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Sample records for ja mned nited

  1. IHAVS NITE Hawk SC targeting FLIR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Bob

    1996-06-01

    Loral Aeronutronic is supporting the IHAVS project by integrating Navy-furnished NITE Hawk Targeting FLIR Pod (AN/AAS-38B) Weapons Replaceable Assemblies (WRAs) with Loral-furnished aft section and interface module WRAs for flight testing on a TAV-8B. Loral developed an aft section WRA without the conformal fairing required for installation on an F/A-18 and incorporated a self-cooling system. WRAs from the AN/AAS-38B pod are integrated in this aft section to provide a pod which is functionally the same as the F/A-18 system yet can be installed on any aircraft. Loral calls this derivative of the F/A-18 NITE Hawk pod the NITE Hawk Self-Cooled (SC) pod. The NITE Hawk SC has also has also been flight demonstrated on the F-15, F-16 and F-14 platforms and is the baseline laser targeting system on the Spanish Air Force's EF-2000 aircraft. The Loral-developed interface module WRA provides the capability to translate messages from any aircraft mission computer into the particular format design for the F/A-18 controller processor WRA. This maintains maximum commonality to the AN/AAS-38B WRAs. The interface module provides for signal processing of the FLIR video and includes the capability to electronically zoom, freeze, and format the video output into any standard required by the aircraft.

  2. Development of multi-functional NITE-porous SiC for ceramic insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yi-Hyun; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Kohyama, Akira

    2009-04-01

    Porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics are being considered as functional materials for advanced energy systems due to their low thermal and electrical conductivity, low thermal-expansion coefficient, good thermal-shock resistance, and excellent mechanical and chemical stability at elevated temperature. However, conventional processing routes for SiC are complicated and conventional porous SiC shows poor mechanical and chemical stability at high temperature. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a simple fabrication method. In this study, porous SiC ceramic have been fabricated based on the NITE process, a recently developed processing technique for high performance SiC f/SiC composites. Ceramic porosity was calculated from relative and theoretical density, which was obtained by the rule of mixture. The port shape and size distribution were examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanic properties were evaluated using three-point bend and tensile testing. Thermal conductivity was measured by the laser flash method from room temperature to 900 °C.

  3. Volcanism on Io: The Galileo NIMS Io Thermal Emission Database (NITED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. G.; Veeder, G. J.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.

    2011-12-01

    In order to determine the magnitude of thermal emission from Io's volcanoes and variability with time at local, regional and global scales, we have calculated the 4.7 or 5 μm radiant flux for every hot spot in every Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) observation obtained during the Galileo mission between June 1996 and October 2001. The resulting database contains over 1000 measurements of radiant flux, corrected for emission angle, range to target, and, where necessary, incident sunlight. Io's volcanoes produce the most voluminous and most powerful eruptions in the Solar System [1] and NIMS was the ideal instrument for measuring thermal emission from these volcanoes (see [1, 2]). NIMS covered the infrared from 0.7 to 5.2 μm, so measurement of hot spot thermal emission at ~5 μm was possible even in daytime observations. As part of a campaign to quantify magnitude and variability of volcanic thermal emission [1, 3-5] we examined the entire NIMS dataset (196 observations). The resulting NIMS Io Thermal Emission Database (NITED) allows the charting of 5-μm thermal emission at individual volcanoes, identifying individual eruption episodes, and enabling the comparison of activity at different hot spots [e.g., 6] and different regions of Io. Some ionian hot spots were detected only once or twice by NIMS (e.g., Ah Peku Patera, seen during I32), but most were detected many times (e.g., Culann, Tupan and Zamama, [6]). For example, the database contains over 40 observations of Loki Patera (some at high emission angle, and two partial observations). There are 55 observations of Pele. The 27 nighttime observations of Pele show a remarkably steady 5-μm radiant flux of 35 ± 12 GW/μm. There are 34 observations of Pillan, which erupted violently in 1997. Although in many observations low spatial resolution makes it difficult to separate hot spot pairs such as Susanoo Patera and Mulungu Patera; Tawhaki Patera and Hi'iaka Patera; and Janus Patera and Kanehekili

  4. Development of the tailored SiC/SiC composites by the combined fabrication process of ICVI and NITE methods

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoda, Kazuya; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Katoh, Yutai; Kohyama, Akira

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the thermo-mechanical performances of SiC/SiC composite, process improvement and modification by the combination of nano-infiltration and transient eutectic-phase (NITE) method and chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) method were studied. Multilayered PyC/SiC fiber coating and matrix infiltration within fiber-tows were prepared with isothermal/isobaric CVI (ICVI) method and full-densification of SiC matrix was examined with NITE methods using four kinds of processing options. Applied pressure was useful for nearly-full matrix densification due to the promoting infiltration driving force of SiC nano-powder intra-fiber-tows, but simultaneously caused the sever degradation of fibers and interphase with fracture, resulting in lower strength. Increase of additives amount and additional polymer were effective ways for matrix densification by SiC nano-power infiltration intra-fiber bundles without pressure. Thermal conductivity was greatly improved with the decrease of matrix porosity. The tailoring of thermo-mechanical properties might be easily controlled by the SiC matrix porosity without processinduced fibers and interphases degradations.

  5. Charting thermal emission variability at Pele, Janus Patera and Kanehekili Fluctus with the Galileo NIMS Io Thermal Emission Database (NITED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard; Veeder, Glenn J.; Matson, Dennis L.; Johnson, Torrence V.

    2012-09-01

    Using the NIMS Io Thermal Emission Database (NITED), a collection of over 1000 measurements of radiant flux from Io’s volcanoes (Davies, A.G. et al. [2012]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L01201. doi:10.1029/2011GL049999), we have examined the variability of thermal emission from three of Io’s volcanoes: Pele, Janus Patera and Kanehekili Fluctus. At Pele, the 5-μm thermal emission as derived from 28 night time observations is remarkably steady at 37 ± 10 GW μm-1, re-affirming previous analyses that suggested that Pele an active, rapidly overturning silicate lava lake. Janus Patera also exhibits relatively steady 5-μm thermal emission (≈20 ± 3 GW μm-1) in the four observations where Janus is resolved from nearby Kanehekili Fluctus. Janus Patera might contain a Pele-like lava lake with an effusion rate (QF) of ≈40-70 m3 s-1. It should be a prime target for a future mission to Io in order to obtain data to determine lava eruption temperature. Kanehekili Fluctus has a thermal emission spectrum that is indicative of the emplacement of lava flows with insulated crusts. Effusion rate at Kanehekili Fluctus dropped by an order of magnitude from ≈95 m3 s-1 in mid-1997 to ≈4 m3 s-1 in late 2001.

  6. Primary Ferric Iron-Bearing Rhönite in Plutonic Igneous Angrite NWA 4590: Implications for Redox Conditions on the Angrite Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehner, S. M.; Irving, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Northwest Africa 4590 is a heterogeneous olivine gabbro with cumulate texture composed of Al-Ti-rich clinopyroxene, pure anorthite, Ca-rich olivine, kirschsteinite and ulvöspinel, with accessory troilite, merrillite, Ca silicophosphate, kamacite and glasses [1]. Rhönite now has been identified in this specimen (for the first time in any angrite) as (1) a large (0.65 mm long), blocky, anhedral grain adjacent to anorthite, kirschsteinite and troilite, (2) ca. 15 micron grains along grain boundaries of the major phases (in one case in contact with clinopyroxene and metal), and (3) ca. 30 micron grains within melt inclusions and veins composed of kirschsteinite, olivine, anorthite, troilite, hercynite and glass. The rhönite is nearly opaque in transmitted light, with a deep cinnamon-red color on thin grain edges. The average composition of the largest grain is (in wt.%): SiO2 23.6, TiO2 9.9, Al2O3 16.3, Cr2O3 0.1, FeOt 33.6, MnO 0.14, MgO 3.5, CaO 13.1. Stoichiometry (14 cations, 20 oxygen atoms) requires about 12% of the total iron to be in the ferric state, resulting in the nominal formula: (Ca2.01Mn0.02)(Fe2+3.55Fe3+0.45Mg0.75Al0.12Cr0.15)Ti0.9 5(Si3.37Al2.63)O20 In the co-existing ulvöspinel about 18% of the iron must be ferric to achieve charge balance; likewise, Fe-Ti spinel coexisting with metal in Angra dos Reis contains ferric iron [2]. In contrast, the spinel (Cr-pleonaste) in metal-rich angrite NWA 2999 is stoichiometric without any apparent ferric iron. The coexistence of ferric iron- bearing silicate and oxide phases with Fe metal implies that the oxygen fugacity during crystallization of NWA 4590 was somewhat more oxidizing than that of the IW buffer. Compositions of primary (pre-exsolution) olivine and kirschsteinite in NWA 4590 record a minimum magmatic temperature of 910-950°C, based on the solvus of [3]. Previous experimental studies [4] also imply that other metal-bearing plutonic (AdoR, LEW 86010) and quench-textured (LEW 87051) angrites

  7. Présentations de l'adénite tuberculeuse de la tête et du cou au CHU de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Béogo, Rasmané; Birba, Noraogo Emile; Coulibaly, Toua Antoine; Traoré, Ibraïma; Ouoba, Kampadilemba

    2013-01-01

    Les ganglions de la tête et du cou sont parmi les localisations les plus fréquentes de la tuberculose, un problème de santé publique dans le monde. Une étude rétrospective conduite entre 2001 et 2010 rapporte les caractéristiques épidémiologiques et cliniques de l'adénite tuberculeuse de la tête et du cou, au CHU Sanou Souro, au Burkina Faso. Au total, 115 patients ont été observés dont l'âge était compris entre 2 ans et 64 ans (moyenne 31,46 ans). Il y avait 53 patients de sexe masculin (46,1%) et 62 de sexe féminin (53,9%). Un pic de fréquence de 39,8% était observé entre 30 et 39 ans. Les adénopathies cervicales étaient multiples chez 96,5% des patients et abcédées chez 30%. Elles étaient associées à des adénopathies extra cervicales chez 16,6% des patients. Chez 83,4% des patients, il a été noté un ou plusieurs signes à type d'asthénie et ou d'amaigrissement (70,8%), de fièvre 25% ou de toux (20,8%). L'infection associée la plus fréquente était celle par le VIH, observée chez 43,3% des patients. Les résultats de cette étude commandent la recherche systématique de l'infection par le VIH chez tout patient porteur d'adénite cervicale tuberculeuse dans un contexte de double endémicité de la tuberculose et de l'infection à VIH. PMID:24319521

  8. Design Documentation for JaWE2Openflow Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, N; Barter, R H

    2004-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has chosen CIGNEX Technologies, Inc. (CIGNEX) to design and develop the JaWE2Openflow conversion software. This document was created by CIGNEX as a project deliverable.

  9. RuBPCase activase mediates growth-defense tradeoffs: Silencing RCA redirects JA flux from JA-Ile to MeJA to attenuate induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sirsha; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary RuBPCase activase (RCA), an abundant photosynthetic protein is strongly down-regulated in response to Manduca sexta’s oral secretion (OS) in Nicotiana attenuata. RCA-silenced plants are impaired not only in photosynthetic capacity and growth, but also in jasmonic acid (JA)-isoleucine (Ile) signaling, and herbivore resistance mediated by JA-Ile dependent defense traits. These responses are consistent with a resource-based growth-defense trade-off. Since JA+Ile-supplementation of OS restored WT levels of JA-Ile, defenses and resistance to M. sexta, but OS supplemented individually with JA- or Ile did not, the JA-Ile deficiency of RCA-silenced plants could not be attributed to lower JA or Ile pools or JAR4/6 conjugating activity. Similar levels of JA-Ile derivatives after OS elicitation indicated unaltered JA-Ile turnover and lower levels of other JA-conjugates ruled out competition from other conjugation reactions. RCA-silenced plants accumulated more methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after OS elicitation, which corresponded with increased jasmonate methyltransferase (JMT) activity. RCA-silencing phenocopies JMT over-expression, wherein elevated JMT activity redirects OS-elicited JA flux towards inactive MeJA, creating a JA sink which depletes JA-Ile and its associated defense responses. Hence RCA plays an additional non-photosynthetic role in attenuating JA-mediated defenses and their associated costs potentially allowing plants to anticipate resource-based constraints on growth before they actually occur. PMID:24491116

  10. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its ro...

  11. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-03-20

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses.

  12. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  13. Maize MeJA-responsive proteins identified by high-resolution 2-DE PAGE.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuliang; Pennerman, Kayla K; Yang, Fengshan; Yin, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is well-known to induce plant defense mechanisms effective against a wide variety of insect and microbial pests. High-resolution 2-DE gel electrophoresis was used to discover changes in the leaf proteome of maize exposed to MeJA. We sequenced 62 MeJA-responsive proteins by tandem mass spectroscopy, and deposited the mass spectra and identities in the EMBL-EBI PRIDE repository under reference number PXD001793. An analysis and discussion of the identified proteins in relation to maize defense against Asian corn borer is published by Zhang et al. (2015) [1]. PMID:26509185

  14. Continuous Dust Formation in SNe 2010jl and 2011ja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafton, Kelsie; Clayton, Geoffrey; Andrews, Jennifer; Barlow, Michael; De Looze, Ilse

    2016-08-01

    Studies in the last 10 years of dust formation in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) have found only small amounts, ~0.001 solar masses. This is far less than the amount needed to account for the large masses of dust seen in some high redshift galaxies. However, the recent discovery of ~1 solar mass of cold dust in the ejecta of SN 1987A has has caused a complete re-evaluation of dust formation in CCSNe. It has been suggested that the CCSNe are continuously forming dust so that by the time they are about 25 years old they will have dust masses similar to SN 1987A. However, there is a wide time gap between the CCSNe that have been studied recently and SN 1987A. We plan to use the sensitivity of Spitzer to detect dust emission from CCSNe 5 or more years after explosion. Radiative transfer models will be used to estimate the dust masses. This proposal is to continue our study of two interesting SNe 2010jl and 2011ja. These observations are part of a long term study requiring multiple epochs of Spitzer observations to look for evidence of continuous dust formation. These observations will help shed light on the mystery of dust in SN 1987A.

  15. Another JA/COI1-independent role of OPDA detected in tomato embryo development.

    PubMed

    Wasternack, Claus; Goetz, Stephan; Hellwege, Anja; Forner, Susanne; Strnad, Miroslav; Hause, Bettina

    2012-10-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are ubiquitously occurring signaling compounds in plants formed in response to biotic and abiotic stress as well as in development. (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl isoleucine, the bioactive JA, is involved in most JA-dependent processes mediated by the F-box protein COI1 in a proteasome-dependent manner. However, there is an increasing number of examples, where the precursor of JA biosynthesis, cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) is active in a JA/COI1-independent manner. Here, we discuss those OPDA-dependent processes, thereby giving emphasis on tomato embryo development. Recent data on seed coat-generated OPDA and its role in embryo development is discussed based on biochemical and genetic evidences. PMID:22895103

  16. Update from the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM).

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) was established in 2005 to promote the use of alternatives to animal testing in regulatory studies, thereby replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, according to the Three Rs principles. JaCVAM assesses the utility, limitations and suitability for use in regulatory studies, of test methods needed to determine the safety of chemicals and other materials. JaCVAM also organises and performs validation studies of new test methods, when necessary. In addition, JaCVAM co-operates and collaborates with similar organisations in related fields, both in Japan and internationally, which also enables JaCVAM to provide input during the establishment of guidelines for new alternative experimental methods. These activities help facilitate application and approval processes for the manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, pesticides, and other products, as well as for revisions to standards for cosmetic products. In this manner, JaCVAM plays a leadership role in the introduction of new alternative experimental methods for regulatory acceptance in Japan. PMID:24512226

  17. Influence factors and gene expression patterns during MeJa-induced gummosis in peach.

    PubMed

    Li, Minji; Liu, Meiyan; Peng, Futian; Fang, Long

    2015-06-15

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in gummosis in peach. Mechanical damage, methyl jasmonate (MeJa), and ethylene can induce gummosis on peach shoots in the field. In this study, we used MeJa (2%, w/w) to induce gummosis on current-year shoots in peach on high temperature (35°C). Based on the experimental model, we studied the influence of factors on the development of peach gummosis. Our experimental results showed that high temperature could promote gummosis development induced by MeJa. Exogenous CaCl2 treatment reduced the degree of gummosis by increasing the calcium content in shoots, which is conducive to the synthesis and maintenance of the cell wall. Using digital gene expression (DGE), 3831 differentially expressed genes were identified in the MeJa treatment versus the control. By analyzing changes in gene expression associated with cell wall degradation, genes encoding pectin methylesterase (PME) and endo-polygalacturonase (PG) were found to be significantly induced, suggesting that they are key enzymes in cell wall degradation that occurs during MeJa-induced gummosis. Genes for glycosyltransferase (GT) and cellulose synthase (CS) were also significantly upregulated by MeJa. This result suggests that MeJa treatment not only promotes the degradation of polysaccharides to destroy the cell wall, but also promotes the synthesis of new polysaccharides. We also analyzed changes in gene expression associated with sugar metabolism, senescence, and defense. MeJa treatment affected the expression of genes related to sugar metabolism and promoted plant senescence. Among the defense genes, the expression pattern of phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL) suggested that PAL may play an important role in protecting against the effects of MeJa treatment. Our experimental results showed that MeJa treatment can promote the biosynthesis and signal transduction of ethylene in peach shoots; they can induce gummosis on peach shoots respectively, and there are overlaps between

  18. A balanced JA/ABA status may correlate with adaptation to osmotic stress in Vitis cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed; Seo, Mitsunori; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Water-related stress is considered a major type of plant stress. Osmotic stress, in particular, represents the common part of all water-related stresses. Therefore, plants have evolved different adaptive mechanisms to cope with osmotic-related disturbances. In the current work, two grapevine cell lines that differ in their osmotic adaptability, Vitis rupestris and Vitis riparia, were investigated under mannitol-induced osmotic stress. To dissect signals that lead to adaptability from those related to sensitivity, osmotic-triggered responses with respect to jasmonic acid (JA) and its active form JA-Ile, abscisic acid (ABA), and stilbene compounds, as well as the expression of their related genes were observed. In addition, the transcript levels of the cellular homeostasis gene NHX1 were examined. The data are discussed with a hypothesis suggesting that a balance of JA and ABA status might correlate with cellular responses, either guiding cells to sensitivity or to progress toward adaptation. PMID:26277753

  19. Dermal sensitization potential of ja-2 solid propellant in guinea pigs. Report for 4 April-9 May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.M.; Brown, L.D.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-11-01

    JA-2 Solid Propellant was evaluated for its potential to produce dermal sensitization in male guinea pigs. The Buehler test, which utilizes repeated closed patch inductions with the test compound, was used for this evaluation. No evidence that JA-2 Solid Propellant induced sensitization was obtained in the study.

  20. Integrated metabolomic and proteomic analysis reveals systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Prasuna, M Lakshmi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch Venkata

    2015-02-01

    Aromatic amines are widely distributed in the environment and are major environmental pollutants. Although degradation of aromatic amines is well studied in bacteria, physiological adaptations and stress response to these toxic compounds is not yet fully understood. In the present study, systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress were deciphered using metabolite and iTRAQ-labeled protein profiling. Strain JA2 tolerated high concentrations of aniline (30 mM) with trace amounts of aniline being transformed to acetanilide. GC-MS metabolite profiling revealed aniline stress phenotype wherein amino acid, carbohydrate, fatty acid, nitrogen metabolisms, and TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) were modulated. Strain JA2 responded to aniline by remodeling the proteome, and cellular functions, such as signaling, transcription, translation, stress tolerance, transport and carbohydrate metabolism, were highly modulated. Key adaptive responses, such as transcription/translational changes, molecular chaperones to control protein folding, and efflux pumps implicated in solvent extrusion, were induced in response to aniline stress. Proteo-metabolomics indicated extensive rewiring of metabolism to aniline. TCA cycle and amino acid catabolism were down-regulated while gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated, leading to the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, increased saturated fatty acid ratios in membranes due to aniline stress suggest membrane adaptation. The present study thus indicates that strain JA2 employs multilayered responses: stress response, toxic compound tolerance, energy conservation, and metabolic rearrangements to aniline.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:26484871

  2. Integrated metabolomic and proteomic analysis reveals systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Prasuna, M Lakshmi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch Venkata

    2015-02-01

    Aromatic amines are widely distributed in the environment and are major environmental pollutants. Although degradation of aromatic amines is well studied in bacteria, physiological adaptations and stress response to these toxic compounds is not yet fully understood. In the present study, systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress were deciphered using metabolite and iTRAQ-labeled protein profiling. Strain JA2 tolerated high concentrations of aniline (30 mM) with trace amounts of aniline being transformed to acetanilide. GC-MS metabolite profiling revealed aniline stress phenotype wherein amino acid, carbohydrate, fatty acid, nitrogen metabolisms, and TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) were modulated. Strain JA2 responded to aniline by remodeling the proteome, and cellular functions, such as signaling, transcription, translation, stress tolerance, transport and carbohydrate metabolism, were highly modulated. Key adaptive responses, such as transcription/translational changes, molecular chaperones to control protein folding, and efflux pumps implicated in solvent extrusion, were induced in response to aniline stress. Proteo-metabolomics indicated extensive rewiring of metabolism to aniline. TCA cycle and amino acid catabolism were down-regulated while gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated, leading to the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, increased saturated fatty acid ratios in membranes due to aniline stress suggest membrane adaptation. The present study thus indicates that strain JA2 employs multilayered responses: stress response, toxic compound tolerance, energy conservation, and metabolic rearrangements to aniline. PMID:25388363

  3. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  4. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  5. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  6. New enhanced artificial bee colony (JA-ABC5) algorithm with application for reactive power optimization.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Noorazliza; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita; Abro, Abdul Ghani

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement.

  7. Physiological impacts of ABA-JA interactions under water-limitation.

    PubMed

    de Ollas, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Plant responses to drought stress depend on highly regulated signal transduction pathways with multiple interactions. This complex crosstalk can lead to a physiological outcome of drought avoidance or tolerance/resistance. ABA is the principal mediator of these responses due to the regulation of stomatal closure that determines plant growth and survival, but also other strategies of drought resistance such as osmotic adjustment. However, other hormones such as JA seem responsible for regulating a subset of plant responses to drought by regulating ABA biosynthesis and accumulation and ABA-dependent signalling, but also by ABA independent pathways. Here, we review recent reports of ABA-JA hormonal and molecular interactions within a physiological framework of drought tolerance. Understanding the physiological significance of this complex regulation offers opportunities to find strategies of drought tolerance that avoid unwanted side effects that limit growth and yield, and may allow biotechnological crop improvement. PMID:27299601

  8. A self-adaptive genetic algorithm to estimate JA model parameters considering minor loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai-liang; Wen, Xi-shan; Lan, Lei; An, Yun-zhu; Li, Xiao-ping

    2015-01-01

    A self-adaptive genetic algorithm for estimating Jiles-Atherton (JA) magnetic hysteresis model parameters is presented. The fitness function is established based on the distances between equidistant key points of normalized hysteresis loops. Linearity function and logarithm function are both adopted to code the five parameters of JA model. Roulette wheel selection is used and the selection pressure is adjusted adaptively by deducting a proportional which depends on current generation common value. The Crossover operator is established by combining arithmetic crossover and multipoint crossover. Nonuniform mutation is improved by adjusting the mutation ratio adaptively. The algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of one kind of silicon-steel sheet's hysteresis loops, and the results are in good agreement with published data.

  9. Physiological impacts of ABA-JA interactions under water-limitation.

    PubMed

    de Ollas, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Plant responses to drought stress depend on highly regulated signal transduction pathways with multiple interactions. This complex crosstalk can lead to a physiological outcome of drought avoidance or tolerance/resistance. ABA is the principal mediator of these responses due to the regulation of stomatal closure that determines plant growth and survival, but also other strategies of drought resistance such as osmotic adjustment. However, other hormones such as JA seem responsible for regulating a subset of plant responses to drought by regulating ABA biosynthesis and accumulation and ABA-dependent signalling, but also by ABA independent pathways. Here, we review recent reports of ABA-JA hormonal and molecular interactions within a physiological framework of drought tolerance. Understanding the physiological significance of this complex regulation offers opportunities to find strategies of drought tolerance that avoid unwanted side effects that limit growth and yield, and may allow biotechnological crop improvement.

  10. New Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (JA-ABC5) Algorithm with Application for Reactive Power Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement. PMID:25879054

  11. Aniline is an inducer, and not a precursor, for indole derivatives in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Mohammed; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-01-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 and other anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria produce indole derivatives when exposed to aniline, a xenobiotic compound. Though this phenomenon has been reported previously, the role of aniline in the production of indoles is still a biochemical riddle. The present study aims at understanding the specific role of aniline (as precursor or stimulator) in the production of indoles and elucidating the biochemical pathway of indoles in aniline-exposed cells by using stable isotope approaches. Metabolic profiling revealed tryptophan accumulation only in aniline exposed cells along with indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-aldehyde (IAld), the two major catabolites of tryptophan. Deuterium labelled aniline feeding studies revealed that aniline is not a precursor of indoles in strain JA2. Further, production of indoles only in aniline-exposed cells suggests that aniline is an indoles stimulator. In addition, production of indoles depended on the presence of a carbon source, and production enhanced when carbon sources were added to the culture. Isotope labelled fumarate feeding identified, fumarate as the precursor of indole, indicating de novo synthesis of indoles. Glyphosate (shikimate pathway inhibitor) inhibited the indoles production, accumulation of tryptophan, IAA and IAld indicating that indoles synthesis in strain JA2 occurs via the de novo shikimate pathway. The up-regulation of anthranilate synthase gene and induction of anthranilate synthase activity correlated well with tryptophan production in strain JA2. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activities corroborated well with IAA levels, suggesting that tryptophan catabolism occurs simultaneously in aniline exposed cells. Our study demonstrates that aniline (stress) stimulates tryptophan/indoles synthesis via the shikimate pathway by possibly modulating the metabolic pathway.

  12. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  13. Priming for JA-dependent defenses using hexanoic acid is an effective mechanism to protect Arabidopsis against B. cinerea.

    PubMed

    Kravchuk, Zhana; Vicedo, Begonya; Flors, Víctor; Camañes, Gemma; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2011-03-01

    Soil drench treatments with hexanoic acid can effectively protect Arabidopsis plants against Botrytis cinerea through a mechanism based on a stronger and faster accumulation of JA-dependent defenses. Plants impaired in ethylene, salicylic acid, abscisic acid or glutathion pathways showed intact protection by hexanoic acid upon B. cinerea infection. Accordingly, no significant changes in the SA marker gene PR-1 in either the SA or ABA hormone balance were observed in the infected and treated plants. In contrast, the JA signaling pathway showed dramatic changes after hexanoic acid treatment, mainly when the pathogen was present. The impaired JA mutants, jin1-2 and jar1, were unable to display hexanoic acid priming against the necrotroph. In addition, hexanoic acid-treated plants infected with B. cinerea showed priming in the expression of the PDF1.2, PR-4 and VSP1 genes implicated in the JA pathways. Moreover, JA and OPDA levels were primed at early stages by hexanoic acid. Treatments also stimulated increased callose accumulation in response to the pathogen. Although callose accumulation has proved an effective IR mechanism against B. cinerea, it is apparently not essential to express hexanoic acid-induced resistance (HxAc-IR) because the mutant pmr4.1 (callose synthesis defective mutant) is protected by treatment. We recently described how hexanoic acid treatments can protect tomato plants against B. cinerea by stimulating ABA-dependent callose deposition and by priming OPDA and JA-Ile production. We clearly demonstrate here that Hx-IR is a dependent plant species, since this acid protects Arabidopsis plants against the same necrotroph by priming JA-dependent defenses without enhancing callose accumulation.

  14. Elevated CO2 influences nematode-induced defense responses of tomato genotypes differing in the JA pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yucheng; Yin, Jin; Cao, Haifeng; Li, Chuanyou; Kang, Le; Ge, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO(2) concentrations can affect the induced defense of plants against chewing herbivores but little is known about whether elevated CO(2) can change the induced defense of plants against parasitic nematodes. This study examined the interactions between the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and three isogenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) genotypes grown under ambient (390 ppm) and elevated (750 ppm) CO(2) in growth chambers. In a previous study with open-top chambers in the field, we reported that elevated CO(2) increased the number of nematode-induced root galls in a JA-defense-dominated genotype but not in a wild-type or JA-defense-recessive genotype. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that elevated CO(2) will favor the salicylic acid (SA)-pathway defense but repress the jasmonic acid (JA)-pathway defense of plants against plant-parasitic nematodes. Our data showed that elevated CO(2) reduced the JA-pathway defense against M. incognita in the wild-type and in a genotype in which defense is dominated by the JA pathway (a JA-defense-dominated genotype) but up-regulated the SA-pathway defense in the wild type and in a JA-defense-recessive genotype (jasmonate-deficient mutant). Our results suggest that, in terms of defense genes, secondary metabolites, and volatile organic compounds, induced defense of nematode-infected plants could be affected by elevated CO(2), and that CO(2)-induced changes of plant resistance may lead to genotype-specific responses of plants to nematodes under elevated CO(2). The changes in resistance against nematodes, however, were small relative to those reported for chewing insects. PMID:21629688

  15. Elevated CO2 Influences Nematode-Induced Defense Responses of Tomato Genotypes Differing in the JA Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yucheng; Yin, Jin; Cao, Haifeng; Li, Chuanyou; Kang, Le; Ge, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations can affect the induced defense of plants against chewing herbivores but little is known about whether elevated CO2 can change the induced defense of plants against parasitic nematodes. This study examined the interactions between the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and three isogenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) genotypes grown under ambient (390 ppm) and elevated (750 ppm) CO2 in growth chambers. In a previous study with open-top chambers in the field, we reported that elevated CO2 increased the number of nematode-induced root galls in a JA-defense-dominated genotype but not in a wild-type or JA-defense-recessive genotype. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 will favor the salicylic acid (SA)-pathway defense but repress the jasmonic acid (JA)-pathway defense of plants against plant-parasitic nematodes. Our data showed that elevated CO2 reduced the JA-pathway defense against M. incognita in the wild-type and in a genotype in which defense is dominated by the JA pathway (a JA-defense-dominated genotype) but up-regulated the SA-pathway defense in the wild type and in a JA-defense-recessive genotype (jasmonate-deficient mutant). Our results suggest that, in terms of defense genes, secondary metabolites, and volatile organic compounds, induced defense of nematode-infected plants could be affected by elevated CO2, and that CO2-induced changes of plant resistance may lead to genotype-specific responses of plants to nematodes under elevated CO2. The changes in resistance against nematodes, however, were small relative to those reported for chewing insects. PMID:21629688

  16. Rice Rab11 is required for JA-mediated defense signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Min Ji; Lee, Yun mi; Son, Young Sim; Im, Chak Han; Yi, Young Byung; Rim, Yeong Gil; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Heo, Jae Bok

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •OsRab11 interacts with OsOPR8. •OsOPR8 is localized in the cytosol and peroxisome. •OsRab11 enhances the NADPH consumption by OsOPR8. •Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OsRab11 represents a pathogen-resistant phenotype. -- Abstract: Rab proteins play an essential role in regulating vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Previously, we characterized OsRab11, which in concert with OsGAP1 and OsGDI3 regulates vesicular trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane or vacuole. To further elucidate the physiological function of OsRab11 in plants, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using OsRab11 as bait. OsOPR8 was isolated and shown to interact with OsRab11. A co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed this interaction. The green fluorescent protein-OsOPR8 fusion product was targeted to the cytoplasm and peroxisomes of protoplasts from Arabidopsis thaliana. OsOPR8 exhibited NADPH-dependent reduction activity when 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CyHE) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) were supplied as possible substrates. Interestingly, NADPH oxidation by OsOPR8 was increased when wild-type OsRab11 or the constitutively active form of OsRab11 (Q78L) were included in the reaction mix, but not when the dominant negative form of OsRab11 (S28N) was included. OsRab11 was expressed broadly in plants and both OsRab11 and OsOPR8 were induced by jasmonic acid (JA) and elicitor treatments. Overexpressed OsRab11 transgenic plants showed resistance to pathogens through induced expression of JA-responsive genes. In conclusion, OsRab11 may be required for JA-mediated defense signaling by activating the reducing activity of OsOPR8.

  17. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress.

  18. Novel JAZ co-operativity and unexpected JA dynamics underpin Arabidopsis defence responses to Pseudomonas syringae infection.

    PubMed

    de Torres Zabala, Marta; Zhai, Bing; Jayaraman, Siddharth; Eleftheriadou, Garoufalia; Winsbury, Rebecca; Yang, Ron; Truman, William; Tang, Saijung; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Grant, Murray

    2016-02-01

    Pathogens target phytohormone signalling pathways to promote disease. Plants deploy salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defences against biotrophs. Pathogens antagonize SA immunity by activating jasmonate signalling, for example Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 produces coronatine (COR), a jasmonic acid (JA) mimic. This study found unexpected dynamics between SA, JA and COR and co-operation between JAZ jasmonate repressor proteins during DC3000 infection. We used a systems-based approach involving targeted hormone profiling, high-temporal-resolution micro-array analysis, reverse genetics and mRNA-seq. Unexpectedly, foliar JA did not accumulate until late in the infection process and was higher in leaves challenged with COR-deficient P. syringae or in the more resistant JA receptor mutant coi1. JAZ regulation was complex and COR alone was insufficient to sustainably induce JAZs. JAZs contribute to early basal and subsequent secondary plant defence responses. We showed that JAZ5 and JAZ10 specifically co-operate to restrict COR cytotoxicity and pathogen growth through a complex transcriptional reprogramming that does not involve the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MYC2 and related MYC3 and MYC4 previously shown to restrict pathogen growth. mRNA-seq predicts compromised SA signalling in a jaz5/10 mutant and rapid suppression of JA-related components on bacterial infection. PMID:26428397

  19. L-Tryptophan catabolism by Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 occurs through indole 3-pyruvic acid pathway.

    PubMed

    Kumavath, Ranjith N; Ramana, Ch V; Sasikala, Ch

    2010-09-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 utilizes L: -tryptophan as the sole source of nitrogen for growth, and it has a doubling time of approximately 11 h (compared to 8 h with ammonium chloride). With cell free extracts in the presence of 2-oxoglutarate, indole-3-pyruvic acid, indole-3-acetaldehyde, indole-3-acetic acid, isatin, benzaldehyde, gallic acid and pyrogallol were identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) analysis. The conversion of L: -tryptophan into indole 3-pyruvic acid and glutamate by an enzyme aminotransferase was confirmed and the catabolism of indole-3-pyruvic acid via side chain oxidation followed by ring oxidation, gallic acid and pyrogallol were confirmed as metabolites. In addition, the proposed pathway sequential conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid to the end product of pyrogallol was identified, including an enzymatic step that would convert isatin to benzaldehyde by an enzyme yet to be identified. At this stage of the study, the enzyme tryptophan aminotransferase in R. benzoatilyticus JA2 was demonstrated.

  20. Early dust formation and a massive progenitor for SN 2011ja?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. E.; Krafton, Kelsie M.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Montiel, E.; Wesson, R.; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M.; Drass, H.

    2016-04-01

    SN 2011ja was a bright (I = -18.3) Type II supernova occurring in the nearby edge on spiral galaxy NGC 4945. Flat-topped and multipeaked H α and H β spectral emission lines appear between 64 and 84 d post-explosion, indicating interaction with a disc-like circumstellar medium inclined ˜45° from edge-on. After day 84, an increase in the H- and K-band flux along with heavy attenuation of the red wing of the emission lines are strong indications of early dust formation, likely located in the cool dense shell created between the forward shock of the SN ejecta and the reverse shock created as the ejecta plows into the existing circumstellar material. Radiative transfer modelling reveals both ≈1 × 10-5 M⊙ of pre-existing dust located ˜1016.7 cm away and up to ≈6 × 10-4 M⊙ of newly formed dust. Spectral observations after 1.5 yr reveal the possibility that the fading SN is located within a young (3-6 Myr) massive stellar cluster, which when combined with tentative 56Ni mass estimates of 0.2 M⊙ may indicate a massive (≥25 M⊙) progenitor for SN 2011ja.

  1. Draft genome sequence of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643T with special reference to hopanoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tushar, L; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-12-01

    Hopanoids are present in vast amounts as integral components of bacteria and plants with their primary function to strengthen rigidity of the plasma membrane. To establish their roles more precisely, we conducted sequencing of the whole genome of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643(T) isolated from a fresh water stream of Udaipur in Himachal Pradesh, India, by using the Illumina HiSeq pair end chemistry of 2 × 100 bp platform. Determined genome showed a high degree of similarity to the genome of R. vannielii ATCC17100(T) and the 13.7 million reads generated a sequence of 3,649,277 bp possessing 3,611 putative genes. The genomic data were subsequently investigated with respect to genes involved in various features. The machinery required for the degradation of aromatic compounds and resistance to solvents as well as all that required for photosynthesis are present in this organism. Also, through extensive functional annotation, 18 genes involved in the biosynthesis of hopanoids are predicted, namely those responsible for the synthesis of diploptene, diplopterol, adenosylhopane, ribosylhopane, aminobacteriohopanetriol, glycosyl group containing hopanoids and unsaturated hopanoids. The hopanoid biosynthetic pathway was then inferred based on the genes identified and through experimental validation of individual hopanoid molecules. The genome data of R. udaipurense JA643(T) will be useful in understanding the functional features of hopanoids in this bacterium.

  2. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility and maintenance in JA-CMS cotton.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Han, Jinfeng; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE) genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS) and microsporocyte stage (MS) (the two most important stages for pollen abortion in JA-CMS) between JA-CMS and its fertile maintainer line JB cotton plants, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 709 (1.8%) DE genes including 293 up-regulated and 416 down-regulated genes were identified in JA-CMS line comparing with its maintainer line at the SS stage, and 644 (1.6%) DE genes with 263 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes were detected at the MS stage. By comparing the two stages in the same material, there were 8 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JA-CMS line and 29 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JB maintainer line at the MS stage. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate 7 randomly selected DE genes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes involved in reduction-oxidation reactions and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism were down-regulated, while genes pertaining to photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated in JA-CMS floral buds compared with their JB counterparts at the SS and/or MS stages. All these four biological processes play important roles in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, which may be an important factor contributing to the sterile trait of JA-CMS. Further experiments are warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms of these genes that lead to CMS.

  3. Banana fruit VQ motif-containing protein5 represses cold-responsive transcription factor MaWRKY26 involved in the regulation of JA biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Han, Yan-Chao; Shan, Wei; Fan, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Qun-Gang; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Most harvested fruits and vegetables are stored at low temperature but many of them are highly sensitive to chilling injury. Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone associated with various stress responses, is known to reduce chilling injury in fruits. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in relation to cold response of fruits. Here, we show the involvement of a Group I WRKY transcription factor (TF) from banana fruit, MaWRKY26, in regulating JA biosynthesis. MaWRKY26 was found to be nuclear-localized with transcriptional activation property. MaWRKY26 was induced by cold stress or by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which enhances cold tolerance in banana fruit. More importantly, MaWRKY26 transactivated JA biosynthetic genes MaLOX2, MaAOS3 and MaOPR3 via binding to their promoters. Further, MaWRKY26 physically interacted with a VQ motif-containing protein MaVQ5, and the interaction attenuated MaWRKY26-induced transactivation of JA biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that MaVQ5 might act as a repressor of MaWRKY26 in activating JA biosynthesis. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in response to cold stress and a better understanding of the molecular aspects of chilling injury in banana fruit. PMID:27004441

  4. HiJaK: the high-resolution J, H and K spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, Philip S.; Hall, Zachary J.; Veyette, Mark J.

    2014-08-01

    We present the science drivers, design requirements and a preliminary design for a high-resolution, broad- bandwidth, slit-fed cross-dispersed near-infrared spectrometer for 5-meter-class telescopes. Our concept, called the High-Resolution J, H and K Spectrometer, or HiJaK, utilizes an R6 echelle in a white-pupil design to achieve high resolution in a compact configuration with a 2048 x 2048 pixel infrared detector. We present a preliminary ray-traced optical design matched to the new 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope in Happy Jack, Arizona. We also discuss mechanical and cryogenic options to house our optical design.

  5. Materials Data on NiTe (SG:166) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Materials Data on NiTe (SG:194) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-05

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Charting thermal emission variability at Amirani with the Galileo NIMS Io Thermal Emission Database (NITED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. G.; Veeder, G. J.; Hill, S. I.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.

    2014-10-01

    We have examined the variability of thermal emission from lava flows at Amirani on Io, using measurements of radiant flux from detections by the Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) between 1996 and 2001. Amirani is the longest currently active lava flow field in the Solar System and a persistent thermal source in every Galileo NIMS observation that covers its location. We have quantified the thermal emission from hot spots correlated with discrete areas of new lava flow emplacement at points along the length of the Amirani flow field in high spatial resolution NIMS observations in 2000 and 2001. Where discernible, the position of some effusive activity changes from orbit to orbit. We find the implied style of emplacement of lava at Amirani is consistent with pahoehoe-like flows. There is an estimated 50% decrease in discharge rate between 1997 and late 2001, perhaps linked to an outburst eruption in the Amirani vicinity in February 2001. The variability of thermal emission from Amirani is less than that seen at a number of other persistently active ionian volcanoes (such as Prometheus, Culann, and Loki Patera). All of these volcanoes exhibit large increases and decreases in the absolute magnitude of thermal emission (see Matson et al., 2006 [Loki Patera]; Davies, A.G. et al. [2006]. Icarus 184, 460-477 [Prometheus]; and Davies, A.G., Ennis, M.E. [2011]. Icarus 215, 401-416 [Culann]). At Amirani, as at these volcanoes, the thermal emission measured between 1996 and 2001 indicates a persistent, although variable, supply of magma to the surface. In high spatial resolution NIMS observations of hot spots obtained in 2000 and 2001 we estimate the emitted power from active lava flows associated with Amirani to be ∼170 ± 30 GW, which corresponds to total effusion rates (assuming a basaltic composition) from multiple points along the Amirani flow of 34-56 m3/s.

  8. Materials Data on Sc6NiTe2 (SG:189) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. High-order nite volume WENO schemes for the shallow water equations with dry states

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Yulong; Shu, Chi-wang

    2011-01-01

    The shallow water equations are used to model flows in rivers and coastal areas, and have wide applications in ocean, hydraulic engineering, and atmospheric modeling. These equations have still water steady state solutions in which the flux gradients are balanced by the source term. It is desirable to develop numerical methods which preserve exactly these steady state solutions. Another main difficulty usually arising from the simulation of dam breaks and flood waves flows is the appearance of dry areas where no water is present. If no special attention is paid, standard numerical methods may fail near dry/wet front and produce non-physical negative water height. A high-order accurate finite volume weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme is proposed in this paper to address these difficulties and to provide an efficient and robust method for solving the shallow water equations. A simple, easy-to-implement positivity-preserving limiter is introduced. One- and two-dimensional numerical examples are provided to verify the positivity-preserving property, well-balanced property, high-order accuracy, and good resolution for smooth and discontinuous solutions.

  10. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are new targets of JAZ repressors negatively regulating JA responses.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Sandra; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Fernández, Guillermo M; Díez-Díaz, Monica; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; López-Vidriero, Irene; Godoy, Marta; Fernández-Barbero, Gemma; Van Leene, Jelle; De Jaeger, Geert; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Cell reprogramming in response to jasmonates requires a tight control of transcription that is achieved by the activity of JA-related transcription factors (TFs). Among them, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 have been described as activators of JA responses. Here we characterized the function of bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 that conform a phylogenetic clade closely related to MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4. We found that these bHLHs form homo- and heterodimers and also interact with JAZ repressors in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated processes, including root and rosette growth, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, on mutants and overexpression lines, suggested that these bHLHs are repressors of JA responses. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are mainly nuclear proteins and bind DNA with similar specificity to that of MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4, but lack a conserved activation domain, suggesting that repression is achieved by competition for the same cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, expression of bHLH017 is induced by JA and depends on MYC2, suggesting a negative feed-back regulation of the activity of positive JA-related TFs. Our results suggest that the competition between positive and negative TFs determines the output of JA-dependent transcriptional activation. PMID:24465948

  11. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 Are New Targets of JAZ Repressors Negatively Regulating JA Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Sandra; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Fernández, Guillermo M.; Díez-Díaz, Monica; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; López-Vidriero, Irene; Godoy, Marta; Fernández-Barbero, Gemma; Van Leene, Jelle; De Jaeger, Geert; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Cell reprogramming in response to jasmonates requires a tight control of transcription that is achieved by the activity of JA-related transcription factors (TFs). Among them, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 have been described as activators of JA responses. Here we characterized the function of bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 that conform a phylogenetic clade closely related to MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4. We found that these bHLHs form homo- and heterodimers and also interact with JAZ repressors in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated processes, including root and rosette growth, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, on mutants and overexpression lines, suggested that these bHLHs are repressors of JA responses. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are mainly nuclear proteins and bind DNA with similar specificity to that of MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4, but lack a conserved activation domain, suggesting that repression is achieved by competition for the same cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, expression of bHLH017 is induced by JA and depends on MYC2, suggesting a negative feed-back regulation of the activity of positive JA-related TFs. Our results suggest that the competition between positive and negative TFs determines the output of JA-dependent transcriptional activation. PMID:24465948

  12. JA, a new type of polyunsaturated fatty acid isolated from Juglans mandshurica Maxim, limits the survival and induces apoptosis of heptocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiu-Li; Lin, Hua; Zhao, Wei; Hou, Ya-Qin; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Zhen-Bo; Sun, Lu-Guo; Tian, Shang-Yi; Liu, Biao; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-03-01

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim (Juglandaceae) is a famous folk medicine for cancer treatment and some natural compounds isolated from it have been studied extensively. Previously we isolated a type of ω-9 polyunsaturated fatty acid (JA) from the bark of J. mandshurica, however little is known about its activity and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we studied anti-tumor activity of JA on several human cancer cell lines. Results showed that JA is cytotoxic to HepG2, MDA-MB-231, SGC-7901, A549 and Huh7 cells at a concentration exerting minimal toxic effects on L02 cells. The selective toxicity of JA was better than other classical anti-cancer drugs. Further investigation indicated that JA could induce cell apoptosis, characterized by chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and activation of the apoptosis-associated proteins such as Caspase-3 and PARP-1. Moreover, we investigated the cellular apoptosis pathway involved in the apoptosis process in HepG2 cells. We found that proteins involved in mitochondrion (cleaved-Caspase-9, Apaf-1, HtrA2/Omi, Bax, and Mitochondrial Bax) and endocytoplasmic reticulum (XBP-1s, GRP78, cleaved-Caspase-7 and cleaved-Caspase-12) apoptotic pathways were up-regulated when cells were treated by JA. In addition, a morphological change in the mitochondrion was detected. Furthermore, we found that JA could inhibit DNA synthesis and induce G2/M cell cycle arrest. The expression of G2-to-M transition related proteins, such as CyclinB1 and phosphorylated-CDK1, were reduced. In contrast, the G2-to-M inhibitor p21 was increased in JA-treated cells. Overall, our results suggest that JA can induce mitochondrion- and endocytoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis, and G2/M phase arrest in HepG2 cells, making it a promising therapeutic agent against hepatoma.

  13. Seed germination ecology of feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes].

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha(-1) was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies.

  14. SA-inducible Arabidopsis glutaredoxin interacts with TGA factors and suppresses JA-responsive PDF1.2 transcription.

    PubMed

    Ndamukong, Ivan; Abdallat, Ayed Al; Thurow, Corinna; Fode, Benjamin; Zander, Mark; Weigel, Ralf; Gatz, Christiane

    2007-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant signaling molecule that mediates the induction of defense responses upon attack by a variety of pathogens. Moreover, it antagonizes gene induction by the stress signaling molecule jasmonic acid (JA). Several SA-responsive genes are regulated by basic/leucine zipper-type transcription factors of the TGA family. TGA factors interact with NPR1, a central regulator of many SA-induced defense responses including SA/JA antagonism. In order to identify further regulatory proteins of SA-dependent signaling pathways, a yeast protein interaction screen with tobacco TGA2.2 as bait and an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA prey library was performed and led to the identification of a member of the glutaredoxin family (GRX480, encoded by At1g28480). Glutaredoxins are candidates for mediating redox regulation of proteins because of their capacity to catalyze disulfide transitions. This agrees with previous findings that the redox state of both TGA1 and NPR1 changes under inducing conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing GRX480 show near wild-type expression of standard marker genes for SA- and xenobiotic-inducible responses. In contrast, transcription of the JA-dependent defensin gene PDF1.2 was antagonized by transgenic GRX480. This, together with the observation that GRX480 transcription is SA-inducible and requires NPR1, suggests a role of GRX480 in SA/JA cross-talk. Suppression of PDF1.2 by GRX480 depends on the presence of TGA factors, indicating that the GRX480/TGA interaction is effective in planta.

  15. Elevated CO2 Reduces the Resistance and Tolerance of Tomato Plants to Helicoverpa armigera by Suppressing the JA Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Qin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Kang, Le; Wang, Chenzhu; Li, Chuanyou; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Both resistance and tolerance, which are two strategies that plants use to limit biotic stress, are affected by the abiotic environment including atmospheric CO2 levels. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 would reduce resistance (i.e., the ability to prevent damage) but enhance tolerance (i.e., the ability to regrow and compensate for damage after the damage has occurred) of tomato plants to the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The results showed that elevated CO2 reduced resistance by decreasing the jasmonic acid (JA) level and activities of lipoxygenase, proteinase inhibitors, and polyphenol oxidase in wild-type (WT) plants infested with H. armigera. Consequently, the activities of total protease, trypsin-like enzymes, and weak and active alkaline trypsin-like enzymes increased in the midgut of H. armigera when fed on WT plants grown under elevated CO2. Unexpectedly, the tolerance of the WT to H. armigera (in terms of photosynthetic rate, activity of sucrose phosphate synthases, flower number, and plant biomass and height) was also reduced by elevated CO2. Under ambient CO2, the expression of resistance and tolerance to H. armigera was much greater in wild type than in spr2 (a JA-deficient genotype) plants, but elevated CO2 reduced these differences of the resistance and tolerance between WT and spr2 plants. The results suggest that the JA signaling pathway contributes to both plant resistance and tolerance to herbivorous insects and that by suppressing the JA signaling pathway, elevated CO2 will simultaneously reduce the resistance and tolerance of tomato plants. PMID:22829948

  16. A bHLH-Type Transcription Factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1, Acts as a Repressor to Negatively Regulate Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Herde, Marco; Koo, Abraham J.K.; Moreno, Javier E.; Suzuki, Kaoru; Howe, Gregg A.; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that regulate the balance between plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanisms for JA-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms by which plants attenuate the JA-induced responses remain elusive. Here, we report that a basic helix-loop-helix–type transcription factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), acts as a transcriptional repressor and negatively regulates JA signaling. Gain-of-function transgenic plants expressing the chimeric repressor for JAM1 exhibited substantial reduction of JA responses, including JA-induced inhibition of root growth, accumulation of anthocyanin, and male fertility. These plants were also compromised in resistance to attack by the insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua. Conversely, jam1 loss-of-function mutants showed enhanced JA responsiveness, including increased resistance to insect attack. JAM1 and MYC2 competitively bind to the target sequence of MYC2, which likely provides the mechanism for negative regulation of JA signaling and suppression of MYC2 functions by JAM1. These results indicate that JAM1 negatively regulates JA signaling, thereby playing a pivotal role in fine-tuning of JA-mediated stress responses and plant growth. PMID:23673982

  17. Effector MiSSP7 of the mutualistic fungus Laccaria bicolor stabilizes the Populus JAZ6 protein and represses jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Plett, Jonathan M; Daguerre, Yohann; Wittulsky, Sebastian; Vayssières, Alice; Deveau, Aurelie; Melton, Sarah J; Kohler, Annegret; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Brun, Annick; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Martin, Francis

    2014-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Laccaria bicolor, support forest growth and sustainability by providing growth-limiting nutrients to their plant host through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with host roots. We have previously shown that the effector protein MiSSP7 (Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Protein 7) encoded by L. bicolor is necessary for the establishment of symbiosis with host trees, although the mechanistic reasoning behind this role was unknown. We demonstrate here that MiSSP7 interacts with the host protein PtJAZ6, a negative regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)-induced gene regulation in Populus. As with other characterized JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, PtJAZ6 interacts with PtCOI1 in the presence of the JA mimic coronatine, and PtJAZ6 is degraded in plant tissues after JA treatment. The association between MiSSP7 and PtJAZ6 is able to protect PtJAZ6 from this JA-induced degradation. Furthermore, MiSSP7 is able to block--or mitigate--the impact of JA on L. bicolor colonization of host roots. We show that the loss of MiSSP7 production by L. bicolor can be complemented by transgenically varying the transcription of PtJAZ6 or through inhibition of JA-induced gene regulation. We conclude that L. bicolor, in contrast to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biotrophic pathogens, promotes mutualism by blocking JA action through the interaction of MiSSP7 with PtJAZ6. PMID:24847068

  18. Effector MiSSP7 of the mutualistic fungus Laccaria bicolor stabilizes the Populus JAZ6 protein and represses jasmonic acid (JA) responsive genes

    PubMed Central

    Plett, Jonathan M.; Daguerre, Yohann; Wittulsky, Sebastian; Vayssières, Alice; Deveau, Aurelie; Melton, Sarah J.; Kohler, Annegret; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Brun, Annick; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Martin, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Laccaria bicolor, support forest growth and sustainability by providing growth-limiting nutrients to their plant host through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with host roots. We have previously shown that the effector protein MiSSP7 (Mycorrhiza-induced Small Secreted Protein 7) encoded by L. bicolor is necessary for the establishment of symbiosis with host trees, although the mechanistic reasoning behind this role was unknown. We demonstrate here that MiSSP7 interacts with the host protein PtJAZ6, a negative regulator of jasmonic acid (JA)-induced gene regulation in Populus. As with other characterized JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, PtJAZ6 interacts with PtCOI1 in the presence of the JA mimic coronatine, and PtJAZ6 is degraded in plant tissues after JA treatment. The association between MiSSP7 and PtJAZ6 is able to protect PtJAZ6 from this JA-induced degradation. Furthermore, MiSSP7 is able to block—or mitigate—the impact of JA on L. bicolor colonization of host roots. We show that the loss of MiSSP7 production by L. bicolor can be complemented by transgenically varying the transcription of PtJAZ6 or through inhibition of JA-induced gene regulation. We conclude that L. bicolor, in contrast to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biotrophic pathogens, promotes mutualism by blocking JA action through the interaction of MiSSP7 with PtJAZ6. PMID:24847068

  19. An Arabidopsis Plasma Membrane Proton ATPase Modulates JA Signaling and Is Exploited by the Pseudomonas syringae Effector Protein AvrB for Stomatal Invasion[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhaoyang; Wu, Yujiao; Yang, Yongqing; Du, Minmin; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Guo, Yan; Li, Chuanyou; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2015-01-01

    Stomata are natural openings through which many pathogenic bacteria enter plants. Successful bacterial pathogens have evolved various virulence factors to promote stomatal opening. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector protein AvrB induces stomatal opening and enhances bacterial virulence in a manner dependent on RPM1-INTERACTING4 (RIN4), which promotes stomatal opening by positively regulating the Arabidopsis plasma membrane H+-ATPase (AHA1), which is presumed to directly regulate guard cell turgor pressure. In support of a role of AHA1 in AvrB-induced stomatal opening, AvrB enhances ATPase activity in plants. Unexpectedly, AHA1 promotes the interaction between the jasmonate (JA) receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and enhances JA signaling. JA signaling is required for optimum stomatal infection in AHA1-active plants. Similarly, AvrB also induces the COI1-JAZ9 interaction and the degradation of multiple JAZ proteins. AvrB-induced stomatal opening and virulence require the canonical JA signaling pathway, which involves the COI1 and NAC transcription factors. The findings thus point to a previously unknown pathway exploited by P. syringae that acts upstream of COI1 to regulate JA signaling and stomatal opening. PMID:26198069

  20. A Maize Jasmonate Zim-Domain Protein, ZmJAZ14, Associates with the JA, ABA, and GA Signaling Pathways in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suzhen; Li, Jie; Xu, Miaoyun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhao, Qianqian; Li, Ye; Fan, Yunliu; Chen, Rumei; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) is an important signaling molecule involved in the regulation of many physiological and stress-related processes in plants. Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins have been implicated in regulating JA signaling pathways and the cross talk between various phytohormones. Maize is not only an important cereal crop, but also a model plant for monocotyledon studies. Although many JAZ proteins have been characterized in Arabidopsis and rice, few reports have examined the function of JAZ proteins in maize. In this report, we examined the phylogenetic relationship and expression pattern of JAZ family genes in maize. In addition, a tassel and endosperm-specific JAZ gene, ZmJAZ14, was identified using microarray data analysis and real-time RT-PCR, and its expression was induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), jasmonate (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellins (GAs). ZmJAZ14 was shown to be localized in the nucleus and possessed no transcriptional activating activity, suggesting that it functions as a transcriptional regulator. We found that overexpression of ZmJAZ14 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to JA and ABA treatment, as well as PEG stress, while it promoted growth under GA stimulus. Moreover, ZmJAZ14 interacted with a subset of transcription factors in Arabidopsis, and the accumulation of several marker genes involved in JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways were altered in the overexpression lines. These results suggest that ZmJAZ14 may serve as a hub for the cross talk among the JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways. Our results can be used to further characterize the function of JAZ family proteins in maize, and the gene cloned in this study may serve as a candidate for drought tolerance and growth promotion regulation in maize. PMID:25807368

  1. MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 are involved in the regulation of the JA-induced biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in apples.

    PubMed

    An, Xiu-Hong; Tian, Yi; Chen, Ke-Qin; Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Dan-Dan; Xie, Xing-Bin; Cheng, Cun-Gang; Cong, Pei-Hua; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) are important secondary metabolites and beneficial to human health. Their biosynthesis is induced by jasmonate (JA) treatment and regulated by MYB transcription factors (TFs). However, which and how MYB TFs regulate this process is largely unknown in apple. In this study, MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 which were induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were functionally characterized. Overexpression of MdMYB9 or MdMYB11 promoted not only anthocyanin but also PA accumulation in apple calluses, and the accumulation was further enhanced by MeJA. Subsequently, yeast two-hybrid, pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that both MYB proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Moreover, Jasmonate ZIM-domain (MdJAZ) proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated that both MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 bind to the promoters of ANS, ANR and LAR, whereas MdbHLH3 is recruited to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 and regulates their transcription. In addition, transient expression assays indicated that overexpression of MdJAZ2 inhibits the recruitment of MdbHLH3 to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of how MeJA regulates anthocyanin and PA accumulation in apple. PMID:25527830

  2. MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 are involved in the regulation of the JA-induced biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in apples.

