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Sample records for ja vimukas sally

  1. The Legend of Sally Hemings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belz, Herman

    2012-01-01

    The part played by Sally Hemings in the life of Thomas Jefferson has been regarded as provocatively dubious since political enemy James Callender claimed in 1802 that Jefferson was the father of several of Hemings's children. Historian Merrill Peterson, observing that paternity is hard to prove, wrote in 1960 that no concrete evidence was ever…

  2. Captain Sally Tompkins: Angel of the Confederacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggiano, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Provides historical information on the life of Sally Tompkins who received a commission as captain in the Confederate cavalry for her work at the Robertson Hospital (Richmond, Virginia) during the Civil War. Includes learning activities, a copy of her obituary, a photograph of the Sally Tompkins monument, and a photograph analysis worksheet. (CMK)

  3. Bringing Sally Smith's Vision to Manayunk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author narrates her application of what she learned from her internship at Sally Smith's Lab School of Washington to her new school and shares the favorable impact it had brought on her teaching career. The author shares her first exposure to the powerful effects of Smith's "Live It, Learn It" methodology as she…

  4. Children Facing School: Sally Brown and Peppermint Patty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, William

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the comic strip "Peanuts" characters Sally Brown and Peppermint Patty as they illustrate children's difficulties in school and their emotional responses to school. Explores how Sally illustrates the conflict between the creative impulses of childhood with school demands, while Patty illustrates the extent to which many children…

  5. View of the Sally May Siphon discharge box and transition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the Sally May Siphon discharge box and transition to steel flume on wood trestle. Looking northeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Sally May-Purple Mountain Siphon Discharge, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers May 30, 1967, EAST (REAR) ELEVATION. - First Universalist Church, South Clinton Avenue & Court Street, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  7. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers October 23, 1966, FIRST FLOOR, HALL AND STAIRS INSIDE NORTH ENTRANCE. - First Universalist Church, South Clinton Avenue & Court Street, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  8. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers November 25, 1966, EAST SIDE OF CARRIAGE HOUSE. - George Thompson House, 546 East Avenue, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  9. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers October 23, 1966, FIRST FLOOR, VIEW OF AUDITORIUM TOWARD ORGAN. - First Universalist Church, South Clinton Avenue & Court Street, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  10. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers May 30, 1967, NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATION FROM NORTHEAST. - First Universalist Church, South Clinton Avenue & Court Street, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers May 30, 1967, WEST (FRONT) ELEVATION. - First Universalist Church, South Clinton Avenue & Court Street, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  12. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers October 15, 1966, VIEW OF SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION. - Lindley M. Moore House, 22 Lake View Park, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  13. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers May 30, 1967, DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION. - First Universalist Church, South Clinton Avenue & Court Street, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  14. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers October 15, 1966, DETAIL OF DOOR, SOUTHWEST PARLOR, FIRST FLOOR. - Lindley M. Moore House, 22 Lake View Park, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  15. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers October 23, 1966, FIRST FLOOR, AUDITORIUM TOWARD WEST. - First Universalist Church, South Clinton Avenue & Court Street, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  16. Astronaut Sally Ride responds to question from interviewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut Sally K. Ride, mission specialist for STS-7, responds to a question from an interviewer during a taping session for ABC's Night Line. Dr. Ride is in the shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  17. Birthday Wishes for Suni Williams from Sally Ride's Family

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sally Ride's family was in Mission Control Center to surprise Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams and wish her a happy birthday. Read more about NASA astronaut Suni Williams... http://go.nasa.gov...

  18. 14. September, 1968 GATE BETWEEN SALLY BEARD GARDNER HOUSE, 18 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. September, 1968 GATE BETWEEN SALLY BEARD GARDNER HOUSE, 18 ORANGE STREET AND LUCINDA MOOERS HOUSE, 20 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  19. View of Steel Flume Bridge #3 crossing over Sally May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Steel Flume Bridge #3 crossing over Sally May Wash. Looking northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 3, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  20. View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon Intake. Looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon Intake. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Sally May-Purple Mountain Siphon Intake, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  1. 31 CFR 354.5 - Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.5 Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims. (a) Except in the case of a security interest in favor of the United States or..., Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks shall treat the Participant to whose Securities Account...

  2. 31 CFR 354.5 - Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.5 Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims. (a) Except in the case of a security interest in favor of the United... 354, Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks shall treat the Participant to whose Securities...

  3. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. (a) A Sallie Mae Security may be maintained in the form of a Definitive... Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  4. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. (a) A Sallie Mae Security may be maintained in the form of a Definitive... Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  5. 31 CFR 354.5 - Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.5 Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims. (a) Except in the case of a security interest in favor of the United States or..., Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks shall treat the Participant to whose Securities Account...

  6. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. (a) A Sallie Mae Security may be maintained in the form of a Definitive... Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  7. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. (a) A Sallie Mae Security may be maintained in the form of a Definitive... Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  8. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. (a) A Sallie Mae Security may be maintained in the form of a Definitive... Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  9. 31 CFR 354.5 - Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.5 Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims. (a) Except in the case of a security interest in favor of the United States or..., Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks shall treat the Participant to whose Securities Account...

  10. 31 CFR 354.5 - Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.5 Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims. (a) Except in the case of a security interest in favor of the United States or..., Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks shall treat the Participant to whose Securities Account...

  11. 31 CFR 354.9 - Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks. Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the... Federal Reserve Banks shall not be liable for any action taken in accordance with the information set out... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liability of Sallie Mae and...

  12. Sally Sits on My Shoulder: A Conversation With Bev Johns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaff, Marilyn; Teagarden, James; Zabel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Beverly (Bev) Holden Johns shares her career as an educator and advocate for children who present challenges in the educational setting. She introduces the reader to "Sally," who illustrates the continual need for advocacy for children. Bev also offers advice for those just entering the field. Her perspective and experiences enrich us…

  13. 13. September, 1968 GATE TO THE GARDEN OF THE SALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. September, 1968 GATE TO THE GARDEN OF THE SALLY BEARD GARDNER HOUSE 18 ORANGE STREET, BETWEEN 16 AND 18 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  14. View of the Flume above Sally May Siphon ("Steel Flume ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the Flume above Sally May Siphon ("Steel Flume on Trestles" in narrative inventory). At far end is Flume Tunnel No. 3 (AZ-65-T) through Purple Mountain. Looking southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Steel Flume on Trestles, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  15. SUMMER 2003 DOCUMENTATION TEAM FOR THE HOUSE, THE 2003 SALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUMMER 2003 DOCUMENTATION TEAM FOR THE HOUSE, THE 2003 SALLY KRESS TOMPKINS FELLOW, AND HABS STAFF IN FRONT OF THE MAIN ENTRANCE AT THE WOODLANDS DURING THE PROJECT CLOSE-OUT, 14 AUGUST 2003. LEFT TO RIGHT, FRONT ROW: SHALINI MAHAJAN, CATHERINE C. LAVOIE, STEVEN B. UTZ, COURTNEY L. GUNDERSON. BACK ROW: MARGARET TULLOCH, JAMES A. JACOBS, ROBERT R. ARZOLA, MORGAN GICK - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Despite a Settlement, Sallie Mae Still Plays Host to College Student-Aid Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    Last April, as part of a $2-million settlement with New York's attorney general, the nation's largest student-loan company, Sallie Mae, agreed to stop providing staff members for colleges' financial-aid offices and call centers at no cost to the institutions. But one year later, Sallie Mae still plays host to the entire online presence for the…

  17. 31 CFR 354.9 - Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Federal Reserve Banks. Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks. 354.9 Section 354.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and...

  18. 31 CFR 354.9 - Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Federal Reserve Banks. Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks. 354.9 Section 354.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and...

  19. 31 CFR 354.9 - Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Federal Reserve Banks. Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks. 354.9 Section 354.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and...

  20. 31 CFR 354.9 - Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Federal Reserve Banks. Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks. 354.9 Section 354.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and...

  1. View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon. FS road #502 is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon. FS road #502 is in the bottom foreground. Looking west-southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Sally May-Purple Mountain Siphon, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  2. View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon Intake house from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon Intake house from the south showing the flume existing. Looking north - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Sally May-Purple Mountain Siphon Intake, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  3. 31 CFR 354.7 - Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.7 Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form... Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form. 354.7 Section 354.7 Money and Finance:...

  4. 31 CFR 354.7 - Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.7 Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form... Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form. 354.7 Section 354.7 Money and Finance:...

  5. 31 CFR 354.7 - Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.7 Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form... Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form. 354.7 Section 354.7 Money and Finance:...

  6. 31 CFR 354.7 - Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FISCAL SERVICE REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.7 Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive... Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form. 354.7 Section 354.7 Money and Finance:...

  7. Astronauts Sally Ride and James Buchli at the CapCom console

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronauts Sally Ride and James Buchli at the CapCom console during the STS-2 simulation (33962); Dele Moore, remote manipulator system (RMS) specialist, stands beside Ride as they go over procedures (33963).

  8. Astronaut Sally K. Ride participates in a mission sequence test for STS-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut Sally K. Ride, left, participates in a mission sequence test for STS-7, in the Kennedy Space Center's vertical processing facility (VPF). She is joined by Anna L. Fisher, a physician and astronaut.

  9. Astronaut Sally K. Ride and John Fabian participates in crew mission test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronauts Sally K. Ride and John M. Fabian, two of the three STS-7 mission specialists, participate in a crew mission test in the Kennedy Space Center's vertical processing facility (VPF). They are both wearing clean suits.

  10. 31 CFR 354.7 - Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.7 Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive...

  11. 31 CFR 354.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and... rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal... the extent not inconsistent with these regulations) and Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars:...

  12. 31 CFR 354.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and... obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and... inconsistent with these regulations) and Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars: (1) The rights...

  13. 31 CFR 354.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and... obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and... inconsistent with these regulations) and Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars: (1) The rights...

  14. 31 CFR 354.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and... obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and... inconsistent with these regulations) and Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars: (1) The rights...

  15. 31 CFR 354.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and... obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and... inconsistent with these regulations) and Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars: (1) The rights...

  16. How America Saves for College, 2009. Sallie Mae's National Study of College Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    Sallie Mae's study, "How America Saves for College 2009," conducted by Gallup, provides a measure of the commitment parents have to helping their children reach higher education and whether and how they are saving for the investment. Based on a nationally representative survey of parents of children under age 18, the study found that without…

  17. Becoming a "History Person" or, If Sally Says It's Possible, It Must Be

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how Sally Smith, founder of The Lab School of Washington, was right about her being a "history person" when she was assigned to teach Democracy at the Lab School. The author was hired to teach Democracy in 1996, after working in the Junior High for a year as an assistant teacher. Smith explained to the author…

  18. Sally L. Smith: A Genius at Seeing the Potential in People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Mary Allen

    2010-01-01

    What this author admired most about Sally Smith was the fact that she was a visionary about people and what they could accomplish. She saw more potential in a person--young or old--than anybody or even they themselves, frankly, had ever even considered possible. She was a genius at seeing the potential in people, expecting them to find it in…

  19. Speech/Language Pathologists Reflect on Sally Smith and the Lab School of Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Sally L. Smith had a clear vision of how she thought speech and language services should be integrated into her school, The Lab School of Washington. It was Smith's idea that language therapists should work individually with students to help them make gains in their particular areas of need, as well as to work collaboratively with the teachers,…

  20. Astronauts Sally Ride and Terry Hart prepare for RMS training for STS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronauts Sally Ride and Terry Hart prepare for remote manipulator system (RMS) training for STS-2 in bldg 9A. Views include Ride, Hart and Robert R. Kain of the Flight Activites Branch reviewing procedures for RMS training (34262); Ride and Hart stand beside the RMS control center looking down at the payload bay mock-up (34263).

  1. Objectivity and Its Discontents: Knowledge Advocacy in the Sally Hemings Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whooley, Owen

    2008-01-01

    The sociology of knowledge, derived from research on the hard sciences, overlooks the potential for outsiders to determine the content of knowledge within professional disciplines. Using the case of the Sally Hemings affair, I introduce the concept of "knowledge advocacy" to analyze how outside groups shape historical knowledge. The Hemings…

  2. Astronaut Sally Ride records some pre-launch activites at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Sally K. Ride, mission specialist for STS-7, records some of the prelaunch activity for STS-6 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Astronaut William B. Lenoir, STS-5 mission specialist, is at left. Others pictured include Richard W. Nygren (center), Chief of the Vehicle Integration Section of the Operations Division at JSC; and Astronaut William F. Fisher, second right.

  3. A Reflective Conversation with Joe Renzulli and Sally Reis: About the Renzulli Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joe; Reis, Sally; Shaughnessy, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Dr. Joe Renzulli and Dr. Sally Reis respond to questions about the newly developed Renzulli Learning System. They discuss the system in light of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) and provide information regarding its use with curriculum compacting and Renzulli's "Three Ring Conceptualization of…

  4. Sally Reis and Joe Renzulli: Models for Education Reform, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The term "talent development" has historically been associated only with gifted education in the K12 education world. But for the past 30 years, husband and wife team Joseph Renzulli and Sally Reis have been steadily increasing the pool of educators trained to apply talent development practices to mainstream instruction through the Renzulli…

  5. Prone to pregnancy: Orlando, Virginia Woolf and Sally Potter represent the gestating body.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jane Maree

    2007-03-01

    The visibility of pregnancy in contemporary societies through various forms of medical imaging has often been interpreted by feminist critics as negative for the autonomy and experience of pregnant women. Here, I consider the representation of pregnancy in Virginia Woolf's novel, Orlando, and Sally Potter's film of the same name arguing that, despite limited critical attention to Orlando's pregnancy, these texts offer a productive interpretation of gestation that counters conventionally reductive cultural images of that embodied state. In particular, I argue that Potter's translation of Woolf's novel to the screen gives us a useful model for thinking through the new visibility of pregnancy in contemporary Western culture.

  6. Revisiting "No Easy Answers": Application of Sally Smith's Methods in the Lab School of Washington High School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The first edition of "No Easy Answers" (Smith, 1995) was published in 1979, thirty years ago. That seminal work is as relevant today as it was when the book first appeared. This article provides a description of how Sally Smith's Academic Club Method is implemented in the High School program of The Lab School of Washington.

  7. How America Saves for College, 2014: Sallie Mae's National Study of Parents with Children under Age 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    This is the fourth report in the Sallie Mae series "How America Saves for College," which launched in 2009. To understand how American families are planning for their children's education, the study captures data on parents' decision-making about savings, the use of savings vehicles, and the amount they save, as well as attitudes toward…

  8. How America Saves for College, 2013. Sallie Mae's National Study of Parents with Children under Age 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    Sallie Mae has conducted an ongoing study, "How America Pays for College," annually since 2008. Through that study, the researchers are able to provide a clearer picture of how the typical American undergraduate is paying for college today. This report is the third in the "How America Saves for College" series conducted since 2009. Interviews took…

  9. SALLY LEVEL II- COMPUTE AND INTEGRATE DISTURBANCE AMPLIFICATION RATES ON SWEPT AND TAPERED LAMINAR FLOW CONTROL WINGS WITH SUCTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srokowski, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The computer program SALLY was developed to compute the incompressible linear stability characteristics and integrate the amplification rates of boundary layer disturbances on swept and tapered wings. For some wing designs, boundary layer disturbance can significantly alter the wing performance characteristics. This is particularly true for swept and tapered laminar flow control wings which incorporate suction to prevent boundary layer separation. SALLY should prove to be a useful tool in the analysis of these wing performance characteristics. The first step in calculating the disturbance amplification rates is to numerically solve the compressible laminar boundary-layer equation with suction for the swept and tapered wing. A two-point finite-difference method is used to solve the governing continuity, momentum, and energy equations. A similarity transformation is used to remove the wall normal velocity as a boundary condition and place it into the governing equations as a parameter. Thus the awkward nonlinear boundary condition is avoided. The resulting compressible boundary layer data is used by SALLY to compute the incompressible linear stability characteristics. The local disturbance growth is obtained from temporal stability theory and converted into a local growth rate for integration. The direction of the local group velocity is taken as the direction of integration. The amplification rate, or logarithmic disturbance amplitude ratio, is obtained by integration of the local disturbance growth over distance. The amplification rate serves as a measure of the growth of linear disturbances within the boundary layer and can serve as a guide in transition prediction. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and ASSEMBLER for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 70 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 67K (octal) of 60 bit words. SALLY was developed in 1979.

  10. Sally Ride and others speak at a women's forum at the Apollo/Saturn V Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former astronaut Sally Ride (left) sits on a panel of women discussing 'Past, Present and Future of Space.' Other participants in the women's forum include Marta Bohn-Meyer (second from left), the first SR-71 female pilot; Kathryn Sullivan, Ph.D., the first American woman to walk in space; Donna Shirley, Ph.D., the first woman leading the Mars Exploration Program; astronaut Yvonne Cagle; Jennifer Harris, flight director, Mars Pathfinder; astronaut Ellen Ochoa, the first Hispanic female in space and member of the President's commission on the Celebration of Women in American History. The panel is being moderated by Lynn Sherr, ABC News correspondent. The forum about women in space included a welcome by Center Director Roy Bridges and remarks by Donna Shalala, secretary of Department of Health and Human Services. The attendees are planning to view the launch of STS-93 at the Banana Creek viewing sight. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. Liftoff is scheduled for July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT.

  11. Sally Ride EarthKAM - Automated Image Geo-Referencing Using Google Earth Web Plug-In

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andres, Paul M.; Lazar, Dennis K.; Thames, Robert Q.

    2013-01-01

    Sally Ride EarthKAM is an educational program funded by NASA that aims to provide the public the ability to picture Earth from the perspective of the International Space Station (ISS). A computer-controlled camera is mounted on the ISS in a nadir-pointing window; however, timing limitations in the system cause inaccurate positional metadata. Manually correcting images within an orbit allows the positional metadata to be improved using mathematical regressions. The manual correction process is time-consuming and thus, unfeasible for a large number of images. The standard Google Earth program allows for the importing of KML (keyhole markup language) files that previously were created. These KML file-based overlays could then be manually manipulated as image overlays, saved, and then uploaded to the project server where they are parsed and the metadata in the database is updated. The new interface eliminates the need to save, download, open, re-save, and upload the KML files. Everything is processed on the Web, and all manipulations go directly into the database. Administrators also have the control to discard any single correction that was made and validate a correction. This program streamlines a process that previously required several critical steps and was probably too complex for the average user to complete successfully. The new process is theoretically simple enough for members of the public to make use of and contribute to the success of the Sally Ride EarthKAM project. Using the Google Earth Web plug-in, EarthKAM images, and associated metadata, this software allows users to interactively manipulate an EarthKAM image overlay, and update and improve the associated metadata. The Web interface uses the Google Earth JavaScript API along with PHP-PostgreSQL to present the user the same interface capabilities without leaving the Web. The simpler graphical user interface will allow the public to participate directly and meaningfully with EarthKAM. The use of

  12. Hearing on the Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1965; Sallie Mae--Safety and Soundness. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education.

    As part of a series of hearings on the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1965, testimony was heard on the safety and soundness of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae). Witnesses discussed many issues surrounding financial oversight of federal agencies and financial risk to the taxpayer through the potential failure of…

  13. Oversight of Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae). Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Hearings concerning the activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) are presented. Attention is focused on a request for an exemption under federal priority for recovering money owed the Association in the event that it files for liquidation or reorganization in the future under the Bankruptcy Act. It is noted that two goals…

  14. Operation: Save Aunt Sally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorin, Barbara; Carver, David, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In grade 6, students should be able to "perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order" (p. 44). In grades 7 and 8, the rules of order of operations are used to simplify progressively complicated expressions and in…

  15. Privatization of Sallie Mae and Connie Lee. Hearing on Examining Proposed Legislation To Allow for an Orderly Transition of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) to Private Status...and a Proposal to Privatize the College Construction Loan Insurance Association (Connie Lee) before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The Subcommittee heard testimony from seven witnesses and statements from three senators on whether or not it is in the Federal Government's best interest to divest itself of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae), and the College Construction Loan Insurance Association (Connie Lee). Lawrence A. Hough of the Student Loan Marketing…

  16. Innovative Lending from Sallie Mae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arceneaux, William

    1984-01-01

    The growth of the Student Loan Marketing Association has brought with it new financial products and services, including use of secured lines of credit to fund individual institutions' loans to parents, the Parent Loans for Undergraduate Studies, loans to states, and expanded purchase and commitment options. (MSE)

  17. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA. PMID:27883040

  18. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA.

  19. Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    2 Figure 2. Photograph of the activated nanoporous silicon chip in the PVC container showing attached firing leads; JA2 propellant disk rests...chips, and each chip was placed singly in a transparent, flexible polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) container. The PVC container (see figure 2) contained...room. The electrical leads on the outside of the PVC container were connected to the firing circuitry (an impressed voltage of 3 V across the chip

  20. Endogenous Bioactive Jasmonate Is Composed of a Set of (+)-7-iso-JA-Amino Acid Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jianbin; Li, Suhua; Gu, Min; Yao, Ruifeng; Li, Yuwen; Chen, Juan; Yang, Mai; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Nan, Fajun; Xie, Daoxin

    2016-12-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) regulate a wide range of plant defense and development processes. The bioactive JA is perceived by its receptor COI1 to trigger the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and subsequently derepress the JAZ-repressed transcription factors for activation of expression of JA-responsive genes. So far, (+)-7-iso-JA-l-Ile has been the only identified endogenous bioactive JA molecule. Here, we designed coronafacic acid (CFA) conjugates with all the amino acids (CFA-AA) to mimic the JA amino acid conjugates, and revealed that (+)-7-iso-JA-Leu, (+)-7-iso-JA-Val, (+)-7-iso-JA-Met, and (+)-7-iso-JA-Ala are new endogenous bioactive JA molecules. Furthermore, our studies uncover the general characteristics for all the bioactive JA molecules, and provide a new strategy to synthetically generate novel active JA molecules.

  1. RuBPCase activase mediates growth-defense tradeoffs: Silencing RCA redirects JA flux from JA-Ile to MeJA to attenuate induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sirsha; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary RuBPCase activase (RCA), an abundant photosynthetic protein is strongly down-regulated in response to Manduca sexta’s oral secretion (OS) in Nicotiana attenuata. RCA-silenced plants are impaired not only in photosynthetic capacity and growth, but also in jasmonic acid (JA)-isoleucine (Ile) signaling, and herbivore resistance mediated by JA-Ile dependent defense traits. These responses are consistent with a resource-based growth-defense trade-off. Since JA+Ile-supplementation of OS restored WT levels of JA-Ile, defenses and resistance to M. sexta, but OS supplemented individually with JA- or Ile did not, the JA-Ile deficiency of RCA-silenced plants could not be attributed to lower JA or Ile pools or JAR4/6 conjugating activity. Similar levels of JA-Ile derivatives after OS elicitation indicated unaltered JA-Ile turnover and lower levels of other JA-conjugates ruled out competition from other conjugation reactions. RCA-silenced plants accumulated more methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after OS elicitation, which corresponded with increased jasmonate methyltransferase (JMT) activity. RCA-silencing phenocopies JMT over-expression, wherein elevated JMT activity redirects OS-elicited JA flux towards inactive MeJA, creating a JA sink which depletes JA-Ile and its associated defense responses. Hence RCA plays an additional non-photosynthetic role in attenuating JA-mediated defenses and their associated costs potentially allowing plants to anticipate resource-based constraints on growth before they actually occur. PMID:24491116

  2. Sally's Corner: Coping with Unmarried Motherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presser, Harriet B.

    1980-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal survey of first parity, mostly Black mothers in New York City, examines the coping strategies of unmarried mothers. Analyzes the expansion of role responsibilities and support systems utilized and discusses the relationship between support systems and subsequent fertility. Presents three case studies. (Author/GC)

  3. The University of Jaén Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; García-Hernández, María T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a description and instrumental characterization of the photometric equipment of the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Jaén. The observatory hosts a 41 cm automated telescope inside a 4 m dome located at the university main campus, in the outskirts of the city of Jaén (Spain). This facility is used for educational, outreach and occasional scientific research on bright stellar objects. Despite the observatory location in a light polluted urban area, its performance for differential photometry studies has proven to be very acceptable. The discovery of the Be star LS I +5979 as a peculiar eclipsing binary system is so far the most relevant achievement.

