Science.gov

Sample records for ja hardcore lifestyle

  1. Training the Hardcore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Research Corp., Chicago, IL.

    This part of the series on Training the Hardcore covers factors involved in hiring and training the hardcore, abstracts of the 12 volumes included in the whole, and three other documents which will give management further insight into how the employment situation looks to the man in the street. Based on his experience at KLH and Polaroid, Henry M.…

  2. Hard-Core Unemployment: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Colin, Comp.; Menon, Anila Bhatt, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography contains references to various films, articles, and books on the subject of hard-core unemployment, and is divided into the following sections: (1) The Sociology of the Hard-Core Milieu, (2) Training Programs, (3) Business and the Hard-Core, (4) Citations of Miscellaneous References on Hard-Core Unemployment, (5)…

  3. Hardcore smoking among Italian men and women.

    PubMed

    Ferketich, Amy K; Gallus, Silvano; Colombo, Paolo; Pacifici, Roberta; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-04-01

    Hardcore smokers are described as heavy smokers who have not attempted to quit and have no future intentions to quit. The objectives of this study were to characterize hardcore and nonhardcore smokers in Italy. The data for this analysis were collected from 3057 Italians aged 15 years and older in March and April 2007 who were randomly selected to be representative of the population. Hardcore smoking, defined as consuming 15 or more cigarettes per day with no earlier quit attempts and no future intention to quit, was examined in individuals who were aged 26 years and older. Hardcore smokers were compared with their nonhardcore counterparts with respect to sociodemographic and smoking characteristics, perceived stress, and attitudes and beliefs about smoking. The smoking prevalence overall was 23.5% (27.9% among males and 19.3% among females). An estimated 7.8% of individuals were hardcore smokers (9.7% among males and 6% among females), which translates into 33.1% of all smokers in Italy. Age at smoking initiation, occupation (among males), home smoking rules, and perceived stress (among females) distinguished hardcore from nonhardcore smokers. This is the highest prevalence of hardcore smoking that has been reported in the literature to date. This reflects the general attitude toward smoking cessation in Italy. Although the indoor smoking ban has helped to reduce the rate of smoking, it is clearly not enough. Stronger tobacco control measures are warranted.

  4. Identifying Subgroups among Hardcore Smokers: a Latent Profile Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Kleinjan, Marloes; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; Burk, William J.; van den Eijnden, Regina; van de Mheen, Dike

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hardcore smokers are smokers who have little to no intention to quit. Previous research suggests that there are distinct subgroups among hardcore smokers and that these subgroups vary in the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. Identifying these subgroups could help to develop individualized messages for the group of hardcore smokers. In this study we therefore used the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting to identify profiles among hardcore smokers. Methods A sample of 510 hardcore smokers completed an online survey on the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. We used these perceived pros and cons in a latent profile analysis to identify possible subgroups among hardcore smokers. To validate the profiles identified among hardcore smokers, we analysed data from a sample of 338 non-hardcore smokers in a similar way. Results We found three profiles among hardcore smokers. ‘Receptive’ hardcore smokers (36%) perceived many cons of smoking and many pros of quitting. ‘Ambivalent’ hardcore smokers (59%) were rather undecided towards quitting. ‘Resistant’ hardcore smokers (5%) saw few cons of smoking and few pros of quitting. Among non-hardcore smokers, we found similar groups of ‘receptive’ smokers (30%) and ‘ambivalent’ smokers (54%). However, a third group consisted of ‘disengaged’ smokers (16%), who saw few pros and cons of both smoking and quitting. Discussion Among hardcore smokers, we found three distinct profiles based on perceived pros and cons of smoking. This indicates that hardcore smokers are not a homogenous group. Each profile might require a different tobacco control approach. Our findings may help to develop individualized tobacco control messages for the particularly hard-to-reach group of hardcore smokers. PMID:26207829

  5. Employing the Hard-Core: Internal Organizational Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, J. E.; And Others

    This paper is presented with the hope that those studying or directly involved in the utilization of hard-core persons in employment may gain insights which may make their tasks easier and more productive. It is written in a readable and non-technical nature and integrates experiences of hard-core utilization with accepted organization theory.…

  6. Vocational Preparation of The Hardcore Unemployed: The Token Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Jack; Turner, Walter L.

    1973-01-01

    This article describes a demonstration project designed to assist in the upgrading of job skills among hardcore, inner-city, underemployed clients. The token economy procedure is described and its use in the present study is detailed. (Author)

  7. Unemployment: Hard-Core or Hard-Shell?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Robert H.

    1972-01-01

    The term hard-core'' makes the unemployed culpable; the term hard shell'' shifts the burden to the employer, and the evidence from the suburban plant indicates that a substantial part of the problem must lie there. (DM)

  8. Some Research on Motivating the Hard-Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Wayne; Lucas, Jane

    1971-01-01

    If the hard-core unemployed are to succeed on the job, they need strong motivations and development of interests. Individual potential is far from being tapped. There is less need for more job attitude training tn aining that tells them what needs to be done on the job. (Author)

  9. Magnon edge states in the hardcore- Bose-Hubbard model.

    PubMed

    Owerre, S A

    2016-11-02

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulation has uncovered nonzero Berry curvature and bosonic edge states in the hardcore-Bose-Hubbard model on the gapped honeycomb lattice. The competition between the chemical potential and staggered onsite potential leads to an interesting quantum phase diagram comprising the superfluid phase, Mott insulator, and charge density wave insulator. In this paper, we present a semiclassical perspective of this system by mapping to a spin-1/2 quantum XY model. We give an explicit analytical origin of the quantum phase diagram, the Berry curvatures, and the edge states using semiclassical approximations. We find very good agreement between the semiclassical analyses and the QMC results. Our results show that the topological properties of the hardcore-Bose-Hubbard model are the same as those of magnon in the corresponding quantum spin system. Our results are applicable to systems of ultracold bosonic atoms trapped in honeycomb optical lattices.

  10. Magnon edge states in the hardcore- Bose-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulation has uncovered nonzero Berry curvature and bosonic edge states in the hardcore-Bose-Hubbard model on the gapped honeycomb lattice. The competition between the chemical potential and staggered onsite potential leads to an interesting quantum phase diagram comprising the superfluid phase, Mott insulator, and charge density wave insulator. In this paper, we present a semiclassical perspective of this system by mapping to a spin-1/2 quantum XY model. We give an explicit analytical origin of the quantum phase diagram, the Berry curvatures, and the edge states using semiclassical approximations. We find very good agreement between the semiclassical analyses and the QMC results. Our results show that the topological properties of the hardcore-Bose-Hubbard model are the same as those of magnon in the corresponding quantum spin system. Our results are applicable to systems of ultracold bosonic atoms trapped in honeycomb optical lattices.

  11. Hard-Core Repulsion and Supersolid Cluster Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boninsegni, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    We study the effect of a short-ranged hard-core repulsion on the stability and superfluid properties of the cluster crystal phase of two-dimensional (2D) soft-core bosons. Results of Quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a cogent test case suggest that the main physical properties of the phase remain unaltered if the range d of the inner repulsive core is sufficiently short, even if the strength of the repulsion is several orders of magnitude greater than the outer soft-core barrier. Only if d is an appreciable fraction of the size of the clusters ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] 5 %) does a sufficiently strong hard-core repulsion cause the crystal to break down into a homogeneous superfluid; a moderate inner core repulsion enhances the superfluid response of the crystalline phase.

  12. NO LONGER SUPERFLUOUS, THE EDUCATIONAL REHABILITATION OF THE HARD-CORE UNEMPLOYED. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PALLONE, NATHANIEL J.

    THE SOUTH BEND PROJECT ON THE EDUCATIONAL REHABILITATION OF THE HARD-CORE UNEMPLOYED WAS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE TRAINING IN BASIC EDUCATIONAL SKILLS FOR 100 HARD-CORE UNEMPLOYED AND ASSIST THEM IN DEVELOPING FAVORABLE WORK ATTITUDES TO EQUIP THEM FOR VOCATIONAL TRAINING, DETERMINE THE EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GROUP, AND TO…

  13. Density Functional Theory for General Hard-Core Lattice Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, Luis; Cuesta, José A.

    2004-09-01

    We put forward a general procedure to obtain an approximate free-energy density functional for any hard-core lattice gas, regardless of the shape of the particles, the underlying lattice, or the dimension of the system. The procedure is conceptually very simple and recovers effortlessly previous results for some particular systems. Also, the obtained density functionals belong to the class of fundamental measure functionals and, therefore, are always consistent through dimensional reduction. We discuss possible extensions of this method to account for attractive lattice models.

  14. A plan for estimating the number of "hardcore" drug users in the United States.

    PubMed

    Simeone, R S; Rhodes, W M; Hunt, D E

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a program of research that would allow the size, characteristics, and geographic distribution of the "hardcore" population of drug users in the United States to be monitored over time. The program is conceived as a complement to and extension of existing federal data collection initiatives. It involves the development of mathematical models of drug use careers, and the use of these models to estimate the size of the "hardcore" population of drug users within selected geographic areas. These local area estimates are then used in conjunction with more readily available information to estimate the size of the "hardcore" population of drug users in the country as a whole.

  15. Hard-core flashlamp for blue-green laser excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, K.S.; Lee, J.K.; Lee, J.H. )

    1988-10-01

    A hard-core flashlamp (HCF) which has a coaxial geometry and an array of inverse pinches was evaluated for blue-green laser excitation. The short pulses ({lt}0.5{mu}s) surface discharges were produced across the core insulator of teflon and alumina. The spectral irradiance of the HCF depends on argon fill gas pressure and the core insulating material. The maximum radiative output of the HCF lies in the region of 340--400 nm (the absorption band of LD 490). An LD490 dye laser pumped by a HCF prototype device had an output of 0.9mJ with a pulse width of 0.5{mu}{ital s} (FWHM).

  16. Population health and the hardcore smoker: Geoffrey Rose revisited.

    PubMed

    Chaiton, Michael O; Cohen, Joanna E; Frank, John

    2008-09-01

    The "hardening hypothesis" suggests that as smoking prevalence decreases, lighter smokers will quit first, leaving more "hardcore" smokers in the population. At a population level, however, the weight of evidence suggests that no hardening is occurring. By understanding the lessons from Geoffrey Rose's model of population-level risk factor change, we argue that the hardening of the smoking population is not inevitable. The Rose model predicts that the effect of policy interventions, and changes in social norms, can shift the population-level risk distribution for continuing to be a smoker, making it more likely that all smokers will quit. This analysis also suggests that further reductions in smoking prevalence will not come without further changes in the underlying--and largely cultural--root causes of smoking in a population.

  17. Prevalence of hardcore smoking in the Netherlands between 2001 and 2012: a test of the hardening hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Nagelhout, Gera E; Kleinjan, Marloes; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Willemsen, Marc C; van de Mheen, Dike

    2016-08-09

    Hardcore smokers are smokers who have smoked for many years and who do not intend to quit smoking. The "hardening hypothesis" states that light smokers are more likely to quit smoking than heavy smokers (such as hardcore smokers). Therefore, the prevalence of hardcore smoking among smokers would increase over time. If this is true, the smoking population would become harder to reach with tobacco control measures. In this study we tested the hardening hypothesis. We calculated the prevalence of hardcore smoking in the Netherlands from 2001 to 2012. Smokers were 'hardcore' if they a) smoked every day, b) smoked on average 15 cigarettes per day or more, c) had not attempted to quit in the past 12 months, and d) had no intention to quit within 6 months. We used logistic regression models to test whether the prevalence changed over time. We also investigated whether trends differed between educational levels. Among smokers, the prevalence of hardcore smoking decreased from 40.8 % in 2001 to 32.2 % in 2012. In the general population, it decreased from 12.2 to 8.2 %. Hardcore smokers were significantly lower educated than non-hardcore smokers. Among the general population, the prevalence of hardcore smoking decreased more among higher educated people than among lower educated people. We found no support for the hardening hypothesis in the Netherlands between 2001 and 2012. Instead, the decrease of hardcore smoking among smokers suggests a 'softening' of the smoking population.

  18. Equation of state and critical point behavior of hard-core double-Yukawa fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, J.; Robles, M.; López de Haro, M.

    2016-02-01

    A theoretical study on the equation of state and the critical point behavior of hard-core double-Yukawa fluids is presented. Thermodynamic perturbation theory, restricted to first order in the inverse temperature and having the hard-sphere fluid as the reference system, is used to derive a relatively simple analytical equation of state of hard-core multi-Yukawa fluids. Using such an equation of state, the compressibility factor and phase behavior of six representative hard-core double-Yukawa fluids are examined and compared with available simulation results. The effect of varying the parameters of the hard-core double-Yukawa intermolecular potential on the location of the critical point is also analyzed using different perspectives. The relevance of this analysis for fluids whose molecules interact with realistic potentials is also pointed out.

  19. Equation of state and critical point behavior of hard-core double-Yukawa fluids.

    PubMed

    Montes, J; Robles, M; López de Haro, M

    2016-02-28

    A theoretical study on the equation of state and the critical point behavior of hard-core double-Yukawa fluids is presented. Thermodynamic perturbation theory, restricted to first order in the inverse temperature and having the hard-sphere fluid as the reference system, is used to derive a relatively simple analytical equation of state of hard-core multi-Yukawa fluids. Using such an equation of state, the compressibility factor and phase behavior of six representative hard-core double-Yukawa fluids are examined and compared with available simulation results. The effect of varying the parameters of the hard-core double-Yukawa intermolecular potential on the location of the critical point is also analyzed using different perspectives. The relevance of this analysis for fluids whose molecules interact with realistic potentials is also pointed out.

  20. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities among adult male hardcore smokers in Vietnam: 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Kien, Vu Duy; Jat, Tej Ram; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thi Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Phan Thi Quynh; Quan, Nguyen The; Van Minh, Hoang

    2017-07-14

    Despite male smokers being dominant in Vietnam, scarce evidence on trends in socioeconomics inequalities among the hardcore male smokers is available in the country. In this study, we aimed at assessing the trends in socioeconomics inequalities among the hardcore smokers in adult male population in Vietnam over a five-year period from 2010 to 2015. We used data from two rounds of the Vietnam Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in 2010 and 2015. We included only men aged 25 years and above in the analysis. We measured socioeconomic inequalities among hardcore smokers by calculating the concentration index. We conducted multiple logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with hardcore smoking among men aged 25 years and above. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of male hardcore smokers aged 25 years and above in Vietnam was 9.5% in 2010 which increased to 13.1% in 2015. The prevalence of male hardcore smokers declined in the richest group from the 2010 level whereas it increased in the middle, poor and poorest groups. All values of weighted concentration indices indicated that the prevalence of male hardcore smokers occurred more among the poor men in Vietnam in both 2010 and 2015. The socioeconomic inequalities in hardcore smokers increased during 2010 and 2015. Residence in urban areas was significantly associated with higher adult male hardcore smoking in our study. Belonging to the age groups between 40 and 59 years, attaining primary and lower education, being self-employed, belonging to the poorest household group, smoking being allowed at home and no rule for smoking at home were associated with higher risk of being hardcore smoker among adult males in Vietnam. We found increased trends in socioeconomic inequalities in hardcore smoking among the study population. Our study results indicate that existing smoking secession and tobacco control policy and interventions need to be modified or new policies and

  1. Cholesterol and lifestyle

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperlipidemia - cholesterol and lifestyle; CAD - cholesterol and lifestyle; Coronary artery disease - cholesterol and lifestyle; Heart disease - cholesterol and lifestyle; Prevention - cholesterol and lifestyle; Cardiovascular disease - ...

  2. Vortex dynamics and Hall conductivity of hard-core bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, Netanel; Auerbach, Assa; Arovas, Daniel P.

    2010-10-01

    Magnetotransport of hard-core bosons is studied using an XXZ quantum spin model representation, appropriately gauged on the torus to allow for an external magnetic field. We find strong lattice effects near half filling. An effective quantum mechanical description of the vortex degrees of freedom is derived. Using semiclassical and numerical analysis we compute the vortex-hopping energy t{sub V}, which at half filling is close to magnitude of the boson hopping energy. The critical quantum melting density of the vortex lattice is estimated at 6.5x10{sup -3} vortices per unit cell. The Hall conductance is computed from the Chern numbers of the low-energy eigenstates. At zero temperature, it reverses sign abruptly at half filling. At precisely half filling, all eigenstates are doubly degenerate for any odd number of flux quanta. We prove the exact degeneracies on the torus by constructing an SU(2) algebra of point-group symmetries, associated with the center of vorticity. This result is interpreted as if each vortex carries an internal spin-half degree of freedom, which can manifest itself as a charge density modulation in its core. Our findings suggest interesting experimental implications for vortex motion of cold atoms in optical lattices and magnet transport of short coherence length superconductors.

  3. Use of the current population survey to characterize subpopulations of continued smokers: a national perspective on the "hardcore" smoker phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Augustson, Erik; Marcus, Stephen

    2004-08-01

    The existence of "hardcore" smokers, those most likely to have substantial difficulty quitting, may have far reaching impact on how to best allocate cessation resources. It has been suggested that hardcore smokers make up only a small fraction of current smokers and therefore do not represent a significant public health problem. However, little is known about the prevalence and nature of this subgroup of smokers in the United States. Based on a national sample, the 1998-1999 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, we categorized, based on smoking pattern, groups of current smokers who were over age 25 years (N=33,568). We compared hardcore smokers with other groups of current smokers on demographic, environmental, and smoking variables to assess whether hardcore smokers represent a unique group. Hardcore smokers were defined as established daily smokers, consuming 15 or more cigarettes per day with no reported history of quit attempts. Hardcore smokers represent 13.7% of all current smokers and 17.6% of all established smokers. They are more likely to be male, unmarried, not in the work force, and have lower education. They also are more likely to have started smoking at a younger age, smoke more, and are less likely to report contact with smoking restrictions. This analysis suggests that hardcore smokers are distinct from other groups of smokers. These results also indicate that hardcore smokers account for a substantial proportion of smokers and as such may represent a significant public health challenge that needs to be addressed.

  4. Target: Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlman, Eric T.

    1985-01-01

    "Target: Lifestyle" is a physical education curriculum adopted by Detroit Country Day School which incorporates instruction in nutrition, physical fitness, first aid, and lifetime sports. This curriculum aims to influence student attitudes and lifestyles in health and physical fitness. Four levels of instruction are described. (DF)

  5. Soft Skills: The New Curriculum for Hard-Core Technical Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancino, Randy; Zevalkink, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors talk about the importance of soft skills for hard-core technical professionals. In many technical professions, the complete focus of education and training is on technical topics either directly or indirectly related to a career or discipline. Students are generally required to master various mathematics skills,…

  6. Characterizing and identifying "hard-core" smokers: implications for further reducing smoking prevalence.

    PubMed Central

    Emery, S; Gilpin, E A; Ake, C; Farkas, A J; Pierce, J P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Some smokers may never quit. Depending on how many of these "hard-core" smokers exist, tobacco control efforts could reach the limits of a minimum achievable smoking prevalence. We defined the hard core as heavy smokers with weak quitting histories who expect never to quit smoking. We compared them with other smokers and analyzed whether they represent a meaningful barrier to further reducing smoking prevalence. METHODS: We used data from the 1996 California Tobacco Surveys (18616 adults; response rate = 72.9%). RESULTS: In 1996, 5.2% of California smokers 26 years and older (1.3% of the California population) were hard-core smokers. Compared with other smokers, hard-core smokers were more likely to be retired non-Hispanic White males, with 12 years or less of education and incomes below $30,000 a year, who live alone. They began smoking at younger ages and attributed fewer negative health consequences to smoking than other smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Current tobacco control efforts have a long way to go before they "hit the wall." Nonetheless, the group of hard-core smokers represents a challenge because they appear to be largely unaffected by the messages of tobacco control. PMID:10705856

  7. The Hard-Core Unemployed, An Annotated Bibliography. Reference Memorandum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesics, Emil, Comp.; Marcus, Samuel, Comp.

    Pertinent items having to do with national policy on hard-core unemployed and specific applications and techniques drawn from organizational experiences are identified. The compilers focused upon 1968 publications; the earliest publication date is 1964. The 41 entries are organized under the following headings: (1) Poverty in the Community and the…

  8. Understanding Why Students Participate in Multiple Surveys: Who are the Hard-Core Responders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    What causes a student to participate in a survey? This paper looks at survey response across multiple surveys to understand who the hard-core survey responders and non-responders are. Students at a selective liberal arts college were administered four different surveys throughout the 2002-2003 academic year, and we use the number of surveys…

  9. Hyperspherical approach for the trinucleon system with hard-core potential

    SciTech Connect

    Das, T.K.; Coelho, H.T. ); Torreao, J.R.A. )

    1992-06-01

    In this work we present a method for solving the hard-core (HC) three-body problem by the hyperspherical approach. We restrict ourselves to the totally symmetric {ital S} state of the dominant trinucleon system interacting via a central spin-dependent HC potential, but the method can be generalized to include other states.

  10. Ground state properties of quantum Kagomé ice hardcore bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    We study the quantum Kagomé ice hardcore bosons, which correspond to the XY limit of the quantum spin ice Hamiltonian. We estimate the values of their zero-temperature thermodynamic quantities using the large-S expansion. We show that our semiclassical analysis is consistent with the finite temperature quantum Monte Carlo estimates.

  11. Managing Hard-Core Smokers: Oral Health Team Challenges and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecklenburg, Robert Ellis

    1994-01-01

    Focusing dental efforts on hard-core and high-risk smokers can decrease smoking prevalence. Challenges to the dental profession include professional legitimacy, dental professional education, defining special populations, and overcoming barriers to access. Opportunities include strategic placement, strategic relations with those serving high-risk…

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with hardcore smoking in Poland: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2009–2010)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimating the prevalence of hardcore smoking and identifying linked factors is fundamental to improve planning and implementation of effective tobacco control measures. Given the paucity of data on that topic, we aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with hardcore smoking in Poland. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a representative, cross-sectional, household based survey conducted in Poland between 2009 and 2010. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to explore the associations of socio-demographic and smoking related variables with hardcore smoking among daily smokers. Results The prevalence of hardcore smoking was 10.0% (13.0% among men and 7.3% among women) in the whole population of Poland at age 26 years and above. Hardcore smokers constitute 39.9% (41.6% among men and 37.7% among women) of all daily smokers in analyzed age frame. Being older, having started smoking at earlier ages, living in large cities (in women only), being less aware of negative health effects of smoking, having less restrictions on smoking at home was associated with higher risk of being hardcore smoker. Educational attainment and economic activity were not associated with hardcore smoking among daily smokers. Conclusions High prevalence of hardcore smokers may be a grand challenge for curbing non-communicable diseases epidemic in Poland. Our findings should urge policy makers to consider hardcore smoking issues while planning and implementing tobacco control policies. Prevention of smoking uptake, education programs, and strengthening cessation services appeared to be the top priorities. PMID:24916122

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with hardcore smoking in Poland: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2009-2010).

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Usidame, Bukola; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Leinsalu, Mall

    2014-06-11

    Estimating the prevalence of hardcore smoking and identifying linked factors is fundamental to improve planning and implementation of effective tobacco control measures. Given the paucity of data on that topic, we aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with hardcore smoking in Poland. We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a representative, cross-sectional, household based survey conducted in Poland between 2009 and 2010. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to explore the associations of socio-demographic and smoking related variables with hardcore smoking among daily smokers. The prevalence of hardcore smoking was 10.0% (13.0% among men and 7.3% among women) in the whole population of Poland at age 26 years and above. Hardcore smokers constitute 39.9% (41.6% among men and 37.7% among women) of all daily smokers in analyzed age frame. Being older, having started smoking at earlier ages, living in large cities (in women only), being less aware of negative health effects of smoking, having less restrictions on smoking at home was associated with higher risk of being hardcore smoker. Educational attainment and economic activity were not associated with hardcore smoking among daily smokers. High prevalence of hardcore smokers may be a grand challenge for curbing non-communicable diseases epidemic in Poland. Our findings should urge policy makers to consider hardcore smoking issues while planning and implementing tobacco control policies. Prevention of smoking uptake, education programs, and strengthening cessation services appeared to be the top priorities.

  14. Phase diagram of dipolar hard-core bosons on a honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakafuji, Takashi; Ito, Takeshi; Nagamori, Yuya; Ichinose, Ikuo

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we study phase diagrams of dipolar hard-core boson gases on a honeycomb lattice. The system is described by the Haldane-Bose-Hubbard model with complex hopping amplitudes and nearest-neighbor repulsion. By using the slave-particle representation of the hard-core bosons and also the path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the system and show that the systems have a rich phase diagram. There are Mott, superfluid, chiral superfluid, and sublattice chiral superfluid phases as well as the density-wave phase. We also found a coexisting phase of superfluid and chiral superfluid. Critical behaviors of the phase transitions are also clarified.

  15. Expansion of one-dimensional lattice hard-core bosons at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Rigol, Marcos

    2017-03-01

    We develop an exact approach to study the quench dynamics of hard-core bosons initially in thermal equilibrium in one-dimensional lattices. This approach is used to study the sudden expansion of thermal states after confining potentials are switched off. We find that a dynamical fermionization of the momentum distribution occurs at all temperatures. This phenomenon is studied for low initial site occupations, for which the expansion of the cloud is self-similar. In this regime, the occupation of the natural orbitals allows one to distinguish hard-core bosons from noninteracting fermions. We also study the free expansion of initial Mott insulating domains at finite temperature and show that the emergence of off-diagonal one-body correlations is suppressed gradually with increasing temperature. Surprisingly, the melting of the Mott domain is accompanied by an effective cooling of the system. We explain this phenomenon analytically using an equilibrium description based on an emergent local Hamiltonian.

  16. Elusiveness of Fluid-Fluid Demixing in Additive Hard-Core Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, Luis; Cuesta, José A.

    2002-09-01

    The conjecture that when an additive hard-core mixture phase separates when one of the phases is spatially ordered, well supported by considerable evidence, is in contradiction with some simulations of a binary mixture of hard cubes on cubic lattices. By extending Rosenfeld's fundamental measure theory to lattice models we show that the phase behavior of this mixture is far more complex than simulations show, exhibiting regions of stability of several smectic, columnar, and solid phases, but no fluid-fluid demixing. A comparison with the simulations show that they are, in fact, compatible with a fluid-columnar demixing transition, thus bringing this model into the same demixing scheme as the rest of additive hard-core mixtures.

  17. Effects of interactions on dynamic correlations of hard-core bosons at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauseweh, Benedikt; Uhrig, Götz S.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate how dynamic correlations of hard-core bosonic excitation at finite temperature are affected by additional interactions besides the hard-core repulsion which prevents them from occupying the same site. We focus especially on dimerized spin systems, where these additional interactions between the elementary excitations, triplons, lead to the formation of bound states, relevant for the correct description of scattering processes. In order to include these effects quantitatively, we extend the previously developed Brückner approach to include also nearest-neighbor (NN) and next-nearest neighbor (NNN) interactions correctly in a low-temperature expansion. This leads to the extension of the scalar Bethe-Salpeter equation to a matrix-valued equation. As an example, we consider the Heisenberg spin ladder to illustrate the significance of the additional interactions on the spectral functions at finite temperature, which are proportional to inelastic neutron scattering rates.

  18. Transport with hard-core interaction in a chain of asymmetric cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, G. P.; Hoyuelos, M.; Mártin, H. O.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the diffusion of particles inside a chain of asymmetric cavities. We are considering particles that interact through a hard-core potential and are driven by an external force. We show that the difference in the current when the force is applied to the left and to the right strongly depends on the concentration inside the cavity. We found that, when the concentration is high enough, the hard-core interaction vanishes and inverts the asymmetric effect of the cavity. We also introduce a new equation, a modification to the Fick- Jacobs equation, to describe this system analytically. Finally, we used numerical simulations to verify the analytic results, finding a good agreement between theory and simulations.

  19. Critical behavior of a three-dimensional hardcore-cylinder composite system.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jaime; Simoes, Ricardo; Lanceros-Mendez, Senentxu

    2012-02-01

    In this work the critical indices β, γ, and ν for a three-dimensional (3D) hardcore cylinder composite system with short-range interaction have been obtained. In contrast to the 2D stick system and the 3D hardcore cylinder system, the determined critical exponents do not belong to the same universality class as the lattice percolation, although they obey the common hyperscaling relation for a 3D system. It is observed that the value of the correlation length exponent is compatible with the predictions of the mean field theory. It is also shown that, by using the Alexander-Orbach conjuncture, the relation between the conductivity and the correlation length critical exponents has a typical value for a 3D lattice system.

  20. Discrete perturbation theory for the hard-core attractive and repulsive Yukawa potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Arenas, J.; Cervantes, L. A.; Benavides, A. L.; Chapela, G. A.; del Río, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we apply the discrete perturbation theory [A. L. Benavides and A. Gil-Villegas, Mol. Phys. 97, 1225 (1999)] to obtain an equation of state for the case of two continuous potentials: the hard-core attractive Yukawa potential and the hard-core repulsive Yukawa potential. The main advantage of the presented equation of state is that it is an explicit analytical expression in the parameters that characterize the intermolecular interactions. With a suitable choice of their inverse screening length parameter one can model the behavior of different systems. This feature allows us to make a systematic study of the effect of the variation in the parameters on the thermodynamic properties of this system. We analyze single phase properties at different conditions of density and temperature, and vapor-liquid phase diagrams for several values of the reduced inverse screening length parameter within the interval κ∗=0.1-5.0. The theoretical predictions are compared with available and new Monte Carlo simulation data. Good agreement is found for most of the cases and better predictions are found for the long-range ones. The Yukawa potential is an example of a family of hard-core plus a tail (attractive or repulsive) function that asymptotically goes to zero as the separations between particles increase. We would expect that similar results could be found for other potentials with these characteristics.

  1. Discrete perturbation theory for the hard-core attractive and repulsive Yukawa potentials.

    PubMed

    Torres-Arenas, J; Cervantes, L A; Benavides, A L; Chapela, G A; del Río, F

    2010-01-21

    In this work we apply the discrete perturbation theory [A. L. Benavides and A. Gil-Villegas, Mol. Phys. 97, 1225 (1999)] to obtain an equation of state for the case of two continuous potentials: the hard-core attractive Yukawa potential and the hard-core repulsive Yukawa potential. The main advantage of the presented equation of state is that it is an explicit analytical expression in the parameters that characterize the intermolecular interactions. With a suitable choice of their inverse screening length parameter one can model the behavior of different systems. This feature allows us to make a systematic study of the effect of the variation in the parameters on the thermodynamic properties of this system. We analyze single phase properties at different conditions of density and temperature, and vapor-liquid phase diagrams for several values of the reduced inverse screening length parameter within the interval kappa( *)=0.1-5.0. The theoretical predictions are compared with available and new Monte Carlo simulation data. Good agreement is found for most of the cases and better predictions are found for the long-range ones. The Yukawa potential is an example of a family of hard-core plus a tail (attractive or repulsive) function that asymptotically goes to zero as the separations between particles increase. We would expect that similar results could be found for other potentials with these characteristics.

  2. Lifestyle Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kilani, Hashem; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Waly, Mostafa I.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyle habits—physical activity (PA), eating habits (EH), and sleep duration (SD)—of Omani adolescents, and to examine gender differences in such variables. Methods: 802 Omani adolescents (442 females and 360 males), aged 15–18 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometric indices, PA level, and EH and SD were evaluated by the Arab Teenage Lifestyle questionnaire. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment was also administered. Results: The results showed that although the study subjects had a sedentary lifestyle (lack of PA, average of 6.7 hours sleep, and consumption of high calorie foods), they maintained a normal body mass (less than 25 Kg/m2). Males were more than twice as active as females. With respect to EH, there were few gender differences, except in dairy and meat consumption where 62.5% and 55.5% of males consumed more than 3 servings, respectively, compared to 18.78 % and 35.2% of females, respectively. In addition, waist/height ratio, height, reasons for being active, energy drinks, potato consumption, eating sweets, vigorous PA and breakfast EHs were statistically significant independent predictors for BMI, P <0.05 for both males and females. Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of sedentary behaviors and a low level of physical activity, especially among females. Unhealthy dietary habits were also widely found among both genders. There is an urgent need for more research as well as a national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and discouraging sedentary behaviour among Omani adolescents. PMID:24273660

  3. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kleinjan, Marloes; van Straaten, Barbara; Wits, Elske; Snelleman, Michelle; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-02-18

    In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or 'pros and cons') of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers. We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and cons in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires. Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and cons of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight. Although the perceived pros and cons of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and cons of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the 'Distorted Mirror Hypothesis'.

  4. Hardening and the hard-core smoker: concepts, evidence, and implications.

    PubMed

    Warner, Kenneth E; Burns, David M

    2003-02-01

    A nascent debate pits researchers who believe that hard-core smokers are coming to dominate the remaining population of smokers against others who perceive the hardening of the target as a far more distant concern. At stake is the future emphasis of tobacco control: should we alter the current allocation of resources between treatment of individual smokers and modification of the psychosocial environment through public education and policy measures? We review the evidence and conclude that: (1) hardening is probably occurring in the sense that, compared with earlier generations, many of today's smokers possibly do have greater difficulty quitting, or are inherently less willing to do so. (2) Hardening may be most usefully construed in the context of specific groups of smokers, such as the mentally ill, who may constitute a growing fraction of the remaining smoking population. (3) Using conventional measures, however, we find little evidence that the population of smokers as a whole is hardening. Cessation rates have not decreased. (4) Truly hard-core smokers necessarily constitute a very small fraction of the population. Quitting-susceptible smokers continue to dominate the smoking population. (5) Hardening and the potential existence of true hard-core smokers recommend creative thinking about, and devotion of resources to, finding new ways to help the most dependent smokers to quit. (6) Sound research recommends the expansion of comprehensive tobacco-control programs in both the public and private sectors, and does not support reallocation of resources from such programs toward more intensive individualized treatment. We can afford both.

  5. Spin wave theory for 2D disordered hard-core bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Zúñiga, Juan Pablo Álvarez; Lemarié, Gabriel; Laflorencie, Nicolas

    2014-08-20

    A spin-wave (SW) approach for hard-core bosons is presented to treat the problem of two dimensional boson localization in a random potential. After a short review of the method to compute 1/S-corrected observables, the case of random on-site energy is discussed. Whereas the mean-field solution does not display a Bose glass (BG) phase, 1/S corrections do capture BG physics. In particular, the localization of SW excitations is discussed through the inverse participation ratio.

  6. Supersolid of hardcore bosons on the face-centered cubic lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Takahumi; Kawashima, Naoki

    2007-05-01

    We investigate a supersolid state in hardcore boson models on the face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice. The supersolid state is characterized by a coexistence of crystalline order and superfluidity. Using a quantum Monte Carlo method based on the directed-loop algorithm, we calculate static structure factors and superfluid density at finite temperature, from which we obtain the phase diagram. The supersolid phase exists at intermediate fillings between a three-quarter-filled solid phase and a half-filled solid phase. We also discuss the mechanism of the supersolid state on the fcc lattice.

  7. The use of external data sources and ratio estimation to improve estimates of hardcore drug use from the NHSDA.

    PubMed

    Wright, D; Gfroerer, J; Epstein, J

    1997-01-01

    Levels of hardcore drug use have been especially difficult to estimate because of the relative rarity of the behavior, the difficulty of locating hardcore drug users, and the tendency to underreport stigmatized behavior. This chapter presents a new application of ratio estimation, combining sample data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) together with population counts of the number of persons arrested in the past year from the Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and the number of persons in drug treatment programs in the past year from the National Drug and Alcoholism Treatment Unit Survey (NDATUS). The population counts serve as a benchmark accounting for undercoverage and underreporting of hard drug users.

  8. Inhomogeneous hard-core bosonic mixture with checkerboard supersolid phase: Quantum and thermal phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydarinasab, F.; Abouie, J.

    2017-09-01

    We introduce an inhomogeneous bosonic mixture composed of two kinds of hard-core and semi-hard-core bosons with different nilpotency conditions and demonstrate that in contrast with the standard hard-core Bose-Hubbard model, our bosonic mixture with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions on a square lattice develops the checkerboard supersolid phase characterized by the simultaneous superfluid and checkerboard solid orders. Our bosonic mixture is created from a two-orbital Bose-Hubbard model including two kinds of bosons: a single-orbital boson and a two-orbital boson. By mapping the bosonic mixture to an anisotropic inhomogeneous spin model in the presence of a magnetic field, we study the ground-state phase diagram of the model by means of cluster mean field theory and linear spin-wave theory and show that various phases such as solid, superfluid, supersolid, and Mott insulator appear in the phase diagram of the mixture. Competition between the interactions and magnetic field causes the mixture to undergo different kinds of first- and second-order phase transitions. By studying the behavior of the spin-wave excitations, we find the reasons of all first- and second-order phase transitions. We also obtain the temperature phase diagram of the system using cluster mean field theory. We show that the checkerboard supersolid phase persists at finite temperature comparable with the interaction energies of bosons.

  9. A Group Orientation Approach for Facilitating the Work of Adjustment of the Hard-Core Unemployed. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Hjalmar; Teahan, John E.

    The major objective of this project was to achieve a lasting integration of Negro hard-core unemployed men in an ongoing corporate work force. It was intended to develop values necessary for successful employment, particularly with regard to regularity of attendance, punctuality, conformity to work rules and regulations, and motivation to accept…

  10. A Group Orientation Approach for Facilitating the Work of Adjustment of the Hard-Core Unemployed. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Hjalmar; Teahan, John E.

    The major objective of this project was to achieve a lasting integration of Negro hard-core unemployed men in an ongoing corporate work force. It was intended to develop values necessary for successful employment, particularly with regard to regularity of attendance, punctuality, conformity to work rules and regulations, and motivation to accept…

  11. A thermodynamic self-consistent theory of asymmetric hard-core Yukawa mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicane, Giuseppe; Caccamo, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    We perform structural and thermodynamic calculations in the framework of the modified hypernetted chain (MHNC) integral equation closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equation for binary mixtures of size-different particles interacting with hard-core Yukawa pair potentials. We use the Percus-Yevick (PY) bridge functions of a binary mixture of hard-sphere (HSM) particles. The hard-sphere diameters of the PY bridge functions of the HSM system are adjusted so to achieve thermodynamic consistency between the virial and compressibility equations of state. We show the benefit of thermodynamic consistency by comparing the MHNC results with the available computer simulation data reported in the literature, and we demonstrate that the self-consistent thermodynamic theory provides a better reproduction of the simulation data over other microscopic theories.

  12. New scenarios for hard-core interactions in a hadron resonance gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satarov, L. M.; Vovchenko, V.; Alba, P.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Stoecker, H.

    2017-02-01

    The equation of state of baryon-symmetric hadronic matter with hard-sphere interactions is studied. It is assumed that mesons M are pointlike, but baryons B and antibaryons B ¯ have the same hard-core radius rB. Three possibilities are considered: (1) the B B and B B ¯ interactions are the same; (2) baryons do not interact with antibaryons; (3) the B B ¯ , M B , and M B ¯ interactions are negligible. By choosing the parameter rB=0.3 -0.6 fm, we calculate the nucleon to pion ratio as a function of temperature and perform the fit of hadron yields measured in central Pb+Pb collisions at √{sN N}=2.76 TeV . New nontrivial effects in the interacting hadron resonance gas at temperatures 150 -200 MeV are found.

  13. Meaningful timescales from Monte Carlo simulations of particle systems with hard-core interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Liborio I.

    2016-12-01

    A new Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for simulating the dynamics of particle systems characterized by hard-core interactions is introduced. In contrast to traditional Kinetic Monte Carlo approaches, where the state of the system is associated with minima in the energy landscape, in the proposed method, the state of the system is associated with the set of paths traveled by the atoms and the transition probabilities for an atom to be displaced are proportional to the corresponding velocities. In this way, the number of possible state-to-state transitions is reduced to a discrete set, and a direct link between the Monte Carlo time step and true physical time is naturally established. The resulting rejection-free algorithm is validated against event-driven molecular dynamics: the equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics of hard disks converge to the exact results with decreasing displacement size.

  14. Meaningful timescales from Monte Carlo simulations of particle systems with hard-core interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Liborio I.

    2016-12-01

    A new Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for simulating the dynamics of particle systems characterized by hard-core interactions is introduced. In contrast to traditional Kinetic Monte Carlo approaches, where the state of the system is associated with minima in the energy landscape, in the proposed method, the state of the system is associated with the set of paths traveled by the atoms and the transition probabilities for an atom to be displaced are proportional to the corresponding velocities. In this way, the number of possible state-to-state transitions is reduced to a discrete set, and a direct link between the Monte Carlo time step and true physical time is naturally established. The resulting rejection-free algorithm is validated against event-driven molecular dynamics: the equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics of hard disks converge to the exact results with decreasing displacement size.

  15. Dynamics of localization phenomena for hard-core bosons in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Horstmann, Birger; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2007-10-15

    We investigate the behavior of ultracold bosons in optical lattices with a disorder potential generated via a secondary species frozen in random configurations. The statistics of disorder is associated with the physical state in which the secondary species is prepared. The resulting random potential, albeit displaying algebraic correlations, is found to lead to localization of all single-particle states. We then investigate the real-time dynamics of localization for a hardcore gas of mobile bosons which are brought into sudden interaction with the random potential. Regardless of their initial state and for any disorder strength, the mobile particles are found to reach a steady state characterized by exponentially decaying off-diagonal correlations and by the absence of quasicondensation; when the mobile particles are initially confined in a tight trap and then released in the disorder potential, their expansion is stopped and the steady state is exponentially localized in real space, clearly revealing Anderson localization.

  16. Superfluid to Mott insulator transition of hardcore bosons in a superlattice

    SciTech Connect

    Hen, Itay; Rigol, Marcos

    2009-10-01

    We study the superfluid to Mott-insulator transition of hardcore bosons in commensurate superlattices in two and three dimensions. We focus on the special case where the superlattice has period two and the system is at half-filling. We obtain numerical results by using the stochastic series expansion algorithm, and compute various properties of the system, such as the ground-state energy, the density of bosons in the zero-momentum mode, the superfluid density, and the compressibility. We employ finite-size scaling to extrapolate the thermodynamic limit, and find the critical points of the phase transition. We also explore the extent to which several approximate solutions such as mean-field theory, with and without spin-wave corrections, can help one gain analytical insight into the behavior of the system in the vicinity of the phase transition.

  17. A Two-Year Study of Hard-Core Unemployed Clerical Workers: Effects of Scholastic Achievement, Clerical Skill, and Self-Esteem on Job Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    This study was designed to longitudinally assess the predictive validity and the nature of the relationships of scholastic achievement, clerical skill, and social self-esteem with the job success of hard-core unemployed clerical workers. (Author/RK)

  18. Hardcore drinking drivers and other contributors to the alcohol-impaired driving problem: need for a comprehensive approach.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allan F; McCartt, Anne T; Ferguson, Susan A

    2007-03-01

    Understanding the hardcore drinking driver concept in the context of the alcohol-impaired driving problem. Review of the relevant literature. As progress against alcohol-impaired driving slowed in the early 1990s, public and political attention turned to "hardcore" drinking drivers, and they have been a priority for the past 15 years. Though intuitive, the hardcore concept has been difficult to conceptualize. Its definition of hard-to-change chronic heavy drinking drivers focuses on a group that is not easily identifiable and ignores many who account for a large portion of alcohol-impaired driving crashes. These include drivers who drink heavily on occasion and drivers who drink at more moderate levels that elevate crash risk. Emphasis on the hardcore has focused attention on the small proportion of drinking drivers who have been detected and arrested, whereas the vast majority of drinking drivers go undetected. Some countermeasures aimed at the hardcore group have been effective in reducing recidivism, but attention and resources also need to be given to general deterrent initiatives (e.g., 0.08 g/dL, sobriety checkpoints, administrative license suspension). There has been no reduction in the overall alcohol-impaired driving problem since the mid-1990s. Reductions in the alcohol-impaired driving problem require that attention be focused on all relevant target groups. Some benefits could accrue by recognizing that countermeasures developed for hardcore drinking drivers, such as alcohol ignition interlocks and vehicle or plate impoundment, might also be effective with more numerous first-time offenders. However, such strategies are likely to be most effective against recidivism (specific deterrence). Greater gains could be achieved through general deterrent efforts (increasing the real and perceived risk of arrest and punishment to all drinking drivers), along with application of public health measures designed to reduce overall consumption. Additional ways need to

  19. Reflections on Canadian Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Elford, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Lifestyle is defined in terms of a culture's view of five basic human dilemmas. A comparison of the Canadian and Rwandese cultures suggests that our lifestyle pattern has generated many of our present physical and mental health problems.

  20. Phase diagram and surface tension of the hard-core attractive Yukawa model of variable range: Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Duda, Yurko; Romero-Martínez, Ascención; Orea, Pedro

    2007-06-14

    The liquid-vapor phase diagram and surface tension for hard-core Yukawa potential with 4

  1. Structure and thermodynamics of hard-core Yukawa fluids: Thermodynamic perturbation approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Soon-Chul; Seong, Baek-Seok

    2011-07-01

    The thermodynamic perturbation theories, which are based on the power series of a coupling constant (λ-expansion), have been proposed for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of a hard-core Yukawa (HCY) fluid: one (A1-approximation) is the perturbation theory based on the hard-sphere repulsion as a reference system. The other (A2-approximation) is the perturbation theory based on the reference system which incorporates both the repulsive and short-range attractive interactions. The first-order mean-spherical approximation (FMSA) provided by Tang and Lu [J. Chem. Phys. 99, 9828 (1993)], 10.1063/1.465465 has been employed for investigating the thermodynamic properties of a HCY fluid using the alternative method via the direct correlation function. The calculated results show that (i) the A1 and A2 approximations are in excellent agreements with previous computer simulation results in the literature and compare with the semi-empirical works of Shukla including the higher-order free energy terms, (ii) the A1 and A2 approximations are better than the FMSA and the mean-spherical approximation, (iii) the A2-approximation compares with the A1-approximation, even though the perturbation effect of an A2-approximation is much smaller than that of an A1-approximation, and that (iv) the FMSA study is particularly of advantage in providing the structure and thermodynamics in a simple and analytic manner.

  2. Decoherence in models for hard-core bosons coupled to optical phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, A.; Lone, M. Q.; Yarlagadda, S.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding coherent dynamics of excitons, spins, or hard-core bosons (HCBs) has tremendous scientific and technological implications for quantum computation. Here, we study decay of excited-state population and decoherence in two models for HCBs, namely, a two-site HCB model with site-dependent strong potentials and subject to non-Markovian dynamics and an infinite-range HCB model governed by Markovian dynamics. Both models are investigated in the regimes of antiadiabaticity and strong HCB-phonon coupling with each site providing a different local optical phonon environment; furthermore, the HCB systems in both models are taken to be initially uncorrelated with the environment in the polaronic frame of reference. In the case of the two-site HCB model, we show clearly that the degree of decoherence and decay of excited state are enhanced by the proximity of the site-energy difference to the eigenenergy of phonons and are most pronounced when the site-energy difference is at resonance with twice the polaronic energy; additionally, the decoherence and the decay effects are reduced when the strength of HCB-phonon coupling is increased. For the infinite-range model, when the site energies are the same, we derive an effective many-body Hamiltonian that commutes with the long-range system Hamiltonian and thus has the same set of eigenstates; consequently, a quantum-master-equation approach shows that the quantum states of the system do not decohere.

  3. Theory and computer simulation of hard-core Yukawa mixtures: thermodynamical, structural and phase coexistence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkanya, Anele; Pellicane, Giuseppe; Pini, Davide; Caccamo, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    We report extensive calculations, based on the modified hypernetted chain (MHNC) theory, on the hierarchical reference theory (HRT), and on Monte Carlo simulations, of thermodynamical, structural and phase coexistence properties of symmetric binary hard-core Yukawa mixtures (HCYM) with attractive interactions at equal species concentration. The obtained results are throughout compared with those available in the literature for the same systems. It turns out that the MHNC predictions for thermodynamic and structural quantities are quite accurate in comparison with the MC data. The HRT is equally accurate for thermodynamics, and slightly less accurate for structure. Liquid-vapor (LV) and liquid-liquid (LL) consolute coexistence conditions as emerging from simulations, are also highly satisfactorily reproduced by both the MHNC and HRT for relatively long ranged potentials. When the potential range reduces, the MHNC faces problems in determining the LV binodal line; however, the LL consolute line and the critical end point (CEP) temperature and density turn out to be still satisfactorily predicted within this theory. The HRT also predicts with good accuracy the CEP position. The possibility of employing liquid state theories HCYM for the purpose of reliably determining phase equilibria in multicomponent colloidal fluids of current technological interest, is discussed.

  4. Phase behavior of hard-core lattice gases: A fundamental measure approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, Luis; Cuesta, José A.

    2003-11-01

    We use an extension of fundamental measure theory to lattice hard-core fluids to study the phase diagram of two different systems. First, two-dimensional parallel hard squares with edge-length σ=2 in a simple square lattice. This system is equivalent to the lattice gas with first and second neighbor exclusion in the same lattice, and has the peculiarity that its close packing is degenerated (the system orders in sliding columns). A comparison with other theories is discussed. Second, a three-dimensional binary mixture of parallel hard cubes with σL=6 and σS=2. Previous simulations of this model only focused on fluid phases. Thanks to the simplicity introduced by the discrete nature of the lattice we have been able to map out the complete phase diagram (both uniform and nonuniform phases) through a free minimization of the free energy functional, so the structure of the ordered phases is obtained as a result. A zoo of entropy-driven phase transitions is found: one-, two- and three-dimensional positional ordering, as well as fluid-ordered phase and solid-solid demixings.

  5. Structure and thermodynamics of hard-core Yukawa fluids: thermodynamic perturbation approaches.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Soon-Chul; Seong, Baek-Seok

    2011-07-21

    The thermodynamic perturbation theories, which are based on the power series of a coupling constant (λ-expansion), have been proposed for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of a hard-core Yukawa (HCY) fluid: one (A1-approximation) is the perturbation theory based on the hard-sphere repulsion as a reference system. The other (A2-approximation) is the perturbation theory based on the reference system which incorporates both the repulsive and short-range attractive interactions. The first-order mean-spherical approximation (FMSA) provided by Tang and Lu [J. Chem. Phys. 99, 9828 (1993)] has been employed for investigating the thermodynamic properties of a HCY fluid using the alternative method via the direct correlation function. The calculated results show that (i) the A1 and A2 approximations are in excellent agreements with previous computer simulation results in the literature and compare with the semi-empirical works of Shukla including the higher-order free energy terms, (ii) the A1 and A2 approximations are better than the FMSA and the mean-spherical approximation, (iii) the A2-approximation compares with the A1-approximation, even though the perturbation effect of an A2-approximation is much smaller than that of an A1-approximation, and that (iv) the FMSA study is particularly of advantage in providing the structure and thermodynamics in a simple and analytic manner.

  6. Staircase of crystal phases of hard-core bosons on the kagome lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerga, Daniel; Capponi, Sylvain; Dukelsky, Jorge; Ortiz, Gerardo

    2016-10-01

    We study the quantum phase diagram of a system of hard-core bosons on the kagome lattice with nearest-neighbor repulsive interactions, for arbitrary densities, by means of the hierarchical mean-field theory and exact diagonalization techniques. This system is isomorphic to the spin S =1 /2 XXZ model in presence of an external magnetic field, a paradigmatic example of frustrated quantum magnetism. In the nonfrustrated regime, we find two crystal phases at densities 1/3 and 2/3 that melt into a superfluid phase when increasing the hopping amplitude, in semiquantitative agreement with quantum Monte Carlo computations. In the frustrated regime and away from half-filling, we find a series of plateaux with densities commensurate with powers of 1/3. The broader density plateaux (at densities 1/3 and 2/3) are remnants of the classical degeneracy in the Ising limit. For densities near half-filling, this staircase of crystal phases melts into a superfluid, which displays finite chiral currents when computed with clusters having an odd number of sites. Both the staircase of crystal phases and the superfluid phase prevail in the noninteracting limit, suggesting that the lowest dispersionless single-particle band may be at the root of this phenomenon.

  7. Multiple phase transitions in extended hard-core lattice gas models in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Nath, Trisha; Rajesh, R

    2014-07-01

    We study the k-NN hard-core lattice gas model in which the first k next-nearest-neighbor sites of a particle are excluded from occupation by other particles on a two-dimensional square lattice. This model is the lattice version of the hard-disk system with increasing k corresponding to decreasing lattice spacing. While the hard-disk system is known to undergo a two-step freezing process with increasing density, the lattice model has been known to show only one transition. Here, based on Monte Carlo simulations and high-density expansions of the free energy and density, we argue that for k = 4,10,11,14,⋯, the lattice model undergoes multiple transitions with increasing density. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm the same for k = 4,...,11. This, in turn, resolves an existing puzzle as to why the 4-NN model has a continuous transition against the expectation of a first-order transition.

