitors identified in tobacco and tobacco smoke, identification of the putative inhibitors responsible for the lower level/activity of MAO in smokers may be impractical. Future studies must address whether the

  12. Effects of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibition on the Reinforcing Properties of Low-Dose Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracy T; Rupprecht, Laura E; Cwalina, Samantha N; Onimus, Matthew J; Murphy, Sharon E; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2016-08-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the authority to regulate cigarette smoke constituents, and a reduction in nicotine content might benefit public health by reducing the prevalence of smoking. Research suggests that cigarette smoke constituents that inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO) may increase the reinforcing value of low doses of nicotine. The aim of the present experiments was to further characterize the impact of MAO inhibition on the primary reinforcing and reinforcement enhancing effects of nicotine in rats. In a series of experiments, rats responded for intravenous nicotine infusions or a moderately-reinforcing visual stimulus in daily 1-h sessions. Rats received pre-session injections of known MAO inhibitors. The results show that (1) tranylcypromine (TCP), a known MAO inhibitor, increases sensitivity to the primary reinforcing effects of nicotine, shifting the dose-response curve for nicotine to the left, (2) inhibition of MAO-A, but not MAO-B, increases low-dose nicotine self-administration, (3) partial MAO-A inhibition, to the degree observed in chronic cigarette smokers, also increases low-dose nicotine self-administration, and (4) TCP decreases the threshold nicotine dose required for reinforcement enhancement. The results of the present experiments suggest cigarette smoke constituents that inhibit MAO-A, in the range seen in chronic smokers, are likely to increase the primary reinforcing and reinforcement enhancing effects of low doses of nicotine. If the FDA reduces the nicotine content of cigarettes, then variability in constituents that inhibit MAO-A could impact smoking.

  13. Structures of human monoamine oxidase B complexes with selective noncovalent inhibitors: safinamide and coumarin analogs.

    PubMed

    Binda, Claudia; Wang, Jin; Pisani, Leonardo; Caccia, Carla; Carotti, Angelo; Salvati, Patricia; Edmondson, Dale E; Mattevi, Andrea

    2007-11-15

    Structures of human monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) in complex with safinamide and two coumarin derivatives, all sharing a common benzyloxy substituent, were determined by X-ray crystallography. These compounds competitively inhibit MAO B with Ki values in the 0.1-0.5 microM range that are 30-700-fold lower than those observed with MAO A. The inhibitors bind noncovalently to MAO B, occupying both the entrance and the substrate cavities and showing a similarly oriented benzyloxy substituent.

  14. In vitro evaluation of Bacopa monniera extract and individual constituents on human recombinant monoamine oxidase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajbir; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Bhateria, Manisha; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2014-09-01

    Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant that has been used worldwide for its nootropic action. Chemically standardized extract of B. monniera is now available as over the counter herbal remedy to enhance memory in children and adults. Considering the nootropic action of B. monniera, we evaluated the effect of clinically available B. monniera extract and six of B. monniera constituents (bacoside A3, bacopaside I, bacopaside II, bacosaponin C, bacosine, and bacoside A mixture) on recombinant human monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes. The effect of B. monniera extract and individual constituents on human recombinant MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes was evaluated using MAO-Glo(TM) assay kit (Promega Corporation, USA), following the instruction manual. IC50 and mode of inhibition were measured for MAO enzymes. Bacopaside I and bacoside A mixture inhibited the MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes. Bacopaside I exhibited mixed mode of inhibition with IC50 and Ki values of 17.08 ± 1.64 and 42.5 ± 3.53 µg/mL, respectively, for MAO-A enzyme. Bacopaside I is the major constituent of B. monniera, which inhibited the MAO-A enzyme selectively. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Monoamine oxidase B is elevated in Alzheimer disease neurons, is associated with γ-secretase and regulates neuronal amyloid β-peptide levels.

    PubMed

    Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Hromadkova, Lenka; Teranishi, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Natsuko Goto; Wiehager, Birgitta; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Winblad, Bengt; Sandebring-Matton, Anna; Frykman, Susanne; Tjernberg, Lars O

    2017-08-01

    Increased levels of the pathogenic amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), released from its precursor by the transmembrane protease γ-secretase, are found in Alzheimer disease (AD) brains. Interestingly, monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity is also increased in AD brain, but its role in AD pathogenesis is not known. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that the increased MAO-B expression in AD brain starts several years before the onset of the disease. Here, we show a potential connection between MAO-B, γ-secretase and Aβ in neurons. MAO-B immunohistochemistry was performed on postmortem human brain. Affinity purification of γ-secretase followed by mass spectrometry was used for unbiased identification of γ-secretase-associated proteins. The association of MAO-B with γ-secretase was studied by coimmunoprecipitation from brain homogenate, and by in-situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) in neurons as well as mouse and human brain sections. The effect of MAO-B on Aβ production and Notch processing in cell cultures was analyzed by siRNA silencing or overexpression experiments followed by ELISA, western blot or FRET analysis. Methodology for measuring relative intraneuronal MAO-B and Aβ42 levels in single cells was developed by combining immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy with quantitative image analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed MAO-B staining in neurons in the frontal cortex, hippocampus CA1 and entorhinal cortex in postmortem human brain. Interestingly, the neuronal staining intensity was higher in AD brain than in control brain in these regions. Mass spectrometric data from affinity purified γ-secretase suggested that MAO-B is a γ-secretase-associated protein, which was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and PLA, and a neuronal location of the interaction was shown. Strikingly, intraneuronal Aβ42 levels correlated with MAO-B levels, and siRNA silencing of MAO-B resulted in significantly reduced levels of intraneuronal Aβ42. Furthermore, overexpression of

  16. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of N-methyl-N-[(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)alkyl]propargylamines as novel monoamine oxidase B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Ornella; Alencar, Nelson; Esteban, Gerard; Viayna, Elisabet; Szałaj, Natalia; Vázquez, Javier; Juárez-Jiménez, Jordi; Sola, Irene; Pérez, Belén; Solé, Montse; Unzeta, Mercedes; Muñoz-Torrero, Diego; Luque, F Javier

    2016-10-15

    Different azides and alkynes have been coupled via Cu-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar Huisgen cycloaddition to afford a novel family of N 1 - and C 5 -substituted 1,2,3-triazole derivatives that feature the propargylamine group typical of irreversible MAO-B inhibitors at the C4-side chain of the triazole ring. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated against human MAO-A and MAO-B. Structure-activity relationships and molecular modeling were utilized to gain insight into the structural and chemical features that enhance the binding affinity and selectivity between the two enzyme isoforms. Several lead compounds, in terms of potency (submicromolar to low micromolar range), MAO-B selective recognition, and brain permeability, were identified. One of these leads (MAO-B IC 50 of 3.54μM, selectivity MAO-A/MAO-B index of 27.7) was further subjected to reversibility and time-dependence inhibition studies, which disclosed a slow and irreversible inhibition of human MAO-B. Overall, the results support the suitability of the 4-triazolylalkyl propargylamine scaffold for exploring the design of multipotent anti-Alzheimer compounds endowed with irreversible MAO-B inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Monoamine Oxidase A in Antisocial Personality Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Nathan J; Vinette, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    Variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene and MAO-A enzyme levels have been linked to antisocial behavior and aggression in clinical and non-clinical populations. Here, we provide an overview of the genetic, epigenetic, and neuroimaging research that has examined MAO-A structure and function in antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). The low-activity MAO-A variable nucleotide tandem repeat genetic polymorphism has shown a robust association with large samples of violent and seriously violent offenders, many of whom had ASPD. A recent positron emission tomography (PET) study of ASPD similarly revealed low MAO-A density in brain regions thought to contribute to the psychopathology of the condition. By contrast, PET has also demonstrated that brain MAO-A levels are increased in BPD and that they relate to symptoms of low mood and suicidality. Candidate gene studies have produced the most compelling evidence connecting MAO-A genetic variants to both ASPD and BPD. Still, conflicting results abound in the literature, making it highly unlikely that ASPD or BPD is related to a specific MAO-A genetic variant. Future research should strive to examine how MAO-A genotypes interact with broad-spectrum environmental influences to produce brain endophenotypes that may ultimately become tractable targets for novel treatment strategies.

  18. Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibition and Associated Antioxidant Activity in Plant Extracts with Potential Antidepressant Actions

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of amines and neurotransmitters and is involved in mood disorders, depression, oxidative stress, and adverse pharmacological reactions. This work studies the inhibition of human MAO-A by Hypericum perforatum, Peganum harmala, and Lepidium meyenii, which are reported to improve and affect mood and mental conditions. Subsequently, the antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO is determined in plant extracts for the first time. H. perforatum inhibited human MAO-A, and extracts from flowers gave the highest inhibition (IC50 of 63.6 μg/mL). Plant extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS and contained pseudohypericin, hypericin, hyperforin, adhyperforin, hyperfirin, and flavonoids. Hyperforin did not inhibit human MAO-A and hypericin was a poor inhibitor of this isoenzyme. Quercetin and flavonoids significantly contributed to MAO-A inhibition. P. harmala seed extracts highly inhibited MAO-A (IC50 of 49.9 μg/L), being a thousand times more potent than H. perforatum extracts owing to its content of β-carboline alkaloids (harmaline and harmine). L. meyenii root (maca) extracts did not inhibit MAO-A. These plants may exert protective actions related to antioxidant effects. Results in this work show that P. harmala and H. perforatum extracts exhibit antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO (i.e., lower production of H2O2). PMID:29568754

  19. Structure, MC3T3-E1 cell response, and osseointegration of macroporous titanium implants covered by a bioactive microarc oxidation coating with microporous structure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Wei, Daqing; Cheng, Su; Feng, Wei; Du, Qing; Yang, Haoyue; Li, Baoqiang; Wang, Yaming; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

    2014-04-09

    Macroporous Ti with macropores of 50-400 μm size is prepared by sintering Ti microbeads with different diameters of 100, 200, 400, and 600 μm. Bioactive microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings with micropores of 2-5 μm size are prepared on the macroporous Ti. The MAO coatings are composed of a few TiO2 nanocrystals and lots of amorphous phases with Si, Ca, Ti, Na, and O elements. Compared to compact Ti, the MC3T3-E1 cell attachment is prolonged on macroporous Ti without and with MAO coatings; however, the cell proliferation number increases. These results are contributed to the effects of the space structure of macroporous Ti and the surface chemical feature and element dissolution of the MAO coatings during the cell culture. Macroporous Ti both without and with MAO coatings does not cause any adverse effects in vivo. The new bone grows well into the macropores and micropores of macroporous Ti with MAO coatings, showing good mechanical properties in vivo compared to Ti, MAO-treated Ti, and macroporous Ti because of its excellent osseointegration. Moreover, the MAO coatings not only show a high interface bonding strength with new bones but also connect well with macroporous Ti. Furthermore, the pushing out force for macroporous Ti with MAO coatings increases significantly with increasing microbead diameter.

  20. MONOAMINE OXIDASE: From Genes to Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shih, J. C.; Chen, K.; Ridd, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Cloning of MAO (monoamine oxidase) A and B has demonstrated unequivocally that these enzymes are made up of different polypeptides, and our understanding of MAO structure, regulation, and function has been significantly advanced by studies using their cDNA. MAO A and B genes are located on the X-chromosome (Xp11.23) and comprise 15 exons with identical intron-exon organization, which suggests that they are derived from the same ancestral gene. MAO A and B knockout mice exhibit distinct differences in neurotransmitter metabolism and behavior. MAO A knock-out mice have elevated brain levels of serotonin, norephinephrine, and dopamine and manifest aggressive behavior similar to human males with a deletion of MAO A. In contrast, MAO B knock-out mice do not exhibit aggression and only levels of phenylethylamine are increased. Mice lacking MAO B are resistant to the Parkinsongenic neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine. Both MAO A and B knock-out mice show increased reactivity to stress. These knock-out mice are valuable models for investigating the role of monoamines in psychoses and neurodegenerative and stress-related disorders. PMID:10202537

  1. The opposite effect of isotype-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors on adipogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Byun, Youngjoo; Park, Jongho; Hong, Soo Hyun; Han, Mi Hwa; Park, Suzie; Jung, Hyo-Il; Noh, Minsoo

    2013-06-01

    Adiponectin production during adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) can be used to evaluate the pharmacological activity of anti-diabetic drugs to improve insulin sensitivity. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine and pargyline inhibit adipogenesis in murine pre-adipocytes. In this study, however, we found that selective MAO-A inhibitors, moclobemide and Ro41-1049, and a selective MAO-B inhibitor, selegiline, promoted adiponectin production during adipocyte differentiation in hBM-MSCs, which suggested the anti-diabetic potential of these drugs. In contrast, non-selective MAO inhibitors, phenelzine and tranylcypromine, inhibited adipocyte differentiation of hBM-MSCs. Concomitant treatments of MAO-A and MAO-B selective inhibitors did not change the stimulatory effect on adiponectin production in hBM-MSCs. Taken together, the opposite effects of isotype-selective MAO inhibitors on adiponectin production during adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs may not be directly associated with the inhibitory effects of MAO, suggested that the structure of MAO inhibitors may contain a novel anti-diabetic pharmacophore. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory, 1 January - 31 December 1989. Volume 15

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    BOLTZMANN MACHINE JA-6051 JA-6290 BEAM PATH CONDITIONING BORON CONTAINING MOLECULES MS-8143 JA-6135 BEAM STEERING BORON TRICHLORIDE MS-8285 JA-6129...BERNZOMATIC TOTE TORCH BORON TRICHLORIDE -ARGON DISCHARGE JA-6260 JA-6129 BIAS CORRELATION BOUNDARY LAYER JA-6326 JA-6192, MS-8141 BINARY INTEGRATION BROADBAND...MS-8345 MODULATORS IRIDIUM MS-7998 JA-6192 67 Subject Index IRIDIUM SILICIDE SCHOTTKY-BARRIER KWAJALEIN DISCRIMINATION SYSTEM INFRARED DETECTORS JA

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... standard conditions of 68 °F and 1 atmosphere. b MHC = molar heat content (higher heating value basis), Btu...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... standard conditions of 68 °F and 1 atmosphere. b MHC = molar heat content (higher heating value basis), Btu...

  5. In Response to Laovirojjanakul W, Acharya N and Gonzales JA's "Ultra-Widefield Fluorescein Angiography in Intermediate Uveitis".

    PubMed

    Babu, Kalpana; Kumaradas, Mrinalini

    2017-12-28

    We read with great interest the article by Laovirojjanakul et al. on ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography in intermediate uveitis. We would like to share a similar case of chronic intermediate uveitis highlighting a fern-like pattern of diffuse vascular leakage on fluorescein angiography, with good visual acuity, absence of clinically active inflammation, and a similar fluorescein angiography picture over a follow-up of 4 years.

  6. J.A. Schumpeter and T.B. Veblen on economic evolution: the dichotomy between statics and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Marlies; Rainer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract At present, the discussion on the dichotomy between statics and dynamics is resolved by concentrating on its mathematical meaning. Yet, a simple formalisation masks the underlying methodological discussion. Overcoming this limitation, the paper discusses Schumpeter's and Veblen's viewpoint on dynamic economic systems as systems generating change from within. It contributes to an understanding on their ideas of how economics could become an evolutionary science and on their contributions to elaborate an evolutionary economics. It confronts Schumpeter's with Veblen's perspective on evolutionary economics and provides insight into their evolutionary economic theorising by discussing their ideas on the evolution of capitalism. PMID:28057981

  7. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  8. Position Data Analysis Job Aid (PDAT-JA) Prototype Software (Version 2. 0), User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    am I II£3 10111 1 1IUmmii INmuFT 11 4325L5 10454 11616 01475 0l a Mi DIy 1ŕ 3?9 TAWi 1411R11 14 41110 I am1 I I 13 UD momiii mullw1t 4301 maIM...mist 51 43201 M5400 91616 01675 0 o War 11 s 5w 43 i cm mAW w a auto I 611 I 1 Tor V. mmii SmaiS 91 43201 MaiA 90160146170 COMY 09i D t 44 " 01011 a

  9. Effect of energy taxation on fuel choice and emissions (Energiaverojen vaikutus polttoainevalintoihin ja paeaestoeihin). Research notes (in English;Finnish)

    SciT

    Leino, P.; Kosunen, P.; Rauhamaeki, J.

    1997-05-01

    The aim of the project was to study how various tax models for power plant fuels affect the fuel consumption and emissions of particles, sulphur dioxide (SO{sup 2}), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO{sup 2}). First, the development of Finnish energy taxation is discussed, followed by a survey of the energy production structure for 1994. For this purpose, it was necessary to prepare a large boiler database, which covers about 95% of the fuel consumption of Finnish energy production. The boiler database was used to calculate the emissions of particles, SO{sup 2}, NOx and CO{sup 2} in 1994. Themore » year 2010 selected under review is the year by which the Ministry of Trade and Industry has prepared their primary energy consumption estimates. Four different alternatives were studied as future tax models. In the first alternative taxation would be as it in years 1995--1996 and in the second alternative taxation would be as 1 January 1997. In the third alternative the Finnish application of EU taxes would be in force in full, i.e., the tax on heavy fuel oil would be 10 US dollars a barrel. In the fourth alternative there would be no taxes on fuels.« less

  10. Lower Monoamine Oxidase-A Total Distribution Volume in Impulsive and Violent Male Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits: An [11C] Harmine Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Kolla, Nathan J; Matthews, Brittany; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Michael Bagby, R; Links, Paul; Simpson, Alexander I; Hussain, Amina; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression. However, a fundamental gap in the literature is that it is unknown whether brain MAO-A levels are low in more severe, clinical disorders of impulsivity, such as ASPD. To address this issue, we applied [11C] harmine PET to measure MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in 18 male ASPD participants and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. OFC and VS MAO-A VT were lower in ASPD compared with controls (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): F2,33=6.8, P=0.003; OFC and VS MAO-A VT each lower by 19%). Similar effects were observed in other brain regions: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain (MANOVA: F7,28=2.7, P=0.029). In ASPD, VS MAO-A VT was consistently negatively correlated with self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (r=−0.50 to −0.52, all P-values<0.05). This study is the first to demonstrate lower brain MAO-A levels in ASPD. Our results support an important extension of preclinical models of impulsive aggression into a human disorder marked by pathological aggression and impulsivity. PMID:26081301

  11. Monoamine oxidase-A and B activities in the cerebellum and frontal cortex of children and young adults with autism.

    PubMed

    Gu, Feng; Chauhan, Ved; Chauhan, Abha

    2017-10-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) catalyze the metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, and are key regulators for brain function. In this study, we analyzed the activities of MAO-A and MAO-B in the cerebellum and frontal cortex from subjects with autism and age-matched control subjects. In the cerebellum, MAO-A activity in subjects with autism (aged 4-38 years) was significantly lower by 20.6% than in controls. When the subjects were divided into children (aged 4-12 years) and young adults (aged 13-38 years) subgroups, a significant decrease by 27.8% in the MAO-A activity was observed only in children with autism compared with controls. When the 95% confidence interval of the control group was taken as a reference range, reduced activity of MAO-A was observed in 70% of children with autism. In the frontal cortex, MAO-A activity in children with autism was also lower by 30% than in the control group, and impaired activity of MAO-A was observed in 55.6% of children with autism, although the difference between the autism and control groups was not significant when all subjects were considered. On the contrary, there was no significant difference in MAO-B activity in both the cerebellum and frontal cortex between children with autism and the control group as well as in adults. These results suggest impaired MAO-A activity in the brain of subjects with autism, especially in children with autism. Decreased activity of MAOs may lead to increased levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, which have been suggested to have a critical role in autism. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Lower Monoamine Oxidase-A Total Distribution Volume in Impulsive and Violent Male Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits: An [(11)C] Harmine Positron Emission Tomography Study.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Nathan J; Matthews, Brittany; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Bagby, R Michael; Links, Paul; Simpson, Alexander I; Hussain, Amina; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2015-10-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression. However, a fundamental gap in the literature is that it is unknown whether brain MAO-A levels are low in more severe, clinical disorders of impulsivity, such as ASPD. To address this issue, we applied [(11)C] harmine PET to measure MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in 18 male ASPD participants and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. OFC and VS MAO-A VT were lower in ASPD compared with controls (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): F2,33=6.8, P=0.003; OFC and VS MAO-A VT each lower by 19%). Similar effects were observed in other brain regions: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain (MANOVA: F7,28=2.7, P=0.029). In ASPD, VS MAO-A VT was consistently negatively correlated with self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (r=-0.50 to -0.52, all P-values<0.05). This study is the first to demonstrate lower brain MAO-A levels in ASPD. Our results support an important extension of preclinical models of impulsive aggression into a human disorder marked by pathological aggression and impulsivity.

  13. A spectrophotometric assay for monoamine oxidase activity with 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine as a derivatized reagent.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guili; Zhu, Fei; Chen, Yuhang; Chen, Shiqiang; Liu, Zhonghong; Li, Xin; Gan, Linlin; Zhang, Li; Yu, Yu

    2016-11-01

    A simple, rapid and reliable spectrophotometry was developed to determine monoamine oxidase (MAO). In this study, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), a classic derivatizing reagent, was used to detect MAO-dependent aldehyde production; and traditional DNPH spectrophotometry was simplified. Benzylamine and serotonin oxidation were catalyzed by MAO-B and MAO-A, respectively, to aldehydes. These were derivatized with DNPH, and the corresponding quinones were further formed by adding NaOH. These DNPH derivatives with large conjugated structures were directly measured spectrophotometrically at 465 nm and 425 nm, without the need for precipitating, washing and suspending procedures. The addition of NaOH caused a red shift of the maximum absorption wavelength of these derivatives, which reduced the interference of free DNPH. MAO-B protein was as low as 47.5 μg in rat liver with correlation coefficients ranging within 0.995-0.999. This method is 2-3 times more sensitive than direct spectrophotometry. The detection of MAO inhibition through this method showed that IC50 values of rasagiline are 8.00 × 10(-9) M for MAO-B and 2.59 × 10(-7) M for MAO-A. These results are similar to the values obtained by direct spectrophotometry. Our study suggests that DNPH spectrophotometry is suitable to detect MAO activity, and has the potential for MAO inhibitor screening in the treatment of MAO-mediated diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Mechanistic Role for a Novel Glucocorticoid-KLF11 (TIEG2) Protein Pathway in Stress-induced Monoamine Oxidase A Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Grunewald, Matthew; Johnson, Shakevia; Lu, Deyin; Wang, Zhe; Lomberk, Gwen; Albert, Paul R.; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Meyer, Jeffrey H.; Urrutia, Raul; Miczek, Klaus A.; Austin, Mark C.; Wang, Junming; Paul, Ian A.; Woolverton, William L.; Seo, Seungmae; Sittman, Donald B.; Ou, Xiao-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress is a risk factor for psychiatric illnesses, including depressive disorders, and is characterized by increased blood glucocorticoids and brain monoamine oxidase A (MAO A, which degrades monoamine neurotransmitters). This study elucidates the relationship between stress-induced MAO A and the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 11 (KLF11, also called TIEG2, a member of the Sp/KLF- family), which inhibits cell growth. We report that 1) a glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) increases KLF11 mRNA and protein levels in cultured neuronal cells; 2) overexpressing KLF11 increases levels of MAO A mRNA and enzymatic activity, which is further enhanced by glucocorticoids; in contrast, siRNA-mediated KLF11 knockdown reduces glucocorticoid-induced MAO A expression in cultured neurons; 3) induction of KLF11 and translocation of KLF11 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus are key regulatory mechanisms leading to increased MAO A catalytic activity and mRNA levels because of direct activation of the MAO A promoter via Sp/KLF-binding sites; 4) KLF11 knockout mice show reduced MAO A mRNA and catalytic activity in the brain cortex compared with wild-type mice; and 5) exposure to chronic social defeat stress induces blood glucocorticoids and activates the KLF11 pathway in the rat brain, which results in increased MAO A mRNA and enzymatic activity. Thus, this study reveals for the first time that KLF11 is an MAO A regulator and is produced in response to neuronal stress, which transcriptionally activates MAO A. The novel glucocorticoid-KLF11-MAO A pathway may play a crucial role in modulating distinct pathophysiological steps in stress-related disorders. PMID:22628545

  15. Alzheimer disease-related presenilin-1 variants exert distinct effects on monoamine oxidase-A activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Paul R; Wei, Zelan; Rui, Lewei; Doig, Jennifer A; Graham, Brett; Kuski, Kelly; Gabriel, Geraldine G; Mousseau, Darrell D

    2011-07-01

    Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) has been associated with both depression and Alzheimer disease (AD). Recently, carriers of AD-related presenilin-1 (PS-1) alleles have been found to be at higher risk for developing clinical depression. We chose to examine whether PS-1 could influence MAO-A function in vitro. Overexpression of selected AD-related PS-1 variants (wildtype, Y115H, ΔEx9 and M146V) in mouse hippocampal HT-22 cells affects MAO-A catalytic activity in a variant-specific manner. The ability of the PS-1 substrate-competitor DAPT to induce MAO-A activity in cells expressing either PS-1 wildtype or PS-1(M146V) suggests the potential for a direct influence of PS-1 on MAO-A function. In support of this, we were able to co-immunoprecipitate MAO-A with FLAG-tagged PS-1 wildtype and M146V proteins. This potential for a direct protein-protein interaction between PS-1 and MAO-A is not specific for HT-22 cells as we were also able to co-immunoprecipitate MAO-A with FLAG-PS-1 variants in N2a mouse neuroblastoma cells and in HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells. Finally, we demonstrate that the two PS-1 variants reported to be associated with an increased incidence of clinical depression [e.g., A431E and L235V] both induce MAO-A activity in HT-22 cells. A direct influence of PS-1 variants on MAO-A function could provide an explanation for the changes in monoaminergic tone observed in several neurodegenerative processes including AD. The ability to induce MAO-A catalytic activity with a PS-1/γ-secretase inhibitor should also be considered when designing secretase inhibitor-based therapeutics.