  4. Increased SA in NPR1-silenced plants antagonizes JA and JA-dependent direct and indirect defenses in herbivore-attacked Nicotiana attenuata in nature.

    PubMed

    Rayapuram, Cbgowda; Baldwin, Ian T

    2007-11-01

    The phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is known to mediate herbivore resistance, while salicylic acid (SA) and non-expressor of PR-1 (NPR1) mediate pathogen resistance in many plants. Herbivore attack on Nicotiana attenuata elicits increases in JA and JA-mediated defenses, but also increases SA levels and Na-NPR1 transcripts from the plant's single genomic copy. SA treatment of wild-type plants increases Na-NPR1 and Na-PR1 transcripts. Plants silenced in NPR1 accumulation by RNAi (ir-npr1) are highly susceptible to herbivore and pathogen attack when planted in their native habitat in Utah. They are also impaired in their ability to attract Geocorus pallens predators, due to their decreased ability to release cis-alpha-bergamotene, a JA-elicited volatile 'alarm call'. In the glasshouse, Spodoptera exigua larvae grew better on ir-npr1 plants, which had low levels of JA, JA-isoleucine/leucine, lipoxygenase-3 (LOX3) transcripts and JA-elicited direct defense metabolites (nicotine, caffeoyl putrescine and rutin), but high levels of SA and isochorismate synthase (ICS) transcripts, suggesting de novo biosynthesis of SA. A microarray analysis revealed downregulation of many JA-elicited genes and upregulation of SA biosynthetic genes. JA treatment restored nicotine levels and resistance to S. exigua in ir-npr1 plants. We conclude that, during herbivore attack, NPR1 negatively regulates SA production, allowing the unfettered elicitation of JA-mediated defenses; when NPR1 is silenced, the elicited increases in SA production antagonize JA and JA-related defenses, making the plants susceptible to herbivores.

  5. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its ro...

  6. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  7. Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity of two diastereomeric JA-Ile macrolactones.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Machado, Ricardo A R; Görls, Helmar; Baldwin, Ian T; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-06-07

    Jasmonates are phytohormones involved in a wide range of plant processes, including growth, development, senescence, and defense. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile, 2), an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA, 1), has been identified as a bioactive endogenous jasmonate. However, JA-Ile (2) analogues trigger different responses in the plant. ω-Hydroxylation of the pentenyl side chain leads to the inactive 12-OH-JA-Ile (3) acting as a “stop” signal. On the other hand, a lactone derivative of 12-OH-JA (5) (jasmine ketolactone, JKL) occurs in nature, although with no known biological function. Inspired by the chemical structure of JKL (6) and in order to further explore the potential biological activities of 12-modified JA-Ile derivatives, we synthesized two macrolactones (JA-Ile-lactones (4a) and (4b)) derived from 12-OH-JA-Ile (3). The biological activity of (4a) and (4b) was tested for their ability to elicit nicotine production, a well-known jasmonate dependent secondary metabolite. Both macrolactones showed strong biological activity, inducing nicotine accumulation to a similar extent as methyl jasmonate does in Nicotiana attenuata leaves. Surprisingly, the highest nicotine contents were found in plants treated with the JA-Ile-lactone (4b), which has (3S,7S) configuration at the cyclopentanone not known from natural jasmonates. Macrolactone (4a) is a valuable standard to explore for its occurrence in nature.

  8. Novel bioactive oxazolomycin isomers produced by Streptomyces albus JA3453.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, H; Wada, K; Nitoda, T; Kawazu, K

    1998-03-01

    Two novel oxazolomycin isomers, oxazolomycins B (2) and C (3), were isolated from the fermentation broth of an oxazolomycin-producing strain, Streptomyces albus JA3453. Both compounds are geometrical isomers of oxazolomycin (1), the configurations of their triene moieties being (4'E, 6'E, 8'E) (2) and (4'Z, 6'E, 8'E) (3) while that of oxazolomycin (1) is (4'Z, 6'Z, 8'E). Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against crown gall formation with the same MIC (0.8 microgram/disk) as oxazolomycin. Compounds 2 and 3 showed no antibacterial activity against Agrobacterium tumefaciens, in contrast to oxazolomycin which has specific anti-A. tumefaciens activity.

  9. THE PROGENITOR OF SN 2011ja: CLUES FROM CIRCUMSTELLAR INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Ray, Alak; Yadav, Naveen; Smith, Randall; Ryder, Stuart; Sutaria, Firoza; Dwarkadas, Vikram V.; Chandra, Poonam; Pooley, David; Roy, Rupak

    2013-09-01

    Massive stars, possibly red supergiants, which retain extended hydrogen envelopes until core collapse, produce Type II plateau (IIP) supernovae. The ejecta from these explosions shocks the circumstellar matter originating from the mass loss of the progenitor during the final phases of its life. This interaction accelerates particles to relativistic energies which then lose energy via synchrotron radiation in the shock-amplified magnetic fields and inverse Compton scattering against optical photons from the supernova. These processes produce different signatures in the radio and X-ray parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Observed together, they allow us to break the degeneracy between shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification. In this work, we use X-rays observations from the Chandra and radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array to study the relative importance of processes which accelerate particles and those which amplify magnetic fields in producing the non-thermal radiation from SN 2011ja. We use radio observations to constrain the explosion date. Multiple Chandra observations allow us to probe the history of variable mass loss from the progenitor. The ejecta expands into a low-density bubble followed by interaction with a higher density wind from a red supergiant consistent with M{sub ZAMS} {approx}> 12 M{sub Sun }. Our results suggest that a fraction of Type IIP supernovae may interact with circumstellar media set up by non-steady winds.

  10. Continuous Dust Formation in SNe 2010jl and 2011ja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafton, Kelsie; Clayton, Geoffrey; Andrews, Jennifer; Barlow, Michael; De Looze, Ilse

    2016-08-01

    Studies in the last 10 years of dust formation in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) have found only small amounts, ~0.001 solar masses. This is far less than the amount needed to account for the large masses of dust seen in some high redshift galaxies. However, the recent discovery of ~1 solar mass of cold dust in the ejecta of SN 1987A has has caused a complete re-evaluation of dust formation in CCSNe. It has been suggested that the CCSNe are continuously forming dust so that by the time they are about 25 years old they will have dust masses similar to SN 1987A. However, there is a wide time gap between the CCSNe that have been studied recently and SN 1987A. We plan to use the sensitivity of Spitzer to detect dust emission from CCSNe 5 or more years after explosion. Radiative transfer models will be used to estimate the dust masses. This proposal is to continue our study of two interesting SNe 2010jl and 2011ja. These observations are part of a long term study requiring multiple epochs of Spitzer observations to look for evidence of continuous dust formation. These observations will help shed light on the mystery of dust in SN 1987A.

  11. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    associated with epileptogenesis were determined. It was determined that upregulation of the JaK/STAT pathway in the injured hippocampus occurs after CCI...inhibitor, WP1066. Blocking JaK/STAT3 activity did not prevent loss of GABA cells in the injured hippocampus . Inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the...reduce development of post-traumatic epilepsy, and did not significantly improve memory function, but did enhance the motor recovery. These findings

  12. Shared binding sites in Lepidoptera for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins.

    PubMed

    Herrero, S; González-Cabrera, J; Tabashnik, B E; Ferré, J

    2001-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxins act by binding to specific target sites in the insect midgut epithelial membrane. The best-known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is reduced binding to target sites. Because alteration of a binding site shared by several toxins may cause resistance to all of them, knowledge of which toxins share binding sites is useful for predicting cross-resistance. Conversely, cross-resistance among toxins suggests that the toxins share a binding site. At least two strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with resistance to Cry1A toxins and reduced binding of Cry1A toxins have strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ja. Thus, we hypothesized that Cry1Ja shares binding sites with Cry1A toxins. We tested this hypothesis in six moth and butterfly species, each from a different family: Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae), Lobesia botrana (Tortricidae), Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae), P. xylostella (Plutellidae), and Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae). Although the extent of competition varied among species, experiments with biotinylated Cry1Ja and radiolabeled Cry1Ac showed that Cry1Ja and Cry1Ac competed for binding sites in all six species. A recent report also indicates shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins in Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). Thus, shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A occur in all lepidopteran species tested so far.

  13. Update from the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM).

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) was established in 2005 to promote the use of alternatives to animal testing in regulatory studies, thereby replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, according to the Three Rs principles. JaCVAM assesses the utility, limitations and suitability for use in regulatory studies, of test methods needed to determine the safety of chemicals and other materials. JaCVAM also organises and performs validation studies of new test methods, when necessary. In addition, JaCVAM co-operates and collaborates with similar organisations in related fields, both in Japan and internationally, which also enables JaCVAM to provide input during the establishment of guidelines for new alternative experimental methods. These activities help facilitate application and approval processes for the manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, pesticides, and other products, as well as for revisions to standards for cosmetic products. In this manner, JaCVAM plays a leadership role in the introduction of new alternative experimental methods for regulatory acceptance in Japan.

  14. Expression of a Flax Allene Oxide Synthase cDNA Leads to Increased Endogenous Jasmonic Acid (JA) Levels in Transgenic Potato Plants but Not to a Corresponding Activation of JA-Responding Genes.

    PubMed Central

    Harms, K.; Atzorn, R.; Brash, A.; Kuhn, H.; Wasternack, C.; Willmitzer, L.; Pena-Cortes, H.

    1995-01-01

    Both jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are thought to be significant components of the signaling pathway regulating the expression of plant defense genes in response to various stresses. JA and MeJA are plant lipid derivatives synthesized from [alpha]-linolenic acid by a lipoxygenase-mediated oxygenation leading to 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid, which is subsequently transformed by the action of allene oxide synthase (AOS) and additional modification steps. AOS converts lipoxygenase-derived fatty acid hydroperoxide to allene epoxide, which is the precursor for JA formation. Overexpression of flax AOS cDNA under the regulation of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic potato plants led to an increase in the endogenous level of JA. Transgenic plants had six- to 12-fold higher levels of JA than the nontransformed plants. Increased levels of JA have been observed when potato and tomato plants are mechanically wounded. Under these conditions, the proteinase inhibitor II (pin2) genes are expressed in the leaves. Despite the fact that the transgenic plants had levels of JA similar to those found in nontransgenic wounded plants, pin2 genes were not constitutively expressed in the leaves of these plants. Transgenic plants with increased levels of JA did not show changes in water state or in the expression of water stress-responsive genes. Furthermore, the transgenic plants overexpressing the flax AOS gene, and containing elevated levels of JA, responded to wounding or water stress by a further increase in JA and by activating the expression of either wound- or water stress-inducible genes. Protein gel blot analysis demonstrated that the flax-derived AOS protein accumulated in the chloroplasts of the transgenic plants. PMID:12242357

  15. Optimal functional levels of activation-induced deaminase specifically require the Hsp40 DnaJa1

    PubMed Central

    Orthwein, Alexandre; Zahn, Astrid; Methot, Stephen P; Godin, David; Conticello, Silvestro G; Terada, Kazutoyo; Di Noia, Javier M

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID) deaminates deoxycytidine at the immunoglobulin genes, thereby initiating antibody affinity maturation and isotype class switching during immune responses. In contrast, off-target DNA damage caused by AID is oncogenic. Central to balancing immunity and cancer is AID regulation, including the mechanisms determining AID protein levels. We describe a specific functional interaction between AID and the Hsp40 DnaJa1, which provides insight into the function of both proteins. Although both major cytoplasmic type I Hsp40s, DnaJa1 and DnaJa2, are induced upon B-cell activation and interact with AID in vitro, only DnaJa1 overexpression increases AID levels and biological activity in cell lines. Conversely, DnaJa1, but not DnaJa2, depletion reduces AID levels, stability and isotype switching. In vivo, DnaJa1-deficient mice display compromised response to immunization, AID protein and isotype switching levels being reduced by half. Moreover, DnaJa1 farnesylation is required to maintain, and farnesyltransferase inhibition reduces, AID protein levels in B cells. Thus, DnaJa1 is a limiting factor that plays a non-redundant role in the functional stabilization of AID. PMID:22085931

  16. A balanced JA/ABA status may correlate with adaptation to osmotic stress in Vitis cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed; Seo, Mitsunori; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Water-related stress is considered a major type of plant stress. Osmotic stress, in particular, represents the common part of all water-related stresses. Therefore, plants have evolved different adaptive mechanisms to cope with osmotic-related disturbances. In the current work, two grapevine cell lines that differ in their osmotic adaptability, Vitis rupestris and Vitis riparia, were investigated under mannitol-induced osmotic stress. To dissect signals that lead to adaptability from those related to sensitivity, osmotic-triggered responses with respect to jasmonic acid (JA) and its active form JA-Ile, abscisic acid (ABA), and stilbene compounds, as well as the expression of their related genes were observed. In addition, the transcript levels of the cellular homeostasis gene NHX1 were examined. The data are discussed with a hypothesis suggesting that a balance of JA and ABA status might correlate with cellular responses, either guiding cells to sensitivity or to progress toward adaptation.

  17. Hispanos en la EPA: Sally Gutiérrez

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La diversidad de la fuerza laboral es importante para la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés). Los empleados hispanos de la EPA contribuyen diariamente hacia la protección de la salud y el medio ambiente.

  18. Integrated metabolomic and proteomic analysis reveals systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Prasuna, M Lakshmi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch Venkata

    2015-02-06

    Aromatic amines are widely distributed in the environment and are major environmental pollutants. Although degradation of aromatic amines is well studied in bacteria, physiological adaptations and stress response to these toxic compounds is not yet fully understood. In the present study, systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress were deciphered using metabolite and iTRAQ-labeled protein profiling. Strain JA2 tolerated high concentrations of aniline (30 mM) with trace amounts of aniline being transformed to acetanilide. GC-MS metabolite profiling revealed aniline stress phenotype wherein amino acid, carbohydrate, fatty acid, nitrogen metabolisms, and TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) were modulated. Strain JA2 responded to aniline by remodeling the proteome, and cellular functions, such as signaling, transcription, translation, stress tolerance, transport and carbohydrate metabolism, were highly modulated. Key adaptive responses, such as transcription/translational changes, molecular chaperones to control protein folding, and efflux pumps implicated in solvent extrusion, were induced in response to aniline stress. Proteo-metabolomics indicated extensive rewiring of metabolism to aniline. TCA cycle and amino acid catabolism were down-regulated while gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated, leading to the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, increased saturated fatty acid ratios in membranes due to aniline stress suggest membrane adaptation. The present study thus indicates that strain JA2 employs multilayered responses: stress response, toxic compound tolerance, energy conservation, and metabolic rearrangements to aniline.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Yan; Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis.

  20. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  1. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  2. Physiological Characteristics and Production of Folic Acid of Lactobacillus plantarum JA71 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid, one of the B group of vitamins, is an essential substance for maintaining the functions of the nervous system, and is also known to decrease the level of homocysteine in plasma. Homocysteine influences the lowering of the cognitive function in humans, and especially in elderly people. In order to determine the strains with a strong capacity to produce folic acid, 190 bacteria were isolated from various kinds of jeotgal and chungkuk-jang. In our test experiment, JA71 was found to contain 9.03μg/mL of folic acid after 24 h of incubation in an MRS broth. This showed that JA71 has the highest folic acid production ability compared to the other lactic acid bacteria that were isolated. JA71 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16s rDNA sequence. JA71 was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of JA71 was 37℃, and the cultures took 12 h to reach pH 4.4. JA71 proved more sensitive to bacitracin when compared with fifteen different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to neomycin and vancomycin. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant of bile juice and acid, and displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus with restraint rates of 60.4%, 96.7%, and 76.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate that JA71 could be an excellent strain for application to functional products. PMID:26760752

  3. New Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (JA-ABC5) Algorithm with Application for Reactive Power Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement. PMID:25879054

  4. Aniline is an inducer, and not a precursor, for indole derivatives in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Mohammed; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-01-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 and other anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria produce indole derivatives when exposed to aniline, a xenobiotic compound. Though this phenomenon has been reported previously, the role of aniline in the production of indoles is still a biochemical riddle. The present study aims at understanding the specific role of aniline (as precursor or stimulator) in the production of indoles and elucidating the biochemical pathway of indoles in aniline-exposed cells by using stable isotope approaches. Metabolic profiling revealed tryptophan accumulation only in aniline exposed cells along with indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-aldehyde (IAld), the two major catabolites of tryptophan. Deuterium labelled aniline feeding studies revealed that aniline is not a precursor of indoles in strain JA2. Further, production of indoles only in aniline-exposed cells suggests that aniline is an indoles stimulator. In addition, production of indoles depended on the presence of a carbon source, and production enhanced when carbon sources were added to the culture. Isotope labelled fumarate feeding identified, fumarate as the precursor of indole, indicating de novo synthesis of indoles. Glyphosate (shikimate pathway inhibitor) inhibited the indoles production, accumulation of tryptophan, IAA and IAld indicating that indoles synthesis in strain JA2 occurs via the de novo shikimate pathway. The up-regulation of anthranilate synthase gene and induction of anthranilate synthase activity correlated well with tryptophan production in strain JA2. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activities corroborated well with IAA levels, suggesting that tryptophan catabolism occurs simultaneously in aniline exposed cells. Our study demonstrates that aniline (stress) stimulates tryptophan/indoles synthesis via the shikimate pathway by possibly modulating the metabolic pathway.

  5. Aniline Is an Inducer, and Not a Precursor, for Indole Derivatives in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mujahid; Ch, Sasikala; Ch, Ramana V.

    2014-01-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 and other anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria produce indole derivatives when exposed to aniline, a xenobiotic compound. Though this phenomenon has been reported previously, the role of aniline in the production of indoles is still a biochemical riddle. The present study aims at understanding the specific role of aniline (as precursor or stimulator) in the production of indoles and elucidating the biochemical pathway of indoles in aniline-exposed cells by using stable isotope approaches. Metabolic profiling revealed tryptophan accumulation only in aniline exposed cells along with indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-aldehyde (IAld), the two major catabolites of tryptophan. Deuterium labelled aniline feeding studies revealed that aniline is not a precursor of indoles in strain JA2. Further, production of indoles only in aniline-exposed cells suggests that aniline is an indoles stimulator. In addition, production of indoles depended on the presence of a carbon source, and production enhanced when carbon sources were added to the culture. Isotope labelled fumarate feeding identified, fumarate as the precursor of indole, indicating de novo synthesis of indoles. Glyphosate (shikimate pathway inhibitor) inhibited the indoles production, accumulation of tryptophan, IAA and IAld indicating that indoles synthesis in strain JA2 occurs via the de novo shikimate pathway. The up-regulation of anthranilate synthase gene and induction of anthranilate synthase activity correlated well with tryptophan production in strain JA2. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activities corroborated well with IAA levels, suggesting that tryptophan catabolism occurs simultaneously in aniline exposed cells. Our study demonstrates that aniline (stress) stimulates tryptophan/indoles synthesis via the shikimate pathway by possibly modulating the metabolic pathway. PMID:24533057

  6. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  7. The crosstalk between Target of Rapamycin (TOR) and Jasmonic Acid (JA) signaling existing in Arabidopsis and cotton

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun; Zhao, Ge; Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Linxuan; Xiong, Fangjie; Zhuo, Fengping; Zhang, Chaojun; Yang, Zuoren; Datla, Raju; Ren, Maozhi; Li, Fuguang

    2017-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) acts as an important regulator of cell growth, development and stress responses in most examined diploid eukaryotes. However, little is known about TOR in tetraploid species such as cotton. Here, we show that TORC1-S6K-RPS6, the major signaling components, are conserved and further expanded in cotton genome. Though the cotton seedlings are insensitive to rapamycin, AZD8055, the second-generation inhibitor of TOR, can significantly suppress the growth in cotton. Global transcriptome analysis revealed that genes associated with jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and transduction were significantly altered in AZD8055 treated cotton seedlings, suggesting the potential crosstalk between TOR and JA signaling. Pharmacological and genetic approaches have been employed to get further insights into the molecular mechanism of the crosstalk between TOR and JA. Combination of AZD8055 with methyl jasmonate can synergistically inhibit cotton growth, and additionally JA levels were significantly increased when cotton seedlings were subjected to AZD8055. JA biosynthetic and signaling mutants including jar1, coi1-2 and myc2-2 displayed TOR inhibitor-resistant phenotypes, whereas COI1 overexpression transgenic lines and jaz10 exhibited sensitivity to AZD8055. Consistently, cotton JAZ can partially rescue TOR-suppressed phenotypes in Arabidopsis. These evidences revealed that the crosstalk between TOR and JA pathway operates in cotton and Arabidopsis. PMID:28374843

  8. Priming for JA-dependent defenses using hexanoic acid is an effective mechanism to protect Arabidopsis against B. cinerea.

    PubMed

    Kravchuk, Zhana; Vicedo, Begonya; Flors, Víctor; Camañes, Gemma; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2011-03-01

    Soil drench treatments with hexanoic acid can effectively protect Arabidopsis plants against Botrytis cinerea through a mechanism based on a stronger and faster accumulation of JA-dependent defenses. Plants impaired in ethylene, salicylic acid, abscisic acid or glutathion pathways showed intact protection by hexanoic acid upon B. cinerea infection. Accordingly, no significant changes in the SA marker gene PR-1 in either the SA or ABA hormone balance were observed in the infected and treated plants. In contrast, the JA signaling pathway showed dramatic changes after hexanoic acid treatment, mainly when the pathogen was present. The impaired JA mutants, jin1-2 and jar1, were unable to display hexanoic acid priming against the necrotroph. In addition, hexanoic acid-treated plants infected with B. cinerea showed priming in the expression of the PDF1.2, PR-4 and VSP1 genes implicated in the JA pathways. Moreover, JA and OPDA levels were primed at early stages by hexanoic acid. Treatments also stimulated increased callose accumulation in response to the pathogen. Although callose accumulation has proved an effective IR mechanism against B. cinerea, it is apparently not essential to express hexanoic acid-induced resistance (HxAc-IR) because the mutant pmr4.1 (callose synthesis defective mutant) is protected by treatment. We recently described how hexanoic acid treatments can protect tomato plants against B. cinerea by stimulating ABA-dependent callose deposition and by priming OPDA and JA-Ile production. We clearly demonstrate here that Hx-IR is a dependent plant species, since this acid protects Arabidopsis plants against the same necrotroph by priming JA-dependent defenses without enhancing callose accumulation.

  9. Rice Rab11 is required for JA-mediated defense signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Min Ji; Lee, Yun mi; Son, Young Sim; Im, Chak Han; Yi, Young Byung; Rim, Yeong Gil; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Heo, Jae Bok

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •OsRab11 interacts with OsOPR8. •OsOPR8 is localized in the cytosol and peroxisome. •OsRab11 enhances the NADPH consumption by OsOPR8. •Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OsRab11 represents a pathogen-resistant phenotype. -- Abstract: Rab proteins play an essential role in regulating vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Previously, we characterized OsRab11, which in concert with OsGAP1 and OsGDI3 regulates vesicular trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane or vacuole. To further elucidate the physiological function of OsRab11 in plants, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using OsRab11 as bait. OsOPR8 was isolated and shown to interact with OsRab11. A co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed this interaction. The green fluorescent protein-OsOPR8 fusion product was targeted to the cytoplasm and peroxisomes of protoplasts from Arabidopsis thaliana. OsOPR8 exhibited NADPH-dependent reduction activity when 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CyHE) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) were supplied as possible substrates. Interestingly, NADPH oxidation by OsOPR8 was increased when wild-type OsRab11 or the constitutively active form of OsRab11 (Q78L) were included in the reaction mix, but not when the dominant negative form of OsRab11 (S28N) was included. OsRab11 was expressed broadly in plants and both OsRab11 and OsOPR8 were induced by jasmonic acid (JA) and elicitor treatments. Overexpressed OsRab11 transgenic plants showed resistance to pathogens through induced expression of JA-responsive genes. In conclusion, OsRab11 may be required for JA-mediated defense signaling by activating the reducing activity of OsOPR8.