  8. Hardcore drug users claim to be occasional users: drug use frequency underreporting.

    PubMed

    Morral, A R; McCaffrey, D; Iguchi, M Y

    2000-01-01

    Self-reports of drug use frequency are central to treatment outcome evaluations, estimates of the prevalence of heavy use, estimates of treatment need, and other questions with direct relevance to drug policies. Nevertheless, surprisingly little is known about the validity of these self-reports. This study examines the accuracy of 701 frequency self-reports made by a sample of methadone maintenance clients. Self-report accuracy is evaluated by comparing rates of positive urinalyses found for each case with rates that would be expected had drug use occurred only as often as reported. Expected rates of positive urinalyses are derived from conservative Monte Carlo models of drug use for each case. This procedure reveals extensive heroin and cocaine use frequency underreporting. After adjusting for frequency underreporting, 51% of 279 cases reporting only occasional heroin use (1-10 days in the past 30), and 22% of the 157 cases reporting occasional cocaine use, are found to be using these drugs with frequencies corresponding to what the Office of National Drug Control Policy defines as 'hardcore use' (more than 10 days in the past 30). Drug use frequency underreporting appears substantial, and might constitute an important threat to the validity of some treatment outcome evaluations, needs assessments and other analyses that rely on drug use frequency self-reports.

  9. [Lifestyle drugs in medicine].

    PubMed

    Harth, Wolfgang; Seikowski, Kurt; Hermes, Barbara; Gieler, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Lifestyle drugs have become an important new group of medications, which are taken by healthy people to increase the individual well-being and quality of life. Nootropics, psychopharmaceuticals, hormones and "ecodrugs" are today the main groups. The wish for eternal youth, beauty and potency is central, and lifestyle medications are also requested to influence cosmetic findings, which are usually simply a result of the natural aging process. Lifestyle drugs seem to be harmless, but the physician must pay attention to possible abuse, side effects, risks and complications. Additionally, however, lifestyle drugs are also frequently used by patients suffering from emotional disorders such as somatoform disorders. Medicalization of physiological life is then expected to solve psychosocial problems, but without success. The use of lifestyle medications in somatoform disorders is contraindicated and psychotherapy or psychopharmacological treatment come first. With this overview article, we would like to make an update of new lifestyle drugs.

  10. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

  11. Lifestyle and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…

  12. Epigenetics and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Baccarelli, Andrea; Bollati, Valentina

    2011-06-01

    The concept of 'lifestyle' includes different factors such as nutrition, behavior, stress, physical activity, working habits, smoking and alcohol consumption. Increasing evidence shows that environmental and lifestyle factors may influence epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and miRNA expression. It has been identified that several lifestyle factors such as diet, obesity, physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, environmental pollutants, psychological stress and working on night shifts might modify epigenetic patterns. Most of the studies conducted so far have been centered on DNA methylation, whereas only a few investigations have studied lifestyle factors in relation to histone modifications and miRNAs. This article reviews current evidence indicating that lifestyle factors might affect human health via epigenetic mechanisms.

  13. Comment on 'Motion of an impurity particle in an ultracold quasi-one-dimensional gas of hard-core bosons'

    SciTech Connect

    Giraud, S.; Combescot, R.

    2010-09-15

    Very recently Girardeau and Minguzzi [Phys. Rev. A 79, 033610 (2009)] have studied an impurity in a one-dimensional gas of hard-core bosons. In particular they dealt with the general case where the mass of the impurity is different from the mass of the bosons and the impurity-boson interaction is not necessarily infinitely repulsive. We show that one of their initial steps is unjustified, contradicting known exact results. Their results in the general case apply only actually when the mass of the impurity is infinite.

  14. A variational approach to the liquid-vapor phase transition for hardcore ions in the bulk and in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubet, Bastien; Manghi, Manoel; Palmeri, John

    2016-07-01

    We employ a field-theoretical variational approach to study the behavior of ionic solutions in the grand canonical ensemble. To describe properly the hardcore interactions between ions, we use a cutoff in Fourier space for the electrostatic contribution of the grand potential and the Carnahan-Starling equation of state with a modified chemical potential for the pressure one. We first calibrate our method by comparing its predictions at room temperature with Monte Carlo results for excess chemical potential and energy. We then validate our approach in the bulk phase by describing the classical "ionic liquid-vapor" phase transition induced by ionic correlations at low temperature, before applying it to electrolytes at room temperature confined to nanopores embedded in a low dielectric medium and coupled to an external reservoir of ions. The ionic concentration in the nanopore is then correctly described from very low bulk concentrations, where dielectric exclusion shifts the transition up to room temperature for sufficiently tight nanopores, to high concentrations where hardcore interactions dominate which, as expected, modify only slightly this ionic "capillary evaporation."

  15. A variational approach to the liquid-vapor phase transition for hardcore ions in the bulk and in nanopores.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Bastien; Manghi, Manoel; Palmeri, John

    2016-07-28

    We employ a field-theoretical variational approach to study the behavior of ionic solutions in the grand canonical ensemble. To describe properly the hardcore interactions between ions, we use a cutoff in Fourier space for the electrostatic contribution of the grand potential and the Carnahan-Starling equation of state with a modified chemical potential for the pressure one. We first calibrate our method by comparing its predictions at room temperature with Monte Carlo results for excess chemical potential and energy. We then validate our approach in the bulk phase by describing the classical "ionic liquid-vapor" phase transition induced by ionic correlations at low temperature, before applying it to electrolytes at room temperature confined to nanopores embedded in a low dielectric medium and coupled to an external reservoir of ions. The ionic concentration in the nanopore is then correctly described from very low bulk concentrations, where dielectric exclusion shifts the transition up to room temperature for sufficiently tight nanopores, to high concentrations where hardcore interactions dominate which, as expected, modify only slightly this ionic "capillary evaporation."

  16. Epigenetics and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Baccarelli, Andrea; Bollati, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The concept of “lifestyle” includes different factors such as nutrition, behavior, stress, physical activity, working habits, smoking and alcohol consumption. Increasing evidence shows that environmental and lifestyle factors may influence epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and microRNA expression. Several lifestyle factors have been identified that might modify epigenetic patterns, such as diet, obesity, physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, environmental pollutants, psychological stress, and working on night shifts. Most studies conducted so far have been centered on DNA methylation, whereas only a few investigations have studied lifestyle factors in relation to histone modifications and miRNAs. Here, we review current evidence indicating that lifestyle factors might affect human health via epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:22122337

  17. Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol Updated:Sep 26,2016 As part of a ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  18. Lifestyle medicine for depression.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; O'Neil, Adrienne; Coulson, Carolyn E; Schweitzer, Isaac; Berk, Michael

    2014-04-10

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated

  19. Lifestyle medicine for depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. “Lifestyle Medicine” provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still

  20. Mitigation of cache memory using an embedded hard-core PPC440 processor in a Virtex-5 Field Programmable Gate Array.

    SciTech Connect

    Learn, Mark Walter

    2010-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing new processing and data communication architectures for use in future satellite payloads. These architectures will leverage the flexibility and performance of state-of-the-art static-random-access-memory-based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). One such FPGA is the radiation-hardened version of the Virtex-5 being developed by Xilinx. However, not all features of this FPGA are being radiation-hardened by design and could still be susceptible to on-orbit upsets. One such feature is the embedded hard-core PPC440 processor. Since this processor is implemented in the FPGA as a hard-core, traditional mitigation approaches such as Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) are not available to improve the processor's on-orbit reliability. The goal of this work is to investigate techniques that can help mitigate the embedded hard-core PPC440 processor within the Virtex-5 FPGA other than TMR. Implementing various mitigation schemes reliably within the PPC440 offers a powerful reconfigurable computing resource to these node-based processing architectures. This document summarizes the work done on the cache mitigation scheme for the embedded hard-core PPC440 processor within the Virtex-5 FPGAs, and describes in detail the design of the cache mitigation scheme and the testing conducted at the radiation effects facility on the Texas A&M campus.

  1. Effectively Employing the Hard-Core. (An Aid to Companies Joining the Growing Effort of Industry to Help Resolve Basic Social Problems).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Manufacturers, New York, NY. Urban Affairs Div.

    Recently, members of the research staff of the Urban Affairs Division of the National Association of Manufacturers traveled around the country and met with key company representatives responsible for their organizations' on-going hard-core employment programs. This document reports, in synthesized form, the information gained about effective…

  2. Lifestyles of plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roossinck, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of well-characterized eukaryotic viruses are those that cause acute or chronic infections in humans and domestic plants and animals. However, asymptomatic persistent viruses have been described in animals, and are thought to be sources for emerging acute viruses. Although not previously described in these terms, there are also many viruses of plants that maintain a persistent lifestyle. They have been largely ignored because they do not generally cause disease. The persistent viruses in plants belong to the family Partitiviridae or the genus Endornavirus. These groups also have members that infect fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the partitivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes suggests that these viruses have been transmitted between plants and fungi. Additional families of viruses traditionally thought to be fungal viruses are also found frequently in plants, and may represent a similar scenario of persistent lifestyles, and some acute or chronic viruses of crop plants may maintain a persistent lifestyle in wild plants. Persistent, chronic and acute lifestyles of plant viruses are contrasted from both a functional and evolutionary perspective, and the potential role of these lifestyles in host evolution is discussed. PMID:20478885

  3. Interacting hard-core bosons with anisotropic hopping: Checkerboard supersolid, order by disorder, and first-order phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Xiao; Cui, Yong-Yong; Wang, Dali; Lv, Jian-Ping

    2017-02-01

    Using extensive quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we study a minimum model of interacting hard-core bosons on a square lattice with hoppings of different lengths, featuring nearest-neighbor hopping (t1), anisotropic next-nearest-neighbor hopping (t2'), and nearest-neighbor repulsion (V1). The paradigmatic checkerboard supersolid (CSS) phase emerges as t2' turns on, with the solid order being characterized by ordering vector q =(π ,π ) . This serves as a rare example of the CSS phase which is obtained by doping a checkerboard solid and harbors spontaneously broken gauge and translational symmetries. A first-order supersolid-to-superfluid transition is observed. Moreover, we find a solid order-by-thermal disorder behavior together with a superfluid-to-solid transition upon increasing temperature. The underlying picture of the order-by-disorder phenomenon is figured out within the framework of the entropy effect.

  4. Expansion dynamics in a one-dimensional hard-core boson model with three-body interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jie; Wu, Yin-Zhong; Xu, Xue-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Using the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method, we numerically investigate the expansion dynamics of bosons in a one-dimensional hard-core boson model with three-body interactions. It is found that the bosons expand ballistically with weak interaction, which are obtained by local density and the radius Rn. It is shown that the expansion velocity V, obtained from Rn = Vt, is dependent on the number of bosons. As a prominent result, the expansion velocity decreases with the enhancement of three-body interaction. We further study the dynamics of the system, which quenches from the ground state with two-thirds filling, the results indicate the expansion is also ballistic in the gapless phase regime. It could help us detect the phase transition in the system. PMID:26435319

  5. Unusual Domain Structure and Filamentary Superfluidity for 2D Hard-Core Bosons in Insulating Charge-Ordered Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, Yu. D.; Moskvin, A. S.; Rybakov, F. N.; Borisov, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    We made use of a special algorithm for compute unified device architecture for NVIDIA graphics cards, a nonlinear conjugate-gradient method to minimize energy functional, and Monte-Carlo technique to directly observe the forming of the ground state configuration for the 2D hard-core bosons by lowering the temperature and its evolution with deviation away from half-filling. The novel technique allowed us to examine earlier implications and uncover novel features of the phase transitions, in particular, look upon the nucleation of the odd domain structure, emergence of filamentary superfluidity nucleated at the antiphase domain walls of the charge-ordered phase, and nucleation and evolution of different topological structures.

  6. Child Lifestyles Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of parental attitudes, socio-economic status and gender in determining the predictors of child lifestyles. The study group consists of three hundred and fifty (350) eighth grade students studying in the province of Erzincan during the 2012-2013 academic year; the students are selected by…

  7. Child Lifestyles Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of parental attitudes, socio-economic status and gender in determining the predictors of child lifestyles. The study group consists of three hundred and fifty (350) eighth grade students studying in the province of Erzincan during the 2012-2013 academic year; the students are selected by…

  8. Lifestyle and youthful looks.

    PubMed

    Gunn, D A; Dick, J L; van Heemst, D; Griffiths, C E M; Tomlin, C C; Murray, P G; Griffiths, T W; Ogden, S; Mayes, A E; Westendorp, R G J; Slagboom, P E; de Craen, A J M

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle has been proven to have a dramatic effect on the risk of age-related diseases. The association of lifestyle and facial ageing has been less well studied. To identify lifestyle factors that associate with perceived facial age in white north European men and women. Lifestyle, facial wrinkling and perceived facial age were studied in two cross-sectional studies consisting of 318 Dutch men and 329 women aged 45-75 years who were part of the Leiden Longevity Study, and 162 English women aged 45-75 years who were nonsmokers. In Dutch men, smoking, having skin that went red in the sun, being outside in the sun most of the summer, sunbed use, wearing false teeth and not flossing teeth were all significantly associated (P < 0·05) with a total 9·3-year higher perceived facial age in a multivariate model adjusting for chronological age. In Dutch women, smoking, sunbathing, sunbed use, few remaining teeth and a low body mass index (BMI) were associated with a total 10·9-year higher perceived facial age. In English women, cleaning teeth only once a day, wearing false teeth, irregular skin moisturization and having skin that went red in the sun were associated with a total 9·1-year higher perceived facial age. Smoking and sunbed use were associated more strongly with wrinkling in women than in men. BMI, sun exposure and skincare were associated predominantly with perceived facial age via wrinkling, whereas oral care was associated via other facial features. Although associative in nature, these results support the notion that lifestyle factors can have long-term beneficial effects on youthful looks. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Simple analytic equations of state for hard-core single and double Yukawa fluids and mixtures based on second-order Barker-Henderson perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Jiuxun, Sun

    2003-12-01

    A simple analytic expression with high precision for the radial distribution function of hard spheres is proposed. The form of the expression has been carefully selected to combine the well-known Camahan-Starling equation of state in it and satisfy the limit condition at low density, its simplicity and precision is superior to the well-known Percus-Yevick expression. The coefficients contained in the expression have been determined by fitting the Monte Carlo data for the first coordination shell, and by fitting both the Monte Carlo data and the numerical results of the Percus-Yevick expression for the second coordination shell. The expression has been applied to develop simple analytic equations of state for the hard-core single, double Yukawa fluids, and the hard-core Yukawa mixtures. The comparisons show that the agreement of our model with the computer simulation data is slightly better than the mean spherical approximation and other analytic models.

  10. Alternate dietary lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Krey, S H

    1982-09-01

    Various forms of vegetarian diets are discussed and evaluated for their nutritional adequacy. Health, philosophical, religious, ecological, and economic concerns are suggested as possible reasons for these alternate dietary lifestyles. Nutrients of specific concern ot the vegetarian are highlighted and suggestions given to help incorporate these in the diet, thereby avoiding marginal intakes. With judicious menu planning and careful thought to food selections, most vegetarian diets can supply excellent nutrition. Very restricted vegetarian diets or higher level macrobiotic diets may not be nutritionally complete, and individuals following these diets may benefit from special dietary counseling and dietary supplementation. Otherwise, these diets may place the adult as well as pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children at a nutritional risk. As vegetarian food habits are becoming more widespread, physicians and nutritionists must be knowledgeable about these alternate dietary lifestyles in order to counsel their patients appropriately, to understand the reasons for these eating habits, and to be supportive of the choice of diet.

  11. [Stroke - lifestyle and environment].

    PubMed

    Gerischer, L M; Flöel, A; Endres, M

    2015-08-01

    Lifestyle modifications and environmental factors are important for stroke prevention and rehabilitation after stroke. The individual stroke risk may be modified by factors like physical activity, body weight and nutrition, special dietary supplements such as vitamins, smoking, consumption of tea, coffee and alcohol, psychological factors and by keeping a pet. The focus of this article lies on measures for stroke prevention. For certain topics, it also comments on factors that are important during rehabilitation after stroke.

  12. Lifestyle influences on prematurity.

    PubMed

    Creasy, R K

    1991-01-01

    It is apparent from this review that the lifestyle of an individual gravida can potentially lead to a premature delivery. Some of these adverse behavioral characteristics may be dealt with by education and motivation, and some with actual medical treatment. However, there also appears to be significant need for public policy reorientation if we are to make a significant impact on the problem of preterm delivery.

  13. Isolation, Characterisation and Antagonistic Activity of Bacteria Symbionts Hardcoral Pavona sp. Isolated from Panjang Island, Jepara Against Infectious Multi-drug Resistant (MDR) Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayuningrum, D.; Kristiana, R.; Asagabaldan, M. A.; Sabdono, A.; Radjasa, O. K.; Nuryadi, H.; Trianto, A.

    2017-02-01

    Pavona sp. is highly spread over Indonesian waters including Panjang Island. Several studies showed that bacteria symbionts hardcoral were the big source of antibiotic product, but there was limited research of the bacteria symbionts with hardcoral Pavona sp. In this research bacteria symbionts from hardcoral Pavona sp. had been collected from Panjang Island, Jepara. Marine bacteria symbionts were isolated by serial dillution method, while antibacterial activity was performed by using overlay and agar block method. The total of 2 from 5 isolates were active to MDR bacteria such as Enterobacter aerogenes and Acinetobacter baumanii, the code were PHC 44/04 and PHC 44/05. Then both of them were identified by morphological and molecular DNA characterization using 16 S rRNA gene sequence. The result of 16 S rRNA identification shows PHC 44/04 has 99% similarities with Virgibacillus salarius strain sa-Vb 1, while PHC 44/05 shows 99% similarities with Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra strain NCIMB 2033.

  14. Study of a model Fermi liquid interacting via a hard-core repulsive potential and an attractive tail

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Tai Kai; Singwi, K.S.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper we present an extensive microscopic study of the collective and single-particle properties of a model Fermi liquid whose particles interact via a repulsive hard-core potential and an attractive tail. The model system is intended to simulate liquid /sup 3/He. The study is based on an approximate scheme of Singwi, Tosi, Land and Sjoelander (STLS) which was devised to treat correlations in Coulomb Fermi liquids. The primary aim of this study is to learn whether the model system is capable of reproducing some of the salient features observed in normal liquid /sup 3/He, and about the role of the repulsive and attractive parts of the potential. We have calculated the Landau parameters F/sub 0//sup s/ and F/sub 0//sup a/ and their variation with pressure, the wave number and pressure dependence of the spin-symmetric and spin-anti-symmetric polarization potentials, pressure dependence of the dispersion of the zero sound, the static structure factors and the quasiparticle mass. Although we make no quantitative claims when comparing our calculations with experiments in real liquid /sup 3/He, we do conclude that our model system within the framework of the STLS scheme can account qualitatively for the latter. Besides, since the theory is microscopic in nature and is parameter free, it has enabled us to understand better the role of the repulsive and the attractive parts of the bare potential in determining the properties of liquid /sup 3/He. 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. On the importance of thermodynamic self-consistency for calculating clusterlike pair correlations in hard-core double Yukawa fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung Min; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón; Liu, Yun; Wagner, Norman J.

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of clustering in colloids, nanoparticles, and proteins is of significant interest in material science and both chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, using an integral equation theory formalism, Bomont et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 184508 (2010)] studied theoretically the temperature dependence, at a fixed density, of the cluster formation in systems where particles interact with a hard-core double Yukawa potential composed of a short-range attraction and a long-range repulsion. In this paper, we provide evidence that the low-q peak in the static structure factor, frequently associated with the formation of clusters, is a common behavior in systems with competing interactions. In particular, we demonstrate that, based on a thermodynamic self-consistency criterion, accurate structural functions are obtained for different choices of closure relations. Moreover, we explore the dependence of the low-q peak on the particle number density, temperature, and potential parameters. Our findings indicate that enforcing thermodynamic self-consistency is the key factor to calculate both thermodynamic properties and static structure factors, including the low-q behavior, for colloidal dispersions with both attractive and repulsive interactions. Additionally, a simple analysis of the mean number of neighboring particles provides a qualitative description of some of the cluster features.

  16. Exact diagonalization study of a half-filled extended hard-core boson model in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Moon; Choi, Hwan Bin; Lee, Yong Woo; Lee, Ji-Woo

    2015-09-01

    We study a model for interacting spinless bosons in one dimension. The bosons are under a hard-core condition, which does not allow two or more bosons in the same site. However, nearestneighbor interactions between bosons ( V) and hoppings to the nearest empty site ( t) are allowed. As V increases from a large negative value, the system undergoes a quantum phase transition from a phase-separation (PS) phase to a superfluid (SF) phase because the hopping term overcomes the attractive energy. When V becomes positive and is increased more, the superfluid phase becomes a charge-density-wave (CDW) phase because the repulsive energy blocks the movements of bosons. Via exact diagonalizations, we calculated the ground-state energies, the correlation energies, and the kinetic energies to obtain signatures of the quantum phase transitions. We adopted a fast stateseeking algorithm that enabled us to calculate the ground states and the ground-state energies up to L = 32 more efficiently. Some results are compared with those of quantum Monte Carlo simulations by using stochastic series expansion for the Heisenberg point, and the momentum distribution functions for the three phases are discussed.

  17. Finite-temperature phase diagram of the three-dimensional hard-core bosonic t-J model

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Yuki; Matsui, Tetsuo; Ishima, Takumi; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Ichinose, Ikuo; Sakakibara, Kazuhiko

    2011-06-15

    We study the three-dimensional bosonic t-J model, that is, the t-J model of 'bosonic electrons' at finite temperatures. This model describes a system of an isotropic antiferromagnet with doped bosonic holes and is closely related to systems of two-component bosons in an optical lattice. The bosonic 'electron' operator B{sub x{sigma}} at the site x with a two-component spin {sigma}(=1,2) is treated as a hard-core boson operator and represented by a composite of two slave particles: a spinon described by a Schwinger boson (CP{sup 1} boson) z{sub x}{sigma} and a holon described by a hard-core-boson field {phi}{sub x} as B{sub x}{sigma}={phi}{sub x}{sup {dagger}}z{sub x}{sigma}. By means of Monte Carlo simulations of this bosonic t-J model, we study its phase structure and the possible phenomena like appearance of antiferromagnetic long-range order, Bose-Einstein condensation, phase separation, etc. Obtained results show that the bosonic t-J model has a phase diagram that suggests some interesting implications for high-temperature superconducting materials.

  18. Chocolate, lifestyle, and health.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Francesco; Bernaert, Herwig; Corti, Roberto; Ferri, Claudio; Heptinstall, Stan; Molinari, Enrico; Poli, Andrea; Serafini, Mauro; Smit, Henk J; Vinson, Joe A; Violi, Francesco; Paoletti, Rodolfo

    2009-04-01

    Interest in the biological activities of cocoa polyphenols is increasing steadily. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa, coupled with its widespread presence in many food items, render this food of particular interest from the nutritional and "pharmacological" viewpoints. This paper summarizes the new findings and developments regarding the effects of cocoa and chocolate consumption on human health as presented at the International Conference "Chocolate, Lifestyle, and Health" (Milan, Italy, March 2, 2007) regarding the effects of cocoa and chocolate consumption on human health.

  19. [Lifestyle and climate change].

    PubMed

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2009-10-26

    The majority of physicians are aware of the urgency of preventing major global warming, and of the global health consequences such warming could bring. Therefore, we should perhaps be more motivated to mitigate these climate changes. The Danish Medical Association should stress the importance of preventing major global climate health disasters, and the need for ambitious international reduction agreements. In our advice and treatment of patients, focus could be on mutually shared strategies comprising mitigation of global warming and changing of life-style habits to improve our general health.

  20. Lifestyle and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    The main behavioural and environmental risk factors for cancer mortality in the world are related to diet and physical inactivity, use of addictive substances, sexual and reproductive health, exposure to air pollution and use of contaminated needles. The population attributable fraction for all cancer sites worldwide considering the joint effect of these factors is about 35% (34 % for low-and middle-income countries and 37% for high-income countries). Seventy-one percent(71%) of lung cancer deaths are caused by tobacco use (lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally). The combined effects of tobacco use, low fruit and vegetable intake, urban air pollution, and indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels cause 76% of lung cancer deaths. Exposure to these behavioural and environmental factors is preventable; modifications in lifestyle could have a large impact in reducing the cancer burden worldwide (WHO, 2009). The evidence of association between lifestyle factors and cancer, as well as the main international recommendations for prevention are briefly reviewed and commented upon here.

  1. Japanese Lifestyle during Childhood Prevents the Future Development of Obesity among Japanese-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Shiwa, Mami; Yoneda, Masayasu; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Oki, Kenji; Yamane, Kiminori; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a Japanese lifestyle during childhood could protect against the future development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases by comparing native Japanese with Japanese-Americans in whom genetic factors are the same. Methods Study subjects were 516 native Japanese and 781 Japanese-Americans who underwent medical examinations between 2007 and 2010. Japanese-Americans were divided into 444 first-generation immigrants (JA-1), who were born in Japan, and 337 second- or later-generation descendants (JA-2), who were born in the United States. The JA-2 group was then divided into the kibei subgroup (N = 79), who had moved to Japan before the age of 18 years and later returned to the United States, and the non-kibei subgroup (N = 258), who had never lived in Japan. Results The JA-2 group had the highest percentages of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes compared with native Japanese and JA-1. Furthermore, among JA-2, the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the kibei subgroup was significantly lower than that in the non-kibei subgroup. The prevalence of diabetes in the kibei subgroup also tended to be lower than in the non-kibei subgroup. Conclusions The prevalence of obesity and metabolic diseases differed with residence in Japan during childhood among Japanese-Americans. These findings indicate the possibility that Japanese lifestyle during childhood could reduce the future risks for obesity-associated metabolic diseases. PMID:25807391

  2. Building Wellness Lifestyles: Counselor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Larry; Ketcham, Michael

    A camp program is described which reflects the Young Men's Christian Association's traditional commitment to the development of the whole person, introducing the development of a "wellness" lifestyle. A wellness lifestyle is described as one that involves living fully and abundantly while recognizing and assuming responsibility for one's…

  3. Building Wellness Lifestyles: Counselor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Larry; Ketcham, Michael

    A camp program is described which reflects the Young Men's Christian Association's traditional commitment to the development of the whole person, introducing the development of a "wellness" lifestyle. A wellness lifestyle is described as one that involves living fully and abundantly while recognizing and assuming responsibility for one's…

  4. Lifestyle index and work ability.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Jegier, Anna

    2006-01-01

    In many countries around the world, negative changes in lifestyles are observed. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of selected lifestyle indicators on work ability among professionally active individuals. The study was performed in the randomly selected group of full-time employees (94 men and 93 women) living in the city of Lódź. Work ability was measured with the work ability index and lifestyle characteristic was assessed with the healthy lifestyle index. We analyzed four lifestyle indicators: non-smoking, healthy weight, fiber intake per day, and regular physical activity. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to control the effects of lifestyle and work ability. The analysis of lifestyle index indicated that 27.7, 30.9, 27.7 and 11.7% of men and 15.1, 21.5, 35.5 and 26.9% of women scored 0, 1, 2, 3 points, respectively. Only 2.1% of men and 1.1% of women met the criteria for the healthy lifestyle (score 4). Work ability was excellent, good and moderate in 38.3, 46.8 and 14.9% of men, and in 39.8, 14.9 and 19.3% of women, respectively. Poor work ability was found in 9.7% women. Work ability was strongly associated with lifestyle in both men and women. Among men with index score = 0, the risk of moderate work ability was nearly seven times higher than in men whose lifestyle index score exceeded 1 or more points (OR = 6.67; 95% CI: 1.94-22.90). Among women with lifestyle index score = 0, the risk of moderate or lower work ability was also highly elevated as compared to those with lifestyle index = 1 or higher (OR = 14.44; 95% CI: 3.53-59.04). Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of lifestyles should be addressed to all adults. Future programs aimed at increasing work ability should consider work- and lifestyle-related factors.

  5. Mapping coexistence lines via free-energy extrapolation: application to order-disorder phase transitions of hard-core mixtures.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, Fernando A

    2014-03-07

    In this work, a variant of the Gibbs-Duhem integration (GDI) method is proposed to trace phase coexistence lines that combines some of the advantages of the original GDI methods such as robustness in handling large system sizes, with the ability of histogram-based methods (but without using histograms) to estimate free-energies and hence avoid the need of on-the-fly corrector schemes. This is done by fitting to an appropriate polynomial function not the coexistence curve itself (as in GDI schemes) but the underlying free-energy function of each phase. The availability of a free-energy model allows the post-processing of the simulated data to obtain improved estimates of the coexistence line. The proposed method is used to elucidate the phase behavior for two non-trivial hard-core mixtures: a binary blend of spheres and cubes and a system of size-polydisperse cubes. The relative size of the spheres and cubes in the first mixture is chosen such that the resulting eutectic pressure-composition phase diagram is nearly symmetric in that the maximum solubility of cubes in the sphere-rich solid (∼20%) is comparable to the maximum solubility of spheres in the cube-rich solid. In the polydisperse cube system, the solid-liquid coexistence line is mapped out for an imposed Gaussian activity distribution, which produces near-Gaussian particle-size distributions in each phase. A terminal polydispersity of 11.3% is found, beyond which the cubic solid phase would not be stable, and near which significant size fractionation between the solid and isotropic phases is predicted.

  6. Phase transitions in the hard-core Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model at non-zero temperatures in the heavy-fermion limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasyuk, I. V.; Krasnov, V. O.

    2017-04-01

    Phase transitions at non-zero temperatures in ultracold Bose- and Fermi-particles mixture in optical lattices using the Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model in the mean field and hard-core boson approximations are investigated. The case of infinitely small fermion transfer and the repulsive on-site boson-fermion interaction is considered. The possibility of change of order (from the 2nd to the 1st one) of the phase transition to the superfluid phase in the regime of fixed values of the chemical potentials of Bose- and Fermi-particles is established. The relevant phase diagrams determining the conditions at which such a change takes place, are built.

  7. Personalized Lifestyle Medicine: Relevance for Nutrition and Lifestyle Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Minich, Deanna M.; Bland, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Public health recommendations for lifestyle modification, including diet and physical activity, have been widely disseminated for the prevention and treatment of disease. These guidelines are intended for the overall population without significant consideration for the individual with respect to one's genes and environment. Personalized lifestyle medicine is a newly developed term that refers to an approach to medicine in which an individual's health metrics from point-of-care diagnostics are used to develop lifestyle medicine-oriented therapeutic strategies for improving individual health outcomes in managing chronic disease. Examples of the application of personalized lifestyle medicine to patient care include the identification of genetic variants through laboratory tests and/or functional biomarkers for the purpose of designing patient-specific prescriptions for diet, exercise, stress, and environment. Personalized lifestyle medicine can provide solutions to chronic health problems by harnessing innovative and evolving technologies based on recent discoveries in genomics, epigenetics, systems biology, life and behavioral sciences, and diagnostics and clinical medicine. A comprehensive, personalized approach to medicine is required to promote the safety of therapeutics and reduce the cost of chronic disease. Personalized lifestyle medicine may provide a novel means of addressing a patient's health by empowering them with information they need to regain control of their health. PMID:23878520

  8. Dandruff: Lifestyle and Home Remedies

    MedlinePlus

    ... management By Mayo Clinic Staff Lifestyle and home remedies In addition to regular shampooing, you can take ... your skin and increases your risk of skin cancer, don't sunbathe. Instead, just spend a little ...

  9. Adolescent Report of Lifestyle Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Elizabeth; Robinson, Alyssa I.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Perrin, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Physician counseling on lifestyle factors has been recommended as one way to help combat the obesity epidemic in the United States. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of lifestyle counseling among healthy weight, overweight, and obese adolescents and determine the contributions of adolescent weight and physical activity. Methods: Self-reported surveys on dietary and physical activity counseling, along with measured height, weight, and physical activity data by accelerometry were collected on 76 adolescents ages 11–14 years. General linear models tested for associations of reported lifestyle counseling by weight category, adjusting for physical activity, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education. Results: Half (47%) of the subjects were overweight or obese. Frequency of lifestyle counseling varied by weight category, with obese adolescents reporting greater amounts of lifestyle counseling across all topics than their peers. Obese adolescents received more dietary (β=0.88; standard error [SE]=0.25; p=0.001) and physical activity (β=0.80; SE=0.28; p=0.006) counseling than healthy weight youth, as well as being told to increase their physical activity more often (β=0.96; SE=0.29; p=0.001). There were no differences in lifestyle counseling between overweight and healthy weight subjects. Adolescents with greater daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity reported less physical activity counseling (β=–0.02; SE=0.008; p=0.05). Conclusions: Despite universal recommendations to counsel adolescents on lifestyle, only obese adolescents consistently report receiving such counseling. Given known difficulties in reversing obesity after onset, efforts should ensure that all adolescents receive lifestyle counseling. PMID:24617855

  10. Project lifestyle: developing positive health lifestyles for schoolchildren in Antigua.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D P

    1992-12-01

    Countries of the English-speaking Caribbean are in epidemiological transition. Following 30 years of socioeconomic change, obesity and chronic diseases have almost replaced malnutrition and infectious diseases as major health problems. Major risk factors for this modern epidemic are lifestyle-related. Project Lifestyle seeks to develop positive health lifestyles in schoolchildren gradually, sequentially, and systematically from grades 1-12 and throughout the school system on the island of Antigua. The four health habits addressed include weighing right, eating right, doing daily physical exercise, and having a positive self-concept. Since risk interventions with schoolchildren have produced positive results in several developed countries, this project developed an intervention methodology in the Caribbean context.

  11. Energy use and changing lifestyles

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L.; Bartlett, S.; Hawk, D.; Vine, E.

    1990-11-01

    A detailed investigation of energy use in the residential, commercial, and transportation sectors of the US and certain European countries (including Germany and Sweden) shows that there is an important parameter that we call lifestyle that is not captured in the exogenous variables commonly used in electric utility forecasting. A retrospective examination shows that lifestyle has been of subordinate importance to the income-linked trend of increasing ownership of the major energy and electricity-using hard goods and dwellings for at least three decades. The recent saturation of the residential and commercial markets for the dominant energy-using technologies has allowed variations in the utilization of this infrastructure to emerge as a significant input to market demand. With saturation of primary technologies, and relative stability in energy prices, the distinct activity patterns that result from various lifestyles are likely to influence demand for electricity and other energy forms, as well as participation in demand side management programs and other utility sponsored programs. Utilities should attempt to quantify the implications of utilization patterns and changes in lifestyle by various methods including business intelligence and adding questions to their routine market surveys and energy audits. Where possible the results should be incorporated into utility forecasting models. Suggestions are made for areas to watch including lifestyles of the elderly, use of the home as a workplace, household size, employment of women, use of the service sector, and segmentation of the transportation market.

  12. Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hui, Sun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Asiegbu, Frederick O.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants. PMID:24875794

  13. Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hui, Sun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Asiegbu, Frederick O; Valkonen, Jari P T; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-05-30

    Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants.

  14. Evolution of the liquid-vapor coexistence of the hard-core Yukawa fluid as a function of the interaction range.

    PubMed

    El Mendoub, E B; Wax, J-F; Jakse, N

    2010-04-28

    The present work is devoted to the study of the liquid-vapor coexistence curve of hard-core Yukawa fluids for range parameter lambda, going from 0.5 to 7 by means of an integral equation approach. Both binodal and spinodal lines are computed and compared to available simulation data, and the integral equation used appears to be accurate. We also compare two methods for determining the coordinates of the critical point. The first one, using the rectilinear diameter law, appears to be less accurate than the second one based on the heat capacity at constant volume. It is found that the critical temperature decreases as the range of the interactions increases and that the liquid-vapor coexistence disappears for lambda greater than 6.

  15. The [Formula: see text] toric-code and the double-semion topological order of hardcore Bose-Hubbard-type models in the strong-interaction limit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Capogrosso-Sansone, Barbara

    2017-09-11

    We present a generic framework for the emergence of the [Formula: see text] toric-code and the double-semion topological order in a wide class of hardcore Bose-Hubbard-type models governed by density-density interaction and in the strong-interaction regime. We fix fractional filling factor and study under which conditions the density-density interaction gives rise to topological degeneracy. We further specify which dynamics determines the toric-code and the double-semion topological order. Our results indicate that the specifics of the density-density interaction determine the long-range entanglement of the model which possesses "restricted patterns" of the long-range entanglement realized in corresponding string-net models with the same topological order.

  16. Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Ralph

    The Wayne State College Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors, based on the wellness concept, is designed to facilitate social interaction and health through physical activities. It is adaptable to a variety of individual needs and preferences, including exercises for cardiac rehabilitation patients. Any person over 50 can participate at no…

  17. Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor…

  18. Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Ralph

    The Wayne State College Lifestyle Improvement Program for Seniors, based on the wellness concept, is designed to facilitate social interaction and health through physical activities. It is adaptable to a variety of individual needs and preferences, including exercises for cardiac rehabilitation patients. Any person over 50 can participate at no…

  19. Peace Lifestyle and Peace Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judd

    Peace lifestyles are possible in social environments that endorse peace activism. This discussion of community change processes provides an outline of mechanisms needed for successful community activism working at the cultural level. The Community Peace Cultures Program (CPCP) is an approach to building supportive environments for peace…

  20. Lifestyle Change: A Critical Look

    PubMed Central

    Elford, R.W.; Yeo, M.A.; Hougesen, B.; Todd, V.

    1989-01-01

    Many relationships between behaviour and disease are now recognized by both health care professionals and the public. In lifestyle counselling, caregivers help patients to change their unhealthy habits. The primary care office seems an ideal setting for implementing behaviour change strategies, but studies suggest that physicians only sporadically elicit behavioural risk factors and infrequently counsel patients to modify risky behaviours. Physicians have been introduced to the goals of clinical prevention, but with the limited application of clinical prevention research to practical office approaches, they often lack the necessary knowledge and skills to achieve them. The individual intervention and group program strategies described in this paper have been adapted to the primary care setting, and we hope they will help family physicians to play an effective role in lifestyle change.

  1. Cluster headache and lifestyle habits.

    PubMed

    Schürks, Markus; Diener, Hans-Christoph

    2008-04-01

    Cluster headache (CH) has traditionally been associated with certain anthropometric features, personality traits, and lifestyle features. This article focuses on lifestyle features in patients with CH. Especially excessive smoking and alcohol consumption have been ascribed to patients with CH. Despite country-specific habits and a time trend, smoking is much more prevalent among CH patients compared with the general population. Although excessive alcohol consumption was reported in early studies, this was not corroborated more recently. On the contrary, patients with CH seem to avoid alcohol, particularly during active phases, likely due to its ability to trigger attacks. Present studies are purely descriptive. Thus, the associations sketched give no information about the long-term effects of smoking or alcohol consumption on the course of CH.

  2. Lifestyle, pregnancy and epigenetic effects.

    PubMed

    Barua, Subit; Junaid, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing evidences link maternal lifestyle and prenatal factors with serious health consequences and diseases later in life. Extensive epidemiological studies have identified a number of factors such as diet, stress, gestational diabetes, exposure to tobacco and alcohol during gestation as influencing normal fetal development. In light of recent discoveries, epigenetic mechanisms such as alteration of DNA methylation, chromatin modifications and modulation of gene expression during gestation are believed to possibly account for various types of plasticity such as neural tube defects, autism spectrum disorder, congenital heart defects, oral clefts, allergies and cancer. The purpose of this article is to review a number of published studies to fill the gap in our understanding of how maternal lifestyle and intrauterine environment influence molecular modifications in the offspring, with an emphasis on epigenetic alterations. To support these associations, we highlighted laboratory studies of rodents and epidemiological studies of human based on sampling population cohorts.

  3. [Health and life-style of students].

    PubMed

    Grebniak, N P; Grebniak, V P; Mashinistov, V V

    2007-01-01

    It is established that the increase of morbidity with highly active chronic development is an integral characteristic of students' health. The unfavorable tendencies in health conditions are conditioned by the improper life-style. The specificity of students' life-style relates to the professional targeting of the education and gender trends. The conceptual model of healthy life-style formation includes such blocks as the parameters of life-style, the risk factors, the deviations in health conditions, the activities in life-style enhancement.

  4. [Ancient dietetics - lifestyle and medicine].

    PubMed

    Steger, Florian

    2004-01-01

    The wide reaching meaning of eating and drinking is already recognized in antiquity. The declared aim of antique dietetics is the upbringing to a healthy lifestyle. Fundamental considerations of dietetic, theoretically organized ideas can be traced back to the Presocratics, who, for the first time in cultural history, let themselves be guided by direct observations from nature. Working from the meaning of dietetics as pure nutritional teaching, one can see in the Corpus Hippocraticum a significant, systematic attempt to put forth dietetics as a concept of lifestyle. Here a central aspect is that of equilibrium, as it is expressed in the rule of the four humours. Dietetics continually become a connecting link between Natural Philosophy and Anthropology and a lifestyle orientated to nature. Finally, Galen introduces a further systematization of the already existing and the increasingly modified. Nutrition and health are brought into association and the theoretical presupposed practically overturned. In late Antiquity dietetical outlooks continue to be discussed, which were transferred to the Middle Ages and still show practical relevance.

  5. Regulation of tradeoffs between plant defenses against pathogens with different lifestyles

    PubMed Central

    Spoel, Steven H.; Johnson, Jessica S.; Dong, Xinnian

    2007-01-01

    Plants activate distinct defense responses depending on the lifestyle of the attacker encountered. In these responses, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play important signaling roles. SA induces defense against biotrophic pathogens that feed and reproduce on live host cells, whereas JA activates defense against necrotrophic pathogens that kill host cells for nutrition and reproduction. Cross-talk between these defense signaling pathways has been shown to optimize the response against a single attacker. However, its role in defense against multiple pathogens with distinct lifestyles is unknown. Here we show that infection with biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae, which induces SA-mediated defense, rendered plants more susceptible to the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria brassicicola by suppression of the JA signaling pathway. This process was partly dependent on the cross-talk modulator NPR1. Surprisingly, this tradeoff was restricted to tissues adjacent to the site of initial infection; A. brassicicola infection in systemic tissue was not affected. Even more surprisingly, tradeoff occurred only with the virulent Pseudomonas strain. Avirulent strains that induced programmed cell death (PCD), an effective plant-resistance mechanism against biotrophs, did not cause suppression of JA-dependent defense. This result might be advantageous to the plant by preventing necrotrophic pathogen growth in tissues undergoing PCD. Our findings show that plants tightly control cross-talk between SA- and JA-dependent defenses in a previously unrecognized spatial and pathogen type-specific fashion. This process allows them to prevent unfavorable signal interactions and maximize their ability to concomitantly fend off multiple pathogens. PMID:17998535

  6. Quantum Monte Carlo study of hard-core bosons in a pyrochlore lattice with six-site ring-exchange interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tieman, Catherine; Rousseau, Valery

    Highly frustrated quantum systems on lattices can exhibit a wide variety of phases. In addition to the usual Mott insulating and superfluid phases, these systems can also produce some so-called ``exotic phases'', such as super-solid and valence-bond-solid phases. An example of particularly frustrated lattice is the pyrochlore structure, which is formed by corner-sharing tetrahedrons. Many real materials adopt this structure, for instance the crystal Cd2 Re2O7 , which exhibits superconducting properties. However, the complex structure of these materials combined with the complexity of the dominant interactions that describe them makes their analytical study difficult. Also, approximate methods, such as mean-field theory, fail to give a correct description of these systems. In this work, we report on the first exact quantum Monte Carlo study of a model of hard-core bosons in a pyrochlore lattice with six-site ring-exchange interactions, using the Stochastic Green Function (SGF) algorithm. We analyze the superfluid density and the structure factor as functions of the filling and ring-exchange interaction strength, and we map out the ground state phase diagram.

  7. The t-J model of hard-core bosons in slave-particle representation and its Monte-Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Yuki; Ishima, Takumi; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Sakakibara, Kazuhiko; Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo

    2012-12-01

    We study the system of hard-core bosons (HCB) with two species in the three-dimensional lattice at finite temperatures. In the strong-correlation limit, the system becomes the bosonic t-J model, that is, the t-J model of “bosonic electrons”. The bosonic “electron” operator Bxσ at the site x with a two-component spin σ(= 1, 2***) is treated as a HCB operator, and represented by a composite of two slave particles; a spinon described by a Schwinger boson (CP1 boson) zxσ and a holon described by a HCB field φx as Bxσ = φ†xzxσ.*** This φx is again represented by another CP1 quasi-spinon operator ωxa*** (a = 1, 2***). The phase diagrams of the resulting double CP1 system obtained by Monte Carlo simulations involve first-order and second-order phase boundaries. We present in detail the techniques and algorithm to reduce the hysteresis and locate the first-order transition points.

  8. Deviant lifestyles and violent victimization at school.

    PubMed

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-09-01

    This study examines how the lifestyles of juveniles influence violent victimization at school. Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents, this study demonstrates that both indirect victimization, through witnessing violence, and sexual and physical assaults of students are pervasive problems at schools. Although a number of individual and structural characteristics predict the risk of becoming a victim at school, the most consistent predictor of violent victimization is the juvenile's own deviant lifestyle. Those who participate in a deviant lifestyle substantially increase their odds of all three forms of victimization. Therefore, even within the relatively controlled setting of schools, juveniles who participate in deviant lifestyles are at a high risk for victimization.

  9. Lifestyles in suburban populations: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khayat, Samira; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Navidian, Ali; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Sharifi, Nasibeh; Kasaeian, Amir

    2017-07-01

    Lifestyle and suburban population are important issues in the field of health. The living conditions of informal settlements can lead to acquisition of an unhealthy lifestyle. This study has been designed to investigate the articles that have been published regarding lifestyle in suburban populations. The present research was a systematic review of studies in databases including Iranmedex, Magiran, SID, Irandoc, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Scopus, in 2017. All Persian and English papers written from 2000 to 2017 were evaluated by two reviewers using an advanced search of the databases with keywords related to lifestyles and suburban population. After completion of the search, the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist was used to evaluate the articles. In total, 19 articles were found to have addressed the lifestyle in suburban populations. The results of these studies showed an unhealthy lifestyle in the most informal settlements. There was no food diversity. Malnutrition was common, especially overweight. The majority of the people did not have enough physical activity, and smoking and alcohol consumption were common, especially in men. Studies showed that suburban populations are among the groups that have unfavorable environmental conditions to acquiring healthy lifestyle and maintaining appropriate health. Therefore, developing infrastructure, improving health services (environment, treatment of diseases, reduction of malnutrition and infant mortality, access to safe drinking water and sanitation, improving waste disposal and recycling it), improving education and smoking prevention programs in improving lifestyle is recommended.

  10. Lifestyles in suburban populations: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Khayat, Samira; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Navidian, Ali; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Sharifi, Nasibeh; Kasaeian, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background Lifestyle and suburban population are important issues in the field of health. The living conditions of informal settlements can lead to acquisition of an unhealthy lifestyle. Objective This study has been designed to investigate the articles that have been published regarding lifestyle in suburban populations. Methods The present research was a systematic review of studies in databases including Iranmedex, Magiran, SID, Irandoc, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Scopus, in 2017. All Persian and English papers written from 2000 to 2017 were evaluated by two reviewers using an advanced search of the databases with keywords related to lifestyles and suburban population. After completion of the search, the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist was used to evaluate the articles. Results In total, 19 articles were found to have addressed the lifestyle in suburban populations. The results of these studies showed an unhealthy lifestyle in the most informal settlements. There was no food diversity. Malnutrition was common, especially overweight. The majority of the people did not have enough physical activity, and smoking and alcohol consumption were common, especially in men. Conclusion Studies showed that suburban populations are among the groups that have unfavorable environmental conditions to acquiring healthy lifestyle and maintaining appropriate health. Therefore, developing infrastructure, improving health services (environment, treatment of diseases, reduction of malnutrition and infant mortality, access to safe drinking water and sanitation, improving waste disposal and recycling it), improving education and smoking prevention programs in improving lifestyle is recommended. PMID:28894537

  11. Metaphylaxis, diet and lifestyle in stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Dirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The most common urinary stones (calcium salts, uric acid) form due to genetic factors and lifestyle. This review describes why, if and how medication and lifestyle changes can reduce the risk of formation. Methods Previous reports were reviewed to obtain information on three aspects of urolithiasis, i.e. epidemiology, mechanisms linking lifestyle and urolithiasis and lifestyle intervention for preventing urolithiasis. Results Epidemiological evidence links the prevalence of urinary stone formation to general lifestyle factors. Detailed analysis has identified individual lifestyle elements that affect the risk of urinary stone formation. Currently there are several concepts that explain the mechanism of stone formation. Urinary markers like calcium, oxalate, phosphate, uric acid and urinary pH are involved in all these concepts. Many studies show that changing (combinations of) specific lifestyle elements has a favourable effect on these urinary markers. Based on this evidence, protocols have been developed that use a combination of these lifestyle changes and medication to prevent stone formation. In well-controlled studies where patients are optimally informed and continuously motivated, these protocols clearly reduce the stone formation rate. In general practice the result is less clear, because the time and tools are insufficient to maintain long-term patient compliance in the use of medication and lifestyle advice. Conclusion The risk of stone formation can be reduced in general practice when the patient’s compliance is optimised by providing individualised advice, continuous information, and feedback and incorporation of the advice into a regular lifestyle. The use of ‘e-tools’ might enable this without increasing the time required from the physician. PMID:26558032

  12. Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant Stephen L. Howard Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Wayne A. Churaman Sensors and... Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant by Stephen L. Howard, Wayne A. Churaman, and Luke J. Currano ARL-TR-6950 June 2014...2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant 5a

  13. Study of long-range orders of hard-core bosons coupled to cooperative normal modes in two-dimensional lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Yarlagadda, S.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the microscopic mechanism of coexisting long-range orders (such as lattice supersolidity) in strongly correlated systems is a subject of immense interest. We study the possible manifestations of long-range orders, including lattice-supersolid phases with differently broken symmetry, in a two-dimensional square lattice system of hard-core bosons (HCBs) coupled to archetypal cooperative/coherent normal-mode distortions such as those in perovskites. At strong HCB-phonon coupling, using a duality transformation to map the strong-coupling problem to a weak-coupling one, we obtain an effective Hamiltonian involving nearest-neighbor, next-nearest-neighbor, and next-to-next-nearest-neighbor hoppings and repulsions. Using stochastic series expansion quantum Monte Carlo, we construct the phase diagram of the system. As coupling strength is increased, we find that the system undergoes a first-order quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a checkerboard solid at half-filling and from a superfluid to a diagonal striped solid [with crystalline ordering wave vector Q ⃗=(2 π /3 ,2 π /3 ) or (2 π /3 ,4 π /3 )] at one-third filling without showing any evidence of supersolidity. On tuning the system away from these commensurate fillings, checkerboard supersolid is generated near half-filling whereas a rare diagonal striped supersolid is realized near one-third filling. Interestingly, there is an asymmetry in the extent of supersolidity about one-third filling. Within our framework, we also provide an explanation for the observed checkerboard and stripe formations in La2 -xSrxNiO4 at x =1 /2 and x =1 /3 .

  14. Influence of lifestyle measures on hypertriglyceridaemia.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, F; D'Addato, S; Laghi, L; Malagoni, A M; Mandini, S; Boari, B; Borghi, C; Manfredini, R

    2009-04-01

    Hypertriglyceridaemia is a common dyslipidaemia encountered in clinical practice. People with hypertriglyceridaemia are frequently obese, insulin-resistant, hypertensive or diabetic, all of which are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hypertriglyceridaemia also contributes to metabolic syndrome, in which an atherogenic diet, sedentary lifestyle, overweight/obesity and genetic factors interact. A multi-factorial intervention for all risk factors is necessary, including weight reduction, dietary modification and increased physical exercise. This review focuses on the influence of diet, sedentary lifestyle and negative habits (such as excessive alcohol intake, smoking and drug addiction) on hypertriglyceridaemia as well as the effects of lifestyle change.

  15. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that some lifestyle factors are linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Many of these are potentially modifiable and include smoking, physical activity, education, social engagement, cognitive stimulation, and diet. Modification of most of these factors has other health advantages, increasing the potential benefits of modifying the individual's lifestyle. Unfortunately, most of the current evidence is based on observational data, and where human trials have been performed they have used surrogate outcomes rather than the development of Alzheimer's disease. For many of these modifiable lifestyle factors, such trials may never be performed, and an individual's choice may need to be based on the available evidence.

  16. Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle

    MedlinePlus

    ... may develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive ... the more sedentary you are, the higher your health risks are. How can I get started with ...