  16. 8-Aryl- and alkyloxycaffeine analogues as inhibitors of monoamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Strydom, Belinda; Bergh, Jacobus J; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2011-08-01

    Recently it was reported that a series of 8-benzyloxycaffeine analogues are potent reversible inhibitors of human monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B. In an attempt to discover additional C8 oxy substituents of caffeine that lead to potent MAO inhibition, a series of related 8-aryl- and alkyloxycaffeine analogues were synthesized and their MAO-A and -B inhibition potencies were compared to those of the 8-benzyloxycaffeines. The results document that while the 8-substituted-oxycaffeine analogues inhibited both human MAO isoforms, they displayed a high degree of selectivity for MAO-B. 8-(3-Phenylpropoxy)caffeine, 8-(2-phenoxyethoxy)caffeine and 8-[(5-methylhexyl)oxy]caffeine were found to be the especially potent MAO-B inhibitors with IC(50) values ranging from 0.38 to 0.62 μM. These inhibitors are therefore 2.5-4.6 fold more potent MAO-B inhibitors than is 8-benzyloxycaffeine (IC(50) = 1.77 μM). It is also demonstrated that, analogous to 8-benzyloxycaffeine, halogen substitution on the phenyl ring of the C8 substituent significantly enhances MAO binding affinity. For example, the most potent MAO-B inhibitor of the present series is 8-[2-(4-bromophenoxy)ethoxy]caffeine with an IC(50) value of 0.166 μM. This study also reports possible binding orientations of selected oxy caffeines within the active site cavities of MAO-A and MAO-B. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanistic role for a novel glucocorticoid-KLF11 (TIEG2) protein pathway in stress-induced monoamine oxidase A expression.

    PubMed

    Grunewald, Matthew; Johnson, Shakevia; Lu, Deyin; Wang, Zhe; Lomberk, Gwen; Albert, Paul R; Stockmeier, Craig A; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Urrutia, Raul; Miczek, Klaus A; Austin, Mark C; Wang, Junming; Paul, Ian A; Woolverton, William L; Seo, Seungmae; Sittman, Donald B; Ou, Xiao-Ming

    2012-07-13

    Chronic stress is a risk factor for psychiatric illnesses, including depressive disorders, and is characterized by increased blood glucocorticoids and brain monoamine oxidase A (MAO A, which degrades monoamine neurotransmitters). This study elucidates the relationship between stress-induced MAO A and the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 11 (KLF11, also called TIEG2, a member of the Sp/KLF- family), which inhibits cell growth. We report that 1) a glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) increases KLF11 mRNA and protein levels in cultured neuronal cells; 2) overexpressing KLF11 increases levels of MAO A mRNA and enzymatic activity, which is further enhanced by glucocorticoids; in contrast, siRNA-mediated KLF11 knockdown reduces glucocorticoid-induced MAO A expression in cultured neurons; 3) induction of KLF11 and translocation of KLF11 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus are key regulatory mechanisms leading to increased MAO A catalytic activity and mRNA levels because of direct activation of the MAO A promoter via Sp/KLF-binding sites; 4) KLF11 knockout mice show reduced MAO A mRNA and catalytic activity in the brain cortex compared with wild-type mice; and 5) exposure to chronic social defeat stress induces blood glucocorticoids and activates the KLF11 pathway in the rat brain, which results in increased MAO A mRNA and enzymatic activity. Thus, this study reveals for the first time that KLF11 is an MAO A regulator and is produced in response to neuronal stress, which transcriptionally activates MAO A. The novel glucocorticoid-KLF11-MAO A pathway may play a crucial role in modulating distinct pathophysiological steps in stress-related disorders.

  18. Serotonin Receptor 6 Mediates Defective Brain Development in Monoamine Oxidase A-deficient Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi Chiu; Man, Gene Chi Wai; Chu, Ching Yan; Borchert, Astrid; Ugun-Klusek, Aslihan; Billett, E. Ellen; Kühn, Hartmut; Ufer, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO-A and MAO-B) are enzymes of the outer mitochondrial membrane that metabolize biogenic amines. In the adult central nervous system, MAOs have important functions for neurotransmitter homeostasis. Expression of MAO isoforms has been detected in the developing embryo. However, suppression of MAO-B does not induce developmental alterations. In contrast, targeted inhibition and knockdown of MAO-A expression (E7.5–E10.5) caused structural abnormalities in the brain. Here we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying defective brain development induced by MAO-A knockdown during in vitro embryogenesis. The developmental alterations were paralleled by diminished apoptotic activity in the affected neuronal structures. Moreover, dysfunctional MAO-A expression led to elevated levels of embryonic serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)), and we found that knockdown of serotonin receptor-6 (5-Htr6) expression or pharmacologic inhibition of 5-Htr6 activity rescued the MAO-A knockdown phenotype and restored apoptotic activity in the developing brain. Our data suggest that excessive 5-Htr6 activation reduces activation of caspase-3 and -9 of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and enhances expression of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Moreover, we found that elevated 5-HT levels in MAO-A knockdown embryos coincided with an enhanced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and a reduction of proliferating cell numbers. In summary, our findings suggest that excessive 5-HT in MAO-A-deficient mouse embryos triggers cellular signaling cascades via 5-Htr6, which suppresses developmental apoptosis in the brain and thus induces developmental retardations. PMID:24497636

  19. p53-PGC-1α Pathway Mediates Oxidative Mitochondrial Damage and Cardiomyocyte Necrosis Induced by Monoamine Oxidase-A Upregulation: Role in Chronic Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Christelle; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Sicard, Pierre; Lairez, Olivier; Ordener, Catherine; Duparc, Thibaut; De Paulis, Damien; Couderc, Bettina; Spreux-Varoquaux, Odile; Tortosa, Florence; Garnier, Anne; Knauf, Claude; Valet, Philippe; Borchi, Elisabetta; Nediani, Chiara; Gharib, Abdallah; Ovize, Michel; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Mialet-Perez, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction participate together in the development of heart failure (HF). mRNA levels of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), a mitochondrial enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), increase in several models of cardiomyopathies. Therefore, we hypothesized that an increase in cardiac MAO-A could cause oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, leading to cardiac dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the consequences of cardiac MAO-A augmentation on chronic oxidative damage, cardiomyocyte survival, and heart function, and identified the intracellular pathways involved. Results: We generated transgenic (Tg) mice with cardiac-specific MAO-A overexpression. Tg mice displayed cardiac MAO-A activity levels similar to those found in HF and aging. As expected, Tg mice showed a significant decrease in the cardiac amounts of the MAO-A substrates serotonin and norepinephrine. This was associated with enhanced H2O2 generation in situ and mitochondrial DNA oxidation. As a consequence, MAO-A Tg mice demonstrated progressive loss of cardiomyocytes by necrosis and ventricular failure, which were prevented by chronic treatment with the MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline and the antioxidant N-acetyl-cystein. Interestingly, Tg hearts exhibited p53 accumulation and downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial function. This was concomitant with cardiac mitochondrial ultrastructural defects and ATP depletion. In vitro, MAO-A adenovirus transduction of neonatal cardiomyocytes mimicked the results in MAO-A Tg mice, triggering oxidative stress-dependent p53 activation, leading to PGC-1α downregulation, mitochondrial impairment, and cardiomyocyte necrosis. Innovation and Conclusion: We provide the first evidence that MAO-A upregulation in the heart causes oxidative mitochondrial damage, p53-dependent repression of PGC-1α, cardiomyocyte necrosis, and

  20. Lipophilicity plays a major role in modulating the inhibition of monoamine oxidase B by 7-substituted coumarins.

    PubMed

    Carotti, Angelo; Altomare, Cosimo; Catto, Marco; Gnerre, Carmela; Summo, Luciana; De Marco, Agostino; Rose, Sarah; Jenner, Peter; Testa, Bernard

    2006-02-01

    A series of coumarin derivatives (1-22), bearing at the 7-position ether, ketone, ester, carbamate, or amide functions of varying size and lipophilicity, were synthesized and investigated for their in vitro monoamine oxidase-A and -B (MAO-A and -B) inhibitory activities. Most of the compounds acted preferentially as MAO-B inhibitors, with IC(50) values in the micromolar to low-nanomolar range. A structure-activity-relationship (SAR) study highlighted lipophilicity as an important property modulating the MAO-B inhibition potency of 7-substituted coumarins, as shown by a linear correlation (n=20, r(2)=0.72) between pIC(50) and calculated log P values. The stability of ester-containing coumarin derivatives in rat plasma provided information on factors that either favor (lipophilicity) or decrease (steric hindrance) esterase-catalyzed hydrolysis. Two compounds (14 and 22) were selected to investigate how lipophilicity and enzymatic stability may affect in vivo MAO activities, as assayed ex vivo in rat. The most-potent and -selective MAO-B inhibitor 22 (=7-[(3,4-difluorobenzyl)oxy]-3,4-dimethyl-1-benzopyran-2(2H)-one) within the examined series significantly inhibited (>60%) ex vivo rat-liver and striatal MAO-B activities 1 h after intraperitoneal administration of high doses (100 and 300 mumol kg(-1)), revealing its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. At the same doses, liver and striatum MAO-A was less inhibited in vivo, somehow reflecting MAO-B selectivity, as assessed in vitro. In contrast, the metabolically less stable derivative 14, bearing an isopropyl ester in the lateral chain, had a weak effect on hepatic MAO-B activity in vivo, and none on striatal MAO-B, but, surprisingly, displayed inhibitory effects on MAO-A in both peripheral and brain tissues.

  1. Synthesis and in vitro Evaluation of 2-heteroarylidene-1-tetralone Derivatives as Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Amakali, Klaudia T; Legoabe, Lesetja J; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2018-05-14

    The present study investigates the human monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition properties of a series of twelve 2-heteroarylidene-1-tetralone derivatives. Also included are related cyclohexylmethylidene, cyclopentylmethylidene and benzylidene substituted 1-tetralones. These compounds are related to the 2-benzylidene-1-indanone class of compounds which has previously been shown to inhibit the MAOs, with specificity for the MAO-B isoform. The target compounds were synthesised by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation between 7-methoxy-1-tetralone or 1-tetralone, and various aldehydes, under acid (hydrochloric acid) or base (potassium hydroxide) catalysis. The results of the MAO inhibition studies showed that the 2-heteroarylidene-1-tetralone and related derivatives are in most instances more selective inhibitors of the MAO-B isoform compared to MAO-A. (2E)-2-Benzylidene-7-methoxy-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2 H)-one (IC 50 =0.707 μM) was found to be the most potent MAO-B inhibitor, while the most potent MAO-A inhibitor was (2E)-2-[(2-chloropyridin-3-yl)methylidene]-7-methoxy-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2 H)-one (IC 50 =1.37 μM). The effect of the heteroaromatic substituent on MAO-B inhibition activity, in decreasing order was found to be: cyclohexyl, phenyl>thiophene>pyridine, furane, pyrrole, cyclopentyl. This study concludes that, although some 2-heteroarylidene-1-tetralone derivatives are good potency MAO inhibitors, in general their inhibition potencies, particularly for MAO-B, are lower than structurally related chalcones and 1-indanone derivatives that were previously studied. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Binding of Rasagiline-related Inhibitors to Human Monoamine Oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Claudia; Hubálek, Frantisek; Li, Min; Herzig, Yaacov; Sterling, Jeffrey; Edmondson, Dale E.; Mattevi, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO A and B) catalyze neurotransmitters degradation and represent drug targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Rasagiline is an irreversible, MAO B-selective inhibitor that has been approved as a novel anti-Parkinson’s drug. In this study we investigate the inhibition of recombinant human MAO A and MAO B by several rasagiline analogues. Different substituents added onto the rasagiline scaffold alter the binding affinity depending on the position on the aminoindan ring and on the size of the substituent. Compounds with a hydroxyl group on either the C4 or the C6 atom inhibit both isozymes, whereas a bulkier substituent such as a carbamate is tolerated only at the C4 position. The 1.7 Å crystal structure of MAO B in complex with 4-(N-methyl-N-ethyl-carbamoyloxy)-N-methyl-N-propargyl-1(R)-aminoindan shows that the binding mode is similar to that of rasagiline with the carbamate moiety occupying the entrance cavity space. 1(R)-aminoindan, the major metabolic product of rasagiline, and its analogues reversibly inhibit both MAO A and MAO B. The crystal structure of N-methyl-1(R)-aminoindan bound to MAO B shows that its aminoindan ring adopts a different orientation compared to that of rasagiline. PMID:16366596

  3. A sensitive two-photon probe to selectively detect monoamine oxidase B activity in Parkinson’s disease models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Chen, Grace Y. J.; Zhu, Biwei; Chai, Chou; Xu, Qing-Hua; Tan, Eng-King; Zhu, Qing; Lim, Kah-Leong; Yao, Shao Q.

    2014-02-01

    The unusually high MAO-B activity consistently observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients has been proposed as a biomarker; however, this has not been realized due to the lack of probes suitable for MAO-B-specific detection in live cells/tissues. Here we report the first two-photon, small molecule fluorogenic probe (U1) that enables highly sensitive/specific and real-time imaging of endogenous MAO-B activities across biological samples. We also used U1 to confirm the reported inverse relationship between parkin and MAO-B in PD models. With no apparent toxicity, U1 may be used to monitor MAO-B activities in small animals during disease development. In clinical samples, we find elevated MAO-B activities only in B lymphocytes (not in fibroblasts), hinting that MAO-B activity in peripheral blood cells might be an accessible biomarker for rapid detection of PD. Our results provide important starting points for using small molecule imaging techniques to explore MAO-B at the organism level.

  4. PET Studies of CX-157

    SciT

    Fowler, Joanna; Furey, Michael

    We completed measuring Brain MAO A activity in 15 subjects at baseline and after different doses of CX157 and also at different times after each dose. Fifty five scans were completed. We determined that plasma levels of the drug are a surrogate marker for the degree of MAO A inhibition in the brain.

  5. MONOAMINE OXIDASE: RADIOTRACER DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN STUDIES.

    SciT

    FOWLER,J.S.; LOGAN,J.; VOLKOW,N.D.

    PET is uniquely capable of providing information on biochemical transformations in the living human body. Although most of the studies of monoamine oxidase (MAO) have focused on measurements in the brain, the role of peripheral MAO as a phase 1 enzyme for the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics is gaining attention (Strolin Benedetti and Tipton, 1998; Castagnoli et al., 1997.). MAO is well suited for this role because its concentration in organs such as kidneys, liver and digestive organs is high sometimes exceeding that in the brain. Knowledge of the distribution of the MAO subtypes within different organs and differentmore » cells is important in determining which substrates (and which drugs and xenobiotics) have access to which MAO subtypes. The highly variable subtype distribution with different species makes human studies even more important. In addition, the deleterious side effects of combining MAO inhibitors with other drugs and with foodstuffs makes it important to know the MAO inhibitory potency of different drugs both in the brain and in peripheral organs (Ulus et al., 2000). Clearly PET can play a role in answering these questions, in drug research and development and in discovering some of the factors which contribute to the highly variable MAO levels in different individuals.« less

  6. China under the Four Modernizations: Part 2. Selected Papers Submitted to the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    The politics and performance of the post-Mao Chinese government (1976 to the present) in the areas of foreign economic relations and Sino-American normalization are examined. Realizing that the four modernizations program for bringing up to date agriculture, industry, science and technology, and defense, initiated by Mao's successors in 1977, was…

  7. Monoamine Oxidases.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Dale E; Binda, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO A and B) are mammalian flavoenzymes bound to the outer mitochondrial membrane. They were discovered almost a century ago and they have been the subject of many biochemical, structural and pharmacological investigations due to their central role in neurotransmitter metabolism. Currently, the treatment of Parkinson's disease involves the use of selective MAO B inhibitors such as rasagiline and safinamide. MAO inhibition was shown to exert a general neuroprotective effect as a result of the reduction of oxidative stress produced by these enzymes, which seems to be relevant also in non-neuronal contexts. MAOs were successfully expressed as recombinant proteins in Pichia pastoris, which allowed a thorough biochemical and structural characterization. These enzymes are characterized by a globular water-soluble main body that is anchored to the mitochondrial membrane through a C-terminal α-helix, similar to other bitopic membrane proteins. In both MAO A and MAO B the enzyme active site consists of a hydrophobic cavity lined by residues that are conserved in the two isozymes, except for few details that determine substrate and inhibitor specificity. In particular, human MAO B features a dual-cavity active site whose conformation depends on the size of the bound ligand. This article provides a comprehensive and historical review of MAOs and the state-of-the-art of these enzymes as membrane drug targets.

  8. China under the Four Modernizations: Part 1. Selected Papers Submitted to the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    The policies and performance of the post-Mao Chinese government (1976 to the present) in the four modernization areas of industry, agriculture, science and technology, and the military are examined. Realizing that the program to modernize the economy of the People's Republic of China, which was initiated by Mao's successors in 1977, was much too…

  9. Attenuation of MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity by TV3326, a cholinesterase-monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Sagi, Yotam; Weinstock, Marta; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2003-07-01

    (R)-[(N-propargyl-(3R) aminoindan-5-yl) ethyl methyl carbamate] (TV3326) is a novel cholinesterase and brain-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A/-B inhibitor. It was developed for the treatment of dementia co-morbid with extra pyramidal disorders (parkinsonism), and depression. On chronic treatment in mice it attenuated striatal dopamine depletion induced by MPTP and prevented the reduction in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity, like selective B and non-selective MAO inhibitors. TV3326 preferentially inhibits MAO-B in the striatum and hippocampus, and the degree of MAO-B inhibition correlates with the prevention of MPTP-induced dopamine depletion. Complete inhibition of MAO-B is not necessary for full protection from MPTP neurotoxicity. Unlike that seen after treatment with other MAO-A and -B inhibitors, recovery of striatal and hippocampal MAO-A and -B activities from inhibition by TV3326 did not show first-order kinetics. This has been attributed to the generation of a number of metabolites by TV3326 that cause differential inhibition of these enzymes. Inhibition of brain MAO-A and -B by TV3326 resulted in significant elevations of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in the striatum and hippocampus. This may explain its antidepressant-like activity, resembling that of moclobemide in the forced-swim test in rats.

  10. Calcium-sensitive regulation of monoamine oxidase-A contributes to the production of peroxyradicals in hippocampal cultures: implications for Alzheimer disease-related pathology

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xia; Wei, Zelan; Gabriel, Geraldine G; Li, XinMin; Mousseau, Darrell D

    2007-01-01

    Background Calcium (Ca2+) has recently been shown to selectively increase the activity of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), a mitochondria-bound enzyme that generates peroxyradicals as a natural by-product of the deamination of neurotransmitters such as serotonin. It has also been suggested that increased intracellular free Ca2+ levels as well as MAO-A may be contributing to the oxidative stress associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Results Incubation with Ca2+ selectively increases MAO-A enzymatic activity in protein extracts from mouse hippocampal HT-22 cell cultures. Treatment of HT-22 cultures with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 also increases MAO-A activity, whereas overexpression of calbindin-D28K (CB-28K), a Ca2+-binding protein in brain that is greatly reduced in AD, decreases MAO-A activity. The effects of A23187 and CB-28K are both independent of any change in MAO-A protein or gene expression. The toxicity (via production of peroxyradicals and/or chromatin condensation) associated with either A23187 or the AD-related β-amyloid peptide, which also increases free intracellular Ca2+, is attenuated by MAO-A inhibition in HT-22 cells as well as in primary hippocampal cultures. Conclusion These data suggest that increases in intracellular Ca2+ availability could contribute to a MAO-A-mediated mechanism with a role in AD-related oxidative stress. PMID:17868476

  11. Exploring the structural basis of the selective inhibition of monoamine oxidase A by dicarbonitrile aminoheterocycles: role of Asn181 and Ile335 validated by spectroscopic and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Jiménez, Jordi; Mendes, Eduarda; Galdeano, Carles; Martins, Carla; Silva, Daniel B; Marco-Contelles, José; do Carmo Carreiras, Maria; Luque, F Javier; Ramsay, Rona R

    2014-02-01

    Since cyanide potentiates the inhibitory activity of several monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, a series of carbonitrile-containing aminoheterocycles was examined to explore the role of nitriles in determining the inhibitory activity against MAO. Dicarbonitrile aminofurans were found to be potent, selective inhibitors against MAO A. The origin of the MAO A selectivity was identified by combining spectroscopic and computational methods. Spectroscopic changes induced in MAO A by mono- and dicarbonitrile inhibitors were different, providing experimental evidence for distinct binding modes to the enzyme. Similar differences were also found between the binding of dicarbonitrile compounds to MAO A and to MAO B. Stabilization of the flavin anionic semiquinone by monocarbonitrile compounds, but destabilization by dicarbonitriles, provided further support to the distinct binding modes of these compounds and their interaction with the flavin ring. Molecular modeling studies supported the role played by the nitrile and amino groups in anchoring the inhibitor to the binding cavity. In particular, the results highlight the role of Asn181 and Ile335 in assisting the interaction of the nitrile-containing aminofuran ring. The network of interactions afforded by the specific attachment of these functional groups provides useful guidelines for the design of selective, reversible MAO A inhibitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A sensitive two-photon probe to selectively detect monoamine oxidase B activity in Parkinson's disease models.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Chen, Grace Y J; Zhu, Biwei; Chai, Chou; Xu, Qing-Hua; Tan, Eng-King; Zhu, Qing; Lim, Kah-Leong; Yao, Shao Q

    2014-01-01

    The unusually high MAO-B activity consistently observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients has been proposed as a biomarker; however, this has not been realized due to the lack of probes suitable for MAO-B-specific detection in live cells/tissues. Here we report the first two-photon, small molecule fluorogenic probe (U1) that enables highly sensitive/specific and real-time imaging of endogenous MAO-B activities across biological samples. We also used U1 to confirm the reported inverse relationship between parkin and MAO-B in PD models. With no apparent toxicity, U1 may be used to monitor MAO-B activities in small animals during disease development. In clinical samples, we find elevated MAO-B activities only in B lymphocytes (not in fibroblasts), hinting that MAO-B activity in peripheral blood cells might be an accessible biomarker for rapid detection of PD. Our results provide important starting points for using small molecule imaging techniques to explore MAO-B at the organism level.