  10. MAPK-dependent JA and SA signalling in Nicotiana attenuata affects plant growth and fitness during competition with conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Induced defense responses to herbivores are generally believed to have evolved as cost-saving strategies that defer the fitness costs of defense metabolism until these defenses are needed. The fitness costs of jasmonate (JA)-mediated defenses have been well documented. Those of the early signaling units mediating induced resistance to herbivores have yet to be examined. Early signaling components that mediate herbivore-induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata, have been well characterized and here we examine their growth and fitness costs during competition with conspecifics. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK) are rapidly activated after perception of herbivory and both kinases regulate herbivory-induced JA levels and JA-mediated defense metabolite accumulations. Since JA-induced defenses result in resource-based trade-offs that compromise plant productivity, we evaluated if silencing SIPK (irSIPK) and WIPK (irWIPK) benefits the growth and fitness of plants competiting with wild type (WT) plants, as has been shown for plants silenced in JA-signaling by the reduction of Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3) levels. Results As expected, irWIPK and LOX3-silenced plants out-performed their competing WT plants. Surprisingly, irSIPK plants, which have the largest reductions in JA signaling, did not. Phytohormone profiling of leaves revealed that irSIPK plants accumulated higher levels of SA compared to WT. To test the hypothesis that these high levels of SA, and their presumed associated fitness costs of pathogen associated defenses in irSIPK plants had nullified the JA-deficiency-mediated growth benefits in these plants, we genetically reduced SA levels in irSIPK plants. Reducing SA levels partially recovered the biomass and fitness deficits of irSIPK plants. We also evaluated whether the increased fitness of plants with reduced SA or JA levels resulted from

  11. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress.

  12. OsJAR1 is required for JA-regulated floret opening and anther dehiscence in rice.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuguo; Chen, Yi; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Mulder, Patrick P J; Heijmans, Jeroen; Hoogenboom, Angela; Agalou, Adamantia; Michel, Corinne; Morel, Jean-Benoit; Dreni, Ludovico; Kater, Martin M; Bouwmeester, Harro; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Zhen; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F

    2014-09-01

    Jasmonates are important phytohormones regulating reproductive development. We used two recessive rice Tos17 alleles of OsJAR1, osjar1-2 and osjar1-3, to study the biological function of jasmonates in rice anthesis. The florets of both osjar1 alleles stayed open during anthesis because the lodicules, which control flower opening in rice, were not withering on time. Furthermore, dehiscence of the anthers filled with viable pollen, was impaired, resulting in lower fertility. In situ hybridization and promoter GUS transgenic analysis confirmed OsJAR1 expression in these floral tissues. Flower opening induced by exogenous applied methyl jasmonate was impaired in osjar1 plants and was restored in a complementation experiment with transgenics expressing a wild type copy of OsJAR1 controlled by a rice actin promoter. Biochemical analysis showed that OsJAR1 encoded an enzyme conjugating jasmonic acid (JA) to at least Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp and Val and both osjar1 alleles had substantial reduction in content of JA-Ile, JA-Leu and JA-Val in florets. We conclude that OsJAR1 is a JA-amino acid synthetase that is required for optimal flower opening and closing and anther dehiscence in rice.

  13. Kinetics and regulation of lactose transport and metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis JA6.

    PubMed

    Santos, A M; Silveira, W B; Fietto, L G; Brandão, R L; Castro, I M

    2014-07-01

    Kluyveromyces lactis strains are able to assimilate lactose. They have been used industrially to eliminate this sugar from cheese whey and in other industrial products. In this study, we investigated specific features and the kinetic parameters of the lactose transport system in K. lactis JA6. In lactose grown cells, lactose was transported by a system transport with a half-saturation constant (K s) of 1.49 ± 0.38 mM and a maximum velocity (V max) of 0.96 ± 0.12 mmol. (g dry weight)(-1) h(-1) for lactose. The transport system was constitutive and energy-dependent. Results obtained by different approaches showed that the lactose transport system was regulated by glucose at the transcriptional level and by glucose and other sugars at a post-translational level. In K. lactis JA6, galactose metabolization was under glucose control. These findings indicated that the regulation of lactose-galactose regulon in K. lactis was similar to the regulation of galactose regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  14. Early dust formation and a massive progenitor for SN 2011ja?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. E.; Krafton, Kelsie M.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Montiel, E.; Wesson, R.; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M.; Drass, H.

    2016-04-01

    SN 2011ja was a bright (I = -18.3) Type II supernova occurring in the nearby edge on spiral galaxy NGC 4945. Flat-topped and multipeaked H α and H β spectral emission lines appear between 64 and 84 d post-explosion, indicating interaction with a disc-like circumstellar medium inclined ˜45° from edge-on. After day 84, an increase in the H- and K-band flux along with heavy attenuation of the red wing of the emission lines are strong indications of early dust formation, likely located in the cool dense shell created between the forward shock of the SN ejecta and the reverse shock created as the ejecta plows into the existing circumstellar material. Radiative transfer modelling reveals both ≈1 × 10-5 M⊙ of pre-existing dust located ˜1016.7 cm away and up to ≈6 × 10-4 M⊙ of newly formed dust. Spectral observations after 1.5 yr reveal the possibility that the fading SN is located within a young (3-6 Myr) massive stellar cluster, which when combined with tentative 56Ni mass estimates of 0.2 M⊙ may indicate a massive (≥25 M⊙) progenitor for SN 2011ja.

  15. Draft genome sequence of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643T with special reference to hopanoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tushar, L; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-12-01

    Hopanoids are present in vast amounts as integral components of bacteria and plants with their primary function to strengthen rigidity of the plasma membrane. To establish their roles more precisely, we conducted sequencing of the whole genome of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643(T) isolated from a fresh water stream of Udaipur in Himachal Pradesh, India, by using the Illumina HiSeq pair end chemistry of 2 × 100 bp platform. Determined genome showed a high degree of similarity to the genome of R. vannielii ATCC17100(T) and the 13.7 million reads generated a sequence of 3,649,277 bp possessing 3,611 putative genes. The genomic data were subsequently investigated with respect to genes involved in various features. The machinery required for the degradation of aromatic compounds and resistance to solvents as well as all that required for photosynthesis are present in this organism. Also, through extensive functional annotation, 18 genes involved in the biosynthesis of hopanoids are predicted, namely those responsible for the synthesis of diploptene, diplopterol, adenosylhopane, ribosylhopane, aminobacteriohopanetriol, glycosyl group containing hopanoids and unsaturated hopanoids. The hopanoid biosynthetic pathway was then inferred based on the genes identified and through experimental validation of individual hopanoid molecules. The genome data of R. udaipurense JA643(T) will be useful in understanding the functional features of hopanoids in this bacterium.

  16. Acute oral toxicity of ja-2 solid propellant in sprague-dawley rats. Report for 12 November-19 December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.D.; Justus, J.D.; Wheeler, C.R.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-12-01

    The acute oral toxicity of JA-2 Solid Propellant was determined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats by using an oral gavage split-dose method. The MLD was 3990.6 + or - 349.7 mg/kg for male rats and 2545.9 + or - 421.1 mg/kg for female rats. JA-2 produced clinical signs that were attributed to its nitrate ester components, diethyleneglycol dinitrate and nitroglycerin. These signs included tremors and twitching, cyanosis, and increases in respiratory rate and depth. Other clinical signs observed were associated with the general malaise of the animals following dosing and included hunched posture, rough coat, reddish stains around the eyes and nose, and perianal staining. Most animals exhibited signs by 4 hours after dosing and either had died or the signs had cleared by 96 hours after dosing. According to the classification scheme of Hodge and Sterner, these results place JA-2 in the slightly toxic class.

  17. Acute oral toxicity of JA-2 solid propellant in icr mice. Report for 17 December 1985-17 January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, E.W.; Frost, D.F.; Wheller, C.R.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-12-01

    The acute oral toxicity of JA-2 Solid Propellant was determined in male and female ICR mice by using an oral gavage, split-dose method. The MLD was 3774.6 + or - 150.5 mg/kg for male mice and 3528.8 + or - 133.8 mg/kg for female mice. JA-2 produced component, diethyleneglycol dinitrate and nitroglycerin. These signs included tremors, inactivity, depression of reflexes, loss of equilibrium, opisthotonus, and increased respiratory activity. Other clinical signs observed were associated with the general malaise of the animals following dosing and included perianal staining, hunched posture, squinting, and rough coat. Most animals exhibited signs by 2 hours after dosing and either had died or the signs had cleared within 5 days of dosing. According to the classification scheme of Hodge and Sterner, these results place JA-2 in the slightly toxic class.

  18. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility and maintenance in JA-CMS cotton.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Han, Jinfeng; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE) genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS) and microsporocyte stage (MS) (the two most important stages for pollen abortion in JA-CMS) between JA-CMS and its fertile maintainer line JB cotton plants, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 709 (1.8%) DE genes including 293 up-regulated and 416 down-regulated genes were identified in JA-CMS line comparing with its maintainer line at the SS stage, and 644 (1.6%) DE genes with 263 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes were detected at the MS stage. By comparing the two stages in the same material, there were 8 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JA-CMS line and 29 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JB maintainer line at the MS stage. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate 7 randomly selected DE genes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes involved in reduction-oxidation reactions and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism were down-regulated, while genes pertaining to photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated in JA-CMS floral buds compared with their JB counterparts at the SS and/or MS stages. All these four biological processes play important roles in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, which may be an important factor contributing to the sterile trait of JA-CMS. Further experiments are warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms of these genes that lead to CMS.

  19. Banana fruit VQ motif-containing protein5 represses cold-responsive transcription factor MaWRKY26 involved in the regulation of JA biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Han, Yan-Chao; Shan, Wei; Fan, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Qun-Gang; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Most harvested fruits and vegetables are stored at low temperature but many of them are highly sensitive to chilling injury. Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone associated with various stress responses, is known to reduce chilling injury in fruits. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in relation to cold response of fruits. Here, we show the involvement of a Group I WRKY transcription factor (TF) from banana fruit, MaWRKY26, in regulating JA biosynthesis. MaWRKY26 was found to be nuclear-localized with transcriptional activation property. MaWRKY26 was induced by cold stress or by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which enhances cold tolerance in banana fruit. More importantly, MaWRKY26 transactivated JA biosynthetic genes MaLOX2, MaAOS3 and MaOPR3 via binding to their promoters. Further, MaWRKY26 physically interacted with a VQ motif-containing protein MaVQ5, and the interaction attenuated MaWRKY26-induced transactivation of JA biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that MaVQ5 might act as a repressor of MaWRKY26 in activating JA biosynthesis. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in response to cold stress and a better understanding of the molecular aspects of chilling injury in banana fruit. PMID:27004441

  20. HiJaK: the high-resolution J, H and K spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, Philip S.; Hall, Zachary J.; Veyette, Mark J.

    2014-08-01

    We present the science drivers, design requirements and a preliminary design for a high-resolution, broad- bandwidth, slit-fed cross-dispersed near-infrared spectrometer for 5-meter-class telescopes. Our concept, called the High-Resolution J, H and K Spectrometer, or HiJaK, utilizes an R6 echelle in a white-pupil design to achieve high resolution in a compact configuration with a 2048 x 2048 pixel infrared detector. We present a preliminary ray-traced optical design matched to the new 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope in Happy Jack, Arizona. We also discuss mechanical and cryogenic options to house our optical design.

  1. High Temperature Induces Expression of Tobacco Transcription Factor NtMYC2a to Regulate Nicotine and JA Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liming; Li, Junying; Ji, Jianhui; Li, Ping; Yu, Liangliang; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Luo, Yuming; Hu, Liwei; Hu, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stress elevates the level of jasmonic acid (JA) and activates the biosynthesis of nicotine and related pyridine alkaloids in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) by up-regulating the expression of putrescine N-methyltransferase 1 (NtPMT1), which encodes a putrescine N-methyl transferase that catalyzes nicotine formation. The JA signal suppressor JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN 1 (NtJAZ1) and its target protein, NtMYC2a, also regulate nicotine biosynthesis; however, how these proteins interact to regulate abiotic-induced nicotine biosynthesis is poorly understood. In this study, we found that high-temperature (HT) treatment activated transcription of NtMYC2a, which subsequently stimulated the transcription of genes associated with JA biosynthesis, including Lipoxygenase (LOX), Allene oxide synthase (AOS), Allene oxide cyclase (AOC), and 12-oxophytodienodate reductase (OPR). Overexpression of NtMYC2a increased nicotine biosynthesis by enhancing its binding to the promoter of NtPMT1. Overexpression of either NtJAZ1 or proteasome-resistant NtJAZ1ΔC suppressed nicotine production under normal conditions, but overexpression only of the former resulted in low levels of nicotine under HT treatment. These data suggest that HT induces NtMYC2a accumulation through increased transcription to activate nicotine synthesis; meanwhile, HT-induced NtMYC2a can activate JA synthesis to promote additional NtMYC2a activity by degrading NtJAZ1 at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:27833561

  2. Overexpression of OsMYC2 Results in the Up-Regulation of Early JA-Rresponsive Genes and Bacterial Blight Resistance in Rice.

    PubMed

    Uji, Yuya; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Shishido, Hodaka; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins act as transcriptional repressors of jasmonic acid (JA) responses and play a crucial role in the regulation of host immunity in plants. Here, we report that OsMYC2, a JAZ-interacting transcription factor in rice (Oryza sativa L.), plays an important role in the resistance response against rice bacterial blight, which is one of the most serious diseases in rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The results showed that OsMYC2 interacted with some OsJAZ proteins in a JAZ-interacting domain (JID)-dependent manner. The up-regulation of OsMYC2 in response to JA was regulated by OsJAZ8. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsMYC2 exhibited a JA-hypersensitive phenotype and were more resistant to Xoo. A large-scale microarray analysis revealed that OsMYC2 up-regulated OsJAZ10 as well as many other defense-related genes. OsMYC2 selectively bound to the G-box-like motif of the OsJAZ10 promoter in vivo and regulated the expression of early JA-responsive genes, but not of late JA-responsive genes. The nuclear localization of OsMYC2 depended on a nuclear localization signal within JID. Overall, we conclude that OsMYC2 acts as a positive regulator of early JA signals in the JA-induced resistance against Xoo in rice.

  3. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 Are New Targets of JAZ Repressors Negatively Regulating JA Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Sandra; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Fernández, Guillermo M.; Díez-Díaz, Monica; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; López-Vidriero, Irene; Godoy, Marta; Fernández-Barbero, Gemma; Van Leene, Jelle; De Jaeger, Geert; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Cell reprogramming in response to jasmonates requires a tight control of transcription that is achieved by the activity of JA-related transcription factors (TFs). Among them, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 have been described as activators of JA responses. Here we characterized the function of bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 that conform a phylogenetic clade closely related to MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4. We found that these bHLHs form homo- and heterodimers and also interact with JAZ repressors in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated processes, including root and rosette growth, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, on mutants and overexpression lines, suggested that these bHLHs are repressors of JA responses. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are mainly nuclear proteins and bind DNA with similar specificity to that of MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4, but lack a conserved activation domain, suggesting that repression is achieved by competition for the same cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, expression of bHLH017 is induced by JA and depends on MYC2, suggesting a negative feed-back regulation of the activity of positive JA-related TFs. Our results suggest that the competition between positive and negative TFs determines the output of JA-dependent transcriptional activation. PMID:24465948

  4. JA, a new type of polyunsaturated fatty acid isolated from Juglans mandshurica Maxim, limits the survival and induces apoptosis of heptocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiu-Li; Lin, Hua; Zhao, Wei; Hou, Ya-Qin; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Zhen-Bo; Sun, Lu-Guo; Tian, Shang-Yi; Liu, Biao; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-03-01

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim (Juglandaceae) is a famous folk medicine for cancer treatment and some natural compounds isolated from it have been studied extensively. Previously we isolated a type of ω-9 polyunsaturated fatty acid (JA) from the bark of J. mandshurica, however little is known about its activity and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we studied anti-tumor activity of JA on several human cancer cell lines. Results showed that JA is cytotoxic to HepG2, MDA-MB-231, SGC-7901, A549 and Huh7 cells at a concentration exerting minimal toxic effects on L02 cells. The selective toxicity of JA was better than other classical anti-cancer drugs. Further investigation indicated that JA could induce cell apoptosis, characterized by chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and activation of the apoptosis-associated proteins such as Caspase-3 and PARP-1. Moreover, we investigated the cellular apoptosis pathway involved in the apoptosis process in HepG2 cells. We found that proteins involved in mitochondrion (cleaved-Caspase-9, Apaf-1, HtrA2/Omi, Bax, and Mitochondrial Bax) and endocytoplasmic reticulum (XBP-1s, GRP78, cleaved-Caspase-7 and cleaved-Caspase-12) apoptotic pathways were up-regulated when cells were treated by JA. In addition, a morphological change in the mitochondrion was detected. Furthermore, we found that JA could inhibit DNA synthesis and induce G2/M cell cycle arrest. The expression of G2-to-M transition related proteins, such as CyclinB1 and phosphorylated-CDK1, were reduced. In contrast, the G2-to-M inhibitor p21 was increased in JA-treated cells. Overall, our results suggest that JA can induce mitochondrion- and endocytoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis, and G2/M phase arrest in HepG2 cells, making it a promising therapeutic agent against hepatoma.

  5. Seed germination ecology of feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes].

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha(-1) was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies.

  6. High-Rate Mechanical Properties of JA2 Propellant at Temperatures from -50 to 80 deg C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Joyce E Newberry 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 622618.H8000 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US...Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-WML-D Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-MR-0894 9...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT JA2, a viscoelastic polymeric

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Content of Fuel Gas Constituents 1 Table 1 to Subpart Ja of Part 60 Protection of Environment... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol Methane (CH4) 7.29 842 Ethane (C2H6) 12.96 1,475 Hydrogen (H2) 1.61 269 Ethene (C2H4) 11.34 1,335...

  8. Visualization and Measurement of the Burning Surface of Wire-Embedded Energetic Materials, Part 1: JA2 and Pentolite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    figure 4). The apparatus includes a windowed chamber capable of being pressurized up to 10 MPa. It also includes a ballast tank that adds considerably... pressures were acquired, and they can be employed to validate a state-of-the-art CFD model that ARL is developing to accelerate the development of...rates at pressure near 5.18 MPa. ..............................................................12 Figure 11. JA2 burning rates at 6.90 MPa

  9. Diverting the flux of the JA pathway in Nicotiana attenuata compromises the plant's defense metabolism and fitness in nature and glasshouse.

    PubMed

    Stitz, Michael; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    A plant's inducible defenses against herbivores as well as certain developmental processes are known to be controlled by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. We have previously shown that ectopically expressing Arabidopsis thaliana JA O-methyltransferase in Nicotiana attenuata (35S-jmt) strongly reduces the herbivory-elicited jasmonate bursts by acting as metabolic sink that redirects free JA towards methylation; here we examine the consequences of this metabolic sink on N. attenuata's secondary metabolism and performance in nature. In the glasshouse, 35S-jmt plants produced fewer seed capsules due to shorter floral styles, which could be restored to wild type (WT) levels after hand-pollination, and were more susceptible to Manduca sexta larvae attack. When transplanted into the Great Basin Desert in Utah, 35S-jmt plants grew as well as WT empty vector, but were highly attacked by native herbivores of different feeding guilds: leaf chewers, miners, and single cell feeders. This greater susceptibility was strongly associated with reduced emissions of volatile organic compounds (hexenylesters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and profound alterations in the production of direct defenses (trypsin proteinase inhibitors [TPI], nicotine, diterpene glycosides [DTGs] and phenylpropanoid-polyamine conjugates) as revealed by a combination of targeted and metabolomics analyses of field collected samples. Complementation experiments with JA-Ile, whose formation is outcompeted in 35S-jmt plants by the methylation reaction, restored the local TPI activation to WT levels and partially complemented nicotine and DTG levels in elicited but not systemic leaves. These findings demonstrate that MeJA, the major JA metabolite in 35S-jmt plants, is not an active signal in defense activation and highlights the value of creating JA sinks to disrupt JA signaling, without interrupting the complete octadecanoid pathway, in order to investigate the regulation of plants' defense metabolism in nature.

  10. A bHLH-Type Transcription Factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1, Acts as a Repressor to Negatively Regulate Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Herde, Marco; Koo, Abraham J.K.; Moreno, Javier E.; Suzuki, Kaoru; Howe, Gregg A.; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that regulate the balance between plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanisms for JA-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms by which plants attenuate the JA-induced responses remain elusive. Here, we report that a basic helix-loop-helix–type transcription factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), acts as a transcriptional repressor and negatively regulates JA signaling. Gain-of-function transgenic plants expressing the chimeric repressor for JAM1 exhibited substantial reduction of JA responses, including JA-induced inhibition of root growth, accumulation of anthocyanin, and male fertility. These plants were also compromised in resistance to attack by the insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua. Conversely, jam1 loss-of-function mutants showed enhanced JA responsiveness, including increased resistance to insect attack. JAM1 and MYC2 competitively bind to the target sequence of MYC2, which likely provides the mechanism for negative regulation of JA signaling and suppression of MYC2 functions by JAM1. These results indicate that JAM1 negatively regulates JA signaling, thereby playing a pivotal role in fine-tuning of JA-mediated stress responses and plant growth. PMID:23673982

  11. OsMYC2, an essential factor for JA-inductive sakuranetin production in rice, interacts with MYC2-like proteins that enhance its transactivation ability

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Koji; Nemoto, Keiichirou; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki; Okada, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    Biosynthesis of sakuranetin, a flavonoid anti-fungal phytoalexin that occurs in rice, is highly dependent on jasmonic acid (JA) signalling and induced by a variety of environmental stimuli. We previously identified OsNOMT, which encodes naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase (NOMT); NOMT is a key enzyme for sakuranetin production. Although OsNOMT expression is induced by JA treatment, the regulation mechanism that activates the biosynthetic pathway of sakuranetin has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we show that JA-inducible basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional factor OsMYC2 drastically enhances the activity of the OsNOMT promoter and is essential for JA-inducible sakuranetin production. In addition, we identified 2 collaborators of OsMYC2, OsMYC2-like protein 1 and 2 (OsMYL1 and OsMYL2) that further activated the OsNOMT promoter in synergy with OsMYC2. Physical interaction of OsMYC2 with OsMYL1 and OsMYL2 further supported the idea that these interactions lead to the enhancement of the transactivation activity of OsMYC2. Our results indicate that JA signalling via OsMYC2 is reinforced by OsMYL1 and OsMYL2, resulting in the inductive production of sakuranetin during defence responses in rice. PMID:28067270

  12. JaTS: a fully portable seismic tomography software based on Fresnel wavepaths and a probabilistic reconstruction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Sage, Sandrine

    2004-11-01

    JaTS, a Java 2D seismic tomography software, is presented. It implements original algorithms achieving optimal accuracy with reasonable computing costs. A second-order Fast Marching Method (FMM) is used for solving the eikonal equation, therefore enabling a fast and robust computation of seismic traveltimes between sources and receivers. The wavepaths are materialized by Fresnel volumes rather than by conventional rays. This approach accounts for complex velocity models and has the advantage of considering the effects of the wave frequency in the velocity model resolution. The model is computed by a Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT) which has been reformulated to integrate Fresnel wavepaths by using a probabilistic approach. In addition, various utilities are implemented, such as a tapering filter, used to decrease artifact effects occurring in the vicinity of the sources and receivers. The software also offers the possibility of reconstructing the velocity field on a grid larger than the one used for the wave propagation computation. This contributes to stabilize the estimated values. All of the seismic processing tools have been integrated with a user-friendly graphical interface. JaTS represents a tightly integrated tool suite that supports the entire process of importing the SG2 field records, first-break picking, forward modeling and velocity-field computing across multiple platforms.