  17. [Circadian clocks and lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated relationships between the disturbance of circadian rhythm and the development of lifestyle-related diseases. First, epidemiological studies showed that rotating shift workers are more likely to develop obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and cancers than day shift employees. In addition, mice with their circadian rhythm chronically impaired by alteration of the light-dark cycle also develop such diseases. Furthermore, both the genotypes and genetic modifications of the clock genes are associated with the development of lifestyle-related diseases in humans and mice, respectively. Finally, circadian clocks in peripheral tissues are impaired in both patients with type 2 diabetes and obese diabetic mice, probably not due to metabolic abnormalities, but to the lifestyle, aging, and/or genetic factors. Thus, disturbance of the circadian rhythm is an important cause of lifestyle-related diseases, and therefore the circadian clocks are attractive therapeutic targets for preventing and treating these conditions.

  18. [Sleep disorder and lifestyle-related disease].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Rei; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disorder is associated with the lifestyle-related diseases including obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by producing bioactive secretory proteins, also known as adipokines, that can directly act on nearby or remote organs. Recently, the associations between these adipokines and sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea have been reported. In this review, we focus on the relationship between sleep disorder and lifestyle-related diseases.

  19. Environmental/lifestyle effects on spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Richard M

    2010-05-27

    The high incidence of low sperm counts in young (European) men and evidence for declining sperm counts in recent decades mean that the environmental/lifestyle impact on spermatogenesis is an important health issue. This review assesses potential causes involving adverse effects on testis development in perinatal life (primarily effects on Sertoli cell number), which are probably irreversible, or effects on the process of spermatogenesis in adulthood, which are probably mainly reversible. Several lifestyle-related (obesity, smoking) and environmental (exposure to traffic exhaust fumes, dioxins, combustion products) factors appear to negatively affect both the perinatal and adult testes, emphasizing the importance of environmental/lifestyle impacts throughout the life course. Apart from this, public concern about adverse effects of environmental chemicals (ECs) (pesticides, food additives, persistent pollutants such as DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls) on spermatogenesis in adult men are, in general, not supported by the available data for humans. Where adverse effects of ECs have been shown, they are usually in an occupational setting rather than applying to the general population. In contrast, a modern Western lifestyle (sedentary work/lifestyle, obesity) is potentially damaging to sperm production. Spermatogenesis in normal men is poorly organized and inefficient so that men are poorly placed to cope with environmental/lifestyle insults.

  20. Longitudinal association between child stress and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Boone, Liesbet; Braet, Caroline; Vanaelst, Barbara; Huybrechts, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been linked with an unhealthy lifestyle but the relation's direction remains unclear. Does stress induce sleeping problems, comfort food consumption, and lower physical activity, or do these unhealthy lifestyle factors enhance stress? This study examined the bidirectional stress-lifestyle relation in children. The relation between stress and lifestyle was examined over 2 years in 312 Belgian children 5-12 years old as part of the Children's Body Composition and Stress study. Stress-related aspects were measured by questionnaires concerning negative events, negative emotions, and behavioral problems. The following lifestyle factors were assessed: physical activity (by accelerometers), sleep duration, food consumption (sweet food, fatty food, snacks, fruits and vegetables), and eating behavior (emotional, external, restrained). Bidirectional relations were examined with cross-lagged analyses. Certain stress aspects increased physical activity, sweet food consumption, emotional eating, restrained eating, and external eating (βs = .140-.319). All relations were moderated by sex and age: Dietary effects were mainly in the oldest children and girls; stress increased physical activity in the youngest, whereas it tended to decrease physical activity in the oldest. One reversed direction effect was found: Maladaptive eating behaviors increased anxiety feelings. Relations were mainly unidirectional: Stress influenced children's lifestyle. Stress stimulated eating in the absence of hunger, which could facilitate overweight. Consequently, families should realize that stress may influence children's diet, and problem-solving coping skills should be acquired. In contrast to recent findings, stress might also stimulate physical activity in the youngest as positive stress coping style.

  1. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  2. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  3. [Updates on Lifestyle-Related Diseases and Bone Metabolism. Bisphosphonates for lifestyle-related disease].

    PubMed

    Okada, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2014-11-01

    A lifestyle-related disease and osteoporosis are diseases to increase with aging and a lifestyle-related disease has an influence on the bone metabolism. Because the number of patients with lifestyle-related disease is getting larger, it is necessary to prevent fracture in those. Unfortunately, substantial randomized control studies are yet to be done in patients with lifestyle-related disease to clarify if anti-osteoporotic drugs are effective to prevent fractures. It is suggested by the subanalysis in the existing clinical study with usefulness of bisphosphonates with evidence as an osteoporotic therapeutic drug in life-related disease. Here I will review about the effective and problem with bisphosphonate for the lifestyle-related disease with arteriosclerosis.

  4. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael

    2016-03-25

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed "dysbiosis", has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host-microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis.

  5. Gut Microbiota and Lifestyle Interventions in NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, David; Stewart, Christopher J.; Day, Christopher P.; Trenell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The human digestive system harbors a diverse and complex community of microorganisms that work in a symbiotic fashion with the host, contributing to metabolism, immune response and intestinal architecture. However, disruption of a stable and diverse community, termed “dysbiosis”, has been shown to have a profound impact upon health and disease. Emerging data demonstrate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota to be linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the exact mechanism(s) remain unknown, inflammation, damage to the intestinal membrane, and translocation of bacteria have all been suggested. Lifestyle intervention is undoubtedly effective at improving NAFLD, however, not all patients respond to these in the same manner. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients are lacking. A deeper understanding of how different aspects of lifestyle (diet/nutrition/exercise) affect the host–microbiome interaction may allow for a more tailored approach to lifestyle intervention. With gut microbiota representing a key element of personalized medicine and nutrition, we review the effects of lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity/exercise) on gut microbiota and how this impacts upon NAFLD prognosis. PMID:27023533

  6. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies) showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being. PMID:26784216

  7. Education, Health, and the Default American Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Mirowsky, John; Ross, Catherine E

    2015-09-01

    Education has a large and increasing impact on health in America. This paper examines one reason why. Education gives individuals the ability to override the default American lifestyle. The default lifestyle has three elements: displacing human energy with mechanical energy, displacing household food production with industrial food production, and displacing health maintenance with medical dependency. Too little physical activity and too much food produce imperceptibly accumulating pathologies. The medical industry looks for products and services that promise to soften the consequences but do not eliminate the underlying pathologies. This "secondary prevention" creates pharmacologic accumulation: prolonging the use of medications, layering them, and accruing their side effects and interactions. Staying healthy depends on recognizing the risks of the default lifestyle. Overriding it requires insight, knowledge, critical analysis, long-range strategic thinking, personal agency, and self-direction. Education develops that ability directly and indirectly, by way of creative work and a sense of controlling one's own life.

  8. Ritucharya: Answer to the lifestyle disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Jayesh; Chaudhari, S.; Sarkar, Prasanta K.

    2011-01-01

    Ritu, the season, classified by different features expresses different effects on the body as well as the environment. Ayurveda has depicted various rules and regimens (Charya), regarding diet and behavior to acclimatize seasonal enforcement easily without altering body homeostasis. The prime principle of Ayurvedic system of medicine is preventive aspect, can be achieved by the change in diet and practices in response to change in climatic condition. This is a very important aspect of preventive medicine as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. Lifestyle disorders are very common in the present era, basically originating from lack of following seasonal regimens due to lack of concentration in seasonal characteristics. A firm scientific analysis is the base, which holds true even on date. In this review article, various regimens in diet and lifestyle as mentioned in the classics of Ayurveda and their importance on lifestyle disorders has been discussed. PMID:22661838

  9. The cost of lifestyle health risks: obesity.

    PubMed

    Long, D Adam; Reed, Roger; Lehman, Gregg

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to provide employers interested in lifestyle health initiatives a resource for estimating their members' obesity-related costs stratified by demographics and business sector. Claims-level medical costs attributable to obesity are estimated. Data come from 61 U.S. employers' health plan members' claims experienced between January 2000 and December 2004. Diagnosed, nondrug medical expenses attributable to obesity account for 21.3% of lifestyle and 2.8% of all medical costs for those aged 19 to 64 years. Obesity costs for children under 19 years are negligible. Up to age 64 years, females' obesity costs markedly exceed males'. At particular risk for high obesity costs are women, those aged 55 to 64 years, and healthcare sector members. Obesity is a costly lifestyle health risk and self-insured employers should take action with or without policy aid such as the HeLP Act S2558.

  10. [Social diseases, civilization diseases or lifestyle diseases?].

    PubMed

    Betlejewski, Stansław

    2007-01-01

    In general, the development of civilization is viewed as a positive step for the well-being of the human species, leading to an increased duration and quality of life. The accelerated progress of civilization (mainly industrialization, urbanization and nutrition) has lead to new possibilities for adverse effects on human health. In former high civilization--like old Egypt, Greece, Roman, Chinese, Indian, Maya civilizations--the "modem civilization diseases" were unknown. Modem science through improved sanitation, vaccination and antibiotics as well as improved social and economical conditions, has eliminated the threat of death from most infectious diseases. In the years after World War II the social, economic and health conditions changed. Most deaths have resulted from heart disease, stroke, cancer and other diseases as a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment and changed lifestyle. Lifestyle diseases are different from other diseases because they are potentially preventable and can be lowered with changes in diet, lifestyle and environment.

  11. [Epigenetics and Life-style diseases].

    PubMed

    Waki, Hironori; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Genomic DNA in eukaryotes forms a highly-organized structure called chromatin. Epigenetic regulation of genes involves DNA methylation and modifications of the histone tails such as acetylation and methylation, which lead to a given phenotype without a change in nucleotide sequence. Both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the development of life-style diseases. Epigenetic regulation is implicated to contribute to the interplay between the environmental and genetic factors. Advance in DNA sequencing technologies provides novel insights into transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the genes and mechanisms by which genomic polymorphism causes diseases. We will overview recent progress in the epigenetic studies on life-style diseases.

  12. Survivorship: Healthy Lifestyles, Version 2.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, with attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding physical activity in survivors, including assessment for the risk of exercise-induced adverse events, exercise prescriptions, guidance for resistance training, and considerations for specific populations (eg, survivors with lymphedema, ostomies, peripheral neuropathy). In addition, strategies to encourage health behavioral change in survivors are discussed. PMID:25190692

  13. [Bone quality in lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Saito, Mitsuru; Marumo, Keishi

    2011-05-01

    Lifestyle-related diseases deteriorate bone quality in terms of material properties. Collagen cross-link formation is thought to be a determinant of material strength. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, carbonyl stress, and hyperhomocysteinemia induce the reduction in beneficial enzymatic cross-links and the accumulation of disadvantageous non-enzymatic cross-link, Advanced glycation end products (AGEs, Pentosidine) in bone. In this review, we describe that lifestyle-related diseases are crucial determinants of detrimental crosslinking of bone collagen that have been reported in the literature.

  14. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention.

    PubMed

    Livia, Buratta; Elisa, Reginato; Claudia, Ranucci; Roberto, Pippi; Cristina, Aiello; Emilia, Sbroma Tomaro; Chiara, Perrone; Alberto, Tirimagni; Angelo, Russo; Pierpaolo, De Feo; Claudia, Mazzeschi

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition (NUTR). Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program.

  15. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Livia, Buratta; Elisa, Reginato; Claudia, Ranucci; Roberto, Pippi; Cristina, Aiello; Emilia, Sbroma Tomaro; Chiara, Perrone; Alberto, Tirimagni; Angelo, Russo; Pierpaolo, De Feo; Claudia, Mazzeschi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition (NUTR). Method. Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Results. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Conclusion. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program. PMID:27239339

  16. Using Genograms Creatively to Promote Healthy Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casado-Kehoe, Montserrat; Kehoe, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Family therapists have used genograms as an assessment tool for years to examine the interactions and relationships of family members across generations. This article discusses how a therapist can use a genogram creatively to help clients examine the impact of family relationships on healthy and unhealthy lifestyle patterns and how those…

  17. Lifestyle chemistries from phones for individual profiling.

    PubMed

    Bouslimani, Amina; Melnik, Alexey V; Xu, Zhenjiang; Amir, Amnon; da Silva, Ricardo R; Wang, Mingxun; Bandeira, Nuno; Alexandrov, Theodore; Knight, Rob; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2016-11-29

    Imagine a scenario where personal belongings such as pens, keys, phones, or handbags are found at an investigative site. It is often valuable to the investigative team that is trying to trace back the belongings to an individual to understand their personal habits, even when DNA evidence is also available. Here, we develop an approach to translate chemistries recovered from personal objects such as phones into a lifestyle sketch of the owner, using mass spectrometry and informatics approaches. Our results show that phones' chemistries reflect a personalized lifestyle profile. The collective repertoire of molecules found on these objects provides a sketch of the lifestyle of an individual by highlighting the type of hygiene/beauty products the person uses, diet, medical status, and even the location where this person may have been. These findings introduce an additional form of trace evidence from skin-associated lifestyle chemicals found on personal belongings. Such information could help a criminal investigator narrowing down the owner of an object found at a crime scene, such as a suspect or missing person.

  18. [Healthy lifestyles of the university population].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ojeda, María Angustias; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira

    2015-05-01

    The lifestyle is defined as the set of behavioral patterns and daily habits of a person, which maintained over time may become dimensions of risk or safety depending on their nature. The aim of this study was to know the lifestyles of university students in the following dimensions: diet, exercise, consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, sex and road safety. We made a literature review in electronic databases: PubMed, SCIELO and CUIDEN, between 2002-2014; using as keywords habits, lifestyle, health behaviors, young adult and university students. From articles found, stand out as most relevant data that university students have a high presence of favorable beliefs about healthy lifestyles and nevertheless not put into practice. We could conclude that according to different authors, university students in general have not a good eating habits, eating unbalanced diets high in calories. Besides the physical exercise is null, knowing that a good diet and doing exercise have beneficial effects on health. To this must be added the high consumption of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana among university students.

  19. Improving Your Lifestyle. From Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Sally Sue

    1987-01-01

    This pamphlet for adult educators contains information on integrating material on health and life-style into the adult basic education classroom. Ten steps are summarized for discussion in the class by adults: proper exercise, good diet, weight control, avoiding cigarettes, sensible drinking habits, taking drugs, handling stress, safety…

  20. Lifestyle Interventions: Reasons for Therapeutic Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baydala, Angelina M.; Hiebert, Bryan; Malec, Carol A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews studies that indicate lifestyle education and exercise programs improve quality of life, health, and wellness. States that mixed results seem to indicate that something other than physical fitness is significantly contributing to improved psychosocial functioning. Postulates that cognitive factors such as improved self-confidence and…

  1. Using Genograms Creatively to Promote Healthy Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casado-Kehoe, Montserrat; Kehoe, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Family therapists have used genograms as an assessment tool for years to examine the interactions and relationships of family members across generations. This article discusses how a therapist can use a genogram creatively to help clients examine the impact of family relationships on healthy and unhealthy lifestyle patterns and how those…

  2. Promoting Healthy Lifestyles with Schoolwide Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virgilio, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Schoolwide events to promote healthy lifestyles include fitness field day; family-fitness night; geography run; school health fair; morning and evening stretches and workouts; Jump Rope for Heart, Hoops for Heart, and Step for Heart; All Children Exercising Simultaneously; holiday classics; neighborhood fitness trail; morning and evening workouts;…

  3. Promoting Healthy Lifestyles with Schoolwide Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virgilio, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Schoolwide events to promote healthy lifestyles include fitness field day; family-fitness night; geography run; school health fair; morning and evening stretches and workouts; Jump Rope for Heart, Hoops for Heart, and Step for Heart; All Children Exercising Simultaneously; holiday classics; neighborhood fitness trail; morning and evening workouts;…

  4. Lifestyle Drugs: Concept and Impact on Society

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, S. Z.; Gupta, V.; Sukhlecha, Anupama; Khunte, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Lifestyle has changed from being an indicator of the overall well being of an individual to a cause of disease and now “lifestyle” has itself become an object of medical attention. Alcohol has been used enormously as one of the oldest ‘lifestyle’ drugs, and currently sildenafil citrate (Viagra), the drug of choice for erectile dysfunction, exemplifies a turning point in the era of modern lifestyle drugs. This drug has transformed the lifestyles of millions and greatly increased the revenue of many pharmaceutical companies. With the Indian economy growing rapidly at an annual rate of 8-9%, a new era of drug discovery and development coupled with an enormous increase in the marketing of new drugs is being seen. This has certainly made the Indian public vulnerable to issues related to lifestyle drugs. There is a need to study this concept deeply and the impact of these drugs on Indian society, particularly since this topic has already been the centre of many discussions in other developed nations. PMID:21218048

  5. Lifestyle chemistries from phones for individual profiling

    PubMed Central

    Bouslimani, Amina; Melnik, Alexey V.; Xu, Zhenjiang; Amir, Amnon; da Silva, Ricardo R.; Wang, Mingxun; Bandeira, Nuno; Alexandrov, Theodore; Knight, Rob; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2016-01-01

    Imagine a scenario where personal belongings such as pens, keys, phones, or handbags are found at an investigative site. It is often valuable to the investigative team that is trying to trace back the belongings to an individual to understand their personal habits, even when DNA evidence is also available. Here, we develop an approach to translate chemistries recovered from personal objects such as phones into a lifestyle sketch of the owner, using mass spectrometry and informatics approaches. Our results show that phones’ chemistries reflect a personalized lifestyle profile. The collective repertoire of molecules found on these objects provides a sketch of the lifestyle of an individual by highlighting the type of hygiene/beauty products the person uses, diet, medical status, and even the location where this person may have been. These findings introduce an additional form of trace evidence from skin-associated lifestyle chemicals found on personal belongings. Such information could help a criminal investigator narrowing down the owner of an object found at a crime scene, such as a suspect or missing person. PMID:27849584

  6. Deviant Lifestyles and Violent Victimization at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nofziger, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the lifestyles of juveniles influence violent victimization at school. Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents, this study demonstrates that both indirect victimization, through witnessing violence, and sexual and physical assaults of students are pervasive problems at schools. Although a number of individual and…

  7. Institutionalization of a Multidisciplinary Healthy Lifestyles Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; O'Boyle, Irene; Ivanitskaya, Lana

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of health education is to positively influence the health behavior of individuals and communities, as well as living and working conditions that affect health. The goal of a Healthy Lifestyles course that is offered to undergraduate students enrolled in a university general education program (e.g., liberal arts education, core…

  8. Improving Your Lifestyle. From Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Sally Sue

    1987-01-01

    This pamphlet for adult educators contains information on integrating material on health and life-style into the adult basic education classroom. Ten steps are summarized for discussion in the class by adults: proper exercise, good diet, weight control, avoiding cigarettes, sensible drinking habits, taking drugs, handling stress, safety…

  9. Demographic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Sheri L.; Lokken, Kristine; Pilcher, Kenneth; Boeka, Abbe

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Overweight and obesity rates are associated with chronic diseases and higher rates of disability and continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. The purpose of this study was to build on past research and further investigate demographic and lifestyle variables associated with increased body mass index (BMI: kg/m[squared]).…

  10. Institutionalization of a Multidisciplinary Healthy Lifestyles Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; O'Boyle, Irene; Ivanitskaya, Lana

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of health education is to positively influence the health behavior of individuals and communities, as well as living and working conditions that affect health. The goal of a Healthy Lifestyles course that is offered to undergraduate students enrolled in a university general education program (e.g., liberal arts education, core…

  11. Career and Lifestyle Determinants of Gifted Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodenstein, Judith M.; Glickauf-Hughes, Cheryl

    A longitudinal study examined the career and lifestyle determinants of 201 gifted women who became homemakers, career-focused, or both homemakers and career-focused. A ten-year follow-up questionnaire collected data for (1) determining existing differences in parental influence, impact of education, career determinants, self-perceptions and…

  12. Demographic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Sheri L.; Lokken, Kristine; Pilcher, Kenneth; Boeka, Abbe

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Overweight and obesity rates are associated with chronic diseases and higher rates of disability and continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. The purpose of this study was to build on past research and further investigate demographic and lifestyle variables associated with increased body mass index (BMI: kg/m[squared]).…

  13. Medication or Lifestyle for Pre-Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More Medication or Lifestyle Changes for Pre-diabetes Updated:Aug 30,2016 What’s best? Medication ... difference. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Pre-diabetes • Introduction • About Pre-diabetes • What's the Problem? ...

  14. Life-style factors and hand eczema.

    PubMed

    Anveden Berglind, I; Alderling, M; Meding, B

    2011-09-01

    Previous knowledge of the impact of certain life-style factors on hand eczema is scanty. To investigate a possible association between hand eczema and life-style factors such as obesity, physical exercise, stress, smoking and alcohol consumption. In a cross-sectional public health survey in Stockholm, Sweden, 27,994 (58%) randomly chosen individuals aged 18-64 years completed a postal questionnaire regarding physical and mental health, social relations, economic status and work. Of these, 27,793 individuals responded to the question regarding hand eczema and were included in the present study. The association between life-style factors and hand eczema was analysed by prevalence proportion ratios (PPR), using a generalized linear model. Hand eczema was more common among individuals who reported high stress levels, PPR 1·326 (95% CI 1·303-1·350). There was also a positive dose-response relationship between hand eczema and stress. Hand eczema was less common among individuals reporting high physical exercise, and most apparent in women, PPR 0·781 (95% CI 0·770-0·792). Men who reported high alcohol intake reported hand eczema less often, PPR 0·958 (95% CI 0·930-0·987). Obese individuals reported hand eczema more commonly, PPR 1·204 (95% CI 1·174-1·234). There was a slight increase of hand eczema among smokers, PPR 1·025 (95% CI 1·006-1·044). Hand eczema was more common in individuals who reported stress, obesity and smoking. In individuals who reported high physical exercise levels hand eczema was less common. As there appears to be an association between life-style factors and hand eczema it is important to consider life-style factors in clinical practice. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Lifestyle practices of Jordanian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, M; Al-Ma'aitah, R; Al Jada, N

    2005-06-01

    Although many improvements have been made in the area of women's health in Jordan, women during pregnancy still face many health problems that put their lives at risk. This is evident in the relatively high Maternal Mortality Rate, anaemia, low birth weight and other problems related to their lifestyle practices during pregnancy (Jordanian Ministry of Health 1998). To describe the health-promoting lifestyle behaviours of Jordanian pregnant women. The Maternal Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (MHPLP), based on the Health Promotion Model, was modified to measure maternal practices. A representative sample of 400 Jordanian pregnant women in their 20th week of gestation or beyond were recruited from five public Maternal and Child Health Centres in the city of Irbid, in the northern part of Jordan. The MHPLP measures six dimensions: physical activity, stress management, self-actualization, nutrition, health responsibility and interpersonal support. Data were analysed by using descriptive analysis. The women reported high scores on health responsibility and self-actualization, moderate scores on interpersonal support and nutrition, and low scores on physical activity and stress management behaviours. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY, PRACTICE AND RESEARCH: The findings have implications for the quality of care delivered through the maternal and child health services. Health promotion and healthy lifestyle need to be an integral part of health services provided for pregnant women. Further research is needed to develop an instrument that integrates the cultural beliefs relating to lifestyle practices of Jordanian pregnant women mainly in the areas of physical activities and stress management. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. [The characteristics of motivation to follow healthy life-style].

    PubMed

    Karaseva, T V; Ruzhenskaia, E V

    2013-01-01

    The article specifies the notion of motivation to healthy life-style. The main factors developing this motivation are considered. The personal proposal of classification of motives to develop healthy life-style is presented.

  17. [Lifestyle modification as a medical treatment for GERD].

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Susumu

    2007-05-01

    Lifestyles such as obesity, smoking, alcohol or fatty meal are long-time considered to related with the deterioration of GERD. Basic studies indicate that smoking and alcohol decrease LES pressure. However, the clinical studies of the relationship between lifestyle and GERD sometimes show coflicting results. Lifestyle modification as a medical treatment of GERD were reviewed.

  18. Understanding wellness center loyalty through lifestyle analysis.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Satya; Ravichandran, Swathi; P, Ganesan

    2011-01-01

    Many changes taking place at a macro-level in Indian society along with the popularity of services that are native to India, such as Yoga and Ayurveda, have generated significant interest in wellness services. To assist wellness centers in gaining loyal clients, the goal of this study was to understand the influence of customer lifestyle factors on wellness center loyalty. The activities, interests, and opinions model was used to understand the lifestyles of wellness center clients. Data were collected from clients of five wellness centers. Regression results indicate that overworked individuals and those seeking a balance between work and family life would be the most loyal to wellness centers. Managerial implications of results are discussed.

  19. [Lifestyle of elderly patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Yuki; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2013-11-01

    In elderly people, glucose tolerance is deteriorated and the incidence of diabetes mellitus is increased, due to decreased muscle mass and physical activity, declining pancreatic beta cell function, and other factors. Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis development in the elderly. Precise diagnosis and adequate treatment are necessary to prevent cerebrovascular and ischemic heart diseases. Elderly patients with diabetes mellitus are characteristically afflicted with more complications, impaired activities of daily living, cognitive function decline, and family environment problems, as compared with young and middle-aged diabetics. Therefore, tailor-made rather than uniform therapy becomes important. Lifestyle modification is the basis of diabetes treatment. Herein, we describe "prevention and management" of diabetes mellitus, focusing on the lifestyles of elderly diabetics.

  20. Freshwater bacterial lifestyles inferred from comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Livermore, Joshua A; Emrich, Scott J; Tan, John; Jones, Stuart E

    2014-03-01

    While micro-organisms actively mediate and participate in freshwater ecosystem services, we know little about freshwater microbial genetic diversity. Genome sequences are available for many bacteria from the human microbiome and the ocean (over 800 and 200, respectively), but only two freshwater genomes are currently available: the streamlined genomes of Polynucleobacter necessarius ssp. asymbioticus and the Actinobacterium AcI-B1. Here, we sequenced and analysed draft genomes of eight phylogentically diverse freshwater bacteria exhibiting a range of lifestyle characteristics. Comparative genomics of these bacteria reveals putative freshwater bacterial lifestyles based on differences in predicted growth rate, capability to respond to environmental stimuli and diversity of useable carbon substrates. Our conceptual model based on these genomic characteristics provides a foundation on which further ecophysiological and genomic studies can be built. In addition, these genomes greatly expand the diversity of existing genomic context for future studies on the ecology and genetics of freshwater bacteria.

  1. Nutrition, Metabolic Disorders and Lifestyle of Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    SUR SEINE FRANCE Paper Reprinted from AGARD Conference Proceedings 533 Nutrition , Metabolic Disorders and Lifestyle of Aircrew (Les Desordres...Ed.), "Psychobiology of As discussed above, caffeine, when it is consumed in doses Human Eating and Nutritional Behaviour", Chichester, found in many...aircrew members. 8. Graham, D.M.. "Caffeine -- Its Identity, Dietary Sources, Intake and Biological Effects", Nutrition Reviews, Therefore, it is not

  2. [Sedentarity--sedentary lifestyle and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Rabaeus, M

    2005-09-01

    Physical inactivity is the most important planetary reason for non-transmissible mortality. Technical developments have allowed a sedentary lifestyle. This causes health problems such as insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, heart failure and obesity. In addition, disturbances of bones and muscles as well as dementia of the Alzheimer type are associated with sedentarity. Assessing this risk factor and attempting to increase physical activity should be a very important part of any general practitioner's measures.

  3. Lifestyle, environment, and male reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Barazani, Yagil; Katz, Benjamin Farrel; Nagler, Harris Mark; Stember, Doron Sol

    2014-02-01

    A large number of environmental and lifestyle factors may negatively affect spermatogenesis and male fertility. This article enumerates the current state of knowledge regarding those that have been identified, and extrapolates the predicted magnitude of these effects over the next 20 years based on current societal trends. However, it is likely that additional factors have yet to be recognized. Additional research is needed to further define and clarify environmental factors that affect male fertility in order to mitigate their effects.

  4. Lifestyle, Genetics, and Disease in Sami

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Alastair B.; Johansson, Åsa; Ingman, Max; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    Aim To present a summary of the lifestyle, genetic origin, diet, and disease in the population of Sami, indigenous people of northern Fennoscandia. Method A survey of the available scientific literature and preliminary results from our own study of the Swedish Sami population. Results The Sami probably have a heterogeneous genetic origin, with a major contribution of continental or Eastern European tribes and a smaller contribution from Asia. The traditional Sami diet, high in animal products, persists in Sami groups still involved with reindeer herding, but others have adopted a diet typical of Western cultures. Early reports indicated a lower prevalence of heart disease and most cancers, except stomach cancer. Recent studies have not found a lower risk of heart disease, but have consistently shown an overall reduced cancer risk. Sami have been reported to share some specific health-related genetic polymorphisms with other European populations, but none that would explain the observed differences in disease risk. Conclusion The genetic structure of the Sami population makes it suitable for studies of the genetic and environmental factors influencing the development of common diseases. The difference in incidence of heart disease between studies may reflect the ongoing transition from a traditional to a more Westernized lifestyle. The ability to compare population segments with different lifestyles, combined with the genetic structure of the population, creates unusual possibilities for studies of the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of common disease. PMID:16909452

  5. Factors affecting metabolic syndrome by lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Nam-Kyun; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Seon-Chil; Kim, Nak-Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore lifestyle factors in relation to metabolic syndrome so as to be able to utilize the results as baseline data for the furtherance of health-care and medical treatment. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with patients who visited a health care center located in Seoul and had abdominal ultrasonography between 2 March 2013 and 28 February, 2014. Heights, weights, and blood pressures were measured by automatic devices. Three radiologists examined the patients using abdominal ultrasonography for gallstone diagnosis. The statuses of patients with regard to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and physical activities were explored for the lifestyle investigation. For investigating baseline demographics, we first used descriptive statistics. We then used the χ2 test to analyze lifestyles and gallstone prevalence with regard to the presence of metabolic syndrome. Lastly, logistic regression analysis was conducted to discover the risk factors of metabolic syndrome. [Results] For men, body mass index, maximum gallstone size, and waist circumference were revealed as risk factors for metabolic syndrome, in descending order of the degree of risk. For females, gallstone presence was the most significant risk factor, followed by waist circumference. [Conclusion] Metabolic disease mainly presents itself along with obesity, and we should become more focused on preventing and treating this disease. A large-scale prospective study is needed in the future, as the cause of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remained unclear in this study. PMID:26957725

  6. Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia

    2006-05-01

    Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.

  7. [Nutritional characteristics and lifestyle in university students].

    PubMed

    Ledo-Varela, M T; de Luis Román, D A; González-Sagrado, M; Izaola Jauregui, O; Conde Vicente, R; Aller de la Fuente, R

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and the lifestyle characteristic of our society lead young people to conditions of potential cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the anthropometrical situation and the lifestyle in a sample of university students. A full anthropometrical evaluation was undertaken, including bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA), in 111 students in the last year of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, as well as a lifestyle questionnaire (physical activity, alcohol and cigarette consumption). A sexual dimorphism was found in weight distribution according to the classification proposed by SEEDO: 6.4% of women presented a weight lower than the health recommendations (there no men in this group) whereas 27.8% of men and 6.5% of women were in the overweight range. 15.3% of the cases had excessive waist circumference. Fat mass by BIA was higher among women. On the other hand, 67% of university students stated to perform regular physical activity, 16.7% stated being cigarette smokers, and 55.6% stated to consume high-grade alcohol. To conclude, we studied a sample population of young and healthy subjects with, however, a significant percentage of women with body weight lower than the healthy standards, overweighed people, and smokers usually taking high-grade alcohol. These data should elicit an alert of the potential cardiovascular risk in the university population if action is not taken. This population should be included in the health promotion plans.

  8. Lifestyle advice and lifestyle change: to what degree does lifestyle advice of healthcare professionals reach the population, focusing on gender, age and education?

    PubMed

    Brobeck, Elisabeth; Bergh, Håkan; Odencrants, Sigrid; Hildingh, Cathrine

    2015-03-01

    Health promotion practice in health care has a high priority in the endeavour to achieve equal opportunities for health and diversity in health among the population. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether there is any connection between the lifestyle advice given by healthcare professionals and the lifestyle change of the population, focusing on age, gender and education level. The study is based on the data from a national population survey in Sweden in which 52 595 patients who had attended health care were interviewed by phone. The participants were asked whether healthcare professionals had raised the subject of lifestyle during the visit and whether the advice they gave had contributed to a lifestyle change. The results indicated that lifestyle issues were raised with 32.2% of those who attended health care, particularly among men, younger patients and those with a high education level. When lifestyle issues were raised, the advice contributed to 39.2% of patients making a lifestyle change, to a higher extent among men, older patients and those with a low education level. The study shows that lifestyle advice given by healthcare professionals, during both emergency and outpatient healthcare visits, is an important contributor to patients' lifestyle change.

  9. Treatment Plan Adherence for Your Child With JA

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juvenile Arthritis Camps Juvenile Arthritis Conference Resources JA Power Pack Educational Rights Kit JA Transition Toolkit Print ... Drevlow Family: Coping Through Community Tiffany Family Nora Powers: Taking Charge Jodi Van Emmerik: Happy Campers Bridget ...

  10. Energy and lifestyle: the development, testing and refinement of a Lifestyle-Expectation Index

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    This research was designed to develop, test and refine a Lifestyle Expectation Index (LEI) as a measure of the relative energy intensiveness of a household's expected living style, five years hence. A research model utilized an ecological perspective to conceptualize present lifestyle characteristics as precursors to the energy intensivity of expected styles of living. The primary data base to test the Lifestyle Expectation Index was collected during telephone interviews with 300 Michigan households. This sample was randomly selected from participants in Statewide Project Conserve, an energy-information-audit program. The program provided the secondary data base used in this study, including socio-demographic characteristics energy attitudes, conservation behaviors, and total direct household energy consumption. Results indicated that the 30-item index has an acceptable level of validity and reliability, as well as utility to profile households with varying energy-lifestyle expectations. The results also suggest that there is a predictive relationship between present lifestyle and the relative energy requirements of a household's anticipated mode of living in the near future. Based upon these findings, implications for future research, educational program, and public-policy development are presented.

  11. Mediterranean lifestyle and cardiovascular disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N.; Mellor, Duane D.; Naumovski, Nenad; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Anastasiou, Foteini; Zeimbekis, Akis; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Foscolou, Alexandra; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Sidossis, Labros

    2017-01-01

    Background Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern is a well-established protective factor against cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, diet quality is only one aspect of the overall healthy lifestyle adopted by Mediterranean populations. The latter has never been evaluated as a multi-factorial composite lifestyle. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a broader picture of the Mediterranean lifestyle and its effects on CVD risk, among elderly individuals. Methods During 2005–2015, 2,749 older (aged 65–100 years) from 21 Mediterranean islands (MEDIS) and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were voluntarily enrolled onto the study. Dietary habits, physical activity status, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle parameters (sleep, smoking habits, social life and educational status) and clinical profile aspects were derived through standard procedures. Results The overall prevalence of the traditional CVD risk factors were 62.3% for hypertension, 22.3% for diabetes mellitus (type 2) and 47.7% for hypercholesterolemia. The presence of diabetes mellitus was positively predicted by the geriatric depression scale (GDS) [odds ratio (OR) =1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.25] and by an urban residential environment (OR =2.57, 95% CI: 1.10–6.06) after adjusting for several confounders. Presence of hypertension was predicted by increasing age (OR =1.07, 95% CI: 1.02–1.12), increasing body mass index (BMI) (OR =1.12, 95% CI: 1.04–1.21), the habit of midday sleep (OR =2.07, 95% CI: 1.07–4.02) and inversely predicted by the frequency of socializing with friends (OR =0.767, 95% CI: 0.616–0.955). The estimated score in the GDS was the only independent positive predictor for the presence of hypercholesterolemia (OR =1.10, 95% CI: 1.01–1.21). Conclusions Lifestyle parameters such as social life, midday sleep (siesta) and residential environment are strongly associated with the presence of CVD risk factors in elderly and

  12. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  13. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA.

  14. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-11-24

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA.

  15. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA. PMID:27883040

  16. Association between maternal feeling about pregnancy and child's lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomoko; Goto, Aya; Yokokawa, Hirohide; Sato, Yoshiaki; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-06-01

    The number of children with undesirable lifestyles has recently increased. We tested the hypothesis that maternal feelings about pregnancy might be associated with their attitude towards promoting healthy lifestyles in their children. We used a city database collected from guardians of 204 randomly selected children aged 1 to 3 years in Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima. Maternal feeling about pregnancy was measured using a 10-point scale, and a child lifestyle score was calculated as the sum of desirable lifestyle habits (sleeping, eating, watching TV/videos, and tooth brushing). Associations between maternal feeling and her child's lifestyles were examined with multiple logistic regression analysis. For all lifestyle items, proportion of children with undesirable lifestyle habits was higher in the "unhappy group" (those who scored 1 to 9) than in the "happy group" (those who scored 10). In particular, a child's short sleeping hours (odds ratio [OR]=3.01) and lifestyle score of less than 3 ([OR] =3.60) were significantly associated with unhappy feelings. This was apparent among mothers aged 29 (median age) or younger. Our results indicate an association between a mother's unhappy feelings about pregnancy and her child's undesirable lifestyle, especially among relatively younger mothers. These findings provide public health implications important for early familial intervention to improve children's lifestyles.

  17. LIFESTYLE INDICATORS AND CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS IN ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    de Victo, Eduardo Rossato; Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; da Silva, João Pedro; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the lifestyle indicators associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents from Ilhabela, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The sample consisted of 181 adolescents (53% male) from the Mixed Longitudinal Project on Growth, Development, and Physical Fitness of Ilhabela. Body composition (weight, height, and body mass index, or BMI), school transportation, time spent sitting, physical activity, sports, television time (TV), having a TV in the bedroom, sleep, health perception, diet, and economic status (ES) were analyzed. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated by the submaximal progressive protocol performed on a cycle ergometer. Linear regression models were used with the stepwise method. Results: The sample average age was 14.8 years, and the average cardiorespiratory fitness was 42.2 mL.kg-1.min-1 (42.9 for boys and 41.4 for girls; p=0.341). In the total sample, BMI (unstandardized regression coefficient [B]=-0.03), height (B=-0.01), ES (B=0.10), gender (B=0.12), and age (B=0.03) were significantly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. In boys, BMI, height, not playing any sports, and age were significantly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. In girls, BMI, ES, and having a TV in the bedroom were significantly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions: Lifestyle indicators influenced the cardiorespiratory fitness; BMI, ES, and age influenced both sexes. Not playing any sports, for boys, and having a TV in the bedroom, for girls, also influenced cardiorespiratory fitness. Public health measures to improve lifestyle indicators can help to increase cardiorespiratory fitness levels.

  18. Lifestyle and cardiovascular disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iso, Hiroyasu

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to give on overview of the profile of cardiovascular disease, vascular pathology and the relationships between lifestyle and cardiovascular disease in Japanese. Compared with the United States and Europe, the higher mortality from stroke and lower mortality from coronary heart disease constitute a unique cardiovascular profile for Japan. A selective review of population-based pathology, trend and prospective cohort studies was performed to clarify the characteristics of cardiovascular disease and vascular pathology, trends in the incidence and mortality of cardiovascular disease, and the relationships between lifestyle and cardiovascular disease among Japanese adults. Since the 1970s, mortality from coronary heart disease as well as stroke has declined substantially in Japan, probably due to a major decline in blood pressure levels and for men a more recent decline in smoking, in spite of an increase in body mass index and total cholesterol levels. However, the decline in mortality was smaller and plateaued in middle-aged men aged 30-49 in the metropolitan cities of Tokyo and Osaka. The incidence of coronary heart disease has increased among middle-aged men residing in the suburbs of Osaka. As for the associations between lifestyle and cardiovascular disease, higher sodium, lower calcium and lower animal protein content in the diet and for men higher alcohol consumption may account for the higher prevalence of hypertension and higher risk of stroke for Japanese than for western populations. On the other hand, lower saturated fat (meat) and higher n3 polyunsaturated fat (fish) in the Japanese diet may contribute to the lower prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and lower risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese. Japan is unique among developed countries in that coronary heart disease mortality has been low and has continued to decline, while stroke mortality has declined substantially. However, a recent trend for coronary heart disease incidence to

  19. Promoting a healthy lifestyle among cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Jones, Lee W

    2008-04-01

    With improving longevity, the late-occurring adverse effects of cancer and its treatment are becoming increasingly apparent. As in other clinical populations, healthy lifestyle behaviors encompassing weight management, a healthy diet, regular exercise, and smoking cessation have the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality significantly in cancer survivors. This article addresses the strength of evidence for recommendations in areas of weight management, diet, exercise, and smoking cessation; and the current evidence examining the efficacy of various intervention approaches to promote health behavior changes among adult cancer survivors.

  20. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers.

  1. [Immunometabolism of exercise and sedentary lifestyle].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle leads to the accumulation of visceral fat. This is accompanied by the infiltration of immune cells with pro-inflammatory characteristics in adipose tissue, causing an increased release of cytokines and generating a low-grade inflammatory state. It has been associated with the development of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and development of tumors. Exercise can be used as a treatment to improve symptoms of many of these conditions because it promotes an anti-inflammatory effect. In this review we analyze the pro-inflammatory factors present in obesity and the induction of antiinflammatory factors that occur with exercise.

  2. Lifestyle Assessment: Helping Patients Change Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ciliska, Donna; Wilson, Douglas M. C.

    1984-01-01

    This article is the second in a series of six on lifestyle assessment and behavior change. The first article presented an assessment tool called FANTASTIC, which has been tested for reliability and is currently in wide use. After assessment, family physicians must help patients decide to change—and give them guidance on how to change—unhealthy behaviors. This article explains how the family physician can use educational, behavioral and relaxation strategies to increase patients' motivation, maintain their commitment and teach them the skills needed to effect changes in health behavior.

  3. JA but not JA-Ile is the cell-nonautonomous signal activating JA mediated systemic defenses to herbivory in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Bozorov, Tohir A; Dinh, Son Truong; Baldwin, Ian T

    2017-08-01

    The whole-plant activation of defense responses to wounding and herbivory requires systemic signaling in which jasmonates (JAs) play a pivotal role. To examine the nature of the slower cell-nonautonomous as compared to the rapid cell-autonomous signal in mediating systemic defenses in Nicotiana attenuata, reciprocal stem grafting-experiments were used with plants silenced for the JA biosynthetic gene ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (irAOC) or plants transformed to create JA sinks by ectopically expressing Arabidopsis JA-O-methyltransferase (ovJMT). JA-impaired irAOC plants were defective in the cell-nonautonomous signaling pathway but not in JA transport. Conversely, ovJMT plants abrogated the production of a graft-transmissible JA signal. Both genotypes displayed unaltered cell-autonomous signaling. Defense responses (17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides, nicotine, and proteinase inhibitors) and metabolite profiles were differently induced in irAOC and ovJMT scions in response to graft-transmissible signals from elicited wild type stocks. The performance of Manduca sexta larvae on the scions of different graft combinations was consistent with the patterns of systemic defense metabolite elicitations. Taken together, we conclude that JA and possibly MeJA, but not JA-Ile, either directly functions as a long-distance transmissible signal or indirectly interacts with long distance signal(s) to activate systemic defense responses. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. A Web-Based Lifestyle Medicine Curriculum: Facilitating Education About Lifestyle Medicine, Behavioral Change, and Health Care Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Frates, Elizabeth Pegg; Xiao, Ryan C; Sannidhi, Deepa; McBride, Yasamina; McCargo, Tracie; Stern, Theodore A

    2017-09-11

    Lifestyle medicine is the science and application of healthy lifestyles as interventions for the prevention and treatment of disease, and has gained significant momentum as a specialty in recent years. College is a critical time for maintenance and acquisition of healthy habits. Longer-term, more intensive web-based and in-person lifestyle medicine interventions can have a positive effect. Students who are exposed to components of lifestyle medicine in their education have improvements in their health behaviors. A semester-long undergraduate course focused on lifestyle medicine can be a useful intervention to help adopt and sustain healthy habits. To describe a novel, evidence based curriculum for a course teaching the concepts of Lifestyle Medicine based on a web-based course offered at the Harvard Extension School. The course was delivered in a web-based format. The Lifestyle Medicine course used evidence based principles to guide students toward a "coach approach" to behavior change, increasing their self-efficacy regarding various lifestyle-related preventive behaviors. Students are made to understand the cultural trends and national guidelines that have shaped lifestyle medicine recommendations relating to behaviors. They are encouraged to engage in behavior change. Course topics include physical activity, nutrition, addiction, sleep, stress, and lifestyle coaching and counseling. The course addressed all of the American College of Preventive Medicine/American College of Lifestyle Medicine competencies save for the competency of office systems and technologies to support lifestyle medicine counseling. The course was well-received, earning a ranking of 4.9/5 at the school. A novel, semester-long course on Lifestyle Medicine at the Harvard Extension School is described. Student evaluations suggest the course was well-received. Further research is needed to evaluate whether such a course empowers students to adopt behavior changes.

  5. Associations between healthy lifestyles and health outcomes among older Koreans.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Seungah H; Kim, Hae-Young

    2016-06-01

    Healthy lifestyles have been found to be positively associated with physical and mental health outcomes in later life. Although multiple health behaviors have the potential to enhance health among older adults, little is known about a multiple behavior approach. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between multiple healthy lifestyles and health outcomes among Korean older adults. The study sample consisted of 3844 Korean older adults aged 65 years and older from a cross-section sample being followed in the nationally representative dataset, the 2012 Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Healthy lifestyles included non-smoking, normal drinking, physical activity and normal weight. Adjusting for covariates (age, sex, marital status, education, household income and having chronic condition), a multivariate logistic regression was carried out to examine self-rated health, disability, cognitive impairment and depression as four individual health outcomes. Compared with respondents with no healthy lifestyle factors, respondents with at least one healthy lifestyle factor had better self-rated health, respondents with at least two healthy lifestyle factors had reduced risk of disability, and respondents with at least three healthy lifestyle factors had reduced risk of cognitive impairment. Interestingly, having just two or three healthy lifestyle factor was associated with reduced risk of depression. These results suggest that older Koreans with more healthy lifestyles are healthier than those with less healthy lifestyles. Also, the association between multiple healthy lifestyle factors and health outcomes is different by specific health outcome, showing different mechanisms between multiple healthy lifestyle factors and each health outcome. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; ●●: ●●-●●. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Lifestyle effects on hematopoiesis and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Nahrendorf, Matthias; Swirski, Filip K

    2015-02-27

    Diet, exercise, stress, and sleep are receiving attention as environmental modifiers of chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, the culprit condition of myocardial infarction and stroke. Accumulating data indicate that psychosocial stress and a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet aggravate cardiovascular disease, whereas regular physical activity and healthy sleeping habits help prevent it. Here, we raise the possibility that inflammation-associated leukocyte production plays a causal role in lifestyle effects on atherosclerosis progression. Specifically, we explore whether and how potent real-life disease modifiers influence hematopoiesis' molecular and cellular machinery. Lifestyle, we hypothesize, may rearrange hematopoietic topography, diverting production from the bone marrow to the periphery, thus propagating a quantitative and qualitative drift of the macrophage supply chain. These changes may involve progenitor-extrinsic and intrinsic communication nodes that connect organ systems along neuroimmune and immunometabolic axes, ultimately leading to an altered number and phenotype of lesional macrophages. We propose that, in conjunction with improved public health policy, future therapeutics could aim to modulate the quantitative and qualitative output, as well as the location, of the hematopoietic tree to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis complications. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Lifestyle effects on hematopoiesis and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Nahrendorf, Matthias; Swirski, Filip K.

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, stress and sleep are receiving attention as environmental modifiers of chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, the culprit condition of myocardial infarction and stroke. Accumulating data indicate that psychosocial stress and a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet aggravate cardiovascular disease, whereas regular physical activity and healthy sleeping habits help prevent it. Here we raise the possibility that inflammation-associated leukocyte production plays a causal role in lifestyle effects on atherosclerosis progression. Specifically, we explore whether and how potent real-life disease modifiers influence hematopoiesis’ molecular and cellular machinery. Lifestyle, we hypothesize, may rearrange hematopoietic topography, diverting production from the bone marrow to the periphery, thus propagating a quantitative and qualitative drift of the macrophage supply chain. These changes may involve progenitor-extrinsic and intrinsic communication nodes that connect organ systems along neuro-immune and immuno-metabolic axes, ultimately leading to an altered number and phenotype of lesional macrophages. We propose that, in conjunction with improved public health policy, future therapeutics could aim to modulate the quantitative and qualitative output, as well as the location, of the hematopoietic tree to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis complications. PMID:25722442

  8. Mediterranean lifestyle: nutritional education on-line.

    PubMed

    del Balzo, V; Scanu, A; Dernini, S; Palmieri, O; Cannella, C

    2009-01-01

    Our goal is to spread on-line the Italian Weekly Pyramid, a tool designed to convey both portion size and frequency of food intake. The Pyramid is referring to the "Well-being Index" (WI) as a unit for an adequate lifestyle. The user can verify his weekly lifestyle by participating to a "game" based on food/beverages consumption and time assigned to physical activity. The site has been visited by 15920 individuals, of whom 4033 completed the game. Self-selected sample, not representative of the Italian population. The data collected included WI consumption by gender for each food group compared to WI suggested. Statistical data evaluation has been performed with the SPSS inc.13 program, without applying any statistical significance to the results. The sample showed a varied eating pattern; all the food groups were consumed almost daily, albeit in much lower quantities with regards to the suggested WI. Fruit and vegetable consumption was higher in women, while men showed a higher intake of meat and cut meats. The percentage of the participants consuming more WI with respect to the recommended amounts was very low for fruit, vegetable, pasta and bread, while was much higher as regards energy dense food.

  9. Lifestyle and Sporadic Colorectal Cancer in India.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rupal; Doval, Dinesh Chandra; Hussain, Showket; Kumar, Kapil; Singh, Shivendra; Basir, Seemi Farhat; Bharadwaj, Mausumi

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the patient, lifestyle and tumor profile in patients undergoing upfront surgery for sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) in Indian population. One hundred consecutive patients were included. Details related to their demographic profile, habits, signs and symptoms, tumor profile, further treatment and follow up were recorded. The majority of the patients had colonic cancer (68%), advanced tumor stage 3 and 4 (46%), moderately differentiated tumors (70%) with absence of lymphatic invasion (60%) and metastasis (90%). Correlations between tumor location and abdominal pain (p-value 0.002), bleeding per rectum (p-value <0.001), difficulty in micturition (p-value 0.012) and constipation (p-value 0.007) were found to be statistically significant. Abdominal pain was more frequently reported in patients with metastasis (p-value 0.031). Loss of weight statistically correlated with absence of lymphatic invasion (p-value 0.047). Associations between tumor stage and alcohol intake (p-value 0.050) and non vegetarian diet (p-value 0.006); lymphatic invasion and intake of spicy food (p-value 0.040) and non vegetarian diet (p-value 0.001) and metastasis and alcohol intake (p-value 0.041) were also observed. Age and tumor grade were also correlated (p-value 0.020). Minimizing the adverse lifestyle factors can help in reducing the overall incidence of CRC in the Indian population.

  10. Genetics, lifestyle and longevity: Lessons from centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraju, Diddahally; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Longevity as a complex life-history trait shares an ontogenetic relationship with other quantitative traits and varies among individuals, families and populations. Heritability estimates of longevity suggest that about a third of the phenotypic variation associated with the trait is attributable to genetic factors, and the rest is influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Individuals react differently to the environments that they are a part of, as well as to the environments they construct for their survival and reproduction; the latter phenomenon is known as niche construction. Lifestyle influences longevity at all the stages of development and levels of human diversity. Hence, lifestyle may be viewed as a component of niche construction. Here, we: a) interpret longevity using a combination of genotype-epigenetic-phenotype (GEP) map approach and niche-construction theory, and b) discuss the plausible influence of genetic and epigenetic factors in the distribution and maintenance of longevity among individuals with normal life span on the one hand, and centenarians on the other. Although similar genetic and environmental factors appear to be common to both of these groups, exceptional longevity may be influenced by polymorphisms in specific genes, coupled with superior genomic stability and homeostatic mechanisms, maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. We suggest that a comparative analysis of longevity between individuals with normal life span and centenarians, along with insights from population ecology and evolutionary biology, would not only advance our knowledge of biological mechanisms underlying human longevity, but also provide deeper insights into extending healthy life span. PMID:26937346

  11. [SOCIOHYGIENIC FACTORS FOR THE LIFESTYLE IN STUDENTS].

    PubMed

    Buduk-ool, L K

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are presented the studies of the social status and lifestyle in students of Tuvan and Russian nationality according to self-assessment by students of the material and domestic living conditions, health status, physical development, nutrition, socio-demographic characteristics. Students of the Tuvan University were shown to differ according to a low level of material provision, predominance ofrural students over urban ones, low educational qualifications of parents of students, due to the general socio-economic characteristics of the republic with a low level of urbanization, economic development, features of indigenous way of life. 43.8% of students believe that they have "good health." Students of 1-2 courses rated their health status as worst. Assessment of health largely depends on gender--young men assess their health higher than young women. In the self-assessment of the lifestyle, health and physical development in the students there are ethnic differences related to the peculiarities of mentality of the indigenous and non-indigenous population.