  13. Indanones as high-potency reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Samantha; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2015-05-01

    Recent reports document that α-tetralone (3,4-dihydro-2H-naphthalen-1-one) is an appropriate scaffold for the design of high-potency monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Based on the structural similarity between α-tetralone and 1-indanone, the present study involved synthesis of 34 1-indanone and related indane derivatives as potential inhibitors of recombinant human MAO-A and MAO-B. The results show that C6-substituted indanones are particularly potent and selective MAO-B inhibitors, with IC50 values ranging from 0.001 to 0.030 μM. C5-Substituted indanone and indane derivatives are comparatively weaker MAO-B inhibitors. Although the 1-indanone and indane derivatives are selective inhibitors of the MAO-B isoform, a number of homologues are also potent MAO-A inhibitors, with three homologues possessing IC50 values <0.1 μM. Dialysis of enzyme-inhibitor mixtures further established a selected 1-indanone as a reversible MAO inhibitor with a competitive mode of inhibition. It may be concluded that 1-indanones are promising leads for the design of therapies for neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease and depression. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Brain Monoamine Oxidase-A Activity Predicts Trait Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Kriplani, Aarti; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo; Williams, Benjamin; Telang, Frank; Shumay, Elena; Biegon, Anat; Craig, Ian W.; Henn, Fritz; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2008-01-01

    The genetic deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A, an enzyme which breaks down the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine) produces aggressive phenotypes across species. Therefore, a common polymorphism in the MAO A gene (MAOA, MIM 309850, referred to as high or low based on transcription in non-neuronal cells) has been investigated in a number of externalizing behavioral and clinical phenotypes. These studies provide evidence linking the low MAOA genotype and violent behavior but only through interaction with severe environmental stressors during childhood. Here, we hypothesized that in healthy adult males the gene product of MAO A in the brain, rather than the gene per se, would be associated with regulating the concentration of brain amines involved in trait aggression. Brain MAO A activity was measured in-vivo in healthy non-smoking men with positron emission tomography using a radioligand specific for MAO A (clorgyline labeled with carbon 11). Trait aggression was measured with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Here we report for the first time that brain MAO A correlates inversely with the MPQ trait measure of aggression (but not with other personality traits) such that the lower the MAO A activity in cortical and subcortical brain regions the higher the self-reported aggression (in both MAOA genotype groups) contributing to more than a third of the variability. Since trait aggression is a measure used to predict antisocial behavior, these results underscore the relevance of MAO A as a neurochemical substrate of aberrant aggression. PMID:18463263

  15. Methadone, monoamine oxidase, and depression: opioid distribution and acute effects on enzyme activity

    SciT

    Kaufmann, C.A.; Kreek, M.J.; Raghunath, J.

    1983-09-01

    Narcotic withdrawal is often accompanied by an atypical depression which responds to resumption of narcotics. It was hypothesized that methadone might exert its antidepressant effects through monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition. The current study examined /sub 3/H-methadone distribution in rat brain and effects on regional MAO activity with acute doses (2.5 mg/kg) which approximate those found during chronic methadone maintenance in man. Limbic areas (amygdala, basomedial hypothalamus, caudate-putamen, hippocampus, preoptic nucleus), as well as pituitary and liver were assayed for MAO activity and methadone concentration. MAO activities did not differ significantly in acute methadone or saline-treated cage-mates at 1 or 24more » hr. The concentrations of methadone at 1 hr ranged between 17 and 223 ng/100 mg wet wt tissue in the preoptic nucleus and pituitary, respectively. No significant correlation was found between change in MAO activity (MAO methadone/MAO saline) and methadone concentration in any region at 1 or 24 hr. This study does not support the hypothesis that methadone acts as an antidepressant through MAO inhibition, at least not following acute administration of this exogenous opioid.« less

  16. Plenty of Blame to Go Around: A Qualitative Approach to Attribution of Moral Responsibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    1 Social psychological research cited in [Mao 2006] indicates that there are differences in the processes used for responsibility for...Mao, W. and Gratch, J. 2005. Social Causality and Responsibility : Modeling and Evaluation. Fifth International Conference on Interactive Virtual...Reasoning Workshop. B. Weiner. 1995. Judgments of Responsibility : A Foundation for a Theory of Social Conduct. Guilford Press. B. Weiner. 2001

  17. The influence of monoamine oxidase variants on the risk of betel quid-associated oral and pharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping-Ho; Huang, Bin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Wu, Ju-Hui; Huang, Jhen-Hao; Chen, Chun-Chia; Lee, Ka-Wo

    2014-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) and areca nut (AN) (major BQ ingredient) are group I human carcinogens illustrated by International Agency for Research on Cancer and are closely associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The primary alkaloid of AN, arecoline, can be metabolized via the monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variants of the susceptible candidate MAO genes are associated with OPMDs and oral and pharyngeal cancer. A significant trend of MAO-A mRNA expression was found in in vitro studies. Using paired human tissues, we confirmed the significantly decreased expression of MAO-A and MAO-B in cancerous tissues when compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, we determined that MAO-A single nucleotide polymorphism variants are significantly linked with oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in comparison to OPMDs patients [rs5953210 risk G-allele, odds ratio = 1.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.01]. In conclusion, we suggested that susceptible MAO family variants associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer may be implicated in the modulation of MAO gene activity associated with ROS.

  18. The Influence of Monoamine Oxidase Variants on the Risk of Betel Quid-Associated Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Wu, Ju-Hui; Huang, Jhen-Hao; Chen, Chun-Chia; Lee, Ka-Wo

    2014-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) and areca nut (AN) (major BQ ingredient) are group I human carcinogens illustrated by International Agency for Research on Cancer and are closely associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The primary alkaloid of AN, arecoline, can be metabolized via the monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variants of the susceptible candidate MAO genes are associated with OPMDs and oral and pharyngeal cancer. A significant trend of MAO-A mRNA expression was found in in vitro studies. Using paired human tissues, we confirmed the significantly decreased expression of MAO-A and MAO-B in cancerous tissues when compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, we determined that MAO-A single nucleotide polymorphism variants are significantly linked with oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in comparison to OPMDs patients [rs5953210 risk G-allele, odds ratio = 1.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.01]. In conclusion, we suggested that susceptible MAO family variants associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer may be implicated in the modulation of MAO gene activity associated with ROS. PMID:25389533

  19. Multiagent optimization system for solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP).

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Jiming

    2009-04-01

    The multiagent optimization system (MAOS) is a nature-inspired method, which supports cooperative search by the self-organization of a group of compact agents situated in an environment with certain sharing public knowledge. Moreover, each agent in MAOS is an autonomous entity with personal declarative memory and behavioral components. In this paper, MAOS is refined for solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP), which is a classic hard computational problem. Based on a simplified MAOS version, in which each agent manipulates on extremely limited declarative knowledge, some simple and efficient components for solving TSP, including two improving heuristics based on a generalized edge assembly recombination, are implemented. Compared with metaheuristics in adaptive memory programming, MAOS is particularly suitable for supporting cooperative search. The experimental results on two TSP benchmark data sets show that MAOS is competitive as compared with some state-of-the-art algorithms, including the Lin-Kernighan-Helsgaun, IBGLK, PHGA, etc., although MAOS does not use any explicit local search during the runtime. The contributions of MAOS components are investigated. It indicates that certain clues can be positive for making suitable selections before time-consuming computation. More importantly, it shows that the cooperative search of agents can achieve an overall good performance with a macro rule in the switch mode, which deploys certain alternate search rules with the offline performance in negative correlations. Using simple alternate rules may prevent the high difficulty of seeking an omnipotent rule that is efficient for a large data set.

  20. Monoamine oxidase A inhibitor occupancy during treatment of major depressive episodes with moclobemide or St. John’s wort: an [11C]-harmine PET study

    PubMed Central

    Sacher, Julia; Houle, Sylvain; Parkes, Jun; Rusjan, Pablo; Sagrati, Sandra; Wilson, Alan A.; Meyer, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor antidepressants raise levels of multiple monoamines, whereas the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) only raise extracellular serotonin. Despite this advantage of MAO-A inhibitors, there is much less frequent development of MAO inhibitors compared with SSRIs. We sought to measure brain MAO-A occupancy after 6 weeks of treatment in depressed patients with a clinically effective dose of a selective MAO-A inhibitor and measure MAO-A occupancy after repeated administration of St. John’s wort, an herb purported to have MAO-A inhibitor properties. Methods Participants underwent 2 [11C]-harmine positron emission tomography scans. Healthy controls completed a test–retest condition, and depressed patients were scanned before and after repeated administration of moclobemide or St. John’s wort for 6 weeks at the assigned dose. We measured MAO-A VT, an index of MAO-A density, in the prefrontal, anterior cingulate and anterior temporal cortices, putamen, thalamus, midbrain and hippocampus. Results We included 23 participants (10 controls and 13 patients with major depressive disorder [MDD]) in our study. Monoamine oxidase A VT decreased significantly throughout all regions after moclobemide treatment in patients with MDD compared with controls (repeated-measures analysis of variance, F1,15 = 71.08–130.06, p < 0.001 for all regions, mean occupancy 74% [standard deviation 6%]). Treatment with St. John’s wort did not significantly alter MAO-A VT. Limitations The occupancy estimates are limited by the sample size of each treatment group; hence, our estimate for the overall moclobemide occupancy of 74% has a 95% confidence interval of 70%–78%, and we can estimate with 95% certainty that the occupancy of St. John’s wort is less than 5%. Conclusion For new MAO-A inhibitors, about 74% occupancy at steady-state dosing is desirable. Consistent with this, St. John’s wort should not be classified as an MAO

  1. Monoamine oxidase A inhibitor occupancy during treatment of major depressive episodes with moclobemide or St. John's wort: an [11C]-harmine PET study.

    PubMed

    Sacher, Julia; Houle, Sylvain; Parkes, Jun; Rusjan, Pablo; Sagrati, Sandra; Wilson, Alan A; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2011-11-01

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor antidepressants raise levels of multiple monoamines, whereas the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) only raise extracellular serotonin. Despite this advantage of MAO-A inhibitors, there is much less frequent development of MAO inhibitors compared with SSRIs. We sought to measure brain MAO-A occupancy after 6 weeks of treatment in depressed patients with a clinically effective dose of a selective MAO-A inhibitor and measure MAO-A occupancy after repeated administration of St. John's wort, an herb purported to have MAO-A inhibitor properties. Participants underwent 2 [(11)C]-harmine positron emission tomography scans. Healthy controls completed a test-retest condition, and depressed patients were scanned before and after repeated administration of moclobemide or St. John's wort for 6 weeks at the assigned dose. We measured MAO-A VT, an index of MAO-A density, in the prefrontal, anterior cingulate and anterior temporal cortices, putamen, thalamus, midbrain and hippocampus. We included 23 participants (10 controls and 13 patients with major depressive disorder [MDD]) in our study. Monoamine oxidase A VT decreased significantly throughout all regions after moclobemide treatment in patients with MDD compared with controls (repeated-measures analysis of variance, F1,15 = 71.08-130.06, p < 0.001 for all regions, mean occupancy 74% [standard deviation 6%]). Treatment with St. John's wort did not significantly alter MAO-A VT. The occupancy estimates are limited by the sample size of each treatment group; hence, our estimate for the overall moclobemide occupancy of 74% has a 95% confidence interval of 70%-78%, and we can estimate with 95% certainty that the occupancy of St. John's wort is less than 5%. For new MAO-A inhibitors, about 74% occupancy at steady-state dosing is desirable. Consistent with this, St. John's wort should not be classified as an MAO-A inhibitor. The magnitude of MAO-A blockade during moclobemide

  2. Chromenylchalcones with inhibitory effects on monoamine oxidase B.

    PubMed

    Jo, Geunhyeong; Ahn, Seunghyun; Kim, Bong-Gyu; Park, Hye Ri; Kim, Young Hwa; Choo, Hyun Ah; Koh, Dongsoo; Chong, Youhoon; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Lim, Yoongho

    2013-12-15

    Structure-activity relationship (SAR) calculations were used to find monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitors by identifying pharmacophores exhibiting high inhibitory activities. Several such chromenylchalcones were designed and synthesized accordingly. Their inhibitory effects on MAO-B were determined using an HPLC-based method and an MAO-B enzyme assay kit. (E)-3-(6-Methoxy-2H-chromen-3-yl)-1-(2-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one exhibited a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 320 nM. Its molecular-level binding mode with the three-dimensional structure of MAO-B was elucidated using an in silico docking study. The chromenylchalcone scaffold, which is derived from natural products including isoflavonoids and chalcones, had not been previously reported as an MAO-B inhibitor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Purification, characterization, and crystallization of monoamine oxidase from Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Roh, J H; Suzuki, H; Azakami, H; Yamashita, M; Murooka, Y; Kumagai, H

    1994-09-01

    The gene for monoamine oxidase (MAO) was cloned from an Escherichia coli genomic library and MAO was overproduced in the periplasmic space. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by preparation of a periplasmic fraction, followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. Crystals were obtained by the hanging drop method using sodium citrate as a precipitant. The enzyme was found to be a dimer of identical subunits with a molecular weight of 80,000, and showed the highest activity at pH 7.5 and 45 degrees C. The enzyme was inhibited by a MAO specific inhibitor, hydroxylamine, hydrazine, phenelzine, isoniazid, and tranycpromine. The enzyme oxidized tyramine, phenethylamine, and tryptamine at higher rates, but not oxidized diamine and polyamines such as putrescine and spermine. The antibody against E. coli MAO cross-reacted with purified MAO A from Klebsiella aerogenes.

  4. Novel monoamine oxidase A knock out mice with human-like spontaneous mutation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Anna L; Bortolato, Marco; Chen, Kevin; Shih, Jean C

    2008-05-07

    A novel line of mutant mice [monoamine oxidase A knockout (MAOA KO)] harboring a spontaneous point nonsense mutation in exon 8 of the MAO A gene was serendipitously identified in a 129/SvEvTac colony. This mutation is analogous to the cause of a rare human disorder, Brunner syndrome, characterized by complete MAO A deficiency and impulsive aggressiveness. Concurrent with previous studies of MAO A KO mice generated by insertional mutagenesis ('Tg8'), MAOA(A863T) KO lack MAO A enzyme activity and display enhanced aggression toward intruder mice. MAOA(A863T) KO, however, exhibited lower locomotor activity in a novel, inescapable open field and similar immobility during tail suspension compared with wild type, observations which differ from reports of Tg8. These findings consolidate evidence linking MAO A to aggression and highlight subtle yet distinctive phenotypical characteristics.

  5. Novel monoamine oxidase A knock out mice with human-like spontaneous mutation

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Anna L.; Bortolato, Marco; Chen, Kevin; Shih, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    A novel line of mutant mice [monoamine oxidase A knockout (MAOAA863T KO)] harboring a spontaneous point nonsense mutation in exon 8 of the MAO A gene was serendipitously identified in a 129/SvEvTac colony. This mutation is analogous to the cause of a rare human disorder, Brunner syndrome, characterized by complete MAO A deficiency and impulsive aggressiveness. Concurrent with previous studies of MAO A KO mice generated by insertional mutagenesis (‘Tg8’), MAOAA863T KO lack MAO A enzyme activity and display enhanced aggression toward intruder mice. MAOAA863T KO, however, exhibited lower locomotor activity in a novel, inescapable open field and similar immobility during tail suspension compared with wild type, observations which differ from reports of Tg8. These findings consolidate evidence linking MAO A to aggression and highlight subtle yet distinctive phenotypical characteristics. PMID:18418249

  6. Novel substituted (pyridin-3-yl)phenyloxazolidinones: antibacterial agents with reduced activity against monoamine oxidase A and increased solubility.

    PubMed

    Reck, Folkert; Zhou, Fei; Eyermann, Charles J; Kern, Gunther; Carcanague, Dan; Ioannidis, Georgine; Illingworth, Ruth; Poon, Grace; Gravestock, Michael B

    2007-10-04

    Oxazolidinones represent a new and promising class of antibacterial agents. Current research in this area is mainly concentrated on improving the safety profile and the antibacterial spectrum. Oxazolidinones bearing a (pyridin-3-yl)phenyl moiety (e.g., 3) generally show improved antibacterial activity compared to linezolid but suffer from potent monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibition and low solubility. We now disclose the finding that new analogues of 3 with acyclic substituents on the pyridyl moiety exhibit excellent activity against Gram-positive pathogens, including linezolid-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Generally, more bulky substituents yielded significantly reduced MAO-A inhibition relative to the unsubstituted compound 3. The MAO-A SAR can be rationalized on the basis of docking studies using a MAO-A/MAO-B homology model. Solubility was enhanced with incorporation of polar groups. One optimized analogue, compound 13, showed low clearance in the rat and efficacy against S. pneumoniae in a mouse pneumonia model.

  7. Subchronic glucocorticoids, glutathione depletion and a postpartum model elevate monoamine oxidase a activity in the prefrontal cortex of rats.

    PubMed

    Raitsin, Sofia; Tong, Junchao; Kish, Stephen; Xu, Xin; Magomedova, Lilia; Cummins, Carolyn; Andreazza, Ana C; Scola, Gustavo; Baker, Glen; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2017-07-01

    Recent human brain imaging studies implicate dysregulation of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), in particular in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study investigates the influence of four alterations underlying important pathologies of MDD, namely, chronic elevation of glucocorticoid levels, glutathione depletion, changes in female gonadal sex hormones and serotonin concentration fluctuation, on MAO-A and MAO-B activities in rats. Young adult rats exposed chronically to the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone at 0, 0.05, 0.5, and 2.0mg/kg/day (osmotic minipumps) for eight days showed significant dose-dependent increases in activities of MAO-A in PFC (+17%, p<0.001) and ACC (+9%, p<0.01) and MAO-B in PFC (+14%, p<0.001) and increased serotonin turnover in the PFC (+31%, p<0.01), not accounted for by dexamethasone-induced changes in serotonin levels, since neither serotonin depletion nor supplementation affected MAO-A activity. Sub-acute depletion of the major antioxidant glutathione by diethyl maleate (5mmol/kg, i.p.) for three days, which resulted in a 36% loss of glutathione in PFC (p=0.0005), modestly, but significantly, elevated activities of MAO-A in PFC and MAO-B in PFC, ACC and hippocampus (+6-9%, p<0.05). Changes in estrogen and progesterone representing pseudopregnancy were associated with significantly elevated MAO-A activity in the ACC day 4-7 postpartum (10-18%, p<0.05 to p<0.0001) but not the PFC or hippocampus. Hence, our study provides data in support of strategies targeting glucocorticoid and glutathione systems, as well as changes in female sex hormones for normalization of MAO-A activities and thus treatment of mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The monoamine oxidase inhibition properties of selected structural analogues of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Delport, Anzelle; Harvey, Brian H; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2017-06-15

    The thionine dye, methylene blue (MB), is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, a property that may, at least in part, mediate its antidepressant effects in humans and animals. The central inhibition of MAO-A by MB has also been linked to serotonin toxicity (ST) which may arise when MB is used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Structural analogues and the principal metabolite of MB, azure B, have also been reported to inhibit the MAO enzymes, with all compounds exhibiting specificity for the MAO-A isoform. To expand on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of MAO inhibition by MB analogues, the present study investigates the human MAO inhibition properties of five MB analogues: neutral red, Nile blue, new methylene blue, cresyl violet and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue. Similar to MB, these analogues also are specific MAO-A inhibitors with cresyl violet (IC 50 =0.0037μM), Nile blue (IC 50 =0.0077μM) and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue (IC 50 =0.018μM) exhibiting higher potency inhibition compared to MB (IC 50 =0.07μM). Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC 50 value of 0.012μM. From the results it may be concluded that non-thionine MB analogues (e.g. cresyl violet and Nile blue) also may exhibit potent MAO inhibition, a property which should be considered when using these compounds in pharmacological studies. Benzophenoxazines such as cresyl violet and Nile blue are, similar to phenothiazines (e.g. MB), representative of high potency MAO-A inhibitors with a potential risk of ST. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Elevated Monoamine Oxidase-A Distribution Volume in Borderline Personality Disorder Is Associated With Severity Across Mood Symptoms, Suicidality, and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Nathan J; Chiuccariello, Lina; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Links, Paul; Bagby, R Michael; McMain, Shelley; Kellow, Charis; Patel, Jalpa; Rekkas, Paraskevi V; Pasricha, Suvercha; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-15

    Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) is a treatment target in neurodegenerative illness and mood disorders that increases oxidative stress and predisposition toward apoptosis. Increased MAO-A levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) occur in rodent models of depressive behavior and human studies of depressed moods. Extreme dysphoria is common in borderline personality disorder (BPD), especially when severe, and the molecular underpinnings of severe BPD are largely unknown. We hypothesized that MAO-A levels in PFC and ACC would be highest in severe BPD and would correlate with symptom magnitude. [(11)C] Harmine positron emission tomography measured MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in severe BPD subjects (n = 14), moderate BPD subjects (n = 14), subjects with a major depressive episode (MDE) only (n = 14), and healthy control subjects (n = 14). All subjects were female. Severe BPD was associated with greater PFC and ACC MAO-A VT compared with moderate BPD, MDE, and healthy control subjects (multivariate analysis of variance group effect: F6,102 = 5.6, p < .001). In BPD, PFC and ACC MAO-A VT were positively correlated with mood symptoms (PFC: r = .52, p = .005; ACC: r = .53, p = .004) and suicidality (PFC: r = .40, p = .037; ACC: r = .38, p = .046), while hippocampus MAO-A VT was negatively correlated with verbal memory (r = -.44, p = .023). These results suggest that elevated MAO-A VT is associated with multiple indicators of BPD severity, including BPD symptomatology, mood symptoms, suicidality, and neurocognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. How fast monoamine oxidases decompose adrenaline? Kinetics of isoenzymes A and B evaluated by empirical valence bond simulation.