  13. Integrated Performance of Next Generation High Data Rate Receiver and AR4JA LDPC Codec for Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Lyubarev, Mark; Nakashima, Michael A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Lee, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are the state-of-the-art in forward error correction (FEC) technology that exhibits capacity approaching performance. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has designed a family of LDPC codes that are similar in structure and therefore, leads to a single decoder implementation. The Accumulate-Repeat-by-4-Jagged- Accumulate (AR4JA) code design offers a family of codes with rates 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 and lengths 1024, 4096, 16384 information bits. Performance is less than one dB from capacity for all combinations.Integrating a stand-alone LDPC decoder with a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) receiver faces additional challenges than building a single receiver-decoder unit from scratch. In this work, we outline the issues and show that these additional challenges can be over-come by simple solutions. To demonstrate that an LDPC decoder can be made to work seamlessly with a COTS receiver, we interface an AR4JA LDPC decoder developed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with a modern high data rate receiver and mea- sure the combined receiver-decoder performance. Through optimizations that include an improved frame synchronizer and different soft-symbol scaling algorithms, we show that a combined implementation loss of less than one dB is possible and therefore, most of the coding gain evidence in theory can also be obtained in practice. Our techniques can benefit any modem that utilizes an advanced FEC code.

  14. The MeJA-inducible copper amine oxidase AtAO1 is expressed in xylem tissue and guard cells.

    PubMed

    Ghuge, Sandip A; Carucci, Andrea; Rodrigues-Pousada, Renato A; Tisi, Alessandra; Franchi, Stefano; Tavladoraki, Paraskevi; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases oxidize the polyamine putrescine to 4-aminobutanal with the production of the plant signal molecule hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ammonia. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene At4g14940 (AtAO1, previously referred to as ATAO1) encodes an apoplastic copper amine oxidase expressed in lateral root cap cells and developing xylem, especially in root protoxylem and metaxylem precursors. In our recent study, we demonstrated that AtAO1 expression is strongly induced in the root vascular tissues by the wound-signal hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Furthermore, we also demonstrated that the H2O2 derived by the AtAO1-driven oxidation of putrescine, mediates the MeJA-induced early protoxylem differentiation in Arabidopsis roots. H2O2 may contribute to protoxylem differentiation by signaling developmental cell death and by acting as co-substrate in peroxidase-mediated cell wall stiffening and lignin polymerization. Here, by the means of AtAO1 promoter::green fluorescent protein-β-glucuronidase (AtAO1::GFP-GUS) fusion analysis, we show that a strong AtAO1 gene expression occurs also in guard cells of leaves and flowers. The high expression levels of AtAO1 in tissues or cell types regulating water supply and water loss may suggest a role of the encoded protein in water balance homeostasis, by modulating coordinated adjustments in anatomical and functional features of xylem tissue and guard cells during acclimation to adverse environmental conditions.

  15. The Saga of Sally, Sammy and the Red Pen: Facilitating Children's Social Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinwiddie, Sue A.

    1994-01-01

    Notes innovation and creativity as an alternative to violent response to anger or frustration. Discusses prerequisites for success of social problem approach to conflict resolution and presents six specific steps to this approach and its benefits for both teacher and children. (HTH)

  16. Supporting the Historically Black College & University Mission: The Sallie Mae HBCU Default Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Reston, VA.

    This study examined the characteristics of students attending historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), focusing on 14 HBCUs with student loan default rates of 25 percent or more over the last 3 years, which are high enough to jeopardize their continued participation in federal financial aid programs. It was found that, in general,…

  17. Discourse Roles, Gender and Language Textbook Dialogues: Who Learns What from John and Sally?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martha A.; Kitetu, Catherine; Sunderland, Jane

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes discourse roles and gender fairness in dialogs within three recent textbooks for the teaching of English as a foreign language. Results show fairness was achieved through gender balance in social and occupational roles. Negative implications of gender-imbalanced dialogs for female students plus language practice opportunities are…

  18. Sally Smith's Art Methods Applied: Music Education for Adolescents with Learning Disabilities & ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozsics, M. Sean

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Arts Education in America's secondary schools has been underfunded, undervalued, and underdeveloped. Music, in particular, has been under siege in the "No Child Left Behind" era as teachers increasingly teach students to pass specific written tests, and administrators focus on improving these test scores and struggle with related…

  19. Issues of Power, Masculinity, and Gender Justice: Sally's Story of Teaching Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Despite calls for a more nuanced approach to issues of gender and equity that recognizes how broader relations of gender and power continue to produce injustices for many females, essentialized accounts expressing concern about boys' poor educational performance remain the most common refrain in dominant equity discourses across Western contexts.…

  20. Structural basis of jasmonate-amido synthetase FIN219 in complex with glutathione S-transferase FIP1 during the JA signal regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Ho, Sih-Syun; Kuo, Tzu-Yen; Cheng, Yi-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Far-red (FR) light-coupled jasmonate (JA) signaling is necessary for plant defense and development. FR insensitive 219 (FIN219) is a member of the Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) family of proteins in Arabidopsis and belongs to the adenylate-forming family of enzymes. It directly controls biosynthesis of jasmonoyl-isoleucine in JA-mediated defense responses and interacts with FIN219-interacting protein 1 (FIP1) under FR light conditions. FIN219 and FIP1 are involved in FR light signaling and are regulators of the interplay between light and JA signaling. However, how their interactions affect plant physiological functions remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the crystal structures of FIN219–FIP1 while binding with substrates at atomic resolution. Our results show an unexpected FIN219 conformation and demonstrate various differences between this protein and other members of the GH3 family. We show that the rotated C-terminal domain of FIN219 alters ATP binding and the core structure of the active site. We further demonstrate that this unique FIN219–FIP1 structure is crucial for increasing FIN219 activity and determines the priority of substrate binding. We suggest that the increased FIN219 activity resulting from the complex form, a conformation for domain switching, allows FIN219 to switch to its high-affinity mode and thereby enhances JA signaling under continuous FR light conditions. PMID:28223489

  1. MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 are involved in the regulation of the JA-induced biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in apples.

    PubMed

    An, Xiu-Hong; Tian, Yi; Chen, Ke-Qin; Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Dan-Dan; Xie, Xing-Bin; Cheng, Cun-Gang; Cong, Pei-Hua; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) are important secondary metabolites and beneficial to human health. Their biosynthesis is induced by jasmonate (JA) treatment and regulated by MYB transcription factors (TFs). However, which and how MYB TFs regulate this process is largely unknown in apple. In this study, MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 which were induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were functionally characterized. Overexpression of MdMYB9 or MdMYB11 promoted not only anthocyanin but also PA accumulation in apple calluses, and the accumulation was further enhanced by MeJA. Subsequently, yeast two-hybrid, pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that both MYB proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Moreover, Jasmonate ZIM-domain (MdJAZ) proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated that both MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 bind to the promoters of ANS, ANR and LAR, whereas MdbHLH3 is recruited to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 and regulates their transcription. In addition, transient expression assays indicated that overexpression of MdJAZ2 inhibits the recruitment of MdbHLH3 to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of how MeJA regulates anthocyanin and PA accumulation in apple.

  2. Genome Analysis of the Biotechnologically Relevant Acidophilic Iron Oxidising Strain JA12 Indicates Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity within the Novel Genus “Ferrovum”

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Sophie R.; Poehlein, Anja; Tischler, Judith S.; González, Carolina; Ossandon, Francisco J.; Daniel, Rolf; Holmes, David S.; Schlömann, Michael; Mühling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the genus “Ferrovum” are ubiquitously distributed in acid mine drainage (AMD) waters which are characterised by their high metal and sulfate loads. So far isolation and microbiological characterisation have only been successful for the designated type strain “Ferrovum myxofaciens” P3G. Thus, knowledge about physiological characteristics and the phylogeny of the genus “Ferrovum” is extremely scarce. Objective In order to access the wider genetic pool of the genus “Ferrovum” we sequenced the genome of a “Ferrovum”-containing mixed culture and successfully assembled the almost complete genome sequence of the novel “Ferrovum” strain JA12. Phylogeny and Lifestyle The genome-based phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain JA12 and the type strain represent two distinct “Ferrovum” species. “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is characterised by an unusually small genome in comparison to the type strain and other iron oxidising bacteria. The prediction of nutrient assimilation pathways suggests that “Ferrovum” strain JA12 maintains a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle utilising carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, ammonium and urea, sulfate, phosphate and ferrous iron as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and energy sources, respectively. Unique Metabolic Features The potential utilisation of urea by “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is moreover remarkable since it may furthermore represent a strategy among extreme acidophiles to cope with the acidic environment. Unlike other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs “Ferrovum” strain JA12 exhibits a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, a metabolic feature shared with the closer related neutrophilic iron oxidisers among the Betaproteobacteria including Sideroxydans lithotrophicus and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Furthermore, the absence of characteristic redox proteins involved in iron oxidation in the well-studied acidophiles Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (rusticyanin) and Acidithiobacillus

  3. Gene-to-metabolite network for biosynthesis of lignans in MeJA-elicited Isatis indigotica hairy root cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruibing; Li, Qing; Tan, Hexin; Chen, Junfeng; Xiao, Ying; Ma, Ruifang; Gao, Shouhong; Zerbe, Philipp; Chen, Wansheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Root and leaf tissue of Isatis indigotica shows notable anti-viral efficacy, and are widely used as “Banlangen” and “Daqingye” in traditional Chinese medicine. The plants' pharmacological activity is attributed to phenylpropanoids, especially a group of lignan metabolites. However, the biosynthesis of lignans in I. indigotica remains opaque. This study describes the discovery and analysis of biosynthetic genes and AP2/ERF-type transcription factors involved in lignan biosynthesis in I. indigotica. MeJA treatment revealed differential expression of three genes involved in phenylpropanoid backbone biosynthesis (IiPAL, IiC4H, Ii4CL), five genes involved in lignan biosynthesis (IiCAD, IiC3H, IiCCR, IiDIR, and IiPLR), and 112 putative AP2/ERF transcription factors. In addition, four intermediates of lariciresinol biosynthesis were found to be induced. Based on these results, a canonical correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient was performed to construct gene-to-metabolite networks and identify putative key genes and rate-limiting reactions in lignan biosynthesis. Over-expression of IiC3H, identified as a key pathway gene, was used for metabolic engineering of I. indigotica hairy roots, and resulted in an increase in lariciresinol production. These findings illustrate the utility of canonical correlation analysis for the discovery and metabolic engineering of key metabolic genes in plants. PMID:26579184

  4. The JaCVAM international validation study on the in vivo comet assay: Selection of test chemicals.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takeshi; Uno, Yoshifumi; Honma, Masamitsu; Kojima, Hajime; Hayashi, Makoto; Tice, Raymond R; Corvi, Raffaella; Schechtman, Leonard

    2015-07-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) sponsored an international prevalidation and validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline pH comet assay. The main objective of the study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for correctly identifying genotoxic carcinogens, as compared with the traditional rat liver unscheduled DNA synthesis assay. Based on existing carcinogenicity and genotoxicity data and chemical class information, 90 chemicals were identified as primary candidates for use in the validation study. From these 90 chemicals, 46 secondary candidates and then 40 final chemicals were selected based on a sufficiency of carcinogenic and genotoxic data, differences in chemical class or genotoxic or carcinogenic mode of action (MOA), availability, price, and ease of handling. These 40 chemicals included 19 genotoxic carcinogens, 6 genotoxic non-carcinogens, 7 non-genotoxic carcinogens and 8 non-genotoxic non-carcinogens. "Genotoxicity" was defined as positive in the Ames mutagenicity test or in one of the standard in vivo genotoxicity tests (primarily the erythrocyte micronucleus assay). These chemicals covered various chemicals classes, MOAs, and genotoxicity profiles and were considered to be suitable for the purpose of the validation study. General principles of chemical selection for validation studies are discussed.

  5. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  6. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J A; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Julian, V; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Carrascosa, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system.

  7. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves.

  8. OsNPR1 negatively regulates herbivore-induced JA and ethylene signaling and plant resistance to a chewing herbivore in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Afsheen, Sumera; Xin, Zhaojun; Han, Xiu; Lou, Yonggen

    2013-03-01

    NPR1 (a non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes1) has been reported to play an important role in plant defense by regulating signaling pathways. However, little to nothing is known about its function in herbivore-induced defense in monocot plants. Here, using suppressive substrate hybridization, we identified a NPR1 gene from rice, OsNPR1, and found that its expression levels were upregulated in response to infestation by the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis and rice leaf folder (LF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, and to mechanical wounding and treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). Moreover, mechanical wounding induced the expression of OsNPR1 quickly, whereas herbivore infestation induced the gene more slowly. The antisense expression of OsNPR1 (as-npr1), which reduced the expression of the gene by 50%, increased elicited levels of JA and ethylene (ET) as well as of expression of a lipoxygenase gene OsHI-LOX and an ACC synthase gene OsACS2. The enhanced JA and ET signaling in as-npr1 plants increased the levels of herbivore-induced trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TrypPIs) and volatiles, and reduced the performance of SSB. Our results suggest that OsNPR1 is an early responding gene in herbivore-induced defense and that plants can use it to activate a specific and appropriate defense response against invaders by modulating signaling pathways.

  9. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves. PMID:27375495

  10. Combination comet/micronucleus assay validation performed by BioReliance under the JaCVAM initiative.

    PubMed

    Pant, Kamala; Krsmanovic, Ljubica; Bruce, Shannon Wilson; Kelley, Tawney; Arevalo, Mirna; Atta-Safoh, Samuel; Debelie, Fekadu; La Force, Michelle L Klug; Springer, Sandra; Sly, Jamie; Paranjpe, Madhav; Lawlor, Timothy; Aardema, Marilyn

    2015-07-01

    In the international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) provided three coded chemicals to BioReliance, 1,3-dichloropropene, ethionamide and busulfan, to be tested in a combined in vivo comet/micronucleus assay. Induction of DNA damage (comet) in liver, stomach and jejunum (1,3-dichloropropene only) cells, and induction of MNPCEs in bone marrow, were examined in male Sprague-Dawley (Hsd:SD) rats following oral administration of the test chemical for three consecutive days. A dose range finding (DRF) test was performed with each chemical to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Based on the results of the DRF test; 1,3-dichloropropene was tested at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day; ethionamide was tested at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day, and busulfan was tested at 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day. The results indicated that 1,3-dichloropropene induced DNA damage only in liver cells at all three test article doses, while no effects were observed in the stomach and jejunum cells. Additionally, it did not increase MNPCEs in the bone marrow. 1,3-Dichloropropene was concluded to be negative in the MN assay but positive in the comet assay. Ethionamide did not induce DNA damage in liver. However, in stomach, statistically significant decreases (although still within historical range) in % tail DNA at all test article doses compared to the vehicle control were observed. There was no increase in MNPCEs in the bone marrow. Thus, ethionamide was concluded to be negative in the comet/MN combined assay. Busulfan did not induce DNA damage in any of the organs tested (liver and stomach) but it did induce a significant increase in MNPCEs in the bone marrow. Busulfan was concluded to be negative in the comet assay but positive in the MN assay.

  11. Mineralogical characterization of tailing dams: incidence of abandoned mining works on soil pollution (Linares, Jaén)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, M. J.; Hidalgo, C.; Rey, J.; Martínez, J.

    2012-04-01

    The metallogenic district of Linares-La Carolina (Jaén, Spain) consists of dyke mineralizations mainly of galena, accompanied by blende, chalcopyrite and barite. Associated to these abandoned mines, relatively extensive areas occupied by spoil heaps and tailing impoundments exist and constitute potential sources of soil pollution by metals and semimetals. In order to analyze the pollution potential of these mining wastes, we have carried out a mineralogical and geochemical study of seven tailing dams and surrounding soils in the area. The mineralogy of the samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the total metal content of samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Samples were taken from the first 30 cm of the waste piles and soil deposits and white efflorescences were also obtained from the surface of the tailings. In all analyzed heaps, high to very high total contents in Pb (1220-22890 mg/kg), Zn (150-51280 mg/kg), Mn (2658-4160 mg/kg), Ba (1026-19610 mg/kg) and Fe (19400-138000 mg/kg) were observed. The concentrations for these same elements in the studied soils range from 527-9900 mg/kg for Pb, 27-1700 mg/kg for Zn, 506-2464 mg/kg for Mn, 2832-4306 for Ba and 8642-29753 mg/kg for Fe, and these figures indicate a contamination of the soils, according to the guidelines established by the Spanish law. The XRD and SEM results indicate that the tailings are primarily constituted by gangue of the exploited mineralization: quartz, calcite, ankerite, feldspars and phyllosilicates. They are inherited, primary mineral phases. Galena, also primary, appears in low proportion, as well as lepidocrocite, melanterite and cerussite, being these three last secondary minerals and indicating a certain remobilization of metal cations, especially lead and iron. On the other hand, quartz and phyllosilicates predominate in the soils, in which, in addition, is identified a

  12. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA.

  13. Pro Memoria. Professor Bolesław Jałowy (1906-1943): Mortui viventes obligant - the livings are obligated to the dead.

    PubMed

    Wincewicz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Professor Bolesław Jałowy (1906-1943) was a chairman of Department of Histology and Embryology at Faculty of Medicine of King John Casimir University (Polish: Universytet Jana Kazimierza: UJK) in Lvov. He succeeded Professor Władysław Szymonowicz (1869-1939) who held this position for decades. As the most skillful followers of his tutor, Bolesław Jałowy was a great investigator of physiology of human tissue, embryogenesis, histological consequences of female sex hormones on blood clotting action as well as regeneration of nerves in addition to description of silver staining technique for reticulin fibers of skin. He was a hard working person with gentle attitude to such a subtle matter as microscopic structure of human body. However, he happened to live in brutal conditions of nationalistic struggles. His example shows how much a dedicated scientist could do in a very short time as his life was tragically ended with murdering him during World War Two. His story is a great lesson for generations of academic workers how to meet high moral standards with efficient and creative scientific work in evil and destructive, nationalistic climate that occurs usually in wartime.

  14. Investigation of sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine in the alkaline comet assay: Part of the JaCVAM comet validation exercise.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Carol; Henderson, Debbie; Lillford, Lucinda

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine. Using the JaCVAM approved study protocol version 14.2, each chemical was tested in male rats up to maximum tolerated dose levels and DNA damage in the liver and stomach was assessed approximately 3h after the final administration by gavage. Histopathology assessments of liver and stomach sections from the same animals were also examined for evidence of cytotoxicity or necrosis. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach of animals treated with sodium arsenite at 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day. However, equivocal findings were found in the liver, where increases in DNA migration were observed in two independent experiments, but not in all treated animals and not at the same dose levels. Thioacetamide caused an increase in DNA migration in the stomach of rats treated at 19, 38, and 75 mg/kg/day, but not in the liver, despite evidence of marked hepatotoxicity following histopathology assessments. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach or liver of animals treated with diethanolamine at 175, 350, or 700 mg/kg/day.

  15. Hypogean pseudoscorpions (Arachnida) from Jaén province (Andalusia, Spain), with descriptions of four new species and a new synonymy.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Juan A; Pérez, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Four new hypogean species are described from the Jaén province (southern Spain): Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) espa- nyoli sp. nov., C. (E.) giennensis sp. nov., C. (E.) villacarrillo sp. nov. and Neobisium (Ommatoblothrus) perezruizi sp. nov. New records are given for the species Chthonius (E.) cazorlensis, C. (E.) perezi, C. (E.) tetrachelatus, Neobisium (O.) perezi, Microcreagrella caeca caeca and Allochernes masi. Chthonius (E.) verai and C. (E.) minutus are removed from the list of the Andalusian fauna. A new synonymy is proposed: Neobisium (O.) gev Carabajal Márquez, García Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernández, 2011, is a junior subjective synonym of N. (O.) perezi Carabajal Márquez, García Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernández, 2011.

  16. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  17. Molecular characterisation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and plasmid AmpC-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers in Béjaïa, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belmahdi, Mohamed; Bakour, Sofiane; Al Bayssari, Charbel; Touati, Abdelaziz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the molecular support of antibiotic resistance in expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy broilers in Béjaïa, northeast Algeria. A total of 61 intestinal swabs from slaughtered broilers from four regions in Béjaïa locality, Algeria, were collected between February and April 2014, from which 20 ESC-resistant E. coli strains were isolated. Escherichia coli isolates were identified by classical biochemical and MALDI-TOF methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Screening for β-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME)-encoding genes and qnr determinants was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was determined using molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that the isolates showed high rates of resistance (>90%) to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime, streptomycin, tobramycin, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Low rates of resistance were observed for kanamycin (35%), amikacin (30%), cefoxitin (20%) and cefotaxime (15%). Molecular characterisation revealed that all of the isolates expressed the blaTEM-1 gene. Fourteen of them harboured the blaSHV-12 gene, two harboured the blaCTX-M-1 gene and four isolates harboured blaCMY-2. Screening for AME-encoding genes demonstrated that all isolates contained the aadA gene. In addition, qnrA was detected as the quinolone resistance determinant in 13 isolates. MLST revealed four known sequence types (STs), including ST744, ST38, ST1011 and ST2179, as well as one new sequence type (ST5086). Here we report the first study describing the clonal diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid AmpC-producing E. coli isolated from healthy broilers in Algeria.

  18. Re-analysis results using medians of the data from the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Omori, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    The data from the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay were reported and analyzed statistically using the simple means of % tail DNA. However, OECD test guideline TG 489 recommends use of the median for data analysis due to the hierarchical nature of the data. Comparison between the simple mean approach and the median based approach for positive/negative/equivocal chemical calls was conducted using the % tail DNA data for the 40 chemicals tested in the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, using liver and stomach as target organs. In the liver, two genotoxic chemicals, o-anisidine and 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate, were positive using the median based approach but negative using the simple mean approach, and two genotoxic chemicals, 2-acetylaminofluorene and busulfan were equivocal using the median based approach but negative using the simple mean approach. In contrast, cadmium chloride (genotoxic carcinogen) was equivocal in both organs using the median based approach, while positive and equivocal in liver and stomach, respectively, using the simple mean approach. Two data sets of sodium arsenite showed equivocal and negative results for liver using the median based approach, although both data sets were equivocal using the simple mean approach. Overall, there are no large differences in terms of the genotoxic call between both approaches. However, the median based approach recommended in OECD TG 489 has an advantage toward higher precision within the groups treated with a test chemical, whereas the approach might show the lower values for the effect.

  19. Variability of phenotype, anthocyanin indexes, and flavonoids in accessions from a close relative of soybean, Neontonia wightii (Wright & Arn. J.A. Lackey) in the U.S. germplasm collection for potential use as a health forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A close relative of soybean, Neonotonia wightii (Wright & Arn. J.A. Lackey), is used as a ruminant feed and restores soil productivity in Brazil and Zimbabwe, respectively. Neonotonia wightii accessions were grown in a greenhouse at Griffin, Georgia, characterized for various phenotypic traits, and...

  20. A molecular method for the detection of sally lightfoot crab larvae (Grapsus grapsus, Brachyura, Grapsidae) in plankton samples

    PubMed Central

    Ströher, Patrícia R.; Firkowski, Carina R.; Freire, Andrea S.; Pie, Marcio R.

    2011-01-01

    The decapod Grapsus grapsus is commonly found on oceanic islands of the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the Americas. In this study, a simple, quick and reliable method for detecting its larvae in plankton samples is described, which makes it ideal for large-scale studies of larval dispersal patterns in the species. PMID:21931530

  1. A molecular method for the detection of sally lightfoot crab larvae (Grapsus grapsus, Brachyura, Grapsidae) in plankton samples.

    PubMed

    Ströher, Patrícia R; Firkowski, Carina R; Freire, Andrea S; Pie, Marcio R

    2011-07-01

    The decapod Grapsus grapsus is commonly found on oceanic islands of the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the Americas. In this study, a simple, quick and reliable method for detecting its larvae in plankton samples is described, which makes it ideal for large-scale studies of larval dispersal patterns in the species.