  12. Vegetarian diet: panacea for modern lifestyle diseases?

    PubMed

    Segasothy, M; Phillips, P A

    1999-09-01

    We review the beneficial and adverse effects of vegetarian diets in various medical conditions. Soybean-protein diet, legumes, nuts and soluble fibre significantly decrease total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Diets rich in fibre and complex carbohydrate, and restricted in fat, improve control of blood glucose concentration, lower insulin requirement and aid in weight control in diabetic patients. An inverse association has been reported between nut, fruit, vegetable and fibre consumption, and the risk of coronary heart disease. Patients eating a vegetarian diet, with comprehensive lifestyle changes, have had reduced frequency, duration and severity of angina as well as regression of coronary atherosclerosis and improved coronary perfusion. An inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption and stroke has been suggested. Consumption of fruits and vegetables, especially spinach and collard green, was associated with a lower risk of age-related ocular macular degeneration. There is an inverse association between dietary fibre intake and incidence of colon and breast cancer as well as prevalence of colonic diverticula and gallstones. A decreased breast cancer risk has been associated with high intake of soy bean products. The beneficial effects could be due to the diet (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals, fibre, complex carbohydrate, antioxidant vitamins, flavanoids, folic acid and phytoestrogens) as well as the associated healthy lifestyle in vegetarians. There are few adverse effects, mainly increased intestinal gas production and a small risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  13. Dietary and lifestyle factors in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2013-03-01

    Dietary factors are increasingly recognized to have an important role in triggering symptoms in a large proportion of patients with functional dyspepsia. Fatty foods seem to be the main culprits, but other foods (including carbohydrate-containing foods, milk and dairy products, citrus fruits, spicy foods, coffee and alcohol) have also been implicated. However, blind challenge tests do not provide consistent results. Moreover, although patients identify specific foods as triggers of their symptoms, these patients often do not seem to make behavioural adjustments in an attempt to improve symptoms; that is, any differences in dietary intake and lifestyle between patients and healthy individuals are small. Patients with functional dyspepsia exhibit mixed sensory-motor abnormalities, such as gastric hypersensitivity and impaired gastric accommodation of a meal. Nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate these abnormalities and might thereby trigger postprandial symptoms. Cognitive factors, including anticipation related to previous negative experience with certain foods, might also have a role in triggering symptoms. Studies evaluating the potential beneficial effect of dietary interventions and changes in lifestyle are lacking, and this Review outlines a number of options that could be used as starting points for meaningful large-scale studies in the future.

  14. On balance: lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Haggett, Ali

    2016-10-18

    Given the supremacy of the biomedical model in defining our understanding and treatment of a wide range of physcial and psychological disorders, it is perhaps curious that simultaneously, scientists, clinicians, governments and patients routinely employ the concepts of "lifestyle" and "balance" to try to explain the causes of bodily disease and psychological disorder. Concurrently, the health advantages that are assumed to be inherent in a "balanced life" have been exploited by a rapidly expanding consumer market in "wellbeing"-by companies and individuals promoting food supplements, "wearable fitness", diet trends and the self-help material. Exploring the tension between the biomedical doctrine and the parallel preoccupation with balance and lifestyle has provided the impetus for this special issue. Emerging originally from papers presented at an interdisciplinary conference held at the University of Exeter in June 2015, and augmented by two further comment pieces, the collection of articles aims to explore the ways in which changing notions of "balance" have been used to understand the causes of mental illness; to rationalise new approaches to its treatment; and to validate advice relating to balance in work and family life.

  15. Lifestyle practice among Malaysian university students.

    PubMed

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Mohd Noor, Nor Aini Binti

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that a healthy lifestyle is of benefit in the prevention of diseases such as cancer and promotion of well-being. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine lifestyle practice and associated factors among university students in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted over six months from November 2011 until May 2012 among the students from the Management and Science University. This study was approved by its ethical committee , the students being explained the objective and invited to participate. A consent form was signed by all study participants. Questionnaire was distributed randomly to the students of the five faculties through their lecturers in different faculty. For univariate analysis t-test and ANOVA test were performed. Multiple linear regression used for multivariate analysis using SPSS 13.0. A total number of 1100 students participated with a mean age of 22.1±2.21 (SD) years. The majority were 22 years or younger (56.3%), female (54%), Malay (61.5%), single (92.3%), with family monthly income ≥5000 Ringgit Malaysia (41.2%). Regarding lifestyle, about were 31.6% smokers, 75.6% never drank alcohol and 53.7% never exercised. Multivariate analysis showed that age, sex, race, parent marital status, participant marital status, type of faculty, living status, smoking status, exercise, residency, brushing teeth, fiber intake and avoid fatty food significantly influenced the practice of drinking alcohol among university students (p=0.006, p=0.042, p<0.001, p=0.003, p=0.002, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.003, p<0.001; respectively). It similarly showed that sex, race, parent marital status, participant marital status, monthly family income, exercise, residency, brushing teeth and fiber intake significantly influenced the practice of sun protection (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.017, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001; respectively) and that age, sex, parent marital status

  16. [Prevention of dementia on the basis of modification of lifestyle and management of lifestyle-related diseases: a review].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Toshihike

    2014-04-01

    Recent observational longitudinal studies have indicated the association of cognition with lifestyle and lifestyle-related diseases, which can affect timely through the life as protective or risk factors. In particular, inappropriate lifestyle including diet and exercise induces lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, cigarette smoking which promote cognitive decline and the occurrence of dementia as vascular risk factors. On the other hand, education during early life, occupational exposure during mid-life, and diet with green leafy vegetables and fish oil, and leisure activities including hobbies, social activities, and physical activities during later life could maintain or accelerate the cognitive reserve function. On the basis of modification of lifestyle and management of lifestyle-related diseases, therefore, we should prevent cognitive decline and the occurrence of dementia to achieve healthy aging society.

  17. Promoting Healthy Lifestyles in High School Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although obesity and mental health disorders are two major public health problems in adolescents that affect academic performance, few rigorously designed experimental studies have been conducted in high schools. Purpose The goal of the study was to test the efficacy of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) Program, versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on: healthy lifestyle behaviors, BMI, mental health, social skills, and academic performance of high school adolescents immediately after and at 6 months post-intervention. Design A cluster RCT was conducted. Data were collected from January 2010 to May of 2012 and analyzed in 2012–2013. Setting/participants A total of 779 culturally diverse adolescents in the U.S. Southwest participated in the trial. Intervention COPE was a cognitive–behavioral skills-building intervention with 20 minutes of physical activity integrated into a health course, taught by teachers once a week for 15 weeks. The attention control program was a 15-session, 15-week program that covered common health topics. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes assessed immediately after and 6 months post-intervention were healthy lifestyle behaviors and BMI. Secondary outcomes included mental health, alcohol and drug use, social skills, and academic performance. Results Post-intervention, COPE teens had a greater number of steps per day (p=0.03) and a lower BMI (p=0.01) than did those in Healthy Teens, and higher average scores on all Social Skills Rating System subscales (p-values <0.05). Alcohol use was 11.17% in the COPE group and 21.46% in the Healthy Teens group (p=0.04). COPE teens had higher health course grades than did control teens. At 6 months post-intervention, COPE teens had a lower mean BMI than teens in Healthy Teens (COPE=24.72, Healthy Teens=25.05, adjusted M= −0.34, 95% CI= −0.56, −0.11). The proportion of those

  18. Genetic Risk, Adherence to a Healthy Lifestyle, and Coronary Disease.

    PubMed

    Khera, Amit V; Emdin, Connor A; Drake, Isabel; Natarajan, Pradeep; Bick, Alexander G; Cook, Nancy R; Chasman, Daniel I; Baber, Usman; Mehran, Roxana; Rader, Daniel J; Fuster, Valentin; Boerwinkle, Eric; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Ridker, Paul M; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2016-12-15

    Background Both genetic and lifestyle factors contribute to individual-level risk of coronary artery disease. The extent to which increased genetic risk can be offset by a healthy lifestyle is unknown. Methods Using a polygenic score of DNA sequence polymorphisms, we quantified genetic risk for coronary artery disease in three prospective cohorts - 7814 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, 21,222 in the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS), and 22,389 in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS) - and in 4260 participants in the cross-sectional BioImage Study for whom genotype and covariate data were available. We also determined adherence to a healthy lifestyle among the participants using a scoring system consisting of four factors: no current smoking, no obesity, regular physical activity, and a healthy diet. Results The relative risk of incident coronary events was 91% higher among participants at high genetic risk (top quintile of polygenic scores) than among those at low genetic risk (bottom quintile of polygenic scores) (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75 to 2.09). A favorable lifestyle (defined as at least three of the four healthy lifestyle factors) was associated with a substantially lower risk of coronary events than an unfavorable lifestyle (defined as no or only one healthy lifestyle factor), regardless of the genetic risk category. Among participants at high genetic risk, a favorable lifestyle was associated with a 46% lower relative risk of coronary events than an unfavorable lifestyle (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.63). This finding corresponded to a reduction in the standardized 10-year incidence of coronary events from 10.7% for an unfavorable lifestyle to 5.1% for a favorable lifestyle in ARIC, from 4.6% to 2.0% in WGHS, and from 8.2% to 5.3% in MDCS. In the BioImage Study, a favorable lifestyle was associated with significantly less coronary-artery calcification within each genetic risk

  19. [Osteoporosis as a lifestyle-related disease].

    PubMed

    Hata, Motohide; Miyao, Mariko; Mizuno, Yuzo

    2003-02-01

    Although genetic factors determine the limits of peak bone mass, environmental factors can modify the outcome. Relation between lifestyle and osteoporosis is discussed, in terms of nutrition and habits. Significant link between calcium intake and bone mass has been reported. Although recommended daily allowance of calcium is 600 mg/day for adults, 850 mg/day or more shall be recommended later in life. Vitamin D insufficiency may lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly, the condition that facilitates bone loss. Other nutrients that affect bone turnover include vitamin K, vitamin C, protein, potassium, salt, magnesium and phosphorus. Too much intake of caffeine or alcohol, as well as smoking is a risk factor of osteoporosis. Mechanical loading on the skeleton increases bone mass, therefore weight-bearing activity is recommended to gain or preserve bone mass.

  20. Lipoprotein (a) Management: Lifestyle and Hormones.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Leon-Acuna, Ana; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Martinez, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the first cause of mortality in developed countries. Moreover, far from diminishing, the cardiovascular risk factors leading towards the development of CVD are on the rise. Therefore, the preventive and therapeutic management which is currently in place is clearly not enough to stop this pandemic. In this context, a major resurgence in interest in lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] has occurred in light of its association with CVD. This series aims to review the basic and clinical aspects of Lp(a) biology. Specifically, the present review considers the current situation regarding the influence of lifestyle, hormones and other physiological or pathological conditions on Lp(a) plasma concentrations which might mitigate the harmful effects of this lipoprotein. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Prevention of Cancer Through Lifestyle Changes

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and an abundance of evidence suggests that lifestyle factors including smoking, the typical high-fat, refined-sugar diet and physical inactivity account for the majority of cancer. This review focuses on diet and inactivity as major factors for cancer promotion by inducing insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Elevated levels of serum insulin impact on the liver primarily, increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) while reducing the production of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) resulting in stimulation of tumor cell growth and inhibition of apoptosis (programmed cell death). Adopting a diet low in fat and high in fiber-rich starch foods, which would also include an abundance of antioxidants, combined with regular aerobic exercise might control insulin resistance, reduce the resulting serum factors and thus reduce the risk for many different cancers commonly seen in the USA. PMID:15841256

  2. The hemibiotrophic lifestyle of Colletotrichum species.

    PubMed

    Münch, Steffen; Lingner, Ulrike; Floss, Daniela S; Ludwig, Nancy; Sauer, Norbert; Deising, Holger B

    2008-01-01

    Colletotrichum species infect several economically important crop plants. To establish a compatible parasitic interaction, a specialized infection cell, the melanized appressorium, is differentiated on the cuticle of the host. After penetration, an infection vesicle and primary hyphae are formed. These structures do not kill the host cell and show some similarities with haustoria formed by powdery mildews and rust fungi. Therefore, this stage of infection is called biotrophic. Later in the infection process, necrotrophic secondary hyphae spread within and kill the host tissue. The lifestyle of Colletotrichum species is called hemibiotrophic, as biotrophic and necrotrophic developmental stages are sequentially established. As most Colletotrichum species are accessible to molecular techniques, genes can be identified and functionally characterized. Here we demonstrate that Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is a well-suited method for tagging of genes mediating compatibility in the Colletotrichum graminicola-maize interaction.

  3. Addiction: lifestyle choice or medical diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Nutt, David

    2013-06-01

    The concept of addiction is under threat from the current UK government's attempt to define it as a lifestyle choice rather than an illness. This overturns the previous government's rational policy on drug treatment and is both dishonest and damaging. It is dishonest because addiction fulfils all the criteria for an illness. It is damaging because proven treatments for many addictions exist and the failure to optimize these means that more patients will die, get blood-borne viruses, and encourage others into drug use. In this paper, I detail these issues and suggest ways to avoid irreparable damage to the current care provisions that are proving effective. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The vegetarian lifestyle and DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Jürgen; Schorr, Heike; Bodis, Marion; Isber, Sonia; Hübner, Ulrich; Knapp, Jean-Pierre; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Vegetarians have a lower intake of vitamin B12 than omnivores do. Vitamin B12 deficiency (holotranscobalamin II <35 pmol/L or methylmalonic acid >271 nmol/L) was found in 58% of 71 vegetarians studied. Higher homocysteine levels (>12 micromol/L) found in 45% indicate disturbed remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. The methylation of DNA is strongly linked to homocysteine metabolism. Since DNA methylation is an important epigenetic factor in the regulation of gene expression, alteration of the methylation pattern has been associated with aging, cancer, atherosclerosis and other diseases. Three observations indicate that DNA methylation could be diminished by a vegetarian lifestyle. The vegetarian diet has a low content of methionine, remethylation of homocysteine is reduced by vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels can induce the generation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a potent inhibitor of methyltransferases. In our study we observed a significant correlation between SAH and whole-genome methylation (r=-0.36, p<0.01). This observation underlines the role of SAH as a potent inhibitor of methyltransferases. The methylation status was not correlated with homocysteine or S-adenosylemethionine (SAM). These results indicate that the degree of methylation does not depend on the supply of methyl groups and that the reverse generation of SAH has no influence. In addition to whole-genome methylation, the specific promoter methylation of the p66Shc gene was studied. However, the latter did not correlate with SAH, SAM or homocysteine. Obviously, the promoter methylation of the p66Shc gene is controlled in a specific way, without following the general regulating influence of SAH. In conclusion, an inhibitory effect of SAH on whole-genome methylation was found, but from our data no interaction between vegetarian lifestyle and DNA methylation could be determined.

  5. Including lifestyle medicine in undergraduate medical curricula

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Edward; Pojednic, Rachele; Polak, Rani; Bush, Jennifer; Trilk, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Currently, there is no model to integrate the discipline of lifestyle medicine (LM) into undergraduate medical education. Furthermore, there are no guidelines, validated assessment tools, or evaluation or implementation plans in place. Background The World Health Organization predicts that by 2020, two-thirds of disease worldwide will be the result of poor lifestyle choices. Fewer than 50% of US primary care physicians routinely provide specific guidance on nutrition, physical activity, or weight control. Methods We are establishing a plan to integrate LM into medical school education in collaboration with the investing stakeholders, including medical school deans and students, medical curriculum developers and researchers, medical societies, governing bodies, and policy institutes. Three planning and strategy meetings are being held to address key areas of focus – with a particular interest in nutrition, physical activity, student self-care, and behavior change – to develop specific implementation guidelines and landmarks. Results After the first two meetings, the proposed areas of focus were determined to be: 1) supporting of deans and key personnel, 2) creation of federal and state policy commitments, 3) use of assessment as a driver of LM, 4) provision of high-quality evidence-based curricular material on an easily navigated site, and 5) engaging student interest. Implementation strategies for each focus area will be addressed in an upcoming planning meeting in early 2015. Conclusion This initiative is expected to have important public health implications by efficiently promoting the prevention and treatment of non-communicable chronic disease with a scalable and sustainable model to educate physicians in training and practice. PMID:25652118

  6. Beyond salt: lifestyle modifications and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Frisoli, Tiberio M; Schmieder, Roland E; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Messerli, Franz H

    2011-12-01

    Lifestyle changes have been shown to effect significant blood pressure (BP) reductions. Although there are several proposed neurohormonal links between weight loss and BP, body mass index itself appears to be the most powerful mediator of the weight-BP relationship. There appears to be a mostly linear relationship between weight and BP; as weight is regained, the BP benefit is mostly lost. Physical activity, but more so physical fitness (the physiological benefit obtained from physical activity), has a dose-dependent BP benefit but reaches a plateau at which there is no further benefit. However, even just a modest physical activity can have a meaningful BP effect. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables with low-fat dairy products and low in saturated and total fat (DASH) is independently effective in reducing BP. Of the dietary mineral nutrients, the strongest data exist for increased potassium intake, which reduces BP and stroke risk. Vitamin D is associated with BP benefit, but no causal relationship has been established. Flavonoids such as those found in cocoa and berries may have a modest BP benefit. Neither caffeine nor nicotine has any significant, lasting BP effect. Biofeedback therapies such as those obtained with device-guided breathing have a modest and safe BP benefit; more research is needed before such therapies move beyond those having an adjunctive treatment role. There is a strong, linear relationship between alcohol intake and BP; however, the alcohol effects on BP and coronary heart disease are divergent. The greatest BP benefit seems to be obtained with one drink per day for women and with two per day for men. This benefit is lost or attenuated if the drinking occurs in a binge form or without food. Overall, the greatest and most sustained BP benefit is obtained when multiple lifestyle interventions are incorporated simultaneously.

  7. Education in Healthy Lifestyles: Curriculum Implications. Fastback 216.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    The nature of a healthy lifestyle and its significance to quality of life is examined. Following a discussion on what is involved in a healthy lifestyle, major health problems are described: (1) smoking; (2) alcohol and drug abuse; (3) sexually transmitted diseases; (4) diet and obesity; (5) stress; and (6) inadequate sleep. Recommendations are…

  8. PETE Students' Perceptions of a Healthy and Active Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Pennington, Todd; Barney, David; Lockhart, Barbara; Hager, Ron; Prusak, Keven

    2014-01-01

    Participants were male and female students (n = 12) in a physical education teacher education (PETE) program with a healthy and active lifestyle management (HALM) focus, at a university in the Intermountain West. The purpose of the study was to examine PETE students' perceptions of a healthy and active lifestyle (HAL). Following inductive content…

  9. Social Relationships in Religious Institutions and Healthy Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal; Shaw, Benjamin; Liang, Jersey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if encouragement from fellow church members helps older people develop and maintain healthy lifestyles. The findings indicate that informal church-based support is associated with healthy lifestyles among older African Americans but not older Whites. In addition, the influence of support from fellow church…

  10. The Maasai's Education and Empowerment: Challenges of a Migrant Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jacqueline S.; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan

    2002-01-01

    Describes struggle of Maasai in Kenya and Tanzania to preserve migratory lifestyle while remaking their schooling system. Addresses goals, content and method, and outcomes for both indigenous and Western Maasai education. Considers educational implications for migratory lifestyles and recommends listening to, building trust with, and empowering…

  11. Alliances in the Dutch BeweegKuur Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Hartog, Franciska; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; van Dijk, Marieke; Koelen, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: BeweegKuur (Exercise Therapy) is a Dutch lifestyle programme in which participants are referred by a general practitioner (GP) to a lifestyle advisor. To support participants, regional and local alliances are established. The present study explored the successes and challenges associated with collaboration processes in local BeweegKuur…

  12. Lifestyle and Clinical Health Behaviors and PSA Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Cynthia; McFall, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the association of lifestyle and clinical health behaviors with prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests. The study used cross-sectional data from the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We used Stata 8.0 to take into account the complex sample design in analyses. Both lifestyle and clinical health behaviors…

  13. The Maasai's Education and Empowerment: Challenges of a Migrant Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Jacqueline S.; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan

    2002-01-01

    Describes struggle of Maasai in Kenya and Tanzania to preserve migratory lifestyle while remaking their schooling system. Addresses goals, content and method, and outcomes for both indigenous and Western Maasai education. Considers educational implications for migratory lifestyles and recommends listening to, building trust with, and empowering…

  14. Wellness Intervention Effects on Lifestyle, Attitudes and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Stephen M.; And Others

    The effect of an on-site health promotion program on lifestyle behavior, health, attitude, and stress was studied with 41 university faculty and nonacademic administrators. The participants were administered a maximal graded exercise tolerance test, hydrostatic weighing, and the Lifestyle Analysis Questionnaire. While 32 staff were assigned to an…

  15. Lifestyle modification: A primary prevention approach to colorectal cancer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early detection of cancer through screening is an important step in decreasing both morbidity and mortality. Likewise, specific modifiable lifestyle behaviors are associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Lifestyle practices have also been shown to maximize health after the primary treatmen...

  16. Alliances in the Dutch BeweegKuur Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Hartog, Franciska; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; van Dijk, Marieke; Koelen, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: BeweegKuur (Exercise Therapy) is a Dutch lifestyle programme in which participants are referred by a general practitioner (GP) to a lifestyle advisor. To support participants, regional and local alliances are established. The present study explored the successes and challenges associated with collaboration processes in local BeweegKuur…

  17. Lifestyle medicine: the future of chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Robert F; Sorensen, Kirsten Webb

    2013-10-01

    Lifestyle medicine is a new discipline that has recently emerged as a systematized approach for management of chronic disease. The practice of lifestyle medicine requires skills and competency in addressing multiple health risk behaviours and improving self-management. Targets include diet, physical activity, behaviour change, body weight control, treatment plan adherence, stress and coping, spirituality, mind body techniques, tobacco and substance abuse. This review focuses on the impact of a healthy lifestyle on chronic disease, the rarity of good health and the challenges of implementing a lifestyle medicine programme. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are at the root of the global burden of noncommunicable diseases and account for about 63% of all deaths. Over the past several years, there has been an increased interest in evaluating the benefit of adhering to 'low-risk lifestyle' behaviours and ideal 'cardiovascular health metrics'. Although a healthy lifestyle has repeatedly been shown to improve mortality, the population prevalence of healthy living remains low. Lifestyle medicine presents a new and challenging approach to address the prevention and treatment of noncommunicable diseases, the most important and prevalent causes for increased morbidity and mortality worldwide.

  18. Changes in Healthy Childhood Lifestyle Behaviors in Japanese Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention…

  19. Determination of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelebi, Evrim; Gündogdu, Cemal; Kizilkaya, Aysel

    2017-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle behaviors can be defined as all the behaviors believed and applied by individuals to be healthy, maintain health and be protected from diseases. This study aims to determine the healthy lifestyle behaviors of high school students studying at the high schools in the Province of Elazig, Turkey. The study population of this…

  20. Changes in Healthy Childhood Lifestyle Behaviors in Japanese Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention…

  1. Lifestyle Behaviors as Predictors of Malignant Neoplasm Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, L. S.; And Others

    The relationship between lifestyle behaviors and the onset of neoplasm development has been researched extensively. This study took a multivariate approach in attempting to identify lifestyle variables which could predict group membership among subjects diagnosed as having cancer and those subjects who have not been diagnosed as having cancer.…

  2. Women, Meaning Making and Lifestyle Change after a Cardiac Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Many US women have had or will experience a cardiac event and little is known about their learning experiences associated with subsequent lifestyle change. In this qualitative study, the researcher examined the experiential learning of 22 women who made lifestyle changes after a cardiac event. Meaning making experiences were examined for influence…

  3. PETE Students' Perceptions of a Healthy and Active Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Pennington, Todd; Barney, David; Lockhart, Barbara; Hager, Ron; Prusak, Keven

    2014-01-01

    Participants were male and female students (n = 12) in a physical education teacher education (PETE) program with a healthy and active lifestyle management (HALM) focus, at a university in the Intermountain West. The purpose of the study was to examine PETE students' perceptions of a healthy and active lifestyle (HAL). Following inductive content…

  4. Changing Group and Organizational Cultures To Support Healthy Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judd

    Group and organizational cultures play an important role in helping people to adopt healthier lifestyles. Culture can be assessed by looking at social expectations for behavior, called group norms. Cultural norms can be changed to support healthy lifestyles through a systematic and participatory process. Such a change effort would modify: (1)…

  5. Women, Meaning Making and Lifestyle Change after a Cardiac Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Many US women have had or will experience a cardiac event and little is known about their learning experiences associated with subsequent lifestyle change. In this qualitative study, the researcher examined the experiential learning of 22 women who made lifestyle changes after a cardiac event. Meaning making experiences were examined for influence…

  6. Social Relationships in Religious Institutions and Healthy Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal; Shaw, Benjamin; Liang, Jersey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if encouragement from fellow church members helps older people develop and maintain healthy lifestyles. The findings indicate that informal church-based support is associated with healthy lifestyles among older African Americans but not older Whites. In addition, the influence of support from fellow church…

  7. Thought-Style and Life-Style: Some Hypothesized Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Richard D.; O'Hearn, George T.

    1982-01-01

    Examines changes in the broad cultural background which provide the context for thinking, and how such life-style changes may have influenced the decline of reasoning skills and styles fundamental to the sciences. Considers peasant/rural farming, new world, and postaffluent society life-styles and science education in the latter. (Author/SK)

  8. Wellness Intervention Effects on Lifestyle, Attitudes and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Stephen M.; And Others

    The effect of an on-site health promotion program on lifestyle behavior, health, attitude, and stress was studied with 41 university faculty and nonacademic administrators. The participants were administered a maximal graded exercise tolerance test, hydrostatic weighing, and the Lifestyle Analysis Questionnaire. While 32 staff were assigned to an…

  9. The Role of Lifestyle in Preventing Low Birth Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomitz, Virginia Rall; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between lifestyle choices and low birth weights and the opportunity that pregnancy offers women for adopting more healthful lifestyle behaviors. It reviews the literature that focuses on the roles of drug use, nutrition, stress, physical activity, employment, social support, violence, and sexually transmitted diseases in…

  10. Are lifestyle shifts fuelling the obesity epidemic in urbanised Africans?

    PubMed

    Ojiambo, Robert M

    2016-12-01

    Humans evolved for active lifestyles involving hunting-gathering and agriculture. To sustain these energy-intensive lifestyles, diets consisting of energy-dense foods were selected. It can therefore be argued that humans are physiologically adapted for active lifestyles. However, with rapid industrialisation, there has been an upsurge in the usage of labour-saving devices as well as a glut in the supply of energy-dense foods. This mismatch between energy supply and expenditure in modern man may be fuelling the contemporary trends in obesity in urbanised man. On the other hand, recent emerging evidence indicates that air pollution related to motorised transportation in urban areas may be obesogenic by causing alterations in the lipid metabolic pathways, resulting in fat deposition. These lifestyle shifts are drastically different from traditional rural African lifestyles and mirror the different prevalence rates of obesity and related co-morbidities between rural versus urban areas. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Young adult women: lifestyle and health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Schank, M J; Lawrence, D M

    1993-08-01

    A study of 76 young adult women, 38 nursing students and 38 non-nursing students, examined their lifestyle practices and health locus of control (HLOC). Findings revealed a significant difference between reported lifestyle practices and the career choice of these young adult women. The lifestyle practice areas in which the most notable differences occurred included: use of seat belts, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of junk food intake, use of illegal drugs and hours of sleep per night. While differences in HLOC were evident between nursing and non-nursing students, no relationship was found between a young woman's HLOC and her lifestyle practices. The differences in HLOC showed that nurses were more frequently pure internal whereas most non-nurses were found to be double externals. The pure chance category had the fewest number of respondents. The difference in lifestyle practices between these young adult women can be explained in part by curriculum variations, as can the difference in HLOC patterns.

  12. Knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Ahmady, Khodabakhsh; Babaei, Mansour; Tavana, Ali Mehrabi; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ebadi, Abbas; Poursaid, Syed Masood

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lifestyle is a set of goals, plans, values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs manifested in the personal and family life of the individual and in her or his social interactions. It is an interdisciplinary concept that involves a health-oriented view of the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of life. Despite their great importance, there is not much knowledge in Iran about healthy lifestyles. The present study is an attempt to address the knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran through a review of the literature on the subject. Methods The present systematic review searched Elsevier, SID, Pub Med, Magiran, IranMedex, and Google Scholar databases for relevant articles published between 2000 and 2014. We used various keywords for the searches, including knowledge, lifestyle, health, and Iran. As a result, 62 articles were included in the study. Results There has been a dramatic increase in the publication of articles on lifestyle in Iran over the past 10 years. The results obtained showed that 64% of the articles addressed physical health, 14% addressed psychological health, 10% addressed social health, and 12% addressed spiritual health. Most lifestyle studies conducted in Iran have focused on physical health, and a few have examined the psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of lifestyle. None of the studies has examined the knowledge map of healthy lifestyles in Iran. Conclusion Given the changes in the causes of mortality from infectious and chronic diseases that impose greater medication and treatment costs on the society, and since diseases caused by unhealthy lifestyles have become the leading cause of death, it is essential for health researchers to focus on the root cause of these diseases, i.e., lifestyle and human behaviors. PMID:27123231

  13. Knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Ahmady, Khodabakhsh; Babaei, Mansour; Tavana, Ali Mehrabi; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ebadi, Abbas; Poursaid, Syed Masood

    2016-03-01

    Lifestyle is a set of goals, plans, values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs manifested in the personal and family life of the individual and in her or his social interactions. It is an interdisciplinary concept that involves a health-oriented view of the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of life. Despite their great importance, there is not much knowledge in Iran about healthy lifestyles. The present study is an attempt to address the knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran through a review of the literature on the subject. The present systematic review searched Elsevier, SID, Pub Med, Magiran, IranMedex, and Google Scholar databases for relevant articles published between 2000 and 2014. We used various keywords for the searches, including knowledge, lifestyle, health, and Iran. As a result, 62 articles were included in the study. There has been a dramatic increase in the publication of articles on lifestyle in Iran over the past 10 years. The results obtained showed that 64% of the articles addressed physical health, 14% addressed psychological health, 10% addressed social health, and 12% addressed spiritual health. Most lifestyle studies conducted in Iran have focused on physical health, and a few have examined the psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of lifestyle. None of the studies has examined the knowledge map of healthy lifestyles in Iran. Given the changes in the causes of mortality from infectious and chronic diseases that impose greater medication and treatment costs on the society, and since diseases caused by unhealthy lifestyles have become the leading cause of death, it is essential for health researchers to focus on the root cause of these diseases, i.e., lifestyle and human behaviors.

  14. Lifestyle Knowledge and Preferences in Preschool Children: Evaluation of the "Get up and Grow" Healthy Lifestyle Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Nicola; Harris, Neil; Lee, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Early childhood is considered a window of opportunity for lifestyle interventions, as this is a critical life-stage at which children accumulate knowledge and skills around behaviours such as eating and physical activity. This study examined how exposure to a settings-based healthy lifestyle programme influences knowledge and preference…

  15. Assessing Wellness in College Students: A Validation of the Salubrious Lifestyle Scale of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Jeffrey M.; Cooper, Diane L.; Wachs, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    Study is a validation of the two proposed subscales for the Salubrious Lifestyle (SL) Scale of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA). The two subscales, Drug/Alcohol and Exercise/Nutrition, were determined from factor analysis of the original SL scale of the SDTLA. Findings support validation of both subscales. (Contains…

  16. Assessing Wellness in College Students: A Validation of the Salubrious Lifestyle Scale of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Jeffrey M.; Cooper, Diane L.; Wachs, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    Study is a validation of the two proposed subscales for the Salubrious Lifestyle (SL) Scale of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA). The two subscales, Drug/Alcohol and Exercise/Nutrition, were determined from factor analysis of the original SL scale of the SDTLA. Findings support validation of both subscales. (Contains…

  17. Lifestyle Changes and Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Adults With Spinal Cord Injury in the Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ghaisas, Samruddhi; Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Blanche, Erna; Clark, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PrUs) are a major burden to patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), affecting their psychological, physical, and social well-being. Lifestyle choices are thought to contribute to the risk of developing PrUs. This article focuses on the interaction between lifestyle choices and the development of PrUs in community settings among participants in the University of Southern California–Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study (PUPS II), a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention for adults with SCI. We conducted a secondary cross-case analysis of treatment notes of 47 PUPS II participants and identified four patterns relating PrU development to lifestyle changes: positive PrU changes (e.g., healing PrUs) with positive lifestyle changes, negative or no PrU changes with positive lifestyle changes, positive PrU changes with minor lifestyle changes, and negative or no PrU changes with no lifestyle changes. We present case studies exemplifying each pattern. PMID:25553751

  18. Lifestyle Knowledge and Preferences in Preschool Children: Evaluation of the "Get up and Grow" Healthy Lifestyle Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Nicola; Harris, Neil; Lee, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Early childhood is considered a window of opportunity for lifestyle interventions, as this is a critical life-stage at which children accumulate knowledge and skills around behaviours such as eating and physical activity. This study examined how exposure to a settings-based healthy lifestyle programme influences knowledge and preference…

  19. Genome Analysis of the Biotechnologically Relevant Acidophilic Iron Oxidising Strain JA12 Indicates Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity within the Novel Genus “Ferrovum”

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Sophie R.; Poehlein, Anja; Tischler, Judith S.; González, Carolina; Ossandon, Francisco J.; Daniel, Rolf; Holmes, David S.; Schlömann, Michael; Mühling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the genus “Ferrovum” are ubiquitously distributed in acid mine drainage (AMD) waters which are characterised by their high metal and sulfate loads. So far isolation and microbiological characterisation have only been successful for the designated type strain “Ferrovum myxofaciens” P3G. Thus, knowledge about physiological characteristics and the phylogeny of the genus “Ferrovum” is extremely scarce. Objective In order to access the wider genetic pool of the genus “Ferrovum” we sequenced the genome of a “Ferrovum”-containing mixed culture and successfully assembled the almost complete genome sequence of the novel “Ferrovum” strain JA12. Phylogeny and Lifestyle The genome-based phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain JA12 and the type strain represent two distinct “Ferrovum” species. “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is characterised by an unusually small genome in comparison to the type strain and other iron oxidising bacteria. The prediction of nutrient assimilation pathways suggests that “Ferrovum” strain JA12 maintains a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle utilising carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, ammonium and urea, sulfate, phosphate and ferrous iron as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and energy sources, respectively. Unique Metabolic Features The potential utilisation of urea by “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is moreover remarkable since it may furthermore represent a strategy among extreme acidophiles to cope with the acidic environment. Unlike other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs “Ferrovum” strain JA12 exhibits a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, a metabolic feature shared with the closer related neutrophilic iron oxidisers among the Betaproteobacteria including Sideroxydans lithotrophicus and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Furthermore, the absence of characteristic redox proteins involved in iron oxidation in the well-studied acidophiles Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (rusticyanin) and Acidithiobacillus

  20. Who will deliver comprehensive healthy lifestyle interventions to combat non-communicable disease? Introducing the healthy lifestyle practitioner discipline.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ross; Lavie, Carl J; Hivert, Marie-France; Williams, Mark A; Briggs, Paige D; Guazzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics (i.e., physical inactivity, excess body mass, poor diet, and smoking) as well as associated poor health metrics (i.e., dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension) are the primary reasons for the current non-communicable disease crisis. Compared to those with the poorest of lifestyles and associated health metrics, any movement toward improving lifestyle and associated health metrics improves health outcomes. To address the non-communicable disease crisis we must: 1) acknowledge that healthy lifestyle (HL) interventions are a potent medicine; and 2) move toward a healthcare system that embraces primordial as much as, if not more than, secondary prevention with a heavy focus on HL medicine. This article introduces the Healthy Lifestyle Practitioner, focused on training health professionals to deliver HL medicine.

  1. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Lifestyle factors and reproductive health: taking control of your fertility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10 to 15% of couples are impacted by infertility. Recently, the pivotal role that lifestyle factors play in the development of infertility has generated a considerable amount of interest. Lifestyle factors are the modifiable habits and ways of life that can greatly influence overall health and well-being, including fertility. Many lifestyle factors such as the age at which to start a family, nutrition, weight, exercise, psychological stress, environmental and occupational exposures, and others can have substantial effects on fertility; lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, illicit drug use, and alcohol and caffeine consumption can negatively influence fertility while others such as preventative care may be beneficial. The present literature review encompasses multiple lifestyle factors and places infertility in context for the couple by focusing on both males and females; it aims to identify the roles that lifestyle factors play in determining reproductive status. The growing interest and amount of research in this field have made it evident that lifestyle factors have a significant impact on fertility. PMID:23870423

  3. [Healthy lifestyle in São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Tatiane Kosimenko; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Goldbaum, Moisés; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2017-01-23

    The objective was to analyze adolescent, adult, and elderly lifestyles in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, according to demographic and socioeconomic variables. A cross-sectional, population-based study was performed with data from the Health Survey in São Paulo City (ISA-Capital 2008) database. Lifestyle was defined on the basis of physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol abuse and addiction, according to the respective guidelines. Prevalence of healthy lifestyle was 36.9% in the elderly, 15.4% in adults, and 9.8% in adolescents, and was higher in females in the elderly and adults. Among individuals with unhealthy lifestyle, 51.5% of the elderly, 32.2% of adults, and 57.9% of adolescents failed to reach the guidelines for adequate diet. Prevalence of healthy lifestyle was highest among the elderly, followed by adults and adolescents. Food consumption was the main factor associated with unhealthy lifestyle, demonstrating the importance of interventions to promote healthy lifestyle, especially adequate diet.

  4. A simple lifestyle score predicts survival in healthy elderly men.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Carole A; Jamrozik, Konrad; Norman, Paul E; Lawrence-Brown, Michael

    2005-06-01

    Although improvements in life expectancy have been attributed in part to the adoption of a more prudent lifestyle, few studies have examined the association of lifestyle with survival, using several lifestyle factors simultaneously, in a healthy elderly population. We investigated the association of health related behaviors with mortality in 7989 men aged 65 to 83 years participating in a population-based trial in Perth, Western Australia, by calculating a lifestyle score as a simple tally of how many of eight prudent behaviors each individual followed. Invitations to screening produced a corrected response of 70.5%. Out of a possible score of 8, 46% of men had a score of less than 5. Within 5 years, a total of 703 men (9%) had died from any cause. The hazard ratio in men with a low lifestyle score was 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-1.5] compared with men with a score of 5 or more. Lifestyle remains an important predictor of mortality even in old age. Survival in older men without a history of cardiovascular disease can potentially be enhanced by promoting a healthy lifestyle.

  5. Milieu matters: Evidence that ongoing lifestyle activities influence health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rob; Norman, Paul; Sheeran, Paschal

    2017-01-01

    Health behaviors occur within a milieu of lifestyle activities that could conflict with health actions. We examined whether cognitions about, and performance of, other lifestyle activities augment the prediction of health behaviors, and whether these lifestyle factors are especially influential among individuals with low health behavior engagement. Participants (N = 211) completed measures of past behavior and cognitions relating to five health behaviors (e.g., smoking, getting drunk) and 23 lifestyle activities (e.g., reading, socializing), as well as personality variables. All behaviors were measured again at two weeks. Data were analyzed using neural network and cluster analyses. The neural network accurately predicted health behaviors at follow-up (R2 = .71). As hypothesized, lifestyle cognitions and activities independently predicted health behaviors over and above behavior-specific cognitions and previous behavior. Additionally, lifestyle activities and poor self-regulatory capability were more influential among people exhibiting unhealthy behaviors. Considering ongoing lifestyle activities can enhance prediction and understanding of health behaviors and offer new targets for health behavior interventions.

  6. Milieu matters: Evidence that ongoing lifestyle activities influence health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Rob; Norman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Health behaviors occur within a milieu of lifestyle activities that could conflict with health actions. We examined whether cognitions about, and performance of, other lifestyle activities augment the prediction of health behaviors, and whether these lifestyle factors are especially influential among individuals with low health behavior engagement. Participants (N = 211) completed measures of past behavior and cognitions relating to five health behaviors (e.g., smoking, getting drunk) and 23 lifestyle activities (e.g., reading, socializing), as well as personality variables. All behaviors were measured again at two weeks. Data were analyzed using neural network and cluster analyses. The neural network accurately predicted health behaviors at follow-up (R2 = .71). As hypothesized, lifestyle cognitions and activities independently predicted health behaviors over and above behavior-specific cognitions and previous behavior. Additionally, lifestyle activities and poor self-regulatory capability were more influential among people exhibiting unhealthy behaviors. Considering ongoing lifestyle activities can enhance prediction and understanding of health behaviors and offer new targets for health behavior interventions. PMID:28662120

  7. Vegan diet-based lifestyle program rapidly lowers homocysteine levels.

    PubMed

    DeRose, D J; Charles-Marcel, Z L; Jamison, J M; Muscat, J E; Braman, M A; McLane, G D; Keith Mullen, J

    2000-03-01

    Plasma homocysteine levels have been directly associated with cardiac disease risk. Current research raises concerns as to whether comprehensive lifestyle approaches including a plant-based diet may interact with other known modulators of homocysteine levels. We report our observations of homocysteine levels in 40 self-selected subjects who participated in a vegan diet-based lifestyle program. Each subject attended a residential lifestyle change program at the Lifestyle Center of America in Sulphur, Oklahoma and had fasting plasma total homocysteine measured on enrollment and then after 1 week of lifestyle intervention. The intervention included a vegan diet, moderate physical exercise, stress management and spirituality enhancement sessions, group support, and exclusion of tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. B vitamin supplements known to reduce blood homocysteine levels were not provided. Subjects' mean homocysteine levels fell 13%: from 8.66 micromol/L (SD 2.7 micromol/L) to 7.53 micromol/L (SD 2.12 micromol/L; P < 0.0001). Subgroup analysis showed that homocysteine decreased across a range of demographic and diagnostic categories. Conclusions. Our results suggest that broad-based lifestyle interventions favorably impact homocysteine levels. Furthermore, analysis of Lifestyle Center of America program components suggests that other factors in addition to B vitamin intake may be involved in the observed homocysteine lowering.

  8. Educational Intervention on Health Related Lifestyle Changes Among Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    SAFFARI, Mohsen; AMINI, Najmemolouk; EFTEKHAR ARDEBILI, Hasan; SANAEINASAB, Hormoz; MAHMOUDI, Mahmoud; PIPER, Crystal N

    2013-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle habits during adolescence can prevent many of the diseases and disabilities in adulthood and later. The aim of the study was to examine the role of education in improving lifestyles among Iranian adolescents. Methods: This group randomized controlled trial was conducted during October 2010 until January 2011 in Tehran. Participants for this study were selected through a random sampling method and divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention group received a six session course on healthy lifestyles and the control group received no intervention. The Adolescent Lifestyle Questionnaire (ALQ) was used for collecting data. Data were collected before the intervention, at a two week after participation time point, and a three month follow-up was conducted. Results: Overall, 365 (male: 173, female: 192) adolescents participated in the study. There were significant differences between boys and girls in terms of physical activity and social support (P<0.001). The boys had higher levels of physical activity than girls. Girls received more social support than boys. There were significant differences in the lifestyle scores between the intervention and control groups at follow-up (P<0.001). The educational intervention indicated an improved total lifestyle score (from 123.7(SD.16.1) at baseline to 131.8 (SD.16.7) at two weeks and to 130.5(16.5) at 3 months after education) among the intervention group. Conclusions: Adolescents’ behaviors may be different in some dimensions among boys and girls. Unhealthy lifestyle habits are prevalent among adolescents. Therefore sex-specified lifestyle education can bring promising results. Further research in the field can reveal the importance of lifestyle intervention programs. PMID:23515491

  9. Lifestyle and genetics in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Temelkova-Kurktschiev, T; Stefanov, T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are multifactorial health threats caused by a complex interplay between genetic predisposition and the environment with dramatically increasing worldwide prevalence. The role of heritability in their etiology is well recognized, however, the numerous attempts made in order certain genetic variants determining individual susceptibility to be identified have had limited success, until recently. At present the advancements in human genetics and the utilization of the genome-wide association approach have led to the identification of over 20 genetic loci associated with, respectively obesity and type 2 diabetes. Most of the genes identified to date, however, have modest effect on disease risk suggesting that both diseases are unlikely to develop without the individual being exposed to obesity- and/or type 2 diabetes-promoting environment. Indeed, unhealthy lifestyle, characterized by physical inactivity and food overconsumption is an unequivocally established risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Numerous epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials, on the other hand, have demonstrated that lifestyle modification is effective in obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention. Furthermore, gene-lifestyle interaction studies suggest that genetic susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes may be partially or totally kept under control by healthy lifestyle or lifestyle modification and that lifestyle determines whether an individual is likely to develop the disease. Inherited factors, however, seem to influence individual response to a lifestyle intervention program and even the motivation for lifestyle change. Personalized interventions according to genotype may be, therefore, considered in the future. By then lifestyle modification targeting dietary change and increased physical activity may be recommended for successful obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention irrespectively of genetic susceptibility.

  10. Inside the lifestyle of the virophage.

    PubMed

    Desnues, C; Raoult, D

    2010-01-01

    We sought to better characterize Sputnik, the first isolated virophage, and to analyze its parasitic lifestyle during co-infection with Marseillevirus (a new giant virus) in Acanthamoeba castellanii. A combination of electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, and real-time PCR was used to characterize the kinetics of the viral replication cycle. RT-PCR was performed to detect RNAs inside the Sputnik virions. Sputnik is a new viral entity carrying an almost complete ready-to-use set of viral RNAs (20 out of 21). Sputnik does not replicate with Marseillevirus but delays its replication cycle. While Marseillevirus is successfully internalized by A. castellanii following co-infections with Mamavirus and Sputnik, it does not initiate a replication cycle. In contrast, both Marseillevirus and Mamavirus can replicate in the amoeba in case of co-infection, but the development of one is exclusive from the other inside a single amoeba cell. This work provides new insight into the Sputnik replication cycle with another giant virus and confirms that Sputnik is a virophage. It shows new dimensions of the interactions existing among giant viruses. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds.

    PubMed

    Sibly, Richard M; Witt, Christopher C; Wright, Natalie A; Venditti, Chris; Jetz, Walter; Brown, James H

    2012-07-03

    Theoretical and empirical studies of life history aim to account for resource allocation to the different components of fitness: survival, growth, and reproduction. The pioneering evolutionary ecologist David Lack [(1968) Ecological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds (Methuen and Co., London)] suggested that reproductive output in birds reflects adaptation to environmental factors such as availability of food and risk of predation, but subsequent studies have not always supported Lack's interpretation. Here using a dataset for 980 bird species (Dataset S1), a phylogeny, and an explicit measure of reproductive productivity, we test predictions for how mass-specific productivity varies with body size, phylogeny, and lifestyle traits. We find that productivity varies negatively with body size and energetic demands of parental care and positively with extrinsic mortality. Specifically: (i) altricial species are 50% less productive than precocial species; (ii) species with female-only care of offspring are about 20% less productive than species with other methods of parental care; (iii) nonmigrants are 14% less productive than migrants; (iv) frugivores and nectarivores are about 20% less productive than those eating other foods; and (v) pelagic foragers are 40% less productive than those feeding in other habitats. A strong signal of phylogeny suggests that syndromes of similar life-history traits tend to be conservative within clades but also to have evolved independently in different clades. Our results generally support both Lack's pioneering studies and subsequent research on avian life history.

  12. The Strange Lifestyle of Multipartite Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sicard, Anne; Michalakis, Yannis; Gutiérrez, Serafín

    2016-01-01

    Multipartite viruses have one of the most puzzling genetic organizations found in living organisms. These viruses have several genome segments, each containing only a part of the genetic information, and each individually encapsidated into a separate virus particle. While countless studies on molecular and cellular mechanisms of the infection cycle of multipartite viruses are available, just as for other virus types, very seldom is their lifestyle questioned at the viral system level. Moreover, the rare available “system” studies are purely theoretical, and their predictions on the putative benefit/cost balance of this peculiar genetic organization have not received experimental support. In light of ongoing progresses in general virology, we here challenge the current hypotheses explaining the evolutionary success of multipartite viruses and emphasize their shortcomings. We also discuss alternative ideas and research avenues to be explored in the future in order to solve the long-standing mystery of how viral systems composed of interdependent but physically separated information units can actually be functional. PMID:27812219

  13. Japanese dietary lifestyle and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Tada, Norio; Maruyama, Chizuko; Koba, Shinji; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Birou, Sadatoshi; Teramoto, Tamio; Sasaki, Jun

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate the reasons for low morbidity and mortality from coronary artery disease (CAD) and reconfirm the effectiveness of the Japanese dietary lifestyle for preventing CAD, we herein review the CAD risk transition, and post-war changes in Japanese food and nutrient intake. Large-scale cohort studies in Japan were selectively reviewed. Low serum total cholesterol contributed to preventing CAD, and decreased blood pressure was the major factor favoring stroke reduction. Japanese consumed more plant and marine origin foods, but fewer animal foods with saturated fatty acids (SFA) during the 1960-70s than in recent decades. Adequate control of total energy with restriction of saturated fatty acids from animal foods, increased intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including fish, soybean products, fruits and vegetables together with low salt intake are responsible for promoting CAD and stroke prevention. A diet with adequate total calories and increased intake of fish and plant foods, but decreased intake of refined carbohydrates and animal fat, a so-called Japan diet, appears to be quite effective for prevention of CAD risk factors and is recommended as dietary therapy for preventing CAD.

  14. [Lifestyle management approaches in postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hiroaki

    2004-11-01

    Of the lifestyle management approaches to postmenopausal osteoporosis recommended, encouraging walking appears to be more relevant than ensuring appropriate nutritional intake in preventing bone loss. The focus of the current lecture is therefore on encouraging exercise, as it is not hard to imagine the physical impact of exercise on bone mineral density. As has long been pointed out, in fact, the initial management of postmenopausal osteoporosis consists in subjecting the bone to a continual physical stress, including exercise. In this regard, aerobic exercise including walking has been widely recommended;however, there is no clear evidence showing aerobic exercise to be superior to other kinds of exercise, while several studies reported on the benefit of combining aerobic exercise with pharmacological treatments in postmenopausal women, including our own series. Physical exercise programs or guidelines aimed at the prophylaxis of postmenopausal osteoporosis that draw on research evidence supporting the benefit of encouraging physical exercise need yet to be put in place as a matter of urgency.

  15. Regulating alternative lifestyles in entomopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jason M; Kontnik, Renee; Clardy, Jon

    2010-01-12

    Bacteria belonging to the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus participate in a trilateral symbiosis in which they enable their nematode hosts to parasitize insect larvae. The bacteria switch from persisting peacefully in a nematode's digestive tract to a lifestyle in which pathways to produce insecticidal toxins, degrading enzymes to digest the insect for consumption, and antibiotics to ward off bacterial and fungal competitors are activated. This study addresses three questions: (1) What molecular signal triggers antibiotic production in the bacteria? (2) What small molecules are regulated by the signal? And (3), how do the bacteria recognize the signal? Differential metabolomic profiling in Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 and Xenorhabdus nematophila revealed that L-proline in the insect's hemolymph initiates a metabolic shift. Small molecules known to be crucial for virulence and antibiosis in addition to previously unknown metabolites are dramatically upregulated by L-proline, linking the recognition of host environment to bacterial metabolic regulation. To identify the L-proline-induced signaling pathway, we deleted the proline transporters putP and proU in P. luminescens TT01. Studies of these strains support a model in which acquisition of L-proline both regulates the metabolic shift and maintains the bacterial proton motive force that ultimately regulates the downstream bacterial pathways affecting virulence and antibiotic production.

  16. Internal affairs: investigating the Brucella intracellular lifestyle.

    PubMed

    von Bargen, Kristine; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Salcedo, Suzana P

    2012-05-01

    Bacteria of the genus Brucella are Gram-negative pathogens of several animal species that cause a zoonotic disease in humans known as brucellosis or Malta fever. Within their hosts, brucellae reside within different cell types where they establish a replicative niche and remain protected from the immune response. The aim of this article is to discuss recent advances in the field in the specific context of the Brucella intracellular 'lifestyle'. We initially discuss the different host cell targets and their relevance during infection. As it represents the key to intracellular replication, the focus is then set on the maturation of the Brucella phagosome, with particular emphasis on the Brucella factors that are directly implicated in intracellular trafficking and modulation of host cell signalling pathways. Recent data on the role of the type IV secretion system are discussed, novel effector molecules identified and how some of them impact on trafficking events. Current knowledge on Brucella gene regulation and control of host cell death are summarized, as they directly affect intracellular persistence. Understanding how Brucella molecules interplay with their host cell targets to modulate cellular functions and establish the intracellular niche will help unravel how this pathogen causes disease.