    PubMed

    Oanca, Gabriel; Stare, Jernej; Mavri, Janez

    2017-12-01

    This work scrutinizes kinetics of decomposition of adrenaline catalyzed by monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B enzymes, a process controlling the levels of adrenaline in the central nervous system and other tissues. Experimental kinetic data for MAO A and B catalyzed decomposition of adrenaline are reported only in the form of the maximum reaction rate. Therefore, we estimated the experimental free energy barriers form the kinetic data of closely related systems using regression method, as was done in our previous study. By using multiscale simulation on the Empirical Valence Bond (EVB) level, we studied the chemical reactivity of the MAO A catalyzed decomposition of adrenaline and we obtained a value of activation free energy of 17.3 ± 0.4 kcal/mol. The corresponding value for MAO B is 15.7 ± 0.7 kcal/mol. Both values are in good agreement with the estimated experimental barriers of 16.6 and 16.0 kcal/mol for MAO A and MAO B, respectively. The fact that we reproduced the kinetic data and preferential catalytic effect of MAO B over MAO A gives additional support to the validity of the proposed hydride transfer mechanism. Furthermore, we demonstrate that adrenaline is preferably involved in the reaction in a neutral rather than in a protonated form due to considerably higher barriers computed for the protonated adrenaline substrate. The results are discussed in the context of chemical mechanism of MAO enzymes and possible applications of multiscale simulation to rationalize the effects of MAO activity on adrenaline level. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The monoamine oxidase inhibition properties of selected structural analogues of methylene blue

    SciT

    Delport, Anzelle

    The thionine dye, methylene blue (MB), is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, a property that may, at least in part, mediate its antidepressant effects in humans and animals. The central inhibition of MAO-A by MB has also been linked to serotonin toxicity (ST) which may arise when MB is used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Structural analogues and the principal metabolite of MB, azure B, have also been reported to inhibit the MAO enzymes, with all compounds exhibiting specificity for the MAO-A isoform. To expand on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of MAO inhibition by MB analogues, themore » present study investigates the human MAO inhibition properties of five MB analogues: neutral red, Nile blue, new methylene blue, cresyl violet and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue. Similar to MB, these analogues also are specific MAO-A inhibitors with cresyl violet (IC{sub 50} = 0.0037 μM), Nile blue (IC{sub 50} = 0.0077 μM) and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue (IC{sub 50} = 0.018 μM) exhibiting higher potency inhibition compared to MB (IC{sub 50} = 0.07 μM). Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC{sub 50} value of 0.012 μM. From the results it may be concluded that non-thionine MB analogues (e.g. cresyl violet and Nile blue) also may exhibit potent MAO inhibition, a property which should be considered when using these compounds in pharmacological studies. Benzophenoxazines such as cresyl violet and Nile blue are, similar to phenothiazines (e.g. MB), representative of high potency MAO-A inhibitors with a potential risk of ST. - Highlights: • MB analogues, cresyl violet and Nile blue, are high potency MAO-A inhibitors. • Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor. • Potent MAO-A inhibition should alert to potential serotonin toxicity.« less

  12. Monoamine Oxidase and Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Inhibitors from the Fruits of Gardenia jasminoides

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Ho; Kim, Gun Hee; Hwang, Keum Hee

    2012-01-01

    This research was designed to determine what components of Gardenia jasminoides play a major role in inhibiting the enzymes related antidepressant activity of this plant. In our previous research, the ethyl acetate fraction of G. jasminosides fruits inhibited the activities of both monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B), and oral administration of the ethanolic extract slightly increased serotonin concentrations in the brain tissues of rats and decreased MAO-B activity. In addition, we found through in vitro screening test that the ethyl acetate fraction showed modest inhibitory activity on dopamine-β hydroxylase (DBH). The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of five bio-active compounds, protocatechuic acid (1), geniposide (2), 6'-O-trans-p-coumaroylgeniposide (3), 3,5-d-ihydroxy-1,7-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) heptanes (4), and ursolic acid (5), from the ethyl acetate fraction of G. jasminoides fruits. The isolated compounds showed different inhibitory potentials against MAO-A, -B, and DBH. Protocatechuic acid showed potent inhibition against MAO-B (IC50 300 μmol/L) and DBH (334 μmol/L), exhibiting weak MAO-A inhibition (2.41 mmol/L). Two iridoid glycosides, geniposide (223 μmol/L) and 6'-O-trans-p-coumaroylgeniposide (127μmol/L), were selective MAO-B inhibitor. Especially, 6'-O-trans-p-coumaroylgeniposide exhibited more selective MAO-B inhibition than deprenyl, well-known MAO-B inhibitor for the treatment of early-stage Parkinson’s disease. The inhibitory activity of 3,5-di-hydroxy-1,7-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) heptane was strong for MAO-B (196 μmol/L), modest for MAO-A (400 μmol/L), and weak for DBH (941 μmol/L). Ursolic acid exhibited significant inhibition of DBH (214 μmol/L), weak inhibition of MAO-B (780 μmol/L), and no inhibition against MAO-A. Consequently, G. jasminoides fruits are considerable for development of biofunctional food materials for the combination treatment of depression and neurodegenerative disorders

  13. Polyethylenimine/kappa carrageenan: Micro-arc oxidation coating for passivation of magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Golshirazi, A; Kharaziha, M; Golozar, M A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to combine micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and self-assembly technique to improve corrosion resistivity of AZ91 alloy. While a silicate-fluoride electrolyte was adopted for MAO treatment, polyethylenimine (PEI)/kappa carrageenan (KC) self-assembly coating was applied as the second coating layer. Resulted demonstrated the formation of forsterite-fluoride containing MAO coating on AZ91 alloy depending on the voltage and time of anodizing process. Addition of the second PEI/KC coating layer on MAO treated sample effectively enhanced the adhesive strength of MAO coated sample due to filling the pores with polymers and increase in the mechanical interlocking of coating to the substrate. Moreover, the corrosion evaluation considered by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed that double layered PEI/KC:MAO coating presented superior resistance to corrosion attack. It is envisioned that the proposed double layered PEI/KC:MAO coating could be useful for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Monoamine oxidase-B inhibition in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Hubert H; Chen, Jack J

    2007-12-01

    Inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO) with selectivity and specificity for MAO type B prolong the activity of both endogenously and exogenously derived dopamine, making them an option either as monotherapy in early Parkinson's disease or as adjunctive therapy in patients treated with levodopa who are experiencing motor complications. In addition to symptomatic benefits, experimental data suggest that MAO-B inhibitors may be neuroprotective through MAO-B inhibition and other mechanisms that have yet to be clearly defined. The two available MAO-B inhibitors approved for use in the United States, rasagiline and selegiline, each provide symptomatic relief as monotherapy and as adjunctive therapy, and have shown potential disease-modifying effects in experimental models and clinical studies. Selegiline in a conventional tablet formulation is less bioavailable than rasagiline, resulting in limited potency. It also has amphetamine metabolites that may produce adverse effects and interfere with any putative disease-modifying effects. The oral disintegrating tablet formulation of selegiline allows pregastric absorption, minimizing first-pass metabolism, thereby increasing selegiline bioavailability and reducing the concentration of amphetamine metabolites. Rasagiline, more potent than selegiline, exhibits disease-modifying effects in experimental models and lacks amphetamine metabolites. Both the symptomatic and potential disease-modifying effects of rasagiline are under investigation. A third agent with MAO-B inhibition properties, safinamide, is in phase III development. Although not yet approved, safinamide may offer the added advantage of combined MAO-B and dopamine reuptake inhibition.

  15. Monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors in the treatment of Parkinson's disease: clinical-pharmacological aspects.

    PubMed

    Riederer, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2018-03-22

    This invited narrative review emphasizes the role of MAO-B inhibition in the drug portfolio for dopamine substitution in patients with Parkinson's disease. Neuronal and glial MAO-B inhibition contributes to more stable levels of dopamine and other biogenic amines in the synaptic cleft. Accordingly, symptomatic effects of MAO-B inhibition for a limited amelioration of impaired motor behaviour and wearing-off phenomena in patients with Parkinson's disease are well proven, even when MAO-B inhibitors are only applied together with dopamine agonists. Delay of disease progression by MAO-B inhibition is under debate despite positive experimental findings. This discussion does not consider, that levodopa, respectively, dopamine agonists, are substrates, respectively, inhibitors of the ABCB1 (P-gp, MDR1, and CD243) transporter system. It supports toxin efflux over the blood-brain barrier. ABCB1 transporters have a limited capacity. MAO-B inhibitors do not weaken it. Treatment with MAO-B inhibitors is advantageous as it enables sparing of dopamine agonist and levodopa dosing.

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of biaryl derivatives for structural characterization of selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitors toward Parkinson's disease therapy.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Seul Ki; Choi, Ji Won; Park, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Ye Rim; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Shin, Su Jeong; Jang, Bo Ko; Kim, Siwon; Bahn, Yong-Sun; Han, Gyoonhee; Lee, Yong Sup; Pae, Ae Nim; Park, Ki Duk

    2018-01-01

    Benzyloxyphenyl moiety is a common structure of highly potent, selective and reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), safinamide and sembragiline. We synthesized 4-(benzyloxy)phenyl and biphenyl-4-yl derivatives including halogen substituents on the terminal aryl unit. In addition, we modified the carbon linker between amine group and the biaryl linked unit. Among synthesized compounds, 12c exhibited the most potent and selective MAO-B inhibitory effect (hMAO-B IC 50 : 8.9 nM; >10,000-fold selectivity over MAO-A) as a competitive inhibitor. In addition, 12c showed greater MAO-B inhibitory activity and selectivity compared to well-known MAO-B inhibitors such as selegiline, safinamide and sembragiline. In the MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD), 12c significantly protected the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive DAergic neurons and attenuated the PD-associated behavioral deficits. This study suggests characteristic structures as a MAO-B inhibitor that may provide a good insight for the development of therapeutic agents for PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro effects of acetylcholinesterase reactivators on monoamine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Fišar, Zdeněk; Hroudová, Jana; Korábečný, Jan; Musílek, Kamil; Kuča, Kamil

    2011-03-05

    Administration of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators (oximes) is usually used in order to counteract the poisoning effects of nerve agents. The possibility was suggested that oximes may show some therapeutic and/or adverse effects through their action in central nervous system. There are no sufficient data about interaction of oximes with monoaminergic neurotransmitter's systems in the brain. Oxime-type AChE reactivators pralidoxime, obidoxime, trimedoxime, methoxime and HI-6 were tested for their potential to affect the activity of monoamine oxidase of type A (MAO-A) and type B (MAO-B) in crude mitochondrial fraction of pig brains. The compounds were found to inhibit fully MAO-A with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 0.375 mmol/l (pralidoxime), 1.53 mmol/l (HI-6), 2.31 mmol/l (methoxime), 2.42 mmol/l (obidoxime) and 4.98 mmol/l (trimedoxime). Activity of MAO-B was fully inhibited by HI-6 and pralidoxime only with IC(50) 4.81 mmol/l and 11.01 mmol/l, respectively. Methoxime, obidoxime and trimedoxime displayed non-monotonic concentration dependent effect on MAO-B activity. Because oximes concentrations effective for MAO inhibition could not be achieved in vivo at the cerebral level, we suppose that oximes investigated do not interfere with brain MAO at therapeutically relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ferulic Acid Amides: Curcumin-Based Design and Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Badavath, Vishnu N; Baysal, İpek; Uçar, Gülberk; Mondal, Susanta K; Sinha, Barij N; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid has structural similarity with curcumin which is being reported for its monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory activity. Based on this similarity, we designed a series of ferulic acid amides 6a-m and tested for their inhibitory activity on human MAO (hMAO) isoforms. All the compounds were found to inhibit the hMAO isoforms either selectively or non-selectively. Nine compounds (6a, 6b, 6g-m) were found to inhibit hMAO-B selectively, whereas the other four (6c-f) were found to be non-selective. There is a gradual shift from hMAO-B selectivity (6a,b) to non-selectivity (6c-f) as there is an increase in chain length at the amino terminus. In case of compounds having an aromatic nucleus at the amino terminus, increasing the carbon number between N and the aromatic ring increases the potency as well as selectivity toward hMAO-B. Compounds 6f, 6j, and 6k were subjected to membrane permeability and metabolic stability studies by in vitro assay methods. They were found to have a better pharmacokinetic profile than curcumin, ferulic acid, and selegiline. In order to understand the structural features responsible for the potency and selectivity of 6k, we carried out a molecular docking simulation study. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Surface damage mitigation of TC4 alloy via micro arc oxidation for oil and gas exploitation application: Characterizations of microstructure and evaluations on surface performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ruizhen; Lin, Naiming; Zhou, Peng; Zou, Jiaojuan; Han, Pengju; Wang, Zhihua; Tang, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Because of its excellent corrosion resistance, high specific strength and high tensile strength, TC4 titanium alloys used as petroleum tubes have received wide interest from material engineers after many technical investigations and estimations. However, because of its low surface hardness values, high coefficient of friction and poor wear resistance, the TC4 alloy is seldom adopted in tribological-related engineering components. In this work, micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coatings were fabricated on TC4 alloys in NaAlO2 and (NaPO3)6 electrolytes with and without ultrasonic assistance. The microstructural characterizations of the produced MAO coatings were investigated. Comparative estimations of electrochemical corrosion in CO2-saturated simulated oilfield brine and tribological behaviours on MAO coatings and TC4 alloys were conducted. The results showed that the introduction of ultrasound increased the thickness of the MAO coatings. The thickness increased by 34% and 15% in the NaAlO2 and (NaPO3)6 electrolytes, respectively. There was no significant discrepancy in phase constitutions when the MAO processes were conducted with and without ultrasonic assistance. Both MAO coatings obtained with and without ultrasonic assistance were found to improve the corrosion and wear resistance of the TC4 alloy. MAO treatments made it possible to ensure the working surface of a TC4 alloy with an enhanced surface performance for oil and gas exploitation applications.

  20. Effects of different electrolytes for micro-arc oxidation on the bond strength between titanium and porcelain.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaohui; Tan, Fei; Xu, Haitao; Zhang, Shaojun; Qu, Fuzhen; Liu, Jie

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different electrolytes on the titanium-porcelain bond strength after micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment. Three electrolytes at the same concentration were used as MAO reaction solutions: Na 2 SiO 3 , KF, and MgSiF 6 . Blasting treatment was chosen as a control. After MAO treatment in each electrolyte, the titanium-porcelain bond strengths were measured by the three-point bending test, as described in ISO 9693. The morphologies and elemental compositions of the MAO coating on the titanium substrate were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The interface between the titanium and porcelain was also observed by SEM and EDS. The MAO coatings created in different electrolytes exhibited completely different morphologies and compositions. The bond strengths of the Na 2 SiO 3 and MgSiF 6 groups were significantly higher than those of the other groups (p<0.05). Additionally, the titanium-porcelain interfaces were compact in the former two groups, whereas pores and cracks were visible at the interfaces in the other groups. These results indicate that MAO treatment with an appropriate electrolyte could be an effective method to increase the titanium-porcelain bonding strength. According to ISO 9693, titanium-porcelain restorations subjected to MAO treatment with an appropriate electrolyte could be appropriate for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Altered Cerebellar Organization and Function in Monoamine Oxidase A Hypomorphic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alzghoul, Loai; Bortolato, Marco; Delis, Foteini; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Darling, Ryan D.; Godar, Sean C; Zhang, Junlin; Grant, Samuel; Wang, Gene-Jack; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Chen, Kevin; Volkow, Nora D.; Lin, Rick C.S.; Shih, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is the key enzyme for the degradation of brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA). We recently generated and characterized a novel line of MAO-A hypormorphic mice (MAO-ANeo), featuring elevated monoamine levels, social deficits and perseverative behaviors as well as morphological changes in the basolateral amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. Here we showed that MAO-ANeo mice displayed deficits in motor control, manifested as subtle disturbances in gait, motor coordination, and balance. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebellum revealed morphological changes and a moderate reduction in the cerebellar size of MAO- ANeo mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses using calbindin-D-28k (CB) expression of Purkinje cells revealed abnormal cerebellar foliation with vermal hypoplasia and decreased in Purkinje cell count and their dendritic density in MAO- ANeo mice compared to WT. Our current findings suggest that congenitally low MAO-A activity leads to abnormal development of the cerebellum. PMID:22971542

  2. Cognitive abnormalities and hippocampal alterations in monoamine oxidase A and B knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Chanpreet; Bortolato, Marco; Bali, Namrata; Godar, Sean C.; Scott, Anna L.; Chen, Kevin; Thompson, Richard F.; Shih, Jean C.

    2013-01-01

    The monoamine oxidase isoenzymes (MAOs) A and B play important roles in the homeostasis of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. The combined deficiency of MAO A and B results in significantly elevated levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), norepinephrine, dopamine, and β-phenylethylamine; in humans and mice, these neurochemical changes are accompanied by neurodevelopmental perturbations as well as autistic-like responses. Ample evidence indicates that normal levels of monoamines in the hippocampus, amygdala, frontal cortex, and cerebellum are required for the integrity of learning and memory. Thus, in the present study, the cognitive status of MAO A/B knockout (KO) mice was examined with a wide array of behavioral tests. In comparison with male wild-type littermates, MAO A/B KO mice exhibited abnormally high and overgeneralized fear conditioning and enhanced eye-blink conditioning. These alterations were accompanied by significant increases in hippocampal long-term potentiation and alterations in the relative expression of NMDA glutamate receptor subunits. Our data suggest that chronic elevations of monoamines, because of the absence of MAO A and MAO B, cause functional alterations that are accompanied with changes in the cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. The characteristics exhibited by MAO A/B KO mice highlight the potential of these animals as a useful tool to provide further insight into the molecular bases of disorders associated with abnormal monoaminergic profiles. PMID:23858446

  3. Monoamine oxidases as sources of oxidants in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Kaludercic, Nina; Mialet-Perez, Jeanne; Paolocci, Nazareno; Parini, Angelo; Di Lisa, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress can be generated at several sites within the mitochondria. Among these, monoamine oxidases (MAO) have been described as a prominent source. MAO are mitochondrial flavoenzymes responsible for the oxidative deamination of catecholamines, serotonin and biogenic amines, and during this process they generate H2O2 and aldehyde intermediates. The role of MAO in cardiovascular pathophysiology has only recently gathered some attention since it has been demonstrated that both H2O2 and aldehydes may target mitochondrial function and consequently affect function and viability of the myocardium. In the present review, we will discuss the role of MAO in catecholamine and serotonin clearance and cycling in relation to cardiac structure and function. The relevant contribution of each MAO isoform (MAO-A or -B) will be discussed in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial injury. Finally, we will examine both beneficial effects of their pharmacological or genetic inhibition along with potential adverse effects observed at baseline in MAO knockout mice, as well as the deleterious effects following their over-expression specifically at cardiomyocyte level. PMID:24412580

  4. α-Synuclein stimulation of monoamine oxidase-B and legumain protease mediates the pathology of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong Su; Ahn, Eun Hee; Zhang, Zhentao; Liu, Xia; Manfredsson, Fredric P; Sandoval, Ivette M; Dhakal, Susov; Iuvone, P Michael; Cao, Xuebing; Ye, Keqiang

    2018-06-15

    Dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with abnormal dopamine metabolism by MAO-B (monoamine oxidase-B) and intracellular α-Synuclein (α-Syn) aggregates, called the Lewy body. However, the molecular relationship between α-Syn and MAO-B remains unclear. Here, we show that α-Syn directly binds to MAO-B and stimulates its enzymatic activity, which triggers AEP (asparagine endopeptidase; legumain) activation and subsequent α-Syn cleavage at N103, leading to dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Interestingly, the dopamine metabolite, DOPAL, strongly activates AEP, and the N103 fragment of α-Syn binds and activates MAO-B. Accordingly, overexpression of AEP in SNCA transgenic mice elicits α-Syn N103 cleavage and accelerates PD pathogenesis, and inhibition of MAO-B by Rasagiline diminishes α-Syn-mediated PD pathology and motor dysfunction. Moreover, virally mediated expression of α-Syn N103 induces PD pathogenesis in wild-type, but not MAO-B-null mice. Our findings thus support that AEP-mediated cleavage of α-Syn at N103 is required for the association and activation of MAO-B, mediating PD pathogenesis. © 2018 The Authors.

  5. Cognitive abnormalities and hippocampal alterations in monoamine oxidase A and B knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chanpreet; Bortolato, Marco; Bali, Namrata; Godar, Sean C; Scott, Anna L; Chen, Kevin; Thompson, Richard F; Shih, Jean C

    2013-07-30

    The monoamine oxidase isoenzymes (MAOs) A and B play important roles in the homeostasis of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. The combined deficiency of MAO A and B results in significantly elevated levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), norepinephrine, dopamine, and β-phenylethylamine; in humans and mice, these neurochemical changes are accompanied by neurodevelopmental perturbations as well as autistic-like responses. Ample evidence indicates that normal levels of monoamines in the hippocampus, amygdala, frontal cortex, and cerebellum are required for the integrity of learning and memory. Thus, in the present study, the cognitive status of MAO A/B knockout (KO) mice was examined with a wide array of behavioral tests. In comparison with male wild-type littermates, MAO A/B KO mice exhibited abnormally high and overgeneralized fear conditioning and enhanced eye-blink conditioning. These alterations were accompanied by significant increases in hippocampal long-term potentiation and alterations in the relative expression of NMDA glutamate receptor subunits. Our data suggest that chronic elevations of monoamines, because of the absence of MAO A and MAO B, cause functional alterations that are accompanied with changes in the cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. The characteristics exhibited by MAO A/B KO mice highlight the potential of these animals as a useful tool to provide further insight into the molecular bases of disorders associated with abnormal monoaminergic profiles.

  6. Identification of novel monoamine oxidase B inhibitors by structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Werner J; Darvesh, Altaf S; Funk, Max O; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J; Carroll, Richard T

    2010-09-01

    Parkinson's disease is a severe debilitating neurodegenerative disorder. Recently, it was shown that the peroxisome proliferating-activator receptor-gamma agonist pioglitazone protected mice from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine neurotoxicity due to its ability to inhibit monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). Docking studies were initiated to investigate pioglitazone's interactions within the substrate cavity of MAO-B. Modeling studies indicated that the thiazolidinedione (TZD) moiety was a likely candidate for its specificity to MAO-B. To explore this potential novel MAO-B scaffold, we performed a structure-based virtual screen to identify additional MAO-B inhibitors. Our search identified eight novel compounds containing the TZD-moiety that allowed for a limited study to identify structural requirements for binding to MAO-B. Inhibition assays identified two TZDs (A6355 and L136662) which were found to inhibit recombinant human MAO-B with IC(50) values of 82 and 195 nM, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Monoamine oxidase inactivation: from pathophysiology to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bortolato, Marco; Chen, Kevin; Shih, Jean C

    2008-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) A and B are mitochondrial bound isoenzymes which catalyze the oxidative deamination of dietary amines and monoamine neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, beta-phenylethylamine and other trace amines. The rapid degradation of these molecules ensures the proper functioning of synaptic neurotransmission and is critically important for the regulation of emotional behaviors and other brain functions. The byproducts of MAO-mediated reactions include several chemical species with neurotoxic potential, such as hydrogen peroxide, ammonia and aldehydes. As a consequence, it is widely speculated that prolonged excessive activity of these enzymes may be conducive to mitochondrial damages and neurodegenerative disturbances. In keeping with these premises, the development of MAO inhibitors has led to important breakthroughs in the therapy of several neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from mood disorders to Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, the characterization of MAO knockout (KO) mice has revealed that the inactivation of this enzyme produces a number of functional and behavioral alterations, some of which may be harnessed for therapeutic aims. In this article, we discuss the intriguing hypothesis that the attenuation of the oxidative stress induced by the inactivation of either MAO isoform may contribute to both antidepressant and antiparkinsonian actions of MAO inhibitors. This possibility further highlights MAO inactivation as a rich source of novel avenues in the treatment of mental disorders.