    PubMed

    An, Xiu-Hong; Tian, Yi; Chen, Ke-Qin; Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Dan-Dan; Xie, Xing-Bin; Cheng, Cun-Gang; Cong, Pei-Hua; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) are important secondary metabolites and beneficial to human health. Their biosynthesis is induced by jasmonate (JA) treatment and regulated by MYB transcription factors (TFs). However, which and how MYB TFs regulate this process is largely unknown in apple. In this study, MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 which were induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were functionally characterized. Overexpression of MdMYB9 or MdMYB11 promoted not only anthocyanin but also PA accumulation in apple calluses, and the accumulation was further enhanced by MeJA. Subsequently, yeast two-hybrid, pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that both MYB proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Moreover, Jasmonate ZIM-domain (MdJAZ) proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated that both MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 bind to the promoters of ANS, ANR and LAR, whereas MdbHLH3 is recruited to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 and regulates their transcription. In addition, transient expression assays indicated that overexpression of MdJAZ2 inhibits the recruitment of MdbHLH3 to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of how MeJA regulates anthocyanin and PA accumulation in apple.

  3. An ABA-increased interaction of the PYL6 ABA receptor with MYC2 Transcription Factor: A putative link of ABA and JA signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Fernando; Yazaki, Junshi; Lee, Melissa; Takahashi, Yohei; Kim, Alice Y.; Li, Zixing; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ecker, Joseph R.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that mediates abiotic stress tolerance and regulates growth and development. ABA binds to members of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family that initiate signal transduction inhibiting type 2C protein phosphatases. Although crosstalk between ABA and the hormone Jasmonic Acid (JA) has been shown, the molecular entities that mediate this interaction have yet to be fully elucidated. We report a link between ABA and JA signaling through a direct interaction of the ABA receptor PYL6 (RCAR9) with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in yeast two hybrid assays and the interaction is enhanced in the presence of ABA. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins. Furthermore, PYL6 was able to modify transcription driven by MYC2 using JAZ6 and JAZ8 DNA promoter elements in yeast one hybrid assays. Finally, pyl6 T-DNA mutant plants show an increased sensitivity to the addition of JA along with ABA in cotyledon expansion experiments. Overall, the present study identifies a direct mechanism for transcriptional modulation mediated by an ABA receptor different from the core ABA signaling pathway, and a putative mechanistic link connecting ABA and JA signaling pathways. PMID:27357749

  4. The MeJA-inducible copper amine oxidase AtAO1 is expressed in xylem tissue and guard cells.

    PubMed

    Ghuge, Sandip A; Carucci, Andrea; Rodrigues-Pousada, Renato A; Tisi, Alessandra; Franchi, Stefano; Tavladoraki, Paraskevi; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases oxidize the polyamine putrescine to 4-aminobutanal with the production of the plant signal molecule hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ammonia. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene At4g14940 (AtAO1, previously referred to as ATAO1) encodes an apoplastic copper amine oxidase expressed in lateral root cap cells and developing xylem, especially in root protoxylem and metaxylem precursors. In our recent study, we demonstrated that AtAO1 expression is strongly induced in the root vascular tissues by the wound-signal hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Furthermore, we also demonstrated that the H2O2 derived by the AtAO1-driven oxidation of putrescine, mediates the MeJA-induced early protoxylem differentiation in Arabidopsis roots. H2O2 may contribute to protoxylem differentiation by signaling developmental cell death and by acting as co-substrate in peroxidase-mediated cell wall stiffening and lignin polymerization. Here, by the means of AtAO1 promoter::green fluorescent protein-β-glucuronidase (AtAO1::GFP-GUS) fusion analysis, we show that a strong AtAO1 gene expression occurs also in guard cells of leaves and flowers. The high expression levels of AtAO1 in tissues or cell types regulating water supply and water loss may suggest a role of the encoded protein in water balance homeostasis, by modulating coordinated adjustments in anatomical and functional features of xylem tissue and guard cells during acclimation to adverse environmental conditions.

  5. Integrated Performance of Next Generation High Data Rate Receiver and AR4JA LDPC Codec for Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Lyubarev, Mark; Nakashima, Michael A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Lee, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are the state-of-the-art in forward error correction (FEC) technology that exhibits capacity approaching performance. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has designed a family of LDPC codes that are similar in structure and therefore, leads to a single decoder implementation. The Accumulate-Repeat-by-4-Jagged- Accumulate (AR4JA) code design offers a family of codes with rates 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 and lengths 1024, 4096, 16384 information bits. Performance is less than one dB from capacity for all combinations.Integrating a stand-alone LDPC decoder with a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) receiver faces additional challenges than building a single receiver-decoder unit from scratch. In this work, we outline the issues and show that these additional challenges can be over-come by simple solutions. To demonstrate that an LDPC decoder can be made to work seamlessly with a COTS receiver, we interface an AR4JA LDPC decoder developed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with a modern high data rate receiver and mea- sure the combined receiver-decoder performance. Through optimizations that include an improved frame synchronizer and different soft-symbol scaling algorithms, we show that a combined implementation loss of less than one dB is possible and therefore, most of the coding gain evidence in theory can also be obtained in practice. Our techniques can benefit any modem that utilizes an advanced FEC code.

  6. ERF5 and ERF6 play redundant roles as positive regulators of JA/Et-mediated defense against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Caroline S; Ingle, Robert A; Wathugala, Deepthi L; Saunders, Nigel J; Knight, Heather; Knight, Marc R

    2012-01-01

    The ethylene response factor (ERF) family in Arabidopsis thaliana comprises 122 members in 12 groups, yet the biological functions of the majority remain unknown. Of the group IX ERFs, the IXc subgroup has been studied the most, and includes ERF1, ERF14 and ORA59, which play roles in plant innate immunity. Here we investigate the biological functions of two members of the less studied IXb subgroup: ERF5 and ERF6. In order to identify potential targets of these transcription factors, microarray analyses were performed on plants constitutively expressing either ERF5 or ERF6. Expression of defense genes, JA/Et-responsive genes and genes containing the GCC box promoter motif were significantly upregulated in both ERF5 and ERF6 transgenic plants, suggesting that ERF5 and ERF6 may act as positive regulators of JA-mediated defense and potentially overlap in their function. Since defense against necrotrophic pathogens is generally mediated through JA/Et-signalling, resistance against the fungal necrotroph Botrytis cinerea was examined. Constitutive expression of ERF5 or ERF6 resulted in significantly increased resistance. Although no significant difference in susceptibility to B. cinerea was observed in either erf5 or erf6 mutants, the erf5 erf6 double mutant showed a significant increase in susceptibility, which was likely due to compromised JA-mediated gene expression, since JA-induced gene expression was reduced in the double mutant. Taken together these data suggest that ERF5 and ERF6 play positive but redundant roles in defense against B. cinerea. Since mutual antagonism between JA/Et and salicylic acid (SA) signalling is well known, the UV-C inducibility of an SA-inducible gene, PR-1, was examined. Reduced inducibilty in both ERF5 and ERF6 constitutive overexepressors was consistent with suppression of SA-mediated signalling, as was an increased susceptibility to avirulent Pseudomonas syringae. These data suggest that ERF5 and ERF6 may also play a role in the

  7. Genome Analysis of the Biotechnologically Relevant Acidophilic Iron Oxidising Strain JA12 Indicates Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity within the Novel Genus “Ferrovum”

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Sophie R.; Poehlein, Anja; Tischler, Judith S.; González, Carolina; Ossandon, Francisco J.; Daniel, Rolf; Holmes, David S.; Schlömann, Michael; Mühling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the genus “Ferrovum” are ubiquitously distributed in acid mine drainage (AMD) waters which are characterised by their high metal and sulfate loads. So far isolation and microbiological characterisation have only been successful for the designated type strain “Ferrovum myxofaciens” P3G. Thus, knowledge about physiological characteristics and the phylogeny of the genus “Ferrovum” is extremely scarce. Objective In order to access the wider genetic pool of the genus “Ferrovum” we sequenced the genome of a “Ferrovum”-containing mixed culture and successfully assembled the almost complete genome sequence of the novel “Ferrovum” strain JA12. Phylogeny and Lifestyle The genome-based phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain JA12 and the type strain represent two distinct “Ferrovum” species. “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is characterised by an unusually small genome in comparison to the type strain and other iron oxidising bacteria. The prediction of nutrient assimilation pathways suggests that “Ferrovum” strain JA12 maintains a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle utilising carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, ammonium and urea, sulfate, phosphate and ferrous iron as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and energy sources, respectively. Unique Metabolic Features The potential utilisation of urea by “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is moreover remarkable since it may furthermore represent a strategy among extreme acidophiles to cope with the acidic environment. Unlike other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs “Ferrovum” strain JA12 exhibits a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, a metabolic feature shared with the closer related neutrophilic iron oxidisers among the Betaproteobacteria including Sideroxydans lithotrophicus and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Furthermore, the absence of characteristic redox proteins involved in iron oxidation in the well-studied acidophiles Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (rusticyanin) and Acidithiobacillus

  8. Recursive Construction of Higgs-Plus-Multiparton Loop Amplitudes:The Last of the \\phi-nite Loop Amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Carola F.; Del Duca, Vittorio; Dixon, Lance J.

    2006-08-18

    We consider a scalar field, such as the Higgs boson H, coupled to gluons via the effective operator H tr G{sub {mu}{nu}} G{sup {mu}{nu}} induced by a heavy-quark loop. We treat H as the real part of a complex field {phi} which couples to the self-dual part of the gluon field-strength, via the operator {phi} tr G{sub SD {mu}{nu}} G{sub SD}{sup {mu}{nu}}, whereas the conjugate field {phi} couples to the anti-self-dual part. There are three infinite sequences of amplitudes coupling {phi} to quarks and gluons that vanish at tree level, and hence are finite at one loop, in the QCD coupling. Using on-shell recursion relations, we find compact expressions for these three sequences of amplitudes and discuss their analytic properties.

  9. Gene-to-metabolite network for biosynthesis of lignans in MeJA-elicited Isatis indigotica hairy root cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruibing; Li, Qing; Tan, Hexin; Chen, Junfeng; Xiao, Ying; Ma, Ruifang; Gao, Shouhong; Zerbe, Philipp; Chen, Wansheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Root and leaf tissue of Isatis indigotica shows notable anti-viral efficacy, and are widely used as “Banlangen” and “Daqingye” in traditional Chinese medicine. The plants' pharmacological activity is attributed to phenylpropanoids, especially a group of lignan metabolites. However, the biosynthesis of lignans in I. indigotica remains opaque. This study describes the discovery and analysis of biosynthetic genes and AP2/ERF-type transcription factors involved in lignan biosynthesis in I. indigotica. MeJA treatment revealed differential expression of three genes involved in phenylpropanoid backbone biosynthesis (IiPAL, IiC4H, Ii4CL), five genes involved in lignan biosynthesis (IiCAD, IiC3H, IiCCR, IiDIR, and IiPLR), and 112 putative AP2/ERF transcription factors. In addition, four intermediates of lariciresinol biosynthesis were found to be induced. Based on these results, a canonical correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient was performed to construct gene-to-metabolite networks and identify putative key genes and rate-limiting reactions in lignan biosynthesis. Over-expression of IiC3H, identified as a key pathway gene, was used for metabolic engineering of I. indigotica hairy roots, and resulted in an increase in lariciresinol production. These findings illustrate the utility of canonical correlation analysis for the discovery and metabolic engineering of key metabolic genes in plants. PMID:26579184

  10. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J A; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Julian, V; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Carrascosa, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system.

  11. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J A; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Julian, V; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Carrascosa, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  12. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  13. The JaCVAM international validation study on the in vivo comet assay: Selection of test chemicals.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takeshi; Uno, Yoshifumi; Honma, Masamitsu; Kojima, Hajime; Hayashi, Makoto; Tice, Raymond R; Corvi, Raffaella; Schechtman, Leonard

    2015-07-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) sponsored an international prevalidation and validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline pH comet assay. The main objective of the study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for correctly identifying genotoxic carcinogens, as compared with the traditional rat liver unscheduled DNA synthesis assay. Based on existing carcinogenicity and genotoxicity data and chemical class information, 90 chemicals were identified as primary candidates for use in the validation study. From these 90 chemicals, 46 secondary candidates and then 40 final chemicals were selected based on a sufficiency of carcinogenic and genotoxic data, differences in chemical class or genotoxic or carcinogenic mode of action (MOA), availability, price, and ease of handling. These 40 chemicals included 19 genotoxic carcinogens, 6 genotoxic non-carcinogens, 7 non-genotoxic carcinogens and 8 non-genotoxic non-carcinogens. "Genotoxicity" was defined as positive in the Ames mutagenicity test or in one of the standard in vivo genotoxicity tests (primarily the erythrocyte micronucleus assay). These chemicals covered various chemicals classes, MOAs, and genotoxicity profiles and were considered to be suitable for the purpose of the validation study. General principles of chemical selection for validation studies are discussed.

  14. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves. PMID:27375495

  15. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves. PMID:27375495

  16. Combination comet/micronucleus assay validation performed by BioReliance under the JaCVAM initiative.

    PubMed

    Pant, Kamala; Krsmanovic, Ljubica; Bruce, Shannon Wilson; Kelley, Tawney; Arevalo, Mirna; Atta-Safoh, Samuel; Debelie, Fekadu; La Force, Michelle L Klug; Springer, Sandra; Sly, Jamie; Paranjpe, Madhav; Lawlor, Timothy; Aardema, Marilyn

    2015-07-01

    In the international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) provided three coded chemicals to BioReliance, 1,3-dichloropropene, ethionamide and busulfan, to be tested in a combined in vivo comet/micronucleus assay. Induction of DNA damage (comet) in liver, stomach and jejunum (1,3-dichloropropene only) cells, and induction of MNPCEs in bone marrow, were examined in male Sprague-Dawley (Hsd:SD) rats following oral administration of the test chemical for three consecutive days. A dose range finding (DRF) test was performed with each chemical to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Based on the results of the DRF test; 1,3-dichloropropene was tested at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day; ethionamide was tested at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day, and busulfan was tested at 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day. The results indicated that 1,3-dichloropropene induced DNA damage only in liver cells at all three test article doses, while no effects were observed in the stomach and jejunum cells. Additionally, it did not increase MNPCEs in the bone marrow. 1,3-Dichloropropene was concluded to be negative in the MN assay but positive in the comet assay. Ethionamide did not induce DNA damage in liver. However, in stomach, statistically significant decreases (although still within historical range) in % tail DNA at all test article doses compared to the vehicle control were observed. There was no increase in MNPCEs in the bone marrow. Thus, ethionamide was concluded to be negative in the comet/MN combined assay. Busulfan did not induce DNA damage in any of the organs tested (liver and stomach) but it did induce a significant increase in MNPCEs in the bone marrow. Busulfan was concluded to be negative in the comet assay but positive in the MN assay.

  17. Mineralogical characterization of tailing dams: incidence of abandoned mining works on soil pollution (Linares, Jaén)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, M. J.; Hidalgo, C.; Rey, J.; Martínez, J.

    2012-04-01

    The metallogenic district of Linares-La Carolina (Jaén, Spain) consists of dyke mineralizations mainly of galena, accompanied by blende, chalcopyrite and barite. Associated to these abandoned mines, relatively extensive areas occupied by spoil heaps and tailing impoundments exist and constitute potential sources of soil pollution by metals and semimetals. In order to analyze the pollution potential of these mining wastes, we have carried out a mineralogical and geochemical study of seven tailing dams and surrounding soils in the area. The mineralogy of the samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the total metal content of samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Samples were taken from the first 30 cm of the waste piles and soil deposits and white efflorescences were also obtained from the surface of the tailings. In all analyzed heaps, high to very high total contents in Pb (1220-22890 mg/kg), Zn (150-51280 mg/kg), Mn (2658-4160 mg/kg), Ba (1026-19610 mg/kg) and Fe (19400-138000 mg/kg) were observed. The concentrations for these same elements in the studied soils range from 527-9900 mg/kg for Pb, 27-1700 mg/kg for Zn, 506-2464 mg/kg for Mn, 2832-4306 for Ba and 8642-29753 mg/kg for Fe, and these figures indicate a contamination of the soils, according to the guidelines established by the Spanish law. The XRD and SEM results indicate that the tailings are primarily constituted by gangue of the exploited mineralization: quartz, calcite, ankerite, feldspars and phyllosilicates. They are inherited, primary mineral phases. Galena, also primary, appears in low proportion, as well as lepidocrocite, melanterite and cerussite, being these three last secondary minerals and indicating a certain remobilization of metal cations, especially lead and iron. On the other hand, quartz and phyllosilicates predominate in the soils, in which, in addition, is identified a

  18. Investigation of sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine in the alkaline comet assay: Part of the JaCVAM comet validation exercise.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Carol; Henderson, Debbie; Lillford, Lucinda

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine. Using the JaCVAM approved study protocol version 14.2, each chemical was tested in male rats up to maximum tolerated dose levels and DNA damage in the liver and stomach was assessed approximately 3h after the final administration by gavage. Histopathology assessments of liver and stomach sections from the same animals were also examined for evidence of cytotoxicity or necrosis. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach of animals treated with sodium arsenite at 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day. However, equivocal findings were found in the liver, where increases in DNA migration were observed in two independent experiments, but not in all treated animals and not at the same dose levels. Thioacetamide caused an increase in DNA migration in the stomach of rats treated at 19, 38, and 75 mg/kg/day, but not in the liver, despite evidence of marked hepatotoxicity following histopathology assessments. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach or liver of animals treated with diethanolamine at 175, 350, or 700 mg/kg/day. PMID:26212308

  19. GA3 and other signal regulators (MeJA and IAA) improve xanthumin biosynthesis in different manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Li, Changfu; Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound) biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberrellin A3 (GA3) at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM) or IAA (200 µM) treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM) led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment. PMID:25157461

  20. Investigation of sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine in the alkaline comet assay: Part of the JaCVAM comet validation exercise.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Carol; Henderson, Debbie; Lillford, Lucinda

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine. Using the JaCVAM approved study protocol version 14.2, each chemical was tested in male rats up to maximum tolerated dose levels and DNA damage in the liver and stomach was assessed approximately 3h after the final administration by gavage. Histopathology assessments of liver and stomach sections from the same animals were also examined for evidence of cytotoxicity or necrosis. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach of animals treated with sodium arsenite at 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day. However, equivocal findings were found in the liver, where increases in DNA migration were observed in two independent experiments, but not in all treated animals and not at the same dose levels. Thioacetamide caused an increase in DNA migration in the stomach of rats treated at 19, 38, and 75 mg/kg/day, but not in the liver, despite evidence of marked hepatotoxicity following histopathology assessments. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach or liver of animals treated with diethanolamine at 175, 350, or 700 mg/kg/day.

  1. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA. PMID:27200023

  2. Variability of phenotype, anthocyanin indexes, and flavonoids in accessions from a close relative of soybean, Neontonia wightii (Wright & Arn. J.A. Lackey) in the U.S. germplasm collection for potential use as a health forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A close relative of soybean, Neonotonia wightii (Wright & Arn. J.A. Lackey), is used as a ruminant feed and restores soil productivity in Brazil and Zimbabwe, respectively. Neonotonia wightii accessions were grown in a greenhouse at Griffin, Georgia, characterized for various phenotypic traits, and...

  3. Molecular characterisation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and plasmid AmpC-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers in Béjaïa, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belmahdi, Mohamed; Bakour, Sofiane; Al Bayssari, Charbel; Touati, Abdelaziz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the molecular support of antibiotic resistance in expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy broilers in Béjaïa, northeast Algeria. A total of 61 intestinal swabs from slaughtered broilers from four regions in Béjaïa locality, Algeria, were collected between February and April 2014, from which 20 ESC-resistant E. coli strains were isolated. Escherichia coli isolates were identified by classical biochemical and MALDI-TOF methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Screening for β-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME)-encoding genes and qnr determinants was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was determined using molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that the isolates showed high rates of resistance (>90%) to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime, streptomycin, tobramycin, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Low rates of resistance were observed for kanamycin (35%), amikacin (30%), cefoxitin (20%) and cefotaxime (15%). Molecular characterisation revealed that all of the isolates expressed the blaTEM-1 gene. Fourteen of them harboured the blaSHV-12 gene, two harboured the blaCTX-M-1 gene and four isolates harboured blaCMY-2. Screening for AME-encoding genes demonstrated that all isolates contained the aadA gene. In addition, qnrA was detected as the quinolone resistance determinant in 13 isolates. MLST revealed four known sequence types (STs), including ST744, ST38, ST1011 and ST2179, as well as one new sequence type (ST5086). Here we report the first study describing the clonal diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid AmpC-producing E. coli isolated from healthy broilers in Algeria. PMID:27530851

  4. Time to face the challenge of multimorbidity. A European perspective from the joint action on chronic diseases and promoting healthy ageing across the life cycle (JA-CHRODIS).

    PubMed

    Onder, Graziano; Palmer, Katie; Navickas, Rokas; Jurevičienė, Elena; Mammarella, Federica; Strandzheva, Mirela; Mannucci, Piermannuccio; Pecorelli, Sergio; Marengoni, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    Research on multimorbidity has rapidly increased in the last decade, but evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to improve outcomes in patients with multimorbidity is limited. The European Commission is co-funding a large collaborative project named Joint Action on Chronic Diseases and Promoting Healthy Ageing across the Life Cycle (JA-CHRODIS) in the context of the 2nd EU Health Programme 2008-2013. The present manuscript summarizes first results of the JA-CHRODIS, focuses on the identification of a population with multimorbidity who has a high or very high care demand. Identification of characteristics of multimorbid patients associated with a high rate of resource consumption and negative health outcomes is necessary to define a target population who can benefit from interventions. Indeed, multimorbidity alone cannot explain the complexity of care needs and further, stratification of the general population based on care needs is necessary for allocating resources and developing personalized, cost-efficient, and patient-centered care plans. Based on analyses of large databases from European countries a profile of the most care-demanding patients with multimorbidity is defined. Several factors associated with adverse health outcomes and resource consumption among patients with multimorbidity were identified in these analyses, including disease patterns, physical function, mental health, and socioeconomic status. These results underline that a global assessment is needed to identify patients with multimorbidity who are at risk of negative health outcomes and that a comprehensive approach, targeting not only diseases, but also social, cognitive, and functional problems should be adopted for these patients.

  5. Re-analysis results using medians of the data from the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Omori, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    The data from the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay were reported and analyzed statistically using the simple means of % tail DNA. However, OECD test guideline TG 489 recommends use of the median for data analysis due to the hierarchical nature of the data. Comparison between the simple mean approach and the median based approach for positive/negative/equivocal chemical calls was conducted using the % tail DNA data for the 40 chemicals tested in the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, using liver and stomach as target organs. In the liver, two genotoxic chemicals, o-anisidine and 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate, were positive using the median based approach but negative using the simple mean approach, and two genotoxic chemicals, 2-acetylaminofluorene and busulfan were equivocal using the median based approach but negative using the simple mean approach. In contrast, cadmium chloride (genotoxic carcinogen) was equivocal in both organs using the median based approach, while positive and equivocal in liver and stomach, respectively, using the simple mean approach. Two data sets of sodium arsenite showed equivocal and negative results for liver using the median based approach, although both data sets were equivocal using the simple mean approach. Overall, there are no large differences in terms of the genotoxic call between both approaches. However, the median based approach recommended in OECD TG 489 has an advantage toward higher precision within the groups treated with a test chemical, whereas the approach might show the lower values for the effect.

  6. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  7. Hydrogeological research on intensively exploited deep aquifers in the `Loma de Úbeda' area (Jaén, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Ramón, Antonio; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Javier; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Gollonet, Javier

    2013-06-01

    The intensive use of groundwater for irrigation in the area of Úbeda (`Loma de Úbeda', Jaén, southern Spain) has transformed an area of traditionally rain-fed dry farmland into fields with some of the highest olive oil productivity in the world. Early hydrogeological research studies, initiated just after the beginning of the groundwater exploitation, revealed that the water was collected from three different overlapping aquifers occupying an area of over 1,100 km2, with the lower aquifers located at depths from 300 to over 700 m in an area of 440 km2. Multidisciplinary research, based on geological characterization, and piezometric, hydrochemical and isotopic data, has led to a conceptual model of functioning in this complex hydrogeological system. The proposed model allows for the identification of the recharge areas, and the discharge, which is at present mainly associated with the groundwater pumping. Areas of mixing of waters from the different aquifers and the main hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater quality are described.

  8. LOW-TEMPERATURE ION TRAP STUDIES OF N{sup +}({sup 3} P{sub ja} ) + H{sub 2}(j) {yields} NH{sup +} + H

    SciTech Connect

    Zymak, I.; Hejduk, M.; Mulin, D.; Plasil, R.; Glosik, J.; Gerlich, D.

    2013-05-01

    Using a low-temperature 22-pole ion trap apparatus, detailed measurements for the title reaction have been performed between 10 K and 100 K in order to get some state specific information about this fundamental hydrogen abstraction process. The relative population of the two lowest H{sub 2} rotational states, j = 0 and 1, has been varied systematically. NH{sup +} formation is nearly thermo-neutral; however, to date, the energetics are not known with the accuracy required for low-temperature astrochemistry. Additional complications arise from the fact that, so far, there is no reliable theoretical or experimental information on how the reactivity of the N{sup +} ion depends on its fine-structure (FS) state {sup 3} P{sub ja} . Since in the present trapping experiment, thermalization of the initially hot FS population competes with hydrogen abstraction, the evaluation of the decay of N{sup +} ions over long storage times and at various He and H{sub 2} gas densities provides information on these processes. First assuming strict adiabatic behavior, a set of state specific rate coefficients is derived from the measured thermal rate coefficients. In addition, by recording the disappearance of the N{sup +} ions over several orders of magnitude, information on nonadiabatic transitions is extracted including FS-changing collisions.

  9. Physical and Metabolic Interactions of Pseudomonas sp. Strain JA5-B45 and Rhodococcus sp. Strain F9-D79 during Growth on Crude Oil and Effect of a Chemical Surfactant on Them

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Ward, Owen P.

    2001-01-01

    Methods to enhance crude oil biodegradation by mixed bacterial cultures, for example, (bio)surfactant addition, are complicated by the diversity of microbial populations within a given culture. The physical and metabolic interactions between Rhodococcus sp. strain F9-D79 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JA5-B45 were examined during growth on Bow River crude oil. The effects of a nonionic chemical surfactant, Igepal CO-630 (nonylphenol ethoxylate), also were evaluated. Strain F9-D79 grew attached to the oil-water interface and produced a mycolic acid-containing capsule. Crude oil emulsification and surface activity were associated with the cellular fraction. Strain JA5-B45 grew in the aqueous phase and was unable to emulsify oil, but cell-free supernatants mediated kerosene-water emulsion formation. In coculture, stable emulsions were formed and strain JA5-B45 had an affinity for the capsule produced by strain F9-D79. Igepal CO-630 inhibited F9-D79 cells from adhering to the interface, and cells grew dispersed in the aqueous phase as 0.5-μm cocci rather than 2.5-μm rods. The surfactant increased total petroleum hydrocarbon removal by strain JA5-B45 from 4 to 22% and included both saturated compounds and aromatics. In coculture, TPH removal increased from 13 to 40% following surfactant addition. The culture pH normally increased from 7.0 to between 7.5 and 8.5, although addition of Igepal CO-630 to F9-D79 cultures resulted in a drop to pH 5.5. We suggest a dual role for the nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in the coculture: (i) to improve hydrocarbon uptake by strain JA5-B45 through emulsification and (ii) to prevent strain F9-D79 from adhering to the oil-water interface, indirectly increasing hydrocarbon availability. These varied effects on hydrocarbon biodegradation could explain some of the known diversity of surfactant effects. PMID:11571196

  10. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for detection of genotoxic carcinogens: II. Summary of definitive validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Beevers, Carol; De Boeck, Marlies; Burlinson, Brian; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Kitamoto, Sachiko; Kraynak, Andrew R; McNamee, James; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Pant, Kamala; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Priestley, Catherine; Takasawa, Hironao; Wada, Kunio; Wirnitzer, Uta; Asano, Norihide; Escobar, Patricia A; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Nakajima, Madoka; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this exercise was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The study protocol was optimized in the pre-validation studies, and then the definitive (4th phase) validation study was conducted in two steps. In the 1st step, assay reproducibility was confirmed among laboratories using four coded reference chemicals and the positive control ethyl methanesulfonate. In the 2nd step, the predictive capability was investigated using 40 coded chemicals with known genotoxic and carcinogenic activity (i.e., genotoxic carcinogens, genotoxic non-carcinogens, non-genotoxic carcinogens, and non-genotoxic non-carcinogens). Based on the results obtained, the in vivo comet assay is concluded to be highly capable of identifying genotoxic chemicals and therefore can serve as a reliable predictor of rodent carcinogenicity.

  11. Time 2 tlk 2nite: Youths’ use of electronic media during family meals and associations with demographic characteristics, family characteristics and foods served

    PubMed Central

    Loth, Katie; Bruening, Meg; Berge, Jerica; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine the frequency of adolescents’ use of electronic media (TV/movie watching, text messaging, talking on the phone, listening to music with headphones and playing with handheld games) at family meals and examine associations with demographic characteristics, rules about media use, family characteristics and the types of foods served at meals using an observational, cross-sectional design. Data were drawn from two coordinated, population-based studies of adolescents (EAT 2010) and their parents (Project F-EAT (Families and Eating Among Teens)). Surveys were completed in 2009–2010. Frequent TV/movie watching during family meals by youth was reported by 25.5% of parents. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated significantly higher odds of mealtime media use (p<.05) for girls and older teens. Additionally, higher odds of mealtime media use (p<.05) were also seen among those whose parents had low education levels or were black or Asian; having parental rules about media use significantly reduced these odds. Frequent mealtime media use was significantly associated with lower scores on family communication (p <.05) and scores indicating less importance placed on mealtimes (p<.001). Furthermore, frequent mealtime media use was associated with lower odds of serving green salad, fruit, vegetables, 100% juice and milk at meals whereas higher odds were seen for serving sugar-sweetened beverages (p<.05). The ubiquitous use of mealtime media by adolescents, differences by gender, race/ethnicity, age and parental rules suggest that supporting parents in their efforts to initiate and follow-through on setting mealtime media use rules may be an important public health strategy. PMID:24361006

  12. Time 2 tlk 2nite: use of electronic media by adolescents during family meals and associations with demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and foods served.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Loth, Katie; Bruening, Meg; Berge, Jerica; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    We examined the frequency of adolescents' use of electronic media (ie, television/movie watching, text messaging, talking on the telephone, listening to music with headphones, and playing with hand-held games) at family meals and examined associations with demographic characteristics, rules about media use, family characteristics, and the types of foods served at meals using an observational, cross-sectional design. Data were drawn from two coordinated, population-based studies of adolescents (Project Eating Among Teens 2010) and their parents (Project Families and Eating Among Teens). Surveys were completed during 2009-2010. Frequent television/movie watching during family meals by youth was reported by 25.5% of parents. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated significantly higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) for girls and older teens. In addition, higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) were also seen among those whose parents had low education levels or were black or Asian; having parental rules about media use significantly reduced these odds. Frequent mealtime media use was significantly associated with lower scores on family communication (P<0.05) and scores indicating less importance placed on mealtimes (P<0.001). Furthermore, frequent mealtime media use was associated with lower odds of serving green salad, fruit, vegetables, 100% juice, and milk at meals, whereas higher odds were seen for serving sugar-sweetened beverages (P<0.05). The ubiquitous use of mealtime media by adolescents and differences by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and parental rules suggest that supporting parents in their efforts to initiate and follow-through on setting mealtime media use rules may be an important public health strategy.

  13. Effects of Focus and De?niteness on Children's Word Order: Evidence from German Five-Year-Olds' Reproductions of Double Object Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Höhle, Barbara; Hörnig, Robin; Weskott, Thomas; Knauf, Selene; Krüger, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments tested how faithfully German children aged 4;5 to 5;6 reproduce ditransitive sentences that are unmarked or marked with respect to word order and focus (Exp1) or definiteness (Exp2). Adopting an optimality theory (OT) approach, it is assumed that in the German adult grammar word order is ranked lower than focus and definiteness.…

  14. Comparative genomic analysis of single-molecule sequencing and hybrid approaches for finishing the Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1 strain DSM 10061 genome

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Nagaraju, Shilpa; Utturkar, Sagar M; De Tissera, Sashini; Segovia, Simón; Mitchell, Wayne; Land, Miriam L; Dassanayake, Asela; Köpke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium autoethanogenum strain JA1-1 (DSM 10061) is an acetogen capable of fermenting CO, CO2 and H2 (e.g. from syngas or waste gases) into biofuel ethanol and commodity chemicals such as 2,3-butanediol. A draft genome sequence consisting of 100 contigs has been published. Results A closed, high-quality genome sequence for C. autoethanogenum DSM10061 was generated using only the latest single-molecule DNA sequencing technology and without the need for manual finishing. It is assigned to the most complex genome classification based upon genome features such as repeats, prophage, nine copies of the rRNA gene operons. It has a low G + C content of 31.1%. Illumina, 454, Illumina/454 hybrid assemblies were generated and then compared to the draft and PacBio assemblies using summary statistics, CGAL, QUAST and REAPR bioinformatics tools and comparative genomic approaches. Assemblies based upon shorter read DNA technologies were confounded by the large number repeats and their size, which in the case of the rRNA gene operons were ~5 kb. CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Paloindromic Repeats) systems among biotechnologically relevant Clostridia were classified and related to plasmid content and prophages. Potential associations between plasmid content and CRISPR systems may have implications for historical industrial scale Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation failures and future large scale bacterial fermentations. While C. autoethanogenum contains an active CRISPR system, no such system is present in the closely related Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528. A common prophage inserted into the Arg-tRNA shared between the strains suggests a common ancestor. However, C. ljungdahlii contains several additional putative prophages and it has more than double the amount of prophage DNA compared to C. autoethanogenum. Other differences include important metabolic genes for central metabolism (as an additional hydrogenase and the absence of a

  15. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) improved anti-adipogenic activity associated with the oxidative stress system in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Yoon, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-11

    Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties.

  16. Evaluation of methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene and 5-fluorouracil: Part of the Japanese center for the validation of alternative methods (JaCVAM) international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Junker-Walker, Ursula; Martus, Hans-Joerg

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene, and 5-fluorouracil under coded test conditions. Rats were treated orally with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and two additional descending doses of the respective compounds. In the MMS treated groups liver and stomach showed significantly elevated DNA damage at each dose level and a significant dose-response relationship. 2,6-diaminotoluene induced significantly elevated DNA damage in the liver at each dose and a statistically significant dose-response relationship whereas no DNA damage was obtained in the stomach. 5-fluorouracil did not induce DNA damage in either liver or stomach.

  17. Use of a standardized JaCVAM in vivo rat comet assay protocol to assess the genotoxicity of three coded test compounds; ampicillin trihydrate, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), our laboratory examined ampicillin trihydrate (AMP), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDA) using a standard comet assay validation protocol (v14.2) developed by the JaCVAM validation management team (VMT). Coded samples were received by our laboratory along with basic MSDS information. Solubility analysis and range-finding experiments of the coded test compounds were conducted for dose selection. Animal dosing schedules, the comet assay processing and analysis, and statistical analysis were conducted in accordance with the standard protocol. Based upon our blinded evaluation, AMP was not found to exhibit evidence of genotoxicity in either the rat liver or stomach. However, both NDA and DMH were observed to cause a significant increase in % tail DNA in the rat liver at all dose levels tested. While acute hepatoxicity was observed for these compounds in the high dose group, in the investigators opinion there were a sufficient number of consistently damaged/measurable cells at the medium and low dose groups to judge these compounds as genotoxic. There was no evidence of genotoxicity from either NDA or DMH in the rat stomach. In conclusion, our laboratory observed increased DNA damage from two blinded test compounds in rat liver (later identified as genotoxic carcinogens), while no evidence of genotoxicity was observed for the third blinded test compound (later identified as a non-genotoxic, non-carcinogen). This data supports the use of a standardized protocol of the in vivo comet assay as a cost-effective alternative genotoxicity assay for regulatory testing purposes. PMID:26212307

  18. Use of a standardized JaCVAM in vivo rat comet assay protocol to assess the genotoxicity of three coded test compounds; ampicillin trihydrate, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), our laboratory examined ampicillin trihydrate (AMP), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDA) using a standard comet assay validation protocol (v14.2) developed by the JaCVAM validation management team (VMT). Coded samples were received by our laboratory along with basic MSDS information. Solubility analysis and range-finding experiments of the coded test compounds were conducted for dose selection. Animal dosing schedules, the comet assay processing and analysis, and statistical analysis were conducted in accordance with the standard protocol. Based upon our blinded evaluation, AMP was not found to exhibit evidence of genotoxicity in either the rat liver or stomach. However, both NDA and DMH were observed to cause a significant increase in % tail DNA in the rat liver at all dose levels tested. While acute hepatoxicity was observed for these compounds in the high dose group, in the investigators opinion there were a sufficient number of consistently damaged/measurable cells at the medium and low dose groups to judge these compounds as genotoxic. There was no evidence of genotoxicity from either NDA or DMH in the rat stomach. In conclusion, our laboratory observed increased DNA damage from two blinded test compounds in rat liver (later identified as genotoxic carcinogens), while no evidence of genotoxicity was observed for the third blinded test compound (later identified as a non-genotoxic, non-carcinogen). This data supports the use of a standardized protocol of the in vivo comet assay as a cost-effective alternative genotoxicity assay for regulatory testing purposes.

  19. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy of the Ediacaran Jaíba Formation, Upper Bambuí Group, Brazil: Insights into Paleogeography and Sedimentary Environments after a Neoproterozoic Glaciation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caxito, F.; Uhlein, G. J.; Sial, A. N.; Uhlein, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic Era was a time of extreme climatic variation as recorded in sedimentary rocks of this age across the globe, leading to a number of controversial hypotheses (e.g. the Snowball Earth glaciations). In eastern Brazil, the Bambuí Gr. is a thick carbonatic-siliciclastic unit that covers the São Francisco Craton and preserves remnants of a Neoproterozoic glaciation and their respective cap carbonate (1). Recent findings of Cloudina in the Januária region (2) suggest that at least part of the sequence might be upper Ediacaran or even Cambrian. Here we present the first carbon-oxygen isotope data for the Jaíba Fm., a ca. 50 m thick carbonate unit that occurs in the topmost portion of the Bambuí Gr. in this same region. The Jaíba Fm. post-dates the cap carbonate sequence and the fossil-bearing layers, and thus was probably deposited in the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. Three stratigraphic columns were analyzed, and yielded similar ratios. Values of δ13CVPDB are between 0.8 and 3.4 ‰, while δ18OVPDB values are mostly around -8 ‰. These values contrasts with the negative δ13C values found for the base of the Bambuí Gr., followed by highly positive δ13C (up to +14‰) on its middle portion. The unusually high δ13C values are commonly interpreted as evidence for deposition on a restricted basin, such as in a foreland setting. The return to values which are close to the PDB standard in the uppermost Bambuí Gr. might thus indicate a change in the paleogeography and tectonic environment of the basin, suggesting an open, ventilated environment along with a recovery of the biological and hydrological cycle after a Late Neoproterozoic glaciation. Ongoing detailed sedimentological, geochemical and isotopic work might help to further clarify these issues and to provide new clues for unraveling Late Neoproterozoic paleoclimate, paleogeography and ocean chemistry. We thank FAPEMIG (Brazil) for finnacial support through grants n. APQ-00914-14 and PPM

  20. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study. PMID:26212293

  1. Evaluation of 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether in the rat comet assay: Part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Priestley, Catherine C; Walker, Joanne S; O'Donovan, Michael R; Doherty, Ann T

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (DPE), a known rodent genotoxic carcinogen, was tested in this laboratory. Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of DPE, 24 and 21 h apart and liver or stomach sampled 3h after the final dose. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage in liver and stomach were observed with DPE (up to 200 mg/kg/day). A dose-dependent decrease in DNA migration, compared to vehicle controls, was noted for DPE in rat stomach. Further analysis is required to elucidate fully whether this decrease is a consequence of the mode of action or due to the toxicity of DPE. What is perhaps surprising is the inability of the comet assay to detect a known rat genotoxic carcinogen in liver. Further investigation is needed to clarify whether this apparent lack of response results from limited tissue exposure or metabolic differences between species. This finding highlights a need for careful consideration of study design when evaluating assay performance as a measure of in vivo genotoxicity.

  2. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study.

  3. Regulative influence of o-aminobenzoic acid on the biosynthesis of nourseothricin in cultures of Streptomyces noursei JA 3890b. IV. Bistability of metabolism and the mechanism of action of aminobenzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Gräfe, U; Bocker, H; Thrum, H

    1979-01-01

    Using the semi-continuous cultivation technique we could establish that specifically in Streptomyces noursei JA 3890b during growth on a medium supplied with D,L-alanine, NH4+, and maize starch there are two different phenotypes of the organism and stationary states of metabolism, respectively. The expression of either the metabolic state I with an enhanced capacity to oxidative deamination of alanine via the NAD+-dependent alanaine dehydrogenase or the metabolic state 2 which may be characterized by the preferred use of ammonium ions via the NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase was shown to depend strongly on the conditions of inoculum cultivation. When the amino acid permeases were derepressed by cultivating the inoculum cells on amino acid media, probably due to the defective mechanism of negative feedback control of amino acid influx in this strain an abnormously high uptake of alanine was observed that, consequently, was correlated to the enhanced oxidation of this amino acid as well as to the intensive production of ammonia within the cell. This overproduction of cellular NH4+ seems to bring about the subsequent repression of biosynthetic glutamate dehydrogenase and so on the accumulation of ammonia autocatalytically may rise up (metabolic state I). On the other hand, if the influx of alanine was kept low and the NADH oxidation was less efficient, respectively, or when there was high cellular activity of glutamate dehydrogenase the level of ammonia never did exceed the respressory limit and, accordingly, the expression of the metabolic state 2 was observed. Switching-over of metabolic flux from the state 2 towards the state 1 can be brought about either by increasing the level of nitrogen sources in the medium or by adding buffers pH greater than 7.5. In contrast, decrease of cellular level of NH4+ was shown to induce the transition of metabolic state 1 into the state 2. This can be achieved not only by limitation of nitrogen source but also by adding

  4. Evaluation of repeated dose micronucleus assays of the liver and gastrointestinal tract using potassium bromate: a report of the collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS.

    PubMed

    Okada, Emiko; Fujiishi, Yohei; Narumi, Kazunori; Kado, Shoichi; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Ohyama, Wakako

    2015-03-01

    The food additive potassium bromate (KBrO3) is known as a renal carcinogen and causes chromosomal aberrations in vitro without metabolic activation and in vivo in hematopoietic and renal cells. As a part of a collaborative study by the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study group, which is a subgroup of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society, we administered KBrO3 to rats orally for 4, 14, and 28 days and examined the micronucleated (MNed) cell frequency in the liver, glandular stomach, colon, and bone marrow to confirm whether the genotoxic carcinogen targeting other than liver and gastrointestinal (GI) tract was detected by the repeated dose liver and GI tract micronucleus (MN) assays. In our study, animals treated with KBrO3 showed some signs of toxicity in the kidney and/or stomach. KBrO3 did not increase the frequency of MNed cells in the liver and colon in any of the repeated dose studies. However, KBrO3 increased the frequency of MNed cells in the glandular stomach and bone marrow. Additionally, the MNed cell frequency in the glandular stomach was not significantly affected by the difference in the length of the administration period. These results suggest that performing the MN assay using the glandular stomach, which is the first tissue to contact agents after oral ingestion, is useful for evaluating the genotoxic potential of chemicals and that the glandular stomach MN assay could be integrated into general toxicity studies.

  5. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in WIL2-NS cells: a sensitive system to detect chromosomal damage induced by reactive oxygen species and activated human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Umegaki, K; Fenech, M

    2000-05-01

    We have developed a method that can detect the DNA-damaging and cytotoxic effects of physiological levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activated human neutrophils. This was achieved using WIL2-NS cells, a human B lymphoblastoid cell line, as target cells and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. With this method, we observed a 4- and a 30-fold increase in the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells (MNed BNC) when cells were exposed to 10 and 30 microM hydrogen peroxide, for 1 h, respectively. A dose-dependent increase in the frequency of MNed BNC was also detected when cells were exposed to hypoxanthine (HX)/xanthine oxidase (XO), a superoxide generating system: a 50-fold increase in the frequency of MNed BNC was observed at the highest XO dose (12.5 mU/ml). In this CBMN assay, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB) in BNC and necrotic cells were also readily detected, especially at the higher exposure doses of hydrogen peroxide or HX/XO. When WIL2-NS cells were exposed to neutrophils stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate acetate (PMA) for 1 h, the frequencies of MNed BNC in WIL2-NS cells increased in a dose-dependent manner (30-fold increase at 100 nM PMA) and with an increasing neutrophil:WIL2-NS co-culture ratio. The frequencies of MNed BNC were closely related to the production of ROS, especially hydrogen peroxide, by the neutrophils. Differentiated HL60 cells (DMSO-treated HL60) also produced ROS in response to PMA. In this case, we used a 'Transwell' system to expose WIL2-NS cells to DMSO-treated HL60 cells, because direct contact with DMSO-treated HL60 cells impaired cell division in WIL2-NS target cells. Exposure to PMA-stimulated DMSO-treated HL60 cells resulted in a PMA dose-dependent increase in the frequency of MNed BNC in WIL2-NS cells. MNed BNC frequencies were positively correlated with NPB (r = 0.61-0.93) and necrosis (r = 0.55-0.86) and negatively correlated with nuclear division index (r = -0.72 to -0. 91) in all of the above

  6. Personnel Management: A J/A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Recently, personnel executives and their staffs are being asked to help management solve an increasing number of human resource and business problems. Personnel management must undergo some changes if it is to achieve its full potential. (Author/AJ)

  7. Design of Current Source Dc/Dc Converter for Interfacing a 5 Kw Pem Fuel Cell / Paaugstinošā Strāvas Avota Līdzsprieguma Pārveidotāja Izstrāde 5 Kw Ūdeņraža Degvielas Elementam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreičiks, A.; Steiks, I.; Krievs, O.

    2013-08-01

    In domestic applications the low DC output voltage of a hydrogen fuel cell used as the main power supply or a backup power source has to be matched to the level and frequency of the AC voltage of utility grid. The interfacing power converter system usually consists of a DC/DC converter and an inverter. In this work, a DC/DC step-up converter stage is designed for interfacing a 5kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The losses of DC/DC conversion are estimated and, basing on the relevant analysis, the most appropriate configuration of converter modules is selected for a DC/DC converter stage of increased efficiency. The authors present the results of experimental analysis and simulation for the selected configuration of four double inductor step-up push-pull converter modules Ūdeņraža degvielas elementa invertoru sistēmas mājsaimniecības pielietojumiem parasti sastāv no līdzsprieguma paaugstināšanas un invertēšanas mezgliem. Šis raksts ir veltīts paaugstinošā līdzsprieguma pārveidotāja izstrādei 5 kW protonu apmaiņas membrānas degvielas elementam. Rakstā izpētīts divu induktoru divtaktu strāvas avota paaugstinošais līdzsprieguma pārveidotājs, aplūkojot gan datormodelēšanas, gan eksperimentālos rezultātus. Lai palielinātu DC/DC pārveidotāja efektivitāti var izmantot vairākus pārveidotāja moduļus, kam ieejas savienotas paralēli un izejās - virkne. Analīze Šajā raksta ir veikta analīze, balstoties uz kuras var izvēlieties skaitu pārveidotāj moduļu skaitu, kuri nodrošina vislabāko efektivitāti DC/DC pārveidotāja posmā. Kopējais eksperimentāli noteiktais izstrādātās degvielas elementa pārveidotāju sistēmas fizikālā modeļa lietderības koeficients ir 93%

  8. Un cas rare d'adénite mésentérique suppurée associée à une invagination intestinale chez un enfant: cas Clinique

    PubMed Central

    Mujinga, Didier Tshibangu; Katombe, François Tshilombo

    2016-01-01

    La panniculite est une manifestation rare au cours des dermatomyosites (DM). L'apparition d'une panniculite au cours d'un traitement par du méthotrexate (MTX) est exceptionnelle et n'a été décrite que dans 3 cas. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une patiente âgée de 50 ans atteinte d'une DM diagnostiquée en 1997 et traitée par une corticothérapie avec une évolution favorable aux plans clinique et biologique. A l'occasion d'une rechute 2 ans plus tard, la corticothérapie a été majorée et du méthotrexate à une dose hebdomadaire de 7,5 mg a été rajouté. L’évolution était rapidement favorable. Dix huit mois plus tard, la patiente présentait de multiples nodules sous cutanés siégeant aux 4 membres et aux fesses, dont l'examen anatomopthologique concluait à une panniculite. Il n'existait aucun signe d’évolutivité de la DM. La dose de prédnisone a été augmentée à 0,5 mg/kg/j toujours en association au MTX mais sans aucune amélioration. Le MTX a été arrêté et les lésions cutanées ont complètement disparu en 2 mois sans aucune récidive avec un recul actuel de 42 mois. Notre observation est particulière par la survenue d'une panniculite chez une patiente ayant une DM traitée par du MTX et illustre la difficulté diagnostique. Cette entité doit être connue malgré son caractère exceptionnel puisque l'arrêt du MTX induit en général la disparition des nodules sous cutanés. PMID:27279973

  9. Evaluation of p-phenylenediamine, o-phenylphenol sodium salt, and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the rat comet assay as part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Marlies; van der Leede, Bas-jan; De Vlieger, Kathleen; Geys, Helena; Vynckier, An; Van Gompel, Jacky

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (PPD), o-phenylphenol sodium salt (OPP), and 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), were analyzed in this laboratory as coded test chemicals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of the test compounds, 24 and 21 h apart and liver and stomach were sampled 3h after the final dose administration. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage were observed in liver and stomach with PPD and OPP up to 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively. 2,4-DAT, a known genotoxic carcinogen, induced a weak but reproducible, dose-related and statistically significant increase in DNA damage in liver cells while no increases were observed in stomach cells.

  10. Results of the International Validation of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: Individual data for 1,2-dibromoethane, p-anisidine, and o-anthranilic acid in the 2nd step of the 4th phase Validation Study under the JaCVAM initiative.

    PubMed

    Takasawa, Hironao; Takashima, Rie; Narumi, Kazunori; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hattori, Akiko; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Hamada, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative International Validation Study of an in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), p-anisidine (ASD), and o-anthranilic acid (ANT) to investigate the effectiveness of the comet assay in detecting genotoxic carcinogens. Each of the three test chemicals was administered to 5 male Sprague-Dawley rats per group by oral gavage at 48, 24, and 3h before specimen preparation. Single cells were collected from the liver and glandular stomach at 3h after the final dosing, and the specimens prepared from these two organs were subjected to electrophoresis under alkaline conditions (pH>13). The percentage of DNA intensity in the comet tail was then assessed using an image analysis system. A micronucleus (MN) assay was also conducted using these three test chemicals with the bone marrow (BM) cells collected from the same animals simultaneously used in the comet assay, i.e., combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay. A genotoxic (Ames positive) rodent carcinogen, DBE gave a positive result in the comet assay in the present study, while a genotoxic (Ames positive) non-carcinogen, ASD and a non-genotoxic (Ames negative) non-carcinogen, ANT showed negative results in the comet assay. All three chemicals produced negative results in the BM MN assay. While the comet assay findings in the present study were consistent with those obtained from the rodent carcinogenicity studies for the three test chemicals, we consider the positive result in the comet assay for DBE to be particularly meaningful, given that this chemical produced a negative result in the BM MN assay. Therefore, the combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay is a useful method to detect genotoxic carcinogens that are undetectable with the BM MN assay alone.

  11. Treatment Plan Adherence for Your Child With JA

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the medication which controls the inflammation,” says Carol Lindsley, MD, chief of pediatric rheumatology at the ... with the medication which controls the inflammation,” says Carol Lindsley, MD, chief of pediatric rheumatology at the ...

  12. The association of XRCC1 haplotypes and chromosomal damage levels in peripheral blood lymphocyte among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Shuguang Leng; Juan Cheng; Linyuan Zhang; Yong Niu; Yufei Dai; Zufei Pan; Bin Li; Fengsheng He; Yuxin Zheng

    2005-05-15

    Theoretically, a haplotype has a higher level of heterozygosity than individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the association study based on the haplotype may have an increased power for detecting disease associations compared with SNP-based analysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP) and the inferred haplotype pairs of the X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene on chromosome damage detected by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The study included 141 coke-oven workers with exposure to a high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 66 nonexposed controls. The frequencies of total MN and MNed cells were borderline associated with the Arg{sup 194}Trp polymorphism (P = 0.053 and P = 0.050, respectively) but not associated with the Arg{sup 280}His, Arg{sup 399}Gln and Gln{sup 632}Gln polymorphisms among coke-oven workers. Five haplotypes, including CGGG, TGGG, CAGG, CGAG, and CGGA, were inferred based on the four htSNPs of XRCC1 gene. The haplotype CGGG was associated with the decreased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells, and the haplotypes TGGG and CGAG were associated with the increased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells with adjustment for covariates among coke-oven workers. This study showed that the haplotypes derived from htSNPs in the XRCC1 gene were more likely than single SNPs to correlate with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced chromosome damage among coke-oven workers.

  13. Polymorphisms of GSTT1 and GSTM1 and increased micronucleus frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes in residents at an e-waste dismantling site in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan; Guo, Huan; Yuan, Jing; He, Meian; Chen, Duohong; Shi, Jibin; Yang, Jin; Bai, Yun; Ju, Ying; Liu, Ailin; Yu, Zhiqiang; Li, Liping; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Xuemin

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes in an exposed population were associated with genotoxic effects of the pollutants from e-waste in 58 subjects (the exposed) resided in a typical e-waste recycling site and 80 subjects (the controls) from a village away from the recycling site. Effects of genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) (GSTT1 and GSTM1) on the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells (MNed BNC) in peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated. GSTM1 and GSTT1 were typed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Cytogenetic alterations were evaluated using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The MNed BNC frequency was significantly higher in the exposed group (median: 4.0 per thousand, IQR: 2.0-7.0 per thousand) than in the control group (median: 1.0 per thousand, IQR: 0.0-2.0 per thousand, P < 0.01 for both comparisons); sera GST activities were also higher in the exposed subjects with either non-null GSTT1 (mean +/- SD: 20.27 +/- 6.43) or non-null GSTM1 (mean +/- SD: 19.71 +/- 4.89) than in the controls (mean +/- SD: 18.79 +/- 4.91 and 19.34 +/- 6.42, respectively, P < 0.05 for both). Although the increased MNed BNC frequencies among the exposed group may be associated with the co-exposure of various chemical pollutants in the environment, there was no statistical evidence of an association between GSTs genotypes and frequencies of micronuclei in the study population. Because this study size was small, the mechanism of genotoxic effects caused by exposure to e-waste needs to be further validated in larger studies.

  14. Personality, punishment, and procedural learning: a test of J.A. Gray's anxiety theory.

    PubMed

    Corr, P J; Pickering, A D; Gray, J A

    1997-08-01

    Effects of punishment and personality on a phylogenetically old form of knowledge acquisition, procedural learning, were studied to test J. A. Gray's 1970, 1987, 1991) theory of anxiety. Broad measures of personality (extraversion, E.; neuroticism, N; and psychoticism, P) and specific measures of trait anxiety (Anx) and impulsivity (Imp) were taken. Punishment led to response invigoration, reducing reaction time latency, but this was not related to personality. A negative correlation of P and learning was observed in both punishment and control conditions. In support of Gray's theory, high Anx improved learning under punishment (and impaired learning under control), and low Anx improved learning under control (and impaired learning under punishment). These data are contrasted with H.J. Eysenck's (1967) arousal theory of personality. Results point to a new behavioral tool with which researchers can explore further the interaction of reinforcement, arousal, and personality.

  15. JaMBES: A "New" Way of Calculating Plate Tectonic Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambord, A. I.; Smith, E. G. C.; Sutherland, R.

    2014-12-01

    Calculating the paleoposition of tectonic plates using marine geophysical data has been usually done by using the Hellinger criterion [Hellinger, 1981]. However, for the Hellinger software [Kirkwood et al., 1999] to produce stable results, we find that the input data must be abundant and spatially well distributed. Although magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data have been increasingly abundant since the 1960s, some parts of the globe remain too sparsely explored to provide enough data for the Hellinger code to provide satisfactory rotations. In this poster, we present new software to calculate the paleopositions of tectonic plates using magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data. Our method is based on the theory of plate tectonics as introduced by [Bullard et al., 1965] and [Morgan, 1968], which states that ridge segments (ie. magnetic lineations) and fracture zones are at right angles to each other. In order to test our software, we apply it to a region of the world where climatic conditions hinder the acquisition of magnetic data: the Southwest Pacific, between New Zealand and Antarctica from breakup time to chron 20 (c43Ma). Bullard, E., J. E. Everett, and A. G. Smith (1965), The fit of continents around the atlantic, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 258(1088), 41-51. Hellinger, S. J. (1981), The uncertainties of finite rotations in plate tectonics, Journal of Geophysical Research, 86(B10), 9312-9318. Kirkwood, B. H., J. Y. Royer, T. C. Chang, and R. G. Gordon (1999), Statistical tools for estimating and combining finite rotations and their uncertainties, Geophysical Journal International, 137(2), 408-428. Morgan, W. J. (1968), Rises, trenches, great faults, and crustal blocks, Journal of Geophysical Research, 73(6), 1959-1982.