  2. Simulated herbivory in chickpea causes rapid changes in defense pathways and hormonal transcription networks of JA/ethylene/GA/auxin within minutes of wounding

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Saurabh Prakash; Srivastava, Shruti; Goel, Ridhi; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Priya; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P.

    2017-01-01

    Chickpea (C. arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop in Asian and African countries that suffers significant yield losses due to attacks by insects like H. armigera. To obtain insights into early responses of chickpea to insect attack, a transcriptomic analysis of chickpea leaves just 20 minutes after simulated herbivory was performed, using oral secretions of H. armigera coupled with mechanical wounding. Expression profiles revealed differential regulation of 8.4% of the total leaf transcriptome with 1334 genes up-regulated and 501 down-regulated upon wounding at log2-fold change (|FC| ≤ −1 and ≥1) and FDR value ≤ 0.05. In silico analysis showed the activation of defenses through up-regulation of genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, pathogenesis, oxidases and CYTP450 besides differential regulation of kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors of the WRKY, MYB, ERFs, bZIP families. A substantial change in the regulation of hormonal networks was observed with up-regulation of JA and ethylene pathways and suppression of growth associated hormone pathways like GA and auxin within 20 minutes of wounding. Secondary qPCR comparison of selected genes showed that oral secretions often increased differential expression relative to mechanical damage alone. The studies provide new insights into early wound responses in chickpea. PMID:28300183

  3. LOW-TEMPERATURE ION TRAP STUDIES OF N{sup +}({sup 3} P{sub ja} ) + H{sub 2}(j) {yields} NH{sup +} + H

    SciTech Connect

    Zymak, I.; Hejduk, M.; Mulin, D.; Plasil, R.; Glosik, J.; Gerlich, D.

    2013-05-01

    Using a low-temperature 22-pole ion trap apparatus, detailed measurements for the title reaction have been performed between 10 K and 100 K in order to get some state specific information about this fundamental hydrogen abstraction process. The relative population of the two lowest H{sub 2} rotational states, j = 0 and 1, has been varied systematically. NH{sup +} formation is nearly thermo-neutral; however, to date, the energetics are not known with the accuracy required for low-temperature astrochemistry. Additional complications arise from the fact that, so far, there is no reliable theoretical or experimental information on how the reactivity of the N{sup +} ion depends on its fine-structure (FS) state {sup 3} P{sub ja} . Since in the present trapping experiment, thermalization of the initially hot FS population competes with hydrogen abstraction, the evaluation of the decay of N{sup +} ions over long storage times and at various He and H{sub 2} gas densities provides information on these processes. First assuming strict adiabatic behavior, a set of state specific rate coefficients is derived from the measured thermal rate coefficients. In addition, by recording the disappearance of the N{sup +} ions over several orders of magnitude, information on nonadiabatic transitions is extracted including FS-changing collisions.

  4. Hydrogeological research on intensively exploited deep aquifers in the `Loma de Úbeda' area (Jaén, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Ramón, Antonio; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Javier; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Gollonet, Javier

    2013-06-01

    The intensive use of groundwater for irrigation in the area of Úbeda (`Loma de Úbeda', Jaén, southern Spain) has transformed an area of traditionally rain-fed dry farmland into fields with some of the highest olive oil productivity in the world. Early hydrogeological research studies, initiated just after the beginning of the groundwater exploitation, revealed that the water was collected from three different overlapping aquifers occupying an area of over 1,100 km2, with the lower aquifers located at depths from 300 to over 700 m in an area of 440 km2. Multidisciplinary research, based on geological characterization, and piezometric, hydrochemical and isotopic data, has led to a conceptual model of functioning in this complex hydrogeological system. The proposed model allows for the identification of the recharge areas, and the discharge, which is at present mainly associated with the groundwater pumping. Areas of mixing of waters from the different aquifers and the main hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater quality are described.

  5. Simulated herbivory in chickpea causes rapid changes in defense pathways and hormonal transcription networks of JA/ethylene/GA/auxin within minutes of wounding.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saurabh Prakash; Srivastava, Shruti; Goel, Ridhi; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Priya; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P

    2017-03-16

    Chickpea (C. arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop in Asian and African countries that suffers significant yield losses due to attacks by insects like H. armigera. To obtain insights into early responses of chickpea to insect attack, a transcriptomic analysis of chickpea leaves just 20 minutes after simulated herbivory was performed, using oral secretions of H. armigera coupled with mechanical wounding. Expression profiles revealed differential regulation of 8.4% of the total leaf transcriptome with 1334 genes up-regulated and 501 down-regulated upon wounding at log2-fold change (|FC| ≤ -1 and ≥1) and FDR value ≤ 0.05. In silico analysis showed the activation of defenses through up-regulation of genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, pathogenesis, oxidases and CYTP450 besides differential regulation of kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors of the WRKY, MYB, ERFs, bZIP families. A substantial change in the regulation of hormonal networks was observed with up-regulation of JA and ethylene pathways and suppression of growth associated hormone pathways like GA and auxin within 20 minutes of wounding. Secondary qPCR comparison of selected genes showed that oral secretions often increased differential expression relative to mechanical damage alone. The studies provide new insights into early wound responses in chickpea.

  6. Physical and metabolic interactions of Pseudomonas sp. strain JA5-B45 and Rhodococcus sp. strain F9-D79 during growth on crude oil and effect of a chemical surfactant on them.

    PubMed

    Van Hamme, J D; Ward, O P

    2001-10-01

    Methods to enhance crude oil biodegradation by mixed bacterial cultures, for example, (bio)surfactant addition, are complicated by the diversity of microbial populations within a given culture. The physical and metabolic interactions between Rhodococcus sp. strain F9-D79 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JA5-B45 were examined during growth on Bow River crude oil. The effects of a nonionic chemical surfactant, Igepal CO-630 (nonylphenol ethoxylate), also were evaluated. Strain F9-D79 grew attached to the oil-water interface and produced a mycolic acid-containing capsule. Crude oil emulsification and surface activity were associated with the cellular fraction. Strain JA5-B45 grew in the aqueous phase and was unable to emulsify oil, but cell-free supernatants mediated kerosene-water emulsion formation. In coculture, stable emulsions were formed and strain JA5-B45 had an affinity for the capsule produced by strain F9-D79. Igepal CO-630 inhibited F9-D79 cells from adhering to the interface, and cells grew dispersed in the aqueous phase as 0.5-microm cocci rather than 2.5-microm rods. The surfactant increased total petroleum hydrocarbon removal by strain JA5-B45 from 4 to 22% and included both saturated compounds and aromatics. In coculture, TPH removal increased from 13 to 40% following surfactant addition. The culture pH normally increased from 7.0 to between 7.5 and 8.5, although addition of Igepal CO-630 to F9-D79 cultures resulted in a drop to pH 5.5. We suggest a dual role for the nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in the coculture: (i) to improve hydrocarbon uptake by strain JA5-B45 through emulsification and (ii) to prevent strain F9-D79 from adhering to the oil-water interface, indirectly increasing hydrocarbon availability. These varied effects on hydrocarbon biodegradation could explain some of the known diversity of surfactant effects.

  7. Physical and Metabolic Interactions of Pseudomonas sp. Strain JA5-B45 and Rhodococcus sp. Strain F9-D79 during Growth on Crude Oil and Effect of a Chemical Surfactant on Them

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Ward, Owen P.

    2001-01-01

    Methods to enhance crude oil biodegradation by mixed bacterial cultures, for example, (bio)surfactant addition, are complicated by the diversity of microbial populations within a given culture. The physical and metabolic interactions between Rhodococcus sp. strain F9-D79 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JA5-B45 were examined during growth on Bow River crude oil. The effects of a nonionic chemical surfactant, Igepal CO-630 (nonylphenol ethoxylate), also were evaluated. Strain F9-D79 grew attached to the oil-water interface and produced a mycolic acid-containing capsule. Crude oil emulsification and surface activity were associated with the cellular fraction. Strain JA5-B45 grew in the aqueous phase and was unable to emulsify oil, but cell-free supernatants mediated kerosene-water emulsion formation. In coculture, stable emulsions were formed and strain JA5-B45 had an affinity for the capsule produced by strain F9-D79. Igepal CO-630 inhibited F9-D79 cells from adhering to the interface, and cells grew dispersed in the aqueous phase as 0.5-μm cocci rather than 2.5-μm rods. The surfactant increased total petroleum hydrocarbon removal by strain JA5-B45 from 4 to 22% and included both saturated compounds and aromatics. In coculture, TPH removal increased from 13 to 40% following surfactant addition. The culture pH normally increased from 7.0 to between 7.5 and 8.5, although addition of Igepal CO-630 to F9-D79 cultures resulted in a drop to pH 5.5. We suggest a dual role for the nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in the coculture: (i) to improve hydrocarbon uptake by strain JA5-B45 through emulsification and (ii) to prevent strain F9-D79 from adhering to the oil-water interface, indirectly increasing hydrocarbon availability. These varied effects on hydrocarbon biodegradation could explain some of the known diversity of surfactant effects. PMID:11571196

  8. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for detection of genotoxic carcinogens: II. Summary of definitive validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Beevers, Carol; De Boeck, Marlies; Burlinson, Brian; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Kitamoto, Sachiko; Kraynak, Andrew R; McNamee, James; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Pant, Kamala; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Priestley, Catherine; Takasawa, Hironao; Wada, Kunio; Wirnitzer, Uta; Asano, Norihide; Escobar, Patricia A; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Nakajima, Madoka; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this exercise was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The study protocol was optimized in the pre-validation studies, and then the definitive (4th phase) validation study was conducted in two steps. In the 1st step, assay reproducibility was confirmed among laboratories using four coded reference chemicals and the positive control ethyl methanesulfonate. In the 2nd step, the predictive capability was investigated using 40 coded chemicals with known genotoxic and carcinogenic activity (i.e., genotoxic carcinogens, genotoxic non-carcinogens, non-genotoxic carcinogens, and non-genotoxic non-carcinogens). Based on the results obtained, the in vivo comet assay is concluded to be highly capable of identifying genotoxic chemicals and therefore can serve as a reliable predictor of rodent carcinogenicity.

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of single-molecule sequencing and hybrid approaches for finishing the Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1 strain DSM 10061 genome

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Nagaraju, Shilpa; Utturkar, Sagar M; De Tissera, Sashini; Segovia, Simón; Mitchell, Wayne; Land, Miriam L; Dassanayake, Asela; Köpke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium autoethanogenum strain JA1-1 (DSM 10061) is an acetogen capable of fermenting CO, CO2 and H2 (e.g. from syngas or waste gases) into biofuel ethanol and commodity chemicals such as 2,3-butanediol. A draft genome sequence consisting of 100 contigs has been published. Results A closed, high-quality genome sequence for C. autoethanogenum DSM10061 was generated using only the latest single-molecule DNA sequencing technology and without the need for manual finishing. It is assigned to the most complex genome classification based upon genome features such as repeats, prophage, nine copies of the rRNA gene operons. It has a low G + C content of 31.1%. Illumina, 454, Illumina/454 hybrid assemblies were generated and then compared to the draft and PacBio assemblies using summary statistics, CGAL, QUAST and REAPR bioinformatics tools and comparative genomic approaches. Assemblies based upon shorter read DNA technologies were confounded by the large number repeats and their size, which in the case of the rRNA gene operons were ~5 kb. CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Paloindromic Repeats) systems among biotechnologically relevant Clostridia were classified and related to plasmid content and prophages. Potential associations between plasmid content and CRISPR systems may have implications for historical industrial scale Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation failures and future large scale bacterial fermentations. While C. autoethanogenum contains an active CRISPR system, no such system is present in the closely related Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528. A common prophage inserted into the Arg-tRNA shared between the strains suggests a common ancestor. However, C. ljungdahlii contains several additional putative prophages and it has more than double the amount of prophage DNA compared to C. autoethanogenum. Other differences include important metabolic genes for central metabolism (as an additional hydrogenase and the absence of a

  10. Citrus leprosis virus C Infection Results in Hypersensitive-Like Response, Suppression of the JA/ET Plant Defense Pathway and Promotion of the Colonization of Its Mite Vector

    PubMed Central

    Arena, Gabriella D.; Ramos-González, Pedro L.; Nunes, Maria A.; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Camargo, Luis E. A.; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Machado, Marcos A.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Leprosis is a serious disease of citrus caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C, genus Cilevirus) whose transmission is mediated by false spider mites of the genus Brevipalpus. CiLV-C infection does not systemically spread in any of its known host plants, thus remaining restricted to local lesions around the feeding sites of viruliferous mites. To get insight into this unusual pathosystem, we evaluated the expression profiles of genes involved in defense mechanisms of Arabidopsis thaliana and Citrus sinensis upon infestation with non-viruliferous and viruliferous mites by using reverse-transcription qPCR. These results were analyzed together with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the appearance of dead cells as assessed by histochemical assays. After interaction with non-viruliferous mites, plants locally accumulated ROS and triggered the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate/ethylene (JA/ET) pathways. ERF branch of the JA/ET pathways was highly activated. In contrast, JA pathway genes were markedly suppressed upon the CiLV-C infection mediated by viruliferous mites. Viral infection also intensified the ROS burst and cell death, and enhanced the expression of genes involved in the RNA silencing mechanism and SA pathway. After 13 days of infestation of two sets of Arabidopsis plants with non-viruliferous and viruliferous mites, the number of mites in the CiLV-C infected Arabidopsis plants was significantly higher than in those infested with the non-viruliferous ones. Oviposition of the viruliferous mites occurred preferentially in the CiLV-C infected leaves. Based on these results, we postulated the first model of plant/Brevipalpus mite/cilevirus interaction in which cells surrounding the feeding sites of viruliferous mites typify the outcome of a hypersensitive-like response, whereas viral infection induces changes in the behavior of its vector. PMID:27933078

  11. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) improved anti-adipogenic activity associated with the oxidative stress system in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Yoon, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-11

    Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties.

  12. Induced Systemic Resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Bacillus cereus AR156 through a JA/ET- and NPR1-Dependent Signaling Pathway and Activates PAMP-Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Pingping; Li, Xia; Wang, Shune; Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Hongwei; Niu, Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    Induced resistance response is a potent and cost effective plant defense against pathogen attack. The effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of the suppressive ability by Bacillus cereus AR156 to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis has been investigated previously; however, the strength of induced systemic resistance (ISR) activity against Botrytis cinerea remains unknown. Here, we show that root-drench application of AR156 significantly reduces disease incidence through activation of ISR. This protection is accompanied with multilayered ISR defense response activated via enhanced accumulation of PR1 protein expression in a timely manner, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and callose deposition, which is significantly more intense in plants with both AR156 pretreatment and B. cinerea inoculation than that in plants with pathogen inoculation only. Moreover, AR156 can trigger ISR in sid2-2 and NahG mutants, but not in jar1, ein2 and npr1 mutant plants. Our results indicate that AR156-induced ISR depends on JA/ET-signaling pathway and NPR1, but not SA. Also, AR156-treated plants are able to rapidly activate MAPK signaling and FRK1/WRKY53 gene expression, both of which are involved in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The results indicate that AR156 can induce ISR by the JA/ET-signaling pathways in an NPR1-dependent manner and involves multiple PTI components. PMID:28293243

  13. Induced Systemic Resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Bacillus cereus AR156 through a JA/ET- and NPR1-Dependent Signaling Pathway and Activates PAMP-Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nie, Pingping; Li, Xia; Wang, Shune; Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Hongwei; Niu, Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    Induced resistance response is a potent and cost effective plant defense against pathogen attack. The effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of the suppressive ability by Bacillus cereus AR156 to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis has been investigated previously; however, the strength of induced systemic resistance (ISR) activity against Botrytis cinerea remains unknown. Here, we show that root-drench application of AR156 significantly reduces disease incidence through activation of ISR. This protection is accompanied with multilayered ISR defense response activated via enhanced accumulation of PR1 protein expression in a timely manner, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and callose deposition, which is significantly more intense in plants with both AR156 pretreatment and B. cinerea inoculation than that in plants with pathogen inoculation only. Moreover, AR156 can trigger ISR in sid2-2 and NahG mutants, but not in jar1, ein2 and npr1 mutant plants. Our results indicate that AR156-induced ISR depends on JA/ET-signaling pathway and NPR1, but not SA. Also, AR156-treated plants are able to rapidly activate MAPK signaling and FRK1/WRKY53 gene expression, both of which are involved in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The results indicate that AR156 can induce ISR by the JA/ET-signaling pathways in an NPR1-dependent manner and involves multiple PTI components.

  14. Four new species of Pomphopsilla Jałoszyński and a new record of Cephennodes glabella Castellini in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2016-04-07

    Four new species of the genus Pomphopsilla Jałoszyński are described, all based on specimens collected in the north-eastern part of DR Congo: P. pygmaea sp. n., P. pseudosoror sp. n., P. similis sp. n., and P. gumovskyi sp. n. Previously Pomphopsilla, represented by two species, was known to occur in Kenya; the only genera of Cephenniini recorded from DR Congo were Cephennodes Reitter and Cephennomicrus Reitter. Cephennodes (s. str.) glabella Castellini, so far known only from the type series, is recorded from the same region of Congo, based on numerous specimens collected by yellow pan traps. Because figures in the original description of this species were relatively schematic, the aedeagus and modifications of the head in the male are illustrated.

  15. Evaluation of methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene and 5-fluorouracil: Part of the Japanese center for the validation of alternative methods (JaCVAM) international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Junker-Walker, Ursula; Martus, Hans-Joerg

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene, and 5-fluorouracil under coded test conditions. Rats were treated orally with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and two additional descending doses of the respective compounds. In the MMS treated groups liver and stomach showed significantly elevated DNA damage at each dose level and a significant dose-response relationship. 2,6-diaminotoluene induced significantly elevated DNA damage in the liver at each dose and a statistically significant dose-response relationship whereas no DNA damage was obtained in the stomach. 5-fluorouracil did not induce DNA damage in either liver or stomach.

  16. Use of a standardized JaCVAM in vivo rat comet assay protocol to assess the genotoxicity of three coded test compounds; ampicillin trihydrate, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), our laboratory examined ampicillin trihydrate (AMP), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDA) using a standard comet assay validation protocol (v14.2) developed by the JaCVAM validation management team (VMT). Coded samples were received by our laboratory along with basic MSDS information. Solubility analysis and range-finding experiments of the coded test compounds were conducted for dose selection. Animal dosing schedules, the comet assay processing and analysis, and statistical analysis were conducted in accordance with the standard protocol. Based upon our blinded evaluation, AMP was not found to exhibit evidence of genotoxicity in either the rat liver or stomach. However, both NDA and DMH were observed to cause a significant increase in % tail DNA in the rat liver at all dose levels tested. While acute hepatoxicity was observed for these compounds in the high dose group, in the investigators opinion there were a sufficient number of consistently damaged/measurable cells at the medium and low dose groups to judge these compounds as genotoxic. There was no evidence of genotoxicity from either NDA or DMH in the rat stomach. In conclusion, our laboratory observed increased DNA damage from two blinded test compounds in rat liver (later identified as genotoxic carcinogens), while no evidence of genotoxicity was observed for the third blinded test compound (later identified as a non-genotoxic, non-carcinogen). This data supports the use of a standardized protocol of the in vivo comet assay as a cost-effective alternative genotoxicity assay for regulatory testing purposes.

  17. A resolution honoring the life of pioneering astronaut Dr. Sally Ride and expressing the condolences of the Senate on her death.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Boxer, Barbara [D-CA

    2012-08-02

    08/02/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S6012-6013; text as passed Senate: CR S6013; text of measure as introduced: CR S5993) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Harry and Sally Revisited: The Influence of Spirituality and Education on Sexual Tension in Cross-Sex Friendships in Secular and Christian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Darren; Adalikwu-Obisike, Justina; Boyko, Jesse; Johnson, Jay; Boscanin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    A sample of 406 subjects completed a questionnaire testing the influence of personal spirituality, education and several other factors on sexual tension in cross-sex friendships (CSF Tension). The subjects included 143 students from a Christian university (CU), 137 from a secular junior college (JC), and 127 non-students (NS). The primary…

  19. Evaluation of 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether in the rat comet assay: Part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Priestley, Catherine C; Walker, Joanne S; O'Donovan, Michael R; Doherty, Ann T

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (DPE), a known rodent genotoxic carcinogen, was tested in this laboratory. Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of DPE, 24 and 21 h apart and liver or stomach sampled 3h after the final dose. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage in liver and stomach were observed with DPE (up to 200 mg/kg/day). A dose-dependent decrease in DNA migration, compared to vehicle controls, was noted for DPE in rat stomach. Further analysis is required to elucidate fully whether this decrease is a consequence of the mode of action or due to the toxicity of DPE. What is perhaps surprising is the inability of the comet assay to detect a known rat genotoxic carcinogen in liver. Further investigation is needed to clarify whether this apparent lack of response results from limited tissue exposure or metabolic differences between species. This finding highlights a need for careful consideration of study design when evaluating assay performance as a measure of in vivo genotoxicity.

  20. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study.

  1. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along su...

  2. Personnel Management: A J/A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Recently, personnel executives and their staffs are being asked to help management solve an increasing number of human resource and business problems. Personnel management must undergo some changes if it is to achieve its full potential. (Author/AJ)

  3. 77 FR 45589 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review and Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... contact A-357-818....... 731-TA-1105 Argentina...... Lemon Juice (1st Sally Gannon, (202) 482-0162 Review). A-201-835....... 731-TA-1106 Mexico......... Lemon Juice (1st Sally Gannon, (202) 482-0162...

  4. Evaluation of p-phenylenediamine, o-phenylphenol sodium salt, and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the rat comet assay as part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Marlies; van der Leede, Bas-jan; De Vlieger, Kathleen; Geys, Helena; Vynckier, An; Van Gompel, Jacky

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (PPD), o-phenylphenol sodium salt (OPP), and 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), were analyzed in this laboratory as coded test chemicals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of the test compounds, 24 and 21 h apart and liver and stomach were sampled 3h after the final dose administration. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage were observed in liver and stomach with PPD and OPP up to 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively. 2,4-DAT, a known genotoxic carcinogen, induced a weak but reproducible, dose-related and statistically significant increase in DNA damage in liver cells while no increases were observed in stomach cells.

  5. Oversight Hearing on Student Loan Marketing Associations. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Oversight hearings on the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) are presented. Sallie Mae was established by the Education Amendments of 1972 to provide liquidity for Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) lenders by purchasing GSL portfolios from lenders or making loans on GSL loans held by lenders. In 1982, Sallie Mae had total cumulative…

  6. Results of the International Validation of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: Individual data for 1,2-dibromoethane, p-anisidine, and o-anthranilic acid in the 2nd step of the 4th phase Validation Study under the JaCVAM initiative.

    PubMed

    Takasawa, Hironao; Takashima, Rie; Narumi, Kazunori; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hattori, Akiko; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Hamada, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative International Validation Study of an in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), p-anisidine (ASD), and o-anthranilic acid (ANT) to investigate the effectiveness of the comet assay in detecting genotoxic carcinogens. Each of the three test chemicals was administered to 5 male Sprague-Dawley rats per group by oral gavage at 48, 24, and 3h before specimen preparation. Single cells were collected from the liver and glandular stomach at 3h after the final dosing, and the specimens prepared from these two organs were subjected to electrophoresis under alkaline conditions (pH>13). The percentage of DNA intensity in the comet tail was then assessed using an image analysis system. A micronucleus (MN) assay was also conducted using these three test chemicals with the bone marrow (BM) cells collected from the same animals simultaneously used in the comet assay, i.e., combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay. A genotoxic (Ames positive) rodent carcinogen, DBE gave a positive result in the comet assay in the present study, while a genotoxic (Ames positive) non-carcinogen, ASD and a non-genotoxic (Ames negative) non-carcinogen, ANT showed negative results in the comet assay. All three chemicals produced negative results in the BM MN assay. While the comet assay findings in the present study were consistent with those obtained from the rodent carcinogenicity studies for the three test chemicals, we consider the positive result in the comet assay for DBE to be particularly meaningful, given that this chemical produced a negative result in the BM MN assay. Therefore, the combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay is a useful method to detect genotoxic carcinogens that are undetectable with the BM MN assay alone.