  8. Identification, expression and tissue distribution of a renalase homologue from mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Qi, Shaoling; Cheng, Wei; Li, Li; Wang, Fu; Li, Ying-Zi; Zhang, Shu-Ping

    2008-12-01

    FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)-dependent monoamine oxidases play very important roles in many biological processes. A novel monoamine oxidase, named renalase, has been identified in human kidney recently and is found to be markedly reduced in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Here, we reported the identification of a renalase homologue from mouse, termed mMAO-C (mouse monoamine oxidase-C) after the monoamine oxidase-A and -B (MAO-A and -B). This gene locates on the mouse chromosome 19C1 and its coding region spans 7 exons. The deuced amino acid sequences were predicted to contain a typical secretive signal peptide and a conserved amine oxidase domain. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequences alignment indicated that mMAO-C-like sequences exist in all examined species and share significant similarities. This gene has been submitted to the NCBI GenBank database (Accession number: DQ788834). With expression vectors generated from the cloned mMAO-C gene, exogenous protein was effectively expressed in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Recombinant mMAO-C protein was secreted out of human cell lines, indicating the biological function of its signal peptide. Moreover, tissue expression pattern analysis revealed that mMAO-C gene is predominantly expressed in the mouse kidney and testicle, which implies that kidney and testicle are the main sources of renalase secretion. Shortly, this study provides an insight into understanding the physiological and biological functions of mMAO-C and its homologues in endocrine.

  9. Monoamine oxidase inhibition prevents mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in myoblasts from patients with collagen VI myopathies.

    PubMed

    Sorato, E; Menazza, S; Zulian, A; Sabatelli, P; Gualandi, F; Merlini, L; Bonaldo, P; Canton, M; Bernardi, P; Di Lisa, F

    2014-10-01

    Although mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been proposed to play a crucial role in several types of muscular dystrophy (MD), whether a causal link between these two alterations exists remains an open question. We have documented that mitochondrial dysfunction through opening of the permeability transition pore plays a key role in myoblasts from patients as well as in mouse models of MD, and that oxidative stress caused by monoamine oxidases (MAO) is involved in myofiber damage. In the present study we have tested whether MAO-dependent oxidative stress is a causal determinant of mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in myoblasts from patients affected by collagen VI myopathies. We find that upon incubation with hydrogen peroxide or the MAO substrate tyramine myoblasts from patients upregulate MAO-B expression and display a significant rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, with concomitant mitochondrial depolarization. MAO inhibition by pargyline significantly reduced both ROS accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction, and normalized the increased incidence of apoptosis in myoblasts from patients. Thus, MAO-dependent oxidative stress is causally related to mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in myoblasts from patients affected by collagen VI myopathies, and inhibition of MAO should be explored as a potential treatment for these diseases. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 2-Heteroarylidene-1-indanone derivatives as inhibitors of monoamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Nel, Magdalena S; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P; Legoabe, Lesetja J

    2016-12-01

    In the present study a series of fifteen 2-heteroarylidene-1-indanone derivatives were synthesised and evaluated as inhibitors of recombinant human monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B. These compounds are structurally related to series of heterocyclic chalcone derivatives which have previously been shown to act as MAO-B specific inhibitors. The results document that the 2-heteroarylidene-1-indanones are in vitro inhibitors of MAO-B, displaying IC 50 values of 0.0044-1.53μM. Although with lower potencies, the derivatives also inhibit the MAO-A isoform with IC 50 values as low as 0.061μM. An analysis of the structure-activity relationships for MAO-B inhibition indicates that substitution with the methoxy group on the A-ring leads to a significant enhancement in MAO-B inhibition compared to the unsubstituted homologues while the effect of the heteroaromatic substituent on activity, in decreasing order is: 5-bromo-2-furan>5-methyl-2-furan>2-pyridine≈2-thiophene>cyclohexyl>3-pyridine≈2-furan. It may therefore be concluded that 2-heteroarylidene-1-indanone derivatives are promising leads for the design of MAO inhibitors for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Monoamine oxidase-dependent endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria dysfunction and mast cell degranulation lead to adverse cardiac remodeling in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Deshwal, Soni; Forkink, Marleen; Hu, Chou-Hui; Buonincontri, Guido; Antonucci, Salvatore; Di Sante, Moises; Murphy, Michael P; Paolocci, Nazareno; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Krieg, Thomas; Di Lisa, Fabio; Kaludercic, Nina

    2018-02-19

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors ameliorate contractile function in diabetic animals, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Equally elusive is the interplay between the cardiomyocyte alterations induced by hyperglycemia and the accompanying inflammation. Here we show that exposure of primary cardiomyocytes to high glucose and pro-inflammatory stimuli leads to MAO-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species that causes permeability transition pore opening and mitochondrial dysfunction. These events occur upstream of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and are abolished by the MAO inhibitor pargyline, highlighting the role of these flavoenzymes in the ER/mitochondria cross-talk. In vivo, streptozotocin administration to mice induced oxidative changes and ER stress in the heart, events that were abolished by pargyline. Moreover, MAO inhibition prevented both mast cell degranulation and altered collagen deposition, thereby normalizing diastolic function. Taken together, these results elucidate the mechanisms underlying MAO-induced damage in diabetic cardiomyopathy and provide novel evidence for the role of MAOs in inflammation and inter-organelle communication. MAO inhibitors may be considered as a therapeutic option for diabetic complications as well as for other disorders in which mast cell degranulation is a dominant phenomenon.

  12. The effect of NaOH concentration on the steam-hydrothermally treated bioactive microarc oxidation coatings containing Ca, P, Si and Na on pure Ti surface.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Wei, Daqing; Cao, Jianyun; Feng, Wei; Cheng, Su; Du, Qing; Li, Baoqiang; Wang, Yaming; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-04-01

    The microarc oxidation (MAO) coating covered pure Ti plates are steam-hydrothermally treated in autoclaves containing NaOH solutions with different concentrations of 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1mol·L(-1). Due to the composition of Ti, O, Ca, P, Si and Na elements in the MAO coating, anatase and hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals are generated from the previously amorphous MAO coating after the steam-hydrothermal treatment. Meanwhile, it is noticed that the amount of HA crystals increases but showing a decline trend in aspect ratio in morphologies with the increasing of NaOH concentration. Interestingly, the steam-hydrothermally treated MAO coatings exhibit better bonding strength with Ti substrate (up to 43.8±1.1MPa) than that of the untreated one (20.1±3.1MPa). In addition, benefiting from the corrosive attack of the dissolved NaOH in water vapor on the MAO coating, Ti-OH is also formed on the steam-hydrothermally treated MAO coating surface, which can trigger apatite nucleation. Thus, the steam-hydrothermally treated MAO coatings exhibit good apatite-inducing ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel multifunctional neuroprotective iron chelator-monoamine oxidase inhibitor drugs for neurodegenerative diseases: in vitro studies on antioxidant activity, prevention of lipid peroxide formation and monoamine oxidase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hailin; Gal, Shunit; Weiner, Lev M; Bar-Am, Orit; Warshawsky, Abraham; Fridkin, Mati; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2005-10-01

    Iron-dependent oxidative stress, elevated levels of iron and of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B activity, and depletion of antioxidants in the brain may be major pathogenic factors in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative diseases. Accordingly, iron chelators, antioxidants and MAO-B inhibitors have shown efficacy in a variety of cellular and animal models of CNS injury. In searching for novel antioxidant iron chelators with potential MAO-B inhibitory activity, a series of new iron chelators has been designed, synthesized and investigated. In this study, the novel chelators were further examined for their activity as antioxidants, MAO-B inhibitors and neuroprotective agents in vitro. Three of the selected chelators (M30, HLA20 and M32) were the most effective in inhibiting iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates with IC50 values (12-16 microM), which is comparable with that of desferal, a prototype iron chelator that is not has orally active. Their antioxidant activities were further confirmed using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In PC12 cell culture, the three novel chelators at 0.1 microM were able to attenuate cell death induced by serum deprivation and by 6-hydroxydopamine. M30 possessing propargyl, the MAO inhibitory moiety of the anti-Parkinson drug rasagiline, displayed greater neuroprotective potency than that of rasagiline. In addition, in vitro, M30 was a highly potent non-selective MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitor (IC50 < 0.1 microM). However, HLA20 was more selective for MAO-B but had poor MAO inhibition, with an IC50 value of 64.2 microM. The data suggest that M30 and HLA20 might serve as leads in developing drugs with multifunctional activities for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. A multiple treatment comparison meta-analysis of monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Binde, C D; Tvete, I F; Gåsemyr, J; Natvig, B; Klemp, M

    2018-05-30

    To the best of our knowledge, there are no systematic reviews or meta-analyses that compare rasagiline, selegiline and safinamide. Therefore, we aimed to perform a drug class review comparing all available monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) inhibitors in a multiple treatment comparison. We performed a systematic literature search to identify randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of MAO-B inhibitors in patients with Parkinson's disease. MAO-B inhibitors were evaluated either as monotherapy or in combination with levodopa or dopamine agonists. Endpoints of interest were change in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score and serious adverse events. We estimated the relative effect of each MAO-B inhibitor versus the comparator drug by creating three networks of direct and indirect comparisons. For each of the networks, we considered a joint model. The systematic literature search and study selection process identified 27 publications eligible for our three network analyses. We found the relative effects of rasagiline, safinamide and selegiline treatment given alone and compared to placebo in a model without explanatory variables to be 1.560 (1.409, 1.734), 1.449 (0.873, 2.413) and 1.532 (1.337, 1.757) respectively. We also found all MAO-B inhibitors to be efficient when given together with levodopa. When ranking the MAO-B inhibitors given in combination with levodopa, selegiline was the most effective and rasagiline was the second best. All of the included MAO-B inhibitors were effective compared to placebo when given as monotherapy. Combination therapy with MAO-B inhibitors and levodopa showed that all three MAO-B inhibitors were effective compared to placebo, but selegiline was the most effective drug. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Indole alkaloids of Psychotria as multifunctional cholinesterases and monoamine oxidases inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Passos, Carolina S; Simões-Pires, Claudia A; Nurisso, Alessandra; Soldi, Tatiane C; Kato, Lucilia; de Oliveira, Cecilia M A; de Faria, Emiret O; Marcourt, Laurence; Gottfried, Carmem; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Henriques, Amélia T

    2013-02-01

    Thirteen Psychotria alkaloids were evaluated regarding their interactions with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO-A and MAO-B), which are enzymatic targets related with neurodegenerative diseases. Two quaternary β-carboline alkaloids, prunifoleine and 14-oxoprunifoleine, inhibited AChE, BChE and MAO-A with IC(50) values corresponding to 10 and 3.39 μM for AChE, 100 and 11 μM for BChE, and 7.41 and 6.92 μM for MAO-A, respectively. Both compounds seem to behave as noncompetitive AChE inhibitors and time-dependent MAO-A inhibitors. In addition, the monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) angustine, vallesiachotamine lactone, E-vallesiachotamine and Z-vallesiachotamine inhibited BChE and MAO-A with IC(50) values ranging from 3.47 to 14 μM for BChE inhibition and from 0.85 to 2.14 μM for MAO-A inhibition. Among the tested MIAs, angustine is able to inhibit MAO-A in a reversible and competitive way while the three vallesiachotamine-like alkaloids display a time-dependent inhibition on this target. Docking calculations were performed in order to understand the binding mode between the most active ligands and the selected targets. Taken together, our findings established molecular details of AChE, BChE and MAO-A inhibition by quaternary β-carboline alkaloids and MIAs from Psychotria, suggesting these secondary metabolites are scaffolds for the development of multifunctional compounds against neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adipogenesis-related increase of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase and monoamine oxidase in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Bour, Sandy; Daviaud, Danièle; Gres, Sandra; Lefort, Corinne; Prévot, Danielle; Zorzano, Antonio; Wabitsch, Martin; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Valet, Philippe; Carpéné, Christian

    2007-08-01

    A strong induction of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) has previously been reported during murine preadipocyte lineage differentiation but it remains unknown whether this emergence also occurs during adipogenesis in man. Our aim was to compare SSAO and monoamine oxidase (MAO) expression during in vitro differentiation of human preadipocytes and in adipose and stroma-vascular fractions of human fat depots. A human preadipocyte cell strain from a patient with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome was first used to follow amine oxidase expression during in vitro differentiation. Then, human preadipocytes isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissues were cultured under conditions promoting ex vivo adipose differentiation and tested for MAO and SSAO expression. Lastly, human adipose tissue was separated into mature adipocyte and stroma-vascular fractions for analyses of MAO and SSAO at mRNA, protein and activity levels. Both SSAO and MAO were increased from undifferentiated preadipocytes to lipid-laden cells in all the models: 3T3-F442A and 3T3-L1 murine lineages, human SGBS cell strain or human preadipocytes in primary culture. In human subcutaneous adipose tissue, the adipocyte-enriched fraction exhibited seven-fold higher amine oxidase activity and contained three- to seven-fold higher levels of mRNAs encoded by MAO-A, MAO-B, AOC3 and AOC2 genes than the stroma-vascular fraction. MAO-A and AOC3 genes accounted for the majority of their respective MAO and SSAO activities in human adipose tissue. Most of the SSAO and MAO found in adipose tissue originated from mature adipocytes. Although the mechanism and role of adipogenesis-related increase in amine oxidase expression remain to be established, the resulting elevated levels of amine oxidase activities found in human adipocytes may be of potential interest for therapeutic intervention in obesity.

  17. Behavioral disinhibition and reduced anxiety-like behaviors in monoamine oxidase B-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Bortolato, Marco; Godar, Sean C; Davarian, Shieva; Chen, Kevin; Shih, Jean C

    2009-12-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) B catalyzes the degradation of beta-phenylethylamine (PEA), a trace amine neurotransmitter implicated in mood regulation. Although several studies have shown an association between low MAO B activity in platelets and behavioral disinhibition in humans, the nature of this relation remains undefined. To investigate the impact of MAO B deficiency on the emotional responses elicited by environmental cues, we tested MAO B knockout (KO) mice in a set of behavioral assays capturing different aspects of anxiety-related manifestations, such as the elevated plus maze, defensive withdrawal, marble burying, and hole board. Furthermore, MAO B KO mice were evaluated for their exploratory patterns in response to unfamiliar objects and risk-taking behaviors. In comparison with their wild-type (WT) littermates, MAO B KO mice exhibited significantly lower anxiety-like responses and shorter latency to engage in risk-taking behaviors and exploration of unfamiliar objects. To determine the neurobiological bases of the behavioral differences between WT and MAO B KO mice, we measured the brain-regional levels of PEA in both genotypes. Although PEA levels were significantly higher in all brain regions of MAO B KO in comparison with WT mice, the most remarkable increments were observed in the striatum and prefrontal cortex, two key regions for the regulation of behavioral disinhibition. However, no significant differences in transcript levels of PEA's selective receptor, trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), were detected in either region. Taken together, these results suggest that MAO B deficiency may lead to behavioral disinhibition and decreased anxiety-like responses partially through regional increases of PEA levels.

  18. Oxidative Stress by Monoamine Oxidase-A Impairs Transcription Factor EB Activation and Autophagosome Clearance, Leading to Cardiomyocyte Necrosis and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Santin, Yohan; Sicard, Pierre; Vigneron, François; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Dutaur, Marianne; Lairez, Olivier; Couderc, Bettina; Manni, Diego; Korolchuk, Viktor I; Lezoualc'h, Frank; Parini, Angelo; Mialet-Perez, Jeanne

    2016-07-01

    In heart failure (HF), mitochondrial quality control and autophagy are progressively impaired, but the role of oxidative stress in this process and its underlying mechanism remain to be defined. By degrading norepinephrine and serotonin, the mitochondrial enzyme, monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), is a potent source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the heart and its activation leads to the persistence of mitochondrial damage. In this study, we analyzed the consequences of ROS generation by MAO-A on the autophagy-lysosome pathway in the heart. Cardiomyocyte-driven expression of MAO-A in mice led to mitochondrial fission and translocation of Drp1 and Parkin in the mitochondrial compartment. Ventricles from MAO-A transgenic mice displayed accumulation of LC3-positive autophagosomes, together with p62 and ubiquitylated proteins, indicating impairment of autophagy. In vitro adenoviral delivery of MAO-A in cardiomyocytes and the consequent generation of ROS blocked autophagic flux with accumulation of LC3II, p62, and ubiquitylated proteins, leading to mitochondrial fission and cell necrosis. In addition, MAO-A activation induced accumulation of lysosomal proteins, cathepsin D and Lamp1, reduced lysosomal acidification, and blocked the nuclear translocation of transcription factor-EB (TFEB), a master regulator of autophagy and lysosome biogenesis. Most interestingly, overexpression of TFEB attenuated autophagosome buildup, mitochondrial fission, cardiomyocyte death, and HF associated with MAO-A activation. This study unravels a new link between MAO-dependent H2O2 production and lysosomal dysfunction. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that the MAO-A/H2O2 axis has a negative impact on the elimination and recycling of mitochondria through the autophagy-lysosome pathway, which participates in cardiomyocyte death and HF. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 10-27.

  19. Protecting, Isolating, and Controlling Behavior: Population and Resource Control Measures in Counterinsurgency Campaigns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    Clausewitz: A Very Short Introduction, 36. 17Clausewitz, On War, 177. 18Ibid. 19Clausewitz, On War, 88. 20Mao Tse -Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. Samuel...directly. In so doing, Mao will destroy his enemy‘s means and will to resist and therefore win the war. 24Mao Tse -Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, 43. 25Ibid...DRV to the RVN.10 The Ho Chi Minh trail and the accompanying sanctuary areas in Laos and Cambodia significantly complicated the war efforts of the

  20. Kevlar Vest Protection against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    F. S., Invest. Ophthal- mol. Vis. Sci. 2003, 44, 3219–3225. [52] Sun , Y., Jin , K., Xie, L., Childs, J., Mao, X. O., Logvinova, A., Greenberg, D. A...traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within the Department of Defense. Clin. Neuropsychol. 23, 1291–1298. Jin , K., Zhu, Y., Sun , Y., Mao, X. O., Xie, L., and...task-specific neurobehavioral experience. Neurosci. Lett. 431, 226–230. Jin , K., Zhu, Y., Sun , Y., Mao, X. O., Xie, L., and Greenberg, D. A. (2002

  1. State-Level Mandates for Financial Literacy Education, JA Finance Park, and the Impact on Eighth-Grade Students in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the Colorado General Assembly passed legislation requiring the adoption of personal financial literacy (PFL) education standards for kindergarten through 12th-grade students. Beginning in 2014, the state plans to conduct standardized testing to determine financial literacy of 3rd- through 12th-grade students. The state did not allocate…

  2. Puolin ja toisin: Suomalais-virolaista kielentutkimusta. AFinLAn vuosikirja 1998 (On Both Sides: Finnish-Estonian Research on Language. AFinLA Yearbook 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luukka, Minna-Riitta, Ed.; Salla, Sigrid, Ed.; Dufva, Hannele, Ed.

    The papers included in this yearbook of the Finnish Society of Applied Linguistics (AFinLA) were presented at the 1998 AFinLA conference "Linguistics and Finland: Crossing the Gulf." Papers are in Finnish, Estonian, or English, but all have accompanying English abstracts. The topics discussed in the papers include the following: speed…

  3. Worldwide measurements of radioxenon background near isotope production facilities, a nuclear power plant and at remote sites: the ‘‘EU/JA-II’’ Project

    SciT

    Saey, P. R.J.; Ringbom, Anders; Bowyer, Ted W.

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) specifies that radioxenon measurements should be performed at 40 or more stations worldwide within the International Monitoring System (IMS). Measuring radioxenon is one of the principle techniques to detect underground nuclear explosions. Specifically, presence and ratios of different radioxenon isotopes allows determining whether a detection event under consideration originated from a nuclear explosion or a civilian source. However, radioxenon monitoring on a global scale is a novel technology and the global civil background must be characterized sufficiently. This paper lays out a study, based on several unique measurement campaigns, of the worldwide concentrations and sourcesmore » of verification relevant xenon isotopes. It complements the experience already gathered with radioxenon measurements within the CTBT IMS programme and focuses on locations in Belgium, Germany, Kuwait, Thailand and South Africa where very little information was available on ambient xenon levels or interesting sites offered opportunities to learn more about emissions from known sources. The findings corroborate the hypothesis that a few major radioxenon sources contribute in great part to the global radioxenon background. Additionally, the existence of independent sources of 131mXe (the daughter of 131I) has been demonstrated, which has some potential to bias the isotopic signature of signals from nuclear explosions.« less

  4. Condensed-Phase Processes during Solid Propellant Combustion. 3. Preliminary Depth-Profiling Studies on XM39, JA2, M9, M30, and HMX2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    are listed in Schroeder et al. (1992). Wilmot et al. (1981) and Sharma et al. (1991) describe the chemical analysis of the burned surface of nitrate...below the surface (spectrum(b)) and are totally absent from the spectrum(c) of the region 40-80 pm below the surface CF (spectrum(d)). This suggests...Proving Ground, MD, May 1992. (AD-A250 799) Sharma, J., G. B. Wilmot , A. A. Campolattaro, and F. Santiago. "XPS Study of Condensed Phase Combustion in

  5. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures using screening-level life cycle assessment to support sustainable consumer electronics (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use...

  6. Definition of reference ranges for free T4, TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in healthy subjects of the Jaén Health District.

    PubMed

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; Santiago Fernández, Piedad; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Sánchez-Malo, Carolina; Gassó Campos, Manuela; Martínez Ramírez, María José

    2017-10-01

    The treatment guidelines for thyroid dysfunction recommend defining reference ranges for thyroid hormones in each area through assessment of local population data considering the iodine nutritional status. The aim of this study was to define the reference ranges of free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in a general population from Jaen, an area of southern Spain with an adequate iodine nutritional status, and whether they were associated with urinary iodine levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,003 subjects of the general population of the Jaen Health District. Levels of urinary iodine, FT4, TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies were measured according to age and sex. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59μg/L and 130.11μg/L respectively. Median TSH level was 1.83μIU/mL (p2.5=0.56μIU/mL, p97.5=4.66μIU/mL). Median FT4 level was 0.84ng/dL (p2.5=0.62ng/dL, p97.5=1.18ng/dL). TPO antibodies were detected in 5.7% of subjects. There was no correlation between urinary iodine levels and FT4, TSH or TPO antibodies. Subjects with positive TPO antibodies had higher TSH levels (3.34μIU/L versus 2.14μIU/mL, P=.001; odds ratio=2.42). Urinary iodine levels in Jaen are optimal according to World Health Organization standards. Reference ranges of FT4, TSH, and thyroglobulin do not differ from those reported in the literature and are no associated to urinary iodine levels. The prevalence of positive TPO antibodies was similar to that reported in other Spanish areas. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Hg soil pollution around a decommissioned and unrestored Chlor-alkali plant: Jodar, Jaén province, SE Spain. Incidence in other environmental compartments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Higueras, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil pollution and its consequences around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The plant was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hidrargirism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, together with the analysis of olive-tree leaves from the same area. 75 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm. and 15-30 cm), together with 75 olive tree samples, 5 water samples. Besides, two monitoring surveys for total gaseous mercury in the atmosphere were performed. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device, with GPS georreferenciation of the analysis points. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. A local reference level was calculated as GM + 2SD (where GM is the geometric mean and SD the standard deviation). With this reference level it was possible to delimitate a contaminated soil area centered on the decommissioned chlor-alkali plant. A high affinity of local olive trees to accumulate mercury from the contaminated soil was also found, with a calculated maximum mercury content of 243.5 ng g-1. This maximum level is slightly higher than tolerable level for agronomic crops. Total mercury content in the analyzed waters was slightly higher than the chronic exposure level for aquatic life. Atmospheric mercury levels registered on the study area were much lower than most restrictive levels for chronic exposure. The area of influence of the facility (in terms of mercury content in air) was restricted to distances between 100 and 200 meters, depending on meteorological conditions. Main conclusions of this research work are the following: i) The Jódar decommissioned chlor-alkali plant is still a mercury source 20 years after its cease of activities without any reclamation measures; ii) The activity of the plant has produced an important dissemination of mercury in the surrounding environment; and iii) The corresponding pollution levels, in particular in soils, may suppose a risk to the main crops of the area (olive trees).