  16. Vahemmistokansat Ja Muunkielinen Sivistys: Montako Kielistrategiaa Virolle (Language Policy and Planning in the Republic of Estonia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oispuu, Jaan

    The composition of the Estonian population has changed considerably since the second World War. The number of immigrants to Estonia has been remarkable in the second half of the century. The population in Estonia is divided into two parts: Estonian (66%) and non-Estonians (34%). The composition of the population and the language situation in…

  17. The Flintlock Site (8JA1763): An Unusual Underwater Deposit in the Apalachicola River, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrell, Christopher E.; Scott-Ireton, Della A.; Smith, Roger C.; Levy, James; Knetsch, Joe

    2009-06-01

    In the fall of 2001, staff of the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research were led by river divers to an underwater site in the Apalachicola River containing a large concentration of prehistoric and historic artifacts lying on the riverbed. Subsequent inspection of the submerged river bank and scoured limestone river channel revealed a myriad of objects, which included iron fasteners, metal tools and implements, broken glass bottles, stone projectile points, scattered bricks and stone blocks, and other materials. Discovery of two large fragments of a wooden watercraft, a bayonet, a copper arrowhead, and flintlock gun barrels initially prompted researchers to hypothesize that the site might represent the remains of a U.S. Army boat that was attacked in 1817 by Seminole Indians while en route upriver. The episode, which caused the deaths of more than 30 soldiers and several women who were aboard the boat, led to the First Seminole War and the U.S. Army invasion of Florida. To investigate this hypothesis, a systematic survey of the riverbed was undertaken in the spring of 2002 to record underwater features and recover additional diagnostic artifacts. These activities employed side-scan sonar as well as diver visual investigations. This paper presents a case study of the value and broader significance of aggregate data where interpretation was underpinned by artefactual, historical and environmental analysis.

  18. Greener routes to organics and nanomaterials: Sustainable applications of nano-catalysts (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic activity involving alternate energy input and greener reaction medium in aqueous or under solvent-free conditions is summarized. This includes the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a variety of reactions catalyzed by basic water o...

  19. Japan Link Center (JaLC): link management and DOI assignment for Japanese electronic scholarly contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takafumi; Tsuchiya, Eri; Kubota, Soichi; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    JST, cooperated with several national institutes, is currently developing “Japan Link Center”, which manages Japanese electronic scholarly contents (journal articles, books, dissertations etc.) in an integrated fashion using Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Japan Link Center will manage metadata and whereabouts information of the contents in the digital environment and provide domestic and international linking information, cite/cited information to activate dissemination of S&T information, furthermore, to strengthen transmission of S&T information from Japan. Japan Link Center is expected to be appointed as the 9th DOI registration agency (RA) in the world by the International DOI Foundation (IDF) this spring.

  20. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... standard conditions of 68 °F and 1 atmosphere. b MHC = molar heat content (higher heating value basis),...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... standard conditions of 68 °F and 1 atmosphere. b MHC = molar heat content (higher heating value basis),...

  3. Electrical resistivity imaging survey to detect uncharted mine galleries in the mining district of Linares, Jaén, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-López, J.; Rey, J.; Dueñas, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Benavente, J.

    2012-02-01

    The scarcity of information about the existence of old mining shafts and galleries in urban areas is an important issue for future urban development. Electrical resistivity tomography is a non-destructive geophysical technique that can detect and characterize such subsurface cavities based on differences in the behaviour of electrical current in the void and in the embedding rock. Here we present a study in which this technique was used to determine the location of old engineered structures around the city of Linares, southern Spain, and to relate these structures to the abandoned deep mines present in the area. Eight electrical resistivity imaging profiles were performed, with a total of 22 808 measurements. Correlations between geoelectrical anomalies allow detection of the depth and the direction of several galleries, as well as the voids that result from mining extraction. Given the depth at which these structures are located (in some cases less than 5 m), they pose an important risk for future construction projects in areas of urban expansion. This technique is shown to be a useful tool for locating areas that pose important urban risks and, by extension, for the decision-making process in territorial planning, especially in areas with a history of deep mining.

  4. Alcohol use as a behavioural sign of disinhibition: evidence from J.A. Gray's model of personality.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Yolanda; Aguilar, Raúl; Molinuevo, Beatriz; Torrubia, Rafael

    2007-10-01

    Based on Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, the influence of behavioural disinhibition upon alcohol consumption was studied. A sample of undergraduates answered different questionnaires related to the Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural Activation System. In relation to alcohol use, three aspects of alcohol consumption were assessed: frequency, quantity of alcohol intake and the age at first drink. From a series of correlation and regression analyses, we found that both high scores on BAS-related scales and low scores on those scales related to the BIS were jointly associated with current alcohol-taking habits. Additionally, the Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scale (BAS) was negatively correlated with, and a predictor of, the onset age of alcohol use. We conclude by proposing that research on alcohol use can benefit from this well-grounded theory of the neuropsychology of the individual differences.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: K2-19b light curve (Armstrong+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, D. J.; Santerne, A.; Veras, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Demangeon, O.; Lillo-Box, J.; McCormac, J.; Osborn, H. P.; Tsantaki, M.; Almenara, J.-M.; Barrado, D.; Boisse, I.; Bonomo, A. S.; Brown, D. J. A.; Bruno, G.; Rey Cerda, J.; Courcol, B.; Deleuil, M.; Diaz, R. F.; Doyle, A. P.; Hebrard, G.; Kirk, J.; Lam, K. W. F.; Pollacco, D. L.; Rajpurohit, A.; Spake, J.; Walker, S. R.

    2015-08-01

    The Near Infrared Transiting ExoplanetS (NITES) Telescope is a semi-robotic 0.4m (f/10) Meade LX200GPS Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope installed at the ORM, La Palma. One transit of K2-19b was observed on 2015 Feb 28. The telescope was defocused slightly to 3.3 FWHM and 814 images of 20s exposure time were obtained with 5s dead time between each. Observations were obtained without a filter. The table presents data taken with the NITES telescope shown in Figure 1 of the publication. (1 data file).

  6. Teletext Brings TV into the Computer Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollman, Jane

    1982-01-01

    Briefly reviews two teletext services being tested in Chicago--KEYFAX and NITE-OWL--and other teletext experiments. KEYFAX offers information on news, sports, weather/travel, and leisure, which can be selected and displayed on the screen of a home television set by punching code numbers on a remote-control device. (JJD)

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Sphingopyxis macrogoltabida Type Strain NBRC 15033, Originally Isolated as a Polyethylene Glycol Degrader

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Yuji; Numata, Mitsuru; Tsuchikane, Kieko; Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Tsuda, Masataka; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Fusako

    2015-01-01

    Sphingopyxis macrogoltabida strain 203, the type strain of the species, grew on polyethylene glycol (PEG) and has been deposited to the stock culture at the Biological Resource Center, National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (NITE), under the number NBRC 15033. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain NBRC 15033. Unfortunately, genes for PEG degradation were missing. PMID:26659674

  8. Does SMS Text Messaging Help or Harm Adults' Knowledge of Standard Spelling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, D.; Dixon, M.

    2011-01-01

    The recent increase in short messaging system (SMS) text messaging, often using abbreviated, non-conventional "textisms" (e.g. "2nite"), in school-aged children has raised fears of negative consequences of such technology for literacy. The current research used a paradigm developed by Dixon and Kaminska, who showed that exposure to phonetically…

  9. 42 CFR 488.105 - Long term care survey forms, Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part B. 488.105 Section 488.105 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... EC01JA91.082 EC01JA91.083 EC01JA91.084 EC01JA91.085 EC01JA91.086 EC01JA91.087 EC01JA91.088...

  10. Expression Patterns of Three UGT Genes in Different Chemotype Safflower Lines and under MeJA Stimulus Revealed Their Potential Role in Flavonoid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dan-Dan; Liu, Fei; Tu, Yan-Hua; He, Bei-Xuan; Gao, Yue; Guo, Mei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant in China. Flavonoids are the dominant active medical compounds. UDP-glycosyltransferase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis and storage of flavonoids in safflower. In this study, 45 UGT unigenes were screened from our transcriptomic database of safflower. Among them, 27 UGT unigenes were predicted to own a complete open reading frame with various pI and Mw. The phylogenetic tree showed that CtUGT3 and CtUGT16 were classified under the UGT71 subfamily involved in metabolite process, whereas CtUGT25 has high identities with PoUGT both catalyzing the glycosylation of flavonoids and belonging to the UGT90 subfamily. cDNA microarray exhibited that the three UGT genes displayed temporal difference in two chemotype safflower lines. To functionally characterize UGT in safflower, CtUGT3, CtUGT16 and CtUGT25 were cloned and analyzed. Subcellular localization suggested that the three UGTs might be located in the cell cytoplasm and chloroplast. The expression pattern showed that the three UGTs were all suppressed in two lines responsive to methyl jasmonate induction. The co-expression relation of expression pattern and metabolite accumulation demonstrated that CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and CtUGT16 was positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in yellow line, whereas CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in white line. This study indicates that the three CtUGTs play a significant and multiple role in flavonoids biosynthesis with presenting different functional characterization in two safflower lines.

  11. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures using screening-level life cycle assessment to support sustainable consumer electronics (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use...

  12. Puolin ja toisin: Suomalais-virolaista kielentutkimusta. AFinLAn vuosikirja 1998 (On Both Sides: Finnish-Estonian Research on Language. AFinLA Yearbook 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luukka, Minna-Riitta, Ed.; Salla, Sigrid, Ed.; Dufva, Hannele, Ed.

    The papers included in this yearbook of the Finnish Society of Applied Linguistics (AFinLA) were presented at the 1998 AFinLA conference "Linguistics and Finland: Crossing the Gulf." Papers are in Finnish, Estonian, or English, but all have accompanying English abstracts. The topics discussed in the papers include the following: speed and accuracy…

  13. On the Specification of the Domain of Writing = Kohti Kirjoittamisen Kuvailua ja Erittelya. Reports from the Institute for Educational Research, 333/1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Sauli; Vahapassi, Anneli

    Twenty countries are participating in the IEA International Study of Written Composition, for which this is a background report. school-based writing in particular, this report discusses the functions of writing from the point of view of culture, cognition, and child development. It also presents a usable model for constructing and evaluating…

  14. The Arabidopsis Pep-PEPR system is induced by herbivore feeding and contributes to JA-mediated plant defence against herbivory.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Dominik; Desurmont, Gaylord A; Glauser, Gaétan; Vallat, Armelle; Flury, Pascale; Boller, Thomas; Turlings, Ted C J; Bartels, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    A number of plant endogenous elicitors have been identified that induce pattern-triggered immunity upon perception. In Arabidopsis thaliana eight small precursor proteins, called PROPEPs, are thought to be cleaved upon danger to release eight peptides known as the plant elicitor peptides Peps. As the expression of some PROPEPs is induced upon biotic stress and perception of any of the eight Peps triggers a defence response, they are regarded as amplifiers of immunity. Besides the induction of defences directed against microbial colonization Peps have also been connected with herbivore deterrence as they share certain similarities to systemins, known mediators of defence signalling against herbivores in solanaceous plants, and they positively interact with the phytohormone jasmonic acid. A recent study using maize indicated that the application of ZmPep3, a maize AtPep-orthologue, elicits anti-herbivore responses. However, as this study only assessed the responses triggered by the exogenous application of Peps, the biological significance of these findings remained open. By using Arabidopsis GUS-reporter lines, it is now shown that the promoters of both Pep-receptors, PEPR1 and PEPR2, as well as PROPEP3 are strongly activated upon herbivore attack. Moreover, pepr1 pepr2 double mutant plants, which are insensitive to Peps, display a reduced resistance to feeding Spodoptera littoralis larvae and a reduced accumulation of jasmonic acid upon exposure to herbivore oral secretions. Taken together, these lines of evidence extend the role of the AtPep-PEPR system as a danger detection mechanism from microbial pathogens to herbivores and further underline its strong interaction with jasmonic acid signalling.

  15. Expression Patterns of Three UGT Genes in Different Chemotype Safflower Lines and under MeJA Stimulus Revealed Their Potential Role in Flavonoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dan-Dan; Liu, Fei; Tu, Yan-Hua; He, Bei-Xuan; Gao, Yue; Guo, Mei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant in China. Flavonoids are the dominant active medical compounds. UDP-glycosyltransferase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis and storage of flavonoids in safflower. In this study, 45 UGT unigenes were screened from our transcriptomic database of safflower. Among them, 27 UGT unigenes were predicted to own a complete open reading frame with various pI and Mw. The phylogenetic tree showed that CtUGT3 and CtUGT16 were classified under the UGT71 subfamily involved in metabolite process, whereas CtUGT25 has high identities with PoUGT both catalyzing the glycosylation of flavonoids and belonging to the UGT90 subfamily. cDNA microarray exhibited that the three UGT genes displayed temporal difference in two chemotype safflower lines. To functionally characterize UGT in safflower, CtUGT3, CtUGT16 and CtUGT25 were cloned and analyzed. Subcellular localization suggested that the three UGTs might be located in the cell cytoplasm and chloroplast. The expression pattern showed that the three UGTs were all suppressed in two lines responsive to methyl jasmonate induction. The co-expression relation of expression pattern and metabolite accumulation demonstrated that CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and CtUGT16 was positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in yellow line, whereas CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in white line. This study indicates that the three CtUGTs play a significant and multiple role in flavonoids biosynthesis with presenting different functional characterization in two safflower lines. PMID:27391785

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses between a Spontaneous Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type Suggest the Functions of ABA, Sucrose and JA during Citrus Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Jian; Wang, Xing-Jian; Wu, Ju-Xun; Chen, Shan-Yan; Chen, Hong; Chai, Li-Jun; Yi, Hua-Lin

    2014-01-01

    A spontaneous late-ripening mutant of ‘Jincheng’ (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange exhibited a delay of fruit pigmentation and harvesting. In this work, we studied the processes of orange fruit ripening through the comparative analysis between the Jincheng mutant and its wild type. This study revealed that the fruit quality began to differ on 166th days after anthesis. At this stage, fruits were subjected to transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing. 13,412 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were found. Of these unigenes, 75.8% were down-regulated in the wild type, suggesting that the transcription level of wild type was lower than that of the mutant during this stage. These DEGs were mainly clustered into five pathways: metabolic pathways, plant-pathogen interaction, spliceosome, biosynthesis of plant hormones and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that are involved in abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid metabolism and signal transduction pathways were analyzed during the six fruit ripening stages. The results revealed the regulation mechanism of sweet orange fruit ripening metabolism in the following four aspects: First, the more mature orange fruits were, the lower the transcription levels were. Second, the expression level of PME boosted with the maturity of the citrus fruit. Therefore, the expression level of PME might represent the degree of the orange fruit ripeness. Third, the interaction of PP2C, PYR/PYL, and SnRK2 was peculiar to the orange fruit ripening process. Fourth, abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid all took part in orange fruit ripening process and might interact with each other. These findings provide an insight into the intricate process of sweet orange fruit ripening. PMID:25551568

  17. ABA is an essential signal for plant resistance to pathogens affecting JA biosynthesis and the activation of plant defenses in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense responses have been studied through a limited number of models that may have constrained our view of plant-pathogen interactions. Discovery of new defense mechanisms should be favored by broadening the range of pathogens under study. With this aim, Arabidopsis defense response to the ‘...

  18. Kommunikation ja, aber auf welcher Basis? ZE-Diskussion. Pattern Drill (Communication, Yes, but on What Basis? ZE Discussion. Pattern Drill)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Albert

    1976-01-01

    Argues for pattern drill as an indispensable link in the learning process: presentation, explanation, practice, performance. Opponents of pattern practice are suspected of confusing goal (communication) with means (drill phase). (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  19. Expression Patterns of Three UGT Genes in Different Chemotype Safflower Lines and under MeJA Stimulus Revealed Their Potential Role in Flavonoid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dan-Dan; Liu, Fei; Tu, Yan-Hua; He, Bei-Xuan; Gao, Yue; Guo, Mei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant in China. Flavonoids are the dominant active medical compounds. UDP-glycosyltransferase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis and storage of flavonoids in safflower. In this study, 45 UGT unigenes were screened from our transcriptomic database of safflower. Among them, 27 UGT unigenes were predicted to own a complete open reading frame with various pI and Mw. The phylogenetic tree showed that CtUGT3 and CtUGT16 were classified under the UGT71 subfamily involved in metabolite process, whereas CtUGT25 has high identities with PoUGT both catalyzing the glycosylation of flavonoids and belonging to the UGT90 subfamily. cDNA microarray exhibited that the three UGT genes displayed temporal difference in two chemotype safflower lines. To functionally characterize UGT in safflower, CtUGT3, CtUGT16 and CtUGT25 were cloned and analyzed. Subcellular localization suggested that the three UGTs might be located in the cell cytoplasm and chloroplast. The expression pattern showed that the three UGTs were all suppressed in two lines responsive to methyl jasmonate induction. The co-expression relation of expression pattern and metabolite accumulation demonstrated that CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and CtUGT16 was positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in yellow line, whereas CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in white line. This study indicates that the three CtUGTs play a significant and multiple role in flavonoids biosynthesis with presenting different functional characterization in two safflower lines. PMID:27391785

  20. Computer program documentation modified version of the JA70 aerodynamic heating computer program H800 (MINIVER with a DISSPLA plot package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olmedo, L.

    1980-01-01

    The changes, modifications, and inclusions which were adapted to the current version of the MINIVER program are discussed. Extensive modifications were made to various subroutines, and a new plot package added. This plot package is the Johnson Space Center DISSPLA Graphics System currently driven under an 1110 EXEC 8 configuration. User instructions on executing the MINIVER program are provided and the plot package is described.

  1. State-Level Mandates for Financial Literacy Education, JA Finance Park, and the Impact on Eighth-Grade Students in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the Colorado General Assembly passed legislation requiring the adoption of personal financial literacy (PFL) education standards for kindergarten through 12th-grade students. Beginning in 2014, the state plans to conduct standardized testing to determine financial literacy of 3rd- through 12th-grade students. The state did not allocate…

  2. Hg soil pollution around a decommissioned and unrestored Chlor-alkali plant: Jodar, Jaén province, SE Spain. Incidence in other environmental compartments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Higueras, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil pollution and its consequences around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The plant was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hidrargirism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, together with the analysis of olive-tree leaves from the same area. 75 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm. and 15-30 cm), together with 75 olive tree samples, 5 water samples. Besides, two monitoring surveys for total gaseous mercury in the atmosphere were performed. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device, with GPS georreferenciation of the analysis points. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. A local reference level was calculated as GM + 2SD (where GM is the geometric mean and SD the standard deviation). With this reference level it was possible to delimitate a contaminated soil area centered on the decommissioned chlor-alkali plant. A high affinity of local olive trees to accumulate mercury from the contaminated soil was also found, with a calculated maximum mercury content of 243.5 ng g-1. This maximum level is slightly higher than tolerable level for agronomic crops. Total mercury content in the analyzed waters was slightly higher than the chronic exposure level for aquatic life. Atmospheric mercury levels registered on the study area were much lower than most restrictive levels for chronic exposure. The area of influence of the facility (in terms of mercury content in air) was restricted to distances between 100 and 200 meters, depending on meteorological conditions. Main conclusions of this research work are the following: i) The Jódar decommissioned chlor-alkali plant is still a mercury source 20 years after its cease of activities without any reclamation measures; ii) The activity of the plant has produced an important dissemination of mercury in the surrounding environment; and iii) The corresponding pollution levels, in particular in soils, may suppose a risk to the main crops of the area (olive trees).

  3. STS 127 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-127) and International Space Station (2J/A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 grab sample canisters (GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported. The toxicological assessment of 9 GSCs and 6 pairs of formaldehyde badges from the ISS is also reported. Other than a problem with traces of acrolein in the samples, the air quality was acceptable for respiration.

  4. Dacryoadenite tuberculeuse bilatérale: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Rezzoug, Bekkay; Tzili, Nazih; Ali, Hassan; Elyamouni, Oubaida; El Khaoua, Mahfoud; Elorch, Hamza; El Hlimi, Redouane; El Hassan, Abdallah; Berraho, Amina

    2015-01-01

    La dacryoadénite tuberculeuse est une inflammation rare de la glande lacrymale causé par le bacille Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Elle pose un problème étiopathogénique et diagnostique. Nous rapportons dans cette observation le cas d'une dacryoadénite tuberculeuse bilatérale chez un jeune homme Marocain de 34 ans ayant présenté une tuberculose ganglionnaire et du cavum il y à 14 ans, ayant été confirmé par l'examen anatomopathologique. La tuberculose reste un diagnostic qui doit être toujours évoqué même dans les atteinte bilatérale surtout si il y a un antécédent personnel ou familiale positif de tuberculose. Le pronostic de cette affection est devenu favorable grâce au traitement antibacillaire précoce. PMID:26015846

  5. Binary Schemes of Vapor Bubble Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zudin, Yu. B.

    2015-05-01

    A problem on spherically symmetric growth of a vapor bubble in an infi nite volume of a uniformly superheated liquid is considered. A description of the limiting schemes of bubble growth is presented. A binary inertial-thermal bubble growth scheme characterized by such specifi c features as the "three quarters" growth law and the effect of "pressure blocking" in a vapor phase is considered.

  6. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  7. Mineral transformations associated with goethite reduction by Methanosarcina barkeri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, D.; Wang, Hongfang; Dong, H.; Qiu, X.; Dong, X.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the interaction between methanogens and iron-containing minerals in anoxic environments, we conducted batch culture experiments with Methanosarcina barkeri in a phosphate-buffered basal medium (PBBM) to bioreduce structural Fe(III) in goethite with hydrogen as the sole substrate. Fe(II) and methane concentrations were monitored over the course of the bioreduction experiments with wet chemistry and gas chromatography, respectively. Subsequent mineralogical changes were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the presence of an electron shuttle anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), 30% Fe(III) in goethite (weight basis) was reduced to Fe(II). In contrast, only 2% Fe(III) (weight basis) was bioreduced in the absence of AQDS. Most of the bioproduced Fe(II) was incorporated into secondary minerals including dufr??nite and vivianite. Our data implied a dufr??nite-vivianite transformation mechanism where a metastable dufr??nite transformed to a more stable vivianite over extended time in anaerobic conditions. Methanogenesis was greatly inhibited by bioreduction of goethite Fe(III). These results have important implications for the methane flux associated with Fe(III) bioreduction and ferrous iron mineral precipitation in anaerobic soils and sediments. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Series and parallel arc-fault circuit interrupter tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Fresquez, Armando J.; Gudgel, Bob; Meares, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    While the 2011 National Electrical Codeª (NEC) only requires series arc-fault protection, some arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) manufacturers are designing products to detect and mitigate both series and parallel arc-faults. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has extensively investigated the electrical differences of series and parallel arc-faults and has offered possible classification and mitigation solutions. As part of this effort, Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with MidNite Solar to create and test a 24-string combiner box with an AFCI which detects, differentiates, and de-energizes series and parallel arc-faults. In the case of the MidNite AFCI prototype, series arc-faults are mitigated by opening the PV strings, whereas parallel arc-faults are mitigated by shorting the array. A range of different experimental series and parallel arc-fault tests with the MidNite combiner box were performed at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) at SNL in Albuquerque, NM. In all the tests, the prototype de-energized the arc-faults in the time period required by the arc-fault circuit interrupt testing standard, UL 1699B. The experimental tests confirm series and parallel arc-faults can be successfully mitigated with a combiner box-integrated solution.

  9. Multi-Hadron Observables from Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Maxwell

    2014-01-01

    We describe formal work that relates the nite-volume spectrum in a quantum eld theory to scattering and decay amplitudes. This is of particular relevance to numerical calculations performed using Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD). Correlators calculated using LQCD can only be determined on the Euclidean time axis. For this reason the standard method of determining scattering amplitudes via the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formula cannot be employed. By contrast, the nite-volume spectrum is directly accessible in LQCD calculations. Formalism for relating the spectrum to physical scattering observables is thus highly desirable. In this thesis we develop tools for extracting physical information from LQCD for four types of observables. First we analyze systems with multiple, strongly-coupled two-scalar channels. Here we accommodate both identical and nonidentical scalars, and in the latter case allow for degenerate as well as nondegenerate particle masses. Using relativistic eld theory, and summing to all orders in perturbation theory, we derive a result relating the nite-volume spectrum to the two-to-two scattering amplitudes of the coupled-channel theory. This generalizes the formalism of Martin L uscher for the case of single-channel scattering. Second we consider the weak decay of a single particle into multiple, coupled two-scalar channels. We show how the nite-volume matrix element extracted in LQCD is related to matrix elements of asymptotic two-particle states, and thus to decay amplitudes. This generalizes work by Laurent Lellouch and Martin L uscher. Third we extend the method for extracting matrix elements by considering currents which insert energy, momentum and angular momentum. This allows one to extract transition matrix elements and form factors from LQCD. Finally we look beyond two-particle systems to those with three-particles in asymptotic states. Working again to all orders in relativistic eld theory, we derive a relation between the

  10. 78 FR 649 - Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... ] TD03JA13.085 ] TD03JA13.086 ] TD03JA13.087 ] TD03JA13.088 [FR Doc. 2013-00002 Filed 1-2-13; 11:15 a.m... PROPOSED RULES Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Smoking-Cessation Products: Report to Congress...

  11. 42 CFR 488.115 - Care guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Care guidelines. 488.115 Section 488.115 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 488.115 Care guidelines. EC01JA91.110 EC01JA91.111 EC01JA91.112 EC01JA91.113 EC01JA91.114...

  12. Hydroxylated jasmonates are commonly occurring metabolites of jasmonic acid and contribute to a partial switch-off in jasmonate signaling.

    PubMed

    Miersch, Otto; Neumerkel, Jana; Dippe, Martin; Stenzel, Irene; Wasternack, Claus

    2008-01-01

    In potato 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid (12-OH-JA) is a tuber-inducing compound. Here, it is demonstrated that 12-OH-JA, as well as its sulfated and glucosylated derivatives, are constituents of various organs of many plant species. All accumulate differentially and usually to much higher concentrations than jasmonic acid (JA). In wounded tomato leaves, 12-OH-JA and its sulfated, as well as glucosylated, derivative accumulate after JA, and their diminished accumulation in wounded leaves of the JA-deficient mutants spr2 and acx1 and also a JA-deficient 35S::AOCantisense line suggest their JA-dependent formation. To elucidate how signaling properties of JA/JAME (jasmonic acid methyl ester) are affected by hydroxylation and sulfation, germination and root growth were recorded in the presence of the different jasmonates, indicating that 12-OH-JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid sulfate (12-HSO(4)-JA) were not bioactive. Expression analyses for 29 genes showed that expression of wound-inducible genes such as those coding for PROTEINASE INHIBITOR2, POLYPHENOL OXIDASE, THREONINE DEAMINASE or ARGINASE was induced by JAME and less induced or even down-regulated by 12-OH-JA and 12-HSO(4)-JA. Almost all genes coding for enzymes in JA biosynthesis were up-regulated by JAME but down-regulated by 12-OH-JA and 12-HSO(4)-JA. The data suggest that wound-induced metabolic conversion of JA/JAME into 12-OH-JA alters expression pattern of genes including a switch off in JA signaling for a subset of genes. PMID:17995915

  13. A randomized comparison of hemoglobin content-based versus standard (unit-based) red blood cell transfusion policy.

    PubMed

    Atilla, Erden; Toprak, Selami Koçak; Civriz Bozdağ, Sinem; Topçuoğlu, Pervin; Arslan, Önder

    2015-02-20

    Amaç: Eritrosit süspansiyonu (ES) ünitelerinin hacimleri standart kriterlerle belirlenmişse de hemoglobin (Hb) içerikleri farklıdır. Halen klinik rutin transfüzyon uygulamaları, eritrosit süspansiyonlarının ünite sayısına dayanmaktadır. Biz bu çalışma ile iki yöntemin etkinliklerini karşılaştırmayı amaçladık. Materyal ve Metod: Ortanca yaşı 46 (19-75) olan 89 hastaya (55 erkek; 34 kadın) 178 transfüzyon epizodu; 92’ si çalışma, 86’ sı kontrol kolun olarak randomize edildi. 51 hasta 1, 38 hasta ≥2 epizotta değerlendirildi (ortanca 3; 1-7). Hesaplamalar kan bankalarımızda kullanılan, Hemosoft İşletim Sistemi’yle yapıldı. Çalışma kolunda alıcı; boy, güncel kilo, güncel ve hedef Hb verileri ile gerekli Hb miktarı hesaplandı. Uygun ünite bulunamayanlarda (başarısız) ve kontrol kolunda istenen sayıda ES ünitesi gönderildi. Bulgular: Çalışma kolunda 38 epizotta ES ünitesi isteme göre %19.8 olarak azaldı. Uygun Hb içeriğinde ünite bulma başarısı; düşük kilolu, kısa boylu hastalarda ve ES stok sayısı fazla olduğunda; daha yüksek bulundu. Hedeflenen Hb değerine ulaşma oranları; çalışma ve kontrol kolunda (p=0,1), başarılı ve başarısız gruplarda (p=0,3), kontrol kolu ve başarısız grupta (p= 0,4); istatistiksel olarak benzer bulundu. Ünite Hb içeriği ve hedef Hb’e ulaşma ilişkisinin, anlamlı olduğu gösterildi (p=0,01). Raf ömrü ve hedef Hb’e ulaşma ilişkisi anlamsızdı (p=0,7). Sonuç: Hb içeriğine dayalı ve ünite sayısına dayalı ES transfüzyonlarının, etkinliklerinin benzerdir ve Hb içeriğine dayalı transfüzyon ile ünite sayısı azaltılabilir.

  14. Human factors and safety considerations of night-vision systems flight using thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Verona, Robert W.; Crowley, John S.

    1990-10-01

    Helmet Mounted Systems (HMS) must be lightweight, balanced and compatible with life support and head protection assemblies. This paper discusses the design of one particular HMS, the GEC Ferranti NITE-OP/NIGHTBIRD aviator's Night Vision Goggle (NVG) developed under contracts to the Ministry of Defence for all three services in the United Kingdom (UK) for Rotary Wing and fast jet aircraft. The existing equipment constraints, safety, human factor and optical performance requirements are discussed before the design solution is presented after consideration of these material and manufacturing options.

  15. Development of an aviator's helmet-mounted night-vision goggle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Gerry H.; McFarlane, Robert J.

    1990-10-01

    Helmet Mounted Systems (HMS) must be lightweight, balanced and compatible with life support and head protection assemblies. This paper discusses the design of one particular HMS, the GEC Ferranti NITE-OP/NIGHTBIRD aviator's Night Vision Goggle (NVG) developed under contracts to the Ministry of Defence for all three services in the United Kingdom (UK) for Rotary Wing and fast jet aircraft. The existing equipment constraints, safety, human factor and optical performance requirements are discussed before the design solution is presented after consideration of these material and manufacturing options.

  16. Geometrical Optics of Dense Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Michael J.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2013-04-24

    Assembling a free-standing, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rare ed than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed fi eld, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the nite particle density reduces the eff ective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing. __________________________________________________

  17. Revolutionary Concepts of Radiation Shielding for Human Exploration of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Hathaway, D. H.; Grugel, R. N.; Watts, J. W.; Parnell, T. A.; Gregory, J. C.; Winglee, R. M.

    2005-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum covers revolutionary ideas for space radiation shielding that would mitigate mission costs while limiting human exposure, as studied in a workshop held at Marshall Space Flight Center at the request of NASA Headquarters. None of the revolutionary new ideas examined for the .rst time in this workshop showed clear promise. The workshop attendees felt that some previously examined concepts were de.nitely useful and should be pursued. The workshop attendees also concluded that several of the new concepts warranted further investigation to clarify their value.

  18. A cable SGEMP tutorial :

    SciTech Connect

    Liscum-Powell, Jennifer L.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Turner, C. David

    2007-05-01

    This tutorial is aimed at guiding a user through the process of performing a cable SGEMP simulation. The tutorial starts with processing a differential photon spectrum obtained from a Monte Carlo code such as ITS into a discrete (multi-group) spectrum used in CEPXS and CEPTRE. Guidance is given in the creation of a nite element mesh of the cable geometry. The set-up of a CEPTRE simulation is detailed. Users are instructed in evaluating the quality of the CEPTRE radiation transport results. The post-processing of CEPTRE results using Exostrip is detailed. And finally, an EMPHASIS/CABANA simulation is detailed including the interpretation of the output.

  19. A Global, Multi-Resolution Approach to Regional Ocean Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Qiang

    2013-11-08

    In this collaborative research project between Pennsylvania State University, Colorado State University and Florida State University, we mainly focused on developing multi-resolution algorithms which are suitable to regional ocean modeling. We developed hybrid implicit and explicit adaptive multirate time integration method to solve systems of time-dependent equations that present two signi cantly di erent scales. We studied the e ects of spatial simplicial meshes on the stability and the conditioning of fully discrete approximations. We also studies adaptive nite element method (AFEM) based upon the Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT) and superconvergent gradient recovery. Some of these techniques are now being used by geoscientists(such as those at LANL).

  20. Remote Infrared Thermography for In-Flight Flow Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiu, H. J.; vanDam, C. P.

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of remote in-flight boundary layer visualization via infrared in incompressible flow was established in earlier flight experiments. The past year's efforts focused on refining and determining the extent and accuracy of this technique of remote in-flight flow visualization via infrared. Investigations were made into flow separation visualization, visualization at transonic conditions, shock visualization, post-processing to mitigate banding noise in the NITE Hawk's thermograms, and a numeric model to predict surface temperature distributions. Although further flight tests are recommended, this technique continues to be promising.

  1. Modeling of Reduction in the Drag and of Cessation of the Action of an Alternating Transverse Force on a Circular Cylinder due to the Throttling Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, S. A.; Sudakov, A. G.; Zhukova, Yu. V.; Usachovd, A. E.

    2014-07-01

    An analysis of the physical processes in unsteady fl ow past a circular cylinder surrounded by a sheath with ports for bleeding of the medium has been made by a factorized fi nite-volume method on the basis of numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations closed with the Menter sheer-stress-transfer model. It has been shown that such arrangement of a circular cylinder ensures stabilization of the wake of the cylinder, and also the reduction in its drag and cessation of the action of an alternating transverse force at Reynolds numbers higher than 105.

  2. CSR instability in a Bunch Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupakov, G. V.

    2002-03-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation of a bunch in a bunch compressor may lead to the microwave instability producing longitudinal modulation of the bunch with wavelengths small compared to the bunch length. It can also be a source of an undesirable emittance growth in the compressor. We derive and analyze the equation that describes linear evolution of the microwave modulation taking into account incoherent energy spread and nite emittance of the beam. Numerical solution of this equatierenton for the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) bunch compressor gives the amplication factor for different wavelengths of the beam microbunching.

  3. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice

    PubMed Central

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice. PMID:23518581

  4. Jasmonic Acid and Its Precursor 12-Oxophytodienoic Acid Control Different Aspects of Constitutive and Induced Herbivore Defenses in Tomato1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Marko; Wright, Louwrance P.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina; Schaller, Andreas; Stintzi, Annick

    2014-01-01

    The jasmonate family of growth regulators includes the isoleucine (Ile) conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA-Ile) and its biosynthetic precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) as signaling molecules. To assess the relative contribution of JA/JA-Ile and OPDA to insect resistance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we silenced the expression of OPDA reductase3 (OPR3) by RNA interference (RNAi). Consistent with a block in the biosynthetic pathway downstream of OPDA, OPR3-RNAi plants contained wild-type levels of OPDA but failed to accumulate JA or JA-Ile after wounding. JA/JA-Ile deficiency in OPR3-RNAi plants resulted in reduced trichome formation and impaired monoterpene and sesquiterpene production. The loss of these JA/JA-Ile -dependent defense traits rendered them more attractive to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta with respect to feeding and oviposition. Oviposition preference resulted from reduced levels of repellant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Feeding preference, on the other hand, was caused by increased production of cis-3-hexenal acting as a feeding stimulant for M. sexta larvae in OPR3-RNAi plants. Despite impaired constitutive defenses and increased palatability of OPR3-RNAi leaves, larval development was indistinguishable on OPR3-RNAi and wild-type plants, and was much delayed compared with development on the jasmonic acid-insensitive1 (jai1) mutant. Apparently, signaling through JAI1, the tomato ortholog of the ubiquitin ligase CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is required for defense, whereas the conversion of OPDA to JA/JA-Ile is not. Comparing the signaling activities of OPDA and JA/JA-Ile, we found that OPDA can substitute for JA/JA-Ile in the local induction of defense gene expression, but the production of JA/JA-Ile is required for a systemic response. PMID:25073705

  5. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F

    2016-01-01

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action.

  6. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F

    2016-01-01

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action. PMID:27187230

  7. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F; Raso, Rossella; Ruta, Liliana; Rossi, Ilaria; Ballarani, Agnese; Fulceri, Francesca; Darini, Alessandra; Maroscia, Emilia; Lattarulo, Caterina; Tortorella, Gaetano; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Comminiello, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action. PMID:27187230

  8. Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Inactivation of the Hormone Jasmonoyl-l-Isoleucine by Multiple Members of the Cytochrome P450 94 Family in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J.; Thireault, Caitlin; Zemelis, Starla; Poudel, Arati N.; Zhang, Tong; Kitaoka, Naoki; Brandizzi, Federica; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) controls diverse aspects of plant immunity, growth, and development. The amplitude and duration of JA responses are controlled in large part by the intracellular level of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile). In contrast to detailed knowledge of the JA-Ile biosynthetic pathway, little is known about enzymes involved in JA-Ile metabolism and turnover. Cytochromes P450 (CYP) 94B3 and 94C1 were recently shown to sequentially oxidize JA-Ile to hydroxy (12OH-JA-Ile) and dicarboxy (12COOH-JA-Ile) derivatives. Here, we report that a third member (CYP94B1) of the CYP94 family also participates in oxidative turnover of JA-Ile in Arabidopsis. In vitro studies showed that recombinant CYP94B1 converts JA-Ile to 12OH-JA-Ile and lesser amounts of 12COOH-JA-Ile. Consistent with this finding, metabolic and physiological characterization of CYP94B1 loss-of-function and overexpressing plants demonstrated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 coordinately govern the majority (>95%) of 12-hydroxylation of JA-Ile in wounded leaves. Analysis of CYP94-promoter-GUS reporter lines indicated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 serve unique and overlapping spatio-temporal roles in JA-Ile homeostasis. Subcellular localization studies showed that CYP94s involved in conversion of JA-Ile to 12COOH-JA-Ile reside on endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In vitro studies further showed that 12COOH-JA-Ile, unlike JA-Ile, fails to promote assembly of COI1-JAZ co-receptor complexes. The double loss-of-function mutant of CYP94B3 and ILL6, a JA-Ile amidohydrolase, displayed a JA profile consistent with the collaborative action of the oxidative and the hydrolytic pathways in JA-Ile turnover. Collectively, our results provide an integrated view of how multiple ER-localized CYP94 and JA amidohydrolase enzymes attenuate JA signaling during stress responses. PMID:25210037

  9. Phlegmasia cerulea dolens

    MedlinePlus

    Deep vein thrombosis - Phlegmasia cerulea dolens; DVT - Phlegmasia cerulea dolens; Phlegmasia alba dolens ... 81. Kline JA. Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  10. Natal teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap 12. Dean JA, Turner EG. Eruption of the teeth: local, systemic, and congenital factors that influence the process. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child ...

  11. Identification of jasmonic acid and its methyl ester as gum-inducing factors in tulips.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Edyta; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify endogenous factors that induce gummosis and to show their role in gummosis in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) stems. Using procedures to detect endogenous factors that induce gum in the stem of tulips, jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) were successfully identified using gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total amounts of JA and JA-Me designated as jasmonates in tulip stems were also estimated at about 70-80 ng/g fresh weight, using deuterium-labeled jasmonates as internal standards. The application of JA and JA-Me as lanolin pastes substantially induced gums in tulip stems with ethylene production. The application of ethephon, an ethylene-generating compound, however, induced no gummosis although it slightly affected jasmonate content in tulip stems. These results strongly suggest that JA and JA-Me are endogenous factors that induce gummosis in tulip stems.

  12. Juvenile Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss ... common type of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of ...

  13. Accuracy Analysis for Finite-Volume Discretization Schemes on Irregular Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2010-01-01

    A new computational analysis tool, downscaling test, is introduced and applied for studying the convergence rates of truncation and discretization errors of nite-volume discretization schemes on general irregular (e.g., unstructured) grids. The study shows that the design-order convergence of discretization errors can be achieved even when truncation errors exhibit a lower-order convergence or, in some cases, do not converge at all. The downscaling test is a general, efficient, accurate, and practical tool, enabling straightforward extension of verification and validation to general unstructured grid formulations. It also allows separate analysis of the interior, boundaries, and singularities that could be useful even in structured-grid settings. There are several new findings arising from the use of the downscaling test analysis. It is shown that the discretization accuracy of a common node-centered nite-volume scheme, known to be second-order accurate for inviscid equations on triangular grids, degenerates to first order for mixed grids. Alternative node-centered schemes are presented and demonstrated to provide second and third order accuracies on general mixed grids. The local accuracy deterioration at intersections of tangency and in flow/outflow boundaries is demonstrated using the DS tests tailored to examining the local behavior of the boundary conditions. The discretization-error order reduction within inviscid stagnation regions is demonstrated. The accuracy deterioration is local, affecting mainly the velocity components, but applies to any order scheme.

  14. Simulation of Non-resonant Internal Kink Mode with Toroidal Rotation in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Guoyong

    2013-07-16

    Plasmas in spherical and conventional tokamaks, with weakly reversed shear q pro le and minimum q above but close to unity, are susceptible to an non-resonant (m, n ) = (1, 1) internal kink mode. This mode can saturate and persist and can induce a (2; 1) seed island for Neoclassical Tearing Mode (NTMs)1 . The mode can also lead to large energetic particle transport and signi cant broadening of beam-driven current. Motivated by these important e ects, we have carried out extensive nonlinear simulations of the mode with nite toroidal rotation using parameters and pro les of an NTSX plasma with a weakly reversed shear pro le. The numerical results show that, at the experimental level, plasma rotation has little e ect on either equilibrium or linear stability. However, rotation can signi cantly inuence the nonlinear dynamics of the (1, 1) mode and the the induced (2, 1) magnetic island. The simulation results show that a rotating helical equilibrium is formed and maintained in the nonlinear phase at nite plasma rotation. In contrast, for non-rotating cases, the nonlinear evolution exhibits dynamic oscillations between a quasi-2D state and a helical state. Furthermore, the e ects of rotation are found to greatly suppress the (2, 1) magnetic island even at a low level.

  15. Collaborative Research: Robust Climate Projections and Stochastic Stability of Dynamical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ghil, Michael; McWilliams, James; Neelin, J. David; Zaliapin, Ilya; Chekroun, Mickael; Kondrashov, Dmitri; Simonnet, Eric

    2011-10-13

    The project was completed along the lines of the original proposal, with additional elements arising as new results were obtained. The originally proposed three thrusts were expanded to include an additional, fourth one. (i) The e ffects of stochastic perturbations on climate models have been examined at the fundamental level by using the theory of deterministic and random dynamical systems, in both nite and in nite dimensions. (ii) The theoretical results have been implemented first on a delay-diff erential equation (DDE) model of the El-Nino/Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. (iii) More detailed, physical aspects of model robustness have been considered, as proposed, within the stripped-down ICTP-AGCM (formerly SPEEDY) climate model. This aspect of the research has been complemented by both observational and intermediate-model aspects of mid-latitude and tropical climate. (iv) An additional thrust of the research relied on new and unexpected results of (i) and involved reduced-modeling strategies and associated prediction aspects have been tested within the team's empirical model reduction (EMR) framework. Finally, more detailed, physical aspects have been considered within the stripped-down SPEEDY climate model. The results of each of these four complementary e fforts are presented in the next four sections, organized by topic and by the team members concentrating on the topic under discussion.

  16. A COMPARISON OF DNA DAMAGE PROBES IN TWO HMEC LINES WITH X-IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wisnewski, C.L.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Rosen, C.J.; Chang, P.Y.; Blakely, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated γH2AXser139 and 53BP1ser25, DNA damage pathway markers, to observe responses to radiation insult. Two Human Mammary Epithelial Cell (HMEC) lines were utilized to research the role of immortalization in DNA damage marker expression, HMEC HMT-3522 (S1) with an infi nite lifespan, and a subtype of HMEC 184 (184V) with a fi nite lifespan. Cells were irradiated with 50cGy X-rays, fi xed with 4% paraformaldehyde after 1 hour repair at 37°C, and processed through immunofl uorescence. Cells were visualized with a fl uorescent microscope and images were digitally captured using Image-Pro Plus software. The 184V irradiated cells exhibited a more positive punctate response within the nucleus for both DNA damage markers compared to the S1 irradiated cells. The dose and time course will be expanded in future studies to augment the preliminary data from this research. It is important to understand whether the process of transformation to immortalization compromises the DNA damage sensor and repair process proteins of HMECs in order to understand what is “normal” and to evaluate the usefulness of cell lines as experimental models.

  17. 17 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 45 - Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 45—Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data ER13JA12.003 ER13JA12.004 ER13JA12.005 ER13JA12.006... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data 1 Appendix 1 to Part 45 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES...

  18. Hormone crosstalk in wound stress response: wound-inducible amidohydrolases can simultaneously regulate jasmonate and auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Poudel, Arati N; Jewell, Jeremy B; Kitaoka, Naoki; Staswick, Paul; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Koo, Abraham J

    2016-03-01

    Jasmonate (JA) and auxin are essential hormones in plant development and stress responses. While the two govern distinct physiological processes, their signaling pathways interact at various levels. Recently, members of the Arabidopsis indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) amidohydrolase (IAH) family were reported to metabolize jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), a bioactive form of JA. Here, we characterized three IAH members, ILR1, ILL6, and IAR3, for their function in JA and IAA metabolism and signaling. Expression of all three genes in leaves was up-regulated by wounding or JA, but not by IAA. Purified recombinant proteins showed overlapping but distinct substrate specificities for diverse amino acid conjugates of JA and IAA. Perturbed patterns of the endogenous JA profile in plants overexpressing or knocked-out for the three genes were consistent with ILL6 and IAR3, but not ILR1, being the JA amidohydrolases. Increased turnover of JA-Ile in the ILL6- and IAR3-overexpressing plants created symptoms of JA deficiency whereas increased free IAA by overexpression of ILR1 and IAR3 made plants hypersensitive to exogenous IAA conjugates. Surprisingly, ILL6 overexpression rendered plants highly resistant to exogenous IAA conjugates, indicating its interference with IAA conjugate hydrolysis. Fluorescent protein-tagged IAR3 and ILL6 co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum-localized JA-Ile 12-hydroxylase, CYP94B3. Together, these results demonstrate that in wounded leaves JA-inducible amidohydrolases contribute to regulate active IAA and JA-Ile levels, promoting auxin signaling while attenuating JA signaling. This mechanism represents an example of a metabolic-level crosstalk between the auxin and JA signaling pathways.

  19. Hormone crosstalk in wound stress response: wound-inducible amidohydrolases can simultaneously regulate jasmonate and auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Poudel, Arati N.; Jewell, Jeremy B.; Kitaoka, Naoki; Staswick, Paul; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Koo, Abraham J.

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) and auxin are essential hormones in plant development and stress responses. While the two govern distinct physiological processes, their signaling pathways interact at various levels. Recently, members of the Arabidopsis indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) amidohydrolase (IAH) family were reported to metabolize jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), a bioactive form of JA. Here, we characterized three IAH members, ILR1, ILL6, and IAR3, for their function in JA and IAA metabolism and signaling. Expression of all three genes in leaves was up-regulated by wounding or JA, but not by IAA. Purified recombinant proteins showed overlapping but distinct substrate specificities for diverse amino acid conjugates of JA and IAA. Perturbed patterns of the endogenous JA profile in plants overexpressing or knocked-out for the three genes were consistent with ILL6 and IAR3, but not ILR1, being the JA amidohydrolases. Increased turnover of JA-Ile in the ILL6- and IAR3-overexpressing plants created symptoms of JA deficiency whereas increased free IAA by overexpression of ILR1 and IAR3 made plants hypersensitive to exogenous IAA conjugates. Surprisingly, ILL6 overexpression rendered plants highly resistant to exogenous IAA conjugates, indicating its interference with IAA conjugate hydrolysis. Fluorescent protein-tagged IAR3 and ILL6 co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum-localized JA-Ile 12-hydroxylase, CYP94B3. Together, these results demonstrate that in wounded leaves JA-inducible amidohydrolases contribute to regulate active IAA and JA-Ile levels, promoting auxin signaling while attenuating JA signaling. This mechanism represents an example of a metabolic-level crosstalk between the auxin and JA signaling pathways. PMID:26672615

  20. Cytochromes P450 CYP94C1 and CYP94B3 Catalyze Two Successive Oxidation Steps of Plant Hormone Jasmonoyl-isoleucine for Catabolic Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Heitz, Thierry; Widemann, Emilie; Lugan, Raphaël; Miesch, Laurence; Ullmann, Pascaline; Désaubry, Laurent; Holder, Emilie; Grausem, Bernard; Kandel, Sylvie; Miesch, Michel; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Pinot, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The jasmonate hormonal pathway regulates important defensive and developmental processes in plants. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) has been identified as a specific ligand binding the COI1-JAZ co-receptor to relieve repression of jasmonate responses. Two JA-Ile derivatives, 12OH-JA-Ile and 12COOH-JA-Ile, accumulate in wounded Arabidopsis leaves in a COI1- and JAR1-dependent manner and reflect catabolic turnover of the hormone. Here we report the biochemical and genetic characterization of two wound-inducible cytochromes P450, CYP94C1 and CYP94B3, that are involved in JA-Ile oxidation. Both enzymes expressed in yeast catalyze two successive oxidation steps of JA-Ile with distinct characteristics. CYP94B3 performed efficiently the initial hydroxylation of JA-Ile to 12OH-JA-Ile, with little conversion to 12COOH-JA-Ile, whereas CYP94C1 catalyzed preferentially carboxy-derivative formation. Metabolic analysis of loss- and gain-of-function plant lines were consistent with in vitro enzymatic properties. cyp94b3 mutants were largely impaired in 12OH-JA-Ile levels upon wounding and to a lesser extent in 12COOH-JA-Ile levels. In contrast, cyp94c1 plants showed wild-type 12OH-JA-Ile accumulation but lost about 60% 12COOH-JA-Ile. cyp94b3cyp94c1 double mutants hyperaccumulated JA-Ile with near abolition of 12COOH-JA-Ile. Distinct JA-Ile oxidation patterns in different plant genotypes were correlated with specific JA-responsive transcript profiles, indicating that JA-Ile oxidation status affects signaling. Interestingly, exaggerated JA-Ile levels were associated with JAZ repressor hyperinduction but did not enhance durably defense gene induction, revealing a novel negative feedback signaling loop. Finally, interfering with CYP94 gene expression affected root growth sensitivity to exogenous jasmonic acid. These results identify CYP94B3/C1-mediated oxidation as a major catabolic route for turning over the JA-Ile hormone. PMID:22215670

  1. Triacontanol negatively modulates the jasmonic acid-stimulated proteinase inhibitors in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Ramanarayan, Krishnamurthy; Swamy, Gangadharamurthy Sivakumar

    2004-04-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA), a long chain aliphatic alcohol (C30H61OH) reverses the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) in inducing proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in tomato leaves. Porcine pancreas trypsin and Spodoptera litura gut proteinases were inhibited in the presence of leaf proteins treated with JA, and TRIA partially reverses this effect. Spodoptera litura larvae fed with tomato leaves treated with JA were reduced in body weight and TRIA is able to partially reverse this JA-induced effect. These results reflect the partial reversal effect of TRIA in down regulating the JA-induced production of proteinase inhibitors.

  2. A previously undescribed jasmonate compound in flowering Arabidopsis thaliana - The identification of cis-(+)-OPDA-Ile.

    PubMed

    Floková, Kristýna; Feussner, Kirstin; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Miersch, Otto; Mik, Václav; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Feussner, Ivo; Wasternack, Claus; Novák, Ondřej

    2016-02-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that integrate external stress stimuli with physiological responses. (+)-7-iso-JA-L-Ile is the natural JA ligand of COI1, a component of a known JA receptor. The upstream JA biosynthetic precursor cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-(+)-OPDA) has been reported to act independently of COI1 as an essential signal in several stress-induced and developmental processes. Wound-induced increases in the endogenous levels of JA/JA-Ile are accompanied by two to tenfold increases in the concentration of OPDA, but its means of perception and metabolism are unknown. To screen for putative OPDA metabolites, vegetative tissues of flowering Arabidopsis thaliana were extracted with 25% aqueous methanol (v/v), purified by single-step reversed-phase polymer-based solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by high throughput mass spectrometry. This enabled the detection and quantitation of a low abundant OPDA analog of the biologically active (+)-7-iso-JA-L-Ile in plant tissue samples. Levels of the newly identified compound and the related phytohormones JA, JA-Ile and cis-(+)-OPDA were monitored in wounded leaves of flowering Arabidopsis lines (Col-0 and Ws) and compared to the levels observed in Arabidopsis mutants deficient in the biosynthesis of JA (dde2-2, opr3) and JA-Ile (jar1). The observed cis-(+)-OPDA-Ile levels varied widely, raising questions concerning its role in Arabidopsis stress responses.

  3. Generating and maintaining jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Youbong; Lee, Ilha

    2008-10-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a lipid-derived plant hormone that mediates diverse biological phenomena. It is one of major goals in JA research field to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of JA level. Recently we have demonstrated cooperative and differentiated roles of two chloroplast localized galactolipases, DGL (DONGLE) and DAD1 (DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE 1), for the regulation of JA content. The DGL maintains a basal level of JA in unwounded vegetative tissues, while the DAD1 is involved in JA production in floral tissues. The JA in vegetative tissues regulates cell expansion while the JA produced in flowers regulates pollen maturation. After wounding, the cooperative function of DGL and DAD1 causes drastic increase of JA. The analysis of induction kinetics showed that the two enzymes have temporally separated roles in wound response; DGL in early phase and DAD1 in late phase of JA production. In this addendum, we discuss the implications of our recent findings and extend our working model for JA homeostasis in plants.

  4. A fluorescent hormone biosensor reveals the dynamics of jasmonate signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Antoine; Champion, Antony; Legrand, Jonathan; Lavenus, Julien; Mast, David; Brunoud, Géraldine; Oh, Jaesung; Guyomarc'h, Soazig; Pizot, Maxime; Farmer, Edward E; Turnbull, Colin; Vernoux, Teva; Bennett, Malcolm J; Laplaze, Laurent

    2015-01-16

    Activated forms of jasmonic acid (JA) are central signals coordinating plant responses to stresses, yet tools to analyse their spatial and temporal distribution are lacking. Here we describe a JA perception biosensor termed Jas9-VENUS that allows the quantification of dynamic changes in JA distribution in response to stress with high spatiotemporal sensitivity. We show that Jas9-VENUS abundance is dependent on bioactive JA isoforms, the COI1 co-receptor, a functional Jas motif and proteasome activity. We demonstrate the utility of Jas9-VENUS to analyse responses to JA in planta at a cellular scale, both quantitatively and dynamically. This included using Jas9-VENUS to determine the cotyledon-to-root JA signal velocities on wounding, revealing two distinct phases of JA activity in the root. Our results demonstrate the value of developing quantitative sensors such as Jas9-VENUS to provide high-resolution spatiotemporal data about hormone distribution in response to plant abiotic and biotic stresses.

  5. OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 are jasmonyl-L-isoleucine synthases involved in wound- and pathogen-induced jasmonic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Wakuta, Shinji; Suzuki, Erika; Saburi, Wataru; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Imai, Ryozo; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2011-06-17

    The synthesis of JA-Ile was catalysed by JA-Ile synthase, which is a member of the group I GH3 family of proteins. Here, we showed evidence that OsGH3.5 (OsJAR1) and OsGH3.3 (OsJAR2) are the functional JA-Ile synthases in rice, using recombinant proteins. The expression levels of OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 were induced in response to wounding with the concomitant accumulation of JA-Ile. In contrast, only the expression of OsJAR1 was associated with the accumulation of JA-Ile after blast infection. Our data suggest that these two JA-Ile synthases are differentially involved in the activation of JA signalling in response to wounding and pathogen challenge in rice. PMID:21619871

  6. OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 are jasmonyl-L-isoleucine synthases involved in wound- and pathogen-induced jasmonic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Wakuta, Shinji; Suzuki, Erika; Saburi, Wataru; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Imai, Ryozo; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2011-06-17

    The synthesis of JA-Ile was catalysed by JA-Ile synthase, which is a member of the group I GH3 family of proteins. Here, we showed evidence that OsGH3.5 (OsJAR1) and OsGH3.3 (OsJAR2) are the functional JA-Ile synthases in rice, using recombinant proteins. The expression levels of OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 were induced in response to wounding with the concomitant accumulation of JA-Ile. In contrast, only the expression of OsJAR1 was associated with the accumulation of JA-Ile after blast infection. Our data suggest that these two JA-Ile synthases are differentially involved in the activation of JA signalling in response to wounding and pathogen challenge in rice.

  7. Jasmonate induction of the monoterpene linalool confers resistance to rice bacterial blight and its biosynthesis is regulated by JAZ protein in rice.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Shiduku; Hosokawa-Shinonaga, Yumi; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Yamada, Shoko; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in the regulation of host immunity in plants. Recently, we demonstrated that JA signalling has an important role in resistance to rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in rice. Here, we report that many volatile compounds accumulate in response to exogenous application of JA, including the monoterpene linalool. Expression of linalool synthase was up-regulated by JA. Vapour treatment with linalool induced resistance to Xoo, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing linalool synthase were more resistance to Xoo, presumably due to the up-regulation of defence-related genes in the absence of any treatment. JA-induced accumulation of linalool was regulated by OsJAZ8, a rice jasmonate ZIM-domain protein involving the JA signalling pathway at the transcriptional level, suggesting that linalool plays an important role in JA-induced resistance to Xoo in rice.