  17. On balance: lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Haggett, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Given the supremacy of the biomedical model in defining our understanding and treatment of a wide range of physcial and psychological disorders, it is perhaps curious that simultaneously, scientists, clinicians, governments and patients routinely employ the concepts of “lifestyle” and “balance” to try to explain the causes of bodily disease and psychological disorder. Concurrently, the health advantages that are assumed to be inherent in a “balanced life” have been exploited by a rapidly expanding consumer market in “wellbeing”—by companies and individuals promoting food supplements, “wearable fitness”, diet trends and the self-help material. Exploring the tension between the biomedical doctrine and the parallel preoccupation with balance and lifestyle has provided the impetus for this special issue. Emerging originally from papers presented at an interdisciplinary conference held at the University of Exeter in June 2015, and augmented by two further comment pieces, the collection of articles aims to explore the ways in which changing notions of “balance” have been used to understand the causes of mental illness; to rationalise new approaches to its treatment; and to validate advice relating to balance in work and family life. PMID:28083120

  18. Influence of lifestyle on vitamin bioavailability.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Henk; van der Gaag, Martijn; Hendriks, Henk

    2002-01-01

    In this review the effects of lifestyle factors, especially alcohol consumption, on vitamin bioavailability are summarized and discussed. Alcohol effects are clearly dose-dependent. Excessive chronic alcohol intake is generally associated with vitamin deficiency (especially folate, thiamine, and vitamin B6) due to malnutrition, malabsorption, and ethanol toxicity. Effects of moderate alcohol use are mainly explained by a lower vitamin intake. In the case of vitamin A and beta-carotene, effects on post-absorptive (lipoprotein) metabolism have been demonstrated. In one diet-controlled crossover study, alcohol consumption resulted in an increase in the plasma vitamin B6 (PLP) content, especially after beer consumption (containing vitamin B6), but also after wine and spirit consumption (not containing vitamin B6). Smoking is also associated with a lower dietary vitamin intake. In the case of vitamin C, B12, folate, and beta-carotene, evidence has been presented for effects on postabsorptive metabolism, due to smoke-induced oxidative stress and/or vitamin inactivation. For vitamin E a direct effect of smoking on absorption has been demonstrated. There is no convincing evidence that low-fat diets negatively affect fat-soluble vitamin absorption, but cholesterol-lowering compounds (diets), or unabsorbable fat substitutes, may do so. Vitamin bioavailability may be compromised from certain vegetables (particularly raw), and/or from high-fiber foods, because of limited digestion and inefficient release of vitamins from the food matrix.

  19. [Change of lifestyle as a relevant therapy after myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Janion, M; Bakowski, D

    2000-01-01

    The risk of ischemic heart disease is connected with the definite mode of life. Improper nourishment, smoking, alcohol abuse, sedentary lifestyle and excessive mental stress cause disturbances leading to development of atherosclerosis. The change of the lifestyle may prevent from coronary heart disease and may play a main role in secondary prevention, making the prognosis after myocardial infarction much better. The epidemiological and clinical studies have shown the significance of particular risk factors reduction on survival after myocardial infarction and allowed to create the optimal preventive mode of life. Therefore the change of lifestyle should become the priority in the postinfarction therapy.

  20. [Attitude of students to health and healthy life-style].

    PubMed

    Belova, N I; Burtsev, S P; Vorobtsova, E A; Martynenko, A V

    2006-01-01

    Results of sociological survey of attitude of academic first-year students to health and healthy life-style are presented. Concurrence of respondents' opinions with used in scientific literature notions "health and healthy life-style" is established. Respondents emphasized significance of dependence of health from such most vital medical social factors as bad habits, nutrition characteristics and passing leisure. Respondents expressed their opinions about means of health promotion, need of preventive check-ups, importance of being informed on issues of health maintenance. Need to include courses on healthy life-style into academic curriculum is emphasized.

  1. Lifestyle treatments in cystic fibrosis: The NHS should not pay.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    Lifestyle treatments can be defined as those which may have in impact on quality of life but do not affect health outcomes. Particular treatment options may be preferred by patients because they are for example, easier to use, take up less time or taste better. The impact on adherence needs to be considered. Treatment options that promote greater adherence to therapy are likely to be more efficacious and so are not, by definition, lifestyle treatments. The NHS is facing unprecedented financial pressure and resources are limited. When lifestyle treatments are more expensive than standard therapy, they should not be funded by the NHS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Promotion to change lifestyle: securing participation and success.

    PubMed

    George, Morris; Tanner, John F

    2014-01-01

    Corporate wellness programs designed to promote employee health are becoming increasingly popular due to their improved productivity, lower health care costs, and reduced absenteeism. The success of the lifestyle intervention measures they promote depends on employees' participation, which is a key challenge. The study uses partial least squares (PLS) path modeling and logistic regression to (a) identify, based on the health belief model, the factors likely to influence employee participation in personal coaching and health challenges, and (b) study their impact on lifestyle and overall health among participants. Results show that participation is influenced by initial lifestyle, attendance in educational events, peer influence, and communication through different channels.

  3. Endogenous Bioactive Jasmonate Is Composed of a Set of (+)-7-iso-JA-Amino Acid Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jianbin; Li, Suhua; Gu, Min; Yao, Ruifeng; Li, Yuwen; Chen, Juan; Yang, Mai; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Nan, Fajun; Xie, Daoxin

    2016-12-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) regulate a wide range of plant defense and development processes. The bioactive JA is perceived by its receptor COI1 to trigger the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and subsequently derepress the JAZ-repressed transcription factors for activation of expression of JA-responsive genes. So far, (+)-7-iso-JA-l-Ile has been the only identified endogenous bioactive JA molecule. Here, we designed coronafacic acid (CFA) conjugates with all the amino acids (CFA-AA) to mimic the JA amino acid conjugates, and revealed that (+)-7-iso-JA-Leu, (+)-7-iso-JA-Val, (+)-7-iso-JA-Met, and (+)-7-iso-JA-Ala are new endogenous bioactive JA molecules. Furthermore, our studies uncover the general characteristics for all the bioactive JA molecules, and provide a new strategy to synthetically generate novel active JA molecules.

  4. Effect of lifestyle interventions of pregnant women on their dietary habits, lifestyle behaviors, and weight gain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Aşcı, Özlem; Rathfisch, Gülay

    2016-02-24

    Although it is known that lifestyle behaviors of pregnant women are closely related to maternal and fetal health, number of data concerning efficacy of intervention on lifestyle during pregnancy is limited. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of lifestyle interventions on improving dietary habits and lifestyle behaviors, ensuring gestational weight gain (GWG) within recommended levels and limiting postpartum weight retention (PWR). The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial in a family health center located in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 2011 and July 2012. The primary outcomes were GWG, and the proportion of pregnant women whose GWG was within the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. One hundred two pregnant women with gestation ≤12 weeks, age ≥18 years, gravidity ≤2, and who did not intend to lose weight in prepregnancy period were randomly included in this study as intervention (n = 51) and control (n = 51) groups. The study was completed with 45 women for each group. The control group received routine antenatal care. The intervention group was received an individualized lifestyle intervention focusing on healthy lifestyle, diet, exercise, and weight monitoring as four sessions at 12-15, 16-18, 20-24, and 37 weeks gestation. Lifestyle behaviors were evaluated with Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II. Dietary habits were assessed by 3-day dietary recalls, and weight was followed from pregnancy until 6 weeks postpartum. The lifestyle interventions had a significant effect on improving lifestyle behaviors, protein intake, percentage of energy from protein, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and vegetable intakes when adjusted for confounders (p < 0.05). The proportion of women who were within the IOM recommendations was higher in the intervention group (51.1 %) than in the control group (28.9 %) The odds ratio for GWG within IOM was statistically significant between the groups (OR = 0.59, 95 % CI, 0

  5. Lifestyles of American Widows and Widowers in Urban America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Helena Z.

    1982-01-01

    The American pattern of isolated nuclear families makes the early stages of widowhood very difficult. Widows and widowers need to learn to use resources for social interaction and social relations that can help them adapt to their changed lifestyles. (SK)

  6. Seeking Solutions to Solid Waste Management: The Role of Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stum, Marlene S.

    1992-01-01

    Offers consumer education curriculum ideas to increase understanding of households as ecosystems, analyze eco-consciousness and decision making, and examine lifestyle flexibility and the role of values. (SK)

  7. 3 Key Lifestyle Factors Can Lower Breast Cancer Odds

    MedlinePlus

    ... 165873.html 3 Key Lifestyle Factors Can Lower Breast Cancer Odds Stay trim, exercise and cut back on ... appear to help lower a woman's risk of breast cancer, a new review says. The review found that ...

  8. Lifestyle Alternatives: Development and Evaluation of an Attitude Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestle, Ruth E.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the construction and testing of an instrument to assess attitudes toward voluntary simplicity of lifestyle. The scale consists of 120 Likert items concerning such behaviors as recycling, home production of goods, conservation of resources, and sharing of skills. (SK)

  9. Lifestyles through Expenditures: A Case-Based Approach to Saving

    PubMed Central

    Keister, Lisa A.; Benton, Richard; Moody, James

    2016-01-01

    Treating people as cases that are proximate in a behavior space—representing lifestyles—rather than as markers of single variables has a long history in sociology. Yet, because it is difficult to find analytically tractable ways to implement this idea, this approach is rarely used. We take seriously the idea that people are whole packages, and we use household spending to identify groups who occupy similar positions in social space. Using detailed data on household consumption, we identify eight positions that are clearly similar in lifestyle. We then study how the lifestyles we identify are associated with saving, an important measure of household well-being. We find that households cluster into distinct lifestyles based on similarities and differences in consumption. These lifestyles are meaningfully related in social space and save in distinct ways that have important implications for understanding inequality and stratification. PMID:27904877

  10. Telomeres and lifestyle factors: roles in cellular aging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jue; Epel, Elissa; Blackburn, Elizabeth

    2012-02-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that telomere maintenance might be a key integrating point for the cumulative effects of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors on aging and aging-related diseases. It is timely to 'take stock' of where this work has led the field. This review summarizes studies that have examined associations between lifestyle factors and telomere length and telomerase activity. In most of the studies described in this chapter, telomere length was measured in leukocytes (LTL) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), taken from blood draws from the study subjects. Much of this chapter focuses on psychological stress, a widespread factor often intimately tied in with lifestyle or behavioral factors that in turn are related to risks of clinical diseases. Together, these findings suggest that cellular aging is linked to a range of influences, with an individual's life events and lifestyle parameters playing significant roles. Lastly, we propose possible biochemical mechanisms that mediate these associations and discuss future directions.

  11. Life-style modification in peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Cleanthis, M; Smout, J; Flather, M; Stansby, G

    2005-01-01

    To review the published evidence supporting the use of life-style modification in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). A systematic search of the medical literature was performed for relevant studies. The publications obtained were then searched for randomised clinical trials which reported end-points of mortality or major cardiovascular event rates with various life-style modifications. Only one randomised controlled trial was found reporting relevant end-points. Other trials were of other end-points such as walking distance or biochemical markers. There is a lack of randomised controlled data proving the benefit of life-style modification in improving mortality and reducing cardiovascular events in patients with PAD. Despite this there is sufficient evidence to recommend some life-style modification as part of the overall approach to risk reduction in these patients. There is compelling evidence to support smoking cessation, increased exercise and improved diet.

  12. Preconception lifestyle advice for people with subfertility.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kirsty; Norman, Robert J; Middleton, Philippa

    2010-04-14

    Infertility is a prevalent problem and has significant consequences for individuals, families and the wider community. People's chance of having a healthy, live birth may be impacted upon by factors such as weight, diet, smoking, other substance abuse, environmental pollutants, infections, medical conditions, medications and family medical history. However, there is no current guideline about what preconception advice should be offered to people presenting for infertility treatment. It is important to determine what preconception advice should be given about these types of factors to such people in order to help them to make positive changes and hopefully improve their chances of conception and delivering a healthy, live baby. To assess the effects of preconception advice on the chances of a live birth for people who perceive that they may be infertile and are investigating the possibility of medical treatment to address subfertility. All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials addressing preconception advice to influence lifestyle factors in people who perceived that they may be infertile and investigated the possibility of medical treatment to address subfertility were sought from the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Review Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, AMED, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), LILACS, trial registers for ongoing and registered trials, citation indexes, ISI Web of Knowledge, Clinical Study Results database, OpenSIGLE database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Periodical Index and Google (inception to 5 October 2009). Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-randomised (group-randomised) trials, that considered preconception advice given to individuals who perceived that they may be infertile and were investigating the possibility of medical treatment

  13. Endothelial progenitor cells, cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle modifications.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Rossella; Felice, Francesca; Feriani, Roberto; Balbarini, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute substantially to preservation of a structurally and functionally intact endothelium. EPCs home in to the sites of endothelial injury and ischemia, where they proliferate, differentiate and integrate into the endothelial layer or exert a paracrine function by producing vascular growth factors. This review will focus on successful lifestyle interventions that aim to maintain vascular health through beneficial actions on cell populations with vasculogenic potential. The results of the studies proving the role of healthy lifestyle are particularly emphasized.

  14. Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Depression in Urban Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yan; Wang, Bo; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Shao, Pei; Ni, Chunping; Hua, Qianzhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore health-promoting lifestyles, depression and provide further insight into the relationship between health-promoting lifestyles and depression in an urban community sample of elderly Chinese people. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive and correlational study of 954 community-dwelling urban elderly Chinese (aged ≥ 60) was conducted from July to December 2010. Lifestyles and depression were assessed using the revised Chinese Version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-C) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results In this cohort, 15.8% of elderly urban adults met the criteria for depression. Over half of the sample (62.1%) scored greater than 100 on the HPLP-C, with range of score sum from 55 to 160. There were significant correlations between self-actualization (OR = 1.167, 95%CI: 1.111–1.226), nutrition (OR = 1.118, 95%CI: 1.033–1.209), physical activity (OR = 1.111, 95%CI: 1.015–1.216) and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese. Limitations This was a cross-sectional study. The significant associations found do not represent directional causation. Further longitudinal follow-up is recommended to investigate the specific causal relationship between lifestyles and depression. Conclusions Depression was common with medium to high levels of health-promoting lifestyles among urban elderly Chinese people. Lifestyle behaviors such as self-actualization, good nutrition habits and frequent physical activity were correlated to fewer depressive symptoms. Healthy lifestyles should be further developed in this population and measures should be taken for improving their depression. PMID:25781326

  15. Nutrition and lifestyle in healthy aging: the telomerase challenge.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Virginia; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and lifestyle, known to modulate aging process and age-related diseases, might also affect telomerase activity. Short and dysfunctional telomeres rather than average telomere length are associated with longevity in animal models, and their rescue by telomerase maybe sufficient to restore cell and organismal viability. Improving telomerase activation in stem cells and potentially in other cells by diet and lifestyle interventions may represent an intriguing way to promote health-span in humans.

  16. Making lifestyle changes after colorectal cancer: insights for program development

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, D.L.; Waring, J.L.; Payeur, N.; Cosby, C.; Daudt, H.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyle behaviours may improve outcomes for people with colorectal cancer (crc), but the intention to take action and to change those behaviours may vary with time and resource availability. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of current lifestyle behaviours in people with and without crc in our community, and to identify their desire to change and their resource preferences. Methods A mixed-methods survey was completed by people diagnosed with crc who were pre-treatment (n = 54), undergoing treatment (n = 62), or done with treatment for less than 6 months (n = 67) or for more than 6 months (n = 178), and by people without cancer (n = 83). Results Current lifestyle behaviours were similar in all groups, with the exception of vigorous physical activity levels, which were significantly lower in the pre-treatment and ongoing treatment respondents than in cancer-free respondents. Significantly more crc respondents than respondents without cancer had made lifestyle changes. Among the crc respondents, dietary change was the change most frequently made (39.3%), and increased physical activity was the change most frequently desired (39.1%). Respondents wanted to use complementary and alternative medicine (cam), reading materials, self-efficacy, and group activities to make future changes. Conclusions Resources for lifestyle change should be made available for people diagnosed with crc, and should be tailored to address physical activity, cam, and diet. Lifestyle programs offered throughout the cancer trajectory and beyond treatment completion might be well received by people with crc. PMID:24311950

  17. Lifestyle intervention in childhood obesity: changes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Lifestyle interventions are regarded as the therapy of choice in children with obesity. The efficiency of lifestyle intervention for childhood obesity has been proven by several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. Even a stable weight in a growing child with obesity is associated with an improvement in cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities of obesity. In particular, children aged 5-12 years and children with overweight rather than obesity profit from lifestyle interventions. However, in clinical practice, the degree of weight loss with lifestyle intervention is only moderate, and the success rate 2 years after onset of an intervention is low (<10% with a decrease in BMI SD score of <0.25). Nevertheless, the difficulty of a child with overweight or obesity to reduce their weight might be attributable to not only a lack of motivation but also genetic background and/or adaptive changes in basal metabolic rate, hunger and satiety hormones that occur with weight loss. We must accept that lifestyle interventions are successful only in a subgroup of children with obesity. Regardless, the techniques used and the education of therapists need to be improved. If lifestyle interventions do not result in weight loss in a child with obesity, drug treatment to reduce cardiovascular risk factors should be initiated but is currently seldom performed.

  18. Lifestyle Factors in U.S. Residential Electricity Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Orr, Heather M.; Shui, Bin; Bittner, Alvah C.

    2012-03-30

    A multivariate statistical approach to lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption is described and illustrated. Factor analysis of selected variables from the 2005 U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) identified five lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral choices associated with air conditioning, laundry usage, personal computer usage, climate zone of residence, and TV use. These factors were also estimated for 2001 RECS data. Multiple regression analysis using the lifestyle factors yields solutions accounting for approximately 40% of the variance in electricity consumption for both years. By adding the associated household and market characteristics of income, local electricity price and access to natural gas, variance accounted for is increased to approximately 54%. Income contributed only {approx}1% unique variance to the 2005 and 2001 models, indicating that lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral choices better account for consumption differences than income. This was not surprising given the 4-fold range of energy use at differing income levels. Geographic segmentation of factor scores is illustrated, and shows distinct clusters of consumption and lifestyle factors, particularly in suburban locations. The implications for tailored policy and planning interventions are discussed in relation to lifestyle issues.

  19. Lifestyle of Hemodialysis Patients in Comparison with Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Moghadasian, Sima; Sahebi Hagh, Mohammad Hasan; Aghaallah Hokmabadi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, the chronic diseases are known to be associated with lifestyle risk factors. Hemodialysis patients encounter considerable amount of physical, mental and social pressure. Lifestyle is important because it affects quality of life and has important role in prevention. This study aimed to compare the lifestyle of hemodialysis patients and outpatients in health clinics of Tabriz. Methods: This was a case-control study on 155 hemodialysis patients and 155 outpatients referring to five dialysis centers and clinics, who met the inclusion criteria. Demographic data and some questions about lifestyle in nutrition, stress, physical activity and smoking were asked. Results: The history of hypertension among hemodialysis patients was 34.6% greater than outpatients. High daily salt consumption (more than two tablespoons a day) was 40.5% higher among hemodialysis patients than outpatients. In terms of saturated oil intake, it was 30.8%higher among hemodialysis patients. Problem in communicating with family members was 69.8% higher in hemodialysis patients. In terms of physical activity, 46.4% of outpatients had higher physical activity like walking. Conclusion: Lifestyle in different dimensions was associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD); therefore, the officials of health system are recommended to develop a program to combat chronic diseases and integrate it with providing the first-level health services. It seems that public education can have a major role in life-style modification and in chronic kidney diseases prevention. PMID:25276683

  20. The relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Reynolds, Charles F 3rd; Buysse, Daniel J.; DeGrazia, Jean M.; Kupfer, David J.

    2003-01-01

    In previous work we have developed a diary instrument-the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), which allows the assessment of lifestyle regularity-and a questionnaire instrument--the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which allows the assessment of subjective sleep quality. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality. Lifestyle regularity was assessed by both standard (SRM-17) and shortened (SRM-5) metrics; subjective sleep quality was assessed by the PSQI. We hypothesized that high lifestyle regularity would be conducive to better sleep. Both instruments were given to a sample of 100 healthy subjects who were studied as part of a variety of different experiments spanning a 9-yr time frame. Ages ranged from 19 to 49 yr (mean age: 31.2 yr, s.d.: 7.8 yr); there were 48 women and 52 men. SRM scores were derived from a two-week diary. The hypothesis was confirmed. There was a significant (rho = -0.4, p < 0.001) correlation between SRM (both metrics) and PSQI, indicating that subjects with higher levels of lifestyle regularity reported fewer sleep problems. This relationship was also supported by a categorical analysis, where the proportion of "poor sleepers" was doubled in the "irregular types" group as compared with the "non-irregular types" group. Thus, there appears to be an association between lifestyle regularity and good sleep, though the direction of causality remains to be tested.

  1. Construction and Validation the Lifestyle Questionnaire Related to Cancer.

    PubMed

    Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Momayyezi, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Healthy lifestyle is a significant factor in cancer etiologic and prevention of cancer. There are instruments to measure a healthy life style, but the lifestyle questionnaires only examine one or a few more aspects of lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to construct a comprehensive instrument to examine all aspects of lifestyle related to cancer. This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in Yazd city in Iran. A questionnaire was designed to assess and measure various aspects of lifestyle related to cancer using similar studies. Researchers used the Cronbach's alpha and test-retest method to determine the reliability. Also, construct validity was determined using the factor analysis method in SPSS 16 software. Face validity was examined using a panel of experts. Cronbach's alpha for the whole scale was appropriate (α = 0.87). Also, Cronbach's alpha for all dimensions of questionnaire was acceptable (perfect score). Test-retest method was used to determine the reliability. The results indicated that ICC was in the range of 0.84 to 0.94. Based on the obtained results of factor analysis method, 8 dimensions of the questionnaire were extracted (physical health, physical activity and exercise, mental health, drug and alcohol avoidance, balanced consumption of food, environmental pollutants and harmful substances, weight control and nutrition, and reproductive health). This study showed that the present questionnaire can be used as a valid and reliable tool for collecting data about the lifestyle of people related to cancer.

  2. Health lifestyles and the absence of the Russian middle class.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, William C

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines the pivotal role of social stratification in Russia's health crisis. The primary level causal factor is increased mortality from heart disease and alcohol-related poisonings and accidents. In order to understand the origin of the primary causes, it is necessary to look further for secondary level factors. Whereas policy and stress are important, the leading secondary determinant is negative health lifestyles. The question then arises: What is the source of this lifestyle? This question necessitates a search for tertiary level causes and the absence of a strong middle class in Russia is identified. In Western society, the middle class, especially the upper middle class, is the social carrier of positive health lifestyles across class boundaries. The Russian middle class has not initiated positive health lifestyles countering the predominately negative health lifestyle practices because a middle class similar to that in the West does not exist. Russia needs a civil society in which a similarly stable and empowered middle class can promote positive health lifestyles within its own stratum and elsewhere in the class structure; until this happens, the health situation in that country may not stabilise for the better.

  3. Individualized patient-centered lifestyle recommendations: an expert system for communicating patient specific cardiovascular risk information and prioritizing lifestyle options.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chih-Lin; Nick Street, W; Robinson, Jennifer G; Crawford, Matthew A

    2012-12-01

    We propose a proof-of-concept machine-learning expert system that learned knowledge of lifestyle and the associated 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks from individual-level data (i.e., Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, ARIC). The expert system prioritizes lifestyle options and identifies the one that maximally reduce an individual's 10-year CVD risk by (1) using the knowledge learned from the ARIC data and (2) communicating for patient-specific cardiovascular risk information and personal limitations and preferences (as defined by variables used in this study). As a result, the optimal lifestyle is not only prioritized based on an individual's characteristics but is also relevant to personal circumstances. We also explored probable uses and tested the system in several examples using real-world scenarios and patient preferences. For example, the system identifies the most effective lifestyle activities as the starting point for an individual's behavior change, shows different levels of BMI changes and the associated CVD risk reductions to encourage weight loss, identifies whether weight loss or smoking cessation is the most urgent change for a diabetes patient, etc. Answers to the questions noted above vary based on an individual's characteristics. Our validation results from clinical trial simulations, which compared original with the optimal lifestyle using an independent dataset, show that the optimal individualized patient-centered lifestyle consistently reduced 10-year CVD risks.

  4. Complete genome sequence, lifestyle, and multi-drug resistance of the human pathogen Corynebacterium resistens DSM 45100 isolated from blood samples of a leukemia patient.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Jasmin; Maus, Irena; Meyer, Katja; Wördemann, Stephanie; Blom, Jochen; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Schneider, Jessica; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas

    2012-04-23

    Corynebacterium resistens was initially recovered from human infections and recognized as a new coryneform species that is highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. Bacteremia associated with this organism in immunocompromised patients was rapidly fatal as standard minocycline therapies failed. C. resistens DSM 45100 was isolated from a blood culture of samples taken from a patient with acute myelocytic leukemia. The complete genome sequence of C. resistens DSM 45100 was determined by pyrosequencing to identify genes contributing to multi-drug resistance, virulence, and the lipophilic lifestyle of this newly described human pathogen. The genome of C. resistens DSM 45100 consists of a circular chromosome of 2,601,311 bp in size and the 28,312-bp plasmid pJA144188. Metabolic analysis showed that the genome of C. resistens DSM 45100 lacks genes for typical sugar uptake systems, anaplerotic functions, and a fatty acid synthase, explaining the strict lipophilic lifestyle of this species. The genome encodes a broad spectrum of enzymes ensuring the availability of exogenous fatty acids for growth, including predicted virulence factors that probably contribute to fatty acid metabolism by damaging host tissue. C. resistens DSM 45100 is able to use external L-histidine as a combined carbon and nitrogen source, presumably as a result of adaptation to the hitherto unknown habitat on the human skin. Plasmid pJA144188 harbors several genes contributing to antibiotic resistance of C. resistens DSM 45100, including a tetracycline resistance region of the Tet W type known from Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus suis. The tet(W) gene of pJA144188 was cloned in Corynebacterium glutamicum and was shown to confer high levels of resistance to tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline in vitro. The detected gene repertoire of C. resistens DSM 45100 provides insights into the lipophilic lifestyle and virulence functions of this newly recognized pathogen. Plasmid pJA144188 revealed a

  5. Complete genome sequence, lifestyle, and multi-drug resistance of the human pathogen Corynebacterium resistens DSM 45100 isolated from blood samples of a leukemia patient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium resistens was initially recovered from human infections and recognized as a new coryneform species that is highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. Bacteremia associated with this organism in immunocompromised patients was rapidly fatal as standard minocycline therapies failed. C. resistens DSM 45100 was isolated from a blood culture of samples taken from a patient with acute myelocytic leukemia. The complete genome sequence of C. resistens DSM 45100 was determined by pyrosequencing to identify genes contributing to multi-drug resistance, virulence, and the lipophilic lifestyle of this newly described human pathogen. Results The genome of C. resistens DSM 45100 consists of a circular chromosome of 2,601,311 bp in size and the 28,312-bp plasmid pJA144188. Metabolic analysis showed that the genome of C. resistens DSM 45100 lacks genes for typical sugar uptake systems, anaplerotic functions, and a fatty acid synthase, explaining the strict lipophilic lifestyle of this species. The genome encodes a broad spectrum of enzymes ensuring the availability of exogenous fatty acids for growth, including predicted virulence factors that probably contribute to fatty acid metabolism by damaging host tissue. C. resistens DSM 45100 is able to use external L-histidine as a combined carbon and nitrogen source, presumably as a result of adaptation to the hitherto unknown habitat on the human skin. Plasmid pJA144188 harbors several genes contributing to antibiotic resistance of C. resistens DSM 45100, including a tetracycline resistance region of the Tet W type known from Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus suis. The tet(W) gene of pJA144188 was cloned in Corynebacterium glutamicum and was shown to confer high levels of resistance to tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline in vitro. Conclusions The detected gene repertoire of C. resistens DSM 45100 provides insights into the lipophilic lifestyle and virulence functions of this newly recognized

  6. Weather, knowledge base and life-style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohle, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Why to main-stream curiosity for earth-science topics, thus to appraise these topics as of public interest? Namely, to influence practices how humankind's activities intersect the geosphere. How to main-stream that curiosity for earth-science topics? Namely, by weaving diverse concerns into common threads drawing on a wide range of perspectives: be it beauty or particularity of ordinary or special phenomena, evaluating hazards for or from mundane environments, or connecting the scholarly investigation with concerns of citizens at large; applying for threading traditional or modern media, arts or story-telling. Three examples: First "weather"; weather is a topic of primordial interest for most people: weather impacts on humans lives, be it for settlement, for food, for mobility, for hunting, for fishing, or for battle. It is the single earth-science topic that went "prime-time" since in the early 1950-ties the broadcasting of weather forecasts started and meteorologists present their work to the public, daily. Second "knowledge base"; earth-sciences are a relevant for modern societies' economy and value setting: earth-sciences provide insights into the evolution of live-bearing planets, the functioning of Earth's systems and the impact of humankind's activities on biogeochemical systems on Earth. These insights bear on production of goods, living conditions and individual well-being. Third "life-style"; citizen's urban culture prejudice their experiential connections: earth-sciences related phenomena are witnessed rarely, even most weather phenomena. In the past, traditional rural communities mediated their rich experiences through earth-centric story-telling. In course of the global urbanisation process this culture has given place to society-centric story-telling. Only recently anthropogenic global change triggered discussions on geoengineering, hazard mitigation, demographics, which interwoven with arts, linguistics and cultural histories offer a rich narrative

  7. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese in Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese women in Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted.

  8. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications.

    PubMed

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14-19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention.

  9. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. Design/Methods The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. Discussion The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID

  10. Documented lifestyle education among young adults with incident hypertension.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Heather M; Olson, Andrea G; LaMantia, Jamie N; Kind, Amy J H; Pandhi, Nancy; Mendonça, Eneida A; Craven, Mark; Smith, Maureen A

    2015-05-01

    Only 38% of young adults with hypertension have controlled blood pressure. Lifestyle education is a critical initial step for hypertension control. Previous studies have not assessed the type and frequency of lifestyle education in young adults with incident hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine patient, provider, and visit predictors of documented lifestyle education among young adults with incident hypertension. We conducted a retrospective analysis of manually abstracted electronic health record data. A random selection of adults 18-39 years old (n = 500), managed by a large academic practice from 2008 to 2011 and who met JNC 7 clinical criteria for incident hypertension, participated in the study. The primary outcome was the presence of any documented lifestyle education during one year after meeting criteria for incident hypertension. Abstracted topics included documented patient education for exercise, tobacco cessation, alcohol use, stress management/stress reduction, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and weight loss. Clinic visits were categorized based upon a modified established taxonomy to characterize patients' patterns of outpatient service. We excluded patients with previous hypertension diagnoses, previous antihypertensive medications, or pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of documented education. Overall, 55% (n = 275) of patients had documented lifestyle education within one year of incident hypertension. Exercise was the most frequent topic (64%). Young adult males had significantly decreased odds of receiving documented education. Patients with a previous diagnosis of hyperlipidemia or a family history of hypertension or coronary artery disease had increased odds of documented education. Among visit types, chronic disease visits predicted documented lifestyle education, but not acute or other/preventive visits. Among young adults with incident hypertension, only 55% had documented

  11. Preoperative Lifestyle Intervention in Bariatric Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies of the impact of pre-surgery weight loss and lifestyle preparation on outcomes following bariatric surgery are needed. Objective To evaluate whether a pre-surgery behavioral lifestyle intervention improves weight loss through 24-months post-surgery. Setting Bariatric Center of Excellence at a large, urban medical center. Methods Candidates for bariatric surgery were randomized to a 6-month behavioral lifestyle intervention or to 6 months of usual pre-surgical care. The lifestyle intervention consisted of 8 weekly face-to-face sessions followed by 16 weeks of face-to-face and telephone sessions prior to surgery; the intervention also included 3 monthly telephone contacts after surgery. Assessments were conducted at 6-, 12- and 24-months post-surgery. Results Participants who underwent surgery (n = 143) were 90.2% female and 86.7% White. Average age was 44.9 years, and average BMI was 47.5 kg/m2 at study enrollment. At follow-up, 131 (91.6%), 126 (88.1%), 117 (81.8%) patients participated in the 6-, 12- and 24 month assessments, respectively. Percent weight loss from study enrollment to 6- and 12-months post-surgery was comparable for both groups, but at 24-months post-surgery, the lifestyle group had significantly smaller percent weight loss than the usual care group (26.5% vs. 29.5%, respectively, p = 0.02). Conclusions Pre-surgery lifestyle intervention did not improve weight loss at 24 months post-surgery. Findings raise questions about the utility and timing of adjunctive lifestyle interventions for bariatric surgery patients. PMID:26410538

  12. Preoperative lifestyle intervention in bariatric surgery: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kalarchian, Melissa A; Marcus, Marsha D; Courcoulas, Anita P; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the impact of presurgery weight loss and lifestyle preparation on outcomes following bariatric surgery are needed. To evaluate whether a presurgery behavioral lifestyle intervention improves weight loss through a 24-month postsurgery period. Bariatric Center of Excellence at a large, urban medical center. Candidates for bariatric surgery were randomized to a 6-month behavioral lifestyle intervention or to 6 months of usual presurgical care. The lifestyle intervention consisted of 8 weekly face-to-face sessions, followed by 16 weeks of face-to-face and telephone sessions before surgery; the intervention also included 3 monthly telephone contacts after surgery. Assessments were conducted 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Participants who underwent surgery (n = 143) were 90.2% female and 86.7% White. Average age was 44.9 years, and average body mass index was 47.5 kg/m(2) at study enrollment. At follow-up, 131 (91.6%), 126 (88.1%), 117 (81.8%) patients participated in the 6-, 12-, and 24-month assessments, respectively. Percent weight loss from study enrollment to 6 and 12 months after surgery was comparable for both groups, but at 24 months after surgery, the lifestyle group had significantly smaller percent weight loss compared with the usual care group (26.5% versus 29.5%, respectively, P = .02). Presurgery lifestyle intervention did not improve weight loss at 24 months after surgery. The findings from this study raise questions about the utility and timing of adjunctive lifestyle interventions for bariatric surgery patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers.

    PubMed

    Lulai, Edward; Huckle, Linda; Neubauer, Jonathan; Suttle, Jeffrey

    2011-06-15

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its role(s) in tuber wound-healing. In this study, the effects of wounding on JA content, expression of JA biosynthetic genes, and the involvement of JA in the initiation of closing layer formation in potato tubers were determined. In addition, the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in wound-induced JA accumulation was examined. The basal JA content in non-wounded tuber tissues was low (< 3 ng g⁻¹ FW). Two hours after wounding, the JA content increased by > 5-fold, reached a maximum between 4 and 6h after wounding, and declined to near-basal levels thereafter. Tuber age (storage duration) had little effect on the pattern of JA accumulation. The expressions of the JA biosynthetic genes (StAOS2, StAOC, and StOPR3) were greatly increased by wounding reaching a maximum 2-4 h after wounding and declining thereafter. A 1-h aqueous wash of tuber discs immediately after wounding resulted in a 94% inhibition of wound-induced JA accumulation. Neither JA treatment nor inhibition of JA accumulation affected suberin polyphenolic accumulation during closing layer development indicating that JA was not essential for the initiation of primary suberization. ABA treatment did not restore JA accumulation in washed tuber tissues suggesting that leaching of endogenous ABA was either not involved or not solely involved in this loss of JA accumulation by washing. Collectively, these results indicate that JA is not required for the induction of processes essential to the initiation of suberization during closing layer development, but do not exclude the possibility that JA may be involved in other wound related responses. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. A preventative lifestyle intervention for older adults (lifestyle matters): a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mountain, Gail; Windle, Gill; Hind, Daniel; Walters, Stephen; Keertharuth, Anju; Chatters, Robin; Sprange, Kirsty; Craig, Claire; Cook, Sarah; Lee, Ellen; Chater, Tim; Woods, R; Newbould, Louise; Powell, Lauren; Shortland, Katy; Roberts, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    to test whether an occupation-based lifestyle intervention can sustain and improve the mental well-being of adults aged 65 years or over compared to usual care, using an individually randomised controlled trial. 288 independently living adults aged 65 years or over, with normal cognition, were recruited from two UK sites between December 2011 and November 2015. lifestyle Matters is a National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommended multi-component preventive intervention designed to improve the mental well-being of community living older people at risk of decline. It involves weekly group sessions over 4 months and one to one sessions. the primary outcome was mental well-being at 6 months (mental health (MH) dimension of the SF-36). Secondary outcomes included physical health dimensions of the SF-36, extent of depression (PHQ-9), quality of life (EQ-5D) and loneliness (de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale), assessed at 6 and 24 months. data on 262 (intervention = 136; usual care = 126) participants were analysed using intention to treat analysis. Mean SF-36 MH scores at 6 months differed by 2.3 points (95 CI: -1.3 to 5.9; P = 0.209) after adjustments. analysis shows little evidence of clinical or cost-effectiveness in the recruited population with analysis of the primary outcome revealing that the study participants were mentally well at baseline. The results pose questions regarding how preventive interventions to promote well-being in older adults can be effectively targeted in the absence of proactive mechanisms to identify those who at risk of decline. ISRCTN67209155.

  15. Tobacco Industry Lifestyle Magazines Targeted to Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industry’s objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the “under the radar” strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking. PMID:19699423

  16. Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention in the Treatment of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Shannon M.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research regarding adult behavioral lifestyle intervention for obesity treatment. We first describe two trials using a behavioral lifestyle intervention to induce weight loss in adults, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. We then review the three main components of a behavioral lifestyle intervention program: behavior therapy, an energy- and fat-restricted diet, and a moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity prescription. Research regarding the influence of dietary prescriptions focusing on macronutrient composition, meal replacements, and more novel dietary approaches (such as reducing dietary variety and energy density) on weight loss is examined. Methods to assist with meeting physical activity goals, such as shortening exercise bouts, using a pedometer, and having access to exercise equipment within the home, are reviewed. To assist with improving weight loss outcomes, broadening activity goals to include resistance training and a reduction in sedentary behavior are considered. To increase the accessibility of behavioral lifestyle interventions to treat obesity in the broader population, translation of efficacious interventions such as the DPP, must be undertaken. Translational studies have successfully altered the DPP to reduce treatment intensity and/or used alternative modalities to implement the DPP in primary care, worksite, and church settings; several examples are provided. The use of new methodologies or technologies that provide individualized treatment and real-time feedback, and which may further enhance weight loss in behavioral lifestyle interventions, is also discussed. PMID:25114557

  17. The Relationship Between Attachment Styles and Lifestyle With Marital Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Korosh; Samavi, Abdolvahab; Ghazavi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Marital satisfaction is one of the deepest and the most basic human pleasures and should be established within the family environment; if not, couples might suffer emotionally. Several factors are involved, including attachment and lifestyle. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between styles of attachment and lifestyle with marital satisfaction. Materials and Methods The population in this study included all of the Bandar Abbas oil refining (BAOR) company employees, for a total of 292 people (146 couples). They were selected by multistage random sampling. The enrich marital satisfaction scale was used to measure marital satisfaction, the Collins and read’s revised adult attachment scale (RAAS) for adult attachment to determine attachment style, and the life style questionnaire (LSQ) for lifestyle. This research was a descriptive-correlative one, and for the data analysis, we used Pearson’s correlation factor and multivariable regression. Results The results indicate that attachment style and lifestyle factors can predict marital satisfaction. There was also a meaningful negative relationship between insecure attachment avoidant and insecure attachment anxious-ambivalent styles and marital satisfaction. However, there was no meaningful relationship between secure attachment style and marital satisfaction. Conclusions The results showed that the early relationship within the family environment supports a certain attachment style and the effects of the avoidant insecure and ambivalent insecure styles affect the interpersonal relations of the couples in adulthood. The effect of attachment styles on interpersonal relations is far greater than that of lifestyle. PMID:27433349

  18. Impact of lifestyle dimensions on brain pathology and cognition

    DOE PAGES

    Schreiber, Stefanie; Vogel, Jacob; Schwimmer, Henry D.; ...

    2016-01-30

    Single lifestyle factors affect brain biomarkers and cognition. Here in this work, we addressed the covariance of various lifestyle elements and investigated their impact on positron emission tomography-based β-amyloid (Aβ), hippocampal volume, and cognitive function in aged controls. Lower Aβ burden was associated with a lifestyle comprising high cognitive engagement and low vascular risk, particularly in apolipoprotein E ε4 carriers. Although cognitive function was related to high lifetime cognitive engagement and low vascular risk, Aβ load had no relation to current cognitive function. The covariance between high adult socioeconomic status, high education, and low smoking prevalence predicted better cognitive functionmore » and this was mediated by larger hippocampal volume. Our data show that lifestyle is a complex construct composed of associated variables, some of which reflect factors operating over the life span and others which may be developmental. These factors affect brain health via different pathways, which may reinforce one another. Finally, our findings moreover support the importance of an intellectually enriched lifestyle accompanied by vascular health on both cognition and presumed cerebral mediators of cognitive function.« less

  19. Impact of lifestyle dimensions on brain pathology and cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, Stefanie; Vogel, Jacob; Schwimmer, Henry D.; Marks, Shawn M.; Schreiber, Frank; Jagust, William

    2016-01-30

    Single lifestyle factors affect brain biomarkers and cognition. Here in this work, we addressed the covariance of various lifestyle elements and investigated their impact on positron emission tomography-based β-amyloid (Aβ), hippocampal volume, and cognitive function in aged controls. Lower Aβ burden was associated with a lifestyle comprising high cognitive engagement and low vascular risk, particularly in apolipoprotein E ε4 carriers. Although cognitive function was related to high lifetime cognitive engagement and low vascular risk, Aβ load had no relation to current cognitive function. The covariance between high adult socioeconomic status, high education, and low smoking prevalence predicted better cognitive function and this was mediated by larger hippocampal volume. Our data show that lifestyle is a complex construct composed of associated variables, some of which reflect factors operating over the life span and others which may be developmental. These factors affect brain health via different pathways, which may reinforce one another. Finally, our findings moreover support the importance of an intellectually enriched lifestyle accompanied by vascular health on both cognition and presumed cerebral mediators of cognitive function.

  20. Impact of lifestyle and technology developments on sleep.

    PubMed

    Shochat, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Although the physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the development of sleep disorders remain similar throughout history, factors that potentiate these mechanisms are closely related to the "zeitgeist", ie, the sociocultural, technological and lifestyle trends which characterize an era. Technological advancements have afforded modern society with 24-hour work operations, transmeridian travel and exposure to a myriad of electronic devices such as televisions, computers and cellular phones. Growing evidence suggests that these advancements take their toll on human functioning and health via their damaging effects on sleep quality, quantity and timing. Additional behavioral lifestyle factors associated with poor sleep include weight gain, insufficient physical exercise and consumption of substances such as caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Some of these factors have been implicated as self-help aids used to combat daytime sleepiness and impaired daytime functioning. This review aims to highlight current lifestyle trends that have been shown in scientific investigations to be associated with sleep patterns, sleep duration and sleep quality. Current understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these associations will be presented, as well as some of the reported consequences. Available therapies used to treat some lifestyle related sleep disorders will be discussed. Perspectives will be provided for further investigation of lifestyle factors that are associated with poor sleep, including developing theoretical frameworks, identifying underlying mechanisms, and establishing appropriate therapies and public health interventions aimed to improve sleep behaviors in order to enhance functioning and health in modern society.

  1. Impact of lifestyle and technology developments on sleep

    PubMed Central

    Shochat, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Although the physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the development of sleep disorders remain similar throughout history, factors that potentiate these mechanisms are closely related to the “zeitgeist”, ie, the sociocultural, technological and lifestyle trends which characterize an era. Technological advancements have afforded modern society with 24-hour work operations, transmeridian travel and exposure to a myriad of electronic devices such as televisions, computers and cellular phones. Growing evidence suggests that these advancements take their toll on human functioning and health via their damaging effects on sleep quality, quantity and timing. Additional behavioral lifestyle factors associated with poor sleep include weight gain, insufficient physical exercise and consumption of substances such as caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Some of these factors have been implicated as self-help aids used to combat daytime sleepiness and impaired daytime functioning. This review aims to highlight current lifestyle trends that have been shown in scientific investigations to be associated with sleep patterns, sleep duration and sleep quality. Current understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these associations will be presented, as well as some of the reported consequences. Available therapies used to treat some lifestyle related sleep disorders will be discussed. Perspectives will be provided for further investigation of lifestyle factors that are associated with poor sleep, including developing theoretical frameworks, identifying underlying mechanisms, and establishing appropriate therapies and public health interventions aimed to improve sleep behaviors in order to enhance functioning and health in modern society. PMID:23616726

  2. The Association of Lifestyle Factors and ADHD in Children.

    PubMed

    Holton, Kathleen F; Nigg, Joel T

    2016-04-28

    The objective of the study is to examine whether children aged 7 to 11 years with very well-characterized ADHD, recruited from the community, have a similar number of healthy lifestyle behaviors as compared with typically developing children from the same community. Parents of children with (n = 184) and without (n = 104) ADHD completed a lifestyle questionnaire asking about water intake, sweetened beverage consumption, multivitamin/supplement use, reading, screen time, physical activity, and sleep. A lifestyle index was formed from these seven domains (0-7), and multivariable ordered logistic regression was used to examine the association of ADHD status and total healthy lifestyle behaviors. Children with ADHD were almost twice as likely to have fewer healthy behaviors, even after adjustment for age, sex, intelligence quotient (IQ), ADHD medication use, household income, and four comorbid psychiatric disorders (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval] = 1.95 [1.16, 3.30], p = .01). Future research is needed to assess the effects of a combined lifestyle intervention in this group. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Impact of lifestyle dimensions on brain pathology and cognition.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Stefanie; Vogel, Jacob; Schwimmer, Henry D; Marks, Shawn M; Schreiber, Frank; Jagust, William

    2016-04-01

    Single lifestyle factors affect brain biomarkers and cognition. Here, we addressed the covariance of various lifestyle elements and investigated their impact on positron emission tomography-based β-amyloid (Aβ), hippocampal volume, and cognitive function in aged controls. Lower Aβ burden was associated with a lifestyle comprising high cognitive engagement and low vascular risk, particularly in apolipoprotein E ε4 carriers. Although cognitive function was related to high lifetime cognitive engagement and low vascular risk, Aβ load had no relation to current cognitive function. The covariance between high adult socioeconomic status, high education, and low smoking prevalence predicted better cognitive function and this was mediated by larger hippocampal volume. Our data show that lifestyle is a complex construct composed of associated variables, some of which reflect factors operating over the life span and others which may be developmental. These factors affect brain health via different pathways, which may reinforce one another. Our findings moreover support the importance of an intellectually enriched lifestyle accompanied by vascular health on both cognition and presumed cerebral mediators of cognitive function.

  4. Tobacco industry lifestyle magazines targeted to young adults.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Daniel K; Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M

    2009-09-01

    This is the first study describing the tobacco industry's objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999, targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions. Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the "under-the-radar" strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded Websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking.

  5. Questionnaire survey on lifestyle of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Noto, Haruka; Tokushige, Katsutoshi; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Taniai, Makiko; Shiratori, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Lack of exercise and excessive food intake are known to be the important causes of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To elucidate the relationship between lifestyle and NASH, we surveyed exercise and dietary habits, comparing them among 171 biopsy-proven NASH patients, 29 nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) patients and 49 normal subjects. Dietary habits including the duration of dinner time, amount of rice at dinner, and weekly frequencies of meat, fries, Chinese noodles, sweets, and instant food consumption were significantly different in male NASH patients compared to normal male subjects. In women, differences were seen in the amount of rice at dinner, frequency of eating out, and proclivity for sweets. In male NASH patients, the frequency of physical exercise was significantly lower. The lifestyle tendencies of NASH were almost similar to those of NAFL. In the comparison between obese NASH and non-obese NASH, no clear lifestyle differences were found. In conclusion, the most striking result of this survey was that the lifestyle of males contributed significantly to the development of NASH. These results point to treatment of NASH in males. In female NASH patients, lifestyle differences were minimal, and the effects of other factors such as genetic background will need to be investigated. PMID:25411525

  6. Questionnaire survey on lifestyle of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Noto, Haruka; Tokushige, Katsutoshi; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Taniai, Makiko; Shiratori, Keiko

    2014-11-01

    Lack of exercise and excessive food intake are known to be the important causes of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To elucidate the relationship between lifestyle and NASH, we surveyed exercise and dietary habits, comparing them among 171 biopsy-proven NASH patients, 29 nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) patients and 49 normal subjects. Dietary habits including the duration of dinner time, amount of rice at dinner, and weekly frequencies of meat, fries, Chinese noodles, sweets, and instant food consumption were significantly different in male NASH patients compared to normal male subjects. In women, differences were seen in the amount of rice at dinner, frequency of eating out, and proclivity for sweets. In male NASH patients, the frequency of physical exercise was significantly lower. The lifestyle tendencies of NASH were almost similar to those of NAFL. In the comparison between obese NASH and non-obese NASH, no clear lifestyle differences were found. In conclusion, the most striking result of this survey was that the lifestyle of males contributed significantly to the development of NASH. These results point to treatment of NASH in males. In female NASH patients, lifestyle differences were minimal, and the effects of other factors such as genetic background will need to be investigated.

  7. Morbidly obese patients and lifestyle change: constructing ethical selves.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Ingrid Ruud; Terragni, Laura; Foss, Christina

    2011-12-01

    Morbidly obese patients and lifestyle change: constructing ethical selves In contemporary societies, bodily size is an important part of individuals' self-representation. As the number of persons clinically diagnosed as morbidly obese increases, programmes are developed to make people reduce weight by changing their lifestyle, and for some, by bariatric surgery. This article presents findings from interviews with 12 participants undergoing a prerequisite course prior to bariatric surgery that is intended both as a preparation for further (surgical) treatment and as a tool to empower individuals regarding lifestyle changes. In this study, we investigate how power operates by looking at how the participants position themselves throughout the course. Findings reveal how participants construct their ability to act in line with norms of lifestyle change. They do this by positioning themselves as both included group members and as 'morally' acceptable individuals. Despite some resistance, the participants tend to glide into the role of 'good patients' acting in compliance with the aims of the course in their hope and striving for new positions as 'normal-sized'. The intention in the course is to empower individuals towards lifestyle changes. The findings provide a basis to question whether these kinds of courses create new forms of compliance and dependency. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Lifestyle incongruity, social integration, and immune function in Samoan adolescents.

    PubMed

    McDade, T W

    2001-11-01

    The health consequences of rapid cultural and economic change have been explored for adults in a range of low-income countries, but comparable research in children and adolescents is currently lacking. Concurrently, the immunosuppressive effects of psychosocial stress have been documented in Western populations, but have yet to be considered in cross-cultural contexts. This study uses lifestyle incongruity (inconsistency between a household's material style of life and its socioeconomic status) as a model of culture change and stress, and considers its impact on immune function in a sample of 230 10-20 year-olds from (Western) Samoa. Anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial data were collected, as well as finger prick blood spot samples for analysis of C-reactive protein (marker of infection) and antibodies against the Epstein-Barr virus (marker of cell-mediated immune function). Controlling for potential confounders, adolescents from households with a material style of life that exceeds its socioeconomic status have reduced cell-mediated immune function, indicating an increased burden of psychosocial stress. Social relationships moderate this effect: lifestyle incongruity stress is pronounced among adolescents with a high degree of social integration, and absent in adolescents with low social integration. This finding is counter to the buffering role of social support reported in previous applications of lifestyle incongruity to adults, and suggests that the moderating role of social integration may be unique to adolescents. The potential utility of the lifestyle incongruity model for future cross-cultural studies of child and adolescent stress is discussed.