  8. "'AchJA,' Dann Kenn Ich Das Auch!" Managing Understanding and Knowledge: On Teaching Response Tokens in the German Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers an instructional unit on the response token "achja" in everyday German conversation. The paper first provides a description of "achja" and its distinctive prosodic features based on empirical research in conversation analysis. The goal of the paper is to provide instructors of German with information and…

  9. Computer program documentation modified version of the JA70 aerodynamic heating computer program H800 (MINIVER with a DISSPLA plot package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olmedo, L.

    1980-01-01

    The changes, modifications, and inclusions which were adapted to the current version of the MINIVER program are discussed. Extensive modifications were made to various subroutines, and a new plot package added. This plot package is the Johnson Space Center DISSPLA Graphics System currently driven under an 1110 EXEC 8 configuration. User instructions on executing the MINIVER program are provided and the plot package is described.

  10. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses between a Spontaneous Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type Suggest the Functions of ABA, Sucrose and JA during Citrus Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Jian; Wang, Xing-Jian; Wu, Ju-Xun; Chen, Shan-Yan; Chen, Hong; Chai, Li-Jun; Yi, Hua-Lin

    2014-01-01

    A spontaneous late-ripening mutant of ‘Jincheng’ (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange exhibited a delay of fruit pigmentation and harvesting. In this work, we studied the processes of orange fruit ripening through the comparative analysis between the Jincheng mutant and its wild type. This study revealed that the fruit quality began to differ on 166th days after anthesis. At this stage, fruits were subjected to transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing. 13,412 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were found. Of these unigenes, 75.8% were down-regulated in the wild type, suggesting that the transcription level of wild type was lower than that of the mutant during this stage. These DEGs were mainly clustered into five pathways: metabolic pathways, plant-pathogen interaction, spliceosome, biosynthesis of plant hormones and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that are involved in abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid metabolism and signal transduction pathways were analyzed during the six fruit ripening stages. The results revealed the regulation mechanism of sweet orange fruit ripening metabolism in the following four aspects: First, the more mature orange fruits were, the lower the transcription levels were. Second, the expression level of PME boosted with the maturity of the citrus fruit. Therefore, the expression level of PME might represent the degree of the orange fruit ripeness. Third, the interaction of PP2C, PYR/PYL, and SnRK2 was peculiar to the orange fruit ripening process. Fourth, abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid all took part in orange fruit ripening process and might interact with each other. These findings provide an insight into the intricate process of sweet orange fruit ripening. PMID:25551568

  11. The Role of the Neurofibromin-Syndecan-CASK Complex in the Regulation of Synaptic Ras-MAPK Signaling and Dendritic Spine Plasticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Morgan, K., Hasz, D. E., Mao, Z., and Largaespada, D. A. (2005). Nf1 gene inactivation in acute myeloid leukemia cells confers cytarabine resistance through MAPK and mTOR pathways. Leukemia. VII. Appendices: None

  12. Association analysis of a polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase B gene with Parkinson`s disease in a Japanese population

    SciT

    Morimoto, Yuji; Murayama, Nobuhiro; Kuwano, Akira

    1995-12-18

    The polymorphic allele of the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) gene detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was associated with Parkinson`s disease (PD) in Caucasians. We characterized this polymorphic allele, allele 1, of the MAO-B gene using direct sequencing of PCR products. A single DNA substitution (G-A), resulting gain of Mae III restriction site was detected in intron 13 of the MAO-B gene. The allele associated with PD in Caucasians was twice as frequent as in healthy Japanese, but the association of the allele of the MAO-B gene was not observed in Japanese patients with PD.more » 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  13. [Substrate-inhibitory analysis of monoamine oxidase from hepatopancreas of the octopus Bathypolypus arcticus].

    PubMed

    Basova, I N; Iagodina, O V

    2012-01-01

    Study of the substrate-inhibitory specificity of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) of hepatopancreas of the octopus Bathypolypus arcticus revealed distinctive peculiarities of catalytic properties of this enzyme. The studied enzyme, on one hand, like the classic MAO of homoiothermal animals, is able to deaminate tyramine, serotonin, benzylamine, tryptamine, beta-phenylethylamine, while, on the other hand, deaminates histamine and does not deaminate putrescine--classic substrates of diamine oxidase (DAO). Results of the substrate-inhibitory analysis with use of chlorgiline and deprenyl are indirect proofs of the existence in the octopus hepatopancreas of one molecular MAO form. Semicarbazide and pyronine G turned out to be weak irreversible inhibitors, four derivatives of acridine--irreversible inhibitors of the intermediate effectiveness with respect to the octopus hepatopancreas MAO; specificity of action of inhibitors at deamination of different substrates was equal.

  14. Effect of Alkaloids Isolated from Phyllodium pulchellum on Monoamine Levels and Monoamine Oxidase Activity in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lu; Wang, Chao; Dong, Pei-pei; Zhang, Bao-jing; Zhang, Hou-Li; Huang, Shan-shan; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Sheng-ming; Zhong, Ming; Ma, Xiao-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodium pulchellum (P. pulchellum) is a folk medicine with a significant number of bioactivities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects displayed by alkaloids fractions, isolated from the roots of P. pulchellum, on neurotransmitters monoamine levels and on monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity. Six alkaloids, which had indolealkylamine or β-carboline skeleton, were obtained by chromatographic technologies and identified by spectroscopic methods such as NMR and MS. After treatment with alkaloids of P. pulchellum, the reduction of DA levels (54.55%) and 5-HT levels (35.01%) in rat brain was observed by HPLC-FLD. The effect of alkaloids on the monoamines metabolism was mainly related to MAO inhibition, characterized by IC50 values of 37.35 ± 6.41 and 126.53 ± 5.39 μg/mL for MAO-A and MAO-B, respectively. The acute toxicity indicated that P. pulchellum extract was nontoxic. PMID:27195015

  15. Effect of Alkaloids Isolated from Phyllodium pulchellum on Monoamine Levels and Monoamine Oxidase Activity in Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Wang, Chao; Huo, Xiao-Kui; Dong, Pei-Pei; Zhang, Bao-Jing; Zhang, Hou-Li; Huang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Sheng-Ming; Zhong, Ming; Ma, Xiao-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodium pulchellum (P. pulchellum) is a folk medicine with a significant number of bioactivities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects displayed by alkaloids fractions, isolated from the roots of P. pulchellum, on neurotransmitters monoamine levels and on monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity. Six alkaloids, which had indolealkylamine or β-carboline skeleton, were obtained by chromatographic technologies and identified by spectroscopic methods such as NMR and MS. After treatment with alkaloids of P. pulchellum, the reduction of DA levels (54.55%) and 5-HT levels (35.01%) in rat brain was observed by HPLC-FLD. The effect of alkaloids on the monoamines metabolism was mainly related to MAO inhibition, characterized by IC50 values of 37.35 ± 6.41 and 126.53 ± 5.39 μg/mL for MAO-A and MAO-B, respectively. The acute toxicity indicated that P. pulchellum extract was nontoxic.

  16. Design and synthesis of novel chalcones as potent selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hammuda, Arwa; Shalaby, Raed; Rovida, Stefano; Edmondson, Dale E; Binda, Claudia; Khalil, Ashraf

    2016-05-23

    A novel series of substituted chalcones were designed and synthesized to be evaluated as selective human MAO-B inhibitors. A combination of either methylsulfonyl or trifluoromethyl substituents on the aromatic ketone moiety with a benzodioxol ring on the other end of the chalcone scaffold was investigated. The compounds were tested for their inhibitory activities on both human MAO-A and B. All compounds appeared to be selective MAO-B inhibitors with Ki values in the micromolar to submicromolar range. Molecular modeling studies have been performed to get insight into the binding mode of the synthesized compounds to human MAO-B active site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Design, synthesis and inhibitory activities of 8-(substituted styrol-formamido)phenyl-xanthine derivatives on monoamine oxidase B.

    PubMed

    Hu, Suwen; Nian, Siyun; Qin, Kuiyou; Xiao, Tong; Li, Lingna; Qi, Xiaolu; Ye, Faqing; Liang, Guang; Hu, Guoxin; He, Jincai; Yu, Yinfei; Song, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The design and synthesis of two series of 8-(substituted styrol-formamido)phenyl-xanthine derivatives are described. Their in vitro monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibition were tested and the effect of substituents on the N-7, phenyl and the substituted positions are discussed. It was observed that compound 9b displayed significant MAO-B inhibition activity and selectivity, fluorine substitution plays a key role in the selectivity of MAO-B inhibition, and the styrol-formamido group at position-3' may enhance the activity and selectivity of 8-phenyl-xanthine analogues. These results suggest that such compounds may be utilized for the development of new candidate MAO-B inhibitors for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  18. Corrosion mechanism and model of pulsed DC microarc oxidation treated AZ31 alloy in simulated body fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yanhong; Chen, Cheng-fu; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Ning, Chengyun; Zhang, Yongjun; Guo, Yuanjun

    2012-06-01

    This paper addresses the effect of pulse frequency on the corrosion behavior of microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings on AZ31 Mg alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF). The MAO coatings were deposited by a pulsed DC mode at four different pulse frequencies of 300 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz and 3000 Hz with a constant pulse ratio. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests were used for corrosion rate and electrochemical impedance evaluation. The corroded surfaces were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical microscopy. All the results exhibited that the corrosion resistance of MAO coating produced at 3000 Hz is superior among the four frequencies used. The XRD spectra showed that the corrosion products contain hydroxyapatite, brucite and quintinite. A model for corrosion mechanism and corrosion process of the MAO coating on AZ31 Mg alloy in the SBF is proposed.

  19. Fabrication of oxide layer on zirconium by micro-arc oxidation: Structural and antimicrobial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fidan, S; Muhaffel, F; Riool, M; Cempura, G; de Boer, L; Zaat, S A J; Filemonowicz, A Czyrska-; Cimenoglu, H

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to cover the surfaces of zirconium (Zr) with an antimicrobial layer for biomedical applications. For this purpose, the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process was employed in a sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide containing base electrolyte with and without addition of silver acetate (AgC 2 H 3 O 2 ). In general, synthesized MAO layers were composed of zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) and zircon (ZrSiO 4 ). Addition of AgC 2 H 3 O 2 into the base electrolyte caused homogenous precipitation of silver-containing particles in the MAO layer, which exhibited excellent antibacterial efficiency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as compared to the untreated and MAO-treated Zr. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Degradation and biological properties of Ca-P contained micro-arc oxidation self-sealing coating on pure magnesium for bone fixation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weidan; Wan, Peng; Liu, Chen; Tan, Lili; Li, Weirong; Li, Lugee; Yang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Poor corrosion resistance is one of the main disadvantages for biodegradable magnesium-based metals, especially applied for bone fixation, where there is a high demand of bio-mechanical strength and stability. Surface coating has been proved as an effective method to control the in vivo degradation. In this study a Ca-P self-sealing micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating was studied to verify its efficacy and biological properties by in vitro and in vivo tests. It was found that the MAO coating could effectively retard the degradation according to immersion and electrochemical tests as well as 3D reconstruction by X-ray tomography after implantation. The MAO coating exhibited no toxicity and could stimulate the new bone formation. Therefore, the Ca-P self-sealing MAO coating could be a potential candidate for application of biodegradable Mg-based implant in bone fixations. PMID:26816635

  1. Astronomical databases of Nikolaev Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protsyuk, Y.; Mazhaev, A.

    2008-07-01

    Several astronomical databases were created at Nikolaev Observatory during the last years. The databases are built by using MySQL search engine and PHP scripts. They are available on NAO web-site http://www.mao.nikolaev.ua.

  2. 75 FR 71726 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 58 Species in Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Endangered U.S.A. (HI).... 56 FR 55770; 10/29/1991. arbuscula. Ma`o hau hele, (=native Hibiscus Endangered U.S.A. (HI).... 59 FR 56333; 11/10/1994. yellow hibiscus). brackenridgei. Aupaka Isodendrion...

  3. 77 FR 57090 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... bonus payments to three-star plans and eliminating the cap on blended county benchmarks that would... supplement what can be learned from the analyses of administrative and financial data for MAOs, and from an...

  4. Molecular mechanism of the relation of monoamine oxidase B and its inhibitors to Parkinson's disease: possible implications of glial cells.

    PubMed

    Nagatsu, T; Sawada, M

    2006-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO A and MAO B) are the major enzymes that catalyze the oxidative deamination of monoamine neurotaransmitters such as dopamine (DA), noradrenaline, and serotonin in the central and peripheral nervous systems. MAO B is mainly localized in glial cells. MAO B also oxidizes the xenobiotic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to a parkinsonism-producing neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+). MAO B may be closely related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), in which neuromelanin-containing DA neurons in the substantia nigra projecting to the striatum in the brain selectively degenerate. MAO B degrades the neurotransmitter DA that is deficient in the nigro-striatal region in PD, and forms H2O2 and toxic aldehyde metabolites of DA. H2O2 produces highly toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by Fenton reaction that is catalyzed by iron and neuromelanin. MAO B inhibitors such as L-(-)-deprenyl (selegiline) and rasagiline are effective for the treatment of PD. Concerning the mechanism of the clinical efficacy of MAO B inhibitors in PD, the inhibition of DA degradation (a symptomatic effect) and also the prevention of the formation of neurotoxic DA metabolites, i.e., ROS and dopamine derived aldehydes have been speculated. As another mechanism of clinical efficacy, MAO B inhibitors such as selegiline are speculated to have neuroprotective effects to prevent progress of PD. The possible mechanism of neuroprotection of MAO B inhibitors may be related not only to MAO B inhibition but also to induction and activation of multiple factors for anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptosis: i.e., catalase, superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, thioredoxin, Bcl-2, the cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, and binding to glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Furthermore, it should be noted that selegiline increases production of neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial

  5. Aspartic acid substitutions in monoamine oxidase-A reveal both catalytic-dependent and -independent influences on cell viability and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zelan; Satram-Maharaj, Tamara; Chaharyn, Bradley; Kuski, Kelly; Pennington, Paul R; Cao, Xia; Chlan, Jennifer; Mousseau, Darrell D

    2012-11-01

    Post-translational influences could underlie the ambiguous roles of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) in pathologies such as depression, cancer and Alzheimer disease. In support of this, we recently demonstrated that the Ca²⁺-sensitive component of MAO-A catalytic activity is inhibited by a pro-survival p38 (MAPK)-dependent mechanism. We substituted three aspartic acid (D) residues in human MAO-A that reside in putative Ca²⁺-binding motifs and overexpressed the individual proteins in the human HEK293 cell line. We assayed the overexpressed proteins for catalytic activity and for their influence on cell viability (using MTT conversion and trypan blue exclusion) and proliferation/DNA synthesis [using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation]. Innate MAO-A catalytic activity (and the capacity for generating hydrogen peroxide) was unaffected by the D61A substitution, but inhibited moderately or completely by the D248A and D328G substitutions, respectively. The Ca²⁺-sensitive activities of wild-type and D248A MAO-A proteins were enhanced by treatment with the selective p38(MAPK) inhibitor, SB203580, but was completely abrogated by the D61A substitution. Monoamine oxidase-A(D61A) was toxic to cells and exerted no effect on cell proliferation, while MAO-A(D248A) was generally comparable to wild-type MAO-A. As expected, the catalytic-dead MAO-A(D328G) was not cytotoxic, but unexpectedly enhanced both MTT conversion and BrdU staining. Variant-dependent changes in Bax and Bcl-2/Bcl-XL protein expression were observed. A different pattern of effects in N2-a cells suggests cell line-dependent roles for MAO-A. A catalytic-dependent mechanism influences MAO-A-mediated cytotoxicity, whereas a catalytic-independent mechanism contributes to proliferation. Context-dependent inputs by either mechanism could underlie the ambiguous pathological contributions of MAO-A.

  6. Amphetamine manipulates monoamine oxidase-A level and behavior using theranostic aptamers of transcription factors AP-1/NF-kB.

    PubMed

    Liu, Christina H; Ren, Jiaqian; Liu, Philip K

    2016-02-03

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes play a critical role in controlling the catabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters and biogenic trace amines and behavior in humans. However, the mechanisms that regulate MAO are unclear. Several transcription factor proteins are proposed to modulate the transcription of MAO gene, but evidence supporting these hypotheses is controversial. We aimed to investigate the mechanism of gene transcription regulator proteins on amphetamine-induced behavior. We applied aptamers containing a DNA binding sequence, as well as a random sequence (without target) to study the modulation of amphetamine-induced MAO levels and hyperactivity in living mice. We pretreated in adult male C57black6 mice (Taconic Farm, Germantown, NY) (n ≥ 3 litters at a time), 2 to 3 months of age (23 ± 2 gm body weight) with double-stranded (ds) DNA aptamers with sequence specific to activator protein-1 (5ECdsAP1), nuclear factor-kappa beta (5ECdsNF-kB), special protein-1 (5ECdsSP-1) or cyclicAMP responsive element binding (5ECdsCreB) protein binding regions, 5ECdsRan [a random sequence without target], single-stranded AP-1 (5ECssAP-1) (8 nmol DNA per kg) or saline (5 μl, intracerebroventricular [icv] injection) control before amphetamine administration (4 mg/kg, i.p.). We then measured and analyzed locomotor activities and the level of MAO-A and MAO-B activity. In the pathological condition of amphetamine exposure, we showed here that pretreatment with 5ECdsAP1 and 5ECdsNF-kB reversed the decrease of MAO-A activity (p < 0.05, t test), but not activity of the B isomer (MAO-B), in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) of C57black6 mice. The change in MAO-A level coincided with a reversed amphetamine-induced restless behavior of mice. Pretreatments with saline, 5ECdsCreB, 5ECdsSP-1, 5ECdsRan or 5ECssAP-1 had no effect. Our data lead us to conclude that elevation of AP-1 or NF-kB indirectly decreases MAO-A protein levels which, in turn

  7. From Methodical Battle to Shock and Awe: How to Guard Against the Next Great Idea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-11

    reflect guerrilla warfare as espoused by Mao Tse Tung or the Vietnamese, but rather the predilections of “American guerrilla” forces, including Special...Stalemate phase, and a Strategic Offensive phase. Maoist strategy does not require a sequential application of the three stages. For more, see Mao Tse ...74 While the Joint Chiefs were satisfied with the decision to include more troops, they wanted to extend into Laos and Cambodia, which Johnson and

  8. Joint Special Operations University SOF-Power Workshop: A Way Forward for Special Operations Theory and Strategic Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    participants‘ particular points of view and may be helpful in researching, developing, testing, and explaining theory. The Secret War in Laos was...Jan 1985. Tse -Tung, Mao. On Guerrilla Warfare. Praeger, New York: 1961. The Use and Utility of Force; Force Fungibles Art, Robert J. and...Penguin Books, New York: 1968. Griffith, Samuel B., (BrigGen (Ret) USMC). On Guerrilla Warfare – Mao Tse -Tung. Praeger, New York: 1961

  9. Finding the Balance to Combat a Hybrid Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    supporting operation to conventional warfare. Mao Tse -tung stated that guerrilla warfare is one aspect of total war, because it cannot win a war by itself.15...of Military and Associated Terms, 147. 15Mao Tse -tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. Samuel B. Griffith II (Champaign, IL: University of Illinois...to deny the Vietcong or the North Vietnamese sanctuary in neither Laos nor Cambodia. Summary In Afghanistan, insurgency has become more a

  10. Why So Conventional? America’s Propensity to Wage Traditional Large-Scale Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    74 Mao Zedong, “Strategy in China’s Revolution,” Selected Military Writings of Mao Tse -tung, (Beijing: Foreign Language...After the defeat of the French, the United States took up the mantle of defending Laos , Cambodia, and the southern portion of Vietnam below the...the war299;300 2) the invasion and bombing of Cambodia and Laos to destroy NVA sanctuaries and the Central Office for South Vietnam (COSVN); the

  11. Finding the Right Indigenous Leader and Force for Counterinsurgency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Shooting at the Moon: The Story of Americas Clandestine War in Laos (South Royalton: Steerforth Press, 1996). 53Defense, Army Special Operations...warfare can only be accomplished with the support of the indigenous population. One of Mao Tse -tung’s most famous aphorisms is that “the people are...Sept 2011 93 Mao Tse -Tung, Aspects of China’s Anti-Japanese Struggle (Bombay: Open library, 1948), 48. 52 partnership between the FMF and LIF does

  12. Notes on the genus Conanalus Tinkham, 1943 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae) with one new species from Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Du, Bao-Jie; Song, Qiong; Shi, Fu-Ming

    2015-06-05

    The paper describes one new species, i.e. Conanalus bilobus sp. nov., and provides additional information on Conanalus brevicaudus Shi, Mao & Ou, 2008 (including female description for the first time), and Conanalus robustus Shi, Mao & Ou, 2008 from Yunnan, as well as illustrations of important morphological characters of Conanalus axinus Shi, Wang & Fu, 2005. A distribution map of the species of Conanalus from Yunnan, China is presented. The type material is deposited in the Museum of Hebei University.

  13. Inhibition effects of Vernonia cinerea active compounds against cytochrome P450 2A6 and human monoamine oxidases, possible targets for reduction of tobacco dependence.

    PubMed

    Prasopthum, Aruna; Pouyfung, Phisit; Sarapusit, Songklod; Srisook, Ekaruth; Rongnoparut, Pornpimol

    2015-04-01

    The human cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) and monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and MAO-B), catalyzing nicotine and dopamine metabolisms, respectively, are two therapeutic targets of nicotine dependence. Vernonia cinerea, a medicinal plant commonly used for treatment of diseases such as asthma and bronchitis, has been shown reducing tobacco dependence effect among tobacco users. In the present study, we found eight active compounds isolated from V. cinerea that comprise inhibitory activity toward CYP2A6 and MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes using activity-guided assays, with coumarin as substrate of CYP2A6 and kynuramine of MAOs. These compounds were three flavones (apigenin, chrysoeriol, luteolin), one flavonol (quercetin), and four hirsutinolide-type sesquiterpene lactones (8α-(2-methylacryloyloxy)-hirsutinolide-13-O-acetate, 8α-(4-hydroxymethacryloyloxy)-hirsutinolide-13-O-acetate, 8α-tigloyloxyhirsutinolide-13-O-acetate, and 8α-(4-hydroxytigloyloxy)-hirsutinolide-13-O-acetate). Modes and kinetics of inhibition against the three enzymes were determined. Flavonoids possessed strong inhibitory effect on CYP2A6 in reversible mode, while inhibition by hirsutinolides was mechanism-based (NADPH-, concentration-, and time-dependence) and irreversible. Inhibition by hirsutinolides could not be reversed by dialysis and by addition of trapping agents or potassium ferricyanide. Flavonoids inhibited MAOs with variable degrees and were more prominent in inhibition toward MAO-A than hirsutinolides, while two of hirsutinolides inhibited MAO-B approximately comparable to two flavonoids. These results could have implications in combination of drug therapy for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Foreign Area Officer Program. Volume I. The Role of the Military Advisor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-05-01

    attended the MAPA or MAO C&SC, and are not MAOP members. Some of these positions are advisory posi- tions. For purposes of this report, we did not...determine whether there is a comparable problem at the MAAG end--i.e. , requisitioning MAPA or MAO C&SC graduates and not getting them—or to what...U. S. Army training in advisor functions and roles is incorporated in the Military Assistance Programmer/Advisor ( MAPA ) and Military Assistance

  15. In Vitro, In Vivo, and Clinical Studies of Tedizolid To Assess the Potential for Peripheral or Central Monoamine Oxidase Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bartizal, K.; Minassian, S. L.; Fang, E.; Prokocimer, P.