  8. Wound-induced expression of DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE1 and DAD1-like lipase genes is mediated by both CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1-dependent and independent pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ruduś, Izabela; Terai, Haruka; Shimizu, Takafumi; Kojima, Hisae; Hattori, Kazuki; Nishimori, Yuka; Tsukagoshi, Hironaka; Kamiya, Yuji; Seo, Mitsunori; Nakamura, Kenzo; Kępczyński, Jan; Ishiguro, Sumie

    2014-06-01

    Endogenous JA production is not necessary for wound-induced expression of JA-biosynthetic lipase genes such as DAD1 in Arabidopsis. However, the JA-Ile receptor COI1 is often required for their JA-independent induction. Wounding is a serious event in plants that may result from insect feeding and increase the risk of pathogen infection. Wounded plants produce high amounts of jasmonic acid (JA), which triggers the expression of insect and pathogen resistance genes. We focused on the transcriptional regulation of DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE1 and six of its homologs including DONGLE (DGL) in Arabidopsis, which encode lipases involved in JA biosynthesis. Plants constitutively expressing DAD1 accumulated a higher amount of JA than control plants after wounding, indicating that the expression of these lipase genes contributes to determining JA levels. We found that the expression of DAD1, DGL, and other DAD1-LIKE LIPASE (DALL) genes is induced upon wounding. Some DALLs were also expressed in unwounded leaves. Further experiments using JA-biosynthetic and JA-response mutants revealed that the wound induction of these genes is regulated by several distinct pathways. DAD1 and most of its homologs other than DALL4 were fully induced without relying on endogenous JA-Ile production and were only partly affected by JA deficiency, indicating that positive feedback by JA is not necessary for induction of these genes. However, DAD1 and DGL required CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) for their expression, suggesting that a molecule other than JA might act as a regulator of COI1. Wound induction of DALL1, DALL2, and DALL3 did not require COI1. This differential regulation of DAD1 and its homologs might explain their functions at different time points after wounding.

  9. Jasmonoyl-l-Isoleucine Coordinates Metabolic Networks Required for Anthesis and Floral Attractant Emission in Wild Tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata)[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Stitz, Michael; Hartl, Markus; Baldwin, Ian T.; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates [JAs]) play central roles in floral development and maturation. The binding of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the F-box of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is required for many JA-dependent physiological responses, but its role in anthesis and pollinator attraction traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, which develops sympetalous flowers with complex pollination biology, to examine the coordinating function of JA homeostasis in the distinct metabolic processes that underlie flower maturation, opening, and advertisement to pollinators. From combined transcriptomic, targeted metabolic, and allometric analyses of transgenic N. attenuata plants for which signaling deficiencies were complemented with methyl jasmonate, JA-Ile, and its functional homolog, coronatine (COR), we demonstrate that (1) JA-Ile/COR-based signaling regulates corolla limb opening and a JA-negative feedback loop; (2) production of floral volatiles (night emissions of benzylacetone) and nectar requires JA-Ile/COR perception through COI1; and (3) limb expansion involves JA-Ile-induced changes in limb fresh mass and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate a master regulatory function of the JA-Ile/COI1 duet for the main function of a sympetalous corolla, that of advertising for and rewarding pollinator services. Flower opening, by contrast, requires JA-Ile signaling-dependent changes in primary metabolism, which are not compromised in the COI1-silenced RNA interference line used in this study. PMID:25326292

  10. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment.

  11. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment. PMID:22744011

  12. Linking Jasmonic Acid to Grapevine Resistance against the Biotrophic Oomycete Plasmopara viticola

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, Ana; Figueiredo, Joana; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2016-01-01

    Plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens is classically believed to be mediated through salicylic acid (SA) signaling leading to hypersensitive response followed by the establishment of Systemic Acquired Resistance. Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling has extensively been associated to the defense against necrotrophic pathogens and insects inducing the accumulation of secondary metabolites and PR proteins. Moreover, it is believed that plants infected with biotrophic fungi suppress JA-mediated responses. However, recent evidences have shown that certain biotrophic fungal species also trigger the activation of JA-mediated responses, suggesting a new role for JA in the defense against fungal biotrophs. Plasmopara viticola is a biotrophic oomycete responsible for the grapevine downy mildew, one of the most important diseases in viticulture. In this perspective, we show recent evidences of JA participation in grapevine resistance against P. viticola, outlining the hypothesis of JA involvement in the establishment of an incompatible interaction with this biotroph. We also show that in the first hours after P. viticola inoculation the levels of OPDA, JA, JA-Ile, and SA increase together with an increase of expression of genes associated to JA and SA signaling pathways. Our data suggests that, on the first hours after P. viticola inoculation, JA signaling pathway is activated and the outcomes of JA–SA interactions may be tailored in the defense response against this biotrophic pathogen. PMID:27200038

  13. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine coordinates metabolic networks required for anthesis and floral attractant emission in wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata).

    PubMed

    Stitz, Michael; Hartl, Markus; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates [JAs]) play central roles in floral development and maturation. The binding of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the F-box of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is required for many JA-dependent physiological responses, but its role in anthesis and pollinator attraction traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, which develops sympetalous flowers with complex pollination biology, to examine the coordinating function of JA homeostasis in the distinct metabolic processes that underlie flower maturation, opening, and advertisement to pollinators. From combined transcriptomic, targeted metabolic, and allometric analyses of transgenic N. attenuata plants for which signaling deficiencies were complemented with methyl jasmonate, JA-Ile, and its functional homolog, coronatine (COR), we demonstrate that (1) JA-Ile/COR-based signaling regulates corolla limb opening and a JA-negative feedback loop; (2) production of floral volatiles (night emissions of benzylacetone) and nectar requires JA-Ile/COR perception through COI1; and (3) limb expansion involves JA-Ile-induced changes in limb fresh mass and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate a master regulatory function of the JA-Ile/COI1 duet for the main function of a sympetalous corolla, that of advertising for and rewarding pollinator services. Flower opening, by contrast, requires JA-Ile signaling-dependent changes in primary metabolism, which are not compromised in the COI1-silenced RNA interference line used in this study.

  14. Jasmonates in flower and seed development.

    PubMed

    Wasternack, Claus; Forner, Susanne; Strnad, Miroslav; Hause, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates are ubiquitously occurring lipid-derived signaling compounds active in plant development and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Upon environmental stimuli jasmonates are formed and accumulate transiently. During flower and seed development, jasmonic acid (JA) and a remarkable number of different metabolites accumulate organ- and tissue specifically. The accumulation is accompanied with expression of jasmonate-inducible genes. Among these genes there are defense genes and developmentally regulated genes. The profile of jasmonate compounds in flowers and seeds covers active signaling molecules such as JA, its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) and amino acid conjugates such as JA-Ile, but also inactive signaling molecules occur such as 12-hydroxy-JA and its sulfated derivative. These latter compounds can occur at several orders of magnitude higher level than JA. Metabolic conversion of JA and JA-Ile to hydroxylated compounds seems to inactivate JA signaling, but also specific functions of jasmonates in flower and seed development were detected. In tomato OPDA is involved in embryo development. Occurrence of jasmonates, expression of JA-inducible genes and JA-dependent processes in flower and seed development will be discussed. PMID:22705387

  15. Enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity by methyl jasmonate and the role of calcium and abscisic acid in this process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Romera, Beatriz; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Li, Guowei; Luu, Doan-Trung; Martínez-Ballesta, Maria del Carmen; Carvajal, Micaela; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Maurel, Christophe; Aroca, Ricardo

    2014-04-01

    The role of jasmonic acid in the induction of stomatal closure is well known. However, its role in regulating root hydraulic conductivity (L) has not yet been explored. The objectives of the present research were to evaluate how JA regulates L and how calcium and abscisic acid (ABA) could be involved in such regulation. We found that exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) increased L of Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum lycopersicum and Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Tomato plants defective in JA biosynthesis had lower values of L than wild-type plants, and that L was restored by addition of MeJA. The increase of L by MeJA was accompanied by an increase of the phosphorylation state of the aquaporin PIP2. We observed that MeJA addition increased the concentration of cytosolic calcium and that calcium channel blockers inhibited the rise of L caused by MeJA. Treatment with fluoridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, partially inhibited the increase of L caused by MeJA, and tomato plants defective in ABA biosynthesis increased their L after application of MeJA. It is concluded that JA enhances L and that this enhancement is linked to calcium and ABA dependent and independent signalling pathways. PMID:24131347

  16. Jasmonic acid is involved in the signaling pathway for fungal endophyte-induced volatile oil accumulation of Atractylodes lancea plantlets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized signaling molecule in plant defense responses. However, its relationships with other signal molecules in secondary metabolite production induced by endophytic fungus are largely unknown. Atractylodes lancea (Asteraceae) is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant that produces antimicrobial volatiles oils. We incubated plantlets of A. lancea with the fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12. to research how JA interacted with other signal molecules in volatile oil production. Results Fungal inoculation increased JA generation and volatile oil accumulation. To investigate whether JA is required for volatile oil production, plantlets were treated with JA inhibitors ibuprofen (IBU) and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. The inhibitors suppressed both JA and volatile oil production, but fungal inoculation could still induce volatile oils. Plantlets were further treated with the nitric oxide (NO)-specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO), the H2O2 inhibitors diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and catalase (CAT), and the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis inhibitors paclobutrazol and 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid. With fungal inoculation, IBU did not inhibit NO production, and JA generation was significantly suppressed by cPTIO, showing that JA may act as a downstream signal of the NO pathway. Exogenous H2O2 could reverse the inhibitory effects of cPTIO on JA generation, indicating that NO mediates JA induction by the fungus through H2O2-dependent pathways. With fungal inoculation, the H2O2 scavenger DPI/CAT could inhibit JA generation, but IBU could not inhibit H2O2 production, implying that H2O2 directly mediated JA generation. Finally, JA generation was enhanced when SA production was suppressed, and vice versa. Conclusions Jasmonic acid acts as a downstream signaling molecule in NO- and H2O2-mediated volatile oil accumulation induced by endophytic fungus and has a complementary

  17. Development of marker genes for jasmonic acid signaling in shoots and roots of wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongwei; Carvalhais, Lilia Costa; Kazan, Kemal; Schenk, Peer M

    2016-05-01

    The jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays key roles in a diverse array of plant development, reproduction, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of our understanding of the JA signaling pathway derives from the dicot model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, while corresponding knowledge in wheat is somewhat limited. In this study, the expression of 41 genes implicated in the JA signaling pathway has been assessed on 10 day-old bread wheat seedlings, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment using quantitative real-time PCR. The examined genes have been previously reported to be involved in JA biosynthesis and catabolism, JA perception and signaling, and pathogen defense in wheat shoots and roots. This study provides evidence to suggest that the effect of MeJA treatment is more prominent in shoots than roots of wheat seedlings, and substantial regulation of the JA pathway-dependent defense genes occurs at 72 h after MeJA treatment. Results show that the expression of 22 genes was significantly affected by MeJA treatment in wheat shoots. However, only PR1.1 and PR3 were significantly differentially expressed in wheat roots, both at 24 h post-MeJA treatment, with other genes showing large variation in their gene expression in roots. While providing marker genes on JA signaling in wheat, future work may focus on elucidating the regulatory function of JA-modulated transcription factors, some of which have well-studied potential orthologs in Arabidopsis. PMID:27115051

  18. Salicylate-mediated suppression of jasmonate-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis is targeted downstream of the jasmonate biosynthesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Van der Does, Dieuwertje; De Lange, Elvira S.; Delker, Carolin; Wasternack, Claus; Van Wees, Saskia C. M.; Ritsema, Tita

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) and salicylic acid (SA) are plant hormones that play pivotal roles in the regulation of induced defenses against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores. Their signaling pathways cross-communicate providing the plant with a regulatory potential to finely tune its defense response to the attacker(s) encountered. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SA strongly antagonizes the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, resulting in the downregulation of a large set of JA-responsive genes, including the marker genes PDF1.2 and VSP2. Induction of JA-responsive marker gene expression by different JA derivatives was equally sensitive to SA-mediated suppression. Activation of genes encoding key enzymes in the JA biosynthesis pathway, such as LOX2, AOS, AOC2, and OPR3 was also repressed by SA, suggesting that the JA biosynthesis pathway may be a target for SA-mediated antagonism. To test this, we made use of the mutant aos/dde2, which is completely blocked in its ability to produce JAs because of a mutation in the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene. Mutant aos/dde2 plants did not express the JA-responsive marker genes PDF1.2 or VSP2 in response to infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola or the herbivorous insect Pieris rapae. Bypassing JA biosynthesis by exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) rescued this JA-responsive phenotype in aos/dde2. Application of SA suppressed MeJA-induced PDF1.2 expression to the same level in the aos/dde2 mutant as in wild-type Col-0 plants, indicating that SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression is targeted at a position downstream of the JA biosynthesis pathway. PMID:20839007

  19. LMI-Based Generation of Feedback Laws for a Robust Model Predictive Control Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Carson, John M., III

    2007-01-01

    This technical note provides a mathematical proof of Corollary 1 from the paper 'A Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Algorithm with Proven Robustness and Resolvability' that appeared in the 2006 Proceedings of the American Control Conference. The proof was omitted for brevity in the publication. The paper was based on algorithms developed for the FY2005 R&TD (Research and Technology Development) project for Small-body Guidance, Navigation, and Control [2].The framework established by the Corollary is for a robustly stabilizing MPC (model predictive control) algorithm for uncertain nonlinear systems that guarantees the resolvability of the associated nite-horizon optimal control problem in a receding-horizon implementation. Additional details of the framework are available in the publication.

  20. Correction of joint angles from Kinect for balance exercising and assessment.

    PubMed

    De Rosario, Helios; Belda-Lois, Juan Manuel; Fos, Francisco; Medina, Enrique; Poveda-Puente, Rakel; Kroll, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The new generation of videogame interfaces such as Microsoft's Kinect opens the possibility of implementing exercise programs for physical training, and of evaluating and reducing the risks of elderly people falling. However, applications such as these might require measurements of joint kinematics that are more robust and accurate than the standard output given by the available middleware. This article presents a method based on particle filters for calculating joint angles from the positions of the anatomical points detected by PrimeSense's NITE software. The application of this method to the measurement of lower limb kinematics reduced the error by one order of magnitude, to less than 10°, except for hip axial rotation, and it was advantageous over inverse kinematic analysis, in ensuring a robust and smooth solution without singularities, when the limbs are out-stretched and anatomical landmarks are aligned. PMID:23877057

  1. Optical atomic magnetometry for magnetic induction tomography of the heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deans, Cameron; Marmugi, Luca; Hussain, Sarah; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-04-01

    We report on the use of radio-frequency optical atomic magnetometers for magnetic induction tomography measurements. We demonstrate the imaging of dummy targets of varying conductivities placed in the proximity of the sensor, in an unshielded environment at room-temperature and without background subtraction. The images produced by the system accurately reproduce the characteristics of the actual objects. Furthermore, we perform finite element simulations in order to assess the potential for measuring low-conductivity biological tissues with our system. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of an instrument based on optical atomic magnetometers for magnetic induction tomography imaging of biological samples, in particular for mapping anomalous conductivity in the heart.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of a Polypropylene Glycol-Degrading Strain, Microbacterium sp. No. 7

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Yuji; Numata, Mitsuru; Tsuchikane, Kieko; Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Tsuda, Masataka; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Fusako

    2015-01-01

    Microbacterium (formerly Corynebacterium) sp. No. 7 was isolated from activated sludge as a polypropylene glycol (PPG)-assimilating bacterial strain. Its oxidative PPG degradation has been proposed on the basis of PPG dehydrogenase activity and the metabolic products. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. No. 7. The genome of the strain No. 7 is composed of a 4,599,046-bp circular chromosome and two linear plasmids. The whole finishing was conducted in silico with aids of the computational tools GenoFinisher and AceFileViewer. Strain No. 7 is available from the Biological Resource Center, National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (NITE) (Tokyo, Japan). PMID:26659673

  3. Volterra network modeling of the nonlinear finite-impulse reponse of the radiation belt flux

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, M.; Daglis, I. A.; Anastasiadis, A.; Vassiliadis, D.

    2011-01-04

    We show how a general class of spatio-temporal nonlinear impulse-response forecast networks (Volterra networks) can be constructed from a taxonomy of nonlinear autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous inputs (NAR-MAX) input-output equations, and used to model the evolution of energetic particle f uxes in the Van Allen radiation belts. We present initial results for the nonlinear response of the radiation belts to conditions a month earlier. The essential features of spatio-temporal observations are recovered with the model echoing the results of state space models and linear f nite impulse-response models whereby the strongest coupling peak occurs in the preceding 1-2 days. It appears that such networks hold promise for the development of accurate and fully data-driven space weather modelling, monitoring and forecast tools.

  4. Effectiveness of a combined in-office and take-home whitening system for teeth shades A3.5 to A4.

    PubMed

    Radz, Gary M

    2014-10-01

    As teeth whitening increases in popularity, dental professionals are challenged to select the proper materials and technique to create esthetically whitened smiles for their patients. This study examined nine subjects with baseline shades of A3.5 to A4 on four to six of their maxillary anterior teeth with the VITA Classical (VC) shade guide. All subjects received one session of in-office whitening (Philips Zoom WhiteSpeed), 3 weeks of at-home tray whitening (Zoom NiteWhite), and the option of a second WhiteSpeed treatment. Subjects achieved, on average, documented change of 11.1 shades. Only two subjects reported any sensitivity, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of a combined whitening system, including both chairside and take-home whitening, and a sensitivity prevention protocol.

  5. Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation in Nuclear Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Schunck, N; McDonnell, J D; Higdon, D; Sarich, J; Wild, S M

    2015-03-17

    Nuclear density functional theory (DFT) is one of the main theoretical tools used to study the properties of heavy and superheavy elements, or to describe the structure of nuclei far from stability. While on-going eff orts seek to better root nuclear DFT in the theory of nuclear forces, energy functionals remain semi-phenomenological constructions that depend on a set of parameters adjusted to experimental data in fi nite nuclei. In this paper, we review recent eff orts to quantify the related uncertainties, and propagate them to model predictions. In particular, we cover the topics of parameter estimation for inverse problems, statistical analysis of model uncertainties and Bayesian inference methods. Illustrative examples are taken from the literature.

  6. Coordinate Families for the Schwarzschild Geometry Based on Radial Timelike Geodesics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finch, Tehani K.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the connections between various coordinate systems associated with observers moving inwardly along radial geodesics in the Schwarzschild geometry. Painleve-Gullstrand (PG) time is adapted to freely falling observers dropped from rest from in nity; Lake-Martel-Poisson (LMP) time coordinates are adapted to observers who start at in nity with non-zero initial inward velocity; Gautreau-Ho mann (GH) time coordinates are adapted to observers dropped from rest from a nite distance from the black hole horizon. We construct from these an LMP family and a propertime family of time coordinates, the intersection of which is PG time. We demonstrate that these coordinate families are distinct, but related, one-parameter generalizations of PG time, and show linkage to Lema^tre coordinates as well.

  7. Two complex associations of an HBD mutation and a rare α hemoglobinopathy.

    PubMed

    Joly, Philippe; Lacan, Philippe; Garcia, Caroline; Francina, Alain

    2013-01-01

    We present two case reports in which an HBD mutation is present with a rare α hemoglobinopathy that substantially complicates the associated phenotype. In the first case, a new δ-globin variant, Hb A2-Pierre-Bénite [δ83(EF7)Gly→Arg; HBD: c.250G>C] is associated with Hb Groene Hart [α119(H2)Pro→Ser (α1); HBA1: c.358C>T], an α-thalassemic variant. In the second case, a δ(+)-thalassemic variant, δ4(A1)Thr→Ile; HBD: c.14C>T, is associated with a newly described deletion of the hypersensitive site 40 (HS-40) region on the α-globin gene cluster. In both patients, a δ-globin mutation was suspected because of an abnormally low Hb A2 level, whereas the α hemoglobinopathy was sought to explain the slight microcytosis and hypochromia presented by the probands.

  8. Salinas :

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Garth M.; Walsh, Timothy; Bhardwaj, Manoj K.

    2009-02-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics nite element analysis, required for high delity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, Users Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are speci c to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  9. Off-diagonal Jacobian support for Nodal BCs

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, John W.; Andrs, David; Gaston, Derek R.; Permann, Cody J.; Slaughter, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    In this brief note, we describe the implementation of o-diagonal Jacobian computations for nodal boundary conditions in the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) [1] framework. There are presently a number of applications [2{5] based on the MOOSE framework that solve complicated physical systems of partial dierential equations whose boundary conditions are often highly nonlinear. Accurately computing the on- and o-diagonal Jacobian and preconditioner entries associated to these constraints is crucial for enabling ecient numerical solvers in these applications. Two key ingredients are required for properly specifying the Jacobian contributions of nonlinear nodal boundary conditions in MOOSE and nite element codes in general: 1. The ability to zero out entire Jacobian matrix rows after \

  10. Volterra network modeling of the nonlinear finite-impulse reponse of the radiation belt flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M.; Daglis, I. A.; Anastasiadis, A.; Vassiliadis, D.

    2011-01-01

    We show how a general class of spatio-temporal nonlinear impulse-response forecast networks (Volterra networks) can be constructed from a taxonomy of nonlinear autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous inputs (NAR-MAX) input-output equations, and used to model the evolution of energetic particle f uxes in the Van Allen radiation belts. We present initial results for the nonlinear response of the radiation belts to conditions a month earlier. The essential features of spatio-temporal observations are recovered with the model echoing the results of state space models and linear f nite impulse-response models whereby the strongest coupling peak occurs in the preceding 1-2 days. It appears that such networks hold promise for the development of accurate and fully data-driven space weather modelling, monitoring and forecast tools.

  11. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of W/SiC bonding for structural material in fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, H.; Shibayama, T.; Shimoda, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Kohyama, A.

    2011-10-01

    The SiC/SiC composites are expected to be employed as structural materials in fusion reactors after DEMO. Tungsten may be used as armor material of divertor to protect from the high temperature heat flux. An advanced SiC/SiC composite, NITE SiC/SiC, has excellent resistance to high stress and temperature, and diffusion and sinter bonding methods using high temperature are able to join SiC/SiC composites. This work evaluates the microstructure of interphases when tungsten is joined to SiC to screen potential bonding techniques. The W/SiC joints were produced by diffusion bonding, sinter bonding and liquid phase sinter bonding methods using the hot-pressing methods. Evaluation by SEM, EPMA, TEM and shear test showed the promise of these bonding methods.

  12. Normal Incidence for Graded Index Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khankhoje, Uday K.; Van Zyl, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    A plane wave is incident normally from vacuum (eta(sub 0) = 1) onto a smooth surface. The substrate has three layers; the top most layer has thickness d(sub 1) and permittivity epsilon(sub 1). The corresponding numbers for the next layer are d(sub 2); epsilon(sub 2), while the third layer which is semi-in nite has index eta(sub 3). The Hallikainen model [1] is used to relate volumetric soil moisture to the permittivity. Here, we consider the relation for the real part of the permittivity for a typical loam soil: acute epsilon(mv) = 2.8571 + 3.9678 x mv + 118:85 x mv(sup 2).

  13. Correction of joint angles from Kinect for balance exercising and assessment.

    PubMed

    De Rosario, Helios; Belda-Lois, Juan Manuel; Fos, Francisco; Medina, Enrique; Poveda-Puente, Rakel; Kroll, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The new generation of videogame interfaces such as Microsoft's Kinect opens the possibility of implementing exercise programs for physical training, and of evaluating and reducing the risks of elderly people falling. However, applications such as these might require measurements of joint kinematics that are more robust and accurate than the standard output given by the available middleware. This article presents a method based on particle filters for calculating joint angles from the positions of the anatomical points detected by PrimeSense's NITE software. The application of this method to the measurement of lower limb kinematics reduced the error by one order of magnitude, to less than 10°, except for hip axial rotation, and it was advantageous over inverse kinematic analysis, in ensuring a robust and smooth solution without singularities, when the limbs are out-stretched and anatomical landmarks are aligned.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Degrading Strain Sphingopyxis sp. 113P3 (NBRC 111507)

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Yuji; Numata, Mitsuru; Tsuchikane, Kieko; Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Tsuda, Masataka; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Fusako

    2015-01-01

    Strain 113P3 was isolated from activated sludge and identified as a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-degrading Pseudomonas species; it was later reidentified as Sphingopyxis species. Only three genes are directly relevant to the metabolism of PVA and comprise the pva operon, which was deposited as accession no. AB190228. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain 113P3, which has been conserved as a stock culture (NBRC 111507) at the Biological Resource Center, National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (NITE) (Tokyo, Japan). The genome of strain 113P3 is composed of a 4.4-Mb circular chromosome and a 243-kb plasmid. The whole finishing was conducted in silico except for four PCRs. The sequence corresponding to AB190288 exists on the chromosome. PMID:26472829

  15. Impact of Ni doping on critical parameters of PdTe superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Reena; Jha, Rajveer; Tiwari, Brajesh; Dixit, Ambesh; Awana, V. P. S.

    2016-07-01

    We report the effect of Ni doping on superconductivity of PdTe. The superconducting parameters like critical temperature (T c ), upper critical field (H c2) and normalized specific-heat jump (ΔC/γT c ) are reported for Ni doped Pd1-x Ni x Te. Samples of series Pd1-x NixTe with nominal compositions x = 0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.07, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 1.0 are synthesized via the vacuum shield solid state reaction route. All the studied samples of Pd1-x Ni x Te series are crystallized in a hexagonal crystal structure as refined by the Rietveld method to space group P63/mmc. Both the electrical resistivity and magnetic measurements revealed that T c decreases with increasing Ni concentration in Pd1-x Ni x Te. Magnetotransport measurements suggest that flux is better pinned for 20% Ni doped PdTe as compared to other compositions of Pd1-x Ni x Te. The effect and contribution of Ni 3d electron to electronic structure and density of states near the Fermi level in Pd1-x Ni x Te are also studied using first-principle calculations within the spin polarized local density approximation. The overlap of bands at the Fermi level for NiTe is larger as compared to PdTe. Also the density of states just below the Fermi level (in conduction band) drops much lower for PdTe than as for NiTe. In summary, Ni doping in Pd1-x Ni x Te superconductor suppresses superconductivity moderately and also Ni is of non-magnetic character in these compounds.

  16. Analysis of Methods to Excite Head-Tail Motion Within the Cornell Electron Storage Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendler, Naomi; Billing, Mike; Shanks, Jim

    The main accelerator complex at Cornell consists of two rings around which electrons and positrons move: the synchrotron, where the particles are accelerated to 5 GeV, and the Storage Ring, where the particles circulate a ta Þxed energy, guided by quadrupole and dipole magnets, with a steady energy due to a sinusoidal voltage source. Keeping the beam stable in the Storage Ring is crucial for its lifetime. A long-lasting, invariable beam means more accurate experiments, as well as brighter, more focused X-rays for use in the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). The stability of the electron and positron beams in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) is important for the development of accelerators and for usage of the beam in X-ray science and accelerator physics. Bunch oscillations tend to enlarge the beam's cross section, making it less stable. We believe that one such oscillation is ``head-tail motion,'' where the bunch rocks back and forth on a pivot located at the central particle. In this project, we write a simulation of the bunch that induces head-tail motion with a vertical driver. We also excite this motion physically in the storage ring, and observe a deÞnite head-tail signal. In the experiment, we saw a deÞnite persistence of the drive-damp signal within a small band around the head-tail frequency, indicating that the head-tail frequency is a natural vertical mode of the bunch that was being excited. The signal seen in the experiment matched the signal seen in the simulation to within an order of magnitude.

  17. Expectation-maximization algorithms for learning a finite mixture of univariate survival time distributions from partially specified class values

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Youngrok

    2013-05-15

    Heterogeneity exists on a data set when samples from di erent classes are merged into the data set. Finite mixture models can be used to represent a survival time distribution on heterogeneous patient group by the proportions of each class and by the survival time distribution within each class as well. The heterogeneous data set cannot be explicitly decomposed to homogeneous subgroups unless all the samples are precisely labeled by their origin classes; such impossibility of decomposition is a barrier to overcome for estimating nite mixture models. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of nite mixture models by soft-decomposition of heterogeneous samples without labels for a subset or the entire set of data. In medical surveillance databases we can find partially labeled data, that is, while not completely unlabeled there is only imprecise information about class values. In this study we propose new EM algorithms that take advantages of using such partial labels, and thus incorporate more information than traditional EM algorithms. We particularly propose four variants of the EM algorithm named EM-OCML, EM-PCML, EM-HCML and EM-CPCML, each of which assumes a specific mechanism of missing class values. We conducted a simulation study on exponential survival trees with five classes and showed that the advantages of incorporating substantial amount of partially labeled data can be highly signi cant. We also showed model selection based on AIC values fairly works to select the best proposed algorithm on each specific data set. A case study on a real-world data set of gastric cancer provided by Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program showed a superiority of EM-CPCML to not only the other proposed EM algorithms but also conventional supervised, unsupervised and semi-supervised learning algorithms.

  18. Effect of jasmonic acid elicitation on the yield, chemical composition, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oil of lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Złotek, Urszula; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Szymanowska, Urszula

    2016-12-15

    The effect of elicitation with jasmonic acid (JA) on the plant yield, the production and composition of essential oils of lettuce leaf basil was evaluated. JA-elicitation slightly affected the yield of plants and significantly increased the amount of essential oils produced by basil - the highest oil yield (0.78±0.005mL/100gdw) was achieved in plants elicited with 100μM JA. The application of the tested elicitor also influenced the chemical composition of basil essential oils - 100μM JA increased the linalool, eugenol, and limonene levels, while 1μM JA caused the highest increase in the methyl eugenol content. Essential oils from JA-elicited basil (especially 1μM and 100μM) exhibited more effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential; therefore, this inducer may be a very useful biochemical tool for improving production and composition of herbal essential oils.

  19. Functional diversity of jasmonates in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Shumin; Sun, Ning; Liu, Hongyun; Zhao, Yanhong; Liang, Yuling; Zhang, Liping; Han, Yuanhuai

    2015-12-01

    Phytohormone jasmonates (JA) play essential roles in plants, such as regulating development and growth, responding to environmental changes, and resisting abiotic and biotic stresses. During signaling, JA interacts, either synergistically or antagonistically, with other hormones, such as salicylic acid (SA), gibberellin (GA), ethylene (ET), auxin, brassinosteroid (BR), and abscisic acid (ABA), to regulate gene expression in regulatory networks, conferring physiological and metabolic adjustments in plants. As an important staple crop, rice is a major nutritional source for human beings and feeds one third of the world's population. Recent years have seen significant progress in the understanding of the JA pathway in rice. In this review, we summarize the diverse functions of JA, and discuss the JA interplay with other hormones, as well as light, in this economically important crop. We believe that a better understanding of the JA pathway will lead to practical biotechnological applications in rice breeding and cultivation. PMID:26054241

  20. Effect of jasmonic acid elicitation on the yield, chemical composition, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential oil of lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Złotek, Urszula; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Szymanowska, Urszula

    2016-12-15

    The effect of elicitation with jasmonic acid (JA) on the plant yield, the production and composition of essential oils of lettuce leaf basil was evaluated. JA-elicitation slightly affected the yield of plants and significantly increased the amount of essential oils produced by basil - the highest oil yield (0.78±0.005mL/100gdw) was achieved in plants elicited with 100μM JA. The application of the tested elicitor also influenced the chemical composition of basil essential oils - 100μM JA increased the linalool, eugenol, and limonene levels, while 1μM JA caused the highest increase in the methyl eugenol content. Essential oils from JA-elicited basil (especially 1μM and 100μM) exhibited more effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential; therefore, this inducer may be a very useful biochemical tool for improving production and composition of herbal essential oils. PMID:27451148

  1. Book review of Dragonfly Genera of the New World. An Illustrated and Annotated Key to the Anisoptera. Garrison, R.W., N. Von Ellenrieder and J.A. Louton, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MD. xi+368 pp. Hardback, ISBN 0-8018-8446-2

    SciTech Connect

    Cannings, R.A.

    2007-03-15

    This superb book is the most important reference on the Order Odonata to appear since the 1999 publication of Philip Corbet's monumental work on the behavior and ecology of Odonata. In the context of specimen identification and faunistics, it is the most significant contribution in decades, for it opens a new door to the most diverse and least known dragonfly fauna on Earth, that of the Neotropical Region. The book treats the genera of all the New World dragonflies, but while the Nearctic Anisoptera (at least north of the Mexican border) is extensively summarized in many taxonomic and identification manuals (e.g., Needham et al. 2000), the Neotropical fauna remains rather poorly known. Much of it still is undescribed and taxonomic syntheses are few and far between. This is partly because of its huge diversity, the remoteness of much of the region, and the relative scarcity of specimens in collections. As T. W. Donnelly (2006) noted in a recent review of this book, the New World tropics have always been a challenge to biologists in many disciplines because the region was first colonized by the Spanish and Portuguese who largely lacked the tradition of natural history studies characteristic of the British, French, Dutch and Germans in Africa, India or Southeast Asia. In South America there simply was no F. C. Fraser to write an equivalent to his three volumes on the Odonata in The Fauna of British India. Borror (1945) was an early and wonderful resource for deciphering the genera of the large family Libellulidae in the Americas. Calvert's hard-to-find contributions on the Odonata (1902-1908) in the Biologia Centrali-Americana helped students of the Central American fauna; the updated equivalent by Foerster (2001) for Mesoamerican genera is also important. But as far as syntheses and overviews, that's about all there was - until now.

  2. IM-CRDS for the analysis of matrix-bound water isotopes: a streamlined (and updated) tool for ecohydrologists to probe small-scale variability in plants Yasuhara, S. (syasuhara@picarro.com)1,Carter, J.A. (jcarter@picarro.com)1, Dennis, K.J. (kdennis@picarro.com)1 1Picarro Inc., 3105 Patrick Henry Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to measure the isotopic composition of matrix-bound water is valuable to many facets of earth and environmental sciences. For example, ecohydrologists use stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in plant and soil water, in combination with measurements of atmospheric water vapor, surface water and precipitation, to estimate budgets of evapotranspiration. Likewise, water isotopes of oceanic water, brines and other waters with high total dissolved solids (TDS, e.g., juices) are relevant to studying large-scale oceanic circulation, small-scale mixing, groundwater contamination, the balance of evaporation to precipitation, and the provenance of food. Conventionally matrix-bound water has been extracted using cryogenic distillation, whereby water is distilled from the material in question (e.g., a leaf sample) by heating under vacuum and collecting the resultant water vapor using liquid nitrogen. The water can then be analyzed for its stable isotopic composition by a variety of methods, including isotope ratio mass spectrometry and laser techniques, such as Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). Here we present recent improvements in an alternative, and stream-lined, solution for integrated sample extraction and isotopic measurement using a Picarro Induction Module (IM) coupled to commercially-available CRDS analyzer from Picarro. This technique is also valuable for waters with high TDS, which can have detrimental effects on flash vaporization process, typically used for the introduction of water to Picarro CRDS water isotope analyzers. The IM works by inductively heating a sample held within a metal sample holder in a glass vial flushed with dry air. Tested samples include leaves, stems, twigs, calibration water, juices, and salt water. The heating process evolves water vapor which is then swept through the system at approximately 150 standard cubic centimeters per minute. The evolved water vapor passes through an activated charcoal cartridge for removal of large organics, and then through Picarro's Micro-Combustion Cartridge that acts to oxidize interfering organics to CO2 and H2O. Using an open-split, the IM is interfaced directly with a CRDS system (in this case, an L2130-i) for the measurement of δ18O and δD. Based on replicate measurements of water introduced to the system using glass filter paper, the precision of the system is better than 0.35 and 1.5 ‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. We will present improvements in system operation that have reduced systematic errors associated with (i) variable backgrounds, and (ii) exchange between the sample and the local atmosphere during sample introduction. In addition, we will present calibration data, and data demonstrating the effectiveness of the Micro-Combustion Cartridge at removing organics, which can result in spectroscopic interference. Finally, we will compare localized leaf water data against integrated whole leaf water data to demonstrate the added value of being able to sample small (approximately 5 mm diameter) areas of a leaf, and compare the results of measuring samples with high TDS on an IM and a Picarro High Precision Vaporizer.

  3. Improvements in Cd stable isotope analysis achieved through use of liquid–liquid extraction to remove organic residues from Cd separates obtained by extraction chromatography† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ja00115c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rehkämper, Mark; Kreissig, Katharina; Coles, Barry; van de Flierdt, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Organic compounds released from resins that are commonly employed for trace element separations are known to have a detrimental impact on the quality of isotopic analyses by MC-ICP-MS. A recent study highlighted that such effects can be particularly problematic for Cd stable isotope measurements (M. Gault-Ringold and C. H. Stirling, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2012, 27, 449–459). In this case, the final stage of sample purification commonly applies extraction chromatography with Eichrom TRU resin, which employs particles coated with octylphenyl-N,N-di-isobutyl carbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). During chromatography, it appears that some of these compounds are eluted alongside Cd and cannot be removed by evaporation due to their high boiling points. When aliquots of the zero-ε reference material were processed through the purification procedure, refluxed in concentrated HNO3 and analyzed at minimum dilution (in 1 ml 0.1 M HNO3), they yielded Cd isotopic compositions (ε114/110Cd = 4.6 ± 3.4, 2SD, n = 4) that differed significantly from the expected value, despite the use of a double spike technique to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. This result was accompanied by a 35% reduction in instrumental sensitivity for Cd. With increasing dilution of the organic resin residue, both of these effects are reduced and they are insignificant when the eluted Cd is dissolved in ≥3 ml 0.1 M HNO3. Our results, furthermore, indicate that the isotopic artefacts are most likely related to anomalous mass bias behavior. Previous studies have shown that perchloric acid can be effective at avoiding such effects (Gault-Ringold and Stirling, 2012; K. C. Crocket, M. Lambelet, T. van de Flierdt, M. Rehkämper and L. F. Robinson, Chem. Geol., 2014, 374–375, 128–140), presumably by oxidizing the resin-derived organics, but there are numerous disadvantages to its use. Here we show that liquid–liquid extraction with n-heptane removes the organic compounds, dramatically improving quality of the Cd isotope data for samples that are analyzed at or close to minimum dilution factors. This technique is quick, simple and may be of use prior to analysis of other isotope systems where similar resins are employed. PMID:27284213

  4. Xenobiotic- and Jasmonic Acid-Inducible Signal Transduction Pathways Have Become Interdependent at the Arabidopsis CYP81D11 Promoter1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Köster, Julia; Thurow, Corinna; Kruse, Kerstin; Meier, Alexander; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Gatz, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Plants modify harmful substances through an inducible detoxification system. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), chemical induction of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP81D11 and other genes linked to the detoxification program depends on class II TGA transcription factors. CYP81D11 expression is also induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) through the established pathway requiring the JA receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and the JA-regulated transcription factor MYC2. Here, we report that the xenobiotic- and the JA-dependent signal cascades have become interdependent at the CYP81D11 promoter. On the one hand, MYC2 can only activate the expression of CYP81D11 when both the MYC2- and the TGA-binding sites are present in the promoter. On the other hand, the xenobiotic-regulated class II TGA transcription factors can only mediate maximal promoter activity if TGA and MYC2 binding motifs, MYC2, and the JA-isoleucine biosynthesis enzymes DDE2/AOS and JAR1 are functional. Since JA levels and degradation of JAZ1, a repressor of the JA response, are not affected by reactive chemicals, we hypothesize that basal JA signaling amplifies the response to chemical stress. Remarkably, stress-induced expression levels were 3-fold lower in coi1 than in the JA biosynthesis mutant dede2-2, revealing that COI1 can contribute to the activation of the promoter in the absence of JA. Moreover, we show that deletion of the MYC2 binding motifs abolishes the JA responsiveness of the promoter but not the responsiveness to COI1. These findings suggest that yet unknown cis-element(s) can mediate COI1-dependent transcriptional activation in the absence of JA. PMID:22452854

  5. Xenobiotic- and jasmonic acid-inducible signal transduction pathways have become interdependent at the Arabidopsis CYP81D11 promoter.

    PubMed

    Köster, Julia; Thurow, Corinna; Kruse, Kerstin; Meier, Alexander; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Gatz, Christiane

    2012-05-01

    Plants modify harmful substances through an inducible detoxification system. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), chemical induction of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP81D11 and other genes linked to the detoxification program depends on class II TGA transcription factors. CYP81D11 expression is also induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) through the established pathway requiring the JA receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and the JA-regulated transcription factor MYC2. Here, we report that the xenobiotic- and the JA-dependent signal cascades have become interdependent at the CYP81D11 promoter. On the one hand, MYC2 can only activate the expression of CYP81D11 when both the MYC2- and the TGA-binding sites are present in the promoter. On the other hand, the xenobiotic-regulated class II TGA transcription factors can only mediate maximal promoter activity if TGA and MYC2 binding motifs, MYC2, and the JA-isoleucine biosynthesis enzymes DDE2/AOS and JAR1 are functional. Since JA levels and degradation of JAZ1, a repressor of the JA response, are not affected by reactive chemicals, we hypothesize that basal JA signaling amplifies the response to chemical stress. Remarkably, stress-induced expression levels were 3-fold lower in coi1 than in the JA biosynthesis mutant dde2-2, [corrected] revealing that COI1 can contribute to the activation of the promoter in the absence of JA. Moreover, we show that deletion of the MYC2 binding motifs abolishes the JA responsiveness of the promoter but not the responsiveness to COI1. These findings suggest that yet unknown cis-element(s) can mediate COI1-dependent transcriptional activation in the absence of JA.

  6. The tryptophan conjugates of jasmonic and indole-3-acetic acids are endogenous auxin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Staswick, Paul E

    2009-07-01

    Most conjugates of plant hormones are inactive, and some function to reduce the active hormone pool. This study characterized the activity of the tryptophan (Trp) conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA-Trp) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Unexpectedly, JA-Trp caused agravitropic root growth in seedlings, unlike JA or nine other JA-amino acid conjugates. The response was dose dependent from 1 to 100 microm, was independent of the COI1 jasmonate signaling locus, and unlike the jasmonate signal JA-isoleucine, JA-Trp minimally inhibited root growth. The Trp conjugate with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA-Trp) produced a similar response, while Trp alone and conjugates with benzoic and cinnamic acids did not. JA-Trp and IAA-Trp at 25 microm nearly eliminated seedling root inhibition caused by 2 microm IAA. The TIR1 auxin receptor is required for activity because roots of tir1-1 grew only approximately 60% of wild-type length on IAA plus JA-Trp, even though tir1-1 is auxin resistant. However, neither JA-Trp nor IAA-Trp interfered with IAA-dependent interaction between TIR1 and Aux/IAA7 in cell-free assays. Trp conjugates inhibited IAA-stimulated lateral root production and DR5-beta-glucuronidase gene expression. JA-deficient mutants were hypersensitive to IAA and a Trp-overaccumulating mutant was less sensitive, suggesting endogenous conjugates affect auxin sensitivity. Conjugates were present at 5.8 pmol g(-1) fresh weight or less in roots, seedlings, leaves, and flowers, and the values increased approximately 10-fold in roots incubated in 25 microm Trp and IAA or JA at 2 microm. These results show that JA-Trp and IAA-Trp constitute a previously unrecognized mechanism to regulate auxin action.

  7. Expression profiles of genes involved in jasmonic acid biosynthesis and signaling during growth and development of carrot.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanglong; Huang, Wei; Li, Mengyao; Xu, Zhisheng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Aisheng

    2016-09-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are recognized as essential regulators in response to environmental stimuli and plant development. Carrot is an Apiaceae vegetable with great value and undergoes significant size changes over the course of plant growth. However, JA accumulation and its potential roles in carrot growth remain unclear. Here, methyl JA (MeJA) levels and expression profiles of JA-related genes were analyzed in carrot roots and leaves at five developmental stages. MeJA levels in the roots and leaves were the highest at the first stage and decreased as carrot growth proceeded. Transcript levels of several JA-related genes (Dc13-LOX1, Dc13-LOX2, DcAOS, DcAOC, DcOPR2, DcOPR3, DcOPCL1, DcJAR1, DcJMT, DcCOI1, DcJAZ1, DcJAZ2, DcMYC2, DcCHIB/PR3, DcLEC, and DcVSP2) were not well correlated with MeJA accumulation during carrot root and leaf development. In addition, some JA-related genes (DcJAR1, DcJMT, DcCOI1, DcMYC2, and DcVSP2) showed differential expression between roots and leaves. These results suggest that JAs may regulate carrot plant growth in stage-dependent and organ-specific manners. Our work provides novel insights into JA accumulation and its potential roles during carrot growth and development. PMID:27325823

  8. Defense Priming and Jasmonates: A Role for Free Fatty Acids in Insect Elicitor-Induced Long Distance Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Cofer, Tristan; Engelberth, Marie; Engelberth, Jurgen

    2016-01-08

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV) prime plants against insect herbivore attack resulting in stronger and faster signaling by jasmonic acid (JA). In maize this response is specifically linked to insect elicitor (IE)-induced signaling processes, which cause JA accumulation not only around the damage site, but also in distant tissues, presumably through the activation of electrical signals. Here, we present additional data further characterizing these distal signaling events in maize. Also, we describe how exposure to GLV increases free fatty acid (fFA) levels in maize seedlings, but also in other plants, and how increased fFA levels affect IE-induced JA accumulation. Increased fFA, in particular α-linolenic acid (LnA), caused a significant increase in JA accumulation after IE treatment, while JA induced by mechanical wounding (MW) alone was not affected. We also identified treatments that significantly decreased certain fFA level including simulated wind and rain. In such treated plants, IE-induced JA accumulation was significantly reduced when compared to un-moved control plants, while MW-induced JA accumulation was not significantly affected. Since only IE-induced JA accumulation was altered by changes in the fFA composition, we conclude that changing levels of fFA affect primarily IE-induced signaling processes rather than serving as a substrate for JA.

  9. Novel players fine-tune plant trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Boter, Marta; Solano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are essential signalling molecules that co-ordinate the plant response to biotic and abiotic challenges, as well as co-ordinating several developmental processes. Huge progress has been made over the last decade in understanding the components and mechanisms that govern JA perception and signalling. The bioactive form of the hormone, (+)-7-iso-jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), is perceived by the COI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins also act as direct repressors of transcriptional activators such as MYC2. In the emerging picture of JA-Ile perception and signalling, COI1 operates as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that upon binding of JA-Ile targets JAZ repressors for degradation by the 26S proteasome, thereby derepressing transcription factors such as MYC2, which in turn activate JA-Ile-dependent transcriptional reprogramming. It is noteworthy that MYCs and different spliced variants of the JAZ proteins are involved in a negative regulatory feedback loop, which suggests a model that rapidly turns the transcriptional JA-Ile responses on and off and thereby avoids a detrimental overactivation of the pathway. This chapter highlights the most recent advances in our understanding of JA-Ile signalling, focusing on the latest repertoire of new targets of JAZ proteins to control different sets of JA-Ile-mediated responses, novel mechanisms of negative regulation of JA-Ile signalling, and hormonal cross-talk at the molecular level that ultimately determines plant adaptability and survival. PMID:26374889

  10. Arabidopsis CYP94B3 encodes jasmonyl-L-isoleucine 12-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Naoki; Matsubara, Takuya; Sato, Michio; Takahashi, Kosaku; Wakuta, Shinji; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Hirokazu; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2011-10-01

    The hormonal action of jasmonate in plants is controlled by the precise balance between its biosynthesis and catabolism. It has been shown that jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is the bioactive form involved in the jasmonate-mediated signaling pathway. However, the catabolism of JA-Ile is poorly understood. Although a metabolite, 12-hydroxyJA-Ile, has been characterized, detailed functional studies of the compound and the enzyme that produces it have not been conducted. In this report, the kinetics of wound-induced accumulation of 12-hydroxyJA-Ile in plants were examined, and its involvement in the plant wound response is described. Candidate genes for the catabolic enzyme were narrowed down from 272 Arabidopsis Cyt P450 genes using Arabidopsis mutants. The candidate gene was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris to reveal that CYP94B3 encodes JA-Ile 12-hydroxylase. Expression analyses demonstrate that expression of CYP94B3 is induced by wounding and shows specific activity toward JA-Ile. Plants grown in medium containing JA-Ile show higher sensitivity to JA-Ile in cyp94b3 mutants than in wild-type plants. These results demonstrate that CYP94B3 plays a major regulatory role in controlling the level of JA-Ile in plants. PMID:21849397

  11. Neomycin inhibition of (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine accumulation and signaling.

    PubMed

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Reichelt, Michael; Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Boland, Wilhelm; Mithöfer, Axel

    2014-07-01

    The majority of plant defenses against insect herbivores are coordinated by jasmonate (jasmonic acid, JA; (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine, JA-Ile)-dependent signaling cascades. Insect feeding and mimicking herbivory by application of oral secretions (OS) from the insect induced both cytosolic Ca(2+) and jasmonate-phytohormone elevation in plants. Here it is shown that in Arabidopsis thaliana upon treatment with OS from lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis larvae, the antibiotic neomycin selectively blocked the accumulation of OS-induced Ca(2+) elevation and level of the bioactive JA-Ile, in contrast to JA level. Furthermore, neomycin treatment affected the downstream expression of JA-Ile-responsive genes, VSP2 and LOX2, in Arabidopsis. The neomycin-dependent reduced JA-Ile level is partially due to increased CYP94B3 expression and subsequent JA-Ile turn-over to12-hydroxy-JA-Ile. It is neither due to the inhibition of the enzymatic conjugation process nor to substrate availability. Thus, blocking Ca(2+) elevation specifically controls JA-Ile accumulation and signaling, offering an insight into role of calcium in defense against insect herbivory.

  12. Involvement of nitric oxide in the jasmonate-dependent basal defense against root-knot nematode in tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Jia, Feifei; Shao, Shujun; Zhang, Huan; Li, Guiping; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) are well-characterized signaling molecules in plant defense responses. However, their roles in plant defense against root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the transcript levels of the JA- and NO-related biosynthetic and signaling component genes were induced after RKN infection. Application of exogenous JA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) significantly decreased the number of egg masses in tomato roots after RKN infection and partially alleviated RKN-induced decreases in plant fresh weight and net photosynthetic rate. These molecules also alleviated RKN-induced increases in root electrolyte leakage and membrane peroxidation. Importantly, NO scavenger partially inhibited JA-induced RKN defense. The pharmacological inhibition of JA biosynthesis significantly increased the plants’ susceptibility to RKNs, which was effectively alleviated by SNP application, showing that NO may be involved in the JA-dependent RKN defense pathway. Furthermore, both JA and SNP induced increases in protease inhibitor 2 (PI2) gene expression after RKN infestation. Silencing of PI2 compromised both JA- and SNP-induced RKN defense responses, suggesting that the PI2 gene mediates JA- and NO-induced defense against RKNs. This work will be important for deepening the understanding of the mechanisms involved in basal defense against RKN attack in plants. PMID:25914698

  13. Defense Priming and Jasmonates: A Role for Free Fatty Acids in Insect Elicitor-Induced Long Distance Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Cofer, Tristan; Engelberth, Marie; Engelberth, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV) prime plants against insect herbivore attack resulting in stronger and faster signaling by jasmonic acid (JA). In maize this response is specifically linked to insect elicitor (IE)-induced signaling processes, which cause JA accumulation not only around the damage site, but also in distant tissues, presumably through the activation of electrical signals. Here, we present additional data further characterizing these distal signaling events in maize. Also, we describe how exposure to GLV increases free fatty acid (fFA) levels in maize seedlings, but also in other plants, and how increased fFA levels affect IE-induced JA accumulation. Increased fFA, in particular α-linolenic acid (LnA), caused a significant increase in JA accumulation after IE treatment, while JA induced by mechanical wounding (MW) alone was not affected. We also identified treatments that significantly decreased certain fFA level including simulated wind and rain. In such treated plants, IE-induced JA accumulation was significantly reduced when compared to un-moved control plants, while MW-induced JA accumulation was not significantly affected. Since only IE-induced JA accumulation was altered by changes in the fFA composition, we conclude that changing levels of fFA affect primarily IE-induced signaling processes rather than serving as a substrate for JA. PMID:27135225

  14. Involvement of nitric oxide in the jasmonate-dependent basal defense against root-knot nematode in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Jia, Feifei; Shao, Shujun; Zhang, Huan; Li, Guiping; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) are well-characterized signaling molecules in plant defense responses. However, their roles in plant defense against root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the transcript levels of the JA- and NO-related biosynthetic and signaling component genes were induced after RKN infection. Application of exogenous JA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) significantly decreased the number of egg masses in tomato roots after RKN infection and partially alleviated RKN-induced decreases in plant fresh weight and net photosynthetic rate. These molecules also alleviated RKN-induced increases in root electrolyte leakage and membrane peroxidation. Importantly, NO scavenger partially inhibited JA-induced RKN defense. The pharmacological inhibition of JA biosynthesis significantly increased the plants' susceptibility to RKNs, which was effectively alleviated by SNP application, showing that NO may be involved in the JA-dependent RKN defense pathway. Furthermore, both JA and SNP induced increases in protease inhibitor 2 (PI2) gene expression after RKN infestation. Silencing of PI2 compromised both JA- and SNP-induced RKN defense responses, suggesting that the PI2 gene mediates JA- and NO-induced defense against RKNs. This work will be important for deepening the understanding of the mechanisms involved in basal defense against RKN attack in plants.

  15. The calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 regulates development by inducing growth phase-specific, spatially restricted alterations in jasmonic acid levels independent of defense responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Matschi, Susanne; Hake, Katharina; Herde, Marco; Hause, Bettina; Romeis, Tina

    2015-03-01

    Phytohormones play an important role in development and stress adaptations in plants, and several interacting hormonal pathways have been suggested to accomplish fine-tuning of stress responses at the expense of growth. This work describes the role played by the CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE CPK28 in balancing phytohormone-mediated development in Arabidopsis thaliana, specifically during generative growth. cpk28 mutants exhibit growth reduction solely as adult plants, coinciding with altered balance of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA). JA-dependent gene expression and the levels of several JA metabolites were elevated in a growth phase-dependent manner in cpk28, and accumulation of JA metabolites was confined locally to the central rosette tissue. No elevated resistance toward herbivores or necrotrophic pathogens was detected for cpk28 plants, either on the whole-plant level or specifically within the tissue displaying elevated JA levels. Abolishment of JA biosynthesis or JA signaling led to a full reversion of the cpk28 growth phenotype, while modification of GA signaling did not. Our data identify CPK28 as a growth phase-dependent key negative regulator of distinct processes: While in seedlings, CPK28 regulates reactive oxygen species-mediated defense signaling; in adult plants, CPK28 confers developmental processes by the tissue-specific balance of JA and GA without affecting JA-mediated defense responses.

  16. The Arabidopsis DELLA RGA-LIKE3 is a direct target of MYC2 and modulates jasmonate signaling responses.

    PubMed

    Wild, Michael; Davière, Jean-Michel; Cheminant, Soizic; Regnault, Thomas; Baumberger, Nicolas; Heintz, Dimitri; Baltz, Rachel; Genschik, Pascal; Achard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones involved in the regulation of plant growth in response to endogenous and environmental signals. GA promotes growth by stimulating the degradation of nuclear growth-repressing DELLA proteins. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DELLAs consist of a small family of five proteins that display distinct but also overlapping functions in repressing GA responses. This study reveals that DELLA RGA-LIKE3 (RGL3) protein is essential to fully enhance the jasmonate (JA)-mediated responses. We show that JA rapidly induces RGL3 expression in a CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)- and JASMONATE INSENSITIVE1 (JIN1/MYC2)-dependent manner. In addition, we demonstrate that MYC2 binds directly to RGL3 promoter. Furthermore, we show that RGL3 (like the other DELLAs) interacts with JA ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, key repressors of JA signaling. These findings suggest that JA/MYC2-dependent accumulation of RGL3 represses JAZ activity, which in turn enhances the expression of JA-responsive genes. Accordingly, we show that induction of primary JA-responsive genes is reduced in the rgl3-5 mutant and enhanced in transgenic lines overexpressing RGL3. Hence, RGL3 positively regulates JA-mediated resistance to the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea and susceptibility to the hemibiotroph Pseudomonas syringae. We propose that JA-mediated induction of RGL3 expression is of adaptive significance and might represent a recent functional diversification of the DELLAs.

  17. Characterization of a JAZ7 activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant with increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Louise F; Cevik, Volkan; Grant, Murray; Zhai, Bing; Jones, Jonathan D G; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

    2016-04-01

    In Arabidopsis, jasmonate (JA)-signaling plays a key role in mediating Fusarium oxysporum disease outcome. However, the roles of JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins that repress JA-signaling have not been characterized in host resistance or susceptibility to this pathogen. Here, we found most JAZ genes are induced following F. oxysporum challenge, and screening T-DNA insertion lines in Arabidopsis JAZ family members identified a highly disease-susceptible JAZ7 mutant (jaz7-1D). This mutant exhibited constitutive JAZ7 expression and conferred increased JA-sensitivity, suggesting activation of JA-signaling. Unlike jaz7 loss-of-function alleles, jaz7-1D also had enhanced JA-responsive gene expression, altered development and increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen PstDC3000 that also disrupts host JA-responses. We also demonstrate that JAZ7 interacts with transcription factors functioning as activators (MYC3, MYC4) or repressors (JAM1) of JA-signaling and contains a functional EAR repressor motif mediating transcriptional repression via the co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL). We propose through direct TPL recruitment, in wild-type plants JAZ7 functions as a repressor within the JA-response network and that in jaz7-1D plants, misregulated ectopic JAZ7 expression hyper-activates JA-signaling in part by disturbing finely-tuned COI1-JAZ-TPL-TF complexes.