  7. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a) | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex internal feedbacks, and non-linearity that often interferes with desired management outcomes, and insufficient understanding of nature and people. Adaptive management was developed to reduce such uncertainty. We present a framework for the application of adaptive management for ecosystem services that explicitly accounts for cross-scale tradeoffs in the production of ecosystem services. Our framework focuses on identifying key spatiotemporal scales (plot, patch, ecosystem, landscape, and region) that encompass dominant structures and processes in the system, and includes within- and cross-scale dynamics, ecosystem service tradeoffs, and management controllability within and across scales. Resilience theory recognizes that a limited set of ecological processes in a given system regulate ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes is poorly understood. If management actions erode or remove these processes, the system may shift into an alternative state unlikely to support the production of desired services. Adaptive management provides a process to assess the underlying within and cross-scale tradeoffs associated with production of ecosystem services while proceeding with manage

  8. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA) | Science Inventory | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along sustainable trajectories. Ecology for the shrinking city therefore acknowledges that urban transformations to sustainable trajectories may be quite different in shrinking cities as compared with growing cities. Shrinking cities are well poised for transformations, because shrinking is perceived as a crisis and can mobilize the social capacity to change. Ecology is particularly well suited to contribute solutions because of the extent of vacant land in shrinking cities that can be leveraged for ecosystem-services provisioning. A crucial role of an ecology for the shrinking city is identifying innovative pathways that create locally desired amenities that provide ecosystem services and contribute to urban sustainability at multiple scales. This paper brings together the concepts of ecology for the city and shrinking cities – the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss. Ecology for the city is the application of social-ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along sustainable trajectories. Ecology for the shrinking city acknowledges that urban transformations to sustainable trajectories may be quite different in shrinking cities as compa

  9. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex intern...

  10. Treatment Plan Adherence for Your Child With JA

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story into a Message of Hope Margo Deihl: Music is Medicine Liz Morasso: Flying High Brett Ishihara: ... Story into a Message of Hope Margo Deihl: Music is Medicine Liz Morasso: Flying High Treatment Plan ...

  11. KSC-03PD-0461

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., young women gather to sign a large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion the day before. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  12. KSC-03PD-0463

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., young women gather to sign a large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion the day before. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  13. KSC-03PD-0462

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., young women gather to sign a large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion the day before. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  14. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    ii. Continuing to review Technical Manuals and Supplemental Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4...Transducer Vents and Fills – SIO submitted preliminary sketch of proposed vent and fill lines to various transducers.  Sally Ride Propeller...RAM/NUC Nav Light Mast). Video submitted showing the effect of a light winds on the mast. DCI has since welded a cross piece on Sally Ride’s mast

  15. AGOR 28 SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-06

    distribution unlimited. Report No. A002.033 1. Meetings: i. Participated in weekly conference call. ii. Participated in Sally Ride Noise...the operators be able to control the pitch and rpm independently using the “combinator” propeller controls.  Sally Ride Genset Noise FAT’s...Attended 3 of the 4 scheduled Generator Noise/Vibration FAT’s at B&G Machine in Seattle.  For Sally Ride , NCE went with a 24-channel set up and was

  16. 77 FR 43116 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of Montana, Missoula, MT; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... were removed from prehistoric archeological site 24MO1071 in Missoula County, MT. Metric analysis and... contact Sally Thompson, University of Montana, Anthropological Curation Facility, Department...

  17. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-09

    initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4. Other Work Items: • Sally Ride Progress – There continues to be no notable progress in the pipe, hvac or...VRS Funding – Funding for Buy List 5 has been increased by $200,000. Thank you, Larry! • Sally Ride Motor Mounts – the port and starboard...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 • Sally Ride Machinery – all of the large

  18. An Actor's Role-Reading Approach to Reading Fluency with Junior High Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide teachers, tutors and parents with an effective and enjoyable approach to practicing reading fluency, increasing comprehension and encouraging the joy of reading, based on the theories and methods of Sally L. Smith. This method can be applied and adapted to individual student's needs. Sally Smith, the…

  19. AGOR 27/28 Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    diverted to NEIL ARMSTRONG . The shipyard will be hard pressed to present a complementary level of completion for SALLY RIDE at the 9 August 2014...christening that NEIL ARMSTRONG demonstrated at her christening. DCI has little specifics for getting SALLY RIDE back on track other than granting

  20. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-23

    The yard is continuing to install the Quad-zero MLV in various locations throughout Sally Ride. DCI is holding off on installing any new insulation ...the white insulation material over the long term. 5 6. Call-outs: Sally Ride: Fuel Oil Service Pipe

  1. 31 CFR 354.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.10 Additional provisions. (a... attachment for Sallie Mae Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by a creditor only by legal process upon the Securities Intermediary with whom...

  2. 31 CFR 354.6 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks... SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.6 Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of Sallie Mae to perform...

  3. 31 CFR 354.6 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks... SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.6 Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of Sallie Mae to perform...

  4. 31 CFR 354.6 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks... SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.6 Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of Sallie Mae to perform...

  5. 31 CFR 354.6 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks... SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.6 Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of Sallie Mae to perform...

  6. 31 CFR 354.6 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks... SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.6 Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of Sallie Mae to perform...

  7. Questioning the Order of Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupree, Kami M.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, students have been encouraged to use "Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally" as a means of learning the order of operations. Teachers unfamiliar with the Aunt Sally mnemonic are perhaps more familiar with a mnemonic such as PEMDAS. Each mnemonic is intended to convey "parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division,…

  8. 31 CFR 354.1 - Definitions of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., representative, and any other similar organization, but does not mean or include the United States, Sallie Mae... National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State laws and approved by the American Bar Association on... Holder with respect to a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security. (t) State means any state of the United...

  9. 31 CFR 354.1 - Definitions of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., representative, and any other similar organization, but does not mean or include the United States, Sallie Mae... National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State laws and approved by the American Bar Association on... Holder with respect to a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security. (t) State means any state of the United...

  10. 31 CFR 354.1 - Definitions of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., representative, and any other similar organization, but does not mean or include the United States, Sallie Mae... National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State laws and approved by the American Bar Association on... Holder with respect to a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security. (t) State means any state of the United...

  11. 31 CFR 354.1 - Definitions of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., representative, and any other similar organization, but does not mean or include the United States, Sallie Mae... National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State laws and approved by the American Bar Association on... Holder with respect to a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security. (t) State means any state of the United...

  12. 31 CFR 354.1 - Definitions of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., representative, and any other similar organization, but does not mean or include the United States, Sallie Mae... National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State laws and approved by the American Bar Association on... Holder with respect to a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security. (t) State means any state of the United...

  13. Metabolic Regulation of Caspase 2 in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Kurokawa, Yongjun Wang, Seth S. Margolis, Rafael A. Fissore, and Sally Kornbluth Scheduled for publication in Developmental Cell in June, 2009...Manabu Kurokawa1, Yongjun Wang4, Seth S. Margolis1, Rafael A. Fissore3, and Sally Kornbluth1 1Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 ELEVATION OF CHAPEL AND SALLY PORT TOWARDS THE COURTYARD PLAZA DE ARMAS, SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  15. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 GUNDECK ABOVE CHAPEL AND SALLY PORT, SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  16. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 SALLY PORT OF SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO SEEN FROM BRIDGE ACROSS DRY MOAT. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  17. The Second Annual Report of the Student Loan Marketing Association to the Congress of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Student Loan Marketing Association, Washington, DC.

    The Student Loan Marketing Association ("Sallie Mae") is a government sponsored, private, for profit corporation, created in June 23, 1972, by the enactment of Section 439 of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended. Sallie Mae provides liquidity to commercial banks, savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, credit unions,…

  18. Behind Each Outstanding Teacher: An Analysis of the Teacher Tribute Award Nominations for the Student Loan Marketing Association, 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Richard W.

    Research assesses the attitudinal factors that characterize outstanding first-year elementary and secondary school teachers as nominated by their superintendents and judged for the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) by a panel of experts selected by the American Association of School Administrators. Sallie Mae nomination forms…

  19. Why Students Can Still Get Loans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Skee

    1978-01-01

    The Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) is a private profit-making corporation chartered by Congress in 1972 to create a secondary market for Guaranteed Student Loans (a program established by Title IV-B of the 1965 Higher Education Act). Sallie Mae's job is to help lending institutions thaw frozen cash and make more loans. (BM)

  20. Cost-Free Financial Aid Focuses Kids on College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Tony P.; Martinez, Alison P.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses college student financial aid. The core business of SLM Corporation, better known as Sallie Mae, is college loans. Its charitable affiliate, the Sallie Mae Fund, offers scholarships like the "First in My Family" grant, targeting first-generation Hispanic college students. Latino college students average less financial aid…

  1. KSC-03PD-0464

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion Feb. 1, is on display in the NASA News Center at KSC. The poster was signed by young women attending the Sally Ride Science Festival at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls at the festival, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  2. High School Teachers Win ACS Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Editorial Staff, Jce

    2009-07-01

    William E. Snyder is the 2009 winner of the ACS Division of Chemical Education Central Region Award for Excellence in High School Teaching; Sally Mitchell is the winner of the 2009 James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching.

  3. PEDESTRIAN UNDERPASS AT CRESCENT ROAD AND ROOSEVELT CENTER FROM NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PEDESTRIAN UNDERPASS AT CRESCENT ROAD AND ROOSEVELT CENTER FROM NORTH. NOTE DALE WINLING, 2005 SALLY KRESS TOMPKINS FELLOW, WALKING THROUGH UNDERPASS. - Old Greenbelt, Crescent Road and Southway, Greenbelt, Prince George's County, MD

  4. 75 FR 38097 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...; Richard and Sally Ley; John Tippmann, Jr.; Patrick Tippmann; and Brian and Jennifer Backstrom, all of Fort... (Jacqueline G. King, Community Affairs Officer) 90 Hennepin Avenue, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55480-0291:...

  5. 78 FR 51734 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis...: Sally Eckert-Tilotta, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, Nat. Institute of Environmental...

  6. 78 FR 27410 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis...: Sally Eckert-Tilotta, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, Nat. Institute of Environmental...

  7. Astronauts Sullivan and Ride synchronize their watches before liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts Kathryn Sullivan and Sally Ride synchronize their watches in the white room on the orbiter access arm before insertion into the orbiter crew compartment. This photo was done before liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger.

  8. Roll Damping Characterisation Program: User Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    sallying test. The Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) have developed a software-based tool called the Roll Damping Characterisation...Murray Riding Maritime Division Murray obtained a Bachelor of Science (Honours) Degree from the

  9. GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    Sally D. Perreault, U. S. Environmental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

  10. 31 CFR 354.8 - Waiver of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.8 Waiver of regulations. The Secretary reserves...

  11. 31 CFR 354.8 - Waiver of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.8 Waiver of regulations. The Secretary reserves...

  12. 31 CFR 354.8 - Waiver of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.8 Waiver of regulations. The Secretary reserves...

  13. 31 CFR 354.8 - Waiver of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.8 Waiver of regulations. The Secretary reserves...

  14. 31 CFR 354.8 - Waiver of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.8 Waiver of regulations. The Secretary reserves...

  15. 76 FR 7568 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...; Carolyn P. Snyder; Elizabeth K. Snyder; Benjamin T. Snyder; Michael D. Snyder; Sally A. Snyder; Charles R... voting shares of Nextier Bank N.A., Evans City, Pennsylvania. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond...

  16. 76 FR 11500 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ..., Building 4401, East Campus, 79 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (Virtual Meeting..., Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (Virtual Meeting) Contact Person: Sally Eckert-Tilotta, PhD,...

  17. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 DETAIL, CHAPEL ELEVATION, SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  18. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 ALTAR, CHAPEL SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  19. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 ELEVATION OF CHAPEL, SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  20. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE AND RAT OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse and Rat Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research ...

  1. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

  2. JaMBES: A "New" Way of Calculating Plate Tectonic Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambord, A. I.; Smith, E. G. C.; Sutherland, R.

    2014-12-01

    Calculating the paleoposition of tectonic plates using marine geophysical data has been usually done by using the Hellinger criterion [Hellinger, 1981]. However, for the Hellinger software [Kirkwood et al., 1999] to produce stable results, we find that the input data must be abundant and spatially well distributed. Although magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data have been increasingly abundant since the 1960s, some parts of the globe remain too sparsely explored to provide enough data for the Hellinger code to provide satisfactory rotations. In this poster, we present new software to calculate the paleopositions of tectonic plates using magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data. Our method is based on the theory of plate tectonics as introduced by [Bullard et al., 1965] and [Morgan, 1968], which states that ridge segments (ie. magnetic lineations) and fracture zones are at right angles to each other. In order to test our software, we apply it to a region of the world where climatic conditions hinder the acquisition of magnetic data: the Southwest Pacific, between New Zealand and Antarctica from breakup time to chron 20 (c43Ma). Bullard, E., J. E. Everett, and A. G. Smith (1965), The fit of continents around the atlantic, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 258(1088), 41-51. Hellinger, S. J. (1981), The uncertainties of finite rotations in plate tectonics, Journal of Geophysical Research, 86(B10), 9312-9318. Kirkwood, B. H., J. Y. Royer, T. C. Chang, and R. G. Gordon (1999), Statistical tools for estimating and combining finite rotations and their uncertainties, Geophysical Journal International, 137(2), 408-428. Morgan, W. J. (1968), Rises, trenches, great faults, and crustal blocks, Journal of Geophysical Research, 73(6), 1959-1982.

  3. Acute Oral Toxicity of JA-2 Solid Propellant in ICR Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    and nitroglycerin. These signs tremors, inactivity, depression of reflexes, loss of equilibrium, opisthotonus , and increased respiratory activity... opisthotonus , and increased respiratory activity. Other clinical signs observed were associated with the general malaise of the animals following...of 86), miscellaneous signs (29 of 88), changes in reflex activity (28 of 88), rough coat (20 of 86), opisthotonus (14 of 86), and respiratory

  4. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    20m coronal brain sections were cut on a cryostat and ollected at 400m intervals. Timm’s and Nissl staining was per- ormed as previously described...after cortical contusion injury is not uniform. Example Timm’s and Nissl stained sections of the dentate gyrus 8—12 wk after CCI injury. (A...Scale bar is 100m. Figure 2 Timm scores are greater in mice with cortical cavitation that enters the hippocampus (HC). (A) Image of Timm’s and Nissl

  5. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    epileptogenesis. Task 1: Determine whether benzodiazepine modulation of IPSCs in dentate granule cells (DGCs) is altered after CCI and whether this...30 days. 2. Applied α1 subunit-selective benzodiazepine agonist, zolpidem, and measured IPSC frequency, amplitude and decay time constant in...analysis is being verified for effect on decay time constant and that process will be complete within 30 days: benzodiazepine agonist tends to increase

  6. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Task 1: Determine whether benzodiazepine modulation of IPSCs in dentate granule cells (DGCs) is altered after CCI and whether this alteration is...selective benzodiazepine agonist and measured IPSC frequency, amplitude and decay time constant in neurons from control (n=2) and CCI-treated (n=3...mice. Analysis is preliminary: benzodiazepine agonist tended to increase time constant; replicates are currently too low to be quantitative

  7. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-31

    contribute to epileptogenesis. Task 1: Determine whether benzodiazepine modulation of IPSCs in dentate granule cells (DGCs) is altered after CCI and...were measured. Analysis is preliminary and ongoing. 2. Applied α1-subunit selective benzodiazepine agonist and measured IPSC frequency, amplitude...preliminary: benzodiazepine agonist tended to increase time constant; replicates are currently too low to be quantitative. Supporting Data

  8. Greener routes to organics and nanomaterials: Sustainable applications of nano-catalysts (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic activity involving alternate energy input and greener reaction medium in aqueous or under solvent-free conditions is summarized. This includes the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a variety of reactions catalyzed by basic water o...

  9. Japan Link Center (JaLC): link management and DOI assignment for Japanese electronic scholarly contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takafumi; Tsuchiya, Eri; Kubota, Soichi; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    JST, cooperated with several national institutes, is currently developing “Japan Link Center”, which manages Japanese electronic scholarly contents (journal articles, books, dissertations etc.) in an integrated fashion using Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Japan Link Center will manage metadata and whereabouts information of the contents in the digital environment and provide domestic and international linking information, cite/cited information to activate dissemination of S&T information, furthermore, to strengthen transmission of S&T information from Japan. Japan Link Center is expected to be appointed as the 9th DOI registration agency (RA) in the world by the International DOI Foundation (IDF) this spring.

  10. Visualization and Measurement of the Deflagration of Metal-Foil Bounded JA2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    ABSTRACT  The US Army Research Laboratory conducted experiments to broaden its knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the deflagration of nitrate ester...predict enhanced mass generation rates and surface topology for nitrate - ester based propellants embedded with thermally conductive materials, whether... nitrate -ester propellants. Journal of Propulsion and Power. 20:440–454. 11. Anderson W, Meagher N, Vanderhoff J. Dark zones of solid propellant

  11. Human Skeletal Material from 23JA277 Blue Springs Lake Project, Jackson County, Missouri

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Todd 1920; McKern and Stewart 1957) in that the surface of the entire demi-face is flat and granulated in appearance, the ventral rampart is complete...carbonized organic matter, some of which retain a wood-like structure. Dark mottles and the stain coating the bones effervesces with a three percent hydrogen

  12. The Flintlock Site (8JA1763): An Unusual Underwater Deposit in the Apalachicola River, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrell, Christopher E.; Scott-Ireton, Della A.; Smith, Roger C.; Levy, James; Knetsch, Joe

    2009-06-01

    In the fall of 2001, staff of the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research were led by river divers to an underwater site in the Apalachicola River containing a large concentration of prehistoric and historic artifacts lying on the riverbed. Subsequent inspection of the submerged river bank and scoured limestone river channel revealed a myriad of objects, which included iron fasteners, metal tools and implements, broken glass bottles, stone projectile points, scattered bricks and stone blocks, and other materials. Discovery of two large fragments of a wooden watercraft, a bayonet, a copper arrowhead, and flintlock gun barrels initially prompted researchers to hypothesize that the site might represent the remains of a U.S. Army boat that was attacked in 1817 by Seminole Indians while en route upriver. The episode, which caused the deaths of more than 30 soldiers and several women who were aboard the boat, led to the First Seminole War and the U.S. Army invasion of Florida. To investigate this hypothesis, a systematic survey of the riverbed was undertaken in the spring of 2002 to record underwater features and recover additional diagnostic artifacts. These activities employed side-scan sonar as well as diver visual investigations. This paper presents a case study of the value and broader significance of aggregate data where interpretation was underpinned by artefactual, historical and environmental analysis.

  13. "City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Company": The Decision and Some of Its Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, A. Fleming, II

    1989-01-01

    The Supreme Court's "Croson" decision has major implications for local government and school administrative units that wish to encourage the use of minority contractors. Discusses the decision and some of the effects that the rules announced in the case may have on North Carolina's local governments and schools. (MLF)

  14. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress ReportSIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-06

    arrangement had a significant change from how Neil Armstrong Genset’s forward mounts were attached to the test bed from those of Sally Ride. For Neil ...for either vessel. Neil Armstrong Forward Mounts: Sally Ride Forward Mounts: 3  At this time it is not known what affect this...will have on the noise and vibration readings. There were some anomalies on the sole set of readings taken for Neil Armstrong , so differences are

  15. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-11

    Sally Ride Foc’s’le Deck - Shower/Toilet Units staged.  Sally Ride Aft Deck Structure  Neil Armstrong Lube Oil Tanks – Inspected foundations...and brackets. USCG in attendance. No issues. 5  Neil Armstrong Port Bilge Keel – Inspected internal structure and welds. USCG in...attendance. No issues. Once the bottom plate is installed the bilge keel will be pressurized and soap tested.  Neil Armstrong Bock 5 Skeg- Skeg was

  16. Reaching the Target Audience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    living in the Third Reich. Richard Bessel’s book Life in the Third Reich and Frederic Tubach and Sally Peterson’s book German Voices: Memories of...validity is written in Frederic Tubach and Sally Patterson’s book German Voices: Memories of Life During Hitler’s Third Reich. Frederic Tubach stated...Patterson, German Voices: Memories of Life During Hitler’s Third Reich (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2011), 3. 17 CHAPTER 4

  17. AGOR 28, SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 • Sally Ride Pilot House & MCS Consoles – These are still in Mackay’s hands with no delivery date set. Delivery later...modified foundations. Alignment in progress on both vessels . • Side & CTD Handling Systems – Unresolved issues with fairlead... vessel . 3 5. Sally Ride Progress: • TK70-70 Main Crane – The welding of the crane’s foundation to the

  18. KSC-03PD-0458

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Former astronaut Sally Ride talks to young women at the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. The event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees. Since it followed the tragic loss of the Columbia astronauts, a large poster was presented which attendees could sign as tribute..

  19. KSC-03PD-0460

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Exhibits draw crowds of young women attending the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. The event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees. Since it followed the tragic loss of the Columbia astronauts, a large poster was presented which attendees could sign as tribute.

  20. KSC-03PD-0459

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., former astronaut Sally Ride talks to young women about their future. The event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees. Since it followed the tragic loss of the Columbia astronauts, a large poster was presented which attendees could sign as tribute.

  1. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-28

    release; distribution unlimited. Report No. A002.062 1. Meetings: i. Participated in weekly conference calls. ii. Design Review 16 2...outfitting lists for Sally Ride. iv. Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Sally Ride Progress: • HVAC – Ducting installation is moving forward with...large sections of ductwork being installed on the main deck port and starboard. HVAC crew is laying out runs on the foc’sle and 01 decks. • Pilot

  2. Kone Ja Keele Uurimine Ning Emakeele Didaktika (Relevance of Linguistic and Psycholinguistic Studies to Mother Tongue Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlep, Karl

    This article looks at the relevance of linguistic and psycholinguistic studies to mother tongue instruction. Particularly, the semantically-oriented research of higher level units of language and speech, is considered. As some Estonian studies imply, there are indications that the application of psycholinguistic research in teaching practices…

  3. Position Data Analysis Job Aid (PDAT-JA) Prototype Software (Version 2. 0), User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    obtained from the Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station , Alexandria, Virginia 22304-6145. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES...Unrestricted Editing, Edit Line ........................ 44 23. UIC Balance Status Window ....................................... 45 24. Initial PMAD Editing...Screen ..................................... 46 25. Initial Activated PMAD Worksheet, Hot-Key Commands .............. 48 26. PMAD Worksheet, Edit Line

  4. J.A. Schumpeter and T.B. Veblen on economic evolution: the dichotomy between statics and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Marlies; Rainer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract At present, the discussion on the dichotomy between statics and dynamics is resolved by concentrating on its mathematical meaning. Yet, a simple formalisation masks the underlying methodological discussion. Overcoming this limitation, the paper discusses Schumpeter's and Veblen's viewpoint on dynamic economic systems as systems generating change from within. It contributes to an understanding on their ideas of how economics could become an evolutionary science and on their contributions to elaborate an evolutionary economics. It confronts Schumpeter's with Veblen's perspective on evolutionary economics and provides insight into their evolutionary economic theorising by discussing their ideas on the evolution of capitalism. PMID:28057981

  5. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  6. Aidinkieli Suomen Kielen Ja Vieraiden Kielten Opiskelijoiden Mielissa (Native Language Influence on the Teaching and Learning of Estonian and Finnish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muikku-Werner, Pirkko

    In recent years, language awareness has been a popular topic of lively discussion. Both linguists and language teachers have shown interest in consciousness raising that has been considered a means of establishing motivated and effective language learning. Most studies have approached the subject from the viewpoint of foreign languages, and less…

  7. The Neural Computation of Scalar Implicature

    PubMed Central

    Hartshorne, Joshua K.; Snedeker, Jesse; Azar, Stephanie Yen-Mun Liem; Kim, Albert E.