    2013-01-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a novel oxazolidinone prodrug whose active moiety, tedizolid, has improved potency against Gram-positive pathogens and pharmacokinetics, allowing once-daily administration. Given linezolid warnings for drug-drug and drug-food interactions mediated by monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition, including sporadic serotonergic toxicity, these studies evaluated tedizolid for potential MAO interactions. In vitro, tedizolid and linezolid were reversible inhibitors of human MAO-A and MAO-B; the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for tedizolid was 8.7 μM for MAO-A and 5.7 μM for MAO-B and 46.0 and 2.1 μM, respectively, with linezolid. Tedizolid phosphate was negative in the mouse head twitch model of serotonergic activity. Two randomized placebo-controlled crossover clinical studies assessed the potential of 200 mg/day tedizolid phosphate (at steady state) to enhance pressor responses to coadministered oral tyramine or pseudoephedrine. Sensitivity to tyramine was determined by comparing the concentration of tyramine required to elicit a ≥30-mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (TYR30) when administered with placebo versus tedizolid phosphate. The geometric mean tyramine sensitivity ratio (placebo TYR30/tedizolid phosphate TYR30) was 1.33; a ratio of ≥2 is considered clinically relevant. In the pseudoephedrine study, mean maximum systolic blood pressure was not significantly different when pseudoephedrine was coadministered with tedizolid phosphate versus placebo. In summary, tedizolid is a weak, reversible inhibitor of MAO-A and MAO-B in vitro. Provocative testing in humans and animal models failed to uncover significant signals that would suggest potential for hypertensive or serotonergic adverse consequences at the therapeutic dose of tedizolid phosphate. Clinical studies are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01539473 (tyramine interaction study conducted at Covance Clinical Research Center, Evansville, IN) and NCT01577459

  16. 1-[2-(4-Benzyloxyphenoxy)Ethyl]Imidazole inhibits monoamine oxidase B and protects against neuronal loss and behavioral impairment in rodent models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin Yong; Lee, Ji Won; Ryu, Choon Ho; Min, Hye Kyung; Yoon, Yeo Jin; Lim, Mi Jung; Park, Cheol Hyoung

    2015-08-01

    Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) is well known as a therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease (PD). MAO-B inhibitors retain antiparkinsonism abilities to improve motor function and prevent neuronal loss by decreasing dopamine metabolism and oxidative stress in the brain. From the study to find novel antiparkinsonism drugs that can inhibit MAO-B activity, neuronal loss, and behavioral deficits in the mouse model of PD, we identified that 1-[2-(4-benzyloxyphenoxy)ethyl]imidazole (BPEI) or safinamide strongly and selectively inhibited MAO-B activities in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 of BPEI and safinamide for MAO-B were 0.016 and 0.0021 µM and for MAO-A were 70.0 and 370 µM, respectively). In ex vivo studies after an administration (30 mg/kg, i.p.) of BPEI or safinamide to normal mice, the MAO-B activity in the brain was reduced by up to 90.6% or 82.4% at 1.0 hr. BPEI (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or safinamide (20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reversed the behavioral impairments, dopamine levels in the striatum, and neuronal loss in the substantia nigra of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice compared with the MPTP-alone-treated group. In the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PD rat model, behavioral improvement by levodopa sparing activity was observed in the BPEI- or safinamide-treated (20 mg/kg, i.p.) rats. Moreover, BPEI revealed additional curative activities for nonmotor symptoms of PD such as pain, anxiety, epilepsy, and depression in rodent disease models. Therefore, BPEI has broad therapeutic potential for treating motor symptoms via strong and selective inhibitory effects on MAO-B, with additional benefits for comorbid symptoms in PD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Exploration of chlorinated thienyl chalcones: A new class of monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Bijo; Haridas, Abitha; Uçar, Gülberk; Baysal, Ipek; Adeniyi, Adebayo A; Soliman, Mahmoud E S; Joy, Monu; Mathew, Githa Elizabeth; Lakshmanan, Baskar; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan

    2016-10-01

    Chalcone has been reported to be a valid scaffold for the design of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. This scenario has amplified the momentum for the discovery of heteroaryl based chalcone MAO inhibitors. In the present study, we have synthesized a series of eleven chlorinated thienyl chalcone derivatives substituted with a different functional groups at the para- position on the ring B and investigated for their ability to inhibit human MAO-A and -B. With the exception of compound (2E)-1-(4-chlorocyclopenta-1,3-dien-1-yl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (TC7), which was a selective MAO-A inhibitor, all the other derivatives inhibited hMAO-B potently and selectively with competitive mode of inhibition. The most potent compound (2E)-1-(4-chlorocyclopenta-1,3-dien-1-yl)-3-(4-ethylphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (TC6) was found to be the best activity and higher selectivity towards hMAO-B with Ki and SI values of 0.31±0.02μM and 16.84, respectively. All the compounds presented in the current study are completely non-toxic with 74-88% viable cells to hepatic cells at 100μM concentration. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies were carried out using Autodock-4.2 and Amber 14 to understand the molecular level interaction and energy relation of MAO isoforms with selective MAO-B inhibitor TC6. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    SciT

    Watkins, W. Tyler, E-mail: watkinswt@virginia.edu; Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dosemore » variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.« less

  19. Association of ventral striatum monoamine oxidase-A binding and functional connectivity in antisocial personality disorder with high impulsivity: A positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Nathan J; Dunlop, Katharine; Downar, Jonathan; Links, Paul; Bagby, R Michael; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Rasquinha, Fawn; Simpson, Alexander I; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2016-04-01

    Impulsivity is a core feature of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) associated with abnormal brain function and neurochemical alterations. The ventral striatum (VS) is a key region of the neural circuitry mediating impulsive behavior, and low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) level in the VS has shown a specific relationship to the impulsivity of ASPD. Because it is currently unknown whether phenotypic MAO-A markers can influence brain function in ASPD, we investigated VS MAO-A level and the functional connectivity (FC) of two seed regions, superior and inferior VS (VSs, VSi). Nineteen impulsive ASPD males underwent [(11)C] harmine positron emission tomography scanning to measure VS MAO-A VT, an index of MAO-A density, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging that assessed the FC of bilateral seed regions in the VSi and VSs. Subjects also completed self-report impulsivity measures. Results revealed functional coupling of the VSs with bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) that was correlated with VS MAO-A VT (r=0.47, p=0.04), and functional coupling of the VSi with right hippocampus that was anti-correlated with VS MAO-A VT (r=-0.55, p=0.01). Additionally, VSs-DMPFC FC was negatively correlated with NEO Personality Inventory-Revised impulsivity (r=-0.49, p=0.03), as was VSi-hippocampus FC with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 motor impulsiveness (r=-0.50, p=0.03). These preliminary results highlight an association of VS MAO-A level with the FC of striatal regions linked to impulsive behavior in ASPD and suggest that phenotype-based brain markers of ASPD have relevance to understanding brain function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of the discriminable stimulus produced by 2-BFI: effects of imidazoline I2-site ligands, MAOIs, β-carbolines, agmatine and ibogaine

    PubMed Central

    MacInnes, Nicholas; Handley, Sheila L

    2002-01-01

    The molecular nature and functions of the I2 subtype of imidazoline binding sites are unknown but evidence suggests an association with monoamine oxidase (MAO). Rats can distinguish the selective imidazoline I2-site ligand 2-BFI from vehicle in drug discrimination, indicating functional consequences of occupation of these sites. We have used drug discrimination to investigate the nature of the discriminable stimulus, especially in relation to MAO inhibition. Following training to distinguish 2-BFI 7 mg kg−1 i.p. from saline vehicle in two-lever operant-chambers, male Hooded Lister rats underwent sessions where test substances were given instead and the proportion of lever presses on the 2-BFI-associated lever (substitution) recorded. 2-BFI; its cogeners BU216, BU224, BU226 and LSL60101; the reversible MAO-A inhibitors moclobemide and RO41-1049; the β-carbolines harmane, norharmane and harmaline which also reversibly inhibit MAO-A, and the anti-addictive substance ibogaine exhibited potent, dose-dependent substitution for 2-BFI. Agmatine, and LSL60125 substituted at one dose only. The reversible MAO-B inhibitors lazabemide and RO16-1649; the σ2-site ligand SKF10,047 and the I2A-site ligand, amiloride, failed to substitute. The irreversible inhibitor of MAO, deprenyl, substituted for 2-BFI while clorgyline did not. These results suggest imidazoline I2 site ligands produce a common discriminable stimulus that appears associated with reversible inhibition of MAO-A rather than MAO-B, possibly through increases in extracellular concentration of one or more monoamines. Ibogaine exhibits a commonality in its subjective effects with those of I2-site ligands. PMID:11877331

  1. Monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity of methoxy-substituted chalcones.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Bijo; Mathew, Githa Elizabeth; Ucar, Gulberk; Joy, Monu; Nafna, E K; Lohidakshan, Krishnakumar K; Suresh, Jerad

    2017-11-01

    The MAO-B inhibitory activity of chalcone (1, 3- diphenyl-2-propen-1-one) based compounds arise from its structural similarity with 1, 4-diphenyl-2-butene, a known MAO-B inhibitor. Based on our previous report, the methoxy-substituted with fluorine containing chalcones are promising reversible MAO-B inhibitors, while in the present study, a series of methoxylated chalcones (C1-C9) bearing substitution on the para position of ring B was synthesized and evaluated for their human monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity. With the exception of (2E)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (C7), which is a nonselective inhibitor, the chalcones exhibited competitive, selective, and reversible inhibition of hMAO-B. The most potent compound, (2E)-3-[4-(dimethylamino) phenyl]-1-(4-methoxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (C5), showed the best inhibitory activity towards hMAO-B (IC 50 =0.29±0.011μM;K i =0.14±0.001μM). The reversibility of MAO-B inhibition by compound C5 was demonstrated by the recovery of enzyme activity after dialysis of mixtures containing enzyme and inhibitor. The reversiblity of C5 was 25.38±1.40 and 92.00±3.87% before and after dialysis, respectively. PAMPA was carried out to evaluate the blood-brain barrier effects of the designated compounds. Moreover, the most potent MAO-B inhibitor, C5, was found to be nontoxic towards cultured hepatic cells at 5 and 25μM, with 97 and 90% viability. Molecular docking study was performed against hMAO-B to observe the binding site interactions of the lead compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase isoforms modulates nicotine withdrawal syndrome in the rat.

    PubMed

    Malin, D H; Moon, W D; Goyarzu, P; Barclay, E; Magallanes, N; Vela, A J; Negrete, A P; Mathews, H; Stephens, B; Mills, W R

    2013-10-06

    There have been many reports of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition by non-nicotine ingredients in tobacco smoke, persisting for days after smoking cessation. This study determined the effect of inhibiting MAO and its isoforms on nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Rats were rendered nicotine-dependent by seven days of subcutaneous (s.c.) 9 mg/kg/day infusion of nicotine bitartrate. Twenty-two hours after termination of infusion, they were observed over 20 min for somatically expressed nicotine withdrawal signs. Three hours before observation, rats were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 4 mg/kg each of the MAO A antagonist clorgyline and the MAO B antagonist deprenyl, or with saline alone. A similar experiment was performed with non-dependent, saline-infused rats. Another experiment compared nicotine-dependent rats that received injections of either saline or 4 mg/kg clorgyline alone. A further experiment compared rats receiving either saline or 4 mg/kg deprenyl alone. Combined treatment with both MAO inhibitors markedly and significantly exacerbated somatically expressed nicotine withdrawal signs in nicotine infused rats, while having no significant effects in saline-infused rats. Rats injected s.c. with 4 mg/kg clorgyline alone had significantly more withdrawal signs than saline-injected rats, while deprenyl-injected rats had significantly fewer signs than saline controls. Assays confirmed that clorgyline thoroughly reduced MAO A enzymatic activity and deprenyl thoroughly reduced MAO B activity. The results suggest that inhibition of MAO A may contribute to the intensity of withdrawal syndrome in smoking cessation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies of tedizolid to assess the potential for peripheral or central monoamine oxidase interactions.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, S; Bartizal, K; Minassian, S L; Fang, E; Prokocimer, P

    2013-07-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a novel oxazolidinone prodrug whose active moiety, tedizolid, has improved potency against Gram-positive pathogens and pharmacokinetics, allowing once-daily administration. Given linezolid warnings for drug-drug and drug-food interactions mediated by monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition, including sporadic serotonergic toxicity, these studies evaluated tedizolid for potential MAO interactions. In vitro, tedizolid and linezolid were reversible inhibitors of human MAO-A and MAO-B; the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for tedizolid was 8.7 μM for MAO-A and 5.7 μM for MAO-B and 46.0 and 2.1 μM, respectively, with linezolid. Tedizolid phosphate was negative in the mouse head twitch model of serotonergic activity. Two randomized placebo-controlled crossover clinical studies assessed the potential of 200 mg/day tedizolid phosphate (at steady state) to enhance pressor responses to coadministered oral tyramine or pseudoephedrine. Sensitivity to tyramine was determined by comparing the concentration of tyramine required to elicit a ≥ 30-mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (TYR30) when administered with placebo versus tedizolid phosphate. The geometric mean tyramine sensitivity ratio (placebo TYR30/tedizolid phosphate TYR30) was 1.33; a ratio of ≥ 2 is considered clinically relevant. In the pseudoephedrine study, mean maximum systolic blood pressure was not significantly different when pseudoephedrine was coadministered with tedizolid phosphate versus placebo. In summary, tedizolid is a weak, reversible inhibitor of MAO-A and MAO-B in vitro. Provocative testing in humans and animal models failed to uncover significant signals that would suggest potential for hypertensive or serotonergic adverse consequences at the therapeutic dose of tedizolid phosphate. Clinical studies are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01539473 (tyramine interaction study conducted at Covance Clinical Research Center, Evansville, IN) and NCT01577459

  4. Monoamine oxidases: the biochemistry of the proteins as targets in medicinal chemistry and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Rona R

    2012-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO, EC.1.4.3.4) has been a drug target for 60 years, with the primary rationale of developing drugs to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. The biological importance of MAO is to regulate amine levels is the brain and to metabolize amines and drugs in the periphery. This review of the biochemistry of MAO A and MAO B describes the functional properties of the two enzymes integrated with knowledge of the structures of the many MAOinhibitor complexes published in the last 10 years. The analysis of activity, and the chemical and kinetic mechanisms are discussed. Inhibition studies on human MAO in vitro are now facilitated by assays using readily available materials but the kinetics of MAO involving alternative oxidative pathways and sensitivity to the oxygen concentration mean that careful analysis of the data is required as well as the good practice of determining mechanism of inhibition and kinetic constants. Kinetic constants can then be compared with thermodynamic calculations. Inhibitors bind to both the oxidized and reduced forms of MAO present during turnover so both forms should be considered when using molecular dynamics to facilitate drug design. Interaction of inhibitors with the active site can be detected as changes in the visible spectrum and these changes can provide clues about the flavin adduct formed for irreversible inhibitors or about the proximity to the flavin for reversible inhibitors. Developing areas (knock-out mice for behavior, the imidazoline binding site, and imaging to monitor the activity and the inhibition of MAO in the patient) are mentioned.

  5. SciT

    Petzer, Anél, E-mail: 12264954@nwu.ac.za; Harvey, Brian H.; Wegener, Gregers

    Methylene blue (MB) has been shown to act at multiple cellular and molecular targets and as a result possesses diverse medical applications. Among these is a high potency reversible inhibition of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) that may, at least in part, underlie its adverse effects but also its psycho- and neuromodulatory actions. MB is metabolized to yield N-demethylated products of which azure B, the monodemethyl species, is the major metabolite. Similar to MB, azure B also displays a variety of biological activities and may therefore contribute to the pharmacological profile of MB. Based on these observations, the present study examinesmore » the interactions of azure B with recombinant human MAO-A and -B. The results show that azure B is a potent MAO-A inhibitor (IC{sub 50} = 11 nM), approximately 6-fold more potent than is MB (IC{sub 50} = 70 nM) under identical conditions. Measurements of the time-dependency of inhibition suggest that the interaction of azure B with MAO-A is reversible. Azure B also reversibly inhibits the MAO-B isozyme with an IC{sub 50} value of 968 nM. These results suggest that azure B may be a hitherto under recognized contributor to the pharmacology and toxicology of MB by blocking central and peripheral MAO-A activity and as such needs to be considered during its use in humans and animals. Highlights: ► Methylene blue (MB) is a known potent MAO-A inhibitor. ► Azure B, the major metabolite of MB, is more potent as a MAO-A inhibitor. ► Azure B may be a contributor to the CNS pharmacology and toxicology of MB.« less

  6. Characterization of the discriminable stimulus produced by 2-BFI: effects of imidazoline I(2)-site ligands, MAOIs, beta-carbolines, agmatine and ibogaine.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Nicholas; Handley, Sheila L

    2002-03-01

    1. The molecular nature and functions of the I(2) subtype of imidazoline binding sites are unknown but evidence suggests an association with monoamine oxidase (MAO). Rats can distinguish the selective imidazoline I(2)-site ligand 2-BFI from vehicle in drug discrimination, indicating functional consequences of occupation of these sites. We have used drug discrimination to investigate the nature of the discriminable stimulus, especially in relation to MAO inhibition. 2. Following training to distinguish 2-BFI 7 mg kg(-1) i.p. from saline vehicle in two-lever operant-chambers, male Hooded Lister rats underwent sessions where test substances were given instead and the proportion of lever presses on the 2-BFI-associated lever (substitution) recorded. 3. 2-BFI; its cogeners BU216, BU224, BU226 and LSL60101; the reversible MAO-A inhibitors moclobemide and RO41-1049; the beta-carbolines harmane, norharmane and harmaline which also reversibly inhibit MAO-A, and the anti-addictive substance ibogaine exhibited potent, dose-dependent substitution for 2-BFI. 4. Agmatine, and LSL60125 substituted at one dose only. The reversible MAO-B inhibitors lazabemide and RO16-1649; the sigma(2)-site ligand SKF10,047 and the I(2A)-site ligand, amiloride, failed to substitute. The irreversible inhibitor of MAO, deprenyl, substituted for 2-BFI while clorgyline did not. 5. These results suggest imidazoline I(2) site ligands produce a common discriminable stimulus that appears associated with reversible inhibition of MAO-A rather than MAO-B, possibly through increases in extracellular concentration of one or more monoamines. Ibogaine exhibits a commonality in its subjective effects with those of I(2)-site ligands.

  7. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethanol (Hydroxytyrosol) Mitigates the Increase in Spontaneous Oxidation of Dopamine during Monoamine Oxidase Inhibition in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David S.; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Sullivan, Patti; Holmes, Courtney; Kopin, Irwin J.; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2016-01-01

    The catecholaldehyde hypothesis predicts that monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition should slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease, by decreasing production of the autotoxic dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). Inhibiting MAO, however, diverts the fate of cytoplasmic dopamine toward potentially harmful spontaneous oxidation products, indicated by increased 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine (Cys-DA) levels. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethanol (hydroxytyrosol) is an abundant anti-oxidant phenol in constituents of the Mediterranean diet. Whether hydroxytyrosol alters enzymatic or spontaneous oxidation of dopamine has been unknown. Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells were incubated with hydroxytyrosol (10 μM, 180 minutes) alone or with the MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline (1 nM) or the MAO-B inhibitors rasagiline or selegiline (0.5 μM). Hydroxytyrosol decreased levels of DOPAL by 30% and Cys-DA by 49% (p<0.0001 each). Co-incubation with hydroxytyrosol prevented the increases in Cys-DA seen with all 3 MAO inhibitors. Hydroxytyrosol therefore inhibits both enzymatic and spontaneous oxidation of endogenous dopamine and mitigates the increase in spontaneous oxidation during MAO inhibition. PMID:27220335

  8. Preparation of Si-containing oxide coating and biomimetic apatite induction on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huijun; Dong, Qing; Dou, Jinhe; Pan, Yaokun; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are recently found important in the field of bone repairing for their ideal mechanical performance and excellent biocompatibility. Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is a simple, controllable and efficient electrochemistry method that can prepare protective ceramic coatings on magnesium alloys. The properties of the MAO coating, such as thickness, microstructure, roughness and composition, can easily be controlled by adjusting the voltage, current density, duration or the electrolyte concentration. In this work, MAO coatings are prepared on ZK61 magnesium alloy at different voltages. The structure characteristics and element distributions of the coating are investigated by XRD, TEM, SEM and EPMA. The MAO samples are immersed in SBF for 7, 14 and 28 days respectively. The corrosion behaviors of the samples in SBF were also investigated by potentiodynamic polarization curves. The corrosion products were characterized by EDS and FT-IR. The MAO coated ZK61 alloy samples showed excellent corrosion resistance and bioactivity. The MAO method demonstrates a great potential in the preparation of degradable and bioactive orthopedic magnesium-based implants.

  9. Structure and properties of a duplex coating combining micro-arc oxidation and baking layer on AZ91D Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xue-Jun; Li, Ming-Tian; Yang, Rui-Song; Yu, Zu-Xiao

    2016-02-01

    A duplex coating (called MAOB coating) was fabricated on AZ91D Mg alloy by combining the process of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with baking coating (B-coating). The structure, composition, corrosion resistance, and tribological behaviour of the coatings were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electrochemical and long-term immersion test, and ball-on-disc friction test. The results show that a dense 92 μm thick B-coating was tightly deposited onto the MAO-coated Mg alloy and exhibited a good mechanical interlock along the rough interface. Compared with the MAO-coated sample, the corrosion current density of the MAOB-coated Mg alloy decreased by two or three orders of magnitude and no corrosion phenomenon was observed during a long-term immersion test of about 500 h (severe corrosion pits were found for MAO-treated samples after about 168 h of immersion). The frictional coefficient values of the MAOB coating were similar to those of the MAO coating using dry sliding tests, while the B-coating on the MAO-coated surface significantly improved the wear resistance of the AZ91D Mg alloy. All of these results indicate that a B-coating can be used to further protect Mg alloys from corrosion and wear by providing a thick, dense barrier.

  10. Structure-Based Design and Optimization of Multitarget-Directed 2H-Chromen-2-one Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors of Monoamine Oxidase B and Cholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Farina, Roberta; Pisani, Leonardo; Catto, Marco; Nicolotti, Orazio; Gadaleta, Domenico; Denora, Nunzio; Soto-Otero, Ramon; Mendez-Alvarez, Estefania; Passos, Carolina S; Muncipinto, Giovanni; Altomare, Cosimo D; Nurisso, Alessandra; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Carotti, Angelo

    2015-07-23

    The multifactorial nature of Alzheimer's disease calls for the development of multitarget agents addressing key pathogenic processes. To this end, by following a docking-assisted hybridization strategy, a number of aminocoumarins were designed, prepared, and tested as monoamine oxidases (MAOs) and acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase (AChE and BChE) inhibitors. Highly flexible N-benzyl-N-alkyloxy coumarins 2-12 showed good inhibitory activities at MAO-B, AChE, and BChE but low selectivity. More rigid inhibitors, bearing meta- and para-xylyl linkers, displayed good inhibitory activities and high MAO-B selectivity. Compounds 21, 24, 37, and 39, the last two featuring an improved hydrophilic/lipophilic balance, exhibited excellent activity profiles with nanomolar inhibitory potency toward hMAO-B, high hMAO-B over hMAO-A selectivity and submicromolar potency at hAChE. Cell-based assays of BBB permeation, neurotoxicity, and neuroprotection supported the potential of compound 37 as a BBB-permeant neuroprotective agent against H2O2-induced oxidative stress with poor interaction as P-gp substrate and very low cytotoxicity.