  18. Defense Priming and Jasmonates: A Role for Free Fatty Acids in Insect Elicitor-Induced Long Distance Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting; Cofer, Tristan; Engelberth, Marie; Engelberth, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLV) prime plants against insect herbivore attack resulting in stronger and faster signaling by jasmonic acid (JA). In maize this response is specifically linked to insect elicitor (IE)-induced signaling processes, which cause JA accumulation not only around the damage site, but also in distant tissues, presumably through the activation of electrical signals. Here, we present additional data further characterizing these distal signaling events in maize. Also, we describe how exposure to GLV increases free fatty acid (fFA) levels in maize seedlings, but also in other plants, and how increased fFA levels affect IE-induced JA accumulation. Increased fFA, in particular α-linolenic acid (LnA), caused a significant increase in JA accumulation after IE treatment, while JA induced by mechanical wounding (MW) alone was not affected. We also identified treatments that significantly decreased certain fFA level including simulated wind and rain. In such treated plants, IE-induced JA accumulation was significantly reduced when compared to un-moved control plants, while MW-induced JA accumulation was not significantly affected. Since only IE-induced JA accumulation was altered by changes in the fFA composition, we conclude that changing levels of fFA affect primarily IE-induced signaling processes rather than serving as a substrate for JA. PMID:27135225

  19. Novel players fine-tune plant trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Boter, Marta; Solano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are essential signalling molecules that co-ordinate the plant response to biotic and abiotic challenges, as well as co-ordinating several developmental processes. Huge progress has been made over the last decade in understanding the components and mechanisms that govern JA perception and signalling. The bioactive form of the hormone, (+)-7-iso-jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), is perceived by the COI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins also act as direct repressors of transcriptional activators such as MYC2. In the emerging picture of JA-Ile perception and signalling, COI1 operates as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that upon binding of JA-Ile targets JAZ repressors for degradation by the 26S proteasome, thereby derepressing transcription factors such as MYC2, which in turn activate JA-Ile-dependent transcriptional reprogramming. It is noteworthy that MYCs and different spliced variants of the JAZ proteins are involved in a negative regulatory feedback loop, which suggests a model that rapidly turns the transcriptional JA-Ile responses on and off and thereby avoids a detrimental overactivation of the pathway. This chapter highlights the most recent advances in our understanding of JA-Ile signalling, focusing on the latest repertoire of new targets of JAZ proteins to control different sets of JA-Ile-mediated responses, novel mechanisms of negative regulation of JA-Ile signalling, and hormonal cross-talk at the molecular level that ultimately determines plant adaptability and survival.

  20. Arabidopsis CYP94B3 encodes jasmonyl-L-isoleucine 12-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Naoki; Matsubara, Takuya; Sato, Michio; Takahashi, Kosaku; Wakuta, Shinji; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Hirokazu; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2011-10-01

    The hormonal action of jasmonate in plants is controlled by the precise balance between its biosynthesis and catabolism. It has been shown that jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is the bioactive form involved in the jasmonate-mediated signaling pathway. However, the catabolism of JA-Ile is poorly understood. Although a metabolite, 12-hydroxyJA-Ile, has been characterized, detailed functional studies of the compound and the enzyme that produces it have not been conducted. In this report, the kinetics of wound-induced accumulation of 12-hydroxyJA-Ile in plants were examined, and its involvement in the plant wound response is described. Candidate genes for the catabolic enzyme were narrowed down from 272 Arabidopsis Cyt P450 genes using Arabidopsis mutants. The candidate gene was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris to reveal that CYP94B3 encodes JA-Ile 12-hydroxylase. Expression analyses demonstrate that expression of CYP94B3 is induced by wounding and shows specific activity toward JA-Ile. Plants grown in medium containing JA-Ile show higher sensitivity to JA-Ile in cyp94b3 mutants than in wild-type plants. These results demonstrate that CYP94B3 plays a major regulatory role in controlling the level of JA-Ile in plants.

  1. The Amidohydrolases IAR3 and ILL6 Contribute to Jasmonoyl-Isoleucine Hormone Turnover and Generate 12-Hydroxyjasmonic Acid Upon Wounding in Arabidopsis Leaves*

    PubMed Central

    Widemann, Emilie; Miesch, Laurence; Lugan, Raphaël; Holder, Emilie; Heinrich, Clément; Aubert, Yann; Miesch, Michel; Pinot, Franck; Heitz, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are a class of signaling compounds that mediate complex developmental and adaptative responses in plants. JAs derive from jasmonic acid (JA) through various enzymatic modifications, including conjugation to amino acids or oxidation, yielding an array of derivatives. The main hormonal signal, jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), has been found recently to undergo catabolic inactivation by cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation. We characterize here two amidohydrolases, IAR3 and ILL6, that define a second pathway for JA-Ile turnover during the wound response in Arabidopsis leaves. Biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that these two enzymes cleave the JA-Ile signal, but act also on the 12OH-JA-Ile conjugate. We also show that unexpectedly, the abundant accumulation of tuberonic acid (12OH-JA) after wounding originates partly through a sequential pathway involving (i) conjugation of JA to Ile, (ii) oxidation of the JA-Ile conjugate, and (iii) cleavage under the action of the amidohydrolases. The coordinated actions of oxidative and hydrolytic branches in the jasmonate pathway highlight novel mechanisms of JA-Ile hormone turnover and redefine the dynamic metabolic grid of jasmonate conversion in the wound response. PMID:24052260

  2. The Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase CPK28 Regulates Development by Inducing Growth Phase-Specific, Spatially Restricted Alterations in Jasmonic Acid Levels Independent of Defense Responses in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Matschi, Susanne; Hake, Katharina; Herde, Marco; Hause, Bettina; Romeis, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormones play an important role in development and stress adaptations in plants, and several interacting hormonal pathways have been suggested to accomplish fine-tuning of stress responses at the expense of growth. This work describes the role played by the CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE CPK28 in balancing phytohormone-mediated development in Arabidopsis thaliana, specifically during generative growth. cpk28 mutants exhibit growth reduction solely as adult plants, coinciding with altered balance of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA). JA-dependent gene expression and the levels of several JA metabolites were elevated in a growth phase-dependent manner in cpk28, and accumulation of JA metabolites was confined locally to the central rosette tissue. No elevated resistance toward herbivores or necrotrophic pathogens was detected for cpk28 plants, either on the whole-plant level or specifically within the tissue displaying elevated JA levels. Abolishment of JA biosynthesis or JA signaling led to a full reversion of the cpk28 growth phenotype, while modification of GA signaling did not. Our data identify CPK28 as a growth phase-dependent key negative regulator of distinct processes: While in seedlings, CPK28 regulates reactive oxygen species-mediated defense signaling; in adult plants, CPK28 confers developmental processes by the tissue-specific balance of JA and GA without affecting JA-mediated defense responses. PMID:25736059

  3. Action of jasmonates in plant stress responses and development--applied aspects.

    PubMed

    Wasternack, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived compounds acting as key signaling compounds in plant stress responses and development. The JA co-receptor complex and several enzymes of JA biosynthesis have been crystallized, and various JA signal transduction pathways including cross-talk to most of the plant hormones have been intensively studied. Defense to herbivores and necrotrophic pathogens are mediated by JA. Other environmental cues mediated by JA are light, seasonal and circadian rhythms, cold stress, desiccation stress, salt stress and UV stress. During development growth inhibition of roots, shoots and leaves occur by JA, whereas seed germination and flower development are partially affected by its precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA). Based on these numerous JA mediated signal transduction pathways active in plant stress responses and development, there is an increasing interest in horticultural and biotechnological applications. Intercropping, the mixed growth of two or more crops, mycorrhization of plants, establishment of induced resistance, priming of plants for enhanced insect resistance as well as pre- and post-harvest application of JA are few examples. Additional sources for horticultural improvement, where JAs might be involved, are defense against nematodes, biocontrol by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, altered composition of rhizosphere bacterial community, sustained balance between growth and defense, and improved plant immunity in intercropping systems. Finally, biotechnological application for JA-induced production of pharmaceuticals and application of JAs as anti-cancer agents were intensively studied.

  4. The Recently Identified Isoleucine Conjugate of cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Is Partially Active in cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid-Specific Gene Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Floková, Kristýna; Miersch, Otto; Strnad, Miroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Oxylipins of the jasmonate family are active as signals in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Jasmonic acid (JA), its precursor cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and the isoleucine conjugate of JA (JA-Ile) are the most prominent members. OPDA and JA-Ile have individual signalling properties in several processes and differ in their pattern of gene expression. JA-Ile, but not OPDA, is perceived by the SCFCOI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. There are, however, numerous processes and genes specifically induced by OPDA. The recently identified OPDA-Ile suggests that OPDA specific responses might be mediated upon formation of OPDA-Ile. Here, we tested OPDA-Ile-induced gene expression in wild type and JA-deficient, JA-insensitive and JA-Ile-deficient mutant background. Tests on putative conversion of OPDA-Ile during treatments revealed only negligible conversion. Expression of two OPDA-inducible genes, GRX480 and ZAT10, by OPDA-Ile could be detected in a JA-independent manner in Arabidopsis seedlings but less in flowering plants. The data suggest a bioactivity in planta of OPDA-Ile. PMID:27611078

  5. Characterization of a JAZ7 activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant with increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Louise F.; Cevik, Volkan; Grant, Murray; Zhai, Bing; Jones, Jonathan D.G.; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, jasmonate (JA)-signaling plays a key role in mediating Fusarium oxysporum disease outcome. However, the roles of JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins that repress JA-signaling have not been characterized in host resistance or susceptibility to this pathogen. Here, we found most JAZ genes are induced following F. oxysporum challenge, and screening T-DNA insertion lines in Arabidopsis JAZ family members identified a highly disease-susceptible JAZ7 mutant (jaz7-1D). This mutant exhibited constitutive JAZ7 expression and conferred increased JA-sensitivity, suggesting activation of JA-signaling. Unlike jaz7 loss-of-function alleles, jaz7-1D also had enhanced JA-responsive gene expression, altered development and increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000 that also disrupts host JA-responses. We also demonstrate that JAZ7 interacts with transcription factors functioning as activators (MYC3, MYC4) or repressors (JAM1) of JA-signaling and contains a functional EAR repressor motif mediating transcriptional repression via the co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL). We propose through direct TPL recruitment, in wild-type plants JAZ7 functions as a repressor within the JA-response network and that in jaz7-1D plants, misregulated ectopic JAZ7 expression hyper-activates JA-signaling in part by disturbing finely-tuned COI1-JAZ-TPL-TF complexes. PMID:26896849

  6. The Recently Identified Isoleucine Conjugate of cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid Is Partially Active in cis-12-Oxo-Phytodienoic Acid-Specific Gene Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Monika D; Gruber, Cornelia; Floková, Kristýna; Miersch, Otto; Strnad, Miroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Oxylipins of the jasmonate family are active as signals in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in development. Jasmonic acid (JA), its precursor cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and the isoleucine conjugate of JA (JA-Ile) are the most prominent members. OPDA and JA-Ile have individual signalling properties in several processes and differ in their pattern of gene expression. JA-Ile, but not OPDA, is perceived by the SCFCOI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. There are, however, numerous processes and genes specifically induced by OPDA. The recently identified OPDA-Ile suggests that OPDA specific responses might be mediated upon formation of OPDA-Ile. Here, we tested OPDA-Ile-induced gene expression in wild type and JA-deficient, JA-insensitive and JA-Ile-deficient mutant background. Tests on putative conversion of OPDA-Ile during treatments revealed only negligible conversion. Expression of two OPDA-inducible genes, GRX480 and ZAT10, by OPDA-Ile could be detected in a JA-independent manner in Arabidopsis seedlings but less in flowering plants. The data suggest a bioactivity in planta of OPDA-Ile. PMID:27611078

  7. Salt stress response triggers activation of the jasmonate signaling pathway leading to inhibition of cell elongation in Arabidopsis primary root.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Camilo E; Acevedo-Acevedo, Orlando; Miranda, Giovanna S; Vergara-Barros, Pablo; Holuigue, Loreto; Figueroa, Carlos R; Figueroa, Pablo M

    2016-07-01

    Salinity is a severe abiotic stress that affects irrigated croplands. Jasmonate (JA) is an essential hormone involved in plant defense against herbivory and in responses to abiotic stress. However, the relationship between the salt stress response and the JA pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana is not well understood at molecular and cellular levels. In this work we investigated the activation of JA signaling by NaCl and its effect on primary root growth. We found that JA-responsive JAZ genes were up-regulated by salt stress in a COI1-dependent manner in the roots. Using a JA-Ile sensor we demonstrated that activation of JA signaling by salt stress occurs in the meristematic zone and stele of the differentiation zone and that this activation was dependent on JAR1 and proteasome functions. Another finding is that the elongation zone (EZ) and its cortical cells were significantly longer in JA-related mutants (AOS, COI1, JAZ3 and MYC2/3/4 genes) compared with wild-type plants under salt stress, revealing the participation of the canonical JA signaling pathway. Noteworthy, osmotic stress - a component of salt stress - inhibited cell elongation in the EZ in a COI1-dependent manner. We propose that salt stress triggers activation of the JA signaling pathway followed by inhibition of cell elongation in the EZ. We have shown that salt-inhibited root growth partially involves the jasmonate signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. PMID:27217545

  8. Methyl Jasmonate- and Light-Induced Glucosinolate and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Radish Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Sun Ju; RomijUddin, Md; Park, Woo Tae; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2015-07-01

    Radish sprouts and young seedlings are considered important dietary vegetables in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the levels of glucosinolate and anthocyanin accumulation in radish seedlings in response to light and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments. MeJA facilitated the accumulation of glucosinolate and anthocyanins under light conditions. The glucosinolate and anthocyanin contents in the radish seedlings that were exposed to light after MeJA treatment were higher than those of the seedlings that were grown in the dark without MeJA. At a concentration of 100 μM, MeJA led to the greatest accumulation of the most glucosinolates under both light and dark conditions. Under light conditions, the levels of glucoraphenin, glucoerucin, and glucotropaeolin accumulation were 1.53-, 1.60-, and 1.30-fold higher, respectively, than those of the control. Remarkable accumulations of glucobrassicin were observed under light conditions (4.4-, 6.7-, and 7.8-fold higher than that of the control following the application of 100, 300, and 500 μM MeJA, respectively). The level of cyanidin in the 300 μM MeJA-treated seedlings was double of that in the control without MeJA treatment. The highest level of pelargonidin was observed after treatment with 500 μM MeJA under light conditions; this level was 1.73 times higher than that in the control. A similar trend of anthocyaninaccumulation was observed in the radish seedlings following MeJA treatment under dark conditions, but the levels of anthocyanins were considerably lower in the seedlings that were grown in the dark. Our findings suggest that light and low concentrations of MeJA enhance the accumulations of glucosinolates and anthocyanins during the development of radish seedlings.

  9. Concurrent changes in methyl jasmonate emission and the expression of its biosynthesis-related genes in Cymbidium ensifolium flowers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingkun; Ma, Cuiping; Yu, Rangcai; Mu, Lanling; Hou, Jia; Yu, Yunyi; Fan, Yanping

    2015-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is one of most abundant scent compounds in Cymbidium ensifolium flowers. In this study, the emission of MeJA and its regulation mechanism were investigated. Our results showed that emission of MeJA in C. ensifolium flowers was controlled developmentally and rhythmically. It occurred in a tissue-specific manner, and high MeJA emission was found in sepals and petals. A group of vital genes involved in the MeJA biosynthesis via the octadecanoid pathway were isolated from C. ensifolium flowers, including CeLOX, CeAOS, CeAOC and CeJMT. MeJA emission was at very low levels in unopened or half-opened C. ensifolium flowers and reached its maximal level between day 4 and 6 and declined from day 7 to 10 postanthesis. The expression of CeLOX, CeAOS, CeAOC and CeJMT increased from day 1 to day 6, and then declined from day 7 to 10 postanthesis, corresponding to the change in MeJA emission. Moreover, the expression of CeLOX, CeAOS, CeAOC and CeJMT oscillated in a rhythmic manner could reach the maximum level between 8:00 h and 16:00 h, which coincided with the MeJA emission. The high level of MeJA emission in sepals and petals coincided with the high transcript levels. The results suggest that MeJA emission in C. ensifolium flower might be directly regulated at the transcription levels. Moreover, the recombinant protein of CeJMT could specifically catalyze the jasmonic acid to form the corresponding ester MeJA.

  10. Effects of Light and Wounding on Jasmonates in Rice phyAphyC Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Brendel, Rita; Svyatyna, Katharina; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel; Takano, Makoto; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter; Riemann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonates (JA) are lipid-derived plant hormones. They have been shown to be important regulators of photomorphogenesis, a developmental program in plants, which is activated by light through different red and blue light sensitive photoreceptors. In rice, inhibition of coleoptile growth by light is a central event in photomorphogenesis. This growth inhibition is impaired, when jasmonate biosynthesis is knocked out. Previously, we found that JASMONATE RESISTANT 1 (OsJAR1) transcripts were not induced in the phytochrome (phy) mutant phyAphyC. Therefore, in the current study we investigated the regulation of JA and its highly bioactive derivative (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), as well as the transcriptional regulation of several JA-dependent genes both in wild type and phyAphyC mutant. JA and JA-Ile levels increased in the mutant seedlings in response to blue light. However, in phyAphyC mutant leaves, which were continuously wounded, JA and JA-Ile levels were lower compared to those in the wild type. Hence, the mutation of phyA and phyC has differential effects on jasmonate levels depending on the tissue and developmental stage. Our results suggest that the contribution of JA-Ile to signaling during photomorphogenesis of rice is minor, as coleoptile phenotypes of phyAphyC mutants resemble those of jasmonate-deficient mutants despite the fact that induction by blue light leads to higher levels of JA-Ile compared to the wild type. We postulate that phyA and phyC could control the activity of specific enzymes metabolizing JA to active derivatives. PMID:27135497

  11. Involvement of OST1 Protein Kinase and PYR/PYL/RCAR Receptors in Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis Guard Cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ye; Adachi, Yuji; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Munemasa, Shintaro; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induces stomatal closure. It has been shown that stomata of many ABA-insensitive mutants are also insensitive to MeJA, and a low amount of ABA is a prerequisite for the MeJA response. However, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between ABA and MeJA signaling remain to be elucidated. Here we studied the interplay of signaling of the two hormones in guard cells using the quadruple ABA receptor mutant pyr1 pyl1 pyl2 pyl4 and ABA-activated protein kinase mutants ost1-2 and srk2e. In the quadruple mutant, MeJA-induced stomatal closure, H2O2 production, nitric oxide (NO) production, cytosolic alkalization and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable current (ICa) activation were not impaired. At the same time, the inactivation of the inward-rectifying K(+) current was impaired. In contrast to the quadruple mutant, MeJA-induced stomatal closure, H2O2 production, NO production and cytosolic alkalization were impaired in ost1-2 and srk2e as well as in aba2-2, the ABA-deficient mutant. The activation of ICa was also impaired in srk2e. Collectively, these results indicated that OST1 was essential for MeJA-induced stomatal closure, while PYR1, PYL1, PYL2 and PYL4 ABA receptors were not sufficient factors. MeJA did not appear to activate OST1 kinase activity. This implies that OST1 mediates MeJA signaling through an undetectable level of activity or a non-enzymatic action. MeJA induced the expression of an ABA synthesis gene, NCED3, and increased ABA contents only modestly. Taken together with previous reports, this study suggests that MeJA signaling in guard cells is primed by ABA and is not brought about through the pathway mediated by PYR1, PYL1 PYL2 and PYL4.

  12. Jasmonate-dependent plant defense restricts thrips performance and preference

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Jun; Kugimiya, Soichi; Narusaka, Mari; Seo, Shigemi; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Shinya; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2009-01-01

    Background The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis [Pergande]) is one of the most important insect herbivores of cultivated plants. However, no pesticide provides complete control of this species, and insecticide resistance has emerged around the world. We previously reported the important role of jasmonate (JA) in the plant's immediate response to thrips feeding by using an Arabidopsis leaf disc system. In this study, as the first step toward practical use of JA in thrips control, we analyzed the effect of JA-regulated Arabidopsis defense at the whole plant level on thrips behavior and life cycle at the population level over an extended period. We also studied the effectiveness of JA-regulated plant defense on thrips damage in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis). Results Thrips oviposited more on Arabidopsis JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants than on WT plants, and the population density of the following thrips generation increased on coi1-1 mutants. Moreover, thrips preferred coi1-1 mutants more than WT plants. Application of JA to WT plants before thrips attack decreased the thrips population. To analyze these important functions of JA in a brassica crop plant, we analyzed the expression of marker genes for JA response in B. rapa. Thrips feeding induced expression of these marker genes and significantly increased the JA content in B. rapa. Application of JA to B. rapa enhanced plant resistance to thrips, restricted oviposition, and reduced the population density of the following generation. Conclusion Our results indicate that the JA-regulated plant defense restricts thrips performance and preference, and plays an important role in the resistance of Arabidopsis and B. rapa to thrips damage. PMID:19635132

  13. Both the Jasmonic Acid and the Salicylic Acid Pathways Contribute to Resistance to the Biotrophic Clubroot Agent Plasmodiophora brassicae in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lemarié, Séverine; Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Lariagon, Christine; Lemoine, Jocelyne; Marnet, Nathalie; Jubault, Mélanie; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J; Gravot, Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in resistance to root pathogens has been poorly documented. We assessed the contribution of SA and JA to basal and partial resistance of Arabidopsis to the biotrophic clubroot agent Plasmodiophora brassicae. SA and JA levels as well as the expression of the SA-responsive genes PR2 and PR5 and the JA-responsive genes ARGAH2 and THI2.1 were monitored in infected roots of the accessions Col-0 (susceptible) and Bur-0 (partially resistant). SA signaling was activated in Bur-0 but not in Col-0. The JA pathway was weakly activated in Bur-0 but was strongly induced in Col-0. The contribution of both pathways to clubroot resistance was then assessed using exogenous phytohormone application and mutants affected in SA or JA signaling. Exogenous SA treatment decreased clubroot symptoms in the two Arabidopsis accessions, whereas JA treatment reduced clubroot symptoms only in Col-0. The cpr5-2 mutant, in which SA responses are constitutively induced, was more resistant to clubroot than the corresponding wild type, and the JA signaling-deficient mutant jar1 was more susceptible. Finally, we showed that the JA-mediated induction of NATA1 drove N(δ)-acetylornithine biosynthesis in infected Col-0 roots. The 35S::NATA1 and nata1 lines displayed reduced or enhanced clubroot symptoms, respectively, thus suggesting that in Col-0 this pathway was involved in the JA-mediated basal clubroot resistance. Overall, our data support the idea that, depending on the Arabidopsis accession, both SA and JA signaling can play a role in partial inhibition of clubroot development in compatible interactions with P. brassicae.

  14. Involvement of OST1 Protein Kinase and PYR/PYL/RCAR Receptors in Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis Guard Cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ye; Adachi, Yuji; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Munemasa, Shintaro; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induces stomatal closure. It has been shown that stomata of many ABA-insensitive mutants are also insensitive to MeJA, and a low amount of ABA is a prerequisite for the MeJA response. However, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between ABA and MeJA signaling remain to be elucidated. Here we studied the interplay of signaling of the two hormones in guard cells using the quadruple ABA receptor mutant pyr1 pyl1 pyl2 pyl4 and ABA-activated protein kinase mutants ost1-2 and srk2e. In the quadruple mutant, MeJA-induced stomatal closure, H2O2 production, nitric oxide (NO) production, cytosolic alkalization and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable current (ICa) activation were not impaired. At the same time, the inactivation of the inward-rectifying K(+) current was impaired. In contrast to the quadruple mutant, MeJA-induced stomatal closure, H2O2 production, NO production and cytosolic alkalization were impaired in ost1-2 and srk2e as well as in aba2-2, the ABA-deficient mutant. The activation of ICa was also impaired in srk2e. Collectively, these results indicated that OST1 was essential for MeJA-induced stomatal closure, while PYR1, PYL1, PYL2 and PYL4 ABA receptors were not sufficient factors. MeJA did not appear to activate OST1 kinase activity. This implies that OST1 mediates MeJA signaling through an undetectable level of activity or a non-enzymatic action. MeJA induced the expression of an ABA synthesis gene, NCED3, and increased ABA contents only modestly. Taken together with previous reports, this study suggests that MeJA signaling in guard cells is primed by ABA and is not brought about through the pathway mediated by PYR1, PYL1 PYL2 and PYL4. PMID:27354421

  15. A role for jasmonates in the release of dormancy by cold stratification in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Truong, Thy T; Barrero, Jose M; Jacobsen, John V; Hocart, Charles H; Gubler, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Hydration at low temperatures, commonly referred to as cold stratification, is widely used for releasing dormancy and triggering germination in a wide range of species including wheat. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies its effect on germination has largely remained unknown. Our previous studies showed that methyl-jasmonate, a derivative of jasmonic acid (JA), promotes dormancy release in wheat. In this study, we found that cold-stimulated germination of dormant grains correlated with a transient increase in JA content and expression of JA biosynthesis genes in the dormant embryos after transfer to 20 (o)C. The induction of JA production was dependent on the extent of cold imbibition and precedes germination. Blocking JA biosynthesis with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) inhibited the cold-stimulated germination in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we have explored the relationship between JA and abscisic acid (ABA), a well-known dormancy promoter, in cold regulation of dormancy. We found an inverse relationship between JA and ABA content in dormant wheat embryos following stratification. ABA content decreased rapidly in response to stratification, and the decrease was reversed by addition of ASA. Our results indicate that the action of JA on cold-stratified grains is mediated by suppression of two key ABA biosynthesis genes, TaNCED1 and TaNCED2.

  16. Tense Use and Move Analysis in Journal Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shih-ping; Tu, Pin-ning

    2014-01-01

    There has long been a growing interest in journal article (JA) abstract writing, and this pervading interest has boosted the exigency for further research. This current study therefore aims to investigate both the various applications of verb tense and the rhetorical structure within JA abstracts. A corpus of 1,000 JAs was collected from four…

  17. A role for jasmonates in the release of dormancy by cold stratification in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Truong, Thy T; Barrero, Jose M; Jacobsen, John V; Hocart, Charles H; Gubler, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Hydration at low temperatures, commonly referred to as cold stratification, is widely used for releasing dormancy and triggering germination in a wide range of species including wheat. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies its effect on germination has largely remained unknown. Our previous studies showed that methyl-jasmonate, a derivative of jasmonic acid (JA), promotes dormancy release in wheat. In this study, we found that cold-stimulated germination of dormant grains correlated with a transient increase in JA content and expression of JA biosynthesis genes in the dormant embryos after transfer to 20 (o)C. The induction of JA production was dependent on the extent of cold imbibition and precedes germination. Blocking JA biosynthesis with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) inhibited the cold-stimulated germination in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we have explored the relationship between JA and abscisic acid (ABA), a well-known dormancy promoter, in cold regulation of dormancy. We found an inverse relationship between JA and ABA content in dormant wheat embryos following stratification. ABA content decreased rapidly in response to stratification, and the decrease was reversed by addition of ASA. Our results indicate that the action of JA on cold-stratified grains is mediated by suppression of two key ABA biosynthesis genes, TaNCED1 and TaNCED2. PMID:27140440

  18. Precursors to Social and Communication Difficulties in Infants At-Risk for Autism: Gaze Following and Attentional Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedford, Rachael; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Gliga, Teodora; Pickles, Andrew; Senju, Atsushi; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Whilst joint attention (JA) impairments in autism have been widely studied, little is known about the early development of gaze following, a precursor to establishing JA. We employed eye-tracking to record gaze following longitudinally in infants with and without a family history of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at 7 and 13 months. No group…

  19. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... alter the DNA in cells. The strongest risk factors for developing this form of cancer are tobacco use (including smoking or using ... SA, Weinstein JN, Treviño L, Drummond JA, Muzny DM, Wu Y, Wood LD, Hruban RH, Westra WH, Koch WM, Califano JA, Gibbs RA, ...

  20. A role for jasmonates in the release of dormancy by cold stratification in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Truong, Thy T.; Barrero, Jose M.; Jacobsen, John V.; Hocart, Charles H.; Gubler, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Hydration at low temperatures, commonly referred to as cold stratification, is widely used for releasing dormancy and triggering germination in a wide range of species including wheat. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies its effect on germination has largely remained unknown. Our previous studies showed that methyl-jasmonate, a derivative of jasmonic acid (JA), promotes dormancy release in wheat. In this study, we found that cold-stimulated germination of dormant grains correlated with a transient increase in JA content and expression of JA biosynthesis genes in the dormant embryos after transfer to 20 oC. The induction of JA production was dependent on the extent of cold imbibition and precedes germination. Blocking JA biosynthesis with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) inhibited the cold-stimulated germination in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we have explored the relationship between JA and abscisic acid (ABA), a well-known dormancy promoter, in cold regulation of dormancy. We found an inverse relationship between JA and ABA content in dormant wheat embryos following stratification. ABA content decreased rapidly in response to stratification, and the decrease was reversed by addition of ASA. Our results indicate that the action of JA on cold-stratified grains is mediated by suppression of two key ABA biosynthesis genes, TaNCED1 and TaNCED2. PMID:27140440

  1. The Licensing of Negative Sensitive Items in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsarayreh, Atef

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the licensing conditions on Negative Sensitive Items (NSIs) in Jordanian Arabic (JA). JA exhibits both types of NSIs that are discussed in the literature: Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) and Negative Concord Items (NCIs). Although these two sets of items seem to form a natural class in the sense that they show certain…

  2. Plants on constant alert: elevated levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonate-induced transcripts in caterpillar resistant maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense responses against insect herbivores frequently depend on the biosynthesis and action of jasmonic acid (JA) and its conjugates. To better understand JA signaling pathways in maize (Zea mays L.), we have examined two maize genotypes, Mp708 and Tx601. Mp708 is resistant to feeding by le...

  3. Effect of methyl jasmonate on secondary metabolites of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xi; Rajapakse, Nihal C

    2006-03-22

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in terms of its induction of inherent bioactive chemicals in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) was evaluated after MeJA was sprayed on healthy basil plants. The total phenolic content of the sweet basil significantly increased after 0.1 and 0.5 mM MeJA treatments compared with the control not subjected to MeJA. Two phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA), were identified as strong antioxidant constituents of the sweet basil. Their amounts also significantly increased after the MeJA treatment. In addition, eugenol and linalool increased 56 and 43%, respectively, by the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. Due to the accumulation of RA, CA, and eugenol, which possess strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) free radical scavenging activities, the antioxidant activity of the sweet basil extract was 2.3-fold greater than that of the control after the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. In the DPPH* assay, the EC50 values of RA, CA, and eugenol were determined as 23, 46, and 59 microM, respectively, which indicated they were 6-, 3-, and 2.4-fold more efficient than BHT (140 microM). Besides, an unidentified HPLC peak in the methanolic extract of the sweet basil was 4.3-fold higher than that of the control after the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment.

  4. 48 CFR 53.301-1094A - SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. 53.301-1094A Section 53.301-1094A Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. ER02JA97.013 ER02JA97.014...

  5. 48 CFR 53.301-1094A - SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. 53.301-1094A Section 53.301-1094A Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. ER02JA97.013 ER02JA97.014...

  6. 48 CFR 53.301-1094A - SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. 53.301-1094A Section 53.301-1094A Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. ER02JA97.013 ER02JA97.014...

  7. 48 CFR 53.301-1094A - SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. 53.301-1094A Section 53.301-1094A Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. ER02JA97.013 ER02JA97.014...

  8. 48 CFR 53.301-1094A - SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. 53.301-1094A Section 53.301-1094A Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. ER02JA97.013 ER02JA97.014...

  9. Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

  10. Root response of Jerusalem artichoke genotypes to different water regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine effects of drought on selected root growth parameters and develop relationships between root parameters and tuber yield for selected Jerusalem artichoke (JA) genotypes. Three water regimes (Field capacity, 50% available water (AW) and 25% AW) and five JA...

  11. Hijacking of the jasmonate pathway by the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) to initiate programmed cell death in Arabidopsis is modulated by RGLG3 and RGLG4

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Wu, Qian; Cui, Shao; Ren, Jiao; Qian, Wanqiang; Yang, Yang; He, Shanping; Chu, Jinfang; Sun, Xiaohong; Yan, Cunyu; Yu, Xiangchun; An, Chengcai

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a strong inducer of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we describe two ubiquitin ligases, RING DOMAIN LIGASE3 (RGLG3) and RGLG4, which control FB1-triggered PCD by modulating the jasmonate (JA) signalling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. RGLG3 and RGLG4 transcription was sensitive to FB1. Arabidopsis FB1 sensitivity was suppressed by loss of function of RGLG3 and RGLG4 and was increased by their overexpression. Thus RGLG3 and RGLG4 have coordinated and positive roles in FB1-elicited PCD. Mutated JA perception by coi1 disrupted the RGLG3- and RGLG4-related response to FB1 and interfered with their roles in cell death. Although FB1 induced JA-responsive defence genes, it repressed growth-related, as well as JA biosynthesis-related, genes. Consistently, FB1 application reduced JA content in wild-type plants. Furthermore, exogenously applied salicylic acid additively suppressed JA signalling with FB1 treatment, suggesting that FB1-induced salicylic acid inhibits the JA pathway during this process. All of these effects were attenuated in rglg3 rglg4 plants. Altogether, these data suggest that the JA pathway is hijacked by the toxin FB1 to elicit PCD, which is coordinated by Arabidopsis RGLG3 and RGLG4. PMID:25788731

  12. Disruption of OPR7 and OPR8 Reveals the Versatile Functions of Jasmonic Acid in Maize Development and Defense[W

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yuanxin; Christensen, Shawn; Isakeit, Tom; Engelberth, Jürgen; Meeley, Robert; Hayward, Allison; Emery, R.J. Neil; Kolomiets, Michael V.

    2012-01-01

    Here, multiple functions of jasmonic acid (JA) in maize (Zea mays) are revealed by comprehensive analyses of JA-deficient mutants of the two oxo-phytodienoate reductase genes, OPR7 and OPR8. Single mutants produce wild-type levels of JA in most tissues, but the double mutant opr7 opr8 has dramatically reduced JA in all organs tested. opr7 opr8 displayed strong developmental defects, including formation of a feminized tassel, initiation of female reproductive buds at each node, and extreme elongation of ear shanks; these defects were rescued by exogenous JA. These data provide evidence that JA is required for male sex determination and suppression of female reproductive organ biogenesis. Moreover, opr7 opr8 exhibited delayed leaf senescence accompanied by reduced ethylene and abscisic acid levels and lack of anthocyanin pigmentation of brace roots. Remarkably, opr7 opr8 is nonviable in nonsterile soil and under field conditions due to extreme susceptibility to a root-rotting oomycete (Pythium spp), demonstrating that these genes are necessary for maize survival in nature. Supporting the importance of JA in insect defense, opr7 opr8 is susceptible to beet armyworm. Overall, this study provides strong genetic evidence for the global roles of JA in maize development and immunity to pathogens and insects. PMID:22523204

  13. Peroxisome proliferation, wound-activated responses and expression of peroxisome-associated genes are cross-regulated but uncoupled in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Mari Cruz; Sandalio, Luisa María; Del Río, Luís Alfonso; León, José

    2008-04-01

    Plant peroxisomes are multifunctional organelles that show plasticity in number, size, morphology, cellular location and metabolic functions. Many of these changes occur in response to environmental factors and are decisive for the development and defence of the plant. Among them, peroxisomal beta-oxidation-mediated synthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) is a key process in regulating development as well as wound- or pathogen-triggered defence responses. This work seeks for the connection between wound, JA and the proliferation of peroxisomes in Arabidopsis thaliana. The hypolipidemic drug clofibrate (CFB) induced the proliferation of peroxisomes and the expression of the beta-oxidation 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase 2 (KAT2) gene, coding for a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of JA, among other wound- and JA-responsive gene transcripts in Arabidopsis leaves. The CFB-activated expression of wound-responsive genes was not dependent on JA synthesis or perception and those responsive to JA required the function of the F-box protein COI1. In turn, wounding neither triggered peroxisome proliferation nor required peroxisome integrity to activate gene expression. Interestingly, cells from JA-treated leaves contained fewer but larger peroxisomes than cells from untreated leaves. The proliferation of peroxisomes, the synthesis of JA and the activation of wound-responsive genes by CFB, although functionally connected, were uncoupled in Arabidopsis.

  14. Arabidopsis MYC Transcription Factors Are the Target of Hormonal Salicylic Acid/Jasmonic Acid Cross Talk in Response to Pieris brassicae Egg Extract.

    PubMed

    Schmiesing, André; Emonet, Aurélia; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline; Reymond, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants recognize insect eggs and activate the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. As a consequence, expression of defense genes regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is suppressed and larval performance is enhanced. Cross talk between defense signaling pathways is common in plant-pathogen interactions, but the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that egg-induced SA/JA antagonism works independently of the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor ORA59, which controls the ERF branch of the JA pathway. In addition, treatment with egg extract did not enhance expression or stability of JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors, and SA/JA cross talk did not involve JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKEs, which are negative regulators of the JA pathway. Investigating the stability of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, we found that egg extract treatment strongly diminished MYC protein levels in an SA-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified WRKY75 as a novel and essential factor controlling SA/JA cross talk. These data indicate that insect eggs target the MYC branch of the JA pathway and uncover an unexpected modulation of SA/JA antagonism depending on the biological context in which the SA pathway is activated. PMID:26884488

  15. Cooperation and functional diversification of two closely related galactolipase genes for jasmonate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Youbong; Choi, Sungwook; Hwang, Hyun-Ju; Yu, Jihyeon; Nam, Sang-Jip; Ko, Jaeyoung; Park, Ju-Young; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Eun Yu; Ryu, Stephen Beungtae; Kim, Woo Taek; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kang, Heonjoong; Lee, Ilha

    2008-02-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) plays pivotal roles in diverse plant biological processes, including wound response. Chloroplast lipid hydrolysis is a critical step for JA biosynthesis, but the mechanism of this process remains elusive. We report here that DONGLE (DGL), a homolog of DEFECTIVE IN ANTHER DEHISCENCE1 (DAD1), encodes a chloroplast-targeted lipase with strong galactolipase and weak phospholipase A(1) activity. DGL is expressed in the leaves and has a specific role in maintaining basal JA content under normal conditions, and this expression regulates vegetative growth and is required for a rapid JA burst after wounding. During wounding, DGL and DAD1 have partially redundant functions for JA production, but they show different induction kinetics, indicating temporally separated roles: DGL plays a role in the early phase of JA production, and DAD1 plays a role in the late phase of JA production. Whereas DGL and DAD1 are necessary and sufficient for JA production, phospholipase D appears to modulate wound response by stimulating DGL and DAD1 expression.

  16. Disruption of OPR7 and OPR8 reveals the versatile functions of jasmonic acid in maize development and defense.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuanxin; Christensen, Shawn; Isakeit, Tom; Engelberth, Jürgen; Meeley, Robert; Hayward, Allison; Emery, R J Neil; Kolomiets, Michael V

    2012-04-01

    Here, multiple functions of jasmonic acid (JA) in maize (Zea mays) are revealed by comprehensive analyses of JA-deficient mutants of the two oxo-phytodienoate reductase genes, OPR7 and OPR8. Single mutants produce wild-type levels of JA in most tissues, but the double mutant opr7 opr8 has dramatically reduced JA in all organs tested. opr7 opr8 displayed strong developmental defects, including formation of a feminized tassel, initiation of female reproductive buds at each node, and extreme elongation of ear shanks; these defects were rescued by exogenous JA. These data provide evidence that JA is required for male sex determination and suppression of female reproductive organ biogenesis. Moreover, opr7 opr8 exhibited delayed leaf senescence accompanied by reduced ethylene and abscisic acid levels and lack of anthocyanin pigmentation of brace roots. Remarkably, opr7 opr8 is nonviable in nonsterile soil and under field conditions due to extreme susceptibility to a root-rotting oomycete (Pythium spp), demonstrating that these genes are necessary for maize survival in nature. Supporting the importance of JA in insect defense, opr7 opr8 is susceptible to beet armyworm. Overall, this study provides strong genetic evidence for the global roles of JA in maize development and immunity to pathogens and insects. PMID:22523204

  17. Miscellaneous non-inflammatory musculoskeletal conditions. Jaccoud's arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Mittermayer B

    2011-10-01

    Jaccoud's arthropathy (JA) is a condition characterised clinically by 'reversible' joint deformities such as swan neck, thumb subluxation, ulnar deviation, 'boutonniere' and hallux valgus, along with an absence of articular erosions on a plain radiograph. JA was initially described in patients with rheumatic fever (RF), but as this disorder has become rare the main clinical entity associated to JA at present is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). JA has also been described in other connective tissue diseases, infections and neoplasia. In general, its prevalence in either SLE or RF is around 5%. The etiopathogenic mechanisms of JA are not known, but some authors have suggested an association with hypermobility syndrome. Several studies have attempted to identify an association of different antibodies with JA in SLE patients, but their findings do not allow for the drawing of any definite conclusions. Newer imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance and high-performance ultrasonography have revealed the presence of small erosions in joints of a few patients with JA. Presently, the therapy for JA is conservative and based on the use of non-hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs, low doses of corticosteroids, methotrexate and antimalarials. The role of surgery through either the realignment of soft tissue around the joint--or more aggressive procedures such as arthrodesis, silastic implant and arthroplasty--needs to be proven. PMID:22142749

  18. Root and shoot gas exchange respond additively to moderate ozone and methyl jasmonate without induction of ethylene: ethylene is induced at higher O3 concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Grantz, D.A.; Vu, H.-B.

    2012-01-01

    The available literature is conflicting on the potential protection of plants against ozone (O3) injury by exogenous jasmonates, including methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Protective antagonistic interactions of O3 and MeJA have been observed in some systems and purely additive effects in others. Here it is shown that chronic exposure to low to moderate O3 concentrations (4–114 ppb; 12 h mean) and to MeJA induced additive reductions in carbon assimilation (A n) and root respiration (R r), and in calculated whole plant carbon balance. Neither this chronic O3 regime nor MeJA induced emission of ethylene (ET) from the youngest fully expanded leaves. ET emission was induced by acute 3 h pulse exposure to much higher O3 concentrations (685 ppb). ET emission was further enhanced in plants treated with MeJA. Responses of growth, allocation, photosynthesis, and respiration to moderate O3 concentrations and to MeJA appear to be independent and additive, and not associated with emission of ET. These results suggest that responses of Pima cotton to environmentally relevant O3 are not mediated by signalling pathways associated with ET and MeJA, though these pathways are inducible in this species and exhibit a synergistic O3×MeJA interaction at very high O3 concentrations. PMID:22563119

  19. 76 FR 14349 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1, dated... British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series...) of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1,...

  20. Full establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in rice occurs independently of enzymatic jasmonate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gutjahr, Caroline; Siegler, Heike; Haga, Ken; Iino, Moritoshi; Paszkowski, Uta

    2015-01-01

    Development of the mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis between most land plants and fungi of the Glomeromycota is regulated by phytohormones. The role of jasmonate (JA) in AM colonization has been investigated in the dicotyledons Medicago truncatula, tomato and Nicotiana attenuata and contradicting results have been obtained with respect to a neutral, promotive or inhibitory effect of JA on AM colonization. Furthermore, it is currently unknown whether JA plays a role in AM colonization of monocotyledonous roots. Therefore we examined whether JA biosynthesis is required for AM colonization of the monocot rice. To this end we employed the rice mutant constitutive photomorphogenesis 2 (cpm2), which is deficient in JA biosynthesis. Through a time course experiment the amount and morphology of fungal colonization did not differ between wild-type and cpm2 roots. Furthermore, no significant difference in the expression of AM marker genes was detected between wild type and cpm2. However, treatment of wild-type roots with 50 μM JA lead to a decrease of AM colonization and this was correlated with induction of the defense gene PR4. These results indicate that JA is not required for AM colonization of rice but high levels of JA in the roots suppress AM development likely through the induction of defense. PMID:25860838

  1. Cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (cADPR) cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate positively function in Ca(2+) elevation in methyl jasmonate-induced stomatal closure, cADPR is required for methyl jasmonate-induced ROS accumulation NO production in guard cells.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M A; Ye, W; Munemasa, S; Nakamura, Y; Mori, I C; Murata, Y

    2014-11-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) signalling shares several signal components with abscisic acid (ABA) signalling in guard cells. Cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (cADPR) and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) are second messengers in ABA-induced stomatal closure. In order to clarify involvement of cADPR and cGMP in MeJA-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0), we investigated effects of an inhibitor of cADPR synthesis, nicotinamide (NA), and an inhibitor of cGMP synthesis, LY83583 (LY, 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione), on MeJA-induced stomatal closure. Treatment with NA and LY inhibited MeJA-induced stomatal closure. NA inhibited MeJA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and nitric oxide (NO) production in guard cells. NA and LY suppressed transient elevations elicited by MeJA in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) in guard cells. These results suggest that cADPR and cGMP positively function in [Ca(2+)]cyt elevation in MeJA-induced stomatal closure, are signalling components shared with ABA-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis, and that cADPR is required for MeJA-induced ROS accumulation and NO production in Arabidopsis guard cells.

  2. Endogenous abscisic acid is involved in methyl jasmonate-induced reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production but not in cytosolic alkalization in Arabidopsis guard cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenxiu; Hossain, Mohammad Anowar; Munemasa, Shintaro; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2013-09-01

    We recently demonstrated that endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we investigated whether endogenous ABA is involved in MeJA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production and cytosolic alkalization in guard cells using an ABA-deficient Arabidopsis mutant, aba2-2, and an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, fluridon (FLU). The aba2-2 mutation impaired MeJA-induced ROS and NO production. FLU inhibited MeJA-induced ROS production in wild-type guard cells. Pretreatment with 0.1 μM ABA, which does not induce stomatal closure in the wild type, complemented the insensitivity to MeJA of the aba2-2 mutant. However, MeJA induced cytosolic alkalization in both wild-type and aba2-2 guard cells. These results suggest that endogenous ABA is involved in MeJA-induced ROS and NO production but not in MeJA-induced cytosolic alkalization in Arabidopsis guard cells.

  3. 50 CFR Table 1b to Part 660... - 2013, Allocations by Species or Species Group (Weights in Metric Tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Group (Weights in Metric Tons) 1b Table 1b to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED..., Allocations by Species or Species Group (Weights in Metric Tons) ER03JA13.040 ER03JA13.041...

  4. Critical Role of COI1-Dependent Jasmonate Pathway in AAL toxin induced PCD in Tomato Revealed by Comparative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Koh, Jin; Liu, Lihong; Shao, Zhiyong; Liu, Haoran; Hu, Songshen; Zhu, Ning; Dufresne, Craig P.; Chen, Sixue; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata f.sp. Lycopersici (AAL) toxin induces programmed cell death (PCD) in susceptible tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. Jasmonate (JA) promotes AAL toxin induced PCD in a COI1 (coronatine insensitive 1, JA receptor)-dependent manner by enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this process, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis using tomato jasmonic acid insensitive1 ( jai1), the receptor mutant of JA, and its wild type (WT) after AAL toxin treatment with or without JA treatment. A total of 10367 proteins were identified in tomato leaves using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) quantitative proteomics approach. 2670 proteins were determined to be differentially expressed in response to AAL toxin and JA. Comparison between AAL toxin treated jai1 and its WT revealed the COI1-dependent JA pathway regulated proteins, including pathways related to redox response, ceramide synthesis, JA, ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Autophagy, PCD and DNA damage related proteins were also identified. Our data suggest that COI1-dependent JA pathway enhances AAL toxin induced PCD through regulating the redox status of the leaves, other phytohormone pathways and/or important PCD components. PMID:27324416

  5. Arabidopsis MYC Transcription Factors Are the Target of Hormonal Salicylic Acid/Jasmonic Acid Cross Talk in Response to Pieris brassicae Egg Extract1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schmiesing, André; Gouhier-Darimont, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants recognize insect eggs and activate the salicylic acid (SA) pathway. As a consequence, expression of defense genes regulated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway is suppressed and larval performance is enhanced. Cross talk between defense signaling pathways is common in plant-pathogen interactions, but the molecular mechanism mediating this phenomenon is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that egg-induced SA/JA antagonism works independently of the APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factor ORA59, which controls the ERF branch of the JA pathway. In addition, treatment with egg extract did not enhance expression or stability of JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors, and SA/JA cross talk did not involve JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKEs, which are negative regulators of the JA pathway. Investigating the stability of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, we found that egg extract treatment strongly diminished MYC protein levels in an SA-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified WRKY75 as a novel and essential factor controlling SA/JA cross talk. These data indicate that insect eggs target the MYC branch of the JA pathway and uncover an unexpected modulation of SA/JA antagonism depending on the biological context in which the SA pathway is activated. PMID:26884488

  6. Education System of John Amos Comenius and Its Implications in Modern Didactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko; Munjiza, Emerik

    2014-01-01

    The authors were particularly interested in scientific conceptions shaped and systematized in subject-teaching school system proposed by J.A. Comenius, which are still actively applied in day-to-day school practice. Within the analysed ideas of J.A. Comenius the goal and the task of this paper is to present to the pedagogic public the originality…

  7. The regulation of methyl jasmonate on hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis in Ganoderma lucidum partly via ROS generated by NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Gong, Li; Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Ang; Gao, Tan; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-08-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the best known medicinal basidiomycetes because it produces many pharmacologically active compounds, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was previously reported to induce the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA) in G. lucidum. In this study, we found that MeJA not only increased the amount of GA but also increased the distance between hyphal branches by approximately 1.2-fold. Further analysis showed that MeJA could increase the intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) content by approximately 2.2-2.7-fold. Furthermore, the hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis regulated by MeJA treatment could be abolished by ROS scavengers to a level similar to or lower than that of the control group. These results indicated that the regulation of hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis by MeJA might occur via a ROS signaling pathway. Further analysis revealed that NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays an important role in MeJA-regulated ROS generation. Importantly, our results highlight that NOX functions in signaling cross-talk between ROS and MeJA. In addition, these findings provide an excellent opportunity to identify potential pathways linking ROS networks to MeJA signaling in fungi and suggest that plants and fungi share a conserved signaling-crosstalk mechanism.

  8. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (P<0.01); however, the gene expression of β-glucosidase was downregulated to a half level. In general, the aroma quality of the MeJA-treated black tea was clearly improved.

  9. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 698 - Model Prescreen Opt-Out Notices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... comply with part 642 of this title, the following model notices may be used: (a) English language model notice—(1) Short notice. ER31JA05.028 (2) Long notice. ER31JA05.029 (b) Spanish language model...

  10. Integrative Pre-Service Elementary Teacher Training: The Role of Interdisciplinary Collaborative Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiatula, Victoria Oliaku

    2015-01-01

    This primer summarizes interdisciplinary collaborative mathematics as an integrative approach to train pre-service elementary teachers to teach math utilizing Junior Achievement USA (JA) educational programs within an elementary Math Methods course. The primer provides a JA historical background/program overview, summarizes the interdisciplinary…

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Preschool-Based Joint Attention Intervention for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaale, Anett; Smith, Lars; Sponheim, Eili

    2012-01-01

    Background: Deficits in joint attention (JA) and joint engagement (JE) represent a core problem in young children with autism as these affect language and social development. Studies of parent-mediated and specialist-mediated JA-intervention suggest that such intervention may be effective. However, there is little knowledge about the success of…

  12. CYP94-mediated jasmonoyl-isoleucine hormone oxidation shapes jasmonate profiles and attenuates defence responses to Botrytis cinerea infection

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Yann; Widemann, Emilie; Miesch, Laurence; Pinot, Franck; Heitz, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea depends on jasmonate metabolism and signalling in Arabidopsis. We have presented here extensive jasmonate profiling in this pathosystem and investigated the impact of the recently reported jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) catabolic pathway mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP94) enzymes. Using a series of mutant and overexpressing (OE) plant lines, we showed that CYP94B3 and CYP94C1 are integral components of the fungus-induced jasmonate metabolic pathway and control the abundance of oxidized conjugated but also some unconjugated derivatives, such as sulfated 12-HSO4-JA. Despite causing JA-Ile overaccumulation due to impaired oxidation, CYP94 deficiency had negligible impacts on resistance, associated with enhanced JAZ repressor transcript levels. In contrast, plants overexpressing (OE) CYP94B3 or CYP94C1 were enriched in 12-OH-JA-Ile or 12-COOH-JA-Ile respectively. This shift towards oxidized JA-Ile derivatives was concomitant with strongly impaired defence gene induction and reduced disease resistance. CYP94B3-OE, but unexpectedly not CYP94C1-OE, plants displayed reduced JA-Ile levels compared with the wild type, suggesting that increased susceptibility in CYP94C1-OE plants may result from changes in the hormone oxidation ratio rather than absolute changes in JA-Ile levels. Consistently, while feeding JA-Ile to seedlings triggered strong induction of JA pathway genes, induction was largely reduced or abolished after feeding with the CYP94 products 12-OH-JA-Ile and 12-COOH-JA-Ile, respectively. This trend paralleled in vitro pull-down assays where 12-COOH-JA-Ile was unable to promote COI1–JAZ9 co-receptor assembly. Our results highlight the dual function of CYP94B3/C1 in antimicrobial defence: by controlling hormone oxidation status for signal attenuation, these enzymes also define JA-Ile as a metabolic hub directing jasmonate profile complexity. PMID:25903915

  13. Jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine is required for the production of a flavonoid phytoalexin but not diterpenoid phytoalexins in ultraviolet-irradiated rice leaves.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Koji; Enda, Isami; Okada, Toshiki; Sato, Yumiko; Watanabe, Kohei; Sakazawa, Tomoko; Yumoto, Emi; Shibata, Kyomi; Asahina, Masashi; Iino, Moritoshi; Yokota, Takao; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2016-10-01

    Rice produces low-molecular-weight antimicrobial compounds known as phytoalexins, in response to not only pathogen attack but also abiotic stresses including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Rice phytoalexins are composed of diterpenoids and a flavonoid. Recent studies have indicated that endogenous jasmonyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is not necessarily required for the production of diterpenoid phytoalexins in blast-infected or CuCl2-treated rice leaves. However, JA-Ile is required for the accumulation of the flavonoid phytoalexin, sakuranetin. Here, we investigated the roles of JA-Ile in UV-induced phytoalexin production. We showed that UV-irradiation induces the biosynthesis of JA-Ile and its precursor jasmonic acid. We also showed that rice jasmonate biosynthesis mutants produced diterpenoid phytoalexins but not sakuranetin in response to UV, indicating that JA-Ile is required for the production of sakuranetin but not diterpenoid phytoalexins in UV-irradiated rice leaves. PMID:27240428

  14. Jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine is required for the production of a flavonoid phytoalexin but not diterpenoid phytoalexins in ultraviolet-irradiated rice leaves.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Koji; Enda, Isami; Okada, Toshiki; Sato, Yumiko; Watanabe, Kohei; Sakazawa, Tomoko; Yumoto, Emi; Shibata, Kyomi; Asahina, Masashi; Iino, Moritoshi; Yokota, Takao; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2016-10-01

    Rice produces low-molecular-weight antimicrobial compounds known as phytoalexins, in response to not only pathogen attack but also abiotic stresses including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Rice phytoalexins are composed of diterpenoids and a flavonoid. Recent studies have indicated that endogenous jasmonyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is not necessarily required for the production of diterpenoid phytoalexins in blast-infected or CuCl2-treated rice leaves. However, JA-Ile is required for the accumulation of the flavonoid phytoalexin, sakuranetin. Here, we investigated the roles of JA-Ile in UV-induced phytoalexin production. We showed that UV-irradiation induces the biosynthesis of JA-Ile and its precursor jasmonic acid. We also showed that rice jasmonate biosynthesis mutants produced diterpenoid phytoalexins but not sakuranetin in response to UV, indicating that JA-Ile is required for the production of sakuranetin but not diterpenoid phytoalexins in UV-irradiated rice leaves.

  15. The extraction of ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd">ΦN total cross section from ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd">d(γ,pK+K-)n

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, X.; Chen, W.; Gao, H.; Hicks, K.; Kramer, K.; Laget, J. M.; Mibe, T.; Stepanyan, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Xu, W.; Adhikari, K. P.; Amaryan, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bellis, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dhamija, S.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hassall, N.; Heddle, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Johnstone, J. R.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; Martinez, D.; Mayer, M.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moriya, K.; Morrison, B.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Nepali, C. S.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niroula, M. R.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Williams, M.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.

    2009-10-01

    We report on the first measurement of the differential cross section of $\\phi$-meson photoproduction for the $d(\\gamma,pK^{+}K^{-})n$ exclusive reaction channel. The experiment was performed using a \\textcolor{black}{tagged-photon} beam and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. A combined analysis using data from the $d(\\gamma,pK^{+}K^{-})n$ channel and those from a previous publication on coherent $\\phi$ production on the deuteron has been carried out to extract the $\\phi-N$ total cross section, $\\sigma_{\\phi N}$. The extracted $\\phi-N$ total cross section favors a value above 20 mb. This value is larger than the value extracted using vector-meson dominance models for $\\phi$ photoproduction on the proton.

  16. High-precision measurement of the proton elastic form factor ratio ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd">μpGE/GM at low ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd">Q2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, X.; Allada, K.; Armstrong, D. S.; Arrington, J.; Bertozzi, W.; Boeglin, W.; Chen, J. -P.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Choi, S.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Decowski, P.; Dutta, C.; Frullani, S.; Fuchey, E.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glister, J.; Hafidi, K.; Hahn, B.; Hansen, J. -O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Holt, R. J.; Huang, J.; Huber, G. M.; Itard, F.; de Jager, C. W.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, M.; Katich, J.; de Leo, R.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Long, E.; Margaziotis, D. J.; May-Tal Beck, S.; Meekins, D.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Norum, B. E.; Olson, M.; Piasetzky, E.; Pomerantz, I.; Protopopescu, D.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Ransome, R. D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reinhold, J.; Riordan, S.; Ron, G.; Saha, A.; Sarty, A. J.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E. C.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Shneor, R.; Širca, S.; Solvignon, P.; Sparveris, N. F.; Strauch, S.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, Y.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Ye, Z.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-10-06

    Here, we report a new high precision measurement of the proton elastic form factor ratio μpGE/GM for the four-momentum transfer squared Q2 = 0.3-0.7 (GeV/c)2. The measurement was performed at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in Hall A using recoil polarimetry. With the achieved ~1% total uncertainty, the new data clearly show that the deviation of the ratio μpGE/GM from unity observed in previous polarization measurements at high Q2 continues down to the lowest Q2 value of this measurement. The updated global fit that includes the new results yields in this Q2 range an electric (magnetic) form factor ~2% smaller (~1% larger) than the previous global fit. We obtain new extractions of the proton electric and magnetic radii, which are (rE2)1/2 = 0.875 ± 0.010 fm and (rM2)1/2 = 0.867 ± 0.020 fm. Moreover, the charge radius is consistent with other recent extractions based on the electron-proton interaction, including the atomic hydrogen Lamb shift measruements, which suggests a missing correction in the comparison of measurements of the proton charge radius using electron probes and the recent extraction from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift.

  17. Justicidin A-induced autophagy flux enhances apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells via class III PI3K and Atg5 pathway.