  9. Lifestyle modifications and erectile dysfunction: what can be expected?

    PubMed Central

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Esposito, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common medical disorder whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. Modifiable risk factors for ED include smoking, lack of physical activity, wrong diets, overweight or obesity, metabolic syndrome, and excessive alcohol consumption. Quite interestingly, all these metabolic conditions are strongly associated with a pro-inflammatory state that results in endothelial dysfunction by decreasing the availability of nitric oxide (NO), which is the driving force of the blood genital flow. Lifestyle and nutrition have been recognized as central factors influencing both vascular NO production, testosterone levels, and erectile function. Moreover, it has also been suggested that lifestyle habits that decrease low-grade clinical inflammation may have a role in the improvement of erectile function. In clinical trials, lifestyle modifications were effective in ameliorating ED or restoring absent ED in people with obesity or metabolic syndrome. Therefore, promotion of healthful lifestyles would yield great benefits in reducing the burden of sexual dysfunction. Efforts, in order to implement educative strategies for healthy lifestyle, should be addressed. PMID:25248655

  10. Personal lifestyle as a resource for work engagement.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yuriko; Nishida, Junko; Mishima, Kazuo; Yamanouchi, Yoshio

    2017-01-24

    Personal lifestyle, including diet, exercise, and sleep, might have an impact on work engagement, though previous studies have not focused on these relationships. The aim of this study was to examine whether dietary intake of fish, regular exercise, sufficient sleep, abstinence from alcohol, and abstinence from tobacco were positively associated with work engagement. We recruited adults aged 40-74 years who attended the health checkups with a particular focus on the metabolic syndrome in central Tokyo. In December 2015, 797 people responded to a questionnaire and 592 (74.3%) who had regular jobs were selected for this study. Work engagement was assessed on the 9-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine the relationships between lifestyle and UWES-9. Dietary intake of fish, regular exercise, sufficient sleep, and abstinence from tobacco were significantly correlated with the total UWES-9 score, even after adjusting for age, sex, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. The results suggested a dose-response relationship between dietary fish intake and work engagement. Dietary fish intake, regular exercise, sufficient sleep, and abstinence from tobacco might be lifestyle factors that can serve as resources for work engagement. These findings could be useful in motivating employees to make lifestyle improvements and convincing employers and managers that lifestyle is important not only for health but also for productivity.

  11. Personal lifestyle as a resource for work engagement

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yuriko; Nishida, Junko; Mishima, Kazuo; Yamanouchi, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Personal lifestyle, including diet, exercise, and sleep, might have an impact on work engagement, though previous studies have not focused on these relationships. The aim of this study was to examine whether dietary intake of fish, regular exercise, sufficient sleep, abstinence from alcohol, and abstinence from tobacco were positively associated with work engagement. Methods: We recruited adults aged 40-74 years who attended the health checkups with a particular focus on the metabolic syndrome in central Tokyo. In December 2015, 797 people responded to a questionnaire and 592 (74.3%) who had regular jobs were selected for this study. Work engagement was assessed on the 9-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine the relationships between lifestyle and UWES-9. Results: Dietary intake of fish, regular exercise, sufficient sleep, and abstinence from tobacco were significantly correlated with the total UWES-9 score, even after adjusting for age, sex, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. The results suggested a dose-response relationship between dietary fish intake and work engagement. Conclusions: Dietary fish intake, regular exercise, sufficient sleep, and abstinence from tobacco might be lifestyle factors that can serve as resources for work engagement. These findings could be useful in motivating employees to make lifestyle improvements and convincing employers and managers that lifestyle is important not only for health but also for productivity. PMID:27885245

  12. Future perspective and healthy lifestyle choices in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir-Ozdes, Aylin; Strickland-Hughes, Carla M; Bluck, Susan; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-09-01

    Regardless of age, making healthy lifestyle choices is prudent. Despite that, individuals of all ages sometimes have difficulty choosing the healthy option. We argue that individuals' view of the future and position in the life span affects their current lifestyle choices. We capture the multidimensionality of future thinking by assessing 3 types of future perspective. Younger and older men and women (N = 127) reported global future time perspective, future health perspective, and perceived importance of future health-related events. They also rated their likelihood of making healthy lifestyle choices. As predicted, older participants indicated greater intention to make healthy choices in their current life than did younger participants. Compared to younger participants, older participants reported shorter global future time perspective and anticipated worse future health but perceived future health-related events as more important. Having a positive view of one's future health and seeing future health-related events as important were related to greater intention to make healthy lifestyle choices, but greater global future time perspective was not directly related to healthy choices. However, follow-up analyses suggested that greater global future time perspective indirectly affected healthy choices via a more positive view of future health. None of these relations were moderated by age. Individuals' perspective on the future is shown to be an important multidimensional construct affecting everyday healthy lifestyle choices for both younger and older adults. Implications for encouraging healthy choices across the adult life span are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  14. RuBPCase activase mediates growth-defense tradeoffs: Silencing RCA redirects JA flux from JA-Ile to MeJA to attenuate induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sirsha; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary RuBPCase activase (RCA), an abundant photosynthetic protein is strongly down-regulated in response to Manduca sexta’s oral secretion (OS) in Nicotiana attenuata. RCA-silenced plants are impaired not only in photosynthetic capacity and growth, but also in jasmonic acid (JA)-isoleucine (Ile) signaling, and herbivore resistance mediated by JA-Ile dependent defense traits. These responses are consistent with a resource-based growth-defense trade-off. Since JA+Ile-supplementation of OS restored WT levels of JA-Ile, defenses and resistance to M. sexta, but OS supplemented individually with JA- or Ile did not, the JA-Ile deficiency of RCA-silenced plants could not be attributed to lower JA or Ile pools or JAR4/6 conjugating activity. Similar levels of JA-Ile derivatives after OS elicitation indicated unaltered JA-Ile turnover and lower levels of other JA-conjugates ruled out competition from other conjugation reactions. RCA-silenced plants accumulated more methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after OS elicitation, which corresponded with increased jasmonate methyltransferase (JMT) activity. RCA-silencing phenocopies JMT over-expression, wherein elevated JMT activity redirects OS-elicited JA flux towards inactive MeJA, creating a JA sink which depletes JA-Ile and its associated defense responses. Hence RCA plays an additional non-photosynthetic role in attenuating JA-mediated defenses and their associated costs potentially allowing plants to anticipate resource-based constraints on growth before they actually occur. PMID:24491116

  15. Successful brain aging: plasticity, environmental enrichment, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Mora, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Aging is a physiological process that can develop without the appearance of concurrent diseases. However, very frequently, older people suffer from memory loss and an accelerated cognitive decline. Studies of the neurobiology of aging are beginning to decipher the mechanisms underlying not only the physiology of aging of the brain but also the mechanisms that make people more vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Today we know that the aging brain retains a considerable functional plasticity, and that this plasticity is positively promoted by genes activated by different lifestyle factors. In this article some of these lifestyle factors and their mechanisms of action are reviewed, including environmental enrichment and the importance of food intake and some nutrients. Aerobic physical exercise and reduction of chronic stress are also briefly reviewed. It is proposed that lifestyle factors are powerful instruments to promote healthy and successful aging of the brain and delay the appearance of age-related cognitive deficits in elderly people.

  16. Implementation of psychiatric-focused lifestyle medicine programs in Asia.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; Nishi, Daisuke; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Su, Kuan-Pin; Bannatyne, Amy; Oliver, Georgina; Kua, Ee-Heok; Ng, Chee Hong

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle-focused health programs are growing in interest throughout Western society, and a range of lifestyle factors are known to enhance both physical and mental health. However, it remains largely unknown as to whether this approach is salient for the Asian context. The major components of integrative lifestyle-focused health programs to enhance mental and physical health are considered to include the evidence-based adoption of physical activity and exercise, dietary modification, general psychoeducation, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness techniques, the reduction of substance use, attention of intersecting environmental factors, and the potential use of motivation and goal-setting techniques. This paper outlines an overview of the evidence underpinning these elements, and discusses potential barriers and challenges, and what logistical considerations may need to be addressed in the implementation of such programs within the context of Asian cultures.

  17. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  18. Lifestyle strategies for the prevention of vision loss.

    PubMed

    Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C

    2010-01-01

    As the baby boom generation ages, it is anticipated that half a million cases per year will be added to the 19 to 21 million Americans not living in institutions or serving in the military who have low vision or blindness. The 4 major causes of vision loss and blindness in the United States are cataract, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. All 4 diseases involve change in the microcirculation in eye structures. Holistic approaches to health incorporate attention to individuals' lifestyle choices. Relevant research literature was reviewed to identify strategies for lifestyle modification that nurses can use to prevent or slow progression of these diseases. Prevention strategies in general are those that promote avoidance of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Because vision loss has been shown to be associated with diminished quality of life and increased mortality, lifestyle changes that prevent or moderate the impact of these diseases are an important focus of nursing care.

  19. Health lifestyles and political ideology in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Cockerham, Geoffrey B; Abbott, Pamela

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the association of political ideology with health lifestyle practices and self-rated health in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. The political trajectory of post-Soviet societies has taken two divergent paths, either toward democracy or autocracy. The health trajectory has followed the same pattern with the more autocratic states continuing to experience a mortality crisis, while those former socialist countries that have embraced democracy and moved closer to the West have escaped this crisis. This paper investigates whether political ideology in three post-Soviet countries that are firmly (Belarus), increasingly (Russia), or recently (Ukraine) autocratic is related to health lifestyles and health self-ratings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews (N = 8406) with a representative national sample of the adult population. The results show that respondents who are against restoring communism have healthier lifestyles and rate their health better than respondents who wish to see communism return.

  20. Dietary and lifestyle practices of Hmong in California.

    PubMed

    Yang, Richard C; Mills, Paul K

    2008-11-01

    As Hmong adapt to life in Fresno, California, their dietary and lifestyle patterns are examined. Data on tobacco and alcohol use, dietary practices, and socio-demographic variables were collected from a convenience sample, stratified by age and sex. The 248 participants were interviewed. Descriptive analyses reveal that more than 63% of Hmong adults were either overweight or obese. Only 57% could speak English fluently, and 71% were economically impoverished. Hmong do not consume tobacco and alcoholic products excessively. Rice, chicken, beef, and eggs were the most frequently identified food items. Fruits and vegetables were also identified. Low alcohol and tobacco consumption may offer Hmong some protection against certain diseases. However, low socioeconomic status and rapid urbanization may have resulted in a shift from a high-energy expenditure lifestyle and high fiber diets to a sedentary lifestyle with high saturated fat food diets, which may be detrimental to the health of many Hmong.

  1. [Chronological nutrition and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    Lifestyle controls the circadian rhythms produced by clock genes and affects telomere length that regulates healthspan. Biological clocks are classified into oscillatory (clock genes) and hourglass clocks (telomeres). Clock genes align behavioral and biochemical processes with the day/night cycle. Telomeres, the repeated series of DNA sequences that cap the ends of chromosomes, become shorter during cell division. Shortened telomeres have been documented in various pathological states in lifestyle-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis and diabetes. Human activity is driven by NADH and ATP produced from nutrients, and the resulting NAD and AMP play a predominant role in energy regulation. Caloric restriction and proper exercise increase both AMP and NAD, and extend the healthspan. SIRT1, the NAD-dependent deacetylase, attenuates telomere shortening, while PGC-1alpha, a master modulator of gene expression, is phosphorylated by AMP kinase and deacetylated by SIRT1. Prevention of lifestyle related diseases by chronological nutrition is described based on these mechanisms.

  2. [Genetic analysis of life-style related diseases].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Tokihisa; Miki, Tetsuro

    2005-03-01

    In our country to which the aging society was invited, life-style related diseases, such as cancer, ischemic cardiac disease, apoplexy, and diabetes, are increasing. These life-style related diseases are multi-factor diseases. And genetic factors, environmental factors, and aging factors are concerned. This genetic factors are prescribed by gene polymorphism between individuals. The method of identifying these gene polymorphism has two kinds, microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). If the relation of life-style related diseases and gene polymorphism will be solved from now on, realization of patient-tailored treatment according to the individual, extension of healthy life expectancy, improvement in quality of life, and decrease of medical expenses are expected.

  3. Socioeconomic Status and Improvements in Lifestyle, Coronary Risk Factors, and Quality of Life: The Multisite Cardiac Lifestyle Intervention Program

    PubMed Central

    Govil, Sarah R.; Merritt-Worden, Terri; Ornish, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to clarify whether patients of low socioeconomic status (SES) can make lifestyle changes and show improved outcomes in coronary heart disease (CHD), similar to patients with higher SES. Methods. We examined lifestyle, risk factors, and quality of life over 3 months, by SES and gender, in 869 predominantly White, nonsmoking CHD patients (34% female) in the insurance-sponsored Multisite Cardiac Lifestyle Intervention Program. SES was defined primarily by education. Results. At baseline, less-educated participants were more likely to be disadvantaged (e.g., past smoking, sedentary lifestyle, high fat diet, overweight, depression) than were higher-SES participants. By 3 months, participants at all SES levels reported consuming 10% or less dietary fat, exercising 3.5 hours per week or more, and practicing stress management 5.5 hours per week or more. These self-reports were substantiated by improvements in risk factors (e.g., 5-kg weight loss, and improved blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and exercise capacity; P < .001), and accompanied by improvements in well-being (e.g., depression, hostility, quality of life; P < .001). Conclusions. The observed benefits for CHD patients with low SES indicate that broadening accessibility of lifestyle programs through health insurance should be strongly encouraged. PMID:18923113

  4. Design and development of an instrument to measure overall lifestyle habits for epidemiological research: the Mediterranean Lifestyle (MEDLIFE) index.

    PubMed

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Moreno-Franco, Belén; Ordovás, Jose M; León, Montse; Casasnovas, Jose A; Peñalvo, Jose L

    2015-04-01

    To design and develop a questionnaire that can account for an individual's adherence to a Mediterranean lifestyle including the assessment of diet and physical activity patterns, as well as social interaction. The Mediterranean Lifestyle (MEDLIFE) index was created based on the current Spanish Mediterranean food guide pyramid. MEDLIFE is a twenty-eight-item derived index consisting of questions about food consumption (fifteen items), traditional Mediterranean dietary habits (seven items) and physical activity, rest and social interaction habits (six items). Linear regression models and Spearman rank correlation were fitted to assess content validity and internal consistency. A subset of participants in the Aragon Workers' Health Study cohort (Zaragoza, Spain) provided the data for development of MEDLIFE. Participants (n 988) of the Aragon Workers' Health Study cohort in Spain. Mean MEDLIFE score was 11·3 (sd 2·6; range: 0-28), and the quintile distribution of MEDLIFE score showed a significant association with each of the individual items as well as with specific nutrients and lifestyle indicators (intra-validity). We also quantified MEDLIFE correspondence with previously reported diet quality indices and found significant correlations (ρ range: 0·44-0·53; P<0·001) for the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Index and Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener. MEDLIFE is the first index to include an overall assessment of lifestyle habits. It is expected to be a more holistic tool to measure adherence to the Mediterranean lifestyle in epidemiological studies.

  5. Lifestyle and Outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Techniques: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Zeinab, Hamzehgardeshi; Zohreh, Shahhosseini; Gelehkolaee, Keshvar Samadaee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies reveal that lifestyles such as physical activity patterns, obesity, nutrition, and smoking, are factors that affect laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes induced by assisted fertility techniques in infertile couples. The present study is a narrative review of studies in this area. Methods: In this study, researchers conducted their computer search in public databases Google Scholar general search engine, and then more specific: Science Direct, ProQuest, SID, Magiran, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, cochrane library, and Psych info; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: infertility (sterility, infertility), lifestyle (life behavior, lifestyle), Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART), antioxidant and infertility, social health, spiritual health, mental health, Alcohol and drug abuse, preventive factors, and instruments., and selected relevant articles to the study subject from 2004 to 2013. Firstly, a list of 150 papers generated from the initial search. Then reviewers studied titles and abstracts. Secondly, 111 papers were included. Finally, quality assessment of full text studies was performed by two independent reviewers. Researchers reviewed summary of all articles sought, ultimately used data from 62 full articles to compile this review paper. Results: Review of literature led to arrangement of 9 general categories of ART results’ relationship with weight watch and diet, exercise and physical activity, psychological health, avoiding medications, alcohol and drugs, preventing diseases, environmental health, spiritual health, social health, and physical health. Conclusion: The following was obtained from review of studies: since lifestyle is among important, changeable, and influential factors in fertility, success of these methods can be greatly helped through assessment of lifestyle patterns of infertile couples, and design and implementation of healthy lifestyle

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits among preventive cardiovascular nurses.

    PubMed

    Fair, Joan M; Gulanick, Meg; Braun, Lynne T

    2009-01-01

    The cornerstone of cardiovascular disease prevention is the promotion of a healthy lifestyle and the identification and reduction of cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiology nurses play a major role in counseling patients about lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors. We used an e-mail survey to elicit self-reported prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and healthy lifestyles among the Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association (PCNA) members and compared their risk profiles with published data for American cardiologists, the Nurses' Health Study 2, and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data for women. A total of 1,345 complete surveys were collected. The respondents were mostly women (96%), with mean (SD) age of 47.4 (8.7) years. More than 95% were not cigarette smokers, more than 50% had a healthy body mass index (<25), and more than 56% achieved the recommended levels of physical activity. Nevertheless, obesity (body mass index ≥ 30) was a health risk in one-fifth of PCNA respondents. The rates of hypertension (17%) and dyslipidemia (15%) were lower than rates reported in other national samples; however, the rate for family history of premature heart disease (20%) was similar to those reported in national samples. Since family history of premature heart disease may be a more significant risk factor in women, PCNA respondents with such a family history may require targeted interventions to further reduce their risk and improve their lifestyle behaviors. PCNA nurses have more favorable lifestyle profiles compared with national samples. It can be expected that nurses who know their risk factors and who follow healthy lifestyle behaviors will be more effective in these counseling roles.

  7. Healthy Lifestyle and Blood Pressure Variability in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Maseli, Anna; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Schoen, Tobias; Fischer, Andreas; Jung, Manuel; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between healthy lifestyle metrics and blood pressure variability (BPV) in young and healthy adults. A population-based sample of 1,999 individuals aged 25-41 years was investigated. A lifestyle-score from 0 (most unhealthy) to 7 (most healthy) was calculated by giving one point for each of the following components: never smoking cigarettes, adhering to a healthy diet, performing moderate or intense physical activity, having a body mass index <25 kg/m2, a total cholesterol <200 mg/dl, a glycated hemoglobin <5.7%, or a conventional BP <120/80 mm Hg. Standardized ambulatory 24-hour BP measurements were obtained in all individuals. BPV was defined as the SD of all individual ambulatory BP recordings. We constructed multivariable linear regression models to assess the relationships between the lifestyle-score and BPV. None of the results were adjusted for multiple testing. Median age was 37 years and 46.8% were men. With increasing lifestyle-score, systolic and diastolic BPV is decreasing linearly (P for trend <0.0001), even after multivariable adjustment. Per 1-point increase in lifestyle-score, the β-coefficient (95% confidence interval) for systolic and diastolic 24-hour BPV was -0.03 (-0.03; -0.02) and -0.04 (-0.05; -0.03), respectively, both P for trend <0.0001. These relationships were attenuated but remained statistically significant after additional adjustment for mean individual BP. In this study of young and healthy adults, adopting a healthy lifestyle was associated with a lower BPV. These associations were independent of mean BP levels.

  8. Construction and Validation the Lifestyle Questionnaire Related to Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Momayyezi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle is a significant factor in cancer etiologic and prevention of cancer. There are instruments to measure a healthy life style, but the lifestyle questionnaires only examine one or a few more aspects of lifestyle. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to construct a comprehensive instrument to examine all aspects of lifestyle related to cancer. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in Yazd city in Iran. A questionnaire was designed to assess and measure various aspects of lifestyle related to cancer using similar studies. Researchers used the Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest method to determine the reliability. Also, construct validity was determined using the factor analysis method in SPSS 16 software. Results: Face validity was examined using a panel of experts. Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was appropriate (α = 0.87). Also, Cronbach’s alpha for all dimensions of questionnaire was acceptable (perfect score). Test-retest method was used to determine the reliability. The results indicated that ICC was in the range of 0.84 to 0.94. Based on the obtained results of factor analysis method, 8 dimensions of the questionnaire were extracted (physical health, physical activity and exercise, mental health, drug and alcohol avoidance, balanced consumption of food, environmental pollutants and harmful substances, weight control and nutrition, and reproductive health). Conclusions: This study showed that the present questionnaire can be used as a valid and reliable tool for collecting data about the lifestyle of people related to cancer. PMID:26634112

  9. Children's Report of Lifestyle Counseling Differs by BMI Status

    PubMed Central

    Carroll-Scott, Amy; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Peters, Susan M.; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examined whether children's report of receiving weight, nutrition, and physical activity counseling from their clinicians differs by their BMI status and identified factors associated with higher rates of counseling. Methods Physical assessments and health surveys were collected from a school-based sample of 959 5th and 6th grade students. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine how lifestyle counseling differs by BMI status, adjusting for race, gender, socioeconomic status, co-morbidities, site of care provider, and age. Results Healthy weight children reported receiving the least amount of lifestyle counseling, with nearly one-quarter reporting none at all. Overweight children were no more likely than their healthy weight peers to report receiving weight and nutrition counseling. As expected, obese children were approximately two times more likely to report being counseled on their weight, nutrition, or physical activity as compared to healthy weight children (all p values at least <0.01). However, 23.9% of obese children reported receiving no counseling about their weight. After adjusting for BMI and all other confounding factors, for each lifestyle topic, Hispanics were at least 1.84 times more likely than whites to report being counseled (all p values at least <0.05). Blacks were at least 1.38 times more likely than whites to report being counseled (all p values at least <0.05). Girls were at least 1.38 times more likely than boys to report being counseled (all p values at least <0.05). Conclusion Although lifestyle counseling is universally recommended, many children report not receiving counseling. Despite clinical indications for more intensive counseling, overweight children report similar counseling rates as their healthy weight peers. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of obese children report not receiving lifestyle counseling. Future research should examine how lifestyle counseling can more

  10. Impact of Lifestyle Modification on Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Onyenwenyi, Chijoke; Ricardo, Ana C

    2015-09-01

    Kidney disease is common in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with adverse health outcomes, including progression to end-stage renal disease. In the general population, adherence to a healthy lifestyle is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Among individuals with diabetic kidney disease, modifications in lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, smoking habits, and body mass index, represent a promising cost-effective therapeutic adjunct to pharmacologic treatment of kidney disease incidence and progression.

  11. Environmental Epigenetics: Crossroad between Public Health, Lifestyle, and Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Massimo; Pistillo, Maria Pia; Banelli, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics provides the key to transform the genetic information into phenotype and because of its reversibility it is considered an ideal target for therapeutic interventions. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms of epigenetic control: DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and ncRNA expression and their role in disease development. We describe also the influence of the environment, lifestyle, nutritional habits, and the psychological influence on epigenetic marks and how these factors are related to cancer and other diseases development. Finally we discuss the potential use of natural epigenetic modifiers in the chemoprevention of cancer to link together public health, environment, and lifestyle. PMID:26339624

  12. Beliefs and attitudes toward vegetarian lifestyle across generations.

    PubMed

    Pribis, Peter; Pencak, Rose C; Grajales, Tevni

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether reasons to adopt vegetarian lifestyle differ significantly among generations. Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we identified that 4% of the participants were vegans, 25% lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 4% pesco-vegetarians and 67% non-vegetarian. Younger people significantly agreed more with the moral reason and with the environmental reason. People ages 41-60 significantly agreed more with the health reason. There are significant differences across generations as to why people choose to live a vegetarian lifestyle.

  13. Beliefs and Attitudes toward Vegetarian Lifestyle across Generations

    PubMed Central

    Pribis, Peter; Pencak, Rose C; Grajales, Tevni

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether reasons to adopt vegetarian lifestyle differ significantly among generations. Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we identified that 4% of the participants were vegans, 25% lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 4% pesco-vegetarians and 67% non-vegetarian. Younger people significantly agreed more with the moral reason and with the environmental reason. People ages 41–60 significantly agreed more with the health reason. There are significant differences across generations as to why people choose to live a vegetarian lifestyle. PMID:22254039

  14. Environmental Epigenetics: Crossroad between Public Health, Lifestyle, and Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Romani, Massimo; Pistillo, Maria Pia; Banelli, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics provides the key to transform the genetic information into phenotype and because of its reversibility it is considered an ideal target for therapeutic interventions. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms of epigenetic control: DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and ncRNA expression and their role in disease development. We describe also the influence of the environment, lifestyle, nutritional habits, and the psychological influence on epigenetic marks and how these factors are related to cancer and other diseases development. Finally we discuss the potential use of natural epigenetic modifiers in the chemoprevention of cancer to link together public health, environment, and lifestyle.

  15. [Bone and calcium metabolism in life-style related diseases].

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Ippei; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that life-style related diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia are associated with bone and calcium metabolism. Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased fracture risks, independently of bone mineral density, with abnormality of parathyroid hormone secretion and impaired osteoblastic function. On the other hand, osteocalcin secreted from bone is reported to regulate glucose metabolism. Thus, bone, calcium and glucose metabolism may be deeply associated with each other. In this review, we describe the association between life-style related diseases, especially diabetes mellitus, and metabolism of bone and calcium.

  16. Osteoporosis prevention and management: nonpharmacologic and lifestyle options.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Mindy S; Shen, Wen

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate current evidence regarding the use of dietary and exercise interventions to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The key lifestyle modifications that can decrease risk of fracture in postmenopausal women include regular weight-bearing exercise and a balanced diet with adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. Other modifiable lifestyle factors critical to bone health and to decrease fracture risk include the avoidance of smoking, an excessively low body weight, excessive alcohol intake, and fall risks at home. Emerging modifiable factors may include B-vitamin, omega-3 fatty acid, soy isoflavone, and dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation.

  17. Nutrition and Lifestyle Intervention on Mood and Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Null, Gary; Pennesi, Luanne; Feldman, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This group study explored how an intervention of diet and lifestyle, including a vegan diet, fruit and vegetable juicing, nutritional supplements, regular exercise, and destressing techniques, would affect 27 subjects with anxiety, depression, poor memory, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, history of stroke, or multiple sclerosis. Several subjects had overlapping conditions. Videotaped testimonials were obtained describing subjective results. Testimonials stated multiple benefits across all conditions addressed by the study, with subjects often reporting substantial benefits. These results demonstrate that an intervention of diet, juicing, supplements, exercise, and lifestyle may provide considerable benefits for all conditions addressed.

  18. Future trends and consumer lifestyles with regard to meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2006-09-01

    Using the food-related lifestyle model as a conceptual framework, one possible trend each is discussed for the following four components of food-related lifestyle: quality aspects, ways of shopping, cooking methods, and purchase motives. These trends refer to the increasing use of extrinsic cues in quality perception, shopping fast and easy vs. shopping in specialized outlets, the role of convenience and meat avoidance in cooking, and the role of concerns about the meat production process in purchasing. Indicators for each of these trends are discussed.

  19. Balancing life-style and genomics research for disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Willett, Walter C

    2002-04-26

    Genetic and environmental factors, including diet and life-style, both contribute to cardiovascular disease, cancers, and other major causes of mortality, but various lines of evidence indicate that environmental factors are most important. Overly enthusiastic expectations regarding the benefits of genetic research for disease prevention have the potential to distort research priorities and spending for health. However, integration of new genetic information into epidemiologic studies can help clarify causal relations between both life-style and genetic factors and risks of disease. Thus, a balanced approach should provide the best data to make informed choices about the most effective means to prevent disease.

  20. Lifestyle Assessment: Part 4. The Halton Health Promotion Survey

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R.; Albert, W.; Wilson, D. M. C.; Ciliska, D.; Evans, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    In the Region of Halton, a health promotion data base was developed to assist with planning for local services and programs. Three data sources were used: preventable mortality, preventable morbidity, and the prevalence of modifiable risk among community members. Existing information was used for the first two sources, and the community was surveyed for the last. A survey version of the FANTASTIC Lifestyle Checklist was mailed to a random sample of 1,200 households. FANTASTIC showed itself to be a reliable lifestyle construct with two major factors: a group of psychosocial behaviors, and a set of “bad habits”.

  1. Ivy League Football: Hard-Core Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iman, Raymond S.

    1971-01-01

    Decries the discrimination accorded to Ivy League football players by Pro Football owners and suggests corrective measures including a Head Start program involving preseason coaching for Ivy Leaguers, formation of a Department of Recreational Studies headed by Ara Parseghian or Darrell Royal, and a remedial course for punters during Christmas…

  2. Evidence-based lifestyle interventions for obesity and Type 2 diabetes: The Look AHEAD intensive lifestyle intervention as exemplar.

    PubMed

    West, Delia Smith; Coulon, Sandra M; Monroe, Courtney M; Wilson, Dawn K

    2016-10-01

    The majority of individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are overweight or obese, and this excess adiposity negatively impacts cardiovascular risk and contributes to challenges in disease management. Treatment of obesity by behavioral lifestyle intervention, within the context of diabetes, produces broad and clinically meaningful health improvements, and recent studies demonstrate long-term sustained weight management success with behavioral lifestyle interventions. Details of the Look AHEAD intensive lifestyle intervention are provided as an exemplar approach to the secondary prevention of T2D and obesity. The presence of behavior change expertise in the development and delivery of evidence-based behavioral weight control is discussed, and issues of adaptation and dissemination are raised, with a model to guide these important steps provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Lifestyle interventions for the treatment of women with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julie; Alwan, Nisreen A; West, Jane; Brown, Stephen; McKinlay, Christopher Jd; Farrar, Diane; Crowther, Caroline A

    2017-05-04

    Gestational diabetes (GDM) is glucose intolerance, first recognised in pregnancy and usually resolving after birth. GDM is associated with both short- and long-term adverse effects for the mother and her infant. Lifestyle interventions are the primary therapeutic strategy for many women with GDM. To evaluate the effects of combined lifestyle interventions with or without pharmacotherapy in treating women with gestational diabetes. We searched the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (14 May 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (14th May 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included only randomised controlled trials comparing a lifestyle intervention with usual care or another intervention for the treatment of pregnant women with GDM. Quasi-randomised trials were excluded. Cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion. Women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes were excluded. We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. All selection of studies, data extraction was conducted independently by two review authors. Fifteen trials (in 45 reports) are included in this review (4501 women, 3768 infants). None of the trials were funded by a conditional grant from a pharmaceutical company. The lifestyle interventions included a wide variety of components such as education, diet, exercise and self-monitoring of blood glucose. The control group included usual antenatal care or diet alone. Using GRADE methodology, the quality of the evidence ranged from high to very low quality. The main reasons for downgrading evidence were inconsistency and risk of bias. We summarised the following data from the important outcomes of this review. Lifestyle intervention versus control groupFor the mother:There was no clear evidence of a difference between lifestyle intervention and control groups for the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (pre-eclampsia) (average

  4. Globalization of diabetes: the role of diet, lifestyle, and genes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Frank B

    2011-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a global public health crisis that threatens the economies of all nations, particularly developing countries. Fueled by rapid urbanization, nutrition transition, and increasingly sedentary lifestyles, the epidemic has grown in parallel with the worldwide rise in obesity. Asia's large population and rapid economic development have made it an epicenter of the epidemic. Asian populations tend to develop diabetes at younger ages and lower BMI levels than Caucasians. Several factors contribute to accelerated diabetes epidemic in Asians, including the "normal-weight metabolically obese" phenotype; high prevalence of smoking and heavy alcohol use; high intake of refined carbohydrates (e.g., white rice); and dramatically decreased physical activity levels. Poor nutrition in utero and in early life combined with overnutrition in later life may also play a role in Asia's diabetes epidemic. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology, but currently identified genetic loci are insufficient to explain ethnic differences in diabetes risk. Nonetheless, interactions between Westernized diet and lifestyle and genetic background may accelerate the growth of diabetes in the context of rapid nutrition transition. Epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials show that type 2 diabetes is largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modifications. Translating these findings into practice, however, requires fundamental changes in public policies, the food and built environments, and health systems. To curb the escalating diabetes epidemic, primary prevention through promotion of a healthy diet and lifestyle should be a global public policy priority.

  5. Advertising a "Healthy Lifestyle:" A Cypriot Health Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Soula

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a health education program entitled "Young Consumer" project, financed by the European Union and implemented by the Cyprus Consumer Association between March and June 2004. The aim of the project was to promote a healthy lifestyle among a group of Cypriot primary school pupils (11-12 years old). Participants were…

  6. Measuring Client Experiences of Motivational Interviewing during a Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Landry, Alicia S.

    2015-01-01

    The Client Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing was used to assess motivational interviewing experiences in a predominantly female, African American sample from the Southeastern United States who received motivational interviewing-based feedback during a multicomponent lifestyle intervention. Motivational interviewing was experienced…

  7. Lifestyle Shapes the Dialogue between Environment, Microglia, and Adult Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valero, Jorge; Paris, Iñaki; Sierra, Amanda

    2016-04-20

    Lifestyle modulates brain function. Diet, stress levels, and physical exercise among other factors influence the "brain cognitive reserve", that is, the capacity of the brain to maintain a normal function when confronting neurodegenerative diseases, injury, and/or aging. This cognitive reserve relays on several cellular and molecular elements that contribute to brain plasticity allowing adaptive responses to cognitive demands, and one of its key components is the hippocampal neurogenic reserve. Hippocampal neural stem cells give rise to new neurons that integrate into the local circuitry and contribute to hippocampal functions such as memory and learning. Importantly, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is well-known to be modulated by the demands of the environment and lifestyle factors. Diet, stress, and physical exercise directly act on neural stem cells and/or their progeny, but, in addition, they may also indirectly affect neurogenesis by acting on microglia. Microglia, the guardians of the brain, rapidly sense changes in the brain milieu, and it has been recently shown that their function is affected by lifestyle factors. However, few studies have analyzed the modulatory effect of microglia on adult neurogenesis in these conditions. Here, we review the current knowledge about the dialogue maintained between microglia and the hippocampal neurogenic cascade. Understanding how the communication between microglia and hippocampal neurogenesis is affected by lifestyle choices is crucial to maintain the brain cognitive reserve and prevent the maladaptive responses that emerge during disease or injury through adulthood and aging.

  8. Assessing Sustainability of Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, R. P.; Pate, R. R.; Dowda, M.; Ward, D. S.; Epping, J. N.; Dishman, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Sustained intervention effects are needed for positive health impacts in populations; however, few published examples illustrate methods for assessing sustainability in health promotion programs. This paper describes the methods for assessing sustainability of the Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP). LEAP was a comprehensive…

  9. Freshman Orientation Sessions Can Teach Incoming Students about Healthful Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Marjorie R.; Waldrop, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This GEM describes the "Freshman 15 Jeopardy" workshop, a 30-minute nutrition education session aimed to expose incoming college freshmen to the college food environment, to increase their awareness of factors that cause weight gain, and to instruct them on lifestyle choices they could employ to prevent weight gain. This short workshop has not…

  10. Preventive, Lifestyle, and Personal Health Behaviors among Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Makar, Marian; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ani, Chizobam; Wolf, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examines personal health behaviors and wellness, health-related lifestyles, and prevention screening practices among licensed physicians. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1,875 physicians practicing in California. Data from 763 returned questionnaires (41%) were analyzed. Results: Our data…

  11. Diet and lifestyle in CVD prevention and treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and more recently in developing countries. Modifications to habitual dietary patterns and lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and tobacco use) can strongly influence the risk of developing CVD. Thi...

  12. Daily lifestyles and anti-mutagenicity of saliva.

    PubMed

    Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Nakamura, Sei-Ichi; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between lifestyle and the antimutagenicity of saliva. Subjects were 52 healthy female university students. The collection of the saliva samples and the lifestyle measurements were carried out for them. The anti-mutagenicity of the saliva was measured using the umu test. With regard to the lifestyle items, only "nutrient balance" tended to contribute positively to the inhibiting capacity of the saliva on the mutagenicity of AF-2. In addition, there was a significant inverse correlation between the score of 7 other items and the inhibiting capacity of the saliva (r=-0.32; p<0.05). We also found a significant relation between their tea and/or coffee consumption and the inhibiting capacity of the saliva. These findings suggest that the inhibiting capacity of saliva worked to decrease mutagen levels that were enhanced by poor lifestyle. In addition, "nutrient balance" may contribute to the inhibiting capacity of the saliva independent of 7 other items. With regard to the tea and/or coffee consumption. further studies should be carried out.

  13. Preventive, Lifestyle, and Personal Health Behaviors among Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Makar, Marian; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ani, Chizobam; Wolf, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examines personal health behaviors and wellness, health-related lifestyles, and prevention screening practices among licensed physicians. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1,875 physicians practicing in California. Data from 763 returned questionnaires (41%) were analyzed. Results: Our data…

  14. The "healthy lifestyle guide pyramid" for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    González-Gross, M; Gómez-Lorente, J J; Valtueña, J; Ortiz, J C; Meléndez, A

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that risk factors for chronic diseases are established during childhood and adolescence. Consensus about the need to increase prevention efforts makes the adoption of a healthy lifestyle seem desirable from early childhood onwards. After reviewing educational tools for children and adolescents aimed at promoting a healthy lifestyle, it was recognized that there was a need to develop a simple educational tool specifically designed for these age groups. Development of the healthy lifestyle pyramid for children and adolescents. We propose a three-dimensional, truncated and staggered pyramid with 4 faces and a base, which introduces a completely new concept that goes beyond other published pyramids. Each of the faces is oriented towards achieving a different goal. Two faces (faces 1 and 2) are formulated around achieving a goal on a daily basis (daily food intake, face 1, and daily activities, face 2). Face 3 is an adaptation of the traditional food guide pyramid, adapted to children's energy, nutritional and hydration needs. Face 4 deals with both daily and life-long habits. On the base of the pyramid, there is advice about adequate nutrition alternating with advice about physical activity and sports. The Healthy Lifestyle Pyramid is specifically developed for children and adolescents according to current scientific knowledge and evidence-based data and includes easy-to-follow advice and full colour pictures. Following these guidelines should improve health and reduce risk factors, promoting enjoyable and appropriate development towards adulthood.

  15. The FINUT Healthy Lifestyles Guide: Beyond the Food Pyramid123

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. PMID:24829489

  16. A Preliminary Research on the Lifestyle of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsiaowen; Shih, Hongyu; Thiruvadi, Sheela; Song, Yiru

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study is to explore the lifestyle of international students and also the difficulties faced by them due to the language barrier (difficulty in learning the Chinese language) in Taiwan. Motivation for this study comes from the increasing number of international students, and the related educational policy settings of the…

  17. Lifestyle and Gallstone Disease: Scope for Primary Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Sandeep; Khan, Zulfia; Ansari, M Athar; Khalique, Najam; Anees, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the antecedent risk factors in the causation of gallstone disease in a hospital-based case control study. Materials and Methods: Cases (n = 150) from all age groups and both sexes with sonographically proven gallstones were recruited over a duration of 3 months from the surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Modes of presentation were also noted among cases. Age- and sex-matched controls (n = 150) were chosen from among ward inmates admitted for other reasons. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for selected sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle-related variables. Results: Females had a higher prevalence of gallstone disease than males (P < 0.01). Among males, the geriatric age group (<60 years) was relatively more susceptible (28%). Prepubertal age group was least afflicted (3.3%). Univariate analysis revealed multiparity, high fat, refined sugar, and low fiber intakes to be significantly associated with gallstones. Sedentary habits, recent stress, and hypertension were also among the significant lifestyle-related factors. High body mass index and waist hip ratios, again representing unhealthy lifestyles, were the significant anthropometric covariates. However, only three of these, viz., physical inactivity, high saturated fats, and high waist hip ratio emerged as significant predictors on stepwise logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Gallstone disease is frequent among females and elderly males. Significant predictor variables are abdominal adiposity, inadequate physical activity, and high intake of saturated fats; thus representing high risk lifestyles and yet amenable to primary prevention. PMID:22279255

  18. Prediabetes and Lifestyle Modification: Time to Prevent a Preventable Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    More than 100 million Americans have prediabetes or diabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which individuals have blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. People with prediabetes have an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. An estimated 34% of adults have prediabetes. Prediabetes is now recognized as a reversible condition that increases an individual’s risk for development of diabetes. Lifestyle risk factors for prediabetes include overweight and physical inactivity. Increasing awareness and risk stratification of individuals with prediabetes may help physicians understand potential interventions that may help decrease the percentage of patients in their panels in whom diabetes develops. If untreated, 37% of the individuals with prediabetes may have diabetes in 4 years. Lifestyle intervention may decrease the percentage of prediabetic patients in whom diabetes develops to 20%. Long-term data also suggest that lifestyle intervention may decrease the risk of prediabetes progressing to diabetes for as long as 10 years. To prevent 1 case of diabetes during a 3-year period, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle intervention program. In addition, recent data suggest that the difference in direct and indirect costs to care for a patient with prediabetes vs a patient with diabetes may be as much as $7000 per year. Investment in a diabetes prevention program now may have a substantial return on investment in the future and help prevent a preventable disease. PMID:25102521

  19. Healthy lifestyles of university students in China and influential factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Xing, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Xian-Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze to what extent university students exhibit healthy lifestyles and which sociodemographic variables influence healthy lifestyles. 4809 university students randomly selected were measured by use of the Healthy Lifestyle Scale for University Students questionnaire. When controlling for the other variables, the total healthy lifestyles score was predicted by gender, grade, father's level of education, and type of institution; exercise behaviour was partially predicted by gender, grade, type of institution, and family monthly income; regular behaviour was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, family monthly income, and father's educational level; nutrition behaviour was partially affected by type of institution, family monthly income, and father's educational level; health risk behaviour was modulated by gender, mother's level of education, and family monthly income; health responsibility was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, and father's educational level; social support was modulated by gender, grade, and father's educational level; stress management was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, and mother's education level; life appreciation was modulated by grade, type of institution, and mother's educational level. These influences should be taken into account in designing interventions for specific socio-demographic profiles that might be at higher risk for certain behaviours.

  20. Women's attitudes towards a pre-conception healthy lifestyle programme.

    PubMed

    Funk, K L; LeBlanc, E S; Vesco, K K; Stevens, V J

    2015-04-01

    Nearly half of US women begin pregnancy overweight or obese and more than half of overweight or obese pregnant women experience excessive gestational weight gain. Recent lifestyle intervention programmes have helped women avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy, but helping women lose weight before pregnancy may be a more effective way to improve pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed women's attitudes towards pre-conception diet and weight management interventions. An anonymous survey was conducted in patients waiting in a health maintenance organization's obstetrics and primary care waiting rooms. It focused on attitudes towards participating in a pre-conception, lifestyle change programme. Eighty percent of the 126 women surveyed were pregnant or considering pregnancy within 5 years. Of the 126 respondents, 60 (48%) were overweight or obese. Of these, 96% rated healthy diet and healthy weight before pregnancy as very important or important and 77% favoured a healthy lifestyle programme (diet, weight management and physical activity) before becoming pregnant. Likewise, overweight or obese women reported being likely or highly likely to participate in specific intervention programme aspects such as keeping phone appointments (77%), using a programme website (70%) and keeping food and exercise records (63%). Survey results show that women in this population believe that adopting a healthy lifestyle and losing weight are important before pregnancy and that they are enthusiastic about programmes that will help them achieve those goals in preparation for pregnancy. © 2015 World Obesity.

  1. Freshman Orientation Sessions Can Teach Incoming Students about Healthful Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Marjorie R.; Waldrop, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This GEM describes the "Freshman 15 Jeopardy" workshop, a 30-minute nutrition education session aimed to expose incoming college freshmen to the college food environment, to increase their awareness of factors that cause weight gain, and to instruct them on lifestyle choices they could employ to prevent weight gain. This short workshop has not…

  2. Lifestyle Management Program: Promoting Cardiovascular Health: in Community College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Felipe G.; Jichaku, Patrick

    The Lifestyle Management Project is a health promotion project and research study conducted in the spring of 1984 at five Los Angeles junior college campuses. Its goal was to increase knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CHD) risk factors among 400 to 2000 junior college students in each campus. This was done via five risk factor activities: blood…

  3. Lifestyle Management Program: Promoting Cardiovascular Health: in Community College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Felipe G.; Jichaku, Patrick

    The Lifestyle Management Project is a health promotion project and research study conducted in the spring of 1984 at five Los Angeles junior college campuses. Its goal was to increase knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CHD) risk factors among 400 to 2000 junior college students in each campus. This was done via five risk factor activities: blood…

  4. Conducting Psychoeducational Interventions with Drug Abusing Clients: The Lifestyle Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William N.; Walters, Glenn D.

    1997-01-01

    Proposes a psychoeducational model of intervention for use with drug abusers. Claims that the model may be particularly helpful during the early stages of intervention in reducing resistance to change since it addresses the eight thinking styles believed to shield the drug "lifestyle" from forces that would otherwise lead to change. (RJM)

  5. The Upscale Hispanic Magazine Reader: Acculturation and the "Yucca" Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Bruce

    A study examined the life-styles of South Florida upscale "yuppie/yucca" (young, up-and-coming Cuban-American) Hispanics by exploring their consumption habits and such demographic variables as recreational activity, credit card ownership, housing, investments, language preference, marital status, education level, and income. The…

  6. The FINUT healthy lifestyles guide: Beyond the food pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2014-05-01

    The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases.

  7. Effect of Health Lifestyle Pattern on Dietary Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Halloran, Peggy; Lazovich, DeAnn; Patterson, Ruth E.; Harnack, Lisa; French, Simone; Curry, Sue J.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of lifestyle on the effectiveness of a low-intensity dietary intervention. Analysis of data from the Eating Patterns Study indicated that people who practiced certain combinations of health behaviors responded differently to the low-intensity dietary intervention. People with high-risk behaviors were the least successful in…

  8. The Social and Lifestyle Characteristics of Australian Orienteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, David

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 1,296 members of the Orienteering Federation of Australia indicates that Australian orienteers are well educated, have well-paid professional jobs, possess a strong commitment to a healthy lifestyle, and are generally interested in outdoor activities. Most were introduced to orienteering through personal contact with family members and…

  9. Concurrent and convergent validity of the simple lifestyle indicator questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Marshall; Pike, Andrea; Bethune, Cheri; Kirby, Allison; Pike, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle issues including physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, and self-reported stress have all been shown to predispose people to higher risk of cardiovascular disease. This study provides further psychometrics on the Simple Lifestyle Indicator Questionnaire (SLIQ), a short, easy-to-use instrument which measures all these lifestyle characteristics as a single construct. One hundred and ninety-three individuals from St. John's, Newfoundland, and Labrador, Canada completed the SLIQ and reference standards for diet, exercise, stress, and alcohol consumption. The reference standards were a detailed Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), the SF36 Health Status Questionnaire, and a survey of eight questions from a cardiovascular risk questionnaire. Physical activity score was compared with number of steps on a pedometer. Correlations between scores on the SLIQ and the reference standards were the SLIQ versus DHQ (r = 0.679, P = 0.001), SLIQ versus pedometer (r = 0.455, P = 0.002), SLIQ versus alcohol consumption (r = 0.665, P = 0.001), SLIQ versus SRRS (r = -0.264, P = 0.001), SLIQ versus eight-question risk score (r = 0.475, P = 0.001), and SLIQ versus Question 1 on SF36 (r = 0.303, P = 0.001). The SLIQ is sufficiently valid when compared to reference standards to be useful as a brief assessment of an individual's cardiovascular lifestyle in research and clinical settings.

  10. A Portfolio Approach to Impacting Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Pulling, Andrew R.; Alpert, Amanda; Jackman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a physical activity portfolio designed to help students manage their own fitness and health-related physical activity outside of the physical education classroom. A main goal of physical education programs is to prepare students to lead a physically active lifestyle and maintain a lifetime of health-related fitness. The…

  11. [Lifestyle changes for patients with coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Douard, Hervé; Corré, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    Shortening the hospitalization period during an acute coronary syndrome can lead to a trivialization of the event, and especially causes many questions among patients about their future lifestyle. A secondary medical care in rehabilitation centers allows to combine the numerous benefits of physical training and to answer to their questioning, through to both a collective and individual therapeutic education.

  12. Conducting Psychoeducational Interventions with Drug Abusing Clients: The Lifestyle Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William N.; Walters, Glenn D.

    1997-01-01

    Proposes a psychoeducational model of intervention for use with drug abusers. Claims that the model may be particularly helpful during the early stages of intervention in reducing resistance to change since it addresses the eight thinking styles believed to shield the drug "lifestyle" from forces that would otherwise lead to change. (RJM)

  13. Are certain lifestyle habits associated with lower Alzheimer's disease risk?

    PubMed

    Arab, Lana; Sabbagh, Marwan N

    2010-01-01

    As the number of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is expected to grow, finding ways to prevent and lower the risk of AD becomes a crucial matter. Risk factors for developing AD have been identified including health conditions, dietary habits, genetics and heredity, gender, education, age, and lifestyle. Interventions targeted at some of these risk factors may offer opportunities for development of an optimal preventive strategy. Lifestyle habits which include dietary habits and physical activities appear to have positive effect on modifying many risk factors. Studies have shown controversial results when it comes to the relation between the adherence to a Mediterranean diet and /or physical activity and the incidence of AD. Many population-based studies reported the positive association between antioxidants intake (like vitamin E and C), and polyunsaturated fatty acids whether it is from the diet or supplements on the cognitive performance. Future investigations should aim to determine objectively whether lifestyle modification through diet, exercise, or vitamins/supplements truly exert risk reduction or outright prevention. In this review, lifestyle habits are reviewed as they pertain to influence on risk of developing AD as well as on cognitive decline. Epidemiological studies and animal studies are reviewed.

  14. Evaluation of an Interdisciplinary, Physically Active Lifestyle Course Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fede, Marybeth H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a fit for life program at a university and to use the findings from an extensive literature review, consultations with formative and summative committees, and data collection to develop an interdisciplinary, physically active lifestyle (IPAL) course model. To address the 5 research questions examined in…

  15. Dietary habits and lifestyle among adolescents in Damascus, Syria.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Kalam, Faiza

    2014-01-01

    Dietary and lifestyle behaviours among adolescents are risk factors for several chronic diseases in adulthood. To examine the differences in dietary habits and lifestyle between male and female adolescents in Syria. A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified sampling study was carried out on adolescents, 15-18-years-old, in Damascus, Syria. The total sample selected was 365 (178 males and 187 females). Data were collected with a pretested questionnaire. There were significant differences between males and females in the frequency of intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products, red meat, sugary beverages and fast foods. Females were more likely to skip breakfast than males (52.4% vs. 43%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Males were significantly more likely to consume larger portions of fast foods and soft drinks. Significant differences were found between genders in eating while watching television, hours using Internet, practicing physical activity and emotional eating. A significant variation between male and female Syrian adolescents in their food habits and lifestyle was observed. Interventions should consider the gender differences to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren in Syria.

  16. Measuring Client Experiences of Motivational Interviewing during a Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Landry, Alicia S.

    2015-01-01

    The Client Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing was used to assess motivational interviewing experiences in a predominantly female, African American sample from the Southeastern United States who received motivational interviewing-based feedback during a multicomponent lifestyle intervention. Motivational interviewing was experienced…

  17. Integrating Voluntary Simplicity of Lifestyle into Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestle, Ruth E.

    This curriculum guide presents guidelines for teaching concepts of Voluntary Simplicity in home economics in Florida. (Voluntary Simplicity is a lifestyle in which individuals choose to live more simply, considering the limited nature of the world's resources.) It is designed for use as a separate unit within different subject matter areas or as…

  18. An Innovative School-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piana, Natalia; Ranucci, Claudia; Buratta, Livia; Foglia, Elena; Fabi, Marta; Novelli, Francesca; Casucci, Simone; Reginato, Elisa; Pippi, Roberto; Aiello, Cristina; Leonardi, Alessia; Romani, Giannermete; De Feo, Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles. To evaluate its effects on children's food habits and to highlight the key components which contribute most to the beneficial effects obtained from children's, teachers' and parents' perspectives. Design: An educational tool to improve personal awareness,…

  19. Impact Of Human Aging And Modern Lifestyle On Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Valle Gottlieb, Maria Gabriela; Closs, Vera Elizabeth; Junges, Vilma Maria; Schwanke, Carla Helena Augustin

    2017-01-13

    Human evolution and lifestyle changes caused by the agricultural and industrial revolutions have led to great advances in medicine and increased life expectancy, whilst also profoundly altering the ecological relationships and disease patterns of populations. Studies involving populations that still enjoy a rural way of life and with traits similar to the Paleolithic period reveal them to present a more robust, resistant and diverse gut microbiota, in comparison to highly industrialized civilizations. The human diet has expanded and broadened to include the consumption of high-calorie foods, particularly from animal sources such as game, meat and eggs. For some time, the authors have been alert to the fact that a modern lifestyle leads to reduced intake of beneficial bacteria, suggesting that nonpathogenic bacteria are being eradicated. Furthermore, therapeutic procedures, including the use of probiotics and prebiotics, have been proposed to lead to recovery of this microbiota, which is altered due to both the ageing process and lifestyle related aspects. Accordingly, this article aims to review the impact of human aging and modern lifestyle on gut microbiota, within an evolutionary, ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic context.

  20. Psychological Health and Lifestyle Management Preconception and in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Gillman, Matthew W; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Healthful lifestyles before and during pregnancy are important to facilitate healthy outcomes for mother and baby. For example, behaviors such as a sedentary lifestyle and consuming an energy-dense/nutrient-poor diet increase the risk of overweight/obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy, leading to adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Maternal psychopathology may be implicated in the development of suboptimal maternal lifestyle behaviors before and during pregnancy, perhaps through impacts on motivation. This article explores this notion using maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain as examples of the health impacts of psychological states. We suggest that factors such as psychological well-being, individual motivation for behavior change, and broader environmental influences that affect both individual and system-wide determinants all play important roles in promoting healthy lifestyles periconception and are key modifiable aspects for intervention designers to consider when trying to improve dietary behaviors and increase physical activity before and during pregnancy. In addition, implementing system-wide changes that impact positively on individual and environmental barriers to behavior change that are sustainable, measureable, and effective is required.