  11. In silico identification of novel and selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yelekçi, Kemal; Büyüktürk, Bora; Kayrak, Nurdan

    2013-06-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAO) A and B are flavin adenine dinucleotides containing enzymes bound to the mitochondrial outer membranes of the cells of the brain, liver, intestine, and placenta, as well as platelets. Recently, selective MAO-B inhibitors have received increasing attention due to their neuroprotective properties and the multiple roles they can play in the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. This study was based on 10 scaffolds that were selected from more than a million lead compounds in the ZINCv12 lead library for their structural and physicochemical properties which inhibit MAO-B. Utilizing ZINC and Accelrys 3.1 fragment-based libraries, which contain about 400 thousand fragments, we generated 200 potential candidates. GOLD, LibDock, and AutoDock 4.02 were used to identify the inhibition constants and their position in the active sites of both MAO isozymes. The dispositions of the candidate molecules within the organism were checked with ADMET PSA 2D (polar surface area) against ADMET AlogP98 (the logarithm of the partition coefficient between n-octanol and water). The MAO-B inhibition activities of the candidates were compared with the properties of rasagiline which is known to be a selective inhibitor of MAO-B.

  12. Nitric oxide production and monoamine oxidase activity in cancer patients during interferon-alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Fekkes, Durk; Van Gool, Arthur R; Bannink, Marjolein; Sleijfer, Stefan; Kruit, Wim H J; van der Holt, Bronno; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Hengeveld, Michiel W; Stoter, Gerrit

    2009-10-01

    Both increased and decreased nitric oxide (NO) synthesis have been reported in patients treated with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha). Animal studies showed that IFN-alpha administration results in increased levels of biogenic amines, subsequent activation of monoamine oxidases (MAOs), and finally in a change in NO production due to the H(2)O(2) generated by MAOs. We examined the potential relationship between NO production in plasma and MAO-B activity in platelets of 43 cancer patients during 8 weeks of treatment with IFN-alpha. NO synthesis was quantitated by measuring both the ratio of citrulline and arginine (CIT/ARG-ratio) and total nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels. Compared to baseline, MAO activity and NOx increased, while the CIT/ARG-ratio decreased. No associations were found between NOx, MAO and CIT/ARG-ratio. Only few associations were observed between changes in the biochemical parameters and changes in psychopathology induced by IFN-alpha, of which the association between changes in CIT and lassitude was the most consistent. The results suggest that peripheral NO production and MAO activity are unrelated to each other, and that peripheral changes in these biochemical parameters induced by IFN-alpha are unlikely to contribute to definite psychiatric disturbance.

  13. Osteogenic potential of a novel microarc oxidized coating formed on Ti6Al4V alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaping; Lou, Jin; Zeng, Lilan; Xiang, Junhuai; Zhang, Shufang; Wang, Jun; Xiong, Fucheng; Li, Chenglin; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Rongfa

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the biocompatibility, Ti6Al4V alloys are processed by micro arc oxidation (MAO) in a novel electrolyte of phytic acid, a natural organic phosphorus-containing matter. The MAO coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The cytocompatibility of Ti6A14V alloys before and after MAO were comprehensively evaluated. The results showed that the fabricated MAO coatings were composed of rutile, anatase, TiP2O7 as well as some OH- groups, exhibiting the excellent hydrophilicity and a porous structure with small micro pores. No cytotoxicity towards MC3T3-E1cells was observed in this study. In particular, MAO treated Ti6Al4V alloys presented comparable cell adhesion and proliferation as well as significantly enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity, extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization and collagen secretion in comparison with the untreated control. The results suggest that the Ti6Al4V alloys treated by MAO in phytic acid can be used as implants for orthopaedic applications, providing a simple and practical method to widen clinical acceptance of titanium alloys.

  14. Solid-phase synthesis and insights into structure-activity relationships of safinamide analogues as potent and selective inhibitors of type B monoamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Leonetti, Francesco; Capaldi, Carmelida; Pisani, Leonardo; Nicolotti, Orazio; Muncipinto, Giovanni; Stefanachi, Angela; Cellamare, Saverio; Caccia, Carla; Carotti, Angelo

    2007-10-04

    Safinamide, (S)-N2-{4-[(3-fluorobenzyl)oxy]benzyl}alaninamide methanesulfonate, which is in phase III clinical trials as an anti-Parkinson drug, and a library of alkanamidic analogues were prepared through an expeditious solid-phase synthesis and evaluated for their monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitory activity and selectivity. (S)-3-Chlorobenzyloxyalaninamide (8) and (S)-3-chlorobenzyloxyserinamide (13) derivatives proved to be more potent MAO-B inhibitors than safinamide (IC50 = 33 and 43 nM, respectively, vs 98 nM) but with a lower MAO-B selectivity (SI = 3455 and 1967, respectively, vs 5918). The highest MAO-B inhibitory potency (IC50 = 17 nM) and a good selectivity (SI = 2941) were displayed by (R)-21, a tetrahydroisoquinoline analogue of safinamide. Structure-affinity relationships and docking simulations pointed out strong negative steric effects of alpha-aminoamide side chains and para substituents of the benzyloxy groups and favorable hydrophobic interactions of meta substituents. The significantly diverse MAO-B affinities of a number of R and S alpha-aminoamide enantiomers, including the two rigid analogues (21) of safinamide, indicated likely enantioselective interactions at the enzymatic binding sites.

  15. Molecular Insights into Human Monoamine Oxidase B Inhibition by the Glitazone Antidiabetes Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The widely employed antidiabetic drug pioglitazone (Actos) is shown to be a specific and reversible inhibitor of human monoamine oxidase B (MAO B). The crystal structure of the enzyme–inhibitor complex shows that the R-enantiomer is bound with the thiazolidinedione ring near the flavin. The molecule occupies both substrate and entrance cavities of the active site, establishing noncovalent interactions with the surrounding amino acids. These binding properties differentiate pioglitazone from the clinically used MAO inhibitors, which act through covalent inhibition mechanisms and do not exhibit a high degree of MAO A versus B selectivity. Rosiglitazone (Avandia) and troglitazone, other members of the glitazone class, are less selective in that they are weaker inhibitors of both MAO A and MAO B. These results suggest that pioglitazone may have utility as a “repurposed” neuroprotectant drug in retarding the progression of disease in Parkinson's patients. They also provide new insights for the development of reversible isoenzyme-specific MAO inhibitors. PMID:22282722

  16. Defining the Role of the Monoamine Oxidase-B Inhibitors for Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Robakis, Daphne; Fahn, Stanley

    2015-06-01

    Inhibitors of monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) occupy an important place in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Selegiline was the first MAO-B to be used therapeutically, while rasagiline is a second-generation drug with higher potency and selectivity. Safinamide is an investigational MAO-B inhibitor with non-dopaminergic properties that may provide advantages over its predecessors. As a class, MAO-B inhibitors are safe and well tolerated and provide symptomatic benefit both as monotherapy and in combination with other antiparkinsonian medications from early to late stages of disease. In combination with levodopa, MAO-B inhibitors may improve motor fluctuations and allow for lower total doses of levodopa. Patient characteristics and preferences can be important factors in deciding between agents. As a class, MAO-B inhibitors have shown promise as disease-modifying agents, but the clinical trial evidence to date has not been strong enough to afford them such a label. Future research may help further elucidate their relative merits and clarify their role in altering disease progression.

  17. Benzyloxynitrostyrene analogues - A novel class of selective and highly potent inhibitors of monoamine oxidase B.

    PubMed

    Van der Walt, Mietha M; Terre'Blanche, Gisella; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél

    2017-01-05

    This study examines a series of novel 3-benzyloxy-β-nitrostyrene analogues as a novel class of inhibitors of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes. MAO inhibitors are considered useful for the treatment of depression and Parkinson's disease, and have recently attracted attention as potential therapeutic agents for a range of disorders including Alzheimer's disease, prostate cancer and certain cardiomyopathies. This study shows that the 3-benzyloxy-β-nitrostyrene analogues are potent inhibitors of the MAO-B isoform with IC 50 values in the nanomolar range (39-565 nM). Significantly, effectiveness towards MAO-B inhibition seems to be governed by the introduction of a 4″-fluoro-substituent on the benzyloxy ring, with compound 2b exhibiting the highest degree of MAO-B inhibition potency (IC 50  = 0.039 μM) and selectivity (SI = 166) among the compounds investigated. Since some of the 3-benzyloxy-β-nitrostyrene analogues possess potencies that are comparable to that of the reversible inhibitor, safinamide (IC 50  = 0.080 μM), it may be concluded that this class may be promising leads for the development of reversible and selective MAO-B inhibitors, that may be useful for the management of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The protective role of Bax Inhibitor-1 against chronic mild stress through the inhibition of monoamine oxidase A

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Marahatta, Anu; Lin, Shun-Mei; Lee, Mi-Rin; Jang, Kyu Yun; Kim, Kyung Min; Lee, Hee Jae; Lee, Jae-Won; Bagalkot, Tarique Rajasaheb; Chung, Young-Chul; Lee, Yong-Chul; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2013-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic protein Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a regulator of apoptosis linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. It has been hypothesized that BI-1 protects against neuron degenerative diseases. In this study, BI-1−/− mice showed increased vulnerability to chronic mild stress accompanied by alterations in the size and morphology of the hippocampi, enhanced ROS accumulation and an ER stress response compared with BI-1+/+ mice. BI-1−/− mice exposed to chronic mild stress showed significant activation of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), but not MAO-B, compared with BI-1+/+ mice. To examine the involvement of BI-1 in the Ca2+-sensitive MAO activity, thapsigargin-induced Ca2+ release and MAO activity were analyzed in neuronal cells overexpressing BI-1. The in vitro study showed that BI-1 regulates Ca2+ release and related MAO-A activity. This study indicates an endogenous protective role of BI-1 under conditions of chronic mild stress that is primarily mediated through Ca2+-associated MAO-A regulation. PMID:24292328

  19. Preparation and characterization of HA microflowers coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation and a solution treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hui; Yu, Dezhen; Luo, Yan; Wang, Fuping

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are potential biodegradable implant materials due to their attractive biological properties. But the use of magnesium is still hampered by its poor corrosion resistance in physiological fluids. In this work, hydroxyapatite microflowers coating is fabricated by micro-arc oxidation and a solution treatment on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The microstructure and composition are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, and the apatite-forming ability is studied also. The results show that the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy has been enhanced by MAO coating. And the solution treatment can improve the corrosion resistance of the MAO sample, by forming a barrier layer on the surface of the MAO coating, and by penetrating into the outer layer of the MAO film, sealing the micropores and micro-cracks existed in the MAO coating. In addition, the MAO-ST coating also exhibits a high ability to form apatite.

  20. The Effects Of Micro Arc Oxidation Of Gamma Titanium Aluminide Surfaces On Osteoblast Adhesion And Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Medina, Pricilla; Sundaram, Paul A.; Diffoot-Carlo, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    The adhesion and proliferation of human fetal osteoblasts, hFOB 1.19, on micro arc oxidized (MAO) gamma titanium aluminide (γTiAl) surfaces were examined in vitro. Cells were seeded on MAO treated γTiAl disks and incubated for 3 days at 33.5°C and subsequently for 7 days at 39.5°C. Samples were then analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the Alkaline Phosphatase Assay (ALP) to evaluate cell adhesion and differentiation, respectively. Similar Ti-6Al-4V alloy samples were used for comparison. Untreated γTiAl and Ti-6Al-4V disks, to study the effect of micro arc oxidation and glass coverslips as cell growth controls were also incubated concurrently. The ALP Assay results, at 10 days post seeding, showed significant differences in cell differentiation, with p values < 0.05 between MAO γTiAl and MAO Ti-6Al-4V with respect to the corresponding untreated alloys. While SEM images showed that hFOB 1.19 cells adhered and proliferated on all MAO and untreated surfaces, as well as on glass coverslips at 10 days post seeding, cell differentiation, determined by the ALP assay, was significantly higher for the MAO alloys. PMID:24577944

  1. Exploration of a Library of 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)aniline-Derived Semicarbazones as Dual Inhibitors of Monoamine Oxidase and Acetylcholinesterase: Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Rati K P; Rai, Gopal K; Ayyannan, Senthil R

    2016-06-06

    A library of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)aniline-derived semicarbazones was designed, synthesized, and evaluated as monoamine oxidase (MAO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Most of the new compounds selectively inhibited MAO-B and AChE, with IC50 values in the micro- or nanomolar ranges. Compound 16, 1-(2,6-dichlorobenzylidene)-4-(benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yl)semicarbazide presented a balanced multifunctional profile of MAO-A (IC50 =4.52±0.032 μm), MAO-B (IC50 =0.059±0.002 μm), and AChE (IC50 =0.0087±0.0002 μm) inhibition without neurotoxicity. Kinetic studies revealed that compound 16 exhibits competitive and reversible inhibition against MAO-A and MAO-B, and mixed-type inhibition against AChE. Molecular docking studies further revealed insight into the possible interactions within the enzyme-inhibitor complexes. The most active compounds were found to interact with the enzymes through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Additionally, in silico molecular properties and ADME properties of the synthesized compounds were calculated to explore their drug-like characteristics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Synthesis of Amide and Ester Derivatives of Cinnamic Acid and Its Analogs: Evaluation of Their Free Radical Scavenging and Monoamine Oxidase and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichi; Toda, Kazuhiro; Saito, Takayuki; Sugita, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    A series of cinnamic acid derivatives, amides (1-12) and esters (13-22), were synthesized, and structure-activity relationships for antioxidant activity, and monoamine oxidases (MAO) A and B, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities were analyzed. Among the synthesized compounds, compounds 1-10, 12-18, and rosmarinic acid (23), which contained catechol, o-methoxyphenol or 5-hydroxyindole moieties, showed potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity. Compounds 9-11, 15, 17-22 showed potent and selective MAO-B inhibitory activity. Compound 20 was the most potent inhibitor of MAO-B. Compounds 18 and 21 showed moderate BChE inhibitory activity. In addition, compound 18 showed potent antioxidant activity and MAO-B inhibitory activity. In a comparison of the cinnamic acid amides and esters, the amides exhibited more potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity, while the esters showed stronger inhibitory activities against MAO-B and BChE. These results suggested that cinnamic acid derivatives such as compound 18, p-coumaric acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl ester, and compound 20, p-coumaric acid phenethyl ester, may serve as lead compounds for the development of novel MAO-B inhibitors and candidate lead compounds for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  3. SciT

    Raffel, D.M.; Rosario, R.B. del; Tluczek, L.

    Elimination of the {alpha}-carbon CH{sub 3} group from C-11 hydroxyephedrine (HED) yields a new radiotracer for cardiac sympathetic neurons: C-11 phenylephrine (PHEN). This small structural change has profound effects on the tracer kinetics - HED is not metabolized by neuronal monoamine oxidase (MAO), while PHEN is an excellent MAO substrate. To assess the influence of MAO metabolism and vesicular storage on PHEN kinetics a series of constant infusion studies were performed. Isolated working rat hearts were perfused under control conditions for 25 min, then switched to a second perfusate circuit containing PHEN at tracer concentrations. PHEN was infused for 10more » min then the heart switched back to normal perfusate to effect washout of PHEN. The amount of PHEN in the heart was externally measured using coinsidence detection. The data between 1 and 4 min were used to estimate an uptake constant, K{sub up} (ml/min/g wet). Washout data were fit to multiple exponentials. Several studies were done: (1) To slow MAO metabolism, the dideuterium substituted analog C-11 D{sub 2-}PHEN was made and studied as described above. (2) For both tracers, the effect of age on washout kinetics was studied as rat heart MAO levels steadily increase throughout the animal`s life. (3) The effect of MAO inhibition was studied using 100 {mu}M pargyline throughout the experiment. (4) Reserpine pretreated rats were used to assess the influence of vesicular storage on tracer kinetics.« less

  4. The separate and combined effects of monoamine oxidase inhibition and nicotine on P50 sensory gating.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dylan M; Fisher, Derek; Blier, Pierre; Illivitsky, Vadim; Knott, Verner

    2015-06-01

    The cognitive effects of nicotine in humans remain a topic of great interest, due to the continued prevalence of cigarette smoking in society as well as the hypothesis that cognitively impaired populations such as schizophrenia patients use nicotine as a means of self-medicating against deficits of sensory gating. However, chronic smoking can predispose individuals to robust monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition, and thus far, the effect of MAO inhibition on human sensory gating is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of both nicotine (6-mg gum) and pharmacologically induced MAO-A inhibition via moclobemide (75 mg) on P50 event-related potential-indexed sensory gating in a sample of 24 healthy non-smoking males. Ratio score (rP50) measured gating revealed significant improvement in auditory stimulus suppression after combined nicotine and MAO-A inhibition compared to placebo and to the nicotine-alone condition. This nicotine + MAO-A inhibition-induced efficient gating was consistent regardless of participants' baseline (placebo) gating efficiency, despite the observation that nicotine in the absence of MAO-A inhibition exhibited a detrimental effect on gating in participants with high baseline suppression ratios. Nicotine and monoamine oxidase-inhibiting agents in tobacco smoke appear to exert a synergistic effect on sensory gating, which may contribute to the elevated dependence rates seen in populations with cognitive deficits such as schizophrenia.

  5. Time-dependent slowly-reversible inhibition of monoamine oxidase A by N-substituted 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Wichitnithad, Wisut; O'Callaghan, James P; Miller, Diane B; Train, Brian C; Callery, Patrick S

    2011-12-15

    A novel class of N-substituted tetrahydropyridine derivatives was found to have multiple kinetic mechanisms of monoamine oxidase A inhibition. Eleven structurally similar tetrahydropyridine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of MAO-A and MAO-B. The most potent MAO-A inhibitor in the series, 2,4-dichlorophenoxypropyl analog 12, displayed time-dependent mixed noncompetitive inhibition. The inhibition was reversed by dialysis, indicating reversible enzyme inhibition. Evidence that the slow-binding inhibition of MAO-A with 12 involves a covalent bond was gained from stabilizing a covalent reversible intermediate product by reduction with sodium borohydride. The reduced enzyme complex was not reversible by dialysis. The results are consistent with slowly reversible, mechanism-based inhibition. Two tetrahydropyridine analogs that selectively inhibited MAO-A were characterized by kinetic mechanisms differing from the kinetic mechanism of 12. As reversible inhibitors of MAO-A, tetrahydropyridine analogs are at low risk of having an adverse effect of tyramine-induced hypertension. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved biological performance of magnesium by micro-arc oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have recently been used in the development of lightweight, biodegradable implant materials. However, the corrosion properties of magnesium limit its clinical application. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the degradation behavior and biomechanical properties of magnesium materials treated with micro-arc oxidation (MAO), which is a new promising surface treatment for developing corrosion resistance in magnesium, and to provide a theoretical basis for its further optimization and clinical application. The degradation behavior of MAO-treated magnesium was studied systematically by immersion and electrochemical tests, and its biomechanical performance when exposed to simulated body fluids was evaluated by tensile tests. In addition, the cell toxicity of MAO-treated magnesium samples during the corrosion process was evaluated, and its biocompatibility was investigated under in vivo conditions. The results of this study showed that the oxide coating layers could elevate the corrosion potential of magnesium and reduce its degradation rate. In addition, the MAO-coated sample showed no cytotoxicity and more new bone was formed around it during in vivo degradation. MAO treatment could effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of the magnesium specimen and help to keep its original mechanical properties. The MAO-coated magnesium material had good cytocompatibility and biocompatibility. This technique has an advantage for developing novel implant materials and may potentially be used for future clinical applications. PMID:25517917

  7. The structure, bond strength and apatite-inducing ability of micro-arc oxidized tantalum and their response to annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cuicui; Wang, Feng; Han, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the tantalum oxide coatings were formed on pure tantalum (Ta) by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in electrolytic solutions of calcium acetate and β-glycerophosphate disodium, and the effect of the applied voltage on the microstructure and bond strength of the MAO coatings was systematically investigated. The effect of annealing treatment on the microstructure, bond strength and apatite-inducing ability of the MAO coatings formed at 350 and 450 V was also studied. The study revealed that during the preparation of tantalum oxide coatings on Ta substrate by MAO, the applied voltage considerably affected the phase components, morphologies and bond strength of the coatings, but had little effect on surface chemical species. After annealing treatment, newly formed CaTa4O11 phase mainly contributed to the much more stronger apatite-inducing ability of the annealed tantalum oxide coatings than those that were not annealed. The better apatite-inducing ability of the MAO coatings formed at 450 V compared to those formed at 350 V was attributed to the less amorphous phase and more crystalline phase as well as more Ca and P contained in the MAO coatings with increasing the applied voltage.

  8. Comparison of the effects of moclobemide and selegiline on tyramine-evoked mydriasis in man

    PubMed Central

    Bitsios, P; Langley, R W; Tavernor, S; Pyykkö, K; Scheinin, M; Szabadi, E; Bradshaw, C M

    1998-01-01

    Aims To examine the feasibility of using the human iris in vivo for the assessment of the interaction between tyramine and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. To examine the relative roles of the two forms of MAO in terminating the response to sympathomimetic amines in the iris, by comparing the effects of single oral doses of moclobemide, a selective MAO-A inhibitor, and selegiline, a selective MAO-B inhibitor, on mydriatic responses to tyramine. Methods Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in three monthly sessions, each associated with ingestion of one capsule (moclobemide 450 mg, selegiline 10 mg, or placebo), according to a double-blind, balanced, cross-over design. Tyramine hydrochloride eye-drops (75 mm, 2×10 μl) were instilled three times in the left conjuctival sac at 40 min intervals. Pupil diameter was monitored with a binocular infrared television pupillometer before and for 4.5 h after ingestion of the capsule. The pupillary response to tyramine was expressed as the area under the pupil diameter×time curve (arbitrary units). A blood sample was taken before and 2 h after ingestion of the capsule, for the assay of platelet MAO-B activity, and plasma 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) concentration, an index of MAO-A activity. Platelet MAO activity was assayed radiochemically, using [14C]-phenylethylamine as substrate, and plasma DHPG by high performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). The results were analysed using analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by Bonferroni's corrected t-test, using a significance criterion of P < 0.05. Results Both moclobemide and selegiline, compared with placebo, caused significant miosis in the right (untreated) eye. The changes in pupil diameter (mm±s.e. mean) from the pretreatment measurement were: placebo −0.09±0.07, moclobemide −0.52±0.09, selegiline −0.26±0.1. The mydriatic response to tyramine was potentiated by moclobemide, compared with the response recorded in the presence of

  9. Relationship of gonadal hormone administration, sex, reproductive status and age to monoamine oxidase activity within the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Luine, V; Hearns, M

    1990-08-01

    Abstract Activity of Type A monoamine oxidase (MAO) was measured in microdissected samples from preoptic-hypothalamic and hindbrain areas of young male and female rats, and aged female rats. Administration of estradiol and progesterone, in doses sufficient to facilitate lordosis behavior and induce a luteinizing hormone surge in ovariectomized, but not castrated rats, was associated with sexually dimorphic changes of MAO activity within the hypothalamus. Forty-two h following estradiol benzoate administration, increased MAO activity was measured in the ventromedial nucleus (VML) and midbrain central gray of females, while decreased MAO activity was measured in the VML and arcuate-median eminence (ArME) of males. Progesterone administration to estradiol benzoate-primed rats was associated with decreased MAO activity in the VML and medial preoptic nucleus (mPOA) of females and decreased activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus of males. Activity of MAO on diestrus, proestrus and estrus was assessed in ten preoptic-hypothalamic and hindbrain sites. Differences between days of the cycle were limited to the mPOA, ArME and VML. While activities were generally lowest at estrus, these areas exhibited different patterns of activity across the cycle. Activity was highest at proestrus in the mPOA and highest at diestrus in the VML and ArME. Activity of MAO in some areas of 25-month old, diestrus rats was altered as compared to young, cycling rats; however, ageing was not associated wit