    PubMed

    Won, Shen-Jeu; Yen, Cheng-Hsin; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Wu, Shan-Ying; Lan, Sheng-Hui; Jiang-Shieh, Ya-Fen; Lin, Chun-Nan; Su, Chun-Li

    2015-04-01

    Our previous reports showed that justicidin A (JA), a novel and pure arylnaphthalide lignan isolated from Justicia procumbens, induces apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells and hepatocellular carcinoma cells, leading to the suppression of both tumor cell growth in NOD-SCID mice. Here, we reveal that JA induces autophagy in human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells by conversion of autophagic marker LC3-I to LC3-II. Furthermore, LC3 puncta and autophagic vesicle formation, and SQSTM1/p62 suppression were observed. Administration of autophagy inhibitor (bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine) and transfection of a tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3 (mRFP-GFP) reporter plasmid (ptfLC3) demonstrated that JA induces autophagy flux in HT-29 cells. Expression of LC3, SQSTM1, Beclin 1, and nuclear DNA double-strand breaks (representing apoptosis) were also detected in the tumor tissue of HT-29 cells transplanted into NOD-SCID mice orally administrated with JA. In addition, the expression of autophagy signaling pathway-related molecules p-PDK1, p-mTOR, p-p70S6k/p-RPS6KB2 was decreased, whereas that of class III PI3K, Beclin 1, Atg5-Atg12, and mitochondrial BNIP3 was increased in response to JA. Pre-treatment of the cells with class III PI3K inhibitor 3-methyladenine or Atg5 shRNA attenuated JA-induced LC3-II expression and LC3 puncta formation, indicating the involvement of class III PI3K and Atg5. A novel mechanism was demonstrated in the anticancer compound JA; pre-treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 shRNA blocked JA-induced suppression in cell growth and colony formation, respectively, via inhibition of apoptosis. In contrast, administration of apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD did not affect JA-induced autophagy. Our data suggest the chemotherapeutic potential of JA for treatment of human colorectal cancer.

  18. Disarming the jasmonate-dependent plant defense makes nonhost Arabidopsis plants accessible to the American serpentine leafminer.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroshi; Tateishi, Ken; Seo, Shigemi; Kugimiya, Soichi; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Sawada, Yuji; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Yara, Kaori; Shimoda, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2013-11-01

    Here, we analyzed the interaction between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the American serpentine leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii), an important and intractable herbivore of many cultivated plants. We examined the role of the immunity-related plant hormone jasmonate (JA) in the plant response and resistance to leafminer feeding to determine whether JA affects host suitability for leafminers. The expression of marker genes for the JA-dependent plant defense was induced by leafminer feeding on Arabidopsis wild-type plants. Analyses of JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants suggested the importance of JA in the plant response to leafminer feeding. The JA content of wild-type plants significantly increased after leafminer feeding. Moreover, coi1-1 mutants showed lower feeding resistance against leafminer attack than did wild-type plants. The number of feeding scars caused by inoculated adult leafminers in JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants was higher than that in wild-type plants. In addition, adults of the following generation appeared only from coi1-1 mutants and not from wild-type plants, suggesting that the loss of the JA-dependent plant defense converted nonhost plants to accessible host plants. Interestingly, the glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system may play at most a minor role in this conversion, indicating that this major antiherbivore defense of Brassica species plants probably does not have a major function in plant resistance to leafminer. Application of JA to wild-type plants before leafminer feeding enhanced feeding resistance in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium). Our results indicate that JA plays an important role in the plant response and resistance to leafminers and, in so doing, affects host plant suitability for leafminers.

  19. Wound and insect-induced jasmonate accumulation in carnivorous Drosera capensis: two sides of the same coin.

    PubMed

    Mithöfer, A; Reichelt, M; Nakamura, Y

    2014-09-01

    Carnivorous sundew plants catch and digest insect prey for their own nutrition. The sundew species Drosera capensis shows a pronounced leaf bending reaction upon prey capture in order to form an 'outer stomach'. This formation is triggered by jasmonates, phytohormones typically involved in defence reactions against herbivory and wounding. Whether jasmonates still have this function in D. capensis in addition to mediating the leaf bending reaction was investigated here. Wounded, insect prey-fed and insect-derived oral secretion-treated leaves of D. capensis were analysed for jasmonates (jasmonic acid, JA; jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate, JA-Ile) using LC-MS/MS. Prey-induced jasmonate accumulation in D. capensis leaves was persistent, and showed high levels of JA and JA-Ile (575 and 55.7 pmol · g · FW(-1) , respectively), whereas wounding induced a transient increase of JA (maximum 500 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) and only low (3.1 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) accumulation of JA-Ile. Herbivory, mimicked with a combined treatment of wounding plus oral secretion (W+OS) obtained from Spodoptera littoralis larvae induced both JA (4000 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) and JA-Ile (25 pmol · g · FW(-1) ) accumulation, with kinetics similar to prey treatment. Only prey and W+OS, but not wounding alone or OS, induced leaf bending. The results indicate that both mechanical and chemical stimuli trigger JA and JA-Ile synthesis. Differences in kinetics and induced jasmonate levels suggest different sensing and signalling events upon injury and insect-dependent challenge. Thus, in Drosera, jasmonates are still part of the response to wounding. Jasmonates are also employed in insect-induced reactions, including responses to herbivory and carnivory.

  20. Far-Red Light-Mediated Seedling Development in Arabidopsis Involves FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219/JASMONATE RESISTANT 1-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huai-Ju; Chen, Cheng-Ling; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and development is often regulated by the interaction of environmental factors such as light and various phytohormones. Arabidopsis FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219 (FIN219)/JASMONATE RESISTANT 1 (JAR1) participates in phytochrome A-mediated far-red (FR) light signaling and interacts with different light signaling regulators. FIN219/JAR1 is a jasmonic acid (JA)-conjugating enzyme responsible for the formation of JA-isoleucine. However, how FIN219/JAR1 integrates FR light and JA signaling remains largely unknown. We used a microarray approach to dissect the effect of fin219 mutation on the interaction of FR light and JA signaling. The fin219-2 mutant was less sensitive than the wild type to various concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) under low and high FR light. High FR light reduced the sensitivity of Arabidopsis seedlings to MeJA likely through FIN219. Intriguingly, in response to MeJA, FIN219 levels showed a negative feedback regulation. Further microarray assay revealed that FR light could regulate gene expression by FIN219-dependent or -independent pathways. The expression profiles affected in fin219-2 indicated that FIN219/JAR1 plays a critical role in the integration of multiple hormone-related signaling. In particular, FIN219 regulates a number of transcription factors (TFs), including 94 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TFs, in response to FR light and MeJA. Loss-of-function mutants of some bHLH TFs affected by FIN219 showed altered responses to MeJA in the regulation of hypocotyl and root elongation. Thus, FIN219/JAR1 is tightly regulated in response to exogenous MeJA. It also interacts with multiple plant hormones to modulate hypocotyl and root elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings likely by regulating a group of TFs. PMID:26176841

  1. Far-Red Light-Mediated Seedling Development in Arabidopsis Involves FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219/JASMONATE RESISTANT 1-Dependent and -Independent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huai-Ju; Chen, Cheng-Ling; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and development is often regulated by the interaction of environmental factors such as light and various phytohormones. Arabidopsis FAR-RED INSENSITIVE 219 (FIN219)/JASMONATE RESISTANT 1 (JAR1) participates in phytochrome A-mediated far-red (FR) light signaling and interacts with different light signaling regulators. FIN219/JAR1 is a jasmonic acid (JA)-conjugating enzyme responsible for the formation of JA-isoleucine. However, how FIN219/JAR1 integrates FR light and JA signaling remains largely unknown. We used a microarray approach to dissect the effect of fin219 mutation on the interaction of FR light and JA signaling. The fin219-2 mutant was less sensitive than the wild type to various concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) under low and high FR light. High FR light reduced the sensitivity of Arabidopsis seedlings to MeJA likely through FIN219. Intriguingly, in response to MeJA, FIN219 levels showed a negative feedback regulation. Further microarray assay revealed that FR light could regulate gene expression by FIN219-dependent or -independent pathways. The expression profiles affected in fin219-2 indicated that FIN219/JAR1 plays a critical role in the integration of multiple hormone-related signaling. In particular, FIN219 regulates a number of transcription factors (TFs), including 94 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TFs, in response to FR light and MeJA. Loss-of-function mutants of some bHLH TFs affected by FIN219 showed altered responses to MeJA in the regulation of hypocotyl and root elongation. Thus, FIN219/JAR1 is tightly regulated in response to exogenous MeJA. It also interacts with multiple plant hormones to modulate hypocotyl and root elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings likely by regulating a group of TFs. PMID:26176841

  2. Induced defenses change the chemical composition of pine seedlings and influence meal properties of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Lina; Fedderwitz, Frauke; Björklund, Niklas; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2016-10-01

    The defense of conifers against phytophagous insects relies to a large extent on induced chemical defenses. However, it is not clear how induced changes in chemical composition influence the meal properties of phytophagous insects (and thus damage rates). The defense can be induced experimentally with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which is a substance that is produced naturally when a plant is attacked. Here we used MeJA to investigate how the volatile contents of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tissues influence the meal properties of the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)). Phloem and needles (both weevil target tissues) from MeJA-treated and control seedlings were extracted by n-hexane and analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (2D GC-MS). The feeding of pine weevils on MeJA-treated and control seedlings were video-recorded to determine meal properties. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that phloem and needle contents of MeJA-treated seedlings had different volatile compositions compared to control seedlings. Levels of the pine weevil attractant (+)-α-pinene were particularly high in phloem of control seedlings with feeding damage. The antifeedant substance 2-phenylethanol occurred at higher levels in the phloem of MeJA-treated than in control seedlings. Accordingly, pine weevils fed slower and had shorter meals on MeJA-seedlings. The chemical compositions of phloem and needle tissues were clearly different in control seedlings but not in the MeJA-treated seedlings. Consequently, meal durations of mixed meals, i.e. both needles and phloem, were longer than phloem meals on control seedlings, while meal durations on MeJA seedlings did not differ between these meal contents. The meal duration influences the risk of girdling and plant death. Thus our results suggest a mechanism by which MeJA treatment may protect conifer seedlings against pine weevils. PMID:27417987

  3. Plants Know Where It Hurts: Root and Shoot Jasmonic Acid Induction Elicit Differential Responses in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Tytgat, Tom O.G.; Verhoeven, Koen J. F.; Jansen, Jeroen J.; Raaijmakers, Ciska E.; Bakx-Schotman, Tanja; McIntyre, Lauren M.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Biere, Arjen; van Dam, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivore attack by rapidly inducing defenses that are mainly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA). Due to the systemic nature of induced defenses, attack by root herbivores can also result in a shoot response and vice versa, causing interactions between above- and belowground herbivores. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions. We investigated whether plants respond differently when roots or shoots are induced. We mimicked herbivore attack by applying JA to the roots or shoots of Brassica oleracea and analyzed molecular and chemical responses in both organs. In shoots, an immediate and massive change in primary and secondary metabolism was observed. In roots, the JA-induced response was less extensive and qualitatively different from that in the shoots. Strikingly, in both roots and shoots we also observed differential responses in primary metabolism, development as well as defense specific traits depending on whether the JA induction had been below- or aboveground. We conclude that the JA response is not only tissue-specific but also dependent on the organ that was induced. Already very early in the JA signaling pathway the differential response was observed. This indicates that both organs have a different JA signaling cascade, and that the signal eliciting systemic responses contains information about the site of induction, thus providing plants with a mechanism to tailor their responses specifically to the organ that is damaged. PMID:23776489

  4. The ratio of extracellular Ca2+ to K+ ions affects the photoresponses in Stentor coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, K; Song, P S

    1989-01-01

    1. Stentor coeruleus exhibits negative phototaxis (due to phototactic orientation response) and step-up photophobic response (avoiding reaction) to visible light. 2. The effect of Ja-value ([K+]/[Ca2+]1/2) and calcium ion concentration of the surrounding medium on the photoresponses in Stentor were studied. 3. The both types of photoresponses in Stentor are greatly affected by the Ja-value. A higher Ja-value medium suppressed the step-up photophobic response of Stentor, whereas the organism showed a higher degree of phototactic orientation response in higher Ja-value solutions. 4. The effect of the Ja-value on the step-up photophobic response was opposite to that on the phototactic orientation response. 5. With increasing calcium concentration but at a constant Ja-value, the number of Stentor showing the step-up photophobic response increased, whereas the phototactic orientation response of Stentor was suppressed at higher Ca2+ concentrations. 6. The effect of the calcium concentration on the photophobic response was also opposite to that on the phototactic orientation response, as in the case of Ja-value effect. PMID:2567650

  5. Water Stress Responses of Tomato Mutants Impaired in Hormone Biosynthesis Reveal Abscisic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid Interactions.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Espinoza, Valeria A; López-Climent, María F; Casaretto, José A; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the putative crosstalk between JA and ABA in Solanum lycopersicum plants in response to drought, suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2, JA-deficient) and flacca (flc, ABA-deficient) mutants together with the naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) transgenic (SA-deficient) line were used. Hormone profiling and gene expression of key enzymes in ABA, JA and SA biosynthesis were analyzed during early stages of drought. ABA accumulation was comparable in spr2 and wild type (WT) plants whereas expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1) and NCED2 was different, implying a compensation mechanism between NCED genes and an organ-specific regulation of NCED1 expression. JA levels and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) expression in flc plants suggest that ABA regulates the induction of the OPR3 gene in roots. By contrast, ABA treatment to flc plants leads to a reduction of JA and SA contents. Furthermore, different pattern of SA accumulation (and expression of isochorismate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1) was observed between WT seedlings and mutants, suggesting that SA plays an important role on the early response of tomato plants to drought and also that JA and ABA modulate its biosynthesis. Finally, hormone profiling in spr2 and NahG plants indicate a crosstalk between JA and SA that could enhance tolerance of tomato to water stress. PMID:26635826

  6. Physicochemical and thermodynamic characterization of the encapsulation of methyl jasmonate by natural and modified cyclodextrins using reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    López-Nicolás, José Manuel; Escorial Camps, Marta; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2013-11-27

    Although the combinations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and cyclodextrins (CDs) have been used by different authors to stimulate the production of several metabolites, no study has been published about the possible formation of MeJA-CD complexes when these two molecules are added together to the reaction medium as elicitors. For this reason and because knowledge of the possible complexation process of MeJA with CD under different physicochemical conditions is essential if these two molecules are to be used in cell cultures, this paper looks at the complexation of MeJA with natural and modified CDs using a reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) system. The interaction of MeJA with β-CD was more efficient than with α- and γ-CDs. However, a modified CD, HP-β-CD, was the most effective of all of the CDs tested. Moreover, MeJA formed complexes with CD with a 1:1 stoichiometry, and the formation constants of these complexes were strongly dependent upon the temperature of the mobile phase used but not the pH. To obtain information about the mechanism of the affinity of MeJA for CD, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS° were calculated. Finally, molecular modeling studies were carried out to propose which molecular interactions are established in the complexation process.

  7. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant's defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis.

  8. The plastidial retrograde signal methyl erythritol cyclopyrophosphate is a regulator of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Mark; Xiao, Yanmei; Bjornson, Marta; Wang, Jin-zheng; Hicks, Derrick; de Souza, Amancio; Wang, Chang-Quan; Yang, Panyu; Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2016-01-01

    The exquisite harmony between hormones and their corresponding signaling pathways is central to prioritizing plant responses to simultaneous and/or successive environmental trepidations. The crosstalk between jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) is an established effective mechanism that optimizes and tailors plant adaptive responses. However, the underlying regulatory modules of this crosstalk are largely unknown. Global transcriptomic analyses of mutant plants (ceh1) with elevated levels of the stress-induced plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol cyclopyrophosphate (MEcPP) revealed robustly induced JA marker genes, expected to be suppressed by the presence of constitutively high SA levels in the mutant background. Analyses of a range of genotypes with varying SA and MEcPP levels established the selective role of MEcPP-mediated signal(s) in induction of JA-responsive genes in the presence of elevated SA. Metabolic profiling revealed the presence of high levels of the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), but near wild type levels of JA in the ceh1 mutant plants. Analyses of coronatine-insensitive 1 (coi1)/ceh1 double mutant plants confirmed that the MEcPP-mediated induction is JA receptor COI1 dependent, potentially through elevated OPDA. These findings identify MEcPP as a previously unrecognized central regulatory module that induces JA-responsive genes in the presence of high SA, thereby staging a multifaceted plant response within the environmental context. PMID:26733689

  9. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth–Defense Tradeoffs

    PubMed Central

    Havko, Nathan E.; Major, Ian T.; Jewell, Jeremy B.; Attaran, Elham; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA), which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span. PMID:27135227

  10. A novel matrix metalloproteinase-2 inhibitor triazolylmethyl aziridine reduces melanoma cell invasion, angiogenesis and targets ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Romanchikova, Nadezhda; Trapencieris, Pēteris; Zemītis, Jānis; Turks, Māris

    2014-12-01

    A novel matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) inhibitor JaZ-30, which belongs to the class of C(2)-monosubstituted aziridine - aryl-1,2,3-triazole conjugates, was developed. MTT and crystal violet assays were used to determine cytotoxicity- IC(50) values of compound JaZ-30 on melanoma cell line B16 4A5. Our study proves the anti-cancer properties of JaZ-30 with a wide spectrum of activities. JaZ-30 was revealed as selective inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2. JaZ-30-mediated decrease of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) secretion results in inhibition of angiogenesis, performed with the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC-2) on Matrigel. A novel inhibitor decreases invasive properties of melanoma cells measured in Matrigel chambers assay. JaZ-30 downregulates phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in melanoma cells stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Our findings propose a novel MMP-2 inhibitor JaZ-30 as an attractive potential agent for melanoma treatment.

  11. Feeding by whiteflies suppresses downstream jasmonic acid signaling by eliciting salicylic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Li, Wei-Di; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Xu, Fang-Cheng; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2013-05-01

    Phloem-feeding whiteflies in the species complex Bemisia tabaci cause extensive crop damage worldwide. One of the reasons for their "success" is their ability to suppress the effectual jasmonic acid (JA) defenses of the host plant. However, little is understood about the mechanisms underlying whitefly suppression of JA-regulated defenses. Here, we showed that the expression of salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes (EDS1 and PR1) in Arabidopsis thaliana was significantly enhanced during feeding by whitefly nymphs. Whereas upstream JA-responsive genes (LOX2 and OPR3) also were induced, the downstream JA-responsive gene (VSP1) was repressed, i.e., whiteflies only suppressed downstream JA signaling. Gene-expression analyses with various Arabidopsis mutants, including NahG, npr-1, ein2-1, and dde2-2, revealed that SA signaling plays a key role in the suppression of downstream JA defenses by whitefly feeding. Assays confirmed that SA activation enhanced whitefly performance by suppressing downstream JA defenses.

  12. Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 regulates salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent responses via EDS1 and PAD4.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, Peter; Petersen, Morten; Bjørn Nielsen, Henrik; Zhu, Shijiang; Newman, Mari-Anne; Shokat, Kevan M; Rietz, Steffen; Parker, Jane; Mundy, John

    2006-08-01

    Arabidopsis MPK4 has been implicated in plant defense regulation because mpk4 knockout plants exhibit constitutive activation of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defenses, but fail to induce jasmonic acid (JA) defense marker genes in response to JA. We show here that mpk4 mutants are also defective in defense gene induction in response to ethylene (ET), and that they are more susceptible than wild-type (WT) to Alternaria brassicicola that induces the ET/JA defense pathway(s). Both SA-repressing and ET/JA-(co)activating functions depend on MPK4 kinase activity and involve the defense regulators EDS1 and PAD4, as mutations in these genes suppress de-repression of the SA pathway and suppress the block of the ET/JA pathway in mpk4. EDS1/PAD4 thus affect SA-ET/JA signal antagonism as activators of SA but as repressors of ET/JA defenses, and MPK4 negatively regulates both of these functions. We also show that the MPK4-EDS1/PAD4 branch of ET defense signaling is independent of the ERF1 transcription factor, and use comparative microarray analysis of ctr1, ctr1/mpk4, mpk4 and WT to show that MPK4 is required for induction of a small subset of ET-regulated genes. The regulation of some, but not all, of these genes involves EDS1 and PAD4.

  13. Water Stress Responses of Tomato Mutants Impaired in Hormone Biosynthesis Reveal Abscisic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Espinoza, Valeria A.; López-Climent, María F.; Casaretto, José A.; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the putative crosstalk between JA and ABA in Solanum lycopersicum plants in response to drought, suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2, JA-deficient) and flacca (flc, ABA-deficient) mutants together with the naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) transgenic (SA-deficient) line were used. Hormone profiling and gene expression of key enzymes in ABA, JA and SA biosynthesis were analyzed during early stages of drought. ABA accumulation was comparable in spr2 and wild type (WT) plants whereas expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1) and NCED2 was different, implying a compensation mechanism between NCED genes and an organ-specific regulation of NCED1 expression. JA levels and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) expression in flc plants suggest that ABA regulates the induction of the OPR3 gene in roots. By contrast, ABA treatment to flc plants leads to a reduction of JA and SA contents. Furthermore, different pattern of SA accumulation (and expression of isochorismate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1) was observed between WT seedlings and mutants, suggesting that SA plays an important role on the early response of tomato plants to drought and also that JA and ABA modulate its biosynthesis. Finally, hormone profiling in spr2 and NahG plants indicate a crosstalk between JA and SA that could enhance tolerance of tomato to water stress. PMID:26635826

  14. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth-Defense Tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Havko, Nathan E; Major, Ian T; Jewell, Jeremy B; Attaran, Elham; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA), which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span. PMID:27135227

  15. Low concentrations of salicylic acid delay methyl jasmonate-induced leaf senescence by up-regulating nitric oxide synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yingbin; Liu, Jian; Xing, Da

    2016-09-01

    In plants, extensive efforts have been devoted to understanding the crosstalk between salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling in pathogen defenses, but this crosstalk has scarcely been addressed during senescence. In this study, the effect of SA application on methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced leaf senescence was assessed. We found that low concentrations of SA (1-50 μM) played a delayed role against the senescence promoted by MeJA. Furthermore, low concentrations of SA enhanced plant antioxidant defenses and restricted reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in MeJA-treated leaves. When applied simultaneously with MeJA, low concentrations of SA triggered a nitric oxide (NO) burst, and the elevated NO levels were linked to the nitric oxide associated 1 (NOA1)-dependent pathway via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. The ability of SA to up-regulate plant antioxidant defenses, reduce ROS accumulation, and suppress leaf senescence was lost in NO-deficient Atnoa1 plants. In a converse manner, exogenous addition of NO donors increased the plant antioxidant capacity and lowered the ROS levels in MeJA-treated leaves. Taken together, the results indicate that SA at low concentrations counteracts MeJA-induced leaf senescence through NOA1-dependent NO signaling and strengthening of the antioxidant defense. PMID:27440938

  16. Jasmonic acid-induced volatiles of Brassica oleracea attract parasitoids: effects of time and dose, and comparison with induction by herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Bruinsma, Maaike; Posthumus, Maarten A.; Mumm, Roland; Mueller, Martin J.; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Dicke, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Caterpillar feeding induces direct and indirect defences in brassicaceous plants. This study focused on the role of the octadecanoid pathway in induced indirect defence in Brassica oleracea. The effect of induction by exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA) on the responses of Brussels sprouts plants and on host-location behaviour of associated parasitoid wasps was studied. Feeding by the biting–chewing herbivores Pieris rapae and Plutella xylostella resulted in significantly increased endogenous levels of JA, a central component in the octadecanoid signalling pathway that mediates induced plant defence. The levels of the intermediate 12-oxophyto-dienoic acid (OPDA) were significantly induced only after P. rapae feeding. Three species of parasitoid wasps, Cotesia glomerata, C. rubecula, and Diadegma semiclausum, differing in host range and host specificity, were tested for their behavioural responses to volatiles from herbivore-induced, JA-induced, and non-induced plants. All three species were attracted to volatiles from JA-induced plants compared with control plants; however, they preferred volatiles from herbivore-induced plants over volatiles from JA-induced plants. Attraction of C. glomerata depended on both timing and dose of JA application. JA-induced plants produced larger quantities of volatiles than herbivore-induced and control plants, indicating that not only quantity, but also quality of the volatile blend is important in the host-location behaviour of the wasps. PMID:19451186

  17. An allele of Arabidopsis COI1 with hypo- and hypermorphic phenotypes in plant growth, defence and fertility.

    PubMed

    Dobón, Albor; Wulff, Brande B H; Canet, Juan Vicente; Fort, Patrocinio; Tornero, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to biotrophic pathogens is largely dependent on the hormone salicylic acid (SA) while jasmonic acid (JA) regulates resistance against necrotrophs. JA negatively regulates SA and is, in itself, negatively regulated by SA. A key component of the JA signal transduction pathway is its receptor, the COI1 gene. Mutations in this gene can affect all the JA phenotypes, whereas mutations in other genes, either in JA signal transduction or in JA biosynthesis, lack this general effect. To identify components of the part of the resistance against biotrophs independent of SA, a mutagenised population of NahG plants (severely depleted of SA) was screened for suppression of susceptibility. The screen resulted in the identification of intragenic and extragenic suppressors, and the results presented here correspond to the characterization of one extragenic suppressor, coi1-40. coi1-40 is quite different from previously described coi1 alleles, and it represents a strategy for enhancing resistance to biotrophs with low levels of SA, likely suppressing NahG by increasing the perception to the remaining SA. The phenotypes of coi1-40 lead us to speculate about a modular function for COI1, since we have recovered a mutation in COI1 which has a number of JA-related phenotypes reduced while others are equal to or above wild type levels.

  18. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant's defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis. PMID:26902148

  19. Control of Carbon Assimilation and Partitioning by Jasmonate: An Accounting of Growth-Defense Tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Havko, Nathan E; Major, Ian T; Jewell, Jeremy B; Attaran, Elham; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg A

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth is often constrained by the limited availability of resources in the microenvironment. Despite the continuous threat of attack from insect herbivores and pathogens, investment in defense represents a lost opportunity to expand photosynthetic capacity in leaves and absorption of nutrients and water by roots. To mitigate the metabolic expenditure on defense, plants have evolved inducible defense strategies. The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of many inducible defenses. Synthesis of JA in response to perceived danger leads to the deployment of a variety of defensive structures and compounds, along with a potent inhibition of growth. Genetic studies have established an important role for JA in mediating tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, several gaps remain in understanding of how JA signaling inhibits growth, either through direct transcriptional control of JA-response genes or crosstalk with other signaling pathways. Here, we highlight recent progress in uncovering the role of JA in controlling growth-defense balance and its relationship to resource acquisition and allocation. We also discuss tradeoffs in the context of the ability of JA to promote increased leaf mass per area (LMA), which is a key indicator of leaf construction costs and leaf life span.

  20. FILAMENTOUS FLOWER Is a Direct Target of JAZ3 and Modulates Responses to Jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Boter, Marta; Golz, John F; Giménez-Ibañez, Selena; Fernandez-Barbero, Gemma; Franco-Zorrilla, José M; Solano, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) plays an important role in regulating growth, development, and immunity. Activation of the JA-signaling pathway is based on the hormone-triggered ubiquitination and removal of transcriptional repressors (JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN [JAZ] proteins) by an SCF receptor complex (SCF(COI1)/JAZ). This removal allows the rapid activation of transcription factors (TFs) triggering a multitude of downstream responses. Identification of TFs bound by the JAZ proteins is essential to better understand how the JA-signaling pathway modulates and integrates different responses. In this study, we found that the JAZ3 repressor physically interacts with the YABBY (YAB) family transcription factor FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL)/YAB1. In Arabidopsis thaliana, FIL regulates developmental processes such as axial patterning and growth of lateral organs, shoot apical meristem activity, and inflorescence phyllotaxy. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated responses in loss- and gain-of-function FIL lines suggested that YABs function as transcriptional activators of JA-triggered responses. Moreover, we show that MYB75, a component of the WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex regulating anthocyanin production, is a direct transcriptional target of FIL. We propose that JAZ3 interacts with YABs to attenuate their transcriptional function. Upon perception of JA signal, degradation of JAZ3 by the SCF(COI1) complex releases YABs to activate a subset of JA-regulated genes in leaves leading to anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss, and reduced bacterial defense. PMID:26530088

  1. Salicylic acid receptors activate jasmonic acid signalling through a non-canonical pathway to promote effector-triggered immunity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lijing; Sonbol, Fathi-Mohamed; Huot, Bethany; Gu, Yangnan; Withers, John; Mwimba, Musoki; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang; Dong, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    It is an apparent conundrum how plants evolved effector-triggered immunity (ETI), involving programmed cell death (PCD), as a major defence mechanism against biotrophic pathogens, because ETI-associated PCD could leave them vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens that thrive on dead host cells. Interestingly, during ETI, the normally antagonistic defence hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) associated with defence against biotrophs and necrotrophs respectively, both accumulate to high levels. In this study, we made the surprising finding that JA is a positive regulator of RPS2-mediated ETI. Early induction of JA-responsive genes and de novo JA synthesis following SA accumulation is activated through the SA receptors NPR3 and NPR4, instead of the JA receptor COI1. We provide evidence that NPR3 and NPR4 may mediate this effect by promoting degradation of the JA transcriptional repressor JAZs. This unique interplay between SA and JA offers a possible explanation of how plants can mount defence against a biotrophic pathogen without becoming vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:27725643

  2. Antagonistic effects of abscisic acid and jasmonates on salt stress-inducible transcripts in rice roots.

    PubMed Central

    Moons, A; Prinsen, E; Bauw, G; Van Montagu, M

    1997-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonates have been implicated in responses to water deficit and wounding. We compared the molecular and physiological effects of jasmonic acid (JA) (< or = 10 microM), ABA, and salt stress in roots of rice. JA markedly induced a cationic peroxidase, two novel 32- and 28-kD proteins, acidic PR-1 and PR-10 pathogenesis-related proteins, and the salt stress-responsive SalT protein in roots. Most JA-responsive proteins (JIPs) from roots also accumulated when plants were subjected to salt stress. None of the JIPs accumulated when plants were treated with ABA. JA did not induce an ABA-responsive group 3 late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein. Salt stress and ABA but not JA induced oslea3 transcript accumulation. By contrast, JA, ABA, and salt stress induced transcript accumulation of salT and osdrr, which encodes a rice PR-10 protein. However, ABA also negatively affected salT transcript accumulation, whereas JA negatively affected ABA-induced oslea3 transcript levels. Endogenous root ABA and methyl jasmonate levels showed a differential increase with the dose and the duration of salt stress. The results indicate that ABA and jasmonates antagonistically regulated the expression of salt stress-inducible proteins associated with water deficit or defense responses. PMID:9437865

  3. Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Yong-Cui; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Pei-Wen; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Sui, Chun; Wei, Jian-He

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood, a highly valuable resinous and fragrant heartwood of Aquilaria plants, is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only when Aquilaria trees are wounded by external stimuli do they form agarwood sesquiterpene defensive compounds. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway of wound-induced agarwood formation is important. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized molecule that mediates a plant’s defense response and secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the function of endogenous JA in agarwood sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Here, we report that heat shock can up-regulate the expression of genes in JA signaling pathway, induce JA production and the accumulation of agarwood sesquiterpene in A. sinensis cell suspension cultures. A specific inhibitor of JA, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), could block the JA signaling pathway and reduce the accumulation of sesquiterpene compounds. Additionally, compared to SA and H2O2, exogenously supplied methyl jasmonate has the strongest stimulation effect on the production of sesquiterpene compounds. These results clearly demonstrate the central induction role of JA in heat-shock-induced sesquiterpene production in A. sinensis. PMID:26902148

  4. Beneficial effects of soluble dietary Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) in the prevention of the onset of type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fructose diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wan-Ching; Jia, Huijuan; Aw, Wanping; Saito, Kenji; Hasegawa, Sumio; Kato, Hisanori

    2014-09-14

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) has the potential to attenuate lipid disturbances and insulin resistance (IR), but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we elucidated the physiological responses and mechanisms of JA intervention with a comprehensive transcriptome analysis. Wistar rats were fed a control diet, a 60 % fructose-enriched diet (FRU), or a FRU with 10 % JA (n 6-7) for 4 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test was carried out on day 21. Liver samples were collected for biochemical and global gene expression analyses (GeneChip® Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array, Affymetrix). Fructose feeding resulted in IR and hepatic TAG accumulation; dietary JA supplementation significantly improved these changes. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that the expression of malic enzyme 1 (Me1), associated with fatty acid synthesis; decorin (Dcn), related to fibrosis; and cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily a, polypeptide 2 (Cyp1a2) and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), associated with inflammation, was differentially altered by the FRU, whereas dietary JA supplementation significantly improved the expression of these genes. We established for the first time the molecular mechanisms driving the beneficial effects of JA in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We propose that 10 % JA supplementation may be beneficial for the prevention of the onset of these diseases.

  5. Enhanced hyphal growth of arbuscular mycorrhizae by root exudates derived from high R/FR treated Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Maki; Yamamoto, Naoya; Miyamoto, Taro; Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2016-06-01

    Red/Far Red (R/FR) sensing positively influences the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis of both legume and nonlegume plants through jasmonic acid (JA) and strigolactone signaling. We previously reported that root exudates obtained from high R/FR-grown plants contained more strigolactone than low R/FR-grown plants. To determine whether JA and JA derivatives were secreted from roots, we investigated the expression levels of JA-responsive genes in L. japonicus Miyakojima MG20 plants treated with root exudates prepared from either high or low R/FR light-treated plants. The root exudates from high R/FR light-treated plants were found to enhance the expression levels of JA-responsive genes significantly. Moreover, exogenous JA increased AM fungal hyphal elongation as did the root exudates derived from high R/FR-grown L. japonicus plants. We conclude that increased JA accumulation and secretion into root exudates from high R/FR light-grown plants is the best explanation for increased colonization and enhanced mycorrhization under these conditions. PMID:27191935

  6. Induced resistance in groundnut by jasmonic acid and salicylic acid through alteration of trichome density and oviposition by Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Hussain, Barkat; Sharma, Hari C.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are important phytohormones involved in plant resistance against insect herbivory and pathogen infection. Application of JA and SA induces several defensive traits in plants. Here we investigated the effect of JA and SA on trichome density in five groundnut genotypes [ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271, ICG 1697 (resistant) and JL 24 (susceptible)]. The effect of JA- and SA-induced resistance on the oviposition behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera on different groundnut genotypes was also studied. Pre-treatment with JA increased numbers of trichomes in the insect-resistant genotypes, ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271, and ICG 1697. The induction was greater at 10 days after treatment. Jasmonic acid- and SA-treated plants showed a substantial effect on the oviposition behaviour of H. armigera. Jasmonic acid application and herbivory reduced the number of eggs laid by H. armigera in all the groundnut genotypes tested. However, a greater reduction was recorded on plants pre-treated with JA. More egg laying was recorded in JL 24 in all the treatments as compared to the insect-resistant genotypes. These results suggested that pre-treatment with JA increased trichome density in groundnut plants, which conferred antixenosis for oviposition by H. armigera.

  7. Biosynthesis of jasmonic acid in a plant pathogenic fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Kohei; Takahashi, Kosaku; Nabeta, Kensuke

    2010-12-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant hormone that plays an important role in a wide variety of plant physiological processes. The plant pathogenic fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae also produces JA; however, its biosynthesis in this fungus has yet to be explored. Administration of [1-(13)C] and [2-(13)C] NaOAc into L. theobromae established that JA in this fungus originates from a fatty acid synthetic pathway. The methyl ester of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) was detected in the culture extracts of L. theobromae by GC-MS analysis. This finding indicates the presence of OPDA (a known intermediate of JA biosynthesis in plants) in L. theobromae. (2)H NMR spectroscopic data of JA produced by L. theobromae with the incorporation of [9,10,12,13,15,16-(2)H(6)] linolenic acid showed that five deuterium atoms remained intact. In plants, this is speculated to arise from JA being produced by the octadecanoid pathway. However, the observed stereoselectivity of the cyclopentenone olefin reduction in L. theobromae was opposite to that observed in plants. These data suggest that JA biosynthesis in L. theobromae is similar to that in plants, but differing in the facial selectivity of the enone reduction. PMID:20952041

  8. Wide-Field Imaging of Galactic Halos with a Near-Infrared Rocket-Borne Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Andrew E.

    2000-01-01

    We successfully completed both of the proposed flights by May of 1998, on schedule and on budget. In both flights the instrument worked flawlessly, achieving sensitivities slightly better than the specification (1 nW/sq m sr per pixel). The payload was recovered with only minor damage after both flights. The results from the first flight, which targeted the nearby edge-on spiral NCG 4565, have been published. Analysis of the data failed to detect any significant emission, from the halo around the galaxy, and set a very stringent 2 sigma lower limit on the M/L ratio of the halo of greater than 260 in solar units. The results from the second flight, which targeted the infamous NGC 5907, have taken longer to analyze because of an offset in the absolute pointing of the payload which broke the symmetry of the scan pattern about the galaxy, thus complicating the analysis, After careful analysis, Caltech graduate student, Sarah Yost, has recovered the full sensitivity of the experiment, setting a 2 sigma lower limit on the M/L ratio of the halo of greater than 280 in solar units. This result rules out the hypothesis that a significant portion of the halo around NGC 5907 is composed of low-mass stars, as previous observations had suggested. NITE probes directly the halo at 10 to 30 kpc from the disk, a region far too dim for other experiments. Our conclusion is that observations of a significant IR signature associated with the halo at less than approximately 5kpc radius where contaminated by tidally disrupted disk population of stars. In order to test the idea that we could study faint surface-brightness fluctuations in the diffuse background using NITE, we have analyzed the data from the 1997 flight which targeted NCG 4565 (this target is in a region of lower stellar confusion than is NGC 5907). We have detected a significant correlation in the noise at zero-lag, with an amplitude that corresponds to brightness fluctuations of 3.04 plus or minus 0.16 nW/sq m sr. This

  9. Simultaneous ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd">π/2 rotation of two spin species of different gyromagnetic ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Ping -Han; Peng, Jen -Chieh

    2015-06-05

    Here, we examine the characteristics of the π/2 pulse for simultaneously rotating two spin species of different gyromagnetic ratios with the same sign. For a π/2 pulse using a rotating magnetic field, we derive an equation relating the frequency and strength of the pulse to the gyromagnetic ratios of the two particles and the strength of the constant holding field. For a π/2 pulse using a linear oscillatory magnetic field, we obtain the solutions numerically, and compare them with the solutions for the rotating π/2 pulse. Application of this analysis to the specific case of rotating neutrons and 3He atoms simultaneously with a π/2 pulse, proposed for a neutron electric dipole moment experiment, is also presented.

  10. Efficient solution of the simplified ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd">PN equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Steven P.; Evans, Thomas M.

    2014-12-23

    We show new solver strategies for the multigroup SPN equations for nuclear reactor analysis. By forming the complete matrix over space, moments, and energy a robust set of solution strategies may be applied. Moreover, power iteration, shifted power iteration, Rayleigh quotient iteration, Arnoldi's method, and a generalized Davidson method, each using algebraic and physics-based multigrid preconditioners, have been compared on C5G7 MOX test problem as well as an operational PWR model. These results show that the most ecient approach is the generalized Davidson method, that is 30-40 times faster than traditional power iteration and 6-10 times faster than Arnoldi's method.

  11. Thermophysical properties of ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd">U3Si2 to 1773K

    SciTech Connect

    White, Joshua Taylor; Nelson, Andrew Thomas; Dunwoody, John Tyler; Byler, David Darrin; Safarik, Douglas Joseph; McClellan, Kenneth James

    2015-05-08

    Use of U3Si2 in nuclear reactors requires accurate thermophysical property data to capture heat transfer within the core. Compilation of the limited previous research efforts focused on the most critical property, thermal conductivity, reveals extensive disagreement. Assessment of this data is challenged by the fact that the critical structural and chemical details of the material used to provide historic data is either absent or confirms the presence of significant impurity phases. This study was initiated to fabricate high purity U3Si2 to quantify the coefficient of thermal expansion, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity from room temperature to 1773 K. Here, the datasets provided in this manuscript will facilitate more detailed fuel performance modeling to assess both current and proposed reactor designs that incorporate U3Si2.

  12. Low-energy ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd">(<10keV) electron ionization and recombination model for a liquid argon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Foxe, M.; Hagmann, C.; Jovanovic, I.; Bernstein, A.; Kazkaz, K.; Mozin, V.; Pereverzev, S. V.; Sangiorgio, S.; Sorensen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Detailed understanding of the ionization process in dual-phase noble element detectors is important for their use in applications such as the search for Dark Matter and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. The response of dual-phase noble element detectors to low-energy ionization events is poorly understood at this time. We describe a new simulation tool which predicts the ionization yield from electronic energy deposits (E < 10 keV) in liquid Ar, including the dependence of the yield on the applied electric drift eld. The ionization signal produced in a dual-phase argon detector from 37Ar beta decay and 55Fe X-rays has been calculated using the new model.

  13. Differential cross section of ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd">γnK+Σ- on bound neutrons with incident photons from 1.1 to 3.6 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, S. Anefalos; Mirazita, M.; Rossi, P.; De Sanctis, E.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Stepanyan, S.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Berman, B. L.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dhamija, S.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; Eugenio, P.; Fegan, S.; Forest, T. A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gavalian, G.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hassall, N.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Livingston, K.; Mayer, M.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mikhailov, K.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Moreno, B.; Moriya, K.; Morrison, B.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Perrin, Y.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salamanca, J.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Tkachenko, S.; Vernarsky, B.; Vineyard, M. F.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.

    2010-05-01

    Differential cross sections of the reaction γd → K+Σ(p) have been measured with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab using incident photons with energies between 1.1 and 3.6 GeV. This is the first complete set of strangeness photoproduction data on the neutron covering a broad angular range. At energies close to threshold and up to Eγ ~ 1.8 GeV, the shape of the angular distribution is suggestive of the presence of s -channel production mechanisms. For Eγ > 1.8 GeV, a clear forward peak appears and becomes more prominent as the photon energy increases, suggesting contributions from t-channel production mechanisms. Furthermore, these data can be used to constrain future analysis of this reaction.

  14. Systemic jasmonic acid modulation in mycorrhizal tomato plants and its role in induced resistance against Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Nair, A; Kolet, S P; Thulasiram, H V; Bhargava, S

    2015-05-01

    Tomato plants colonised with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum show systemic induced resistance to the foliar pathogen Alternaria alternata, as observed in interactions of other AM-colonised plants with a range of pathogens. The role of jasmonic (JA) and salicylic (SA) acid in expression of this mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR) against A. alternata was studied by measuring: (i) activity of enzymes reported to be involved in their biosynthesis, namely lipoxygenase (LOX) and phenylammonia lyase (PAL); and (ii) levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and SA. Transcript abundance of some defence genes associated with JA and SA response pathways were also studied. Both LOX and PAL activity increased twofold in response to pathogen application to control plants. AM-colonised plants had three-fold higher LOX activity compared to control plants, but unlike controls, this did not increase further in response to pathogen application. Higher LOX activity in AM-colonised plants correlated with four-fold higher MeJA in leaves of AM-colonised plants compared to controls. Treatment of plants with the JA biosynthesis inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) led to 50% lower MeJA in both control and AM-colonised plants and correlated with increased susceptibility to A. alternata, suggesting a causal role for JA in expression of MIR against the pathogen. Genes involved in JA biosynthesis (OPR3) and response (COI1) showed six- and 42-fold higher expression, respectively, in leaves of AM-colonised plants compared to controls. AM-colonised plants also showed increased expression of the SA response gene PR1 and that of the wound-inducible polypeptide prosystemin. Our results suggest that the systemic increase in JA in response to AM colonisation plays a key role in expression of MIR against A. alternata.

  15. Effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis) growth and functional quality.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Selena; Orians, Colin M; Griffin, Timothy S; Buckley, Sarabeth; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Stratton, Anne Elise; Stepp, John Richard; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Kennelly, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    Extreme shifts in water availability linked to global climate change are impacting crops worldwide. The present study examines the direct and interactive effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae) growth and functional quality. Manipulative greenhouse experiments were used to measure the effects of variable water availability and pest pressures simulated by jasmonic acid (JA) on tea leaf growth and secondary metabolites that determine tea quality. Water treatments were simulated to replicate ideal tea growing conditions and extreme precipitation events in tropical southwestern China, a major centre of tea production. Results show that higher water availability and JA significantly increased the growth of new leaves while their interactive effect was not significant. The effect of water availability and JA on tea quality varied with individual secondary metabolites. Higher water availability significantly increased total methylxanthine concentrations of tea leaves but there was no significant effect of JA treatments or the interaction of water and JA. Water availability, JA treatments or their interactive effects had no effect on the concentrations of epigallocatechin 3-gallate. In contrast, increased water availability resulted in significantly lower concentrations of epicatechin 3-gallate but the effect of JA and the interactive effects of water and JA were not significant. Lastly, higher water availability resulted in significantly higher total phenolic concentrations but there was no significant impact of JA and their interaction. These findings point to the fascinating dynamics of climate change effects on tea plants with offsetting interactions between precipitation and pest pressures within agro-ecosystems, and the need for future climate studies to examine interactive biotic and abiotic effects.

  16. Phenotype-dependent alteration of pathways and networks reveals a pure synergistic mechanism for compounds treating mouse cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng-qian; Li, Bing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ying-ying; Yu, Ya-nan; Zhang, Xiao-xu; Yuan, Ye; Guo, Zhi-li; Wu, Hong-li; Li, Hai-xia; Dang, Hai-xia; Guo, Shan-shan; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Our previous studies have showed that ursodeoxycholic acid (UA) and jasminoidin (JA) effectively reduce cerebral infarct volume in mice. In this study we explored the pure synergistic mechanism of these compounds in treatment of mouse cerebral ischemia, which was defined as synergistic actions specific for phenotype variations after excluding interference from ineffective compounds. Methods: Mice with focal cerebral ischemia were treated with UA, JA or a combination JA and UA (JU). Concha margaritifera (CM) was taken as ineffective compound. Cerebral infarct volume of the mice was determined, and the hippocampi were taken for microarray analysis. Particular signaling pathways and biological functions were enriched based on differentially expressed genes, and corresponding networks were constructed through Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results: In phenotype analysis, UA, JA, and JU significantly reduced the ischemic infarct volume with JU being superior to UA or JA alone, while CM was ineffective. As a result, 4 pathways enriched in CM were excluded. Core pathways in the phenotype-positive groups (UA or JA) were involved in neuronal homeostasis and neuropathology. JU-contributing pathways included all UA-contributing and the majority (71.7%) of JA-contributing pathways, and 10 new core pathways whose effects included inflammatory immunity, apoptosis and nervous system development. The functions of JU group included all functions of JA group, the majority (93.1%) of UA-contributing functions, and 3 new core functions, which focused on physiological system development and function. Conclusion: The pure synergism between UA and JA underlies 10 new core pathways and 3 new core functions, which are involved in inflammation, immune responses, apoptosis and nervous system development. PMID:25960134

  17. Chemotype-dependent metabolic response to methyl jasmonate elicitation in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yuan, Man; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Yanming; Yong, Li; Wang, Wei; Qi, Yan; Guo, Dianjing

    2011-07-01

    Considerable difference in artemisinin and its direct precursors, artemisinic acid and dihydroartemisinic acid, was detected between two chemotypes within the species Artemisia annua (A. annua). These two chemotypes showed differential metabolic response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitation. Exogenous application of MeJA resulted in an accumulation of dihydroartemisinic acid and artemisinin in Type I plants. In Type II plants, however, artemisinic acid and artemisinin level decreased dramatically under MeJA elicitation. Squalene and other sesquiterpenes, (e.g., caryophyllene, germacrene D), were stimulated by MeJA in both chemotypes. The effect of MeJA elicitation was also studied at the transcription level. Real time RT-PCR analysis showed a coordinated activation of most artemisinin pathway genes by MeJA in Type I plants. The lack of change in cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) transcript in Type I plants indicates that the rate-limiting enzymes in artemisinin biosynthesis have yet to be identified. Other chemotype-specific electron donor proteins likely exist in A. annua to meet the demand for P450-mediated reactions in MeJA-mediated cellular processes. In Type II plants, mRNA expression patterns of most pathway genes were consistent with the reduced artemisinin level. Intriguingly, the mRNA transcript of aldehyde dehydrogenase1 (ADHL1), an enzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of artemisinic and dihydroartemisinic aldehydes, was upregulated by MeJA. The differential metabolic response to MeJA suggests a chemotype-dependent metabolic flux control towards artemisinin and sterol production in the species A. annua.

  18. Priming of jasmonate-mediated antiherbivore defense responses in rice by silicon

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Mao; Song, Yuanyuan; Long, Jun; Wang, Ruilong; Baerson, Scott R.; Pan, Zhiqiang; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Xie, Jiefen; Cai, Kunzheng; Luo, Shiming; Zeng, Rensen

    2013-01-01

    Although the function of silicon (Si) in plant physiology has long been debated, its beneficial effects on plant resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses, including insect herbivory, have been well documented. In addition, the jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in mediating antiherbivore defense responses in plants. However, potential interactions between JA and Si in response to insect attack have not been examined directly. To explore the role JA may play in Si-enhanced resistance, we silenced the expression of allene oxide synthase (OsAOS; active in JA biosynthesis) and CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (OsCOI1; active in JA perception) genes in transgenic rice plants via RNAi and examined resulting changes in Si accumulation and defense responses against caterpillar Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (rice leaffolder, LF) infestation. Si pretreatment increased rice resistance against LF larvae in wild-type plants but not in OsAOS and OsCOI1 RNAi lines. Upon LF attack, wild-type plants subjected to Si pretreatment exhibited enhanced defense responses relative to untreated controls, including higher levels of JA accumulation; increased levels of transcripts encoding defense marker genes; and elevated activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and trypsin protease inhibitor. Additionally, reduced Si deposition and Si cell expansion were observed in leaves of OsAOS and OsCOI1 RNAi plants in comparison with wild-type plants, and reduced steady-state transcript levels of the Si transporters OsLsi1, OsLsi2, and OsLsi6 were observed in Si-pretreated plants after LF attack. These results suggest a strong interaction between Si and JA in defense against insect herbivores involving priming of JA-mediated defense responses by Si and the promotion of Si accumulation by JA. PMID:24003150

  19. Expression of a functional jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase is negatively correlated with strawberry fruit development.

    PubMed

    Preuß, Anja; Augustin, Christiane; Figueroa, Carlos R; Hoffmann, Thomas; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Sevilla, José F; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-09-15

    The volatile metabolite methyl jasmonate (MeJA) plays an important role in intra- and interplant communication and is involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a S-adenosyl-l-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) from Fragaria vesca and Fragaria×ananassa. Biochemical assays and comprehensive transcript analyses showed that JMT has been erroneously annotated as gene fusion with a carboxyl methyltransferase (CMT) (gene15184) in the first published genome sequence of F. vesca. Recombinant FvJMT catalyzed the formation of MeJA with KM value of 22.3μM while FvCMT and the fusion protein were almost inactive. Activity of JMT with benzoic acid and salicylic acid as substrates was less than 1.5% of that with JA. Leucine at position 245, an amino acid missing in other JMT sequences is essential for activity of FvJMT. In accordance with MeJA levels, JMT transcript levels decreased steadily during strawberry fruit ripening, as did the expression levels of JA biosynthesis and regulatory genes. It appears that CMT has originated by a recent duplication of JMT and lost its enzymatic activity toward JA. In the newest version of the strawberry genome sequence (June 2014) CMT and JMT are annotated as separate genes in accordance with differential temporal and spatial expression patterns of both genes in Fragaria sp. In conclusion, MeJA, the inactive derivative of JA, is probably involved in early steps of fruit development by modulating the levels of the active plant hormone JA.

  20. Phosphate Deficiency Induces the Jasmonate Pathway and Enhances Resistance to Insect Herbivory1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Gaétan

    2016-01-01

    During their life cycle, plants are typically confronted by simultaneous biotic and abiotic stresses. Low inorganic phosphate (Pi) is one of the most common nutrient deficiencies limiting plant growth in natural and agricultural ecosystems, while insect herbivory accounts for major losses in plant productivity and impacts ecological and evolutionary changes in plant populations. Here, we report that plants experiencing Pi deficiency induce the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway and enhance their defense against insect herbivory. Pi-deficient Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) showed enhanced synthesis of JA and the bioactive conjugate JA-isoleucine, as well as activation of the JA signaling pathway, in both shoots and roots of wild-type plants and in shoots of the Pi-deficient mutant pho1. The kinetics of the induction of the JA signaling pathway by Pi deficiency was influenced by PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE1, the main transcription factor regulating the expression of Pi starvation-induced genes. Phenotypes of the pho1 mutant typically associated with Pi deficiency, such as high shoot anthocyanin levels and poor shoot growth, were significantly attenuated by blocking the JA biosynthesis or signaling pathway. Wounded pho1 leaves hyperaccumulated JA/JA-isoleucine in comparison with the wild type. The pho1 mutant also showed an increased resistance against the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis that was attenuated in JA biosynthesis and signaling mutants. Pi deficiency also triggered increased resistance to S. littoralis in wild-type Arabidopsis as well as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Nicotiana benthamiana, revealing that the link between Pi deficiency and enhanced herbivory resistance is conserved in a diversity of plants, including crops. PMID:27016448

  1. Effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis) growth and functional quality

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Selena; Orians, Colin M.; Griffin, Timothy S.; Buckley, Sarabeth; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Stratton, Anne Elise; Stepp, John Richard; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    Extreme shifts in water availability linked to global climate change are impacting crops worldwide. The present study examines the direct and interactive effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae) growth and functional quality. Manipulative greenhouse experiments were used to measure the effects of variable water availability and pest pressures simulated by jasmonic acid (JA) on tea leaf growth and secondary metabolites that determine tea quality. Water treatments were simulated to replicate ideal tea growing conditions and extreme precipitation events in tropical southwestern China, a major centre of tea production. Results show that higher water availability and JA significantly increased the growth of new leaves while their interactive effect was not significant. The effect of water availability and JA on tea quality varied with individual secondary metabolites. Higher water availability significantly increased total methylxanthine concentrations of tea leaves but there was no significant effect of JA treatments or the interaction of water and JA. Water availability, JA treatments or their interactive effects had no effect on the concentrations of epigallocatechin 3-gallate. In contrast, increased water availability resulted in significantly lower concentrations of epicatechin 3-gallate but the effect of JA and the interactive effects of water and JA were not significant. Lastly, higher water availability resulted in significantly higher total phenolic concentrations but there was no significant impact of JA and their interaction. These findings point to the fascinating dynamics of climate change effects on tea plants with offsetting interactions between precipitation and pest pressures within agro-ecosystems, and the need for future climate studies to examine interactive biotic and abiotic effects. PMID:24790117

  2. Allantoin, a stress-related purine metabolite, can activate jasmonate signaling in a MYC2-regulated and abscisic acid-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Konishi, Tomokazu; Egusa, Mayumi; Akiyoshi, Nobuhiro; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C.; Hirayama, Takashi; Kaminaka, Hironori; Shimada, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Allantoin is a metabolic intermediate of purine catabolism that often accumulates in stressed plants. Recently, we used Arabidopsis knockout mutants (aln) of ALLANTOINASE to show that this purine metabolite activates abscisic acid (ABA) production, thereby stimulating stress-related gene expression and enhancing seedling tolerance to abiotic stress. A detailed re-examination of the microarray data of an aln mutant (aln-1) confirmed the increased expression of ABA-related genes and also revealed altered expression of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) responses, probably under the control of MYC2, a master switch in the JA signaling pathway. Consistent with the transcriptome profiles, the aln-1 mutant displayed increased JA levels and enhanced responses to mechanical wounding and exogenous JA. Moreover, aln mutants demonstrated modestly increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae and Pectobacterium carotovorum, probably reflecting the antagonistic action of MYC2 on the defense against these bacterial phytopathogens. Exogenously administered allantoin elicited the expression of JA-responsive genes, including MYC2, in wild-type plants, supporting the idea that allantoin might be responsible for the observed JA-related phenotypes of aln mutants. However, mutants deficient in bioactive JA (jar1-1), insensitive to JA (myc2-3), or deficient in ABA (aba2-1 and bglu18) suppressed the effect of exogenous allantoin. The suppression was further confirmed in aln-1 jar1-1 and aln-1 bglu18 double mutants. These results indicate that allantoin can activate the MYC2-regulated JA signaling pathway through ABA production. Overall, this study suggests a possible connection of purine catabolism with stress hormone homeostasis and signaling, and highlights the potential importance of allantoin in these interactions. PMID:26931169

  3. Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation*

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Yun-xiang; Ge, Jia-li; Huang, Ling-hui; Gao, Fei; Lv, Xi-shan; Zheng, Wei-wei; Hong, Seung-beom; Zhu, Zhu-jun

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Regardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. All three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that accumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elicitation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA- and MeJA-mediated systemic response systems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on the MeJA-induced root GSs irrespective of the site of elicitation. However, SA showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on the MeJA-induced leaf GSs when roots and leaves are elicitated for 3 d, respectively. PMID:26238545

  4. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses.

  5. Phytochrome A and B Function Antagonistically to Regulate Cold Tolerance via Abscisic Acid-Dependent Jasmonate Signaling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhixin; Li, Huizi; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Xiaojian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan

    2016-01-01

    Light signaling and phytohormones both influence plant growth, development, and stress responses; however, cross talk between these two signaling pathways in response to cold remains underexplored. Here, we report that far-red light (FR) and red light (R) perceived by phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB positively and negatively regulated cold tolerance, respectively, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which were associated with the regulation of levels of phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and transcript levels of ABA- and JA-related genes and the C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR (CBF) stress signaling pathway genes. A reduction in the R/FR ratio did not alter cold tolerance, ABA and JA accumulation, and transcript levels of ABA- and JA-related genes and the CBF pathway genes in phyA mutant plants; however, those were significantly increased in wild-type and phyB plants with the reduction in the R/FR ratio. Even though low R/FR treatments did not confer cold tolerance in ABA-deficient (notabilis [not]) and JA-deficient (prosystemin-mediated responses2 [spr2]) mutants, it up-regulated ABA accumulation and signaling in the spr2 mutant, with no effect on JA levels and signaling in the not mutant. Foliar application of ABA and JA further confirmed that JA functioned downstream of ABA to activate the CBF pathway in light quality-mediated cold tolerance. It is concluded that phyA and phyB function antagonistically to regulate cold tolerance that essentially involves FR light-induced activation of phyA to induce ABA signaling and, subsequently, JA signaling, leading to an activation of the CBF pathway and a cold response in tomato plants. PMID:26527654

  6. Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yun-xiang; Ge, Jia-li; Huang, Ling-hui; Gao, Fei; Lv, Xi-shan; Zheng, Wei-wei; Hong, Seung-beom; Zhu, Zhu-jun

    2015-08-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Regardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. All three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that accumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elicitation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA- and MeJA-mediated systemic response systems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on the MeJA-induced root GSs irrespective of the site of elicitation. However, SA showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on the MeJA-induced leaf GSs when roots and leaves are elicitated for 3 d, respectively.