  1. Automobile, construction and entertainment business sector influences on sedentary lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Parra, Diana C; de Sá, Thiago H; Monteiro, Carlos A; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2016-08-25

    Sedentary lifestyles contribute to premature death and health inequalities. Researchers have studied personal and community-level determinants of inactivity but few have analyzed corporate influences. To reframe the public health debate on inactivity and open new doors for public sector intervention, we conducted a scoping review of evidence from several disciplines to describe how the business and political practices of the automobile, construction, and entertainment sectors have encouraged sedentary lifestyles. In the last 50 years, these industries have found it profitable to produce motor vehicles, housing, and entertainment, which intentionally or unintentionally discourage physical activity. Ceding primary authority for policy decisions in these sectors to the market-based economy has enabled the growth of powerful lobbies that encourage and maintain sedentary lifestyles. To counteract these influences, public health and civil society need to confront more upstream economic and social determinants of sedentary lifestyles. Building on evidence from efforts to change harmful tobacco, alcohol and food industry practices, we propose the creation of research and policy agendas that contribute to public health practice that can modify corporate practices that contribute to physical, social and political environments that discourage physical activity.

  2. Teaching Sexuality from Divergent Life-Style Viewpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Caryl T.; Hotvedt, Mary

    A unique approach to teaching human sexuality at the college level is to present the content and raise sociological and interpersonal value questions from different lifestyle viewpoints. Developing a course such as this has involved securing approval and encouragement from university administration who trust faculty judgment but who are under…

  3. Healthy Lifestyles of University Students in China and Influential Factors

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Xian-Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze to what extent university students exhibit healthy lifestyles and which sociodemographic variables influence healthy lifestyles. 4809 university students randomly selected were measured by use of the Healthy Lifestyle Scale for University Students questionnaire. When controlling for the other variables, the total healthy lifestyles score was predicted by gender, grade, father's level of education, and type of institution; exercise behaviour was partially predicted by gender, grade, type of institution, and family monthly income; regular behaviour was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, family monthly income, and father's educational level; nutrition behaviour was partially affected by type of institution, family monthly income, and father's educational level; health risk behaviour was modulated by gender, mother's level of education, and family monthly income; health responsibility was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, and father's educational level; social support was modulated by gender, grade, and father's educational level; stress management was modulated by gender, grade, type of institution, and mother's education level; life appreciation was modulated by grade, type of institution, and mother's educational level. These influences should be taken into account in designing interventions for specific socio-demographic profiles that might be at higher risk for certain behaviours. PMID:23935418

  4. A simple way to measure daily lifestyle regularity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Frank, Ellen; Potts, Jaime M.; Kupfer, David J.

    2002-01-01

    A brief diary instrument to quantify daily lifestyle regularity (SRM-5) is developed and compared with a much longer version of the instrument (SRM-17) described and used previously. Three studies are described. In Study 1, SRM-17 scores (2 weeks) were collected from a total of 293 healthy control subjects (both genders) aged between 19 and 92 years. Five items (1) Get out of bed, (2) First contact with another person, (3) Start work, housework or volunteer activities, (4) Have dinner, and (5) Go to bed were then selected from the 17 items and SRM-5 scores calculated as if these five items were the only ones collected. Comparisons were made with SRM-17 scores from the same subject-weeks, looking at correlations between the two SRM measures, and the effects of age and gender on lifestyle regularity as measured by the two instruments. In Study 2 this process was repeated in a group of 27 subjects who were in remission from unipolar depression after treatment with psychotherapy and who completed SRM-17 for at least 20 successive weeks. SRM-5 and SRM-17 scores were then correlated within an individual using time as the random variable, allowing an indication of how successful SRM-5 was in tracking changes in lifestyle regularity (within an individual) over time. In Study 3 an SRM-5 diary instrument was administered to 101 healthy control subjects (both genders, aged 20-59 years) for two successive weeks to obtain normative measures and to test for correlations with age and morningness. Measures of lifestyle regularity from SRM-5 correlated quite well (about 0.8) with those from SRM-17 both between subjects, and within-subjects over time. As a detector of irregularity as defined by SRM-17, the SRM-5 instrument showed acceptable values of kappa (0.69), sensitivity (74%) and specificity (95%). There were, however, differences in mean level, with SRM-5 scores being about 0.9 units [about one standard deviation (SD)] above SRM-17 scores from the same subject-weeks. SRM-5

  5. Lifestyle Modification for Resistant Hypertension: The TRIUMPH Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, James A.; Sherwood, Andrew; Smith, Patrick J.; Mabe, Stephanie; Watkins, Lana; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Craighead, Linda W.; Babyak, Michael; Tyson, Crystal; Young, Kenlyn; Ashworth, Megan; Kraus, William; Liao, Lawrence; Hinderliter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background Resistant hypertension (RH) is a growing health burden in this country affecting as many as one in five adults being treated for hypertension. RH is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and all-cause mortality. Strategies to reduce blood pressure in this high risk population are a national priority. Methods TRIUMPH is a single site, prospective, randomized clinical trial (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of a center-based lifestyle intervention consisting of exercise training, reduced sodium and calorie DASH eating plan, and weight management compared to standardized education and physician advice in treating patients with RH. Patients (N=150) will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive either a 4-month supervised lifestyle intervention delivered in the setting of a cardiac rehabilitation center or to a standardized behavioral counseling session to simulate real-world medical practice. The primary end point is clinic blood pressure; secondary endpoints include ambulatory blood pressure and an array of CVD biomarkers including left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial stiffness, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, insulin resistance, lipids, sympathetic nervous system activity, and inflammatory markers. Lifestyle habits, blood pressure and CVD risk factors also will be measured at one year follow-up. Conclusions The TRIUMPH randomized clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02342808) is designed to test the efficacy of an intensive, center-based lifestyle intervention compared to a standardized education and physician advice counseling session on blood presssure and CVD biomarkers in patients with RH after 4 months of treatment, and will determine whether lifestyle changes can be maintained for a year. PMID:26542509

  6. Lifestyle and semen quality: role of modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Sobala, Wojciech; Ligocka, Danuta; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between exposure to lifestyle factors and adverse effects on human reproductive health is debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have increased public and regulatory attention. The aim of the study was to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and main semen parameters, sperm morphology, and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 344 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 20-300 M/ml or with slight oligozoospermia (semen total concentration of 15-20 M/ml) [WHO 1999]. Participants were interviewed and provided semen samples. The interview included questions about demographics, socio-economic status, medical history, lifestyle factors (consumption of alcohol, tobacco, coffee intake, cell phone and sauna usage), and physical activity. The results of the study suggest that lifestyle factors may affect semen quality. A negative association was found between increased body mass index (BMI) and semen volume (p = 0.03). Leisure time activity was positively associated with sperm concentration (p = 0.04) and coffee drinking with the percentage of motile sperm cells, and the percentage of sperm head and neck abnormalities (p = 0.01, p = 0.05, and p = 0.03, respectively). Drinking red wine 1-3 times per week was negatively related to sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.01). Additionally, using a cell phone more than 10 years decreased the percentage of motile sperm cells (p = 0.02). Men who wore boxer shorts had a lower percentage of sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.002) and percentage of sperm with DNA damage (p = 0.02). These findings may have important implications for semen quality and lifestyle.

  7. Social determinants and lifestyles: integrating environmental and public health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Graham, H; White, P C L

    2016-12-01

    Industrialization and urbanization have been associated with an epidemiological transition, from communicable to non-communicable disease, and a geological transition that is moving the planet beyond the stable Holocene epoch in which human societies have prospered. The lifestyles of high-income countries are major drivers of these twin processes. Our objective is to highlight the common causes of chronic disease and environmental change and, thereby, contribute to shared perspectives across public health and the environment. Integrative reviews focused on social determinants and lifestyles as two 'bridging' concepts between the fields of public health and environmental sustainability. We drew on established frameworks to consider the position of the natural environment within social determinants of health (SDH) frameworks and the position of social determinants within environmental frameworks. We drew on evidence on lifestyle factors central to both public health and environmental change (mobility- and diet-related factors). We investigated how public health's focus on individual behaviour can be enriched by environmental perspectives that give attention to household consumption practices. While SDH frameworks can incorporate the biophysical environment, their causal structure positions it as a determinant and one largely separate from the social factors that shape it. Environmental frameworks are more likely to represent the environment and its ecosystems as socially determined. A few frameworks also include human health as an outcome, providing the basis for a combined public health/environmental sustainability framework. Environmental analyses of household impacts broaden public health's concern with individual risk behaviours, pointing to the more damaging lifestyles of high-income households. The conditions for health are being undermined by rapid environmental change. There is scope for frameworks reaching across public health and environmental

  8. Career and lifestyle satisfaction among surgeons: what really matters? The National Lifestyles in Surgery Today Survey.

    PubMed

    Troppmann, Kathrin M; Palis, Bryan E; Goodnight, James E; Ho, Hung S; Troppmann, Christoph

    2009-08-01

    Optimizing recruitment of the next surgical generation is paramount. Unfortunately, many nonsurgeons perceive surgeons' lifestyle as undesirable. It is unknown, however, whether the surgeons-important opinion makers about their profession-are indeed dissatisfied. We analyzed responses to a survey mailed to all surgeons who were certified by the American Board of Surgery in 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, and 2004. We performed multivariate analyses to study career dissatisfaction and inability to achieve work-life balance, while adjusting for practice characteristics, demographics, and satisfaction with reimbursement. A total of 895 (25.5%) surgeons responded: mean age was 46 years; 80% were men; 88% were married; 86% had children; 45% were general surgeons; 72% were in urban practice; and 83% were in nonuniversity practice. Surgeons worked 64 hours per week; ideally, they would prefer to work 50 hours per week (median). Fifteen percent were dissatisfied with their careers. On multivariate analysis, significant (p < 0.05) risk factors were nonuniversity practice (odds ratio [OR] 3.3) and dissatisfaction with reimbursement (OR 5.9). Forty percent would not recommend a surgical career to their own children. On multivariate analysis, significant risk factors were nonuniversity practice (OR 2.5) and dissatisfaction with reimbursement (OR 3.4). In all, 33.5% did not achieve work-life balance. On multivariate analysis, dissatisfaction with reimbursement (OR 3.0) was a significant risk factor. Respondents' lives could be improved by "limiting emergency call" (77%), "diminishing litigation" (92%), and "improving reimbursement" (94%). Most surgeons are satisfied with their careers. Areas in need of improvement, particularly for nonuniversity surgeons, include reimbursement, work hours, and litigation. Strong local and national advocacy may not only improve career satisfaction, but could also render the profession more attractive for those contemplating a surgical career.

  9. Comparative Study of Lifestyle: Eating Habits, Sedentary Lifestyle and Anthropometric Development in Spanish 5- To 15-yr-Olds.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Ruso Julve, Candelaria; Llopis González, Agustín

    2015-04-01

    The infant-juvenile period is one of high vulnerability during the lifestyles chosen become determining factors for future health status. This study aimed to evaluate lifestyle, specifically eating habits and physical activity, in 5-15-year-olds in Spain and their health status (anthropometry). This cross-sectional population study with two time points (2006 and 2013) was conducted by compiling data from the Spanish National Health Survey. We used the minor survey, specifically the data from the Health Determinants module, which included 5-15-year-olds. Compiled information was obtained from parents or guardians. The overall overweight and obesity prevalence in Spain (2013) in 5- to 15-year-olds is 24.3%. A drop of 8.2% in meat consumption was found, while overall intake was high. Daily intake of plant-based food (fruit, vegetables, pulses) was low, especially vegetables (32.9%). Increased sedentary lifestyle was observed, probably because the use of communication technologies has increased in recent years (P<0.001). Moreover, watching TV rose to 19.3% for 1 hour/day watching TV on weekdays and to 23.5% at weekends. When comparing the two time points (2006 and 2013), we observed that lifestyle, eating habits and physical activity strongly associated with the Spanish infant-juvenile population's anthropometry. Mediterranean diet patterns seem to be abandoned and physical activity is practiced less, which will have a negative impact on future quality of life.

  10. The University of Jaén Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; García-Hernández, María T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a description and instrumental characterization of the photometric equipment of the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Jaén. The observatory hosts a 41 cm automated telescope inside a 4 m dome located at the university main campus, in the outskirts of the city of Jaén (Spain). This facility is used for educational, outreach and occasional scientific research on bright stellar objects. Despite the observatory location in a light polluted urban area, its performance for differential photometry studies has proven to be very acceptable. The discovery of the Be star LS I +5979 as a peculiar eclipsing binary system is so far the most relevant achievement.

  11. Clustering of lifestyle characteristics and their association with cardio-metabolic health: the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study.

    PubMed

    Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Magdalena-Belio, José Felix; Giné-Garriga, María; Martínez-Vizcaino, Vicente; Fernández-Alonso, Carmen; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, María Soledad; Galindo-Villardon, María Purificación; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2015-09-28

    Little is known about the clustering patterns of lifestyle behaviours in adult populations. We explored clusters in multiple lifestyle behaviours including physical activity (PA), smoking, alcohol use and eating habits in a sample of adult population. A cross-sectional and multi-centre study was performed with six participating groups distributed throughout Spain. Participants (n 1327) were part of the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study and were aged between 20 and 80 years. The lifestyle and cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors were analysed using a clustering method based on the HJ-biplot coordinates to understand the variables underlying these groupings. The following three clusters were identified. Cluster 1: unhealthy, 677 subjects (51%), with a slight majority of men (58.7%), who were more sedentary and smokers with higher consumption of whole-fat dairy products, bigger waist circumference as well as higher TAG levels, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and CVR. Cluster 2: healthy/PA, 265 subjects (20%), including 24.0% of males with high PA. Cluster 3: healthy/diet, including 29% of the participants, with a higher consumption of olive oil, fish, fruits, nuts, vegetables and lower alcohol consumption. Using the unhealthy cluster as a reference, and after adjusting for age and sex, the multiple regression analysis showed that belonging to the healthy/PA cluster was associated with a lower waist circumference, body fat percentage, SBP and CVR. In summary, the three clusters were identified according to lifestyles. The 'unhealthy' cluster had the least favourable clinical parameters, the 'healthy/PA' cluster had good HDL-cholesterol levels and low SBP and the 'healthy/diet' cluster had lower LDL-cholesterol levels and clinical blood pressure.

  12. Lifestyle factors and primary care specialty selection: comparing 2012-2013 graduating and matriculating medical students' thoughts on specialty lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Clinite, Kimberly L; DeZee, Kent J; Durning, Steven J; Kogan, Jennifer R; Blevins, Terri; Chou, Calvin L; Diemer, Gretchen; Dunne, Dana W; Fagan, Mark J; Hartung, Paul J; Kazantsev, Stephanie M; Mechaber, Hilit F; Paauw, Douglas S; Wong, Jeffrey G; Reddy, Shalini T

    2014-11-01

    To compare how first-year (MS1) and fourth-year students (MS4) ascribe importance to lifestyle domains and specialty characteristics in specialty selection, and compare students' ratings with their primary care (PC) interest. In March 2013, MS4s from 11 U.S. MD-granting medical schools were surveyed. Using a five-point Likert-type scale (1 = not important at all; 5 = extremely important), respondents rated the importance of 5 lifestyle domains and 21 specialty selection characteristics. One-way analysis of variance was used to assess differences by PC interest among MS4s. Using logistic regression, ratings from MS4s were compared with prior analyses of ratings by MS1s who matriculated to the same 11 schools in 2012. The response rate was 57% (965/1,701). MS4s, as compared with MS1s, rated as more important to good lifestyle: time off (4.3 versus 4.0), schedule control (4.2 versus 3.9), and financial compensation (3.4 versus 3.2). More MS4s than MS1s selected "time-off" (262/906 [30%] versus 136/969 [14%]) and "control of work schedule" (169/906 [19%] versus 146/969 [15%]) as the most important lifestyle domains. In both classes, PC interest was associated with higher ratings of working with the underserved and lower ratings of prestige and salary. In the 2012-2013 academic year, matriculating students and graduating students had similar perceptions of lifestyle and specialty characteristics associated with PC interest. Graduating students placed more importance on schedule control and time off than matriculating students. Specialties should consider addressing a perceived lack of schedule control or inadequate time off to attract students.

  13. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  14. The Lived Experience of How Adult Nursing Students Blend Lifestyle Obligations with Nursing School Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutrier, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Many adult nursing students have lifestyle obligations that require integration with nursing school programs in order to graduate and fulfill their dreams of becoming a nurse. Fourteen participants shared their stories of how they were able to blend their lifestyles commitments with nursing school. Student interaction between lifestyle obligations…

  15. "Sedentary" Homeless Children in S. Paulo, Brazil: Their Houses, Their Families, Their Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    This study examined the lifestyle of children from a sedentary grouping of 20 homeless families living under a viaduct in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study particularly focused on issues related to this lifestyle, including dimensions of housing and cultural variations in housing related to child development and child rearing. The lifestyle of the…

  16. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  17. The Lived Experience of How Adult Nursing Students Blend Lifestyle Obligations with Nursing School Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutrier, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Many adult nursing students have lifestyle obligations that require integration with nursing school programs in order to graduate and fulfill their dreams of becoming a nurse. Fourteen participants shared their stories of how they were able to blend their lifestyles commitments with nursing school. Student interaction between lifestyle obligations…

  18. Energy Conserving Lifestyles: Final Report to the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seymour I.

    This report examines the broad topic of energy use and its relationship to lifestyles. The emphasis is on three energy conserving lifestyle models: (1) the rural alternative lifestyle; (2) new towns; and (3) energy conserving subdivisions in existing cities. The first chapter presents an introduction. Chapter two examines the back-to-the-land…

  19. Unhealthy Lifestyle Behaviors in Korean People with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seongmi

    2017-01-01

    This study identified factors associated with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors in people with metabolic syndrome in South Korea. The sample consisted of 1,207 subjects with metabolic syndrome from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2014. High-risk alcohol consumption, smoking, aerobic physical activity, leisure physical activity, excessive carbohydrate intake, and fat intake were measured. A secondary data analysis was performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Gender was associated with all unhealthy behaviors. The number of metabolic syndrome components, a poor perceived health status, and attempts to control weight were associated with physical inactivity. Those findings may be helpful to develop a tailored lifestyle modification programs for people with metabolic syndrome.

  20. Interactions Between Genetics, Lifestyle, and Environmental Factors for Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuxin; Chen, Jiajia; Shen, Bairong

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence and progression of diseases are strongly associated with a combination of genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Understanding the interplay between genetic and nongenetic components provides deep insights into disease pathogenesis and promotes personalized strategies for people healthcare. Recently, the paradigm of systems medicine, which integrates biomedical data and knowledge at multidimensional levels, is considered to be an optimal way for disease management and clinical decision-making in the era of precision medicine. In this chapter, epigenetic-mediated genetics-lifestyle-environment interactions within specific diseases and different ethnic groups are systematically discussed, and data sources, computational models, and translational platforms for systems medicine research are sequentially presented. Moreover, feasible suggestions on precision healthcare and healthy longevity are kindly proposed based on the comprehensive review of current studies.

  1. Health lifestyles in Russia and the socialist heritage.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, William C; Snead, M Christine; Dewaal, Derek F

    2002-03-01

    This study examines the relationship between socialist ideology and the current negative health lifestyles of the Russian population. We explore the possibility that Soviet-style socialism with its negation of individuality and individual initiative in health matters promoted the development of a passive orientation toward healthy living. Using a national sample, we compare the health practices of those Russians who wish to return to socialism as it was before Gorbachev to those of Russians who favor staying with the present political and economic course or adopting other reforms. If a socialist ideology has indeed fostered a lack of responsibility for individual health promotion in Russia today, those persons wishing to return to socialism would be less likely to adopt a positive health lifestyle. Our data show that this is indeed the case, as pro-socialist respondents demonstrate less activity toward achieving health than antisocialists--although neither group collectively practices a healthy way of life.

  2. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.

  3. Dietary and lifestyle guidelines for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal D; Bush, Ashley I; Ceccarelli, Antonia; Cooper, James; de Jager, Celeste A; Erickson, Kirk I; Fraser, Gary; Kesler, Shelli; Levin, Susan M; Lucey, Brendan; Morris, Martha Clare; Squitti, Rosanna

    2014-09-01

    Risk of developing Alzheimer's disease is increased by older age, genetic factors, and several medical risk factors. Studies have also suggested that dietary and lifestyle factors may influence risk, raising the possibility that preventive strategies may be effective. This body of research is incomplete. However, because the most scientifically supported lifestyle factors for Alzheimer's disease are known factors for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, it is reasonable to provide preliminary guidance to help individuals who wish to reduce their risk. At the International Conference on Nutrition and the Brain, Washington, DC, July 19-20, 2013, speakers were asked to comment on possible guidelines for Alzheimer's disease prevention, with an aim of developing a set of practical, albeit preliminary, steps to be recommended to members of the public. From this discussion, 7 guidelines emerged related to healthful diet and exercise habits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of behaviour and lifestyle on bladder health.

    PubMed

    Burgio, K L; Newman, D K; Rosenberg, M T; Sampselle, C

    2013-06-01

    Bladder conditions, including UTI, UI, and bladder cancer, are highly prevalent and affect a wide range of populations. There are a variety of modifiable behavioral and lifestyle factors that influence bladder health. Some factors, such as smoking and obesity, increase the risk or severity of bladder conditions, whereas other factors, such as pelvic floor muscle exercise, are protective. Although clinical practice may be assumed to be the most appropriate ground for education on behavioral and lifestyle factors that influence bladder health, it is also crucial to extend these messages into the general population through public health interventions to reach those who have not yet developed bladder conditions and to maximize the prevention impact of these behaviors. Appropriate changes in these factors have the potential for an enormous impact on bladder health if implemented on a population-based level.

  5. Residential lifestyle segmentation schemes: A new dimension to forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, J.R.

    1995-05-01

    Despite their intuitive appeal, lifestyle data are not currently incorporated in residential forecasting frameworks. This paper provides evidence that categorizing customers by lifestyle provides important information which goes beyond that attributable to traditional explanatory variables like income, energy prices and appliance saturations. Possible short and long-run model frameworks incorporating this new dimension are overviewed along with results from an econometric modelling effort based on data provided by Baltimore Gas & Electric Company (BG&E). Benefits (such as a direct link between marketing research and forecasting segmentation schemes) and challenges (such as data requirements) associated with the incorporation of this information are highlighted throughout the discussion. This paper was prepared for the Power Plant Research Program of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources.

  6. Changes in Life-Style After Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zitelli, Basil J.; Miller, Joanne W.; Gartner, J. Carlton; Malatack, J. Jeffrey; Urbach, Andrew H.; Belle, Steven H.; Williams, Laurel; Kirkpatrick, Beverly; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Sixty-five pediatric patients who received liver transplants between May 1981 and May 1984 were observed for as many as 5 years and examined for changes in lifestyle. Children were less frequently hospitalized, spent less time hospitalized, required fewer medications, and generally had excellent liver and renal function after hepatic transplantation as compared with their pre-transplantation status. Most children were in age-appropriate and standard school classes or were only 1 year behind. Cognitive abilities remained unchanged. Children improved in gross motor function and patients’ behavior significantly improved according to parents’ perceptions. Enuresis was more prevalent, however, than in the population of children who had not received liver transplants. Parental divorce rates were no greater than those reported for other families with chronically ill children. Overall, objective changes in life-style as well as parents’ perceptions of behavior of children appear to be improved after liver transplantation. PMID:3041361

  7. Nuadu concept for personal management of lifestyle related health risks.

    PubMed

    Mattila, E; Korhonen, I; Lappalainen, R; Ahtinen, A; Hopsu, L; Leino, T

    2008-01-01

    Majority of the health risks and diseases in the modern world are related to lifestyles, e.g., overweight, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, sleep deprivation, and stress. Behavioral change towards healthy lifestyles is the key to the prevention and management of these risks, but early and efficient interventions are scarcely available. We present the Nuadu Concept, an ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) assisted wellness toolbox for the management of multiple, behavior-originated health risks. The concept is based on psychological models, which provide methods and motivation for behavior change. The individual is considered as the best expert of his/her own wellness. Thus, the Nuadu Concept provides a variety of personal wellness technologies and services, among which the user may freely choose the best tools for him/herself. We believe this approach has the potential to provide efficient, acceptable, available, and affordable wellness management support for a significant number of people.

  8. Life be in it: lifestyle choices for active leisure.

    PubMed

    Jobling, A

    2001-07-01

    For members of the community, participation in leisure, sports and recreation is an important lifestyle choice. Individuals with Down syndrome live in our community and they, too, are equally entitled to active lifestyle choices. Children, adolescents and adults with Down syndrome have a wide range of interests and, although reported trends indicate that their engagement in recreational activity is often sedentary and solitary in nature, other factors apart from the syndrome may account for this. Using a perception of difference perspective, this paper will examine certain aspects of their motor development, health and interactions with others which could be viewed as restrictive factors to their ability to participate in active leisure opportunities in the community. Program examples from Australia will be used to illustrate how a perception of difference which facilitates ability rather than disability across community based activities can enable a range of active leisure choices.

  9. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome: Improving outcome with lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Westerink, N L; Nuver, J; Lefrandt, J D; Vrieling, A H; Gietema, J A; Walenkamp, A M E

    2016-12-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but effective treatment and prevention methods are probably similar. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms leading to the development of CTIMetS after various types of cancer treatment. Furthermore, we propose a safe and accessible method to treat or prevent CTIMetS through lifestyle change. In particular, we suggest that a lifestyle intervention and optimization of energy balance can prevent or mitigate the development of CTIMetS, which may contribute to optimal survivorship care.

  10. Barriers to Lifestyle Behavioral Change in Migrant South Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians’ belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations. PMID:22180198

  11. Role of cellular senescence in lifestyle-related disease.

    PubMed

    Minamino, Tohru

    2010-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that age is the chief risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie the increase in the risk of such diseases conferred by aging remain unclear. Recently, genetic analyses using various animal models have identified molecules that are crucial for aging. These include components of the DNA repair system, the tumor suppressor pathway, the telomere maintenance system, the insulin/Akt pathway, and other metabolic pathways. Interestingly, most of the molecules that influence the phenotypic changes of aging also regulate cellular senescence, suggesting a causative link between cellular senescence and aging. This review examines the hypothesis that cellular senescence might contribute to lifestyle-related disease.

  12. Cardiovascular effects of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wing, Rena R; Bolin, Paula; Brancati, Frederick L; Bray, George A; Clark, Jeanne M; Coday, Mace; Crow, Richard S; Curtis, Jeffrey M; Egan, Caitlin M; Espeland, Mark A; Evans, Mary; Foreyt, John P; Ghazarian, Siran; Gregg, Edward W; Harrison, Barbara; Hazuda, Helen P; Hill, James O; Horton, Edward S; Hubbard, Van S; Jakicic, John M; Jeffery, Robert W; Johnson, Karen C; Kahn, Steven E; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Knowler, William C; Lewis, Cora E; Maschak-Carey, Barbara J; Montez, Maria G; Murillo, Anne; Nathan, David M; Patricio, Jennifer; Peters, Anne; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Pownall, Henry; Reboussin, David; Regensteiner, Judith G; Rickman, Amy D; Ryan, Donna H; Safford, Monika; Wadden, Thomas A; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; West, Delia S; Williamson, David F; Yanovski, Susan Z

    2013-07-11

    Weight loss is recommended for overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes on the basis of short-term studies, but long-term effects on cardiovascular disease remain unknown. We examined whether an intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss would decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among such patients. In 16 study centers in the United States, we randomly assigned 5145 overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes to participate in an intensive lifestyle intervention that promoted weight loss through decreased caloric intake and increased physical activity (intervention group) or to receive diabetes support and education (control group). The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for angina during a maximum follow-up of 13.5 years. The trial was stopped early on the basis of a futility analysis when the median follow-up was 9.6 years. Weight loss was greater in the intervention group than in the control group throughout the study (8.6% vs. 0.7% at 1 year; 6.0% vs. 3.5% at study end). The intensive lifestyle intervention also produced greater reductions in glycated hemoglobin and greater initial improvements in fitness and all cardiovascular risk factors, except for low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The primary outcome occurred in 403 patients in the intervention group and in 418 in the control group (1.83 and 1.92 events per 100 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio in the intervention group, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 1.09; P=0.51). An intensive lifestyle intervention focusing on weight loss did not reduce the rate of cardiovascular events in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; Look AHEAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00017953.).

  13. Modifiable Lifestyle Risk Factors and Incident Diabetes in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joshua J; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Effoe, Valery S; Okhomina, Victoria; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Hsueh, Willa A; Golden, Sherita H

    2017-08-14

    The associations of modifiable lifestyle risk factors with incident diabetes are not well investigated in African Americans (AAs). This study investigated the association of modifiable lifestyle risk factors (exercise, diet, smoking, TV watching, and sleep-disordered breathing burden) with incident diabetes among AAs. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors were characterized among 3,252 AAs in the Jackson Heart Study who were free of diabetes at baseline (2000-2004) using baseline questionnaires and combined into risk factor categories: poor (0-3 points), average (4-7 points), and optimal (8-11 points). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) for diabetes (fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, use of diabetes drugs, or glycosylated hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%) were estimated using Poisson regression modeling adjusting for age, sex, education, occupation, systolic blood pressure, and BMI. Outcomes were collected 2005-2012 and data analyzed in 2016. Over 7.6 years, there were 560 incident diabetes cases (mean age=53.3 years, 64% female). An average or optimal compared to poor risk factor categorization was associated with a 21% (IRR=0.79, 95% CI=0.62, 0.99) and 31% (IRR=0.69, 95% CI=0.48, 1.01) lower risk of diabetes. Among participants with BMI <30, IRRs for average or optimal compared to poor categorization were 0.60 (95% CI=0.40, 0.91) and 0.53 (95% CI=0.29, 0.97) versus 0.90 (95% CI=0.67, 1.21) and 0.83 (95% CI=0.51, 1.34) among participants with BMI ≥30. A combination of modifiable lifestyle factors are associated with a lower risk of diabetes among AAs, particularly among those without obesity. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence of Lifestyle Modification in the Management of Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Mannu, GS; Zaman, MJS; Gupta, A; HU, Rehman; Myint, PK

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The growth of ageing populations in developing countries with progressively urbanized lifestyles are major contributors. The key risk factors for CHD such as hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity are likely to increase in the future. These risk factors are modifiable through lifestyle. Objectives: To review current literature on the potential benefit of cholesterol lowering in CHD risk reduction with a particular focus on the evidence of non-pharmacological/lifestyle management of hypercholesterolemia. Methods: Medline/PubMed systematic search was conducted using a two-tier approach limited to all recent English language papers. Primary search was conducted using key words and phrases and all abstracts were subsequently screened and relevant papers were selected. The next tier of searching was conducted by (1) reviewing the citation lists of the selected papers and (2) by using PubMed weblink for related papers. Over 3600 reports were reviewed. Results: Target cholesterol levels set out in various guidelines could be achieved by lifestyle changes, including diet, weight reduction, and increased physical activity with the goal of reducing total cholesterol to <200 mg/dL and LDL-C <100mg/dL. Various dietary constituents such as green tea, plant sterols, soy protein have important influences on total cholesterol. Medical intervention should be reserved for those patients who have not reached this goal after 3 months of non-pharmacological approach. Conclusion: CHD remains as a leading cause of death worldwide and hypercholesterolemia is an important cause of CHD. Non-pharmacological methods provide initial as well as long-term measures to address this issue. PMID:22998604

  15. Lifestyle predicts falls independent of physical risk factors.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, K A; Cauley, J A; Studenski, S A; Landsittel, D P; Cummings, S R; Ensrud, K E; Donaldson, M G; Nevitt, M C

    2009-12-01

    Many falls occur among older adults with no traditional risk factors. We examined potential independent effects of lifestyle on fall risk. Not smoking and going outdoors frequently or infrequently were independently associated with more falls, indicating lifestyle-related behavioral and environmental risk factors are important causes of falls in older women. Physical and lifestyle risk factors for falls and population attributable risks (PAR) were examined. We conducted a 4-year prospective study of 8,378 community-dwelling women (mean age = 71 years, SD = 3) enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Data on number of falls were self-reported every 4 months. Fall rates were calculated (# falls/woman-years). Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR). Physical risk factors (p < or = 0.05 for all) included tall height (RR = 0.89 per 5 in.), dizziness (RR = 1.16), fear of falling (RR = 1.20), self-reported health decline (RR = 1.19), difficulty with Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) (RR = 1.12, per item), fast usual-paced walking speed (RR = 1.18, per 2 SD), and use of antidepressants (RR = 1.20), benzodiazepines (RR = 1.11), or anticonvulsants (RR = 1.62). Protective physical factors (p < or = 0.05 for all) included good visual acuity (RR = 0.87, per 2 SD) and good balance (RR = 0.85 vs. poor). Lifestyle predicted fewer falls including current smoking (RR = 0.76), going outdoors at least twice weekly but not more than once a day (RR = 0.89 and vs. twice daily). High physical activity was associated with more falls but only among IADL impaired women. Five potentially modifiable physical risk factors had PAR > or = 5%. Fall interventions addressing modifiable physical risk factors with PAR > or = 5% while considering environmental/behavioral risk factors are indicated.

  16. Lifestyle of students from different universities in Wroclaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Jakubiec, Dorota; Kornafel, Danuta; Cygan, Agata; Górska-Kłęk, Lucyna; Chromik, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the economic and political system that took place in Poland in recent decades had a significant impact on lifestyles of different social groups, especially in youngsters as vulnerable and open to all novelty and changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healthy or non-healthy behaviours including physical activity, diet, time devoted for sleeping, leisure, stress and the use of drugs by students of four universities in Wroclaw. The study involved 604 students (305 women and 299 men) from four universities in Wroclaw: University of Wroclaw - 25.0%, Wroclaw University of Technology - 24.5%, University School of Physical Education (AWF) - 25.2% and Wroclaw Medical University - 25.3%. A questionnaire developed for this study was used. The questions were both open and closed, one or multiple answers could be matched. The questions related to: physical activity, nutrition, time devoted for sleeping, leisure, stress and stimulants. On the basis of the results it was found that students mostly reported an average level of physical activity. The highest level of physical activity was presented by students of the University School of Physical Education and the lowest by students of the University of Wroclaw. Just one in ten students consumed meals on a regular basis, including one in five studying in the AWF. Almost half of the respondents (48.7%) spent 5-7 hours sleeping. Every tenth student slept less than five hours. Most respondents preferred passive forms of recreation, only one in three practiced sports in their spare time (usually students of the AWF). Every fourth student declared smoking, and more than 90% consumed alcohol. Lifestyle of majority of the students surveyed did not follow the recommendations of preventive care. The need for more efficient education of students is obvious, which will lead to the future positive changes in their lifestyle, reducing the risk of lifestyle diseases.

  17. Evidence of lifestyle modification in the management of hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Mannu, G S; Zaman, M J S; Gupta, A; Rehman, H U; Myint, P K

    2013-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The growth of ageing populations in developing countries with progressively urbanized lifestyles are major contributors. The key risk factors for CHD such as hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity are likely to increase in the future. These risk factors are modifiable through lifestyle. To review current literature on the potential benefit of cholesterol lowering in CHD risk reduction with a particular focus on the evidence of non-pharmacological/lifestyle management of hypercholesterolemia. Medline/PubMed systematic search was conducted using a two-tier approach limited to all recent English language papers. Primary search was conducted using key words and phrases and all abstracts were subsequently screened and relevant papers were selected. The next tier of searching was conducted by (1) reviewing the citation lists of the selected papers and (2) by using PubMed weblink for related papers. Over 3600 reports were reviewed. Target cholesterol levels set out in various guidelines could be achieved by lifestyle changes, including diet, weight reduction, and increased physical activity with the goal of reducing total cholesterol to <200 mg/dL and LDL-C<100 mg/dL. Various dietary constituents such as green tea, plant sterols, soy protein have important influences on total cholesterol. Medical intervention should be reserved for those patients who have not reached this goal after 3 months of non-pharmacological approach. CHD remains as a leading cause of death worldwide and hypercholesterolemia is an important cause of CHD. Non-pharmacological methods provide initial as well as long-term measures to address this issue.

  18. Lifestyle, nutrition and breast cancer: facts and presumptions for consideration.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, Krizia; Ghelfi, Francesca; Mannucci, Roberta; Titta, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and the high incidence of this cancer coupled with improvements in initial treatments has led to an ever-increasing number of breast cancer survivors. Among the prospective epidemiological studies on diet and breast cancer incidence and recurrence, to date, there is no association that is strong, reproducible and statistically significant, with the exception of alcohol intake, overweight, and weight gain. Nevertheless, many beliefs about food and breast cancer persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence. After a comprehensive review regarding the role of lifestyle on breast cancer outcomes and a thorough study of the dissemination field including mass media, clinical institutions, and academic figures, we briefly reported the most common presumptions and also facts from the literature regarding lifestyle, nutrition, and breast cancer. The randomised controlled trial is the best study-design that could provide direct evidence of a causal relationship; however, there are methodological difficulties in applying and maintaining a lifestyle intervention for a sufficient period; consequently, there is a lack of this type of study in the literature. Instead, it is possible to obtain indirect evidence from observational prospective studies. In this article, it becomes clear that for now the best advice for women's health is to follow the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations on diet, nutrition, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention, because they are associated with a lower risk of developing most types of cancer, including breast cancer. Despite current awareness of the role of nutrition in cancer outcomes, there is inadequate translation from research findings into clinical practice. We suggest the establishment of a multidisciplinary research consortium to demonstrate the real power of lifestyle interventions.

  19. Chronic pain epidemiology – where do lifestyle factors fit in?

    PubMed Central

    Torrance, Nicola; Smith, Blair H

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain is common and complex and has a large impact on individuals and society. Good epidemiological pain data provide key information on the use of resources (both in general practice and in specialist clinics), insight into factors that lead to or favour chronicity and the design of interventions aimed at reducing or preventing the effects of chronic pain. This review aims to highlight the important factors associated with chronic pain, including those factors which are amenable to lifestyle intervention. PMID:26516524

  20. Mild Cognitive Impairment, Neurodegeneration, and Personalized Lifestyle Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bland, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The takeaway message of this advancing science surrounding the causes and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is to recognize MCI symptoms early and intervene with a comprehensive, multifaceted, personalized lifestyle medicine program that is designed to improve neurological function and built on the components described above. The present evidence suggests this approach represents the best medicine available today for beating back the rising tide of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. PMID:27330484

  1. Effect of parity on healthy promotion lifestyle behavior in women.

    PubMed

    Nazik, Hakan; Nazik, Evşen; Özdemir, Funda; Gül, Şule; Tezel, Ayfer; Narin, Raziye

    2015-01-01

    Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors are not only for the prevention of a disease or discomfort, but are also behaviors that aim to improve the individual's general health and well-being. Nurses have an important position in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviors in women. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parity on health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in women. This descriptive and cross-sectional survey was performed in Adana, Turkey. This study was conducted with 352 women. The questionnaire consisted of two parts; the first part consisted of questions that assessed the socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics, and the second part employed the "Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale" (HPLP). Data analysis included percentage, arithmetic average, and ANOVA tests. The results revealed that 24.1% of the women had no parity, 13.6% had one parity, 30.7% had two parities, 14.6% had three parities, and 17% had four and above parities. The mean total HPLP was 126.66±18.12 (interpersonal support subscale, 24.46±4.02; nutrition subscale, 21.59±3.92; self-actualization subscale, 24.42±4.30; stress management subscale, 18.73±3.81; health responsibility subscale, 21.75±4.31; and exercise subscale, 15.71±4.22). The health behavior of women was moderate. A statistically significant correlation was found between the number of parities and the Health Responsibility, Nutrition, Interpersonal Support, which is the subscale of the HPLP Scale.

  2. [The finut healthy lifestyles guide: beyond the food pyramid].

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    The World Health Organization has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active, healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberomerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, its three lateral faces corresponding to the binomials food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into two triangles. These faces show the following: 1. food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2. recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social and cultural issues; 3. selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other two faces, would contribute to better health and provide measures to promote environmental sustainability. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and lifestyle determinants of central obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Grigorakis, Dimitris A; Georgoulis, Michael; Psarra, Glykeria; Tambalis, Konstantinos D; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Sidossis, Labros S

    2016-08-01

    Central obesity is a strong risk factor for metabolic disorders and cardiometabolic diseases in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of central obesity and to determine its cross-sectional association with lifestyle habits in a sample of school-aged children in Greece. The study sample consisted of 124,113 children (9.9 ± 1.1 years old, 51 % boys) attending the third and fifth grade of primary school. Anthropometric measurements were performed by trained physical education teachers, and central obesity was defined as waist-to-height ratio ≥0.5. Children's lifestyle habits were assessed through 7-day recall questionnaires. Of the participating children, 33.4 % were classified as centrally obese. Central obesity was significantly more prevalent in boys than in girls (36.0 vs. 30.7 %, P < 0.001) and was present in 95 % of obese children, as well as in a significant percentage of overweight (69.5 %) and normal-weight ones (12.0 %). Children with central obesity, compared to their non-centrally obese counterparts, reported poorer dietary habits and were less physically active. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, frequent breakfast (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.69-0.75) and snack consumption (OR 0.70, 95 % CI 0.67-0.74), as well as frequent participation in sedentary activities (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.07-1.14), were the strongest lifestyle determinants of central obesity. Strategies for the prevention of central obesity and associated comorbidities are urgently needed, for both obese and non-obese children. Our results suggest the need for a shift towards a healthier environment for our children, with emphasis on specific lifestyle habits, such as regular meal consumption and low sedentariness.

  4. Lifestyle Triple P: a parenting intervention for childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gerards, Sanne M P L; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Jansen, Maria W J; van der Goot, Lidy O H M; de Vries, Nanne K; Sanders, Matthew R; Kremers, Stef P J

    2012-04-03

    Reversing the obesity epidemic requires the development and evaluation of childhood obesity intervention programs. Lifestyle Triple P is a parent-focused group program that addresses three topics: nutrition, physical activity, and positive parenting. Australian research has established the efficacy of Lifestyle Triple P, which aims to prevent excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The aim of the current randomized controlled trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention when applied to Dutch parents of overweight and obese children aged 4-8 years. This effectiveness study is called GO4fit. Parents of overweight and obese children are being randomized to either the intervention or the control group. Those assigned to the intervention condition receive the 14-week Lifestyle Triple P intervention, in which they learn a range of nutritional, physical activity and positive parenting strategies. Parents in the control group receive two brochures, web-based tailored advice, and suggestions for exercises to increase active playing at home. Measurements are taken at baseline, directly after the intervention, and at one year follow-up. Primary outcome measure is the children's body composition, operationalized as BMI z-score, waist circumference, and fat mass (biceps and triceps skinfolds). Secondary outcome measures are children's dietary behavior and physical activity level, parenting practices, parental feeding style, parenting style, parental self-efficacy, and body composition of family members (parents and siblings). Our intervention is characterized by a focus on changing general parenting styles, in addition to focusing on changing specific parenting practices, as obesity interventions typically do. Strengths of the current study are the randomized design, the long-term follow-up, and the broad range of both self-reported and objectively measured outcomes. Current Controlled Trials NTR 2555 MEC AZM/UM: NL 31988

  5. Health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Pratik; Simkhada, Padam P; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Raja, Amalraj E

    2008-01-01

    Background The health status and lifestyle of migrants is often poorer than that of the general population of their host countries. The Nepalese represent a relatively small, but growing, immigrant community in the UK, about whom very little is known in term of public health. Therefore, our study examined the health and lifestyle of Nepalese migrants in the UK. Methods A cross-sectional survey of Nepalese migrants in UK was conducted in early 2007 using a postal, self-administered questionnaire in England and Scotland (n = 312), and telephone interviews in Wales (n = 15). The total response rate was 68% (327 out of 480). Data were analyzed to establish whether there are associations between socio-economic and lifestyle factors. A multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to find out independent effect of personal factors on health status. Results The majority of respondents was male (75%), aged between 30 and 45 (66%), married or had a civil partner (83%), had university education (47%) and an annual family income (69%) ranging from £5,035 to £33,300. More than one third (39%) of the respondents have lived in the UK for 1 to 5 years and approximately half (46%) were longer-term residents. Most (95%) were registered with a family doctor, but only 38% with a dentist. A low proportion (14%) of respondents smoked but more than half (61%) consumed alcohol. More than half (57%) did not do regular exercises and nearly one fourth (23%) of respondents rated their health as poor. Self reported 'good' health status of the respondents was independently associated with immigration status and doing regular exercise Conclusion The self reported health status and lifestyle, health seeking behaviour of Nepalese people who are residing in UK appears to be good. However, the overall regular exercise and dentist registration was rather poor. Health promotion, especially aimed at Nepalese migrants could help encourage them to exercise regularly and assist them to register

  6. Lifestyle, nutrition and breast cancer: facts and presumptions for consideration

    PubMed Central

    Ferrini, Krizia; Ghelfi, Francesca; Mannucci, Roberta; Titta, Lucilla

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and the high incidence of this cancer coupled with improvements in initial treatments has led to an ever-increasing number of breast cancer survivors. Among the prospective epidemiological studies on diet and breast cancer incidence and recurrence, to date, there is no association that is strong, reproducible and statistically significant, with the exception of alcohol intake, overweight, and weight gain. Nevertheless, many beliefs about food and breast cancer persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence. After a comprehensive review regarding the role of lifestyle on breast cancer outcomes and a thorough study of the dissemination field including mass media, clinical institutions, and academic figures, we briefly reported the most common presumptions and also facts from the literature regarding lifestyle, nutrition, and breast cancer. The randomised controlled trial is the best study-design that could provide direct evidence of a causal relationship; however, there are methodological difficulties in applying and maintaining a lifestyle intervention for a sufficient period; consequently, there is a lack of this type of study in the literature. Instead, it is possible to obtain indirect evidence from observational prospective studies. In this article, it becomes clear that for now the best advice for women’s health is to follow the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations on diet, nutrition, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention, because they are associated with a lower risk of developing most types of cancer, including breast cancer. Despite current awareness of the role of nutrition in cancer outcomes, there is inadequate translation from research findings into clinical practice. We suggest the establishment of a multidisciplinary research consortium to demonstrate the real power of lifestyle interventions. PMID

  7. Associations between Lifestyle Factors and Iron Overload in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that iron overload, which indicates the accumulation of iron, generates cellular reactive oxygens and causes peroxide damages to the body. Such oxidative stresses, in a broader context, are also caused by lifestyles such as alcohol consumption and smoking. However, there are limited data on the association between these lifestyle factors and internal iron overload. In present study, we evaluated associations between lifestyle factors, such as smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, and serum markers of iron overload. In a population-based cross-sectional study including 2,347 Korean men and women aged 49–79 years, we assessed serum transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels and defined iron overload as TSAT levels > 50% for men and > 45% for women. After excluding persons with chronic diseases and iron deficiency, multivariate odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated to evaluate associations between lifestyle factors and iron overload in 1,973 participants. In all participants, we examined a significantly positive association between heavy alcohol consumption (> 30 g/day) and iron overload; heavy drinkers showed 1.6-fold higher OR (95% CI, 1.11–2.36) than non-drinkers. Stratified analysis by sex showed that this association was significant only among men. In addition, we observed a potential association between heavy smoking > 10 cigarettes/day and iron overload (p = 0.07). In stratified analysis by sex, we examined a significant association between smoking and iron overload only among women; former or current smokers had 1.9-fold higher OR (95% CI, 1.01–3.63) than never-smoker. Our findings suggest that heavy alcohol consumption and smoking may worsen iron accumulation in the body. PMID:27812516

  8. Lifestyle Triple P: a parenting intervention for childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reversing the obesity epidemic requires the development and evaluation of childhood obesity intervention programs. Lifestyle Triple P is a parent-focused group program that addresses three topics: nutrition, physical activity, and positive parenting. Australian research has established the efficacy of Lifestyle Triple P, which aims to prevent excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The aim of the current randomized controlled trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention when applied to Dutch parents of overweight and obese children aged 4–8 years. This effectiveness study is called GO4fit. Methods/Design Parents of overweight and obese children are being randomized to either the intervention or the control group. Those assigned to the intervention condition receive the 14-week Lifestyle Triple P intervention, in which they learn a range of nutritional, physical activity and positive parenting strategies. Parents in the control group receive two brochures, web-based tailored advice, and suggestions for exercises to increase active playing at home. Measurements are taken at baseline, directly after the intervention, and at one year follow-up. Primary outcome measure is the children’s body composition, operationalized as BMI z-score, waist circumference, and fat mass (biceps and triceps skinfolds). Secondary outcome measures are children’s dietary behavior and physical activity level, parenting practices, parental feeding style, parenting style, parental self-efficacy, and body composition of family members (parents and siblings). Discussion Our intervention is characterized by a focus on changing general parenting styles, in addition to focusing on changing specific parenting practices, as obesity interventions typically do. Strengths of the current study are the randomized design, the long-term follow-up, and the broad range of both self-reported and objectively measured outcomes. Trial Registration

  9. Psychosocial Predictors of Lifestyle Management In Adults with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elise; DiIorio, Colleen; DePadilla, Lara; McCarty, Frances; Yeager, Kate; Henry, Thomas; Schomer, Donald; Shafer, Patty

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a test of psychosocial variables predicting lifestyle management among people with epilepsy. The variables selected for the model were based on social cognitive theory and the results of previous studies examining psychosocial predictors of self-management among people with chronic physical health conditions. Variables included in the model were self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, depressive symptoms, and social support. Participants for the study were recruited from epilepsy treatment facilities in Boston, MA and Atlanta, GA. Half of the participants were female, 81% were white, and their mean age was 43.1 years. As predicted by social cognitive theory, self-efficacy was related to lifestyle management and explained 23% of its variation. Depressive symptoms were related to both self-efficacy and social support. Social support was related to self-efficacy. These findings suggest that lifestyle management is influenced by a number of relationships between psychosocial variables, particularly by self-efficacy. PMID:18595777

  10. Digital Health Technologies to Promote Lifestyle Change and Adherence.

    PubMed

    Khan, Numan; Marvel, Francoise A; Wang, Jane; Martin, Seth S

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with an estimated 17.5 million deaths annually, or 31% of all global deaths, according to the World Health Organization. The majority of these deaths are preventable by addressing lifestyle modification (i.e., smoking cessation, diet, obesity, and physical inactivity) and promoting medication adherence. At present, initiatives to develop cost-effective modalities to support self-management, lifestyle modification, and medication adherence are a leading priority. Digital health has rapidly emerged as technology with the potential to address this gap in cardiovascular disease self-management and transform the way healthcare has been traditionally delivered. However, limited evidence exists about the type of technologies available and how they differ in functionality, effectiveness, and application. We aimed to review the most important and relevant recent studies addressing health technologies to promote lifestyle change and medication adherence including text messaging, applications ("apps"), and wearable devices. The current literature indicates that digital health technologies will likely play a prominent role in future cardiovascular disease management, risk reduction, and delivery of care in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings. However, there is limited large-scale evidence to support adoption of existing interventions. Further clinical research and healthcare policy change are needed to move the promise of new digital health technologies towards reality.

  11. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Management: Dietary and Lifestyle Modifications.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vi; George, Jacob

    2015-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of abnormalities that can range from bland liver fat (steatosis), to hepatic inflammation and liver injury (steatohepatitis). It is estimated that NAFLD will become the principal cause of liver disease in Western nations and the leading indication for liver transplantation. Advancements in disease recognition and management are therefore paramount. Although the development of new, reliable drug therapies is vital, lifestyle interventions remain the most effective treatment modality. In addition to weight loss as a primary measure of treatment success, there is growing recognition that other endpoints, including the prevention or delay of diabetes onset, reduced cardiovascular events, prevention of cancer, and improved overall mortality, are equally important outcomes that can be independently modified by lifestyle change. Moreover, NAFLD is inextricably part of a complex, systemic disease process that is linked with deeply entrenched maladaptive lifestyle behaviors. Thus, a holistic, multidisciplinary, and individualized approach to disease management will be the key to achieving any realistic population-level change.