    2014-01-01

    Language comprehension involves not only constructing the literal meaning of a sentence but also going beyond the literal meaning to infer what was meant but not said. One widely-studied test case is scalar implicature: The inference that, e.g., Sally ate some of the cookies implies she did not eat all of them. Research is mixed on whether this is due to a rote, grammaticalized procedure or instead a complex, contextualized inference. We find that in sentences like If Sally ate some of the cookies, then the rest are on the counter, that the rest triggers a late, sustained positivity relative to Sally ate some of the cookies, and the rest are on the counter. This is consistent with behavioral results and linguistic theory suggesting that the former sentence does not trigger a scalar implicature. This motivates a view on which scalar implicature is contextualized but dependent on grammatical structure. PMID:25914890

  8. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-13

    27, first of the class, will be named R/V Neil Armstrong , and AGOR 28, second of the class, will become the R/V Sally Ride. The two ships will be...propellers with variable speed motors for increased efficiency. This biweekly progress report provides information on the shipbuilding status of the R/V Sally Ride and the R/V Neil Armstrong ....agreements. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution will operate the AGOR 27, and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography will operate the AGOR 28. The Neil

  9. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-14

    27, first of the class, will be named R/V Neil Armstrong , and AGOR 28, second of the class, will become the R/V Sally Ride. The two ships will be...propellers with variable speed motors for increased efficiency. This biweekly progress report provides information on the shipbuilding status of the R/V Sally Ride and the R/V Neil Armstrong ....agreements. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution will operate the AGOR 27, and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography will operate the AGOR 28. The Neil

  10. Archival Evaluation of Floodwall Alignments: New Orleans, Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-15

    AUT.OR.) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUME1;94) Sally K. and William D. Reeves DACW29-82- M -1980 S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM...1925 ~ Samuel McC. Young, f Chief Engineer Drawn by M . Peter Villere Scale ao~e ONE MILE From Collection of Sally K. Reeves 1815 easr s3 tseSt jacq% o1...1779. 9. See M . de Armas, 5/27/1818. 10. Joseph Verloin DeGruy to Santiago Livaudais, Andres Almonaster, 10/26/1776. 11. Madame Panis to John N

  11. Vehicle Impact Testing of Snow Roads at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    McMurdo Station, Antarctica Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry Sally A. Shoop, Margaret A. Knuth, Wendy L...Vehicle Impact Testing of Snow Roads at McMurdo Station, Antarctica Sally A. Shoop, Margaret A. Knuth, and Monica Preston Cold Regions Research and...kilograms ERDC/CRREL TR-14-9 xii ERDC/CRREL TR-14-9 1 1 Introduction 1.1 Issue McMurdo Station, Antarctica , has approximately 20 miles (32 km

  12. Perceived Neighborhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking and Cycling for Transport among Adult Residents of 17 Cities in 12 Countries: The IPEN Study

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Emond, Jennifer A.; Badland, Hannah; Reis, Rodrigo; Sarmiento, Olga; Carlson, Jordan; Sallis, James F.; Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli; Conway, Terry; Schofield, Grant; Macfarlane, Duncan J.; Christiansen, Lars B.; Van Dyck, Delfien; Davey, Rachel; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Salvo, Deborah; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville; Mitáš, Josef; Natarajan, Loki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevalence of walking and cycling for transport is low and varies greatly across countries. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions related to walking and cycling for transport in different countries. Therefore, it is challenging to prioritize appropriate built-environment interventions. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the strength and shape of the relationship between adults’ neighborhood perceptions and walking and cycling for transport across diverse environments. Methods As part of the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult project, self-reported data were taken from 13,745 adults (18–65 years) living in physically and socially diverse neighborhoods in 17 cities across 12 countries. Neighborhood perceptions were measured using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, and walking and cycling for transport were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Long Form. Generalized additive mixed models were used to model walking or cycling for transport during the last seven days with neighborhood perceptions. Interactions by city were explored. Results Walking-for-transport outcomes were significantly associated with perceived residential density, land use mix–access, street connectivity, aesthetics, and safety. Any cycling for transport was significantly related to perceived land use mix–access, street connectivity, infrastructure, aesthetics, safety, and perceived distance to destinations. Between-city differences existed for some attributes in relation to walking or cycling for transport. Conclusions Many perceived environmental attributes supported both cycling and walking; however, highly walkable environments may not support cycling for transport. People appear to walk for transport despite safety concerns. These findings can guide the implementation of global health strategies. Citation Kerr J, Emond JA, Badland H, Reis R, Sarmiento O, Carlson J, Sallis

  13. Methods and Strategies: Gather 'Round

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Sally

    2014-01-01

    How do teachers ignite a fire that kindles a love for books and produces a sense of wonder in the science classroom? What do teachers know and do that lights that spark in their students (Cummins 2012)? In this article, science and mathematics professor Sally Mayberry highlights a number of trade books that have made a fantastic difference in the…

  14. APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries
    Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711.

  15. The Best of the Literacy Beat 1988-1989. The Best of the Literacy Beat 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Writers Association, Washington, DC.

    This document is a set of two volumes that contain prize-winning newspaper articles and summaries of radio and television shows selected as part of the Media Resource Project on Literacy. Items in the 1988-89 book include the following: "Why Daddy Can't Read" (Sally L. Gilman); "The Triumph of Jimmy Sanchez" (Sandra Macias); "Illiteracy:…

  16. THE VALUE OF HOME-BASED COLLECTION OF BIOSPECIMENS IN REPRODUCTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Value of Home-Based Collection of Biospecimens in Reproductive Epidemiology
    John C. Rockett1, Germaine M. Buck2, Courtney D. Johnson2 and Sally D. Perreault1
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Rese...

  17. Quantification of Physical Activity During Basic Combat Training and Associated Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-31

    Assessment, trends, and tracking. (pp. 457-477). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers. 55 24. McKenzie TL (2002). Use of direct observation to assess...Sci. Sports Exerc., 2000. Vol. 32, No.9, Suppl., pp. S498-S516. 38. McKenzie TL, Sallis JF. & Nader PR. SOFIT: System for observing fitness

  18. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey. Portion of an anonymous watercolor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey. Portion of an anonymous watercolor painting of Fort McHenry bombardment of 1814. Peale Museum, Baltimore. View of southeast bastion and sally port. - Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine, East Fort Avenue at Whetstone Point, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  19. "Interact with Puberty": Engaging Middle Schooling Students through Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipe, Sally; Edwards, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Sally Knipe, Course Coordinator, Bachelor of Education (Middle Schooling) at Charles Sturt University has been teaching undergraduate students in this program for six years. When Charles Sturt University introduced a learning management system, Interact she, with the faculty's educational designer, Miriam Edwards worked together in developing…

  20. Crisis Management: Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

  1. Memories Are Made of This

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her memories of Sally Smith, the founder of The Lab School of Washington, where she works as the director of the Occupational Therapy. When the author first met Smith, Smith asked her what brought her to The Lab School at that point in her career. She told Smith that her background was rather eclectic, since she…

  2. Being a Clinical Psychologist at the Lab School of Baltimore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Each day, seeking to address the never ending challenge of helping students with learning disabilities, the author's Baltimore Lab School and Lab School of Washington (LSW) colleagues remember a similar situation in the past and they try to recall what Sally Smith taught them. Smith taught the author a lot in his seven years of working with…

  3. History of the Academy in Manayunk (AIM): Adoption of the Lab School Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Patricia; Blair, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors recall how the Academy in Manayunk adopted the famous Sally Smith's club methodology. They share how the influence of Smith pushed the school faculty and staff to create a school that focuses on the individual child and celebrates the unique talents and interests that each brings to the learning community. It is based…

  4. Understanding the Parent's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Sally Smith's contribution to the world of children with learning disabilities is well documented, particularly by the other contributors to this journal. An area deserving attention, but one usually overlooked, is Smith's understanding of the parent's perspective--the challenges of parenting a child with learning disabilities. It was a priceless…

  5. Lecturing: Case Studies, Experience and Practice. Case Studies of Teaching in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Helen, Ed.; Smith, Brenda, Ed.; Webb, Graham, Ed.

    The essays in this collection explore how different lecturing situations can be handled and how lecturing confidence and techniques can be improved. The book covers a wide range of scenarios in these chapters: (1) "Learning from Objectives" (Stanley Yeo); (2) "New at This" (Sally Brown); (3) "The Smart Student" (Marilyn Baird); (4) "The Mobile…

  6. Warts and All: Exposing History to High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    A high school history teacher explains how he tries to make history interesting for his students by suggesting that American history is full of great stories. Talks specifically about teaching about Thomas Jefferson and his relationship with Sally Hemings. Presents a rationale for addressing controversial issues in history instruction. (JOW)

  7. Thomas Jefferson and Slaves: Teaching an American Paradox. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehn, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Provides 11 primary sources that enable students to contemplate how Thomas Jefferson and his slaves produced a culture and community at Monticello (Virginia) and his other plantations. Focuses on Jefferson's relationship with his slaves, particularly addressing Sally Hemming's relationship with Jefferson, in order to study the complicated history…

  8. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-10

    Ride Generator Sets –  Clearance issue with stanchion remains an outstanding issue on Neil Armstrong and Sally Ride.  No word yet on vibration...Connected to SIO shipboard maintenance system via VPN. Collecting and inputting data as it becomes available.  Neil Armstrong T&S Units – Eight

  9. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-24

    4  Sally & Neil Foremasts – Both foremasts have been fabricated and are now ready for prep and paint. (photo was taken prior to the...completion of both masts)  Armstrong Main Mast – Fabrication of the main mast is underway. Concerns about antenna placement have not been

  10. Live It, Learn It: The Academic Club Methodology for Students with Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sally L.

    2004-01-01

    Improve school success for students who have learning disabilities and ADHD with "Academic Clubs," the proven learning-by-doing approach presented in this energizing guidebook. Sally Smith--the highly respected founder of the Lab Schools, where 95% of students with learning problems go on to college--shows elementary school educators how to…

  11. Learning Disabilities Spectrum: ADD, ADHD, and LD. Proceedings of the Annual Spectrum of Developmental Disabilities Course (15th, Baltimore, Maryland, March 16-18, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capute, Arnold J., Ed.; And Others

    This volume, the proceedings of a 1992 conference, presents 14 papers which take a neuropsychological approach to attention deficit disorder, attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, and learning disabilities. Papers have the following titles and authors: "A New Conceptual Model for Dyslexia" (Sally E. Shaywitz et al.);…

  12. Joint Hearing on Privatizing Government Sponsored Entities (GSEs). Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Training and Life-Long Learning of the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities and the Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, Natural Resources, and Regulatory Affairs of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities.

    This document is a congressional joint hearing report of a panel discussion exploring issues related to privatization of two government-sponsored entities (GSEs): the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) and the College Construction Loan Insurance Association (Connie Lee). The two issues specifically addressed by the panel were: (1)…

  13. Who Will Stand the Nordic Guard? Determinants, Options, and Bilateral Canadian-US Responses to the Threat on NATO’s North Flank

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-30

    NORLANT , I ILN COMNOR DEFENSE CANUS NATO NAVAL NATO FORCES GROUND AIR REINF. COMPONO N COMPONENT US LT us INF DIV SQUADRONS CDN CDN LT ARN INF...Says," Globe and Mi, 24 January 1990, p. 1. 2 0 9Sally Jacobsen , "Pact Needed for Stability, Hungarian Tells Meeting," Globe an Mail, 20 January 1990, p

  14. A Systematic Review of Public Health-Aligned Recommendations for Preparing Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin A.; Webster, Liana; Russ, Laura; Molina, Sergio; Lee, Heesu; Cribbs, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Since Sallis and McKenzie's seminal article in 1991 outlining physical education's role in public health, increased attention has been given to promoting youth physical activity in schools. The present study systematically reviewed the literature from 1991 to 2013 to identify recommendations for the preparation of physical…

  15. Stereotype, Then and Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Carlisle Indian School, founded by Richard Henry Pratt in 1879 to educate American Indian youth as an assist to having those youth success in mainstream America, is featured in two recently published books, "The Real All Americans: The Team That Changed a Game, a People, a Nation," by Sally Jenkins (Doubleday, 2007), and "Carlisle vs. Army:…

  16. Women in Combat Roles: Case Study of Female Engagement Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-13

    Menendez, of New Jersey, and Genevieve Chase , Founder and Director of American Women Veterans, introduced efforts in the Senate “to update the DOD...20Analysis%20020806.pdf (accessed December 12, 2011). 11 Martha E. McSally, “Defending America in Mixed Company: Gender in the U.S. Armed Forces

  17. Astronaut Terry J. Hart in training session RMS for STS-2 bldg 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronaut Terry J. Hart in training session with the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) for STS-2 bldg 29. Views show Truly working at the command console while watching out the windows. Karen Ehlers, an RMS procedures specialist, can be seen at left side of frame while Astronaut Sally Ride waits on right for her time at the RMS.

  18. What Works for Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishwanadha, Hari; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provides suggestions on various English instruction topics. Includes (1) "Argumentation Exercise," Hari Vishwanadha; (2) "How to Survive Developmental (or Any Other) English," Sally Russell; (3) "Reach Out to an Expert," Norma A. Register; (4) "Summary and Response Writing," Alec Valentine; (5) "The Living Journal," Blair Spencer Ray; and (6)…

  19. Asian-South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education Courier No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This issue is comprised of a series of articles dealing with adult education in Asia and the South Pacific. Included in the issue are the following articles: "Thoughts for the Advancement of Women's Project" by Sally Bruce Seddon; "Adult Education Program for Working Women in Kumi Industrial Area" by Yoon Bok-Nam; "Needs…

  20. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-17

    starboard chain stowed in chain locker . 8-shots per side. Anchors attached. 2 • Sally Ride Sea Water Piping – CuNi piping w...Mud Room, Locker MD-3, Locker MD-4 MOD 6: Gantry Sockets (T) MOD 9: Davit (ship structure) Boarding Ladder (ship structure

  1. RNA PROFILES OF EJACULATED HUMAN SPERMATOZOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    RNA Profiles of Ejaculated Human Spermatozoa

    Kary E. Thompson, Wenjun Bao, Sally D. Perreault, Hongzu Ren, John C. Rockett, Judith E. Schmid, Lillian F. Strader, David J. Dix
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory...

  2. The Alleged Importance of Being Tough, Really Tough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klee, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Christina Hoff Sommers and Sally Satel, a philosopher and a psychiatrist, now both policy analysts at the American Enterprise Institute, write in their recent book "One Nation Under Therapy: How the Helping Culture Is Eroding Self-Reliance" that empirically unsupported psychological theories ultimately descended from the cultural upheavals of the…

  3. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  4. Pair-List Readings in Korean-Japanese, Chinese-Japanese and English-Japanese Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Heather

    2008-01-01

    In English and Chinese, questions with a "wh"-object and a universally quantified subject (e.g. "What did everyone buy?") allow an individual answer ("Everyone bought apples.") and a pair-list answer ("Sam bought apples, Jo bought bananas, Sally bought..."). By contrast, the pair-list answer is reportedly unavailable in Japanese and Korean. This…

  5. Critique of the Graduate Nurse: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    Nurses in service fault beginning nurses' insufficient clinical and patient management skills. Nurse educators maintain that practicing nurses do not facilitate the transition of entry-level nurses. More collaboration between teachers and practitioners is needed. (Commentaries by Sally Glen, Patrick Crookes, and Pam Walter follow.) (SK)

  6. Essential Readings in Gifted Education: 12 Volume Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The National Association for Gifted Children series "Essential Readings in Gifted Education," edited by Sally M. Reis, is a comprehensive collection of the leading research, theories, and findings that span more than 25 years. Each volume tackles the major issues, chronicles chief trends, and imparts effective models and solutions for gifted…

  7. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-16

    Sally Ride Stern Tube – Both stern tubes are in place. The yard has aligned the port and welding in into place. The starboard tube is in place...awaiting alignment.  ABS Call-Outs – The following spaces were inspected with ABS in attendance. No reportable discrepancies were noted. Minor weld

  8. Policies and Practice: A Focus on Higher Education Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    This book, based on a discussion at an interactive videoconference, examines student diversity issues and retention strategies in the context of the Sallie Mae National Retention Project that addressed state expectations for more accountability and federal reporting requirements on graduation and retention. The eight chapters focus on equity as it…

  9. Closer view from west to east of limited access sentry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Closer view from west to east of limited access sentry station, sally port. Seen in the left background is the fuel oil pumping station (Building #805) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, LImited Area Sentry Station, Intersection of Service Road C & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. Why every mini-stroke must be treated as an emergency.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Sally

    2014-05-27

    When nurse Sally Jarvis had a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) she was advised to book an appointment with her GP the following week. Instead, she sought immediate treatment which may have prevented her from having a stroke. She argues that health professionals must spot the signs of TIA and treat it as an emergency.

  11. 42 CFR 60.38 - Assignment of a HEAL loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... assigned except to another HEAL lender, the Student Loan Marketing Association (popularly known as “Sallie Mae”), or a public entity in the business of purchasing student loans, and except as provided in § 60... statement of all the borrower's rights and responsibilities which arise from the assignment of the...

  12. 42 CFR 60.38 - Assignment of a HEAL loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... assigned except to another HEAL lender, the Student Loan Marketing Association (popularly known as “Sallie Mae”), or a public entity in the business of purchasing student loans, and except as provided in § 60... statement of all the borrower's rights and responsibilities which arise from the assignment of the...

  13. 42 CFR 60.38 - Assignment of a HEAL loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... assigned except to another HEAL lender, the Student Loan Marketing Association (popularly known as “Sallie Mae”), or a public entity in the business of purchasing student loans, and except as provided in § 60... statement of all the borrower's rights and responsibilities which arise from the assignment of the...

  14. 42 CFR 60.38 - Assignment of a HEAL loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assigned except to another HEAL lender, the Student Loan Marketing Association (popularly known as “Sallie Mae”), or a public entity in the business of purchasing student loans, and except as provided in § 60... statement of all the borrower's rights and responsibilities which arise from the assignment of the...

  15. 42 CFR 60.38 - Assignment of a HEAL loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assigned except to another HEAL lender, the Student Loan Marketing Association (popularly known as “Sallie Mae”), or a public entity in the business of purchasing student loans, and except as provided in § 60... statement of all the borrower's rights and responsibilities which arise from the assignment of the...

  16. Earlybird in South Staffordshire: Reflections on an Innovative Model of Interagency Working to Deliver an Intervention for Families of Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Julia; Pitt, Sally; Dodd, Emma

    2011-01-01

    In this article three education and health services professionals, Julia Halpin, Sally Pitt and Emma Dodd, describe and reflect upon the way in which a small group of professionals from health and education services worked in collaboration to meet the need to inform and empower parents of preschool children with a diagnosis of autistic spectrum…

  17. Managing Multilingualism in a European Nation-State: Challenges for Sweden. Current Issues in Language and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Sally, Ed.; Huss, Leena, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents a range of views about the three-layered language situation in Sweden, a situation not unlike that in many other countries worldwide. The papers include the following: "Introduction" (Sally Boyd and Leena Huss); "Swedish, English, and the European Union" (Bjorn Melander), which summarizes…

  18. How Fair Is College Financing that Speaks Spanish First?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kerri

    2007-01-01

    2Futuro is a new "Spanish-first" college-financing program rolled out by Sallie Mae and USA Funds. The pilot version of 2Futuro launched last summer and is, say its partnering agents, "the only fully bilingual college-financing and outreach program that enables Hispanic parents and students to apply for college loans in Spanish. By the end of the…

  19. Two History Texts: A Study in Contrast. A Study Guide and Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert B.

    By comparing a text that is especially biased with one that is especially free of bias, the understanding and recognition of race and sex bias in history textbooks can be developed. "Your Mississippi" by John K. Bettersworth and "Mississippi: Conflict and Change", edited by Sallis and Loewen, provide examples for such a study.…

  20. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Qualitative Studies Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Qualitative Studies section of the proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "Writing as Theater: The Marketing of the Digital Word" (Sally McMillan); "Rethinking Ideology: Polysemy, Pleasure and Hegemony in Television Culture" (Luis Rivera-Perez); "Low Power FM: A Small History" (Gregory J. Adamo); "The…

  1. Motivating Students. Staff and Educational Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally, Ed.; Armstrong, Steve, Ed.; Thompson, Gail, Ed.

    Twenty papers on motivating college students are grouped into four sections: (1) the impact of teaching on student motivation; (2) motivating diverse students; (3) the impact of university practices on motivation; and (4) the impact of assessment on motivation. After an introductory selection by Sally Brown, Steve Armstrong, and Gail Thompson, the…

  2. Lending a Hand: A Report on the Lobbying Expenditures and Political Contributions of the Five Largest Student Loan Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Public Interest Research Group, Washington, DC.

    Using data from a variety of sources, including public records and the Web site of the Center for Responsive Politics, this study examined the political spending of the five largest holders of federally subsidized student loans: Sallie Mae, the Student Loan Corporation of Citibank, First Union National Bank, Wells Fargo Education Financial…

  3. Otherness through Elves: Into Elfland and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamazaki, Akiko

    2008-01-01

    This article examines three novels which use stories of elves--especially the ballad "Tam Lin"--as pre-texts, and contemplates how they explore the issue of Otherness. The three novels are "The Sterkarm Handshake" by Susan Price, "Cold Tom" by Sally Prue, and "Fire and Hemlock" by Diana Wynne Jones. Although the novels seem to be about elves as…

  4. Report on Teaching: Analysis of Some of the Most Notable Improvements in Amesican Undergraduate Teaching. No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Change Magazine, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The fourth in a series of reports on undergraduate teaching contains articles on three disciplines: (1) geography (William D. Pattison, Salvatore J. Natoli, Peter Binzen, Charles J. Sugnet, Edwin Kiester, Jr., Sally Valente Kiester, Evan Jenkins, Peter Kakela, David Lanegran, Paul W. English, Peter Gould, and Alan DeLucia); (2) music (Theodore A.…

  5. Using Tests of False Belief with Children with Autism: How Valid and Reliable Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Cathy M.; Grayson, Andy; Boucher, Jill

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-two children with autism were given four tests of false belief understanding: the Sally-Anne task, two variants of the deceptive box task, and the three boxes task. The overall consistency of the children's performance was high, 77 percent either passing or failing all tasks. Convergent validity and reliability are discussed. (Contains…

  6. The Jones Family's Culture of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Amy Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the uses of literacy within the Jones family (all names are pseudonyms), an African American family who lives in the rural South of the United States. Drawing on life history data with three women in the Jones family--Harriet Jones (grandmother), Sally Harris (mother), and Lola Harris (granddaughter)--the author traces how…

  7. Portrait view of STS 41-G crew in civilian clothes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Portrait view of STS 41-G crew in civilian clothes. Bottom row (l.-r.) Payload specialists Marc Garneau and Paul Scully-Power, crew commander Robert Crippen. Second row (l-.r-) Pilot Jon McBride, and Mission Specialists David Leestma and Sally Ride. At very top is Mission Specialist Kathryn Sullivan.

  8. Going beyond the Basics to Reach All Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher-Doiron, Norma; Irvine, Susan

    2009-01-01

    In collaboration with the Neag Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development at the University of Connecticut, and with the guidance of its directors, Joseph Renzulli and Sally Reis, the Southeast Elementary School in Mansfield, Connecticut, has implemented the schoolwide enrichment model (SEM), a program designed to enhance learning and…

  9. 78 FR 9730 - Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... National Park Service Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service... Islands Advisory Council. The agenda includes a presentation by Sally Snowman, 70th keeper of Boston Light... Jacobson, DFO, Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, 408 Atlantic Avenue, Suite 228, Boston,...