  7. Velocity Estimates for Signal Propagation Leading to Systemic Jasmonic Acid Accumulation in Wounded Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Gaetan; Dubugnon, Lucie; Mousavi, Seyed A. R.; Rudaz, Serge; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Farmer, Edward E.

    2009-01-01

    The wound response prohormone jasmonic acid (JA) accumulates rapidly in tissues both proximal and distal to injury sites in plants. Using quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after flash freezing of tissues, we found that JA accumulated within 30 s of injury in wounded Arabidopsis leaves (p = 3.5 e−7). JA augmentation distal to wounds was strongest in unwounded leaves with direct vascular connections to wounded leaves wherein JA levels increased significantly within 120 s of wounding (p = 0.00027). This gave conservative and statistically robust temporal boundaries for the average velocity of the long distance signal leading to distal JA accumulation in unwounded leaves of 3.4–4.5 cm min−1. Like JA, transcripts of the JA synthesis gene LIPOXYGENASE2 (LOX2) and the jasmonate response gene JAZ10.3 also accumulated to higher levels in directly interconnected leaves than in indirectly connected leaves. JA accumulation in a lox2-1 mutant plant was initiated rapidly after wounding then slowed progressively compared with the wild type (WT). Despite this, JAZ10.3 expression in the two genotypes was similar. Free cyclopentenone jasmonate levels were similar in both resting WT and lox2-1. In contrast, bound cyclopentenone jasmonates (arabidopsides) were far lower in lox2-1 than in the WT. The major roles of LOX2 are to generate arabidopsides and the large levels of JA that accumulate proximal to the wound. LOX2 is not essential for some of the most rapid events elicited by wounding. PMID:19846562

  8. Expression of a functional jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase is negatively correlated with strawberry fruit development.

    PubMed

    Preuß, Anja; Augustin, Christiane; Figueroa, Carlos R; Hoffmann, Thomas; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Sevilla, José F; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-09-15

    The volatile metabolite methyl jasmonate (MeJA) plays an important role in intra- and interplant communication and is involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a S-adenosyl-l-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) from Fragaria vesca and Fragaria×ananassa. Biochemical assays and comprehensive transcript analyses showed that JMT has been erroneously annotated as gene fusion with a carboxyl methyltransferase (CMT) (gene15184) in the first published genome sequence of F. vesca. Recombinant FvJMT catalyzed the formation of MeJA with KM value of 22.3μM while FvCMT and the fusion protein were almost inactive. Activity of JMT with benzoic acid and salicylic acid as substrates was less than 1.5% of that with JA. Leucine at position 245, an amino acid missing in other JMT sequences is essential for activity of FvJMT. In accordance with MeJA levels, JMT transcript levels decreased steadily during strawberry fruit ripening, as did the expression levels of JA biosynthesis and regulatory genes. It appears that CMT has originated by a recent duplication of JMT and lost its enzymatic activity toward JA. In the newest version of the strawberry genome sequence (June 2014) CMT and JMT are annotated as separate genes in accordance with differential temporal and spatial expression patterns of both genes in Fragaria sp. In conclusion, MeJA, the inactive derivative of JA, is probably involved in early steps of fruit development by modulating the levels of the active plant hormone JA. PMID:25046752

  9. Two guard cell mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK9 and MPK12, function in methyl jasmonate-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Khokon, Md A R; Salam, M A; Jammes, F; Ye, W; Hossain, M A; Uraji, M; Nakamura, Y; Mori, I C; Kwak, J M; Murata, Y

    2015-09-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signalling cascades share several signalling components in guard cells. We previously showed that two guard cell-preferential mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), MPK9 and MPK12, positively regulate ABA signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we examined whether these two MAP kinases function in MeJA signalling using genetic mutants for MPK9 and MPK12 combined with a pharmacological approach. MeJA induced stomatal closure in mpk9-1 and mpk12-1 single mutants as well as wild-type plants, but not in mpk9-1 mpk12-1 double mutants. Consistently, the MAPKK inhibitor PD98059 inhibited the MeJA-induced stomatal closure in wild-type plants. MeJA elicited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cytosolic alkalisation in guard cells of the mpk9-1, mpk12-1 and mpk9-1 mpk12-1 mutants, as well in wild-type plants. Furthermore, MeJA triggered elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt ) in the mpk9-1 mpk12-1 double mutant as well as wild-type plants. Activation of S-type anion channels by MeJA was impaired in mpk9-1 mpk12-1. Together, these results indicate that MPK9 and MPK12 function upstream of S-type anion channel activation and downstream of ROS production, cytosolic alkalisation and [Ca(2+)]cyt elevation in guard cell MeJA signalling, suggesting that MPK9 and MPK12 are key regulators mediating both ABA and MeJA signalling in guard cells.

  10. Jungermannenone A and B induce ROS- and cell cycle-dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan-xia; Lin, Zhao-min; Wang, Mei-juan; Dong, Yi-wen; Niu, Huan-min; Young, Charles YF; Lou, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Hui-qing

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Jungermannenone A and B (JA, JB) are new ent-kaurane diterpenoids isolated from Chinese liverwort Jungermannia fauriana, which show anti-proliferation activities in cancer cells. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying the anticancer action of JA and JB in PC3 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Methods: A panel of 9 human cancer cell lines was tested. Cell proliferation was assessed with a real-time cell analyzer and MTT assay. Cell apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and ROS levels were measured using cytometry. Mitochondrial damage was examined by transmission electron microscopy. DNA damage was detected with comet assay. Apoptotic, DNA damage- and cell cycle-related proteins were analyzed using Western blotting. The expression of DNA repair genes was measured with qRT-PCR. Results: Both JA and JB exerted potent anti-proliferative action against the 9 cancer cell lines, and PC3 cells were more sensitive with IC50 values of 1.34±0.09 and 4.93±0.20 μmol/L, respectively. JA (1.5 μmol/L) and JB (5 μmol/L) induced PC3 cell apoptosis, which was attenuated by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD. Furthermore, both JA and JB caused mitochondrial damage and ROS accumulation in PC3 cells, whereas vitamin C blocked the ROS accumulation and attenuated the cytotoxicity of JA and JB. Moreover, both JA and JB induced DNA damage, accompanied by downregulated DNA repair proteins Ku70/Ku80 and RDA51. JA induced marked cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, which was related to c-Myc suppression, whereas JB enforced the cell cycle blockade in the G2/M phase, which associated with activation of the JNK signaling. Conclusion: Both JA and JB induce prostate cancer apoptosis via ROS accumulation and induction of cell cycle arrest. PMID:27133304

  11. Deep sequencing reveals transcriptome re-programming of Polygonum multiflorum thunb. roots to the elicitation with methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongchang; Wu, Wei; Hou, Kai; Chen, Junwen; Zhao, Zhi

    2016-02-01

    The phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) has been successfully used as an effective elicitor to enhance production of stilbenoid which is induced in plants as a secondary metabolite possibly in defense against herbivores and pathogens. However, the mechanism of MeJA-mediated stilbenoid biosynthesis remains unclear. Genomic information for Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (P. multiflorum) is currently unavailable. To obtain insight into the global regulation mechanism of MeJA in the steady state of stilbene glucoside production (26 h after MeJA elicitation), especially on stilbene glucoside biosynthesis, we sequenced the transcriptomes of MeJA-treated and untreated P. multiflorum roots and obtained more than 51 million clean reads, from which 79,565 unigenes were obtained by de novo assembly. 56,972 unigenes were annotated against databases including Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG. 18,677 genes expressed differentially between untreated and treated roots. Expression level analysis indicated that a large number of genes were associated with plant-pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction, stilbenoid backbone biosynthesis, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. 15 known genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbenoid backbone were found with 7 genes showing increased transcript abundance following elicitation of MeJA. The significantly up (down)-regulated changes of 70 genes in stilbenoid biosynthesis were validated by qRT-PCR assays and PCR product sequencing. According to the expression changes and the previously proposed enzyme functions, multiple candidates for the unknown steps in stilbene glucoside biosynthesis were identified. We also found some genes putatively involved in the transcription factors. This comprehensive description of gene expression information could greatly facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of MeJA-mediated stilbenoid biosynthesis in P. multiflorum roots. Our results shed new light on the global regulation

  12. Salicylic Acid Suppresses Jasmonic Acid Signaling Downstream of SCFCOI1-JAZ by Targeting GCC Promoter Motifs via Transcription Factor ORA59[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Koornneef, Annemart; Van Verk, Marcel C.; Rodenburg, Nicole; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Körbes, Ana P.; Memelink, Johan; Ritsema, Tita; Van Wees, Saskia C.M.; Pieterse, Corné M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Antagonism between the defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in the modulation of the plant immune signaling network, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that suppression of the JA pathway by SA functions downstream of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Skip-Cullin-F-box complex SCFCOI1, which targets JASMONATE ZIM-domain transcriptional repressor proteins (JAZs) for proteasome-mediated degradation. In addition, neither the stability nor the JA-induced degradation of JAZs was affected by SA. In silico promoter analysis of the SA/JA crosstalk transcriptome revealed that the 1-kb promoter regions of JA-responsive genes that are suppressed by SA are significantly enriched in the JA-responsive GCC-box motifs. Using GCC:GUS lines carrying four copies of the GCC-box fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene, we showed that the GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Using plants overexpressing the GCC-box binding APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors ERF1 or ORA59, we found that SA strongly reduces the accumulation of ORA59 but not that of ERF1. Collectively, these data indicate that the SA pathway inhibits JA signaling downstream of the SCFCOI1-JAZ complex by targeting GCC-box motifs in JA-responsive promoters via a negative effect on the transcriptional activator ORA59. PMID:23435661

  13. The classic: Epiphyseal coxa vara or displacement of the capital epiphysis of the femur in adolescence. 1926.

    PubMed

    Key, John Albert

    2013-07-01

    This Classic Article is a redacted reprint of the original work by J.A. Key, "Epiphyseal coxa vara or displacement of the capital epiphysis of the femur in adolescence." (Note the case reports and associated figures were deleted but are available in the supplemental reprint of the original article available online.) An accompanying biographical sketch of J.A. Key is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-2907-9. The classic article is reprinted courtesy of The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery from Key JA. J Bone Joint Surg. 1926;8:53-117.

  14. Developing mirror self awareness in students with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Duff, Christine K; Flattery, J J

    2014-05-01

    A teaching methodology and curriculum was designed to develop and increase positive self-awareness in students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Joint attention (JA) strategies were first utilized to directly teach students about reflected mirror images, and then subsequently, to indirectly teach students about their reflected image. Not only were Mirror Self Awareness Development (MSAD) JA activities initiated and preferred by students over non MSAD JA activities, they yielded a four step framework with which to measure increases in student selfawareness. While the focus of this study was to increase positive self-awareness in students with ASD, it may contribute to understanding the developmental stages of ‘Self’.

  15. Safety and quality parameters of ready-to-cook minced pork meat products supplemented with Helianthus tuberosus L. tubers fermented by BLIS producing lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stimbirys, Arturas; Bartkiene, Elena; Siugzdaite, Jurate; Augeniene, Dovile; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Maruska, Audrius; Stankevicius, Mantas; Cizeikiene, Dalia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of additives of Jerusalem artichoke (JA), fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9, L. sakei KTU05-6, on the quality and safety parameters of ready - to cook - minced pork (RCMP). Fermented JA additives reduced pH of the meat products and decreased water holding capacity (WHC) from 2.01 till 2.93 %. Concentrations of biogenic amines in RCMP with additives of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - fermented JA were significantly lower comparing with control sample. The number of pathogenic bacteria in artificially contaminated meat samples was significantly reduced in case of LAB-fermented JA additives. The highest antimicrobial activity was obtained using P. acidilactici fermented JA additives. The amounts of microbial pathogens E. coli and Ent. faecalis, S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. were determined 3.41, 3.38, 3,96 and 4.74 log CFU/g correspondingly, whereas without LAB-fermented JA additives were 8.94, 7.75, 8.82 and 8.58 log CFU/g, correspondingly. A possibility to improve sensory properties (flavor) of RCMP using LAB fermented JA additives was investigated. The composition of volatile compounds of RCMP without additive and with LAB-fermented JA additives was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of sensory evaluation of meat products supplemented with fermented JA additives revealed specific odor, which is pleasant and acceptable for consumers might be explainable that LAB-fermented JA additives have shown considerable differences mainly due to the accumulation of volatiles such as toluene, ethylbenzene, decane, undecane, 2 methyl undecane. N-morpholinomethyl-isopropyl-sulfide, 6-undecilamine and N,N-dimethyl-1-pentadecanamine were not determined in RCMP with LAB-fermented JA additives. The results obtained show, that P. acidilactici fermented JA 5 % additive is most suitable for the RCMP processing in order to prevent microbiological spoilage, increase

  16. Delayed cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea four years after gamma knife surgery for juvenile angiofibroma.

    PubMed

    Min, Hyun Jin; Chung, Hyo Jin; Kim, Chang-Hoon

    2014-11-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma (JA) is a highly vascularized tumor that often recurs or regrows. Recently, gamma knife surgery (GKS) was attempted on unresectable or remnant JA. We experienced a JA case that developed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea 4 years after GKS. Two surgical excisions using midfacial degloving approach were performed before GKS. After radiosurgery, the tumor was controlled, and no early complications were observed. However, 4 years after, intractable CSF leakage developed as a late complication, and we thus performed 4 subsequent endoscopic surgical repairs. The CSF leakage is very rare but can occur as a late complication of GKS and should be treated aggressively.

  17. Diesel oil

    MedlinePlus

    Various hydrocarbons ... Empyema Many of the most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 75. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  18. The C2 Protein from the Geminivirus Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus Decreases Sensitivity to Jasmonates and Suppresses Jasmonate-Mediated Defences

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Díaz, Tábata; Macho, Alberto P.; Beuzón, Carmen R.; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Bejarano, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence points at a role of the plant hormones jasmonates (JAs) in determining the outcome of plant-virus interactions. Geminiviruses, small DNA viruses infecting a wide range of plant species worldwide, encode a multifunctional protein, C2, which is essential for full pathogenicity. The C2 protein has been shown to suppress the JA response, although the current view on the extent of this effect and the underlying molecular mechanisms is incomplete. In this work, we use a combination of exogenous hormone treatments, microarray analysis, and pathogen infections to analyze, in detail, the suppression of the JA response exerted by C2. Our results indicate that C2 specifically affects certain JA-induced responses, namely defence and secondary metabolism, and show that plants expressing C2 are more susceptible to pathogen attack. We propose a model in which C2 might interfere with the JA response at several levels. PMID:27135228

  19. Intussusception - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastrointestinal disorders. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 172. Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF. Ileus, ...

  20. Facial trauma

    MedlinePlus

    Kellman RM. Maxillofacial trauma. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . ... Facial trauma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and ...

  1. Contac overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 8. Velez LI, Feng S-Y. Anticholinergics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  2. VIPoma

    MedlinePlus

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumor; VIPoma syndrome; Pancreatic endocrine tumor ... Jensen RT, Norton JA. Endocrine tumors of the pancreas and ... Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and ...

  3. Did DWGS Fail? Two Points of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Sandra; And Others

    1974-01-01

    One article, critical of DGWS (Division for Girls and Women's Sports) for its handling of certain aspects of women's athletics, particularly the training of educators, is answered by one from the current DGWS chairman. (JA)

  4. 40 CFR 86.884-14 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the opacity values according to the following equations: ER15JA04.001 Lm and Ls must use consistent...=Measuring smokemeter optical path length, meters Ls=Standard optical path length corresponding with...

  5. 76 FR 52322 - Notice of Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing of an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Medical Research and Materiel Command, Attn: Command Judge Advocate, MCMR-JA, 504 Scott Street, Fort... Arwine, Patent Attorney, (301) 619-7808. For licensing issues, Dr. Paul Mele, Office of Research...

  6. Role of Ability and Extroversion in Concept Attainment of Individuals Trained in Heterogeneous or Homogeneous Personality Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, E. A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Subjects stratified by ability and extroversion initially achieved concept attainment in homogeneous (all introverts or all extroverts) or heterogeneous (one-half of the members extroverts) personality groups. Concepts were attained individually in a subsequent transfer stage. (Authors/JA)

  7. A Memorial to a President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Nash

    1974-01-01

    This document describes the plan for a living memorial to commemorate Lyndon Baines Johnson, 36th President of the United States: a 15-acre grove with hike and bike paths, white pine trees, rhododendrons, and other flowering shrubs. (JA)

  8. Journey to Elsewhere and Elsewhen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, Carl

    1973-01-01

    A Cornell University astronomer discusses teaching astronomy in schools and provides details on concepts such as the theorized black holes that may be apertures to distant galaxies and remote epochs. (Author/JA)

  9. The non-JAZ TIFY protein TIFY8 from Arabidopsis thaliana is a transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar Pérez, Amparo; Nagels Durand, Astrid; Vanden Bossche, Robin; De Clercq, Rebecca; Persiau, Geert; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Pieterse, Corné M J; Gevaert, Kris; De Jaeger, Geert; Goossens, Alain; Pauwels, Laurens

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) signalling is mediated by the JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) repressor proteins, which are degraded upon JA perception to release downstream responses. The ZIM protein domain is characteristic of the larger TIFY protein family. It is currently unknown if the atypical member TIFY8 is involved in JA signalling. Here we show that the TIFY8 ZIM domain is functional and mediated interaction with PEAPOD proteins and NINJA. TIFY8 interacted with TOPLESS through NINJA and accordingly acted as a transcriptional repressor. TIFY8 expression was inversely correlated with JAZ expression during development and after infection with Pseudomonas syringae. Nevertheless, transgenic lines with altered TIFY8 expression did not show changes in JA sensitivity. Despite the functional ZIM domain, no interaction with JAZ proteins could be found. In contrast, TIFY8 was found in protein complexes involved in regulation of dephosphorylation, deubiquitination and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification suggesting an important role in nuclear signal transduction.

  10. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... in each. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks BEVERAGE SERVING SIZE CALORIES Soda 7 Up 12 oz. ... SN, PhD, Wolfson JA, Vine S, Wang YC. Diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake among US: adults, overall ...

  11. Some Recent Data on Community College Health Service Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Donald Dean

    1973-01-01

    This article discusses the conclusions drawn from descriptive and tabular data collected from 482 public community colleges in an attempt to analyze the content and extent of student health services. (JA)

  12. Teaching in War-Torn Belfast: Reading, Writing, Rioting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Arturo F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation in Belfast--the divided sympathies on the part of the students, the segregation, the possible hardening of the students. Also considered are the difficulties of teachers in this war situation. (JA)

  13. Congenital protein C or S deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Anderson JA, Weitz JI. Hypercoagulable states. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstin LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 142.

  14. Congenital antithrombin III deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Anderson JA, Weitz JI. Hypercoagulable states. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, Anastasi J, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  15. Chronobiology--A New Concept in Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eburne, Norman

    1972-01-01

    Autorhytmometry (self-measurement of biorhythms) could serve as a data base in preventive and curative measures in medicine. This article proposes self-measurement programs in public schools as a part of health education. (JA)

  16. The Megamachine and the Future of the Schoolhouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sine, Tom, Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The course of American education today has become subjected to advancing Technology which has developed into a Megamachine of gargantuan power, of creeping globalism, or uncontrollable growth, while man is, in the Lockean assumption, a malleable organism. (JA)

  17. The Non-JAZ TIFY Protein TIFY8 from Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Transcriptional Repressor

    PubMed Central

    Cuéllar Pérez, Amparo; Nagels Durand, Astrid; Vanden Bossche, Robin; De Clercq, Rebecca; Persiau, Geert; Van Wees, Saskia C. M.; Pieterse, Corné M. J.; Gevaert, Kris; De Jaeger, Geert; Goossens, Alain; Pauwels, Laurens

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) signalling is mediated by the JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) repressor proteins, which are degraded upon JA perception to release downstream responses. The ZIM protein domain is characteristic of the larger TIFY protein family. It is currently unknown if the atypical member TIFY8 is involved in JA signalling. Here we show that the TIFY8 ZIM domain is functional and mediated interaction with PEAPOD proteins and NINJA. TIFY8 interacted with TOPLESS through NINJA and accordingly acted as a transcriptional repressor. TIFY8 expression was inversely correlated with JAZ expression during development and after infection with Pseudomonas syringae. Nevertheless, transgenic lines with altered TIFY8 expression did not show changes in JA sensitivity. Despite the functional ZIM domain, no interaction with JAZ proteins could be found. In contrast, TIFY8 was found in protein complexes involved in regulation of dephosphorylation, deubiquitination and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification suggesting an important role in nuclear signal transduction. PMID:24416306

  18. The Teacher and Sex Role Stereotyping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    1974-01-01

    In this article, selected research findings are presented on sex role learning, sex role stereotyping, in general and in the school setting, the effect of such stereotyping on the student, and some suggestions for the teacher. (Author/JA)

  19. Preventing falls

    MedlinePlus

    Dalbaere K, Sherrington C, Lord SR. Falls prevention interventions. In: Marchus R, Feldman D, Depmster DW, Luckey M, Cauley JA, eds. Osteoporosis . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 70. Rubenstein ...

  20. Synanon: Life Style/Learning Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitlin, David I.

    1974-01-01

    Synanon uses many of the same methods used in its drug rehabilitation program in its educational program which includes 230 children in its membership. The Synanon "indictment game" is one of the methods used. (JA)

  1. Methamphetamine overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... stay active can be much longer than for cocaine and other stimulants. Some paranoid delusions can last ... Saunders; 2013:chap 150. Rao RB, Hoffman RS. Cocaine and Other Sympathomimetics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, ...

  2. Drug use first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... addiction is gradual. And some drugs (such as cocaine ) can cause addiction after only a few doses. ... Saunders; 2013:chap 150. Rao RB, Hoffman RS. Cocaine and other sympathomimetics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, ...

  3. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  4. Benzene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Atlanta, GA. Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 94. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  5. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  6. 21 CFR 573.760 - Poloxalene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-ionic block polymer meeting the following specifications: (1) Molecular weight range: 2,850-3,150. (2...: ER01JA93.414 (b) In feed as a surfactant for the flaking of feed grains when added to liquid...

  7. Doomsday Prophets, Humanists, and Responsible Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James D.; Stone, Donald B.

    1972-01-01

    Rather than many mistakes made in panic, decisions based upon sound scientific principles, and health education that is both topical and aware are the best bets in this time of environmental concern. (JA)

  8. 75 FR 19949 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Federal Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. F051 AF JA B System name: Confidential Financial Disclosure Report. (December 15, 2008; 73 FR 76013). Change: Delete the system ID number entry and replace...

  9. Chlorpromazine overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... other reasons. This medicine may also change the metabolism and the effect of other drugs. Chlorpromazine overdose ... Anticholinergics. In: Marx JA, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  10. Titles--Who Needs Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAteer, John F.

    1974-01-01

    This article examines the question of student over-familiarity with student teachers, especially in the practice of addressing student teachers by a proper name without benefit of the prefix "Mr.,""Mrs.,""Miss," or even "Ms." (Author/JA)

  11. Jasmonate signalling in plants shapes plant-insect interaction ecology.

    PubMed

    Lortzing, Tobias; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-04-01

    The phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) regulates the induction of direct and indirect defences against herbivores. By now, the biochemical pathway of JA-signalling has been well resolved, allowing the use of an interdisciplinary toolbox and spurring the mechanistic investigation of plant-insect interactions. Recent advances show that JA-mediated plant responses are involved in the competitive and trophic interactions between various organisms throughout at least four trophic levels and therefore likely shape natural communities. Moreover, JA-mediated responses can be primed or suppressed by various environmental factors that are related to herbivory or not. Yet, to integrate the complex interactions at the physiological and ecological levels into community ecology, an examination of the often onetime discoveries for general rules and new bioinformatic approaches are required. PMID:27436644

  12. 26 CFR 20.2031-2 - Valuation of stocks and bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2031-2... valuation date ER13JA06.003 Example (3). Assume the decedent died on Sunday, October 7, and that...

  13. 26 CFR 20.2031-2 - Valuation of stocks and bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2031-2... valuation date ER13JA06.003 Example (3). Assume the decedent died on Sunday, October 7, and that...

  14. Intestinal leiomyoma

    MedlinePlus

    Leiomyoma - intestine ... McLaughlin P, Maher MM. The duodenum and small intestine. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ... Roline CE, Reardon RF. Disorders of the small intestine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  15. 10. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Chiricahua National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of negative (original in possession of Chiricahua National Monument), photographer unknown, c.1910 JA HU STAFFORD AND YOUNGEST DAUGHTER IN FRONT OF WEST SIDE OF CABIN - Faraway Ranch, Stafford-Riggs Cabin, Willcox, Cochise County, AZ

  16. Innovative Ideas in College Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Max

    1973-01-01

    Seven examples of adaptation and new developments are described: Graceland College, Manchester College, Plymouth State College, U.S. Coast Guard Academy, Colorado State College, North Carolina State University, and Brookdale Community College. (Editors/JA)

  17. Iron overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 72. Velez LI, O'Connell EJ. Heavy metals. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  18. On Submitting a Proposal to a Publisher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard

    1973-01-01

    Over-the-transom'' proposals for college textbooks continue to flood editors' desks, but very few are properly prepared. This article suggests both guidelines for a good proposal, as well as some additional hints for textbook publication. (Author/JA)

  19. Plantar fasciitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... women. It is one of the most common orthopedic foot complaints. Plantar fasciitis was commonly thought to ... JA, Moeller JL, Hutchinson MR. Common issues in orthopedics. In: Rakel RE, ed. Textbook of Family Medicine . ...

  20. Sickle Cell Screening: Emphasis on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Carmine; Frank, William

    1972-01-01

    This article relates the sickle cell education program, the personnel training and the screening procedures of a pilot sickle cell screening program by the Prince George's County Health Department. (JA)

  1. Photographic Technology and the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Jerome

    1974-01-01

    Description of photogrammetric analyses which, combined with the current emergence of biomechanics, is utilized to explain and measure photographs of human movement. Oriented towards the use of photogrammetric analysis in physical education research. (JA)

  2. Burns and Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... common among older children. 5 6 7 8 • Tap water burns most often occur in the bathroom and ... Feldman KW, Schaller RT, Feldman JA, McMillon M. Tap water scald burns in children. Pediatrics. 1978; 62(1): ...

  3. The Traditional Role of a Psychiatric Consultant in a Nontraditional College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetzl, Ugo

    1974-01-01

    This article describes the establishment and operation of psychiatric consultation services at a small nontraditional college in New England. The prototype for this program was the satellite setup described by Curtis. (JA)

  4. Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology 2013 . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:chap 48. Giaconi JA, Law SK, ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology 2013 . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:chap 53. Gross RL. Current medical ...

  5. Ulvan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Algae, Activates Plant Immunity through the Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jaulneau, Valérie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Dumas, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

  6. Septicemia

    MedlinePlus

    Blood poisoning; Bacteremia with sepsis ... Shapiro NI, Zimmer GD, Barkin AZ. Sepsis syndromes. In: Marx, JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  7. Kerosene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocarbons, substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  8. Collateral ligament (CL) injury - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 66. Miller III RH, Azar, ... Beaty: Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 45. Niska JA, Petrigliano FA, ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: 18q deletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Veltman JA, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CM. Genotype-phenotype mapping of chromosome 18q deletions by high-resolution array ... L, Pihko H. 18q deletions: clinical, molecular, and brain MRI findings of 14 individuals. Am J Med ...

  10. Effect of jasmonic acid-methyl ester on the composition of carbohydrates and germination of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Kazimierz; Nitkiewicz, Bartosz; Lahuta, Lesław B; Głowacka, Katarzyna; Socha, Aleksander; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2010-08-15

    Mature seeds of yellow lupine contained sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), and galactosyl cyclitols as major soluble carbohydrates. The study showed that RFOs dominated in lupine seeds (16% DW). The disappearance of both types of alpha-d-galactosides in germinating lupine seeds was strongly inhibited by the presence of jasmonic acid-methyl ester (JA-Me) at a concentration of 10(-3)M in the incubation medium. JA-Me inhibited the activity of alpha-D-galactosidase (fraction I) during seed germination. Anatomical studies of lupine roots have shown certain cell structure differences between control and JA-Me-treated seedlings. The cross-sections of plant roots treated with JA-Me showed a characteristic folding of the cell walls in all root tissues, starting from the rhyzodermis, cortex and vascular cylinder. In water-treated (control) plants, the cell walls were rounded with no folding.

  11. [Regulation of peroxidase activity under the influence of signaling molecules and Bacillus subtilis 26D in potato plants infected with Phytophthora infestans].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, I V; Abizgil'dina, R R; Sorokan', A V; Burkhanova, G F

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sequential exposure of 5 x 10(-5) M salicylic acid (SA) or 1 x 10(-7) M jasmonic acid (JA) and endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis strain 26D on peroxidase activity, transcription of the M21334 isoperoxidase gene from potato (Solarium tuberosum L.), and the formation of resistance to the infective agent of potato blight Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary was studied. It was found that individual application of JA or Bacillus subtilis 26D and sequential application of SA and B. subtilis 26D were the most effective in protecting plants against pathogens, while sequential application of JA and B. subtilis 26D drastically suppressed plant resistance. The results suggest the need for strict compliance with regulations when using SA and JA, as well as biological products based on living bacteria as modern plant protection products with immunomodulatory properties that trigger specific signaling pathways, which often interfere with each other. PMID:25272739

  12. Colds and flus - antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012; ... gov/pubmed/22962927 . Melio FR, Berge LR. Upper respiratory tract infections. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  13. Aftershave poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... D, Hovda KE. Methanol, ethylene glycol, and other toxic alcohols. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. White SR. Toxic alcohols. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  14. Shellac poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... D, Hovda KE. Methanol, ethylene glycol, and other toxic alcohols. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. White SR. Toxic alcohols. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  15. 32 CFR 516.48 - Official information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Release of Information and Appearance of Witnesses Scope Da Personnel As... and 516.50. (See, for example, figure G-2, appendix G, to this part). A JA or DA civilian...

  16. Prospects for the use of biological control agents against Anoplophora in Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarises the literature on the biological control of Anoplophora spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and discusses its potential for use in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria brongniartii Petch (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) has already been developed into a commercial product in Ja...

  17. Canadian Contemporary Issues on Tape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapter, Jean

    1974-01-01

    Four tapes with interviews with experts in the designated fields comprise the series: a) Canada's Foreign Relations, 1867-1919; b) Canada's Foreign Relations, 1919-1945; c) Canada and China, and d) Canadian Diplomacy and Foreign Policy. (JA)

  18. The Use and Abuse of Anabolic Steroids: A Discussion for Health and Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This article reviews research on anabolic steroids, indicating that athletes are mistaken in believing that taking them will improve their physical performance. Dangerous side-effects are also discussed. (JA)

  19. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 98. Wax PM, Young A. Caustics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  20. Respondent Learning and Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roden, Aubrey H.; Hapkiewicz, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    This discussion is based on the premise that a significant proportion of school learning is emotional or affective and that much of this learning is in the form of classical conditioning or respondent learning. (Authors/JA)

  1. Of Mice and Men: Journeying Toward the Year 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Fred

    1974-01-01

    The author's recommendations for educators in facing the future call for radical changes in perception and behavior rather than for vast programs with vaster budgets. Chief of these is a change in the approach to "objectivity." (JA)

  2. Eucalyptus oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 102. Shih RD. Plants, mushrooms, and herbal medications. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 164.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marsh RA, Satake N, Biroschak J, Jacobs T, Johnson J, Jordan MB, Bleesing JJ, Filipovich AH, Zhang ... on PubMed Zhang K, Jordan MB, Marsh RA, Johnson JA, Kissell D, Meller J, Villanueva J, Risma ...

  4. Methylmercury poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rusyniak DE, Arroyo A, Froberg B, Furbee B. Heavy metals. In: Vincent J-L, Abraham E, Moore FA, ... 2011:chap 178. Velez LI, O'Connell EJ. Heavy metals. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  5. Dynamics of Jasmonate Metabolism upon Flowering and across Leaf Stress Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Widemann, Emilie; Smirnova, Ekaterina; Aubert, Yann; Miesch, Laurence; Heitz, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays important roles in adaptation of plants to environmental cues and in specific steps of their development, particularly in reproduction. Recent advances in metabolic studies have highlighted intricate mechanisms that govern enzymatic conversions within the jasmonate family. Here we analyzed jasmonate profile changes upon Arabidopsis thaliana flower development and investigated the contribution of catabolic pathways that were known to turnover the active hormonal compound jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) upon leaf stress. We report a rapid decline of JA-Ile upon flower opening, concomitant with the massive accumulation of its most oxidized catabolite, 12COOH-JA-Ile. Detailed genetic analysis identified CYP94C1 as the major player in this process. CYP94C1 is one out of three characterized cytochrome P450 enzymes that define an oxidative JA-Ile turnover pathway, besides a second, hydrolytic pathway represented by the amido-hydrolases IAR3 and ILL6. Expression studies combined with reporter gene analysis revealed the dominant expression of CYP94C1 in mature anthers, consistent with the established role of JA signaling in male fertility. Significant CYP94B1 expression was also evidenced in stamen filaments, but surprisingly, CYP94B1 deficiency was not associated with significant changes in JA profiles. Finally, we compared global flower JA profiles with those previously reported in leaves reacting to mechanical wounding or submitted to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. These comparisons revealed distinct dynamics of JA accumulation and conversions in these three biological systems. Leaf injury boosts a strong and transient JA and JA-Ile accumulation that evolves rapidly into a profile dominated by ω-oxidized and/or Ile-conjugated derivatives. In contrast, B. cinerea-infected leaves contain mostly unconjugated jasmonates, about half of this content being ω-oxidized. Finally, developing flowers present an

  6. De novo characterization of Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. transcriptome and analysis of its gene expression induced by jasmonates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Larix gmelinii is a dominant tree species in China’s boreal forests and plays an important role in the coniferous ecosystem. It is also one of the most economically important tree species in the Chinese timber industry due to excellent water resistance and anti-corrosion of its wood products. Unfortunately, in Northeast China, L. gmelinii often suffers from serious attacks by diseases and insects. The application of exogenous volatile semiochemicals may induce and enhance its resistance against insect or disease attacks; however, little is known regarding the genes and molecular mechanisms related to induced resistance. Results We performed de novo sequencing and assembly of the L. gmelinii transcriptome using a short read sequencing technology (Illumina). Chemical defenses of L. gmelinii seedlings were induced with jasmonic acid (JA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) for 6 hours. Transcriptomes were compared between seedlings induced by JA, MeJA and untreated controls using a tag-based digital gene expression profiling system. In a single run, 25,977,782 short reads were produced and 51,157 unigenes were obtained with a mean length of 517 nt. We sequenced 3 digital gene expression libraries and generated between 3.5 and 5.9 million raw tags, and obtained 52,040 reliable reference genes after removing redundancy. The expression of disease/insect-resistance genes (e.g., phenylalanine ammonialyase, coumarate 3-hydroxylase, lipoxygenase, allene oxide synthase and allene oxide cyclase) was up-regulated. The expression profiles of some abundant genes under different elicitor treatment were studied by using real-time qRT-PCR. The results showed that the expression levels of disease/insect-resistance genes in the seedling samples induced by JA and MeJA were higher than those in the control group. The seedlings induced with MeJA elicited the strongest increases in disease/insect-resistance genes. Conclusions Both JA and MeJA induced seedlings of L. gmelinii showed

  7. Jasmonic acid enhancement of anthocyanin accumulation is dependent on phytochrome A signaling pathway under far-red light in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Jia, Kun-Peng; Lian, Hong-Li; Yang, Xu; Li, Ling; Yang, Hong-Quan

    2014-11-01

    Anthocyanins are critical for plants. It is shown that the expression of genes encoding the key enzymes such as dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), UDP-Glc: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UF3GT), and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX) in anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway is regulated by MYB75, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor. The production of anthocyanin is known to be promoted by jasmonic acid (JA) in light but not in darkness. The photoreceptors cryptochrome 1 (CRY1), phytochrome B (phyB), and phytochrome A (phyA) are also shown to mediate light promotion of anthocyanin accumulation, respectively, whereas their downstream factor COP1, a master negative regulator of photomorphogensis, represses anthocyanin accumulation. However, whether JA coordinates with photoreceptors in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation is unknown. Here, we show that under far-red light, JA promotes anthocyanin accumulation in a phyA signaling pathway-dependent manner. The phyA mutant is hyposensitive to jasmonic acid analog methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) under far-red light. The dominant mutant of MYB75, pap1-D, accumulates significantly higher levels of anthocyanin than wild type under far-red light, whereas knockdown of MYBs (MYB75, MYB90, MYB113, and MYB114) through RNAi significantly reduces MeJA promotion of anthocyanin accumulation. The phyA pap1-D double mutant shows reduced responsiveness to MeJA, similar to phyA mutant under far-red light. In darkness, a mutant allele of cop1, cop1-4, shows enhanced responsiveness to MeJA, but pap1-D mutant is barely responsive to MeJA. Upon MeJA application, the cop1-4 pap1-D double mutant accumulates considerably higher levels of anthocyanin than cop1-4 in darkness. Protein studies indicate that MYB75 protein is stabilized by white light and far-red light. Further gene expression studies suggest that MeJA promotes the expression of DFR, UF3GT, and LDOX genes in a phyA- and MYB75-dependent manner under far-red light. Our findings suggest

  8. Dynamics of Jasmonate Metabolism upon Flowering and across Leaf Stress Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Widemann, Emilie; Smirnova, Ekaterina; Aubert, Yann; Miesch, Laurence; Heitz, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays important roles in adaptation of plants to environmental cues and in specific steps of their development, particularly in reproduction. Recent advances in metabolic studies have highlighted intricate mechanisms that govern enzymatic conversions within the jasmonate family. Here we analyzed jasmonate profile changes upon Arabidopsis thaliana flower development and investigated the contribution of catabolic pathways that were known to turnover the active hormonal compound jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) upon leaf stress. We report a rapid decline of JA-Ile upon flower opening, concomitant with the massive accumulation of its most oxidized catabolite, 12COOH-JA-Ile. Detailed genetic analysis identified CYP94C1 as the major player in this process. CYP94C1 is one out of three characterized cytochrome P450 enzymes that define an oxidative JA-Ile turnover pathway, besides a second, hydrolytic pathway represented by the amido-hydrolases IAR3 and ILL6. Expression studies combined with reporter gene analysis revealed the dominant expression of CYP94C1 in mature anthers, consistent with the established role of JA signaling in male fertility. Significant CYP94B1 expression was also evidenced in stamen filaments, but surprisingly, CYP94B1 deficiency was not associated with significant changes in JA profiles. Finally, we compared global flower JA profiles with those previously reported in leaves reacting to mechanical wounding or submitted to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. These comparisons revealed distinct dynamics of JA accumulation and conversions in these three biological systems. Leaf injury boosts a strong and transient JA and JA-Ile accumulation that evolves rapidly into a profile dominated by ω-oxidized and/or Ile-conjugated derivatives. In contrast, B. cinerea-infected leaves contain mostly unconjugated jasmonates, about half of this content being ω-oxidized. Finally, developing flowers present an

  9. Recent progress in blanket materials development in the Broader Approach activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishitani, T.; Tanigawa, H.; Nozawa, T.; Jitsukawa, S.; Nakamichi, M.; Hoshino, T.; Yamanishi, T.; Baluc, N.; Möslang, A.; Lindou, R.; Tosti, S.; Hodgson, E. R.; Clement Lorenzo, S.; Kohyama, A.; Kimura, A.; Shikama, T.; Hayashi, K.; Araki, M.

    2011-10-01

    As a part of the Broader Approach activities, R&D on blanket related materials, reduced-activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steels as a structural material, SiC f/SiC composites for flow channel insert in the liquid blanket and/or use as advanced structural material, advanced tritium breeders and neutron multiplier, has been initiated directed at DEMO. As part of the RAFM steel mass production development, a 5 ton heat of RAFM steel (F82H) was procured by Electro Slag Re-melting as the secondary melting method, which was effective in controlling unwanted impurities. An 11 ton heat of EUROFER was also produced. For the SiC f/SiC composite development, NITE- and CVI-SiC f/SiC composites were prepared as reference materials and preliminary mechanical and physical properties were measured. Also compatibility tests between SiC and Pb-17Li have been prepared, related to the He-cooled Li-Pb blanket concept. For the beryllide neutron multiplayer Be-Ti alloy development, large size rods of about 30 mm diameter were fabricated successfully in EU.

  10. Instability analysis and free volume simulations of shear band directions and arrangements in notched metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Weidong; Gao, Yanfei; Bei, Hongbin

    2016-10-10

    As a commonly used method to enhance the ductility in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), the introduction of geometric constraints blocks and confines the propagation of the shear bands, reduces the degree of plastic strain on each shear band so that the catastrophic failure is prevented or delayed, and promotes the formation of multiple shear bands. The clustering of multiple shear bands near notches is often interpreted as the reason for improved ductility. Experimental works on the shear band arrangements in notched metallic glasses have been extensively carried out, but a systematic theoretical study is lacking. Using instability theory that predictsmore » the onset of strain localization and the free-volume- based nite element simulations that predict the evolution of shear bands, this work reveals various categories of shear band arrangements in double edge notched BMGs with respect to the mode mixity of the applied stress fields. In conclusion, a mechanistic explanation is thus provided to a number of related experiments and especially the correlation between various types of shear bands and the stress state.« less

  11. Interfacial shear strength estimates of NiTi-Al matrix composites fabricated via ultrasonic additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehr, Adam; Pritchard, Joshua; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and improve the interfacial shear strength of metal matrix composites fabricated via very high power (VHP) ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM). VHP-UAM NiTi-Al composites have shown a dramatic decrease in thermal expansion compared to Al, yet thermal blocking stresses developed during thermal cycling have been found to degrade and eventually cause interface failure. Consequently, to improve understanding of the interface and guide the development of stronger NiTi- Al composites, the interface strength was investigated through the use of single ber pullout tests. It was found that the matrix yielded prior to the interface breaking since adhered aluminum was consistently observed on all pullout samples. Additionally, measured pullout loads were utilized as an input to a nite element model for stress and shear lag analysis, which, in turn showed that the Al matrix experienced a peak shear stress near 230 MPa. This stress is above the Al matrix's ultimate shear strength of 150-200 MPa, thus this large stress corroborates with matrix failure observed during testing. The in uence of various ber surface treatments on bond mechanisms was also studied with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  12. DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD APPLIED TO A FLOW PROBLEM Norberto C. Vera Guzmán Institute of Geophysics, UNAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, N. C.; GMMC

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present the results of macrohybrid mixed Darcian flow in porous media in a general three-dimensional domain. The global problem is solved as a set of local subproblems which are posed using a domain decomposition method. Unknown fields of local problems, velocity and pressure are approximated using mixed finite elements. For this application, a general three-dimensional domain is considered which is discretized using tetrahedra. The discrete domain is decomposed into subdomains and reformulated the original problem as a set of subproblems, communicated through their interfaces. To solve this set of subproblems, we use finite element mixed and parallel computing. The parallelization of a problem using this methodology can, in principle, to fully exploit a computer equipment and also provides results in less time, two very important elements in modeling. Referencias G.Alduncin and N.Vera-Guzmán Parallel proximal-point algorithms for mixed _nite element models of _ow in the subsurface, Commun. Numer. Meth. Engng 2004; 20:83-104 (DOI: 10.1002/cnm.647) Z. Chen, G.Huan and Y. Ma Computational Methods for Multiphase Flows in Porous Media, SIAM, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, 2006. A. Quarteroni and A. Valli, Numerical Approximation of Partial Differential Equations, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994. Brezzi F, Fortin M. Mixed and Hybrid Finite Element Methods. Springer: New York, 1991.

  13. Implementation and Evaluation of the Virtual Fields Method: Determining Constitutive Model Parameters From Full-Field Deformation Data.

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Sharlotte Lorraine Bolyard; Scherzinger, William M.

    2014-09-01

    The Virtual Fields Method (VFM) is an inverse method for constitutive model parameter identication that relies on full-eld experimental measurements of displacements. VFM is an alternative to standard approaches that require several experiments of simple geometries to calibrate a constitutive model. VFM is one of several techniques that use full-eld exper- imental data, including Finite Element Method Updating (FEMU) techniques, but VFM is computationally fast, not requiring iterative FEM analyses. This report describes the im- plementation and evaluation of VFM primarily for nite-deformation plasticity constitutive models. VFM was successfully implemented in MATLAB and evaluated using simulated FEM data that included representative experimental noise found in the Digital Image Cor- relation (DIC) optical technique that provides full-eld displacement measurements. VFM was able to identify constitutive model parameters for the BCJ plasticity model even in the presence of simulated DIC noise, demonstrating VFM as a viable alternative inverse method. Further research is required before VFM can be adopted as a standard method for constitu- tive model parameter identication, but this study is a foundation for ongoing research at Sandia for improving constitutive model calibration.

  14. An Energy Principle for Ideal MHD Equilibria with Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Zhou and Hong Qin

    2013-03-11

    In the standard ideal MHD energy principle for equilibria with no flows, the stability criterion, which is the defi niteness of the perturbed potential energy, is usually constructed from the linearized equation of motion. Equivalently while more straightforwardly, it can also be obtained from the second variation of the Hamiltonian calculated with proper constraints. For equilibria with flows, a stability criterion was proposed from the linearized equation of motion, but not explained as an energy principle1. In this paper, the second variation of the Hamiltonian is found to provide a stability criterion equivalent to, while more straightforward than, what was constructed from the linearized equation of motion. To calculate the variations of the Hamiltonian, a complete set of constraints on the dynamics of the perturbations is derived from the Euler-Poincare structure of the ideal MHD. In addition, a previous calculation of the second variation of the Hamiltonian was claimed to give a different stability criterion2, and in this paper we argue such a claim is incorrect.

  15. Probabilistic Damage Characterization Using the Computationally-Efficient Bayesian Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, James E.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a computationally-ecient approach for damage determination that quanti es uncertainty in the provided diagnosis. Given strain sensor data that are polluted with measurement errors, Bayesian inference is used to estimate the location, size, and orientation of damage. This approach uses Bayes' Theorem to combine any prior knowledge an analyst may have about the nature of the damage with information provided implicitly by the strain sensor data to form a posterior probability distribution over possible damage states. The unknown damage parameters are then estimated based on samples drawn numerically from this distribution using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithm. Several modi cations are made to the traditional Bayesian inference approach to provide signi cant computational speedup. First, an ecient surrogate model is constructed using sparse grid interpolation to replace a costly nite element model that must otherwise be evaluated for each sample drawn with MCMC. Next, the standard Bayesian posterior distribution is modi ed using a weighted likelihood formulation, which is shown to improve the convergence of the sampling process. Finally, a robust MCMC algorithm, Delayed Rejection Adaptive Metropolis (DRAM), is adopted to sample the probability distribution more eciently. Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed framework e ectively provides damage estimates with uncertainty quanti cation and can yield orders of magnitude speedup over standard Bayesian approaches.

  16. A novel non-thermostable deuterolysin from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Katase, Toru; Sakai, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Michio; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi; Amano, Hitoshi; Ishida, Hiroki; Abe, Keietsu; Yamagata, Youhei

    2016-09-01

    Three putative deuterolysin (EC 3.4.24.29) genes (deuA, deuB, and deuC) were found in the Aspergillus oryzae genome database ( http://www.bio.nite.go.jp/dogan/project/view/AO ). One of these genes, deuA, was corresponding to NpII gene, previously reported. DeuA and DeuB were overexpressed by recombinant A. oryzae and were purified. The degradation profiles against protein substrates of both enzymes were similar, but DeuB showed wider substrate specificity against peptidyl MCA-substrates compared with DeuA. Enzymatic profiles of DeuB except for thermostability also resembled those of DeuA. DeuB was inactivated by heat treatment above 80° C, different from thermostable DeuA. Transcription analysis in wild type A. oryzae showed only deuB was expressed in liquid culture, and the addition of the proteinous substrate upregulated the transcription. Furthermore, the NaNO3 addition seems to eliminate the effect of proteinous substrate for the transcription of deuB. PMID:27050120

  17. Elliptic interface problem solved using the mixed finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuqiang

    2007-05-01

    The elliptic boundary value/interface problem is very important in many applications, for example, in incompressible flow and MHD. Many methods are used to solve these problems in a complex domain, including the finite volume method, the finite element method and the boundary element method. For a complex computational domain, the better choice of the partition of the computational domain is to use an unstructured grid. However, it is not a straight forward task to implement a mesh generation program. Such a program requires extra computing time and resources (such as computer memory). Thus people like to use a structured mesh if possible, especially a cartesian mesh. Popular methods using structured cartesian grids for the elliptic boundary value/interface problem include the immersed boundary method, the immersed interface method, the ghost fluid method, and the embedded boundary method. This thesis solves the elliptic problem using several versions of the mixed nite element method on an unstructured mesh. The results are compared for speed and accuracy to the embedded boundary method. A ghost fluid method for elliptic boundary value/interface problems is also investigated. Finally, a simple test of the 2D Rayleigh-Taylor instability is performed using the FronTier-Lite package. Key Words. Elliptic Boundary Value, Interface, Mesh Generation, Quadtree, Octree, Front Tracking.

  18. Mineralogy of fossil resins in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdasarov, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    The investigation is focused on identification and origin of fossil resins from the Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary sediments of Northern Eurasia on the basis of detailed study of their physical and chemical characteristics: morphology; size; mass; density; optical, mechanical, and thermal properties; chemical composition; etc. The composition of amorphous organic minerals with polymeric structure, fossil resins included, is studied with IR spectrometry, the EPR method, derivatography at low heating rates, XRD, chemical analysis, emission spectrometry, etc. The results of investigation summarized for the Baltic-Dnieper, North Siberian, and Far East amber-bearing provinces show some similarity of fossil resins in combination with specific features inherent to each province. Resins from the Baltic-Dnieper province should be termed as amber (succinite). Their variety is the most characteristic of Northern and Eastern Europe. Amber-like fossil resins from the North Siberian and Far East provinces are irrelevant to succinite. They usually occur as brittle resins, namely, retinite and gedanite, without jewelry value. Viscous fossil resin rumänite with an expected high economic value occurs in the Far East, on the shore of Sakhalin Island.

  19. Text-speak processing impairs tactile location.

    PubMed

    Head, James; Helton, William; Russell, Paul; Neumann, Ewald

    2012-09-01

    Dual task experiments have highlighted that driving while having a conversation on a cell phone can have negative impacts on driving (Strayer & Drews, 2007). It has also been noted that this negative impact is greater when reading a text-message (Lee, 2007). Commonly used in text-messaging are shortening devices collectively known as text-speak (e.g.,Ys I wll ttyl 2nite, Yes I will talk to you later tonight). To the authors' knowledge, there has been no investigation into the potential negative impacts of reading text-speak on concurrent performance on other tasks. Forty participants read a correctly spelled story and a story presented in text-speak while concurrently monitoring for a vibration around their waist. Slower reaction times and fewer correct vibration detections occurred while reading text-speak than while reading a correctly spelled story. The results suggest that reading text-speak imposes greater cognitive load than reading correctly spelled text. These findings suggest that the negative impact of text messaging on driving may be compounded by the messages being in text-speak, instead of orthographically correct text.

  20. Text-speak processing impairs tactile location.

    PubMed

    Head, James; Helton, William; Russell, Paul; Neumann, Ewald

    2012-09-01

    Dual task experiments have highlighted that driving while having a conversation on a cell phone can have negative impacts on driving (Strayer & Drews, 2007). It has also been noted that this negative impact is greater when reading a text-message (Lee, 2007). Commonly used in text-messaging are shortening devices collectively known as text-speak (e.g.,Ys I wll ttyl 2nite, Yes I will talk to you later tonight). To the authors' knowledge, there has been no investigation into the potential negative impacts of reading text-speak on concurrent performance on other tasks. Forty participants read a correctly spelled story and a story presented in text-speak while concurrently monitoring for a vibration around their waist. Slower reaction times and fewer correct vibration detections occurred while reading text-speak than while reading a correctly spelled story. The results suggest that reading text-speak imposes greater cognitive load than reading correctly spelled text. These findings suggest that the negative impact of text messaging on driving may be compounded by the messages being in text-speak, instead of orthographically correct text. PMID:22858873

  1. Regulated Breathing Effect of Silicon Negative Electrode for Dramatically Enhanced Performance of Li-Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Xingcheng; Zhou, Weidong; Kim, Youngnam; Ryu, Ill; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Gao; Liu, Zhongyi; Gao, Huajian

    2015-03-01

    Si is an attractive negative electrode material for lithium ion batteries due to its high specifi c capacity (≈3600 mAh g –1 ). However, the huge volume swelling and shrinking during cycling, which mimics a breathing effect at the material/electrode/cell level, leads to several coupled issues including fracture of Si particles, unstable solid electrolyte interphase, and low Coulombic effi ciency. In this work, the regulation of the breathing effect is reported by using Si–C yolk–shell nanocomposite which has been well-developed by other researchers. The focus is on understanding how the nanoscaled materials design impacts the mechanical and electrochemical response at electrode level. For the fi rst time, it is possible to observe one order of magnitude of reduction on breathing effect at the electrode level during cycling: the electrode thickness variation reduced down to 10%, comparing with 100% in the electrode with Si nanoparticles as active materials. The Si–C yolk–shell nanocomposite electrode exhibits excellent capacity retention and high cycle effi ciency. In situ transmission electron microscopy and fi nite element simulations consistently reveals that the dramatically enhanced performance is associated with the regulated breathing of the Si in the new composite, therefore the suppression of the overall electrode expansion.

  2. No correlation between Anderson Reservoir stage level and underlying Calaveras fault seismicity despite calculated differential stress increases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2011-01-01

    Concerns have been raised that stresses from reservoir impoundment may trigger damaging earthquakes because rate changes have been associated with reservoir impoundment or stage-level changes globally. Here, the idea is tested blindly using Anderson Reservoir, which lies atop the seismically active Calaveras fault. The only knowledge held by the author going into the study was the expectation that reservoir levels change cyclically because of seasonal rainfall. Examination of seismicity rates near the reservoir reveals variability, but no correlation with stage-level changes. Three-dimensional fi nite-element modeling shows stress changes suffi cient for earthquake triggering along the Calaveras fault zone. Since many of the reported cases of induced triggering come from low-strain settings, it is speculated that gradual stressing from stage-level changes in high-strain settings may not be signifi cant. From this study, it can be concluded that reservoirs are not necessarily risky in active tectonic settings. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  3. Gyroaverage effects on nontwist Hamiltonians: separatrix reconnection and chaos suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B; Martinell, J.

    2012-01-01

    A study of nite Larmor radius (FLR) eects on E B test particle chaotic transport in non- monotonic zonal ows with drift waves in magnetized plasmas is presented. Due to the non- monotonicity of the zonal ow, the Hamiltonian does not satisfy the twist condition. The electro- static potential is modeled as a linear superposition of a zonal ow and regular neutral modes of the Hasegawa-Mima equation. FLR eects are incorporated by gyro-averaging the EB Hamiltonian. It is shown that there is a critical value the Larmor radius for which the zonal ow transitions from a prole with one maximum to a prole with two maxima and a minimum. This bifurcation leads to the creation of additional shearless curves and resonances. The gyroaveraged nontwist Hamiltonian exhibits complex patterns of separatrix reconnection. A change in the Larmor ra- dius can lead to heteroclinic-homoclinic bifurcations and dipole formation. For Larmor radii for which the zonal ow has bifurcated, double heteroclinic-heteroclinic, homoclinic-homoclinic and heteroclinic-homoclinic topologies are observed. It is also shown that chaotic transport is typically reduced as the Larmor radius increases. Poincare sections shows that, for large enough Larmor radius, chaos can be practically suppressed. In particular, small changes on the Larmor radius can restore the shearless curve.