  12. NO-Rich Diet for Lifestyle-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Jun; Ohtake, Kazuo; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability due to obesity and endothelial dysfunction might be causally related to the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as insulin resistance, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension. In such situations, instead of impaired NO synthase (NOS)-dependent NO generation, the entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway might serve as a backup system for NO generation by transmitting NO activities in the various molecular forms including NO and protein S-nitrosothiols. Recently accumulated evidence has demonstrated that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables rich in nitrate/nitrite is an inexpensive and easily-practicable way to prevent insulin resistance and vascular endothelial dysfunction by increasing the NO availability; a NO-rich diet may also prevent other lifestyle-related diseases, including osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cancer. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of NO generation through the entero-salivary pathway and discusses its safety and preventive effects on lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:26091235

  13. Management of pediatric obesity: a lifestyle modification approach.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Shamita; Burton, Amy; Oden, Jon

    2014-02-01

    Over the last decades, pediatric obesity has become a global epidemic with worldwide estimates as high as 43 million children and adolescents affected, and this number is rising at an exponential rate. With pediatric obesity comes a host of co-morbidities including impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired liver function. Treatment of this population has proven to be challenging for many reasons. For patients, a new baseline exists consisting of an increasingly sedentary lifestyle as well as a lack of availability of affordable healthy alternatives. In addition, there is an overwhelming presence of energy-dense foods. For physicians, there are many issues including lack of time, training, and reimbursement. The most efficacious and reliable way to treat this population and its co-morbidities is with a healthy, balanced lifestyle consisting of a realistic diet plan and exercise regimen. The is the cornerstone of therapy in the Center for Obesity And its Complications in Health (COACH) clinic which is Children's Medical Center's (Dallas, TX) strategy to combat and treat pediatric overweight and obesity. Lifestyle changes of diet and exercise plans are tailored to each individual's interests and metabolic needs in COACH which is a multi-disciplinary clinic. Additionally, co-morbidities are screened for and treated aggressively to help prevent long-term complications of overweight and obesity. If others do similar interventions in their communities, this global epidemic has the possibility of more positive outcomes than those currently projected.

  14. Investing in a healthy lifestyle strategy: is it worth it?

    PubMed

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Dionne, Pierre-Alexandre; Tchouaket, Éric; Fansi, Alvine K; Brousselle, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    In Quebec, various actors fund activities aimed at increasing physical activity, improving eating habits and reducing smoking. The objective was to evaluate how effective does the healthy lifestyle habits promotion (HLHP) strategy need to be to make to offset its costs. First, we built the logic model of the HLHP strategy. We then assessed the strategy's total cost as well as the direct health care expenditures associated with lifestyle-related risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, insufficient intake of fruits and vegetables, obesity and overweight). Finally, we estimated the break-even point beyond which the economic benefits of the HLHP strategy would outweigh its costs. The HLHP strategy cost for 2010-2011 was estimated at $110 million. Direct healthcare expenditures associated with lifestyle-related risk factors were estimated at $4.161 billion. We estimated that 47 % of these expenditures were attributable to these risk factors. We concluded that the HLHP strategy cost corresponded to 5.6 % of the annual healthcare expenditures attributable to these risk factors. This study compared the economic value of HLHP activities against healthcare expenditures associated with targeted risk factors.

  15. Lifestyle behaviors associated with exposures to endocrine disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Camille A.; Weiss, Bernard; Swan, Shanna H.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and characterizing sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have proved challenging due to the presence of multiple co-exposures resulting from a wide variety of home environments and lifestyles. We hypothesized that the consistent lifestyle of an Old Order Mennonite (OOM) community would provide an ideal setting in which to characterize sources of exposure to BPA and phthalates. We obtained urine samples from ten mid-term pregnant OOM women (ages-21–39) to determine concentrations of 9 phthalate metabolites and BPA and collected a self-reported survey of participants' household environment, product use, and lifestyle within a 48-h period prior to urine collection. We compared their metabolite concentrations to pregnant women included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2008). Although OOM participants reported some use of plastic and fragranced household products, concentrations of metabolites were lower and significantly less for BPA (p = 0.002) and phthalate metabolites MEHP (p = 0.0215), MiBP (p = 0.0020) and MEP (p = 0.021), when compared to NHANES pregnant women. Levels of other phthalate metabolites were also lower in this population. Our data suggest three practices that may contribute to these lower levels: (1) consuming mostly homegrown produce (ingestion), (2) no cosmetics and limited use of personal care products, and (3) transportation primarily by sources other than automobiles. PMID:22739065

  16. Cigar magazines: using tobacco to sell a lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, L.; Malone, R.; George, A.; Bero, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the content of two cigar "lifestyle" magazines, Cigar Aficionado and Smoke.
DESIGN—Content analysis of cigar focused articles.
SUBJECTS—Cigar focused articles (n = 353) from Cigar Aficionado and Smoke magazines.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Primary focus; mention of health effects, environmental tobacco smoke, or scientific research; quotation and description of individuals; characteristics such as sex, age, ethnicity, smoking status, affiliation, and stance towards cigars; and overall image of cigars.
RESULTS—Cigar business-focused articles were the largest category (40%, n = 143), followed by articles about cigar events (12%, n = 42). Notable were articles featuring cigar benefits to raise money for health charities. Celebrities were featured in 34% (n = 121) of articles and 96% (n = 271) favoured cigar use. Only four (1%) articles featured health effects of cigars as a primary focus.
CONCLUSIONS—Cigar Aficionado and Smoke broke new ground in tobacco marketing by combining promotion of product, lifestyle, and industry in the same vehicle and linking the medium directly to product related events that extended its reach. The creation and marketing of new tobacco use sites challenges the increasing "isolation" of smokers, and positions cigar use as a socially welcome relief from restrictions. Public health advocates should anticipate and challenge other new tobacco marketing vehicles as communications technologies advance and public spaces for smoking shrink.


Keywords: cigars; cigar magazines; lifestyles; tobacco marketing PMID:11544394

  17. Power and powerlessness: GPs' narratives about lifestyle counselling

    PubMed Central

    Abildsnes, Eirik; Walseth, Liv Tveit; Flottorp, Signe A; Stensland, Per S

    2012-01-01

    Background Power in doctor–patient relationships is asymmetrically distributed. The doctor holds resources the patient needs and has a mandate to promote healthy living. Power may benefit or harm the patients' health, and the doctor–patient relationship. Aim To identify aspects of power and powerlessness in GPs' narratives about lifestyle counselling. Design and setting A qualitative study using focus groups from peer-group meetings of Norwegian GPs attending continuing medical education. Method GPs discussed case stories about lifestyle counselling in focus groups. The discussions were transcribed and the text analysed using systematic text condensation. Results Aspects of power concerning the framework of the consultation and the GPs' professional role were found. Also identified were: power expressed by opportunistic approaches to change patients' lifestyle; rhetoric communication; paternalism; and disclosure. GPs reported powerlessness in complex communication, when there were difficulties reaching goals, and when patients resisted or ignored their proposals. Conclusion Case-study discussions in peer groups disclose several aspects of power and powerlessness that occur in consultations. Consciousness about aspects of power may facilitate counselling that benefits the patient and the doctor–patient relationship. PMID:22429431

  18. Lifestyle and eating habits in a business community.

    PubMed

    Stefani, L; Francini, L; Petri, C; Mascherini, G; Scacciati, I; Maffulli, N; Galanti, G

    2014-09-01

    The present study verified, using a validated questionnaire, the presence of unhealthy aspects of lifestyle and chronic degenerative conditions in a working community. A cohort from a working community in Italy was investigated using of the INRAN (Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e Nutrizione) questionnaire dedicated to the eating habits and Physical Activity Stages of Change. Most of the 93 subjects (56 females and 37 males, aged 42.0±0.7) recruited reported low levels of physical activity (70 subjects). Slightly more than 50% of the subjects undertook physical activity more than once a week, while 13% did it only once. Food intolerances were reported by 7 subjects (8%), with a high consumption of fruits, cereals and dairy products, low consumption of fish and alcohol, and meat consumption in the normal range. There was a high satisfaction in general quality of life. Questionnaire investigations play a role to identify the presence of degenerative chronic conditions in working communities. The self-reported perception of quality of life does not necessarily agree with the lifestyle habits found. Awareness of this aspect could be helpful to plan lifestyle interventions and promote healthy living habits.

  19. A practical approach to lifestyle change counselling in primary care.

    PubMed

    Elford, R W; Yeo, M; Jennett, P A; Sawa, R J

    1994-10-01

    Many contemporary medical conditions have been found to be the consequence of lifestyle choices. These adverse habit patterns have their origin in the individuals family and/or natural social network. Primary care practitioners frequently interact with their patients for the purpose of helping them resolve medical problems by clarifying issues or presenting different options. In lifestyle related conditions, the initiation and maintenance of possible behaviour changes is usually the optimal resolution. How people intentionally change well-established behaviour patterns is still not well understood, and most clinicians are not confident in their ability to help patients alter adverse behaviours. Several studies provide support for a 'stage-matched framework' of behaviour change that integrates readiness for change with intervention processes from various theoretical models. This article provides a brief overview of the current thinking with respect to self-initiated and professionally facilitated behaviour change, and then describes a generic five-step approach to individualized lifestyle counselling for use in primary care clinical settings.

  20. Lifestyle behaviors associated with exposures to endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Martina, Camille A; Weiss, Bernard; Swan, Shanna H

    2012-12-01

    Identifying and characterizing sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have proved challenging due to the presence of multiple co-exposures resulting from a wide variety of home environments and lifestyles. We hypothesized that the consistent lifestyle of an Old Order Mennonite (OOM) community would provide an ideal setting in which to characterize sources of exposure to BPA and phthalates. We obtained urine samples from ten mid-term pregnant OOM women (ages-21-39) to determine concentrations of 9 phthalate metabolites and BPA and collected a self-reported survey of participants' household environment, product use, and lifestyle within a 48-h period prior to urine collection. We compared their metabolite concentrations to pregnant women included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008). Although OOM participants reported some use of plastic and fragranced household products, concentrations of metabolites were lower and significantly less for BPA (p=0.002) and phthalate metabolites MEHP (p=0.0215), MiBP (p=0.0020) and MEP (p=0.021), when compared to NHANES pregnant women. Levels of other phthalate metabolites were also lower in this population. Our data suggest three practices that may contribute to these lower levels: (1) consuming mostly homegrown produce (ingestion), (2) no cosmetics and limited use of personal care products, and (3) transportation primarily by sources other than automobiles.

  1. Enjoyable company in sharing stroke experiences; - lifestyle groups after stroke.

    PubMed

    Lund, Anne; Melhus, Mali; Sveen, Unni

    2017-06-19

    Even people with mild to moderate stroke will experience changes in their abilities to perform everyday occupations. Group interventions may be appropriate in late-stage rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to explore how the participants involved themselves in person-centered lifestyle groups after stroke in Norway. Semi-structured interviews were performed with six older adults with mild-to-moderate stroke who had participated in lifestyle groups over a period of nine months. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The participants involved themselves in the lifestyle groups in a variety of ways by creating enjoyable company in sharing stroke experiences, sharing knowledgeable interest, pushing and forcing each other forward and reflecting on self-worth. Through doing group activities together, they created various ways of being, belonging and becoming, addressing development of strategies for regaining self-belief and a sense of autonomy, and for adapting to everyday life post-stroke. The participants were active contributors in the groups and pushed each other and themselves regarding involvement in meaningful occupations. This active participation seemed to bring the participants' resources into focus and contrasted with the frequent negative perceptions of people post-stroke as 'victims'.

  2. Lipid profile of coronary risk subjects following yogic lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, A S; Reddy, K S; Sachdeva, U

    1999-01-01

    The effect of yogic lifestyle on the lipid status was studied in angina patients and normal subjects with risk factors of coronary artery disease. The parameters included the body weight, estimation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and the cholesterol - HDL ratio. A baseline evaluation was done and then the angina patients and risk factors subjects were randomly assigned as control (n = 41) and intervention (yoga) group (n = 52). Lifestyle advice was given to both the groups. An integrated course of yoga training was given for four days followed by practice at home. Serial evaluation of both the groups was done at four, 10 and 14 weeks. Dyslipidemia was a constant feature in all cases. An inconsistent pattern of change was observed in the control group of angina (n = 18) and risk factor subjects (n = 23). The subjects practising yoga showed a regular decrease in all lipid parameters except HDL. The effect started from four weeks and lasted for 14 weeks. Thus, the effect of yogic lifestyle on some of the modifiable risk factors could probably explain the preventive and therapeutic beneficial effect observed in coronary artery disease.

  3. Phylogenetics of pond and lake lifestyles in Chaoborus midge larvae.

    PubMed

    Berendonk, Thomas U; Barraclough, Timothy G; Barraclough, Jonelle C

    2003-09-01

    Aquatic invertebrates experience strong trade-offs between habitats due to the selective effects of different predators. Diel vertical migration and small body size are thought to be effective strategies against fish predation in lakes. In the absence of fish in small ponds, migration is ineffective against invertebrate predators and large body size is an advantage. Although widely discussed, this phenomenon has never been tested in a phylogenetic context. We reconstructed a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tree to investigate the phylogenetic distribution of pond and lake lifestyles among 10 species of northern temperate Chaoborus midge larvae. The mtDNA tree is similar to previous morphological trees for Chaoborus, the only difference being the disruption of the subgenus Chaoborus sensu stricto. At least three shifts have occurred between pond and lake lifestyles, each time associated with evolution of diel vertical migration in the lake taxon. The trend in larval body size with habitat type is sensitive to tree and character reconstruction methods, only weakly consistent with the effects of fish predation. Despite long time periods over which adaptation to each habitat type could have occurred, there remains significant phylogenetic heritability in larval body size. The tree provides a framework for comparative studies of the metapopulation genetic consequences of pond and lake lifestyles.

  4. Lifestyle physical activity behavior of Korean American dry cleaner couples.

    PubMed

    Ju, Sukyung; Wilbur, Joellen; Lee, Eunice; Miller, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) describe and compare lifestyle physical activity (leisure-time physical activity [LTPA], household physical activity [HPA], and occupational physical activity [OPA]), using both self-report and an objective measure of step counts, in self-employed Korean American married couples working together at dry cleaners, and (2) examine the relationship between self-report and objective measures of physical activity. 70 couples participated in this cross-sectional, descriptive, face-to-face interview survey. 2 self-reports (28-item Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors Physical Activity Questionnaire and Tecumseh Occupational Physical Activity Questionnaire) and 1 objective measure (New Lifestyles-800 pedometer) were used. The husbands spent significantly more time than their wives in moderate- to vigorous-intensity LTPA (207 vs. 122 min/week) and OPA (2,585 vs. 1,065 min/week). Most couples (91%) met recommended levels of physical activity based on their OPA. Pedometer steps correlated significantly only with LTPA. Study findings suggest that to increase physical activity in Korean American couples who work in a small business, moderate-intensity lifestyle physical activity interventions across LTPA, HPA, and OPA will be more successful than traditional leisure-time interventions. In addition, results suggest that there is a need for interventions that target both members of the married couple. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Exploring Weight and Lifestyle: Mexican Immigrant Men’s Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Joseph; Powell, Jamie; Agne, April; Scarinci, Isabel; Cherrington, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite interest in family-centered obesity and diabetes prevention programs for Latinos, few studies have assessed men’s perspectives on obesity-related behaviors. The objective of this study was to explore Mexican immigrant men’s perspectives regarding weight, diet, and physical activity as they relate to the individual and the family. Design and Sample This was a focus group study with a convenience sample of Mexican immigrant men (n=16). Measures A moderator’s guide was used to elicit perceptions of personal and family behaviors influencing weight, and lifestyle. Results Mean age of participants was 41 years (SD+/− 12.7), and 100% were born in Mexico. Mean time in Alabama was 8 years. Perceived benefits of a healthy weight included improved mobility and decreased morbidities. Perceived barriers to a healthy lifestyle included demanding work schedules and an environment not conducive to walking. Participants described immigration as having a negative impact on family unity and established meal structures. Conclusion Previous studies among Latinas cite husband resistance as a barrier to sustained diet and lifestyle change; however, men in this study voiced openness to programs for obesity and diabetes prevention. Future family-centered programs should engage men and promote communication within the family on common goals related to health and illness prevention. PMID:23078420

  6. Lifestyle risk factors predict healthcare costs in an aging cohort.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; Hubert, Helen B; Romano, Patrick S

    2005-12-01

    While the U.S. elderly population uses a disproportionate amount of healthcare resources, there is limited knowledge from prospective studies regarding the impact of lifestyle-related factors on costs in this group. The association was examined between smoking, drinking, exercise, body mass index (BMI), and changes in these risk factors, and healthcare costs after 4 years among 68- to 95-year-olds. A total of 1323 participants completed annual surveys providing information on lifestyle factors (1986-1994) and health utilization (1994-1998). Healthcare costs in nine categories were ascertained from validated utilization. The relationships between risk factors and costs were examined in 2004 using linear regression models. Fewer cigarette pack-years and lower BMI were the most significant predictors of lower total costs in 1998 (p<0.001), controlling for baseline sociodemographic factors, costs, and conditions. Associations with smoking were strongest for hospitalizations, diagnostic tests, and physician and nursing-home visits. Those who reduced smoking by one pack per day experienced cost savings of 1160 dollars (p<0.05). The costs for normal weight compared to minimally obese seniors were approximately 1548 dollars lower, with diagnostic testing, physician visits, and medications accounting for much of this difference. Daily walking, measured at baseline, also predicted lower costs for hospitalizations and diagnostic testing. Seniors who were leaner, smoked fewer cigarettes over a lifetime, reduced their smoking, or walked farther had significant subsequent cost savings compared to those with less-healthy lifestyle-related habits.

  7. Cancer is a Preventable Disease that Requires Major Lifestyle Changes

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Preetha; Kunnumakara, Ajaikumar B.; Sundaram, Chitra; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Tharakan, Sheeja T.; Lai, Oiki S.; Sung, Bokyung

    2008-01-01

    This year, more than 1 million Americans and more than 10 million people worldwide are expected to be diagnosed with cancer, a disease commonly believed to be preventable. Only 5–10% of all cancer cases can be attributed to genetic defects, whereas the remaining 90–95% have their roots in the environment and lifestyle. The lifestyle factors include cigarette smoking, diet (fried foods, red meat), alcohol, sun exposure, environmental pollutants, infections, stress, obesity, and physical inactivity. The evidence indicates that of all cancer-related deaths, almost 25–30% are due to tobacco, as many as 30–35% are linked to diet, about 15–20% are due to infections, and the remaining percentage are due to other factors like radiation, stress, physical activity, environmental pollutants etc. Therefore, cancer prevention requires smoking cessation, increased ingestion of fruits and vegetables, moderate use of alcohol, caloric restriction, exercise, avoidance of direct exposure to sunlight, minimal meat consumption, use of whole grains, use of vaccinations, and regular check-ups. In this review, we present evidence that inflammation is the link between the agents/factors that cause cancer and the agents that prevent it. In addition, we provide evidence that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes. PMID:18626751

  8. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.

  9. [Dementia and lifestyle-related diseases in Japanese aging society].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko

    2011-05-01

    Recently, the number of elderly patients with dementia has been increasing in Japan because of both the extension of average life expectancy and a considerable rise in the incidence of dementia with age. For these reasons, dementia in Japan has become common, and more than half of all cases are Alzheimer disease. This disease has typically been considered to be a degenerative disorder due to genetic abnormalities, but recent epidemiological studies have indicated that lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity in midlife could accelerate the dementing process, via either vascular changes in cerebral infarction or Alzheimer-related pathological changes with plaque and tangle formations which result in dementia in later life. Furthermore, several studies have suggested that a high intake of vegetables and fish, an active daily life, and lifelong education might positively influence cognitive function as neuroprotective factors. Therefore, we should try to prevent dementia based on the clinical and hygienic management of the lifestyles and lifestyle-related diseases, even in the youth.

  10. Parental perceptions regarding lifestyle interventions for obese children and adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, Ingrid Rivera; Yap, Jason; Mager, Diana R

    2014-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 30% of obese children globally. The main treatment for NAFLD is to promote gradual weight loss through lifestyle modification. Very little is known regarding parental perspectives about the barriers and facilitators that influence the ability to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours in children with NAFLD. To explore and describe parental perspectives regarding barriers to and facilitators of implementing lifestyle modification in children with NAFLD. A mixed-methods approach, including qualitative methodology (focus groups) and validated questionnaires (Lifestyle Behaviour Checklist), was used to assess parental perceptions regarding barriers to and facilitators of lifestyle change in parents of children with healthy body weights (control parents) and in parents of children with NAFLD (NAFLD parents). NAFLD parents identified more problem behaviours related to food portion size and time spent in nonsedentary physical activity, and lower parental self-efficacy than parents of controls (P<0.05). Major barriers to lifestyle change cited by NAFLD parents were lack of time, self-motivation and role modelling of healthy lifestyle behaviours. In contrast, control parents used a variety of strategies to elicit healthy lifestyle behaviours in their children including positive role modelling, and inclusion of the child in food preparation and meal purchasing decisions, and perceived few barriers to promoting healthy lifestyles. Internet sources were the main form of nutrition information used by parents. Lifestyle modification strategies focused on promoting increased parental self-efficacy and parental motivation to promote healthy lifestyle behaviour are important components in the treatment of obese children with NAFLD.

  11. Using lifestyle medicine in U.S. health care to treat obesity: too many bariatric surgeries?

    PubMed

    Trilk, Jennifer L; Kennedy, Ann Blair

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of Americans are classified as obese. Many clinicians perform bariatric surgery (BSx) when it is said that lifestyle intervention failed. However, BSx is medically complex, with extremely variable success, certain failures, major complications, and sometimes death. Although many studies declare BSx as more effective for producing weight loss than nonsurgical lifestyle management, these conclusions are flawed when lifestyle management between cohorts are not identical. Lifestyle behavior change is essential to success for both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss, as over 50% of BSx patients regain weight without lifestyle modification. Indeed, programs that include self-reward and reinforcement are extremely effective. It is therefore possible that successful BSx is simply an intrinsic reward for an intensive change in lifestyle behavior. Accounting for the costs and risks associated with BSx, providing state and federal resources for lifestyle behavior change programs could provide a key opportunity for the war against obesity.

  12. Physical Activities and Lifestyle Factors Related to Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kota; Michikawa, Takehiro; Yonezawa, Ikuho; Takaso, Masashi; Minami, Shohei; Soshi, Shigeru; Tsuji, Takashi; Okada, Eijiro; Abe, Katsumi; Takahashi, Masamichi; Asakura, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Matsumoto, Morio

    2017-02-15

    In addition to genetic factors, environmental and lifestyle factors are thought to play an important role in the onset of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore lifestyle factors related to AIS. This study included 2,759 Japanese female junior high school students who planned a secondary screening after an initial moiré topography screening indicated possible scoliosis. The students and their mothers, or guardians, were asked to fill out a questionnaire consisting of 38 questions about demographic factors, lifestyle-related factors, social factors, household environment, participation in sports, health status, and factors related to the mother's pregnancy and delivery. The questionnaire was completed by 2,747 students (a 99.6% response rate). After excluding students with heart disease, neurological disease, or a congenital vertebral anomaly, 2,600 students were eligible for assessment. After undergoing a secondary screening with standing radiographs of the spine, students were assigned to the normal (control) group if radiographs showed a curve of <15° or to the scoliosis group if they had a curve of ≥15°. The odds ratios (ORs) for AIS in relation to the possible risk or preventive factors were estimated by logistic regression analyses. No lifestyle-related factor was significantly associated with AIS. However, AIS was associated with classical ballet training (OR, 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.75); the odds of AIS developing increased as the child's frequency of training, number of years of experience, and duration of training in ballet increased. The OR for AIS was 1.5 times higher for participants whose mothers had scoliosis. AIS was also associated with a low body mass index (BMI). These associations remained even after mutual adjustment was performed. No association was found between AIS and lifestyle-related factors. However, classical ballet training, a family history of scoliosis, and

  13. Determinants of health-related lifestyles among university students.

    PubMed

    Aceijas, Carmen; Waldhäusl, Sabrina; Lambert, Nicky; Cassar, Simon; Bello-Corassa, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate students' health-related lifestyles and to identify barriers and social determinants of healthier lifestyles. An online survey, two focus groups and three in-depth interviews across 2014/2015. A stratified by school size and random sample ( n = 468) of university students answered a 67-item questionnaire comprising six scales: Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity, Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Patients-Short Version, CAGE, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale short version, and ad hoc scale for drug use/misuse. Stratified by gender, χ(2) tests were run to test associations/estimate risks and three multivariate Logistic Regression models were adjusted. A thematic approach guided the analysis of qualitative data. A total of 60% of the respondents were insufficiently physically active, 47% had an unbalanced diet and 30% had low mental wellbeing. Alcohol drinkers versus abstinent were almost equally distributed. A total of 42% of alcohol drinkers reported getting drunk at least once a month. Smokers accounted for 16% of the respondents. Identified risk factors for suboptimal physical activity were as follows: being a woman, not using the university gym and smoking. Risk factors for unbalanced diet were low mental wellbeing and drug use. Poor mental wellbeing was predicted by unbalanced diet, not feeling like shopping and cooking frequently, and a lack of help-seeking behaviour in cases of distress. Qualitative analysis revealed seven thematic categories: transition to new life, university environment and systems, finances, academic pressure, health promotion on campus and recommendations. This study provides robust evidence that the health-related lifestyles of the student population are worrying and suggests that the trend in chronic diseases associated with unhealthy lifestyles sustained over years might be unlikely to change in future generations. University students

  14. Comparative Study of Lifestyle: Eating Habits, Sedentary Lifestyle and Anthropometric Development in Spanish 5- To 15-yr-Olds

    PubMed Central

    MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; RUSO JULVE, Candelaria; LLOPIS GONZÁLEZ, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Background: The infant-juvenile period is one of high vulnerability during the lifestyles chosen become determining factors for future health status. This study aimed to evaluate lifestyle, specifically eating habits and physical activity, in 5–15-year-olds in Spain and their health status (anthropometry). Methods: This cross-sectional population study with two time points (2006 and 2013) was conducted by compiling data from the Spanish National Health Survey. We used the minor survey, specifically the data from the Health Determinants module, which included 5–15-year-olds. Compiled information was obtained from parents or guardians. Results: The overall overweight and obesity prevalence in Spain (2013) in 5- to 15-year-olds is 24.3%. A drop of 8.2% in meat consumption was found, while overall intake was high. Daily intake of plant-based food (fruit, vegetables, pulses) was low, especially vegetables (32.9%). Increased sedentary lifestyle was observed, probably because the use of communication technologies has increased in recent years (P<0.001). Moreover, watching TV rose to 19.3% for 1 hour/day watching TV on weekdays and to 23.5% at weekends. Conclusion: When comparing the two time points (2006 and 2013), we observed that lifestyle, eating habits and physical activity strongly associated with the Spanish infant-juvenile population’s anthropometry. Mediterranean diet patterns seem to be abandoned and physical activity is practiced less, which will have a negative impact on future quality of life. PMID:26056667

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Mobile Application for Personal Lifestyle Check-Up and Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Sekyoung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed (1) to help individuals analyze their own health status by checking their lifestyle, (2) to develop a user-friendly mobile application that offered prescriptions for lifestyle improvement, and (3) to examine whether the developed application had positive effects on users. Materials and Methods: In order to develop a lifestyle analysis engine that would operate in an Android® (Google, Mountain View, CA)-based mobile application, survey data on health awareness behaviors of 25,124 participants from the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were analyzed. Additionally, in order for the users to be aware of their lifestyles and explore the effects of the developed mobile application on lifestyle management and improvement, an additional survey of the lifestyle awareness and levels of motivation for lifestyle improvement of 152 users was conducted. Results: The differences between lifestyles before and after using the application were examined. A paired t test was used for questions regarding (1) the level of motivation to improve lifestyles and (2) changes in lifestyle. The lifestyle score was lower after using the program than before using it. Conversely, the level of motivation to improve lifestyle was greater after the program than before it. Both results were statistically significant. Conclusions: By using the KNHANES, this study developed a mobile application that compared the quantified lifestyles of individuals and enabled individuals to check easily their health statuses, whenever and wherever necessary. The program developed in this study contributed to motivating individuals to be aware of and to improve their lifestyles. PMID:25384255

  16. Increased SA in NPR1-silenced plants antagonizes JA and JA-dependent direct and indirect defenses in herbivore-attacked Nicotiana attenuata in nature.

    PubMed

    Rayapuram, Cbgowda; Baldwin, Ian T

    2007-11-01

    The phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is known to mediate herbivore resistance, while salicylic acid (SA) and non-expressor of PR-1 (NPR1) mediate pathogen resistance in many plants. Herbivore attack on Nicotiana attenuata elicits increases in JA and JA-mediated defenses, but also increases SA levels and Na-NPR1 transcripts from the plant's single genomic copy. SA treatment of wild-type plants increases Na-NPR1 and Na-PR1 transcripts. Plants silenced in NPR1 accumulation by RNAi (ir-npr1) are highly susceptible to herbivore and pathogen attack when planted in their native habitat in Utah. They are also impaired in their ability to attract Geocorus pallens predators, due to their decreased ability to release cis-alpha-bergamotene, a JA-elicited volatile 'alarm call'. In the glasshouse, Spodoptera exigua larvae grew better on ir-npr1 plants, which had low levels of JA, JA-isoleucine/leucine, lipoxygenase-3 (LOX3) transcripts and JA-elicited direct defense metabolites (nicotine, caffeoyl putrescine and rutin), but high levels of SA and isochorismate synthase (ICS) transcripts, suggesting de novo biosynthesis of SA. A microarray analysis revealed downregulation of many JA-elicited genes and upregulation of SA biosynthetic genes. JA treatment restored nicotine levels and resistance to S. exigua in ir-npr1 plants. We conclude that, during herbivore attack, NPR1 negatively regulates SA production, allowing the unfettered elicitation of JA-mediated defenses; when NPR1 is silenced, the elicited increases in SA production antagonize JA and JA-related defenses, making the plants susceptible to herbivores.

  17. Is a Risky Lifestyle Always "Risky"? The Interaction between Individual Propensity and Lifestyle Risk in Adolescent Offending: A Test in Two Urban Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Robert; Pauwels, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects on adolescent offending of lifestyle risk and the individual propensity to offend. It is assumed that lifestyle risk will have a more important effect on offending for those individuals with high levels of individual propensity, whereas for individuals with low levels of individual propensity it is assumed that a…

  18. Is a Risky Lifestyle Always "Risky"? The Interaction between Individual Propensity and Lifestyle Risk in Adolescent Offending: A Test in Two Urban Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Robert; Pauwels, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects on adolescent offending of lifestyle risk and the individual propensity to offend. It is assumed that lifestyle risk will have a more important effect on offending for those individuals with high levels of individual propensity, whereas for individuals with low levels of individual propensity it is assumed that a…

  19. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  20. Lifestyle pattern in selected slums in Mymensingh Municipal area.

    PubMed

    Basher, M S; Haque, M M; Ullah, M S; Nasreen, S A; Begum, A A; Islam, M N; Akhter, S; Haque, M S

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle is composed of cultural and behavioural patterns and lifelong personal habits that developed through processes of socialization. Lifestyle may be health promotive or detrimental to health. Health requires the promotion of healthy lifestyle. Many current day health problems are associated with lifestyle changes. Because of rising urban population, the number of slum dwellers is rising. The mobility of people from rural to urban areas is the main reason of the growing slum population in cities. This Descriptive, cross-sectional study was directed to assess lifestyle pattern in four purposively selected slums in Mymensingh Municipal area. Non-Probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study unit. Sample size was one hundred and twenty-three (123) families. Data were collected by interview with one of the adult family members, preferably with the head of the family, with mixed type of interviewer administered questionnaire. There were 494 family members with an average family size of 4.02, while mean age was 24.58 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 17.79 years. Male-female ratio was 103:100. Of 409 members over 5 years, 174(42.54%) did not have schooling and were illiterate. At least 105(33.02%) members were house-wives, and 99(81.15%) members were smokers. An overwhelming majority (79, 64.23%) families had monthly income between 2000 to 4999 taka. As many as 55(44.72%) families lived in kaccha house, while 40(32.52%) had to live in "Jhupree". In cent per cent families, tube well was the source of water for drinking and other household purposes. A highest majority 121(98.37%) of the families had latrine, while the remaining 2(1.63%) did not have any latrine, and defecate in open air. Of 121 families, 78(64.46%) families had sanitary latrine, while 43(37.54%) did not have sanitary latrine. It was revealed that 86(69.92%) families had cell-phone, while 65(52.85%) families had television, 10(8.13%) families had radio, and 5

  1. Lifestyle interventions for diabetes mellitus type 2 prevention.

    PubMed

    Sagarra, R; Costa, B; Cabré, J J; Solà-Morales, O; Barrio, F

    2014-03-01

    Transferring the results from clinical trials on type 2 diabetes prevention is the objective of the Diabetes in Europe-Prevention using Lifestyle, Physical Activity and Nutritional intervention (DE-PLAN) project in Catalonia, whose cost-effectiveness analysis is now presented. A prospective cohort study was performed in primary care involving individuals without diagnosed diabetes aged 45-75 years (n=2054) screened using the questionnaire Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and a subsequent oral glucose tolerance test. Where feasible, high-risk individuals who were identified (n=552) were allocated sequentially to standard care (n=219), a group-based (n=230) or an individual-level (n=103) intensive (structured programme of six hours using specific teaching techniques) lifestyle intervention (n=333). The primary outcome was the development of diabetes (WHO). We evaluated the cost of resources used with comparison of standard care and the intervention groups in terms of effectiveness and quality of life (15D questionnaire). After 4.2-year median follow-up, the cumulative incidences were 18.3% (14.3-22.9%) in the intensive intervention group and 28.8% (22.9-35.3%) in the standard care group (36.5% relative-risk-reduction). The corresponding 4-year HR was 0.64 (0.47-0.87; P<.004). The incremental cost induced by intensive intervention compared with the standard was 106€ per participant in the individual level and 10€ in the group-based intervention representing 746€ and 108€ per averted case of diabetes, respectively. The estimated incremental cost-utility ratio was 3243€ per quality-adjusted life-years gained. The intensive lifestyle intervention delayed the development of diabetes and was efficient in economic analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Health and lifestyle issues as risk factors for homelessness.

    PubMed

    Heffron, W A; Skipper, B J; Lambert, L

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there are health and lifestyle issues among homeless persons that differentiate them from other segments of the population and that can be described as risk factors for homelessness. This case-control study investigated health and lifestyle issues in a panel of patients visiting a health care clinic for homeless persons. The same information was collected from a panel of county indigent patients and an equal number of privately insured patients enrolled in a nearby academic family practice center. We found significant differences among these three groups. Differences in health problems were evident, as significantly more homeless persons reported mental health, drug and alcohol abuse, and smoking problems. There were no differences in the prevalence of other general medical conditions as listed by the patients. Homeless persons were younger than the control group respondents and more likely to be male, a member of a minority group, and unmarried. The childhood experiences of homeless persons were distinctive; they were more likely to have lived in a group home or some other nonfamily situation, considered themselves to have been delinquent, run away from home, been expelled from school, or been placed in reform school. The same held true for having been in jail as an adult. They had significantly less education, their job experiences were in manual and unskilled arenas, and they were more likely to have a gambling problem. A continuum of risk also appeared in that for the most part the characteristics and experiences of the indigent group members ranked in frequency between those of the homeless and insurance groups. Causes of homelessness appear to be multifactorial. Issues related to mental health, alcohol, nicotine, and other drug and substance abuse could be responsible for their medical problems, whereas other lifestyle issues might be regarded as risk factors for homelessness.

  3. Social burden and lifestyle in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zomer, A Carla; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P; van der Velde, Enno T; Sieswerda, Gert-Jan T; Wajon, Elly M C; Plomp, Koos; van Bergen, Paul F M; Verheugt, Carianne L; Krivka, Eva; de Vries, Cees J; Lok, Dirk J A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate how the presence and severity of congenital heart disease (CHD) influence social life and lifestyle in adult patients. A random sample (n = 1,496) from the CONgenital CORvitia (n = 11,047), the Dutch national registry of adult patients with CHD, completed a questionnaire on educational attainment, employment and marital statuses, and lifestyle (response 76%). The Utrecht Health Project provided a large reference group (n = 6,810) of unaffected subjects. Logistic regression models were used for subgroup analyses and to adjust for age, gender, and socioeconomic status where appropriate. Of all patients 51.5% were men (median age 39 years, interquartile range 29 to 51) with mild (46%), moderate (44%), and severe (10%) CHD. Young (<40-year-old) patients with CHD were more likely to have achieved a lower education (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 1.6 for men and 1.9 for women, p <0.05 for the 2 comparisons), significantly more often unemployed (adjusted ORs 5.9 and 2.0 for men and women, respectively), and less likely to be in a relationship compared to the reference group (adjusted ORs 8.5 for men and 4.5 for women). These poorer outcomes were seen in all severity groups. Overall, the CHD population smoked less (adjusted OR 0.5, p <0.05), had more sports participation (adjusted OR 1.2, p <0.05), and had less obesity (adjusted OR 0.7, p <0.05) than the reference group. In conclusion, there was a substantial social disadvantage in adult patients with CHD, which was seen in all severity groups and primarily in young men. In contrast, adults with CHD had healthier lifestyles compared to the reference group.

  4. Fostering healthy lifestyles in the African American population.

    PubMed

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D

    2015-02-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of diabetes complications than either Caucasians or Hispanics. The purpose of this longitudinal community intervention was to promote healthy lifestyles among African American participants through multiple channels, including individualized point-of-testing counseling, and weekly exercise and nutrition classes led by trained community health mentors. Data collection procedures were guided by the World Health Organization's STEPS approach, which includes gathering demographic and health information, collecting anthropometric measurements, and analyzing biochemical blood work. Changes in body mass index were assessed from in-person measurements and changes in blood lipids and glucose were examined by biochemical analyses. A total of 157 individuals participated in this study. Results showed that weight gain during the intervention was prevented, glucose levels decreased (-10.88 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased (-8.8 mg/dL), while high-density lipoprotein increased (+3.2 mg/dL). Lifestyle interventions and point-of-testing counseling can be successful in reducing risk factors for type 2 diabetes among the African American population. The results of this intervention indicate that the use of community health mentors and point-of-testing counseling may be effective in fostering healthy lifestyle changes, which can halt the progression of type 2 diabetes among non-Hispanic Black populations. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  5. Ageing, lifestyle modifications, and cardiovascular disease in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, L J; Galioto, A; Ferlisi, A; Pineo, A; Putignano, E; Belvedere, M; Costanza, G; Barbagallo, M

    2006-01-01

    Developing countries face the double menace of still prevalent infectious diseases and increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) with epidemic proportions in the near future, linked to demographic changes (expansion and ageing), and to urbanisation and lifestyle modifications. It is estimated that the elderly population will increase globally (over 80% during the next 25 years), with a large share of this rise in the developing world because of expanding populations. Increasing longevity prolongs the time exposure to risk factors, resulting in a greater probability of CVD. As a paradox, increased longevity due to improved social and economical conditions associated with lifestyle changes in the direction of a rich diet and sedentary habits in the last century, is one of the main contributors to the incremental trend in CVD. The variable increase rate of CVD in different nations may reflect different stages of "epidemiological transition" and it is probable that the relatively slow changes seen in developing populations through the epidemiological transition may occur at an accelerated pace in individuals migrating from nations in need to affluent societies (i.e. Hispanics to the USA, Africans to Europe). Because of restrained economic conditions in the developing world, the greatest gains in controlling the CVD epidemic lies in its prevention. Healthy foods should be widely available and affordable, and healthy dietary practices such as increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, reduced consumption of saturated fat, salt, and simple sugars, may be promoted in all populations. Specific strategies for smoking and overweight control may be regulation of marketed tobacco and unhealthy fast food and promotion of an active lifestyle. Greater longevity and economic progress are accompanied by an increasing burden of CVD and other chronic diseases with an important decrease in quality of life, which should question the benefit of these additional years without

  6. Lifestyle modification and endothelial function in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Osama

    2005-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and vascular abnormalities that include central obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercoagulability and an increased risk of coronary and cerebral vascular disease. These metabolic and vascular abnormalities are the main cause of cardiovascular mortality in western societies. Endothelial dysfunction, an early step in the development of atherosclerosis, has been reported in obese nondiabetic individuals and in patients with Type 2 diabetes. It has also been observed in individuals at high risk for Type 2 diabetes, including those with impaired glucose tolerance and the normoglycemic first-degree relatives of Type 2 diabetic patients. Recent evidence points to adipocytes as a complex and active endocrine tissue whose secretory products, including free fatty acids and several cytokines (i.e., leptin, adiponectin, tissue necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and resistin) play a major role in the regulation of human metabolic and vascular biology. These adipocytokines have been claimed to be the missing link between insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Interventions designed to improve endothelial and/or adipose-tissue functions may reduce cardiovascular events in obese individuals with either the metabolic syndrome or Type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle modification in the form of caloric restriction and increased physical activity are the most common modalities used for treating those individuals at risk and is unanimously agreed to be the initial step in managing Type 2 diabetes. Several recent studies have demonstrated favorable impacts of lifestyle modifications in improving endothelial function and insulin sensitivity, in addition to altering serum levels of adipocytokines and possibly reducing cardiovascular events. This review discusses current knowledge of the role of lifestyle modifications in ameliorating cardiovascular risk in obese subjects with

  7. [Social mobility, lifestyle and body mass index in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Hackenhaar, Marisa Luzia; Sichieri, Rosely; Muraro, Ana Paula; da Silva, Regina Maria Veras Gonçalves; Ferreira, Marcia Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    To analyze the association between social mobility, lifestyle and body mass index in adolescents. A cohort study of 1,716 adolescents aged 10 to 17 years of both sexes. The adolescents were participants in a cohort study and were born between 1994 and 1999. The adolescents, from public and private schools, were assessed between 2009 and 2011. Lifestyle was assessed by interview and anthropometry was used to calculatebody mass index. For the economic classification, both at pre-school age and in adolescence, the criteria recommended by the Brazilian Association of Research Companies were used. Upward social mobility was categorized as an increase by at least one class in economic status within a 10-year-period. Poisson regression was used to estimate the association between upward social mobility and the outcomes assessed. Among all respondents (71.4% follow-up of the cohort), 60.6% had upward social mobility. Among these, 93.6% belonged to socioeconomic class D and 99.9% to economy class E. Higher prevalence of social mobility was observed for students with black skin (71.4%) and mulatto students (61.9%) enrolled in public schools (64.3%) whose mothers had less schooling in the first evaluation (67.2%) and revaluation (68.7%). After adjustment for confounding variables, upward social mobility was associated only with sedentary behavior (p = 0.02). The socioeconomic class in childhood was more associated with the outcomes assessed than was upward mobility. Upward social mobility was not associated with most of the outcomes evaluated, possibly as it is discreet and because the period considered in the study may not have been sufficient to reflect substantial changes in lifestyle and body mass index in adolescents.

  8. Influence of lifestyle factors on mammographic density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brand, Judith S; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Louise; Trinh, Thang; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Hall, Per; Celebioglu, Fuat

    2013-01-01

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT), little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI) and HRT was studied. Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07). This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06): increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01) but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82). A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04). No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk.

  9. Influence of Lifestyle Factors on Mammographic Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Judith S.; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Louise; Trinh, Thang; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Hall, Per; Celebioglu, Fuat

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT), little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. Methods We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI) and HRT was studied. Results Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07). This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06): increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01) but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82). A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04). No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. Conclusions Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk. PMID:24349146

  10. Adolescent lifestyle and behaviour: a survey from a developing country.

    PubMed

    Qidwai, Waris; Ishaque, Sidra; Shah, Sabeen; Rahim, Maheen

    2010-09-27

    Adolescents form two-thirds of our population. This is a unique group of people with special needs. Our survey aims to identify the lifestyle and behavioral patterns in this group of people and subsequently come up with issues that warrant special attention. A survey was performed in various schools of Karachi. Data collection was done via a face-to-face interview based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Participants included all willing persons between 12-19 years of age. Most adolescents with lifestyle issues fell in the age group of 16-18 years. Females were more depressed than males and had more sleep problems. Substance abuse and other addictions were documented more in males. Watching television or listening to music was stated as the most common late night activity (61.8%) and therefore was also referred to as the contributory factor for less than eight hours of sleep each day. (58.9%) of the respondents are getting less than eight hours of sleep daily. (41.5%) of the respondents who felt depressed sought treatment for it. Quite a few of them were also indulged in substance abuse and other addictions. Only (16.8%) of the respondents opined that physical activity is essential for health. Thirty-five adolescents out of all the respondents were smoking cigarettes currently, whereas 7% of the respondents chewed paan (areca nut). Peer pressure was the most common reason (37.1%) to start smoking. Adolescents need to be treated as a distinct segment of our population and it is important to realize and address their health and lifestyle problems. Inadequate sleep, depression and smoking were the leading unhealthy behaviours among the respondents. Families can play an important role to help these adolescents live a healthier life. Further research studies should be carried out to highlight issues of concern and their possible solutions in this population.

  11. Can patient lifestyle influence the management of pain?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Benita

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether a patient's lifestyle influences nurses' pain assessment and management decisions. Nurses' inferences of physical pain are thought to be affected by a matrix of implicit assumptions that operate without effort and thought, motivating behaviour and guiding reactions in the clinical setting. Studies have demonstrated how patient characteristics not only influence assessment but also the nurse's choice of pain management. One of two patient scenarios was employed in a self-administered questionnaire that also addressed pain knowledge, inferences of physical pain, general attitudes and beliefs about pain management. The variable lifestyle/socio-economic status (SES) of the patient was manipulated; all other patient variables were kept constant. The participants were then required to identify the patient's pain level and make pain management decisions. One hundred questionnaires were distributed and 86 were returned. Following selection of the sample, 72 nurses participated in the study: 35 hospice/oncology nurses (specialist) and 37 district nurses (general). Data analysis was carried out using SPSS and qualitative analysis of the written responses. Both the specialist and general nurses differentiated between the patients in the scenarios, influencing their decisions to acknowledge the patient's self-report and choice of pain management. However, both patients were undermedicated with the nurses identifying undue concern about addiction and respiratory depression. The findings lend direct support to the proposal that a patient's lifestyle/SES can affect nurses' pain management behaviours. It is proposed that schemas induce bias that then influence nurses' inferences of patients' physical pain and management decisions; this is compounded by the myths about addiction and respiratory depression. It would appear that educational and clinical experiences fail to ameliorate the affects of bias and myth.

  12. Life-style activities in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, E; Maeshima, S; Mizobata, R; Goda, M; Sakagashira, M; Otani, H; Mune, M

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the life-style activities of outpatients with SLE and factors that reduce their social activities. SLE group = 60 patients, Control 1 = 30 healthy subjects and Control 2 = 30 patients with other autoimmune diseases. The Frenchay Activity Index (FAI), Zung's self-rating depression scale (SDS), and the Japanese version of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center morale scale-revised (MS) were compared between groups. Relation between FAI and age, disease duration, steroid dose, SDS, and MS were examined in the SLE group, Control 1, and Control 2. Total scores by FAI was 28.1 +/-8.0 points in Control 1, whereas it was 26.5 +/- 5.8 points in Control 2 and 24.5 +/- 7.7 points in the SLE group. While there was no statistical difference between the SLE group and Control 2, the scores were significantly lower in the SLE group than in Control 1 (P < 0.05). In SLE patients, age, the duration of the disease, and the steroid dose had no correlation, but MS had a positive correlation (P < 0.05) and SDS had a negative correlation (P < 0.05). In Control 2, age, the duration of the disease, the steroid dose, MS and SDS had no correlation whereas there was significant negative relation between FAI and SDS in Control 1 (r= -0.516, P<0.005). The significant relation between life-style activities and subjective well-being, and depression in SLE suggests that detection and treatment of mental status is important in improving the life-style activities of SLE patients.

  13. Prevention in psychiatry: effects of healthy lifestyle on cognition.

    PubMed

    Merrill, David A; Small, Gary W

    2011-03-01

    People are living longer than ever. With greater longevity, a critical question becomes whether or not our memories endure across the life span. This article reviews the common forms of age-related memory change and the emerging evidence related to putative risk and protective factors for brain aging. With increasing awareness of Alzheimer disease and related dementias, patients, families, and clinicians are eager for concise and accurate information about the effects and limitations of preventative strategies related to lifestyle choices that may improve cognitive health.

  14. Caloric Intake, Dietary Lifestyles, Macronutrient Composition, and Alzheimer' Disease Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pasinetti, Giulio Maria; Wang, Jun; Porter, Shanee; Ho, Lap

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition currently affecting over 5 million elderly individuals in the United States. There is much evidence suggesting that certain dietary lifestyles can help to prevent and possibly treat Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we discuss how certain cardiovascular and diabetic conditions can induce an increased susceptibility for Alzheimer's disease and the mechanisms through which this occurs. We further discuss how the consumption of certain foods or food components can help to reduce one's risk for Alzheimer's disease and may possibly be developed as a therapeutic agent. PMID:21808725

  15. Societal Influences on Health and Life-styles

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, David D.

    1984-01-01

    Strong sociocultural forces affect individual attitudes toward health and choice of life-style. Economic deprivation fosters negative health behaviors. Positive health habits are reinforced by discrete societal groups. The news media, particularly television, disseminate much useful health information, though the overall educational value is diminished by the content of commercial messages and programming. The automobile is a major societal influence, but neither individual drivers nor the car manufacturers give enough priority to highway safety, leaving that role to governmental regulation. American industry is becoming a positive influence in the encouragement of good health habits, and fashion is lately an important ally in personal health maintenance. PMID:6523860

  16. A Physicist in Business: Opportunities, Pitfalls, and Lifestyle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woollam, John

    2007-03-01

    A traditional education in physics does not normally include business classes or dealing with opportunities to start a company, yet scientists often now start and run small companies. Physicists are mainly interested in technology. However, other factors quickly dominate chances for business success. These include finance, accounting, cash flow analysis, recruiting, interviewing, personnel issues, marketing, investments, retirement plans, patents and other not always so fun activities. Technical decisions are often strongly influenced by company finances and market-analysis. This talk discusses how to recognize opportunity, how to minimize chances for failure, and lifestyle changes one needs to be aware of before entrepreneurship involvement.

  17. Diet, Exercise, Behavior: The Promise and Limits of Lifestyle Change

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Brian; Sothern, Melinda S.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalent surge in childhood and adolescent obesity within the past 3 decades poses a significant challenge for many pediatric clinicians who are charged with treating this condition. The need for comprehensive, research-based pediatric obesity treatment programs are essential in addressing this problem and preventing the transition of obesity and its many co-morbidities into adulthood. This paper will identify dietary, physical activity, and behavioral approaches to lifestyle change and describe how they are incorporated as part of multidisciplinary treatment interventions in youth. Specific tailoring of treatment programs to address age and varying degrees of overweight and obesity will also be presented along with recommendations for future research. PMID:19573757

  18. Behavioral economics: merging psychology and economics for lifestyle interventions.

    PubMed

    Thorgeirsson, Tryggvi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-02-01

    The field of behavioral economics combines psychology and economics to investigate how individuals actually behave as opposed to how they would behave if they were being perfectly rational (as in the sense of maximizing their utility). Although initial applications focused on consumer behavior, such as explaining why people failed to save adequately for retirement, the field has moved increasingly into the area of explaining health behaviors as well as the design of lifestyle interventions, such as weight loss and smoking-cessation programs. This article provides an overview of several important behavioral economics concepts of relevance to public health and health behavior change.

  19. The manufacture of lifestyle: the role of corporations in unhealthy living.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-05-01

    Recently, researchers have debated two views on the connection between lifestyle and health. In the first, health-related lifestyles including tobacco and alcohol use, diet, and physical activity are seen as primary influences on health. In the second, social stratification is the dominant influence with lifestyles simply markers of social status. Neither approach leads to interventions that can reverse the world's most serious health problems. This article proposes that corporate practices are a dominant influence on the lifestyles that shape patterns of health and disease. Modifying business practices that promote unhealthy lifestyles is a promising strategy for improving population health. Corporations shape lifestyles by producing and promoting healthy or unhealthy products, creating psychological desires and fears, providing health information, influencing social and physical environments, and advancing policies that favor their business goals. Public officials and health professionals can promote health by advocating policies to modify these corporate practices.

  20. Perceptions of online lifestyle counseling among individuals living in rural India.

    PubMed

    Laxmi, Vidya; Sharma, Shruti; Singh, Awnish K; Amadi, Chioma; Mohan, Krishna; Joshi, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The burden of lifestyle related chronic diseases have increased in recent times. The objective of this pilot study was to explore perceptions about using online lifestyle counseling services among individuals living in rural settings in India. A pilot convenient sample of 100 individuals living in rural settings of Chennai with age 18 years and above was enrolled for the study. Information was gathered about socio-demographic characteristics, health behavior, current disease status; familiarity with technology and perceptions about online lifestyle counseling. The average age of the individuals was 34 years (SD=15). More than half of the individuals had access to computers at home and workplace. Individuals indentified various barriers for unable to obtain lifestyle counseling. Nearly 47% of the individuals were interested in obtaining online lifestyle counseling. There is an urgent need for evaluating the role of an online lifestyle counseling intervention among individuals living in rural settings.