  4. Etude histopathologique des adénopathies cervicales à Yaoundé, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Sando, Zacharie; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Ndeby, Yvette Sandrine Ngo; Djomou, Francois; Fewou, Amadou; Oyono, Jean-Louis Essame

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les adénopathies cervicales ont été très peu étudiées au Cameroun. Méthodes Pour améliorer leur connaissance nous avons mené une étude rétrospective et descriptive dans les cinq principaux laboratoires de la capitale du pays en vue d'en déterminer les aspects histopathologiques. Résultats Nous avons colligé 292 cas. L’âge moyen était de 30,95 ±4,11ans et le ratio homme / femme était de 0,96/1. Les principaux diagnostics histologiques étaient les suivants: tuberculose ganglionnaire (39,38%), les lymphadénites (18,49%), les lymphomes malins non hodgkiniens (12,33%), la maladie de Kaposi ganglionnaire (5,82%), les métastases de carcinome (5,82%) et la maladie de Hodgkin (5,14%). Dans 95,65% des cas le diagnostic était posé au-delà du deuxième mois d’évolution des symptômes. Conclusion Nos résultats, quoique préliminaires, sont une contribution à l'amélioration de la stratégie diagnostique et thérapeutique dans nos hôpitaux aux ressources limitées. PMID:25848448

  5. On the Toroidal Plasma Rotations Induced by Lower Hybrid Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaoyin; Qin, Hong; Liu, Jian; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2012-11-14

    A theoretical model is developed to explain the plasma rotations induced by lower hybrid waves in Alcator C-Mod. In this model, torodial rotations are driven by the Lorentz force on the bulk electron flow across flux surfaces, which is a response of the plasma to the resonant-electron flow across flux surfaces induced by the lower hybrid waves. The flow across flux surfaces of the resonant electrons and the bulk electrons are coupled through the radial electric fi eld initiated by the resonant electrons, and the friction between ions and electrons transfers the toroidal momentum to ions from electrons. An improved quasilinear theory with gyrophase dependent distribution function is developed to calculate the perpendicular resonant-electron flow. Toroidal rotations are determined using a set of fluid equations for bulk electrons and ions, which are solved numerically by a fi nite- difference method. Numerical results agree well with the experimental observations in terms of flow pro file and amplitude. The model explains the strong correlation between torodial flow and internal inductance observed experimentally, and predicts both counter-current and co-current flows, depending on the perpendicular wave vectors of the lower hybrid waves. __________________________________________________

  6. Clinically-Relevant Design Features of a Three-Dimensional Correct Molar Crown and Related Maximum Principal Stress. A Finite Element Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Brian T.; Janal, Malvin N.; Zavanelli, Ricardo A.; Silva, Nelson R. F. A.; Rekow, E. Dianne; Thompson, Van P.; Coelho, Paulo G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of clinically relevant variables on the maximum principal stress (MPS) in the veneer layer of an anatomically correct veneer-core-cement-tooth model. Methods The average dimensions of a mandibular first molar crown were imported into CAD software; a tooth preparation was modeled by reducing the proximal walls by 1.5 mm and the occlusal surface by 2.0 mm. ‘Crown systems’ were composed by varying characteristics of a cement layer, structural core, and veneer solid, all designed to fit the tooth preparation. The main and interacting effects of proximal wall height reduction, core material, core thickness, cement modulus, cement thickness, and load position on the maximum stress distribution were derived from a series of nite element models and analyzed in a factorial analysis of variance. Results The average MPS in the veneer layer over the 64 models was 488 MPa (range= 248 to 840 MPa). MPS increased significantly with the addition of horizontal load components and with increasing cement thickness. In addition, MPS levels varied as a function of interactions between: proximal wall height reduction and load position; load position and cement thickness; core thickness and cement thickness; cement thickness and proximal wall height reduction; and core thickness, cement thickness and proximal wall height reduction. Conclusion Rational design of veneered structural ceramics must consider the complex geometry of the crown-tooth system and integrate the in uence of both the main effects and interactions among design parameters. PMID:19857888

  7. Numerical simulation of the human ear and the dynamic analysis of the middle ear sound transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Ma, J.; Huang, X.

    2013-06-01

    Based on the clinical CT of normal right ear, a 3-D ?nite element (FE) model of the human ear consisting of the external ear canal, middle ear(tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, ligaments, tendons), and inner ear (including semicircular canals, vestibular, spiral cochlear)was constructed in this paper. The complicated structures and inner boundary conditions of middle ear were described in this model. Model analysis and acoustic-structure-?uid coupled dynamic frequency response analysis were conducted on the model. The validity of this model was confirmed by comparing the results with published experimental data. The amplitudes and velocities of tympanic membrane and stapes footplate, sound pressure gain across the middle ear, and the cochlear input impedance were derived. Besides, it was concluded that the ear canal can amplify the sound signal in low frequencies.The modes of vibration of middle ear auditory ossicles, oval window and round window have been analysed. This model can well simulate the acoustic behavior with the interaction of external ear, middle ear and inner ear, which can supply more valuable theoretical support for development and improvement of hearing-aid and artificial inner ear.

  8. Advanced Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators for Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostettler, Jacob

    Various environmental and economic factors have lead to increased global investment in alternative energy technologies such as solar and wind power. Although methodologies for synchronous generator control are well researched, wind turbines present control systems challenges not presented by traditional generation. The varying nature of wind makes achieving synchronism with the existing electrical power grid a greater challenge. Departing from early use of induction machines, permanent magnet synchronous generators have become the focus of power systems and control systems research into wind energy systems. This is due to their self excited nature, along with their high power density. The problem of grid synchronism is alleviated through the use of high performance power electronic converters. In achievement of the optimal levels of efficiency, advanced control systems techniques oer promise over more traditional approaches. Research into sliding mode control, and linear matrix inequalities with nite time boundedness and Hinfinity performance criteria, when applied to the dynamical models of the system, demonstrate the potential of these control methodologies as future avenues for achieving higher levels of performance and eciency in wind energy.

  9. Behavior of W-SiC/SiC dual layer tiles under LHD plasma exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrez, Waleed A.; Kishimoto, Hirotatsu; Kohno, Yutaka; Hirotaki, S.; Kohyama, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Towards the early realization of fusion power reactors, high performance first wall and plasma facing components (PFCs) are essentially required. As one of the biggest challenges for this, high heat flux component (HHFC) design and R & D has been emphasized. This report provides the high performance HHFC materials R & D status and the first plasma exposure test result from large helical device (LHD). W-SiC/SiC dual layer tiles (hereafter, W-SiC/SiC) were developed by applied NITE process. This is the realistic concept of tungsten armor with ceramic composite substrates for fusion power reactors. The dual layer tiles were fabricated and tested their survival under the LHD divertor plasma exposure (Nominally 10 MW/m2 maximum heat load for 6 s operation cycle). The microstructure evolution, including crack and pore formation, was analyzed, besides the behavior of bonding layer between tungsten and SiC/SiC was evaluated by C-scanning images of ultrasonic method and Electron probe Micro-analyzer (EPMA). Thermal analysis was conducted by finite element method, where ANSYS code release 13.0 was used.

  10. Metabolomics Analysis and Biosynthesis of Rosmarinic Acid in Agastache rugosa Kuntze Treated with Methyl Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Romij; Xu, Hui; Park, Woo Tae; Tuan, Pham Anh; Li, Xiaohua; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Jai-Heon; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on metabolic profiles and rosmarinic acid (RA) biosynthesis in cell cultures of Agastache rugosa Kuntze. Transcript levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes, i.e., ArPAL, Ar4CL, and ArC4H, maximally increased 4.5-fold, 3.4-fold, and 3.5-fold, respectively, compared with the untreated controls, and the culture contained relatively high amounts of RA after exposure of cells to 50 µM MeJA. RA levels were 2.1-, 4.7-, and 3.9-fold higher after exposure to 10, 50, and 100 µM MeJA, respectively, than those in untreated controls. In addition, the transcript levels of genes attained maximum levels at different time points after the initial exposure. The transcript levels of ArC4H and Ar4CL were transiently induced by MeJA, and reached a maximum of up to 8-fold at 3 hr and 6 hr, respectively. The relationships between primary metabolites and phenolic acids in cell cultures of A. rugosa treated with MeJA were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 45 metabolites, including 41 primary metabolites and 4 phenolic acids, were identified from A. rugosa. Metabolite profiles were subjected to partial least square-discriminate analysis to evaluate the effects of MeJA. The results indicate that both phenolic acids and precursors for the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, such as aromatic amino acids and shikimate, were induced as a response to MeJA treatment. Therefore, MeJA appears to have an important impact on RA accumulation, and the increased RA accumulation in the treated cells might be due to activation of the phenylpropanoid genes ArPAL, ArC4H, and Ar4CL. PMID:23724034

  11. Plant hormone jasmonate prioritizes defense over growth by interfering with gibberellin signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Lei; Yao, Jian; Mei, Chuan-Sheng; Tong, Xiao-Hong; Zeng, Long-Jun; Li, Qun; Xiao, Lang-Tao; Sun, Tai-ping; Li, Jigang; Deng, Xing-Wang; Lee, Chin Mei; Thomashow, Michael F; Yang, Yinong; He, Zuhua; He, Sheng Yang

    2012-05-01

    Plants must effectively defend against biotic and abiotic stresses to survive in nature. However, this defense is costly and is often accompanied by significant growth inhibition. How plants coordinate the fluctuating growth-defense dynamics is not well understood and remains a fundamental question. Jasmonate (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA) are important plant hormones that mediate defense and growth, respectively. Binding of bioactive JA or GA ligands to cognate receptors leads to proteasome-dependent degradation of specific transcriptional repressors (the JAZ or DELLA family of proteins), which, at the resting state, represses cognate transcription factors involved in defense (e.g., MYCs) or growth [e.g. phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs)]. In this study, we found that the coi1 JA receptor mutants of rice (a domesticated monocot crop) and Arabidopsis (a model dicot plant) both exhibit hallmark phenotypes of GA-hypersensitive mutants. JA delays GA-mediated DELLA protein degradation, and the della mutant is less sensitive to JA for growth inhibition. Overexpression of a selected group of JAZ repressors in Arabidopsis plants partially phenocopies GA-associated phenotypes of the coi1 mutant, and JAZ9 inhibits RGA (a DELLA protein) interaction with transcription factor PIF3. Importantly, the pif quadruple (pifq) mutant no longer responds to JA-induced growth inhibition, and overexpression of PIF3 could partially overcome JA-induced growth inhibition. Thus, a molecular cascade involving the COI1-JAZ-DELLA-PIF signaling module, by which angiosperm plants prioritize JA-mediated defense over growth, has been elucidated.

  12. Jasmonic Acid Modulates the Physio-Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Gene Expression in Glycine max under Nickel Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sirhindi, Geetika; Mir, Mudaser Ahmad; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    In present study, we evaluated the effects of Jasmonic acid (JA) on physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and gene expression in soybean (Glycine max L.) plants subjected to nickel (Ni) stress. Ni stress decreases the shoot and root length and chlorophyll content by 37.23, 38.31, and 39.21%, respectively, over the control. However, application of JA was found to improve the chlorophyll content and length of shoot and root of Ni-fed seedlings. Plants supplemented with JA restores the chlorophyll fluorescence, which was disturbed by Ni stress. The present study demonstrated increase in proline, glycinebetaine, total protein, and total soluble sugar (TSS) by 33.09, 51.26, 22.58, and 49.15%, respectively, under Ni toxicity over the control. Addition of JA to Ni stressed plants further enhanced the above parameters. Ni stress increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by 68.49%, lipid peroxidation (MDA) by 50.57% and NADPH oxidase by 50.92% over the control. Supplementation of JA minimizes the accumulation of H2O2, MDA, and NADPH oxidase, which helps in stabilization of biomolecules. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increases by 40.04, 28.22, 48.53, and 56.79%, respectively, over the control in Ni treated seedlings and further enhancement in the antioxidant activity was observed by the application of JA. Ni treated soybean seedlings showed increase in expression of Fe-SOD by 77.62, CAT by 15.25, POD by 58.33, and APX by 80.58% over the control. Nevertheless, application of JA further enhanced the expression of the above genes in the present study. Our results signified that Ni stress caused negative impacts on soybean seedlings, but, co-application of JA facilitate the seedlings to combat the detrimental effects of Ni through enhanced osmolytes, activity of antioxidant enzymes and gene expression.

  13. Profiling of structurally labile oxylipins in plants by in situ derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Birgit; Lauchli, Ryan; Sonwa, Mesmin Mekem; Schmidt, Annika; Boland, Wilhelm

    2006-01-15

    A GC-MS-based method for the simultaneous quantification of common oxylipins along with labile and highly reactive compounds based on in situ derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine to the corresponding O-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl oximes (PFB oximes) is presented. The approach covers oxo derivatives such as jasmonic acid (JA), 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), certain phytoprostanes, unsaturated oxo-acids, oxo-hydroxy acids, and aldehyde fragments from the polar head of fatty acids. In the positive electron impact-MS mode, the PFB oximes display characteristic fragment ions that greatly facilitate the identification of oxylipins in complex matrices. In addition, the fluorinated derivatives allow a highly selective and low-background analysis by negative chemical ionization. Besides showing the general value of the method for the identification of a broad range of oxylipins (18 examples), we also demonstrate sensitivity, linearity, and reproducibility for the quantification of JA, OPDA, 11-oxo-9-undecenoic acid, and 13-oxo-9,11-tridecadienoic acid. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by differential profiling of these four oxylipins in lima bean leaves after mechanical wounding and feeding by the herbivore Spodoptera littoralis. Caterpillar feeding induced several oxylipins, whereas after wounding only the level of JA increased. The rapid in situ derivatization prevents the isomerization of cis-JA to trans-JA. The resting level of JA in lima beans showed an isomer ratio of 80:20 for trans/cis-JA. After wounding, de novo synthesis of JA alters the ratio to 20:80 in favor of the cis isomer.

  14. Methyl jasmonate treatment induces changes in fruit ripening by modifying the expression of several ripening genes in Fragaria chiloensis fruit.

    PubMed

    Concha, Cristóbal M; Figueroa, Nicolás E; Poblete, Leticia A; Oñate, Felipe A; Schwab, Wilfried; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the role of jasmonates (JAs) in the ripening of Fragaria chiloensis fruit, two concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 10 and 100 μM) were evaluated at 2, 5 and 9 d using an in vitro ripening system. Fruit quality parameters; the contents of anthocyanin, lignin and cell wall polymers; and the transcriptional profiles of several ripening-related genes were analyzed. MeJA accelerated fruit ripening by means of a transitory increase in the soluble solid content/titratable acidity ratio, anthocyanin accumulation and an increase in softening at day 5. The expression of several phenylpropanoid-related genes, primarily those associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis, was increased under MeJA treatment, which correlated with an increased accumulation of anthocyanin. MeJA also altered the expression profiles of some cell wall-modifying genes, namely, EG1 and XTH1, and these changes correlated with a transient reduction in the firmness of MeJA-treated fruits. MeJA-responsive elements were observed in the promoter region of the EG1 gene. MeJA also increased the expression of LOX, AOS and OPR3, genes involved in the biosynthesis of JAs, and these changes correlated with the transient activation of fruit ripening observed. Conversely, the expression of ethylene and lignin biosynthesis genes (ACS, ACO, CAD and POD27) increased in MeJA-treated fruits at day 9. The present findings suggest that JAs promote the ripening of non-climacteric fruits through their involvement in anthocyanin accumulation, cell wall modification and the biosynthesis of ethylene and JAs.

  15. The Arabidopsis KH-Domain RNA-Binding Protein ESR1 Functions in Components of Jasmonate Signalling, Unlinking Growth Restraint and Resistance to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Louise F.; Kamphuis, Lars G.; Hane, James K.; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis; Singh, Karam B.

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play important roles in the protection of cells against toxins and oxidative damage where one Arabidopsis member, GSTF8, has become a commonly used marker gene for early stress and defense responses. A GSTF8 promoter fragment fused to the luciferase reporter gene was used in a forward genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants with up-regulated GSTF8 promoter activity. This identified the esr1-1 (enhanced stress response 1) mutant which also conferred increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Through positional cloning, the ESR1 gene was found to encode a KH-domain containing RNA-binding protein (At5g53060). Whole transcriptome sequencing of esr1-1 identified altered expression of genes involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli, hormone signaling pathways and developmental processes. In particular was an overall significant enrichment for jasmonic acid (JA) mediated processes in the esr1-1 down-regulated dataset. A subset of these genes were tested for MeJA inducibility and we found the expression of some but not all were reduced in esr1-1. The esr1-1 mutant was not impaired in other aspects of JA-signalling such as JA- sensitivity or development, suggesting ESR1 functions in specific components of the JA-signaling pathway. Examination of salicylic acid (SA) regulated marker genes in esr1-1 showed no increase in basal or SA induced expression suggesting repression of JA-regulated genes is not due to antagonistic SA-JA crosstalk. These results define new roles for KH-domain containing proteins with ESR1 unlinking JA-mediated growth and defense responses. PMID:25985302

  16. Chestnut Species and Jasmonic Acid Treatment Influence Development and Community Interactions of Galls Produced by the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, William R.; Rieske, Lynne K.

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant—signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA– inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses. PMID:22233098

  17. A new species and new records of Pseudocephennium Reitter in Venezuela, with notes on movable endophallic structures (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2016-03-11

    Pseudocephennium auriculatum sp. n. is described, based on a male specimen collected in north-western Venezuela. New findings of Pseudocephennium maximum Jałoszyński and P. araguanum Jałoszyński, so far known only from holotypes, are reported. The aedeagi of newly found specimens have the endophallic structures extruded to various extent which makes it possible to identify movable components of the internal aedeagal armature.

  18. The Arabidopsis KH-Domain RNA-Binding Protein ESR1 Functions in Components of Jasmonate Signalling, Unlinking Growth Restraint and Resistance to Stress.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Louise F; Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play important roles in the protection of cells against toxins and oxidative damage where one Arabidopsis member, GSTF8, has become a commonly used marker gene for early stress and defense responses. A GSTF8 promoter fragment fused to the luciferase reporter gene was used in a forward genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants with up-regulated GSTF8 promoter activity. This identified the esr1-1 (enhanced stress response 1) mutant which also conferred increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Through positional cloning, the ESR1 gene was found to encode a KH-domain containing RNA-binding protein (At5g53060). Whole transcriptome sequencing of esr1-1 identified altered expression of genes involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli, hormone signaling pathways and developmental processes. In particular was an overall significant enrichment for jasmonic acid (JA) mediated processes in the esr1-1 down-regulated dataset. A subset of these genes were tested for MeJA inducibility and we found the expression of some but not all were reduced in esr1-1. The esr1-1 mutant was not impaired in other aspects of JA-signalling such as JA- sensitivity or development, suggesting ESR1 functions in specific components of the JA-signaling pathway. Examination of salicylic acid (SA) regulated marker genes in esr1-1 showed no increase in basal or SA induced expression suggesting repression of JA-regulated genes is not due to antagonistic SA-JA crosstalk. These results define new roles for KH-domain containing proteins with ESR1 unlinking JA-mediated growth and defense responses.

  19. JASMONATE-TRIGGERED PLANT IMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Kang, Jin-Ho; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) exerts direct control over the production of chemical defense compounds that confer resistance to a remarkable spectrum of plant-associated organisms, ranging from microbial pathogens to vertebrate herbivores. The underlying mechanism of JA-triggered immunity (JATI) can be conceptualized as a multi-stage signal transduction cascade involving: i) pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that couple the perception of danger signals to rapid synthesis of bioactive JA; ii) an evolutionarily conserved JA signaling module that links fluctuating JA levels to changes in the abundance of transcriptional repressor proteins; and iii) activation (de-repression) of transcription factors that orchestrate the expression of myriad chemical and morphological defense traits. Multiple negative feedback loops act in concert to restrain the duration and amplitude of defense responses, presumably to mitigate potential fitness costs of JATI. The convergence of diverse plant- and non-plant-derived signals on the core JA module indicates that JATI is a general response to perceived danger. However, the modular structure of JATI may accommodate attacker-specific defense responses through evolutionary innovation of PRRs (inputs) and defense traits (outputs). The efficacy of JATI as a defense strategy is highlighted by its capacity to shape natural populations of plant attackers, as well as the propensity of plant-associated organisms to subvert or otherwise manipulate JA signaling. As both a cellular hub for integrating informational cues from the environment and a common target of pathogen effectors, the core JA module provides a focal point for understanding immune system networks and the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. PMID:24973116

  20. Negative Feedback Control of Jasmonate Signaling by an Alternative Splice Variant of JAZ101[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Javier E.; Shyu, Christine; Campos, Marcelo L.; Patel, Lalita C.; Chung, Hoo Sun; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang; Howe, Gregg A.

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) activates gene expression by promoting ubiquitin-dependent degradation of jasmonate ZIM domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressor proteins. A key feature of all JAZ proteins is the highly conserved Jas motif, which mediates both JAZ degradation and JAZ binding to the transcription factor MYC2. Rapid expression of JAZ genes in response to JA is thought to attenuate JA responses, but little is known about the mechanisms by which newly synthesized JAZ proteins exert repression in the presence of the hormone. Here, we show in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that desensitization to JA is mediated by an alternative splice variant (JAZ10.4) of JAZ10 that lacks the Jas motif. Unbiased protein-protein interaction screens identified three related basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4) and the corepressor NINJA as JAZ10.4-binding partners. We show that the amino-terminal region of JAZ10.4 contains a cryptic MYC2-binding site that resembles the Jas motif and that the ZIM motif of JAZ10.4 functions as a transferable repressor domain whose activity is associated with the recruitment of NINJA. Functional studies showed that the expression of JAZ10.4 from the native JAZ10 promoter complemented the JA-hypersensitive phenotype of a jaz10 mutant. Moreover, treatment of these complemented lines with JA resulted in the rapid accumulation of JAZ10.4 protein. Our results provide an explanation for how the unique domain architecture of JAZ10.4 links transcription factors to a corepressor complex and suggest how JA-induced transcription and alternative splicing of JAZ10 premessenger RNA creates a regulatory circuit to attenuate JA responses. PMID:23632853

  1. Jasmonates: Multifunctional Roles in Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Rasool, Saiema; Gul, Alvina; Sheikh, Subzar A.; Akram, Nudrat A.; Ashraf, Muhammad; Kazi, A. M.; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) [Jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonates (MeJAs)] are known to take part in various physiological processes. Exogenous application of JAs so far tested on different plants under abiotic stresses particularly salinity, drought, and temperature (low/high) conditions have proved effective in improving plant stress tolerance. However, its extent of effectiveness entirely depends on the type of plant species tested or its concentration. The effects of introgression or silencing of different JA- and Me-JA-related genes have been summarized in this review, which have shown a substantial role in improving crop yield and quality in different plants under stress or non-stress conditions. Regulation of JAs synthesis is impaired in stressed as well as unstressed plant cells/tissues, which is believed to be associated with a variety of metabolic events including signal transduction. Although, mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important components of JA signaling and biosynthesis pathways, nitric oxide, ROS, calcium, ABA, ethylene, and salicylic acid are also important mediators of plant growth and development during JA signal transduction and synthesis. The exploration of other signaling molecules can be beneficial to examine the details of underlying molecular mechanisms of JA signal transduction. Much work is to be done in near future to find the proper answers of the questions like action of JA related metabolites, and identification of universal JA receptors etc. Complete signaling pathways involving MAPKs, CDPK, TGA, SIPK, WIPK, and WRKY transcription factors are yet to be investigated to understand the complete mechanism of action of JAs. PMID:27379115

  2. Jasmonic acid transient accumulation is needed for abscisic acid increase in citrus roots under drought stress conditions.

    PubMed

    de Ollas, Carlos; Hernando, Bárbara; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2013-03-01

    Phytohormones are central players in sensing and signaling numerous environmental conditions like drought stress. In this work, an experimental system based on severe drought was established and hormone profiling together with gene expression of key enzymes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis was studied in roots of citrumelo CPB 4475 (a commercial citrus rootstock) plants. JA concentration transiently increased after a few hours of stress, returning to control levels 30 h after the onset of the condition. A more progressive ABA accumulation was observed, with the onset of this increase at the same time or right after the JA transient accumulation. Molecular data suggested that, at least, part of the hormonal regulation takes place at the biosynthetic level. These observations also pointed to a possible involvement of JA on ABA biosynthesis under stress. To test this hypothesis, JA and ABA biosynthesis were chemically inhibited and subsequently phenotypes rescued by the addition of exogenous hormones. Results showed that the early JA accumulation was necessary for the subsequent ABA increase in roots under stress whereas the opposite could not be stated. The model includes a burst of JA in roots of citrus under severe drought stress conditions that leads to a more progressive ABA accumulation that will induce later plant responses. The present work adds a new level of interaction between JA and ABA at the biosynthetic level that together with the previously described interaction between signal transduction cascades of the two hormones would allow plants to fine-tune specific responses to different stimuli.

  3. Methyl jasmonate treatment induces changes in fruit ripening by modifying the expression of several ripening genes in Fragaria chiloensis fruit.

    PubMed

    Concha, Cristóbal M; Figueroa, Nicolás E; Poblete, Leticia A; Oñate, Felipe A; Schwab, Wilfried; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the role of jasmonates (JAs) in the ripening of Fragaria chiloensis fruit, two concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 10 and 100 μM) were evaluated at 2, 5 and 9 d using an in vitro ripening system. Fruit quality parameters; the contents of anthocyanin, lignin and cell wall polymers; and the transcriptional profiles of several ripening-related genes were analyzed. MeJA accelerated fruit ripening by means of a transitory increase in the soluble solid content/titratable acidity ratio, anthocyanin accumulation and an increase in softening at day 5. The expression of several phenylpropanoid-related genes, primarily those associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis, was increased under MeJA treatment, which correlated with an increased accumulation of anthocyanin. MeJA also altered the expression profiles of some cell wall-modifying genes, namely, EG1 and XTH1, and these changes correlated with a transient reduction in the firmness of MeJA-treated fruits. MeJA-responsive elements were observed in the promoter region of the EG1 gene. MeJA also increased the expression of LOX, AOS and OPR3, genes involved in the biosynthesis of JAs, and these changes correlated with the transient activation of fruit ripening observed. Conversely, the expression of ethylene and lignin biosynthesis genes (ACS, ACO, CAD and POD27) increased in MeJA-treated fruits at day 9. The present findings suggest that JAs promote the ripening of non-climacteric fruits through their involvement in anthocyanin accumulation, cell wall modification and the biosynthesis of ethylene and JAs. PMID:23835361

  4. Jasmonates: Multifunctional Roles in Stress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Rasool, Saiema; Gul, Alvina; Sheikh, Subzar A; Akram, Nudrat A; Ashraf, Muhammad; Kazi, A M; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) [Jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonates (MeJAs)] are known to take part in various physiological processes. Exogenous application of JAs so far tested on different plants under abiotic stresses particularly salinity, drought, and temperature (low/high) conditions have proved effective in improving plant stress tolerance. However, its extent of effectiveness entirely depends on the type of plant species tested or its concentration. The effects of introgression or silencing of different JA- and Me-JA-related genes have been summarized in this review, which have shown a substantial role in improving crop yield and quality in different plants under stress or non-stress conditions. Regulation of JAs synthesis is impaired in stressed as well as unstressed plant cells/tissues, which is believed to be associated with a variety of metabolic events including signal transduction. Although, mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important components of JA signaling and biosynthesis pathways, nitric oxide, ROS, calcium, ABA, ethylene, and salicylic acid are also important mediators of plant growth and development during JA signal transduction and synthesis. The exploration of other signaling molecules can be beneficial to examine the details of underlying molecular mechanisms of JA signal transduction. Much work is to be done in near future to find the proper answers of the questions like action of JA related metabolites, and identification of universal JA receptors etc. Complete signaling pathways involving MAPKs, CDPK, TGA, SIPK, WIPK, and WRKY transcription factors are yet to be investigated to understand the complete mechanism of action of JAs. PMID:27379115

  5. 42 CFR 488.100 - Long term care survey forms, Part A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part A. 488.100 Section 488.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FORMS AND PROCEDURES § 488.100 Long term care survey forms, Part A. EC01JA91.016 EC01JA91.017...

  6. 42 CFR 488.100 - Long term care survey forms, Part A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part A. 488.100 Section 488.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Forms and Procedures § 488.100 Long term care survey forms, Part A. EC01JA91.016 EC01JA91.017...

  7. 42 CFR 488.105 - Long term care survey forms, Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part B. 488.105 Section 488.105 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Forms and Procedures § 488.105 Long term care survey forms, Part B. EC01JA91.064 EC01JA91.065...

  8. 42 CFR 488.100 - Long term care survey forms, Part A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part A. 488.100 Section 488.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Forms and Procedures § 488.100 Long term care survey forms, Part A. EC01JA91.016 EC01JA91.017...

  9. 42 CFR 488.105 - Long term care survey forms, Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part B. 488.105 Section 488.105 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Forms and Procedures § 488.105 Long term care survey forms, Part B. EC01JA91.064 EC01JA91.065...

  10. 42 CFR 488.105 - Long term care survey forms, Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part B. 488.105 Section 488.105 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FORMS AND PROCEDURES § 488.105 Long term care survey forms, Part B. EC01JA91.064 EC01JA91.065...

  11. 42 CFR 488.105 - Long term care survey forms, Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part B. 488.105 Section 488.105 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FORMS AND PROCEDURES § 488.105 Long term care survey forms, Part B. EC01JA91.064 EC01JA91.065...

  12. 42 CFR 488.100 - Long term care survey forms, Part A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part A. 488.100 Section 488.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FORMS AND PROCEDURES § 488.100 Long term care survey forms, Part A. EC01JA91.016 EC01JA91.017...

  13. 42 CFR 488.100 - Long term care survey forms, Part A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long term care survey forms, Part A. 488.100 Section 488.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... FORMS AND PROCEDURES § 488.100 Long term care survey forms, Part A. EC01JA91.016 EC01JA91.017...

  14. Jasmonate-Mediated Induced Volatiles in the American Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon: From Gene Expression to Organismal Interactions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R; Polashock, James; Malo, Edi A

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates, i.e., jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are signaling hormones that regulate a large number of defense responses in plants which in turn affect the plants' interactions with herbivores and their natural enemies. Here, we investigated the effect of jasmonates on the emission of volatiles in the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, at different levels of biological organization from gene expression to organismal interactions. At the molecular level, four genes (BCS, LLS, NER1, and TPS21) responded significantly to gypsy moth larval feeding, MeJA, and mechanical wounding, but to different degrees. The most dramatic changes in expression of BCS and TPS21 (genes in the sesquiterpenoid pathway) were when treated with MeJA. Gypsy moth-damaged and MeJA-treated plants also had significantly elevated expression of LLS and NER1 (genes in the monoterpene and homoterpene biosynthesis pathways, respectively). At the biochemical level, MeJA induced a complex blend of monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds that differed from gypsy moth and mechanical damage, and followed a diurnal pattern of emission. At the organismal level, numbers of Sparganothis sulfureana moths were lower while numbers of parasitic wasps were higher on sticky traps near MeJA-treated cranberry plants than those near untreated plants. Out of 11 leaf volatiles tested, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, and linalool oxide elicited strong antennal (EAG) responses from S. sulfureana, whereas sesquiterpenes elicited weak EAG responses. In addition, mortality of S. sulfureana larvae increased by about 43% in JA treated cranberry plants as compared with untreated plants, indicating a relationship among adult preference, antennal sensitivity to plant odors, and offspring performance. This study highlights the role of the jasmonate-dependent defensive pathway in the emissions of herbivore-induced volatiles in cranberries and its importance in multi-trophic level interactions. PMID:23641249

  15. Methyl Jasmonate Reduces Grain Yield by Mediating Stress Signals to Alter Spikelet Development in Rice1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Hye; Kim, Youn Shic; Park, Su-Hyun; Koo, Yeon Jong; Choi, Yang Do; Chung, Yong-Yoon; Lee, In-Jung; Kim, Ju-Kon

    2009-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in plant development and the defense response. Transgenic overexpression of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase gene (AtJMT) linked to the Ubi1 promoter increased levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) by 6-fold in young panicles. Grain yield was greatly reduced in Ubi1:AtJMT plants due to a lower numbers of spikelets and lower filling rates than were observed for nontransgenic (NT) controls. Ubi1:AtJMT plants had altered numbers of spikelet organs, including the lemma/palea, lodicule, anther, and pistil. The loss of grain yield and alteration in spikelet organ numbers were reproduced by treating NT plants with exogenous MeJA, indicating that increased levels of MeJA in Ubi1:AtJMT panicles inhibited spikelet development. Interestingly, MeJA levels were increased by 19-fold in young NT panicles upon exposure to drought conditions, resulting in a loss of grain yield that was similar to that observed in Ubi1:AtJMT plants. Levels of abscisic acid (ABA) were increased by 1.9- and 1.4-fold in Ubi1:AtJMT and drought-treated NT panicles, respectively. The ABA increase in Ubi1:AtJMT panicles grown in nondrought conditions suggests that MeJA, rather than drought stress, induces ABA biosynthesis under drought conditions. Using microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses, we identified seven genes that were regulated in both Ubi1:AtJMT and drought-treated NT panicles. Two genes, OsJMT1 and OsSDR (for short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase), are involved in MeJA and ABA biosynthesis, respectively, in rice (Oryza sativa). Overall, our results suggest that plants produce MeJA during drought stress, which in turn stimulates the production of ABA, together leading to a loss of grain yield. PMID:19211695

  16. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona Attenuates Host Plant Defenses against Insect Herbivores1

    PubMed Central

    Runyon, Justin B.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has examined plant responses to concurrent attack by herbivores and pathogens, but the effects of attack by parasitic plants, another important class of plant-feeding organisms, on plant defenses against other enemies has not been explored. We investigated how attack by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona impacted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) defenses against the chewing insect beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua; BAW). In response to insect feeding, C. pentagona-infested (parasitized) tomato plants produced only one-third of the antiherbivore phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) produced by unparasitized plants. Similarly, parasitized tomato, in contrast to unparasitized plants, failed to emit herbivore-induced volatiles after 3 d of BAW feeding. Although parasitism impaired antiherbivore defenses, BAW growth was slower on parasitized tomato leaves. Vines of C. pentagona did not translocate JA from BAW-infested plants: amounts of JA in parasite vines grown on caterpillar-fed and control plants were similar. Parasitized plants generally contained more salicylic acid (SA), which can inhibit JA in some systems. Parasitized mutant (NahG) tomato plants deficient in SA produced more JA in response to insect feeding than parasitized wild-type plants, further suggesting cross talk between the SA and JA defense signaling pathways. However, JA induction by BAW was still reduced in parasitized compared to unparasitized NahG, implying that other factors must be involved. We found that parasitized plants were capable of producing induced volatiles when experimentally treated with JA, indicating that resource depletion by the parasite does not fully explain the observed attenuation of volatile response to herbivore feeding. Collectively, these findings show that parasitic plants can have important consequences for host plant defense against herbivores. PMID:18165323

  17. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the NS2A Protein of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Affects Virus Propagation In Vitro but Not In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Takamatsu, Yuki; Morita, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    We identified a unique amino acid of NS2A113, phenylalanine, that affects the efficient propagation of two Japanese encephalitis virus strains, JaTH160 and JaOArS982, in neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells but not in cell lines of extraneural origin. This amino acid did not affect viral loads in the brain or survival curves in mice. These findings suggest that virus propagation in vitro may not reflect the level of virus neuroinvasiveness in vivo. PMID:25787282

  18. Jasmonate-Mediated Induced Volatiles in the American Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon: From Gene Expression to Organismal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R.; Polashock, James; Malo, Edi A.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates, i.e., jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are signaling hormones that regulate a large number of defense responses in plants which in turn affect the plants’ interactions with herbivores and their natural enemies. Here, we investigated the effect of jasmonates on the emission of volatiles in the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, at different levels of biological organization from gene expression to organismal interactions. At the molecular level, four genes (BCS, LLS, NER1, and TPS21) responded significantly to gypsy moth larval feeding, MeJA, and mechanical wounding, but to different degrees. The most dramatic changes in expression of BCS and TPS21 (genes in the sesquiterpenoid pathway) were when treated with MeJA. Gypsy moth-damaged and MeJA-treated plants also had significantly elevated expression of LLS and NER1 (genes in the monoterpene and homoterpene biosynthesis pathways, respectively). At the biochemical level, MeJA induced a complex blend of monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds that differed from gypsy moth and mechanical damage, and followed a diurnal pattern of emission. At the organismal level, numbers of Sparganothis sulfureana moths were lower while numbers of parasitic wasps were higher on sticky traps near MeJA-treated cranberry plants than those near untreated plants. Out of 11 leaf volatiles tested, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, and linalool oxide elicited strong antennal (EAG) responses from S. sulfureana, whereas sesquiterpenes elicited weak EAG responses. In addition, mortality of S. sulfureana larvae increased by about 43% in JA treated cranberry plants as compared with untreated plants, indicating a relationship among adult preference, antennal sensitivity to plant odors, and offspring performance. This study highlights the role of the jasmonate-dependent defensive pathway in the emissions of herbivore-induced volatiles in cranberries and its importance in multi-trophic level interactions. PMID

  19. Jasmonate-Mediated Induced Volatiles in the American Cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon: From Gene Expression to Organismal Interactions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R; Polashock, James; Malo, Edi A

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates, i.e., jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are signaling hormones that regulate a large number of defense responses in plants which in turn affect the plants' interactions with herbivores and their natural enemies. Here, we investigated the effect of jasmonates on the emission of volatiles in the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, at different levels of biological organization from gene expression to organismal interactions. At the molecular level, four genes (BCS, LLS, NER1, and TPS21) responded significantly to gypsy moth larval feeding, MeJA, and mechanical wounding, but to different degrees. The most dramatic changes in expression of BCS and TPS21 (genes in the sesquiterpenoid pathway) were when treated with MeJA. Gypsy moth-damaged and MeJA-treated plants also had significantly elevated expression of LLS and NER1 (genes in the monoterpene and homoterpene biosynthesis pathways, respectively). At the biochemical level, MeJA induced a complex blend of monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds that differed from gypsy moth and mechanical damage, and followed a diurnal pattern of emission. At the organismal level, numbers of Sparganothis sulfureana moths were lower while numbers of parasitic wasps were higher on sticky traps near MeJA-treated cranberry plants than those near untreated plants. Out of 11 leaf volatiles tested, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, and linalool oxide elicited strong antennal (EAG) responses from S. sulfureana, whereas sesquiterpenes elicited weak EAG responses. In addition, mortality of S. sulfureana larvae increased by about 43% in JA treated cranberry plants as compared with untreated plants, indicating a relationship among adult preference, antennal sensitivity to plant odors, and offspring performance. This study highlights the role of the jasmonate-dependent defensive pathway in the emissions of herbivore-induced volatiles in cranberries and its importance in multi-trophic level interactions.

  20. A new species and new records of Pseudocephennium Reitter in Venezuela, with notes on movable endophallic structures (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Pseudocephennium auriculatum sp. n. is described, based on a male specimen collected in north-western Venezuela. New findings of Pseudocephennium maximum Jałoszyński and P. araguanum Jałoszyński, so far known only from holotypes, are reported. The aedeagi of newly found specimens have the endophallic structures extruded to various extent which makes it possible to identify movable components of the internal aedeagal armature. PMID:27394359

  1. Host target modification as a strategy to counter pathogen hijacking of the jasmonate hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yao, Jian; Withers, John; Xin, Xiu-Fang; Banerjee, Rahul; Fariduddin, Qazi; Nakamura, Yoko; Nomura, Kinya; Howe, Gregg A; Boland, Wilhelm; Yan, Honggao; He, Sheng Yang

    2015-11-17

    In the past decade, characterization of the host targets of pathogen virulence factors took a center stage in the study of pathogenesis and disease susceptibility in plants and humans. However, the impressive knowledge of host targets has not been broadly exploited to inhibit pathogen infection. Here, we show that host target modification could be a promising new approach to "protect" the disease-vulnerable components of plants. In particular, recent studies have identified the plant hormone jasmonate (JA) receptor as one of the common targets of virulence factors from highly evolved biotrophic/hemibiotrophic pathogens. Strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, for example, produce proteinaceous effectors, as well as a JA-mimicking toxin, coronatine (COR), to activate JA signaling as a mechanism to promote disease susceptibility. Guided by the crystal structure of the JA receptor and evolutionary clues, we succeeded in modifying the JA receptor to allow for sufficient endogenous JA signaling but greatly reduced sensitivity to COR. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing this modified receptor not only are fertile and maintain a high level of insect defense, but also gain the ability to resist COR-producing pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and P. syringae pv. maculicola. Our results provide a proof-of-concept demonstration that host target modification can be a promising new approach to prevent the virulence action of highly evolved pathogens. PMID:26578782

  2. Synergism in the effect of prior jasmonic acid application on herbivore-induced volatile emission by Lima bean plants: transcription of a monoterpene synthase gene and volatile emission.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Tila R; Weldegergis, Berhane T; David, Anja; Boland, Wilhelm; Gols, Rieta; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2014-09-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in induced plant defence e.g. by regulating the biosynthesis of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that mediate the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. Moreover, exogenous application of JA can be used to elicit plant defence responses similar to those induced by biting-chewing herbivores and mites that pierce cells and consume their contents. In the present study, we used Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants to explore how application of a low dose of JA followed by minor herbivory by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) affects transcript levels of P. lunatus (E)-β-ocimene synthase (PlOS), emission of (E)-β-ocimene and nine other plant volatiles commonly associated with herbivory. Furthermore, we investigated the plant's phytohormonal response. Application of a low dose of JA increased PlOS transcript levels in a synergistic manner when followed by minor herbivory for both simultaneous and sequential infestation. Emission of (E)-β-ocimene was also increased, and only JA, but not SA, levels were affected by treatments. Projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of other volatiles showed overlap between treatments. Thus, a low-dose JA application results in a synergistic effect on gene transcription and an increased emission of a volatile compound involved in indirect defence after herbivore infestation.

  3. Jasmonic acid signalling mediates resistance of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata to its native Fusarium, but not Alternaria, fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Luu, Van Thi; Schuck, Stefan; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Weinhold, Arne; Baldwin, Ian T

    2015-03-01

    We recently characterized a highly dynamic fungal disease outbreak in native populations of Nicotiana attenuata in the southwestern United States. Here, we explore how phytohormone signalling contributes to the observed disease dynamics. Single inoculation with three native Fusarium and Alternaria fungal pathogens, isolated from diseased plants growing in native populations, resulted in disease symptoms characteristic for each pathogen species. While Alternaria sp.-infected plants displayed fewer symptoms and recovered, Fusarium spp.-infected plants became chlorotic and frequently spontaneously wilted. Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) levels were differentially induced after Fusarium or Alternaria infection. Transgenic N. attenuata lines silenced in JA production or JA conjugation to isoleucine (JA-Ile), but not in JA perception, were highly susceptible to infection by F. brachygibbosum Utah 4, indicating that products derived from the JA-Ile biosynthetic pathway, but not their perception, is associated with increased Fusarium resistance. Infection assays using ov-nahG plants which were silenced in pathogen-induced SA accumulations revealed that SA may increase N. attenuata's resistance to Fusarium infection but not to Alternaria. Taken together, we propose that the dynamics of fungal disease symptoms among plants in native populations may be explained by a complex interplay of phytohormone responses to attack by multiple pathogens.

  4. Overexpression of Poplar PtrWRKY89 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Leads to a Reduction of Disease Resistance by Regulating Defense-Related Genes in Salicylate- and Jasmonate-Dependent Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuanzhong; Guo, Li; Liu, Rui; Jiao, Bo; Zhao, Xin; Ling, Zhengyi; Luo, Keming

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play key roles in plant defenses against pathogens and several WRKY transcription factors have been shown to have a role in SA/JA crosstalk. In a previous study, overexpression of the poplar WRKY gene PtrWRKY89 enhanced resistance to pathogens in transgenic poplars. In this study, the promoter of PtrWRKY89 (ProPtrWRKY89) was isolated and used to drive GUS reporter gene. High GUS activity was observed in old leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis containing ProPtrWRKY89-GUS construct and GUS expression was extremely induced by SA solution and SA+MeJA mixture but not by MeJA treatment. Subcellular localization and transactivation assays showed that PtrWRKY89 acted as a transcription activator in the nucleus. Constitutive expression of PtrWRKY89 in Arabidopsis resulted in more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea compared to wild-type plants. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed that marker genes of SA and JA pathways were down-regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis after pathogen inoculations. Overall, our results indicated that PtrWRKY89 modulates a cross talk in resistance to P. syringe and B. cinerea by negatively regulating both SA and JA pathways in Arabidopsis. PMID:27019084

  5. The role of jasmonates in floral nectar secretion.

    PubMed

    Radhika, Venkatesan; Kost, Christian; Boland, Wilhelm; Heil, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Plants produce nectar in their flowers as a reward for their pollinators and most of our crops depend on insect pollination, but little is known on the physiological control of nectar secretion. Jasmonates are well-known for their effects on senescence, the development and opening of flowers and on plant defences such as extrafloral nectar. Their role in floral nectar secretion has, however, not been explored so far. We investigated whether jasmonates have an influence on floral nectar secretion in oil-seed rape, Brassica napus. The floral tissues of this plant produced jasmonic acid (JA) endogenously, and JA concentrations peaked shortly before nectar secretion was highest. Exogenous application of JA to flowers induced nectar secretion, which was suppressed by treatment with phenidone, an inhibitor of JA synthesis. This effect could be reversed by additional application of JA. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine and its structural mimic coronalon also increased nectar secretion. Herbivory or addition of JA to the leaves did not have an effect on floral nectar secretion, demonstrating a functional separation of systemic defence signalling from reproductive nectar secretion. Jasmonates, which have been intensively studied in the context of herbivore defences and flower development, have a profound effect on floral nectar secretion and, thus, pollination efficiency in B. napus. Our results link floral nectar secretion to jasmonate signalling and thereby integrate the floral nectar secretion into the complex network of oxylipid-mediated developmental processes of plants. PMID:20174464

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production.

  7. Jasmonate signaling in plant stress responses and development - active and inactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Wasternack, Claus; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived signals mediating plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses and in plant development. Following the elucidation of each step in their biosynthesis and the important components of perception and signaling, several activators, repressors and co-repressors have been identified which contribute to fine-tuning the regulation of JA-induced gene expression. Many of the metabolic reactions in which JA participates, such as conjugation with amino acids, glucosylation, hydroxylation, carboxylation, sulfation and methylation, lead to numerous compounds with different biological activities. These metabolites may be highly active, partially active in specific processes or inactive. Hydroxylation, carboxylation and sulfation inactivate JA signaling. The precursor of JA biosynthesis, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), has been identified as a JA-independent signaling compound. An increasing number of OPDA-specific processes is being identified. To conclude, the numerous JA compounds and their different modes of action allow plants to respond specifically and flexibly to alterations in the environment.

  8. Responses of herbivore and predatory mites to tomato plants exposed to jasmonic acid seed treatment.

    PubMed

    Smart, Lesley E; Martin, Janet L; Limpalaër, Marlène; Bruce, Toby J A; Pickett, John A

    2013-10-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling can influence plant defense and the production of plant volatiles that mediate interactions with insects. Here, we tested whether a JA seed treatment could alter direct and indirect defenses. First, oviposition levels of herbivorous mites, Tetranychus urticae, on JA seed-treated and control tomato plants were compared. They were not significantly different on tomato cv. 'Moneymaker', however, there was a significant reduction in oviposition on treated plants in additional experiments with cv. 'Carousel'. Second, responses of predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, were assessed in a Y-tube olfactometer. Volatiles from JA seed-treated tomato cv. 'Moneymaker' plants were significantly more attractive than volatiles from control plants. Volatiles collected from plants were analysed by GC/MS, and samples from JA seed-treated plants contained more methyl salicylate and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT) than samples from control plants. Our results indicate that JA seed treatment can make tomato plants more attractive to predatory mites, but that direct effects on herbivorous mites are variable and cultivar dependent.

  9. Overexpression of Poplar PtrWRKY89 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Leads to a Reduction of Disease Resistance by Regulating Defense-Related Genes in Salicylate- and Jasmonate-Dependent Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Jiao, Bo; Zhao, Xin; Ling, Zhengyi; Luo, Keming

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play key roles in plant defenses against pathogens and several WRKY transcription factors have been shown to have a role in SA/JA crosstalk. In a previous study, overexpression of the poplar WRKY gene PtrWRKY89 enhanced resistance to pathogens in transgenic poplars. In this study, the promoter of PtrWRKY89 (ProPtrWRKY89) was isolated and used to drive GUS reporter gene. High GUS activity was observed in old leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis containing ProPtrWRKY89-GUS construct and GUS expression was extremely induced by SA solution and SA+MeJA mixture but not by MeJA treatment. Subcellular localization and transactivation assays showed that PtrWRKY89 acted as a transcription activator in the nucleus. Constitutive expression of PtrWRKY89 in Arabidopsis resulted in more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea compared to wild-type plants. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed that marker genes of SA and JA pathways were down-regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis after pathogen inoculations. Overall, our results indicated that PtrWRKY89 modulates a cross talk in resistance to P. syringe and B. cinerea by negatively regulating both SA and JA pathways in Arabidopsis. PMID:27019084

  10. [Salt Stress Response in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants with Defective Jasmonate Signaling].

    PubMed

    Yastreb, T O; Kolupayev, Yu E; Shvidenko, A A; Lugovaya, A A; Dmitriev, A P

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on antioxidant enzymes in four-week-old leaves of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Columbia-0) and jin1 (jasmonate insensitive 1) mutant plants with defective jasmonate signaling were investigated under normal conditions and under salt stress (200 mM NaCl, 24 h). The wild-type plants responded to JA by an increase in the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase, while there was no change in the case of the mutant plants. In response to the salt stress of both the wild-type and mutant genotypes, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase were unchanged, decreased, and increased, respectively. The JA-treated wild type plants showed the highest activity of all three enzymes as compared with the mutant plants. Salinity caused a decrease in chlorophyll content in the wild-type and jin 1 plants. Preliminary JA treatment of the Col-0 plants resulted in a normal content of photosynthetic pigments after the salt stress, while the positive JA effect was insignificant in the jin 1 mutants. It was concluded that the MYC2/JIN 1 protein is involved in the JA signal transduction and plant adaptation to salt stress.

  11. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3 are negative regulators of jasmonate responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Saito, Hikaru; Masuda, Shinji; Kamiya, Yuji; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-09-01

    Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development, and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine, an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here, we show that the expression of genes encoding other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3, is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, contrary to myc2, the jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome-wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2.

  12. Transcriptome changes in Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. roots induced by methyl jasmonate* #

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-chang; Wu, Wei; Hou, Kai; Chen, Jun-wen; Zhao, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome profiling has been widely used to analyze transcriptomic variation in plants subjected to abiotic or biotic stresses. Although gene expression changes induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) have been profiled in several plant species, no information is available on the MeJA-triggered transcriptome response of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., a species with highly valuable medicinal properties. In this study, we used transcriptome profiling to investigate transcriptome changes in roots of P. multiflorum seedlings subjected to a 0.25 mmol/L-MeJA root irrigation treatment. A total of 18 677 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were induced by MeJA treatment, of which 4535 were up-regulated and 14 142 were down-regulated compared with controls. These DEGs were associated with 125 metabolic pathways. In addition to various common primary and secondary metabolic pathways, several secondary metabolic pathways related to components with significant pharmacological effects were enriched by MeJA, including arachidonic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, and stilbenoid biosynthesis. The MeJA-induced transcriptome changes uncovered in this study provide a solid foundation for future study of functional genes controlling effective components in secondary metabolic pathways of P. multiflorum. PMID:26642186

  13. UV-C-Induced alleviation of transcriptional gene silencing through plant-plant communication: Key roles of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Ting; Xu, Shaoxin; Li, Fanghua; Deng, Chenguang; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Bian, Po

    2016-08-01

    Plant stress responses at the epigenetic level are expected to allow more permanent changes of gene expression and potentially long-term adaptation. While it has been reported that plants subjected to adverse environments initiate various stress responses in their neighboring plants, little is known regarding epigenetic responses to external stresses mediated by plant-plant communication. In this study, we show that DNA repetitive elements of Arabidopsis thaliana, whose expression is inhibited epigenetically by transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) mechanism, are activated by UV-C irradiation through airborne plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications, accompanied by DNA demethylation at CHH sites. Moreover, the TGS is alleviated by direct treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Further, the plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications are blocked by mutations in the biosynthesis or signaling of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA), indicating that JA and SA pathways are involved in the interplant communication for epigenetic responses. For the plant-plant-plant communication, stress cues are relayed to the last set of receiver plants by promoting the production of JA and SA signals in relaying plants, which exhibit upregulated expression of genes for JA and SA biosynthesis and enhanced emanation of MeJA and MeSA. PMID:27131397

  14. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3 Are Negative Regulators of Jasmonate Responses in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Saito, Hikaru; Masuda, Shinji; Kamiya, Yuji; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development, and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine, an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here, we show that the expression of genes encoding other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3, is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, contrary to myc2, the jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome-wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2. PMID:23852442

  15. Catabolism and Deactivation of the Lipid-Derived Hormone Jasmonoyl-Isoleucine

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J. K.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2012-01-01

    The oxylipin hormone jasmonate controls myriad processes involved in plant growth, development, and immune function. The discovery of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) as the major bioactive form of the hormone highlights the need to understand biochemical and cell biological processes underlying JA-Ile homeostasis. Among the major metabolic control points governing the accumulation of JA-Ile in plant tissues are the availability of jasmonic acid, the immediate precursor of JA-Ile, and oxidative enzymes involved in catabolism and deactivation of the hormone. Recent studies indicate that JA-Ile turnover is mediated by a ω-oxidation pathway involving members of the CYP94 family of cytochromes P450. This discovery opens new opportunities to genetically manipulate JA-Ile levels for enhanced resistance to environmental stress, and further highlights ω-oxidation as a conserved pathway for catabolism of lipid-derived signals in plants and animals. Functional characterization of the full complement of CYP94 P450s promises to reveal new pathways for jasmonate metabolism and provide insight into the evolution of oxylipin signaling in land plants. PMID:22639640

  16. Synergism in the effect of prior jasmonic acid application on herbivore-induced volatile emission by Lima bean plants: transcription of a monoterpene synthase gene and volatile emission

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Tila R.; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; David, Anja; Boland, Wilhelm; Gols, Rieta; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Dicke, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in induced plant defence e.g. by regulating the biosynthesis of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that mediate the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. Moreover, exogenous application of JA can be used to elicit plant defence responses similar to those induced by biting-chewing herbivores and mites that pierce cells and consume their contents. In the present study, we used Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants to explore how application of a low dose of JA followed by minor herbivory by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) affects transcript levels of P. lunatus (E)-β-ocimene synthase (PlOS), emission of (E)-β-ocimene and nine other plant volatiles commonly associated with herbivory. Furthermore, we investigated the plant’s phytohormonal response. Application of a low dose of JA increased PlOS transcript levels in a synergistic manner when followed by minor herbivory for both simultaneous and sequential infestation. Emission of (E)-β-ocimene was also increased, and only JA, but not SA, levels were affected by treatments. Projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of other volatiles showed overlap between treatments. Thus, a low-dose JA application results in a synergistic effect on gene transcription and an increased emission of a volatile compound involved in indirect defence after herbivore infestation. PMID:25318119

  17. α-linolenic acid concentration and not wounding per se is the key regulator of octadecanoid (oxylipin) pathway activity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Christeller, John T; Galis, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Using an in vitro system composed of crushed leaf tissues to simulate the wounding response in rice leaves, we established that synthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) can only occur in unwounded tissue and, in wounded tissue, that only the chloroplast-located section of the octadecanoid pathway is active, resulting in the accumulation of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA). We further showed that OPDA accumulation in vitro was inhibited by 90% using the general lipase inhibitor, tetrahydrolipstatin, indicating that production of α-linolenic acid was the rate-limiting step in octadecanoid pathway activity in rice following wounding and the enzyme capacity for an active pathway was already present. We confirmed this result by showing that added α-linolenic acid stimulated OPDA synthesis in vitro and stimulated OPDA, JA and JA-Ile synthesis in vivo in unwounded tissue. Thus, the response to wounding can be mimicked by the provision of free α-linolenic acid. Our results draw attention to the key importance of lipase activity in initiation of JA and JA-Ile biosynthesis and our lack of knowledge of the cognate lipase(s), lipase substrate identity and mechanism(s) of activation in wounded and unwounded tissue.

  18. Transcriptome changes in Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. roots induced by methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-chang; Wu, Wei; Hou, Kai; Chen, Jun-wen; Zhao, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Transcriptome profiling has been widely used to analyze transcriptomic variation in plants subjected to abiotic or biotic stresses. Although gene expression changes induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) have been profiled in several plant species, no information is available on the MeJA-triggered transcriptome response of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., a species with highly valuable medicinal properties. In this study, we used transcriptome profiling to investigate transcriptome changes in roots of P. multiflorum seedlings subjected to a 0.25 mmol/L-MeJA root-irrigation treatment. A total of 18 677 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were induced by MeJA treatment, of which 4535 were up-regulated and 14 142 were down-regulated compared with controls. These DEGs were associated with 125 metabolic pathways. In addition to various common primary and secondary metabolic pathways, several secondary metabolic pathways related to components with significant pharmacological effects were enriched by MeJA, including arachidonic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, and stilbenoid biosynthesis. The MeJA-induced transcriptome changes uncovered in this study provide a solid foundation for future study of functional genes controlling effective components in secondary metabolic pathways of P. multiflorum. PMID:26642186

  19. [Content of Osmolytes and Flavonoids under Salt Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Defective in Jasmonate Signaling].

    PubMed

    Yastreb, T O; Kolupaev, Yu E; Lugovaya, A A; Dmitriev, A P

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the salt stress (200 mM NaCl) and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on levels of osmolytes and flavonoids in leaves of four-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants of the wild-type (WT) Columbia-0 (Col-0) and the mutant jin1 (jasmonate insensitive 1) with impaired jasmonate signaling were studied. The increase in proline content caused by the salt stress was higher in the Col-0 plants than in the mutant jin1. This difference was especially marked if the plants had been pretreated with exogenous 0.1 µM JA. The sugar content increased in response to the salt stress in the JA-treated WT plants but decreased in the jin1 mutant. Leaf treatment with JA of the WT plants but not mutant defective in jasmonate signaling also enhanced the levels of anthocyanins and flavonoids absorbed in UV-B range. The presence of JA increased salinity resistance of the Col-0 plants, since the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and growth inhibition caused by NaCl were less pronounced. Under salt stress, JA almost did not render a positive effect on the jin1 plants. It is concluded that the protein JIN1/MYC2 is involved in control of protective systems under salt stress.

  20. Jasmonic acid affects plant morphology and calcium-dependent protein kinase expression and activity in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Rita M; Raíces, Marcela; MacIntosh, Gustavo C; Maldonado, Sara; Téllez-Iñón, María T

    2002-07-01

    The effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on plant growth and on calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) activity and expression was studied in non-photoperiodic potato plants, Solanum tuberosum L. var. Spunta, grown in vitro. Stem cuttings were grown for 45 days (long treatment, LT) in MS medium with increasing concentrations of JA. For short treatments (ST) adult plants grown in MS were transferred for 1, 4 and 20 h to JA containing media. During the LT, low concentrations of JA promoted cell expansion and shoot elongation while higher concentrations caused growth inhibition. Under these conditions, treated plants showed root shortening and tuber formation was not induced. Morphological and histochemical studies using light microscopy and TEM analysis of leaves from treated plants revealed that JA also affected subcellular organelles of mesophyll cells. Peroxisomes increased in size and number, and an autophagic process was triggered in response to high concentrations of the hormone. CDPK activity, determined in crude extracts of treated plants (LT), was inhibited (up to 80%). Plant growth and CDPK inhibition were reverted upon transfer of the plants to hormone-free medium. Soluble CDPK activity decreased in response to JA short treatment. Concomitantly, a decline in the steady state levels of StCDPK2 mRNA, a potato CDPK isoform that is expressed in leaves, was observed. These data suggest that the phytohormone down-regulated the expression and activity of the kinase.