  10. Suspended Education Department Official Had Approved Waiver for Former Employer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Matteo Fontana, the student-aid official in the U.S. Department of Education who was suspended last month in an ethics case, issued a controversial high-stakes legal ruling in 2004 that benefited his former employer, Sallie Mae, on the day before the nation's top student lender completed its transition from a government-founded lender into a…

  11. Early Childhood and Care in England: When Pedagogy Is Wed to Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The introduction to this article will seek to present a distillation of Sally Lubeck's achievements in order to provide a benchmark of existing knowledge in the field of early childhood care and education from her perspective and an indication of its likely future. Her work, it is suggested, provides an exemplification of the new sociology of…

  12. Reflecting on PEMDAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Kyungsoon

    2012-01-01

    When the author asked her preservice elementary teachers what "order of operations" is and why it is important for children to learn, they recited "PEMDAS" or "Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally" but typically became silent when questioned about the importance of the order of operations. Reys and Fennell once suggested that the mathematics component…

  13. Sullivan and Ride Show Sleep Restraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts Kathryn D. Sullivan, left, and Sally K. Ride display a 'bag of worms.' The 'bag' is a sleep restraint and the majority of the 'worms' are springs and clips used with the sleep restraint in its normal application. Clamps, a bungee cord and velcro strips are other recognizable items in the 'bag.'

  14. Astronauts Sullivan and Ride show sleep restraint equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts Kathryn D. Sullivan, left, and Sally K. Ride display a 'bag of worms'. The 'bag' is a sleep restraint and the majority of the 'worms' are springs and clips used with the sleep restraint in its normal application. Clamps, a bungee cord and velcro strips are other recognizable items in the 'bag'.

  15. Kandinsky's "Composition VI": Heideggerian Poetry in Noah's Ark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    The author will begin his investigation of Wassily Kandinsky's painting "Composition VI" with Kandinsky's own commentary on the painting. He will then turn to the analysis of Kandinsky and the "Compositions" in John Sallis's book "Shades." Using this analysis as his point of departure, the author will consider how "Composition VI" resonates with…

  16. Essie's Story: The Life and Legacy of a Shoshone Teacher. American Indian Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Esther Burnett; McBeth, Sally

    The life story of Esther Burnett Horne records the memories and experiences of a Native woman born in 1909, who was both pupil and teacher in Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding schools. An introduction by Sally McBeth examines methodological and cultural concerns of collecting and co-authoring a life history. In Chapter 1, Essie begins with oral…

  17. Can Catholic Schools Be Saved?: Lacking Nuns and Often Students, a Shrinking System Looks for Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    As most educators know, Catholic schools work and have worked for a long time. Sociologist James Coleman and colleagues Thomas Hoffer and Sally Kilgore, in 1982, were among the first to document Catholic schools' academic successes, in "High School Achievement: Public and Private Schools." A variety of studies since, by scholars at the University…

  18. 75 FR 78719 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Scientific Review Administrator, Scientific Review Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat..., East Campus, 79 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Sally Eckert-Tilotta, PhD, Scientific Review Administrator, Nat. Institute...

  19. Student Storytellers--One School Librarian's Digital Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smollar, Sally

    2016-01-01

    As an elementary school librarian, Sally Smollar has had access to the latest technologies since document scanners were considered cutting edge. Even then, allowing students to scan images to insert into their stories was a game changer. Since those days, Smollar writes that she has never stopped experimenting with various platforms and…

  20. Why Did They Sell My Loan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Stephen W.

    1989-01-01

    The use of a student loan secondary market by a lender under the federally guaranteed Stafford Student Loan Program can be a shock to a student unfamiliar with the role secondary markets play. The first student loan secondary market (Student Loan Marketing Association, or Sallie Mae) was created in 1973. (MLW)

  1. What the Experts Cannot Consider: The Power of Perseverance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashears, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience in teaching a new first-grade student with a severe learning disability. Reading the reports from numerous experts, including medical doctors, school psychologists, veteran teachers, and one neurologist, she discovered that Sally Jo had repeated kindergarten and that it was her second year in first…

  2. ANALYSIS OR THE POTENTIAL SPERM BIOMARKER, SP22, IN HUMAN SEMEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL SPERM BIOMARKER SP22 IN HUMAN SEMEN
    Rebecca A. Morris Ph.D.1, Gary R. Klinefelter Ph.D.1, Naomi L. Roberts 1, Juan D. Suarez 1,
    Lillian F. Strader 1, Susan C. Jeffay 1 and Sally D. Perreault Ph.D.1

    1 U.S. EPA / ORD / National Health a...

  3. Tracking Speakers' False Beliefs: Is Theory of Mind Available Earlier for Word Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Goddard, Kate; Seclier, Catherine; Grant, Sally C.; Reid, Caitlin J. B.; Boyden, Laura E.; Williams, Rhiannon

    2011-01-01

    Happe and Loth (2002) describe word learning as a "privileged domain" in the development of a theory of mind. We test this claim in a series of experiments based on the Sally-Anne paradigm. Three- and 4-year-old children's ability to represent others' false beliefs was investigated in tasks that required the child either to predict the actions of…

  4. 31 CFR 354.4 - Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.4... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests. 354.4 Section 354.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to...

  5. 31 CFR 354.4 - Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.4... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests. 354.4 Section 354.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to...

  6. 31 CFR 354.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.10 Additional provisions. (a) Additional... Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by...

  7. 31 CFR 354.3 - Law governing other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.3 Law governing other interests. (a) To...-law rules) of a Securities Intermediary's jurisdiction governs: (1) The acquisition of a...

  8. 31 CFR 354.4 - Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.4... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests. 354.4 Section 354.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to...

  9. 31 CFR 354.4 - Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.4... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests. 354.4 Section 354.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to...

  10. 31 CFR 354.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.10 Additional provisions. (a) Additional... Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by...

  11. 31 CFR 354.3 - Law governing other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.3 Law governing other interests. (a...-of-law rules) of a Securities Intermediary's jurisdiction governs: (1) The acquisition of a Security Entitlement from the Securities Intermediary; (2) The rights and duties of the Securities Intermediary...

  12. 31 CFR 354.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.10 Additional provisions. (a) Additional... Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by...

  13. 31 CFR 354.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.10 Additional provisions. (a) Additional... Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by...

  14. 31 CFR 354.3 - Law governing other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.3 Law governing other interests. (a) To...-law rules) of a Securities Intermediary's jurisdiction governs: (1) The acquisition of a...

  15. 31 CFR 354.4 - Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.4... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests. 354.4 Section 354.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to...

  16. 31 CFR 354.3 - Law governing other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.3 Law governing other interests. (a) To...-law rules) of a Securities Intermediary's jurisdiction governs: (1) The acquisition of a...

  17. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beveridge, Sally; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews three books: (1) "Special Educational Needs in Schools" (Sally Beveridge), concerning the education of special needs children in Britain; (2) "Class Management" (E.C. Wragg), one of a series of practical resource books for primary school teachers; and (3) "Teaching Music in the Primary School" (Joanna Glover…

  18. Using Momentary Time Sampling to Estimate Minutes of Physical Activity in Physical Education: Validation of Scores for the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Edward M.; Coleman, Karen J.; Lensegrav, Tera L.; Fallon, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is a direct observation system specifically developed for use during physical education (PE; McKenzie, 1991; McKenzie, Sallis, & Nader, 1991). The purpose of this study was to validate the estimates of time spent in various physical activity intensities obtained with the paper and pencil…

  19. Two Sides of the Same Coin: Effective Uses of Technology Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Stanley Katz, President Emeritus of the American council of Learned Societies, and Sally Kuhlenschmidt, Director of the Office for Teaching and Learning at Western Kentucky University. Discusses issues surrounding technology in education, such as the meaningful ways to use the Internet, and the pros and cons of posting…

  20. Research in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…

  1. MAMMALIAN APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE NEONATAL OVARIES USING CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAMMALIAN APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE NEONATAL OVARIES USING CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffery and Sally D. Perreault

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Prot...

  2. What's in a Trend? A Comment on Gray, Goldstein and Thomas (2001), "Predicting the Future: The Role of Past Performance in Determining Trends in Institutional Effectiveness at A Level."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Geoff; Mangan, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Argues that although John Gray, Harvey Goldstein, and Sally Thomas treat the notion of trend in an unproblematic manner, as deterministic time trends, movements in data identified by Gray as school improvement trends may not be generated by the deterministic processes they assume. Opines these upward and downward movements may reflect a purely…

  3. Tips from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TESOL Journal, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Seven articles on classroom icebreakers are compiled: "Picture Stories and Other Opportunities" (Joy Egbert, Deborah Hanley, Rosemary Delaney); "Hey, What's Your Name" (Janet Leamy); "Surprise!" (Lynne Burgess); "Memory Game" (Sally Winn); "Picturesque" (Margaret Beiter); "The Name Game" (Jeanne-Marie Garcia); "Exercise the Body--And the Mind…

  4. Plan to mitigate infrastructure development released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell released a new strategy on 10 April 2014 to advance landscape-scale, science-based management of America's public lands and wildlife. The strategy will implement mitigation policies and practices at the Department of the Interior that can encourage infrastructure development while protecting natural and cultural resources.

  5. Figuration of the Folk: The Nature and Use of a Universal Linguistic Category

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Mark

    2010-01-01

    If Sally knows Sid to be a hard worker, she might make the point by asserting, "Sid is a hard worker." Or she might say, "Sid is a Sherman tank." We all recognize the first as an instance of literal language and the second as an instance of figurative language, specifically, a metaphor. This distinction is common even to people remote from us in…

  6. Illinois Association for Gifted Children Journal, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smutny, Joan Franklin, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of the Illinois Association for Gifted Children (IAGC) Journal focuses on creativity. Featured articles include: (1) "Creativity: What Is It? and What Does It Look Like" (Sally Y. Walker); (2) "What Is Creativity?" (Debbie Cho); (3) "Creativity and Underachievement" (Sylvia Rimm); (4) "Stacy Hayden:…

  7. The Role of Built Environments in Physical Activity, Eating, and Obesity in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallis, James F.; Glanz, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Over the past forty years various changes in the U.S. "built environment" have promoted sedentary lifestyles and less healthful diets. James Sallis and Karen Glanz investigate whether these changes have had a direct effect on childhood obesity and whether improvements to encourage more physical activity and more healthful diets are likely to lower…

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-23

    the fronts, the more obvious the danger of this protracted war for the belli - gerents themselves and for regional and international peace, notes...in Israel are being implemented in practice more and more often in aggressive sallies and armed provocations by its military clique against the Arab

  9. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 BRIDGE ACROSS DRY MOAT, NORTH SIDE, SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  10. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 DETAIL OF DOORS OF CHAPEL, SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  11. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 HOLY WATER BASIN, CHAPEL OF SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  12. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 BRIDGE ACROSS DRY MOAT, SOUTH SIDE, SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  13. 75 FR 48355 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Griffithsin, Glycosylation-Resistant Griffithsin, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... to the contemplated license should be directed to: Sally Hu, PhD, M.B.A., Office of Technology... of producing Griffithsin and methods of inhibiting a viral infection (incl. HIV), as well as vaccine...) and Hepatitis C. More specifically, the subject invention provides for a composition of an...

  14. Education 14-19: Critical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally, Ed.

    This book contains 12 papers examining policy developments and practices in the vocational education of British youths between the ages of 14 and 19. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Tony Edwards); "Education 14-19: Divided and Divisive" (Sally Tomlinson); "Aims, Values and the Curriculum" (Richard…

  15. Proficiency, Policy, and Professionalism in Foreign Language Education. Report of the Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (Columbus, Ohio, April 9-11, 1987). Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckbichler, Diane W., Ed.; And Others

    Selected papers from a conference on language proficiency, policy, and language teacher professionalism include: "Proficiency in Perspective in the Foreign Language Classroom" (Sally Sieloff Magnan); "Teaching Foreign Languages: Policy and the Federal Role" (Paul Simon); "Proficiency in the 'Real World' of the Professional…

  16. Assessment Matters in Higher Education: Choosing and Using Diverse Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally, Ed.; Glasner, Angela, Ed.

    This book presents 16 papers on assessment in higher education grouped into four sections on: first, systems approaches to assessment; second, the effectiveness of innovative assessment; third, assessing practice; and fourth, autonomous assessment. The included papers are: (1) "Institutional Strategies for Assessment" (Sally Brown); (2)…

  17. 31 CFR 354.3 - Law governing other interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Law governing other interests. 354.3... OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.3 Law governing other interests. (a) To the extent not inconsistent with the regulations in this part, the law (not including the...

  18. Rethinking Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These three papers were presented at a symposium on rethinking diversity in human resource development (HRD) moderated by Neal Chalofsky at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Diversity: A Double-Edged Sword" (Sally F. Angus) presents the notion of work force diversity through two differing perspectives in order to…

  19. Implementing the Lab School Club Model at the Academy in Manayunk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Central to The Lab School model is Sally Smith's Club Methodology, the full immersion of students into a time period where historical information is learned through multi-sensory activities. While immersed, through the use of costumes and elaborately decorated classrooms, students are engaged in project-based learning. As the student's…

  20. Illinois Association for Gifted Children Journal, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smutny, Joan Franklin, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This issue of the Illinois Association for Gifted Children (IAGC) Journal focuses on curriculum. Featured articles include: (1) "Curriculum: What Is It? How Do You Know if It Is Quality?" (Sally Walker); (2) "Tiered Lessons: What Are Their Benefits and Applications?" (Carol Ann Tomlinson); (3) "Do Gifted and Talented Youth Get Counseling, Models,…

  1. Supriya Jindal visits school

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Louisiana First Lady Supriya Jindal fields a question from a student at A.P. Tureaud Elementary School in New Orleans during a March 19 visit. Jindal was joined on her visit by retired astronaut Sally Ride, the first American woman in space.

  2. "Celebrate Women's History": Coloring Poster Activity Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthsdotter, Mary

    This booklet contains biographical information about Bessie Coleman, Nellie Bly, Gertrude Ederle, Sojourner Truth, Chien-Shiung Wu, Yoshiko Uchida, Madam C. J. Walker, Maria Martinez, Jovita Idar, Margaret Bourke-White, Sally Ride, and Sybil Ludington. These women are noted for their important contributions to United States history. It is hoped…

  3. The Principal as Instructional Leader: A Practical Handbook. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepeda, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    In the updated third edition of this highly successful book, leadership expert, Sally Zepeda offers savvy advice to both new and seasoned principals and assistant principals. You get practical tools and strategies, along with real-world examples to help you improve teacher effectiveness and boost student achievement. This edition features valuable…

  4. Kids2College: Getting Students to Think about Their Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Middle School Association (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    A sixth grade class is asked: "When should you start thinking about and planning for college?" Most students answer with "tenth or eleventh grade," but invariably some brave soul raises a hand and tentatively responds with more of a question than an answer: "Now?" Yes, now. In 1992, Sallie Mae, the nation's largest…

  5. Implications of the Failure of the Higher Education Assistance Foundation. Hearing before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs.

    This hearing before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, addresses the implications of the anticipated failure of the Higher Education Assistance Foundation (HEAF), the largest guarantor of student loans. HEAF's difficulties have affected Sallie Mae (Student Loan Marketing Association), and have raised general questions about the…

  6. Secondary Market Activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association. Report to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Lending and secondary market activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) since it began operations in 1973 were reviewed. Specific areas of review were: the Association's legislative development and financial activities, its profitability compared to commercial banks and other government-sponsored enterprises that provide…

  7. Games for Health, 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    for Families of Returning Veterans Using Emotionally Responsive Avatars Ron Goldman, Kognito, Inc. Games for Shoppers : Brainstorming Play at...Nutrition Education with Online Game Experiences Sally Schmidt & Jori Clarke, Circle1Network Camp Eatapita: A Nutrition Game for Young Kids Steve

  8. Public Libraries Section. Libraries Serving General Public Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on public libraries, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, include: (1) "The Role of Public Libraries in Developing Countries with Particular Reference to the Gambia" by Sally P. C. N'Jie (The Gambia); (2) "Public Libraries in the Federal Republic of Germany…

  9. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory. Volume 11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-31

    5689 JA-5786 LASER DIODES ION BEAM ETCHING JA-5666, MS-6613, MS-6850 J-63 A51 LASER DIRECT PATTERNING ION BEAM MIXING JA-5695 JA-5760, MS-6719 LASER ... FABRICATION ION BEAMS M-67 JA-5660, JA-5671 LASER ILLUMINATION ION IMPLANTATIONJA52 MS-6500, MS-6719, MS-6765 LASER INDUCED CHEMISTRY * ~~ISL

  10. Hg soil pollution around a decommissioned and unrestored Chlor-alkali plant: Jodar, Jaén province, SE Spain. Incidence in other environmental compartments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Higueras, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil pollution and its consequences around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The plant was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hidrargirism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, together with the analysis of olive-tree leaves from the same area. 75 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm. and 15-30 cm), together with 75 olive tree samples, 5 water samples. Besides, two monitoring surveys for total gaseous mercury in the atmosphere were performed. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device, with GPS georreferenciation of the analysis points. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. A local reference level was calculated as GM + 2SD (where GM is the geometric mean and SD the standard deviation). With this reference level it was possible to delimitate a contaminated soil area centered on the decommissioned chlor-alkali plant. A high affinity of local olive trees to accumulate mercury from the contaminated soil was also found, with a calculated maximum mercury content of 243.5 ng g-1. This maximum level is slightly higher than tolerable level for agronomic crops. Total mercury content in the analyzed waters was slightly higher than the chronic exposure level for aquatic life. Atmospheric mercury levels registered on the study area were much lower than most restrictive levels for chronic exposure. The area of influence of the facility (in terms of mercury content in air) was restricted to distances between 100 and 200 meters, depending on meteorological conditions. Main conclusions of this research work are the following: i) The Jódar decommissioned chlor-alkali plant is still a mercury source 20 years after its cease of activities without any reclamation measures; ii) The activity of the plant has produced an important dissemination of mercury in the surrounding environment; and iii) The corresponding pollution levels, in particular in soils, may suppose a risk to the main crops of the area (olive trees).

  11. Expression Patterns of Three UGT Genes in Different Chemotype Safflower Lines and under MeJA Stimulus Revealed Their Potential Role in Flavonoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dan-Dan; Liu, Fei; Tu, Yan-Hua; He, Bei-Xuan; Gao, Yue; Guo, Mei-Li

    2016-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant in China. Flavonoids are the dominant active medical compounds. UDP-glycosyltransferase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis and storage of flavonoids in safflower. In this study, 45 UGT unigenes were screened from our transcriptomic database of safflower. Among them, 27 UGT unigenes were predicted to own a complete open reading frame with various pI and Mw. The phylogenetic tree showed that CtUGT3 and CtUGT16 were classified under the UGT71 subfamily involved in metabolite process, whereas CtUGT25 has high identities with PoUGT both catalyzing the glycosylation of flavonoids and belonging to the UGT90 subfamily. cDNA microarray exhibited that the three UGT genes displayed temporal difference in two chemotype safflower lines. To functionally characterize UGT in safflower, CtUGT3, CtUGT16 and CtUGT25 were cloned and analyzed. Subcellular localization suggested that the three UGTs might be located in the cell cytoplasm and chloroplast. The expression pattern showed that the three UGTs were all suppressed in two lines responsive to methyl jasmonate induction. The co-expression relation of expression pattern and metabolite accumulation demonstrated that CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and CtUGT16 was positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in yellow line, whereas CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside in white line. This study indicates that the three CtUGTs play a significant and multiple role in flavonoids biosynthesis with presenting different functional characterization in two safflower lines. PMID:27391785

  12. State-Level Mandates for Financial Literacy Education, JA Finance Park, and the Impact on Eighth-Grade Students in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the Colorado General Assembly passed legislation requiring the adoption of personal financial literacy (PFL) education standards for kindergarten through 12th-grade students. Beginning in 2014, the state plans to conduct standardized testing to determine financial literacy of 3rd- through 12th-grade students. The state did not allocate…

  13. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures using screening-level life cycle assessment to support sustainable consumer electronics (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use...

  14. al-Khwarizmi [al-Khawarizmi; al'Khwarizmi], Abu Abd-Allah [Abdullah; Ja'far] Mohammad [Muhammad] ibn Musa [Bin Musa] (c. 800-c. 850)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born at Khawarizm (Kheva), south of the Aral Sea, he flourished in Baghdad from 813 to 833. He was an astronomer and geographer but is best known as a mathematician. The word algebra was derived from his book Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah. He brought into mathematics the use of zero and the rest of the Indian system of numerals (now known as `Arabic numerals'), and developed the decimal system. His nam...

  15. Condensed-Phase Processes during Solid Propellant Combustion. 3. Preliminary Depth-Profiling Studies on XM39, JA2, M9, M30, and HMX2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Campus Library W.C. Strahle ATTN: K. Brezinsky B.T. Zinn I. Glassman Atlanta, GA 30332 P.O. Box 710 Princeton, NJ 08540 University of Illinois Dept. of...White Rocket Center, WV 26726 B i3. Wenzel 345 E. 47th Street 1 Hercules, Inc. New York, NY 10017 ATTN: R.V. Cartwright 100 Howard Blvd. Atlantic

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analyses between a Spontaneous Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type Suggest the Functions of ABA, Sucrose and JA during Citrus Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Jian; Wang, Xing-Jian; Wu, Ju-Xun; Chen, Shan-Yan; Chen, Hong; Chai, Li-Jun; Yi, Hua-Lin

    2014-01-01

    A spontaneous late-ripening mutant of ‘Jincheng’ (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange exhibited a delay of fruit pigmentation and harvesting. In this work, we studied the processes of orange fruit ripening through the comparative analysis between the Jincheng mutant and its wild type. This study revealed that the fruit quality began to differ on 166th days after anthesis. At this stage, fruits were subjected to transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing. 13,412 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were found. Of these unigenes, 75.8% were down-regulated in the wild type, suggesting that the transcription level of wild type was lower than that of the mutant during this stage. These DEGs were mainly clustered into five pathways: metabolic pathways, plant-pathogen interaction, spliceosome, biosynthesis of plant hormones and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that are involved in abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid metabolism and signal transduction pathways were analyzed during the six fruit ripening stages. The results revealed the regulation mechanism of sweet orange fruit ripening metabolism in the following four aspects: First, the more mature orange fruits were, the lower the transcription levels were. Second, the expression level of PME boosted with the maturity of the citrus fruit. Therefore, the expression level of PME might represent the degree of the orange fruit ripeness. Third, the interaction of PP2C, PYR/PYL, and SnRK2 was peculiar to the orange fruit ripening process. Fourth, abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid all took part in orange fruit ripening process and might interact with each other. These findings provide an insight into the intricate process of sweet orange fruit ripening. PMID:25551568

  17. Computer program documentation modified version of the JA70 aerodynamic heating computer program H800 (MINIVER with a DISSPLA plot package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olmedo, L.

    1980-01-01

    The changes, modifications, and inclusions which were adapted to the current version of the MINIVER program are discussed. Extensive modifications were made to various subroutines, and a new plot package added. This plot package is the Johnson Space Center DISSPLA Graphics System currently driven under an 1110 EXEC 8 configuration. User instructions on executing the MINIVER program are provided and the plot package is described.

  18. STS 127 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality aboard the Shuttle (STS-127) and International Space Station (2J/A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 grab sample canisters (GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported. The toxicological assessment of 9 GSCs and 6 pairs of formaldehyde badges from the ISS is also reported. Other than a problem with traces of acrolein in the samples, the air quality was acceptable for respiration.

  19. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory, 1 January-31 December 1987. Volume 13

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-31

    LANGUAGE ACQUISITION TR-792 70 Subject Index SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRY JA-5935, JA-5971, MS-7352 SEEDING MS-7049A, MS-7160 SEGMENTATION MS...SCANNING ELECTRON BEAM LITHOGRAPHY JA-5883 SCHAWLOW-TOWNES FORMULA MS-7325 SCHOTTKY BARRIERS TR-772 SCHOTTKY DIODE JA-5923, JA-5967 SECOND

  20. Advanced stability analysis for laminar flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orszag, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Five classes of problems are addressed: (1) the extension of the SALLY stability analysis code to the full eighth order compressible stability equations for three dimensional boundary layer; (2) a comparison of methods for prediction of transition using SALLY for incompressible flows; (3) a study of instability and transition in rotating disk flows in which the effects of Coriolis forces and streamline curvature are included; (4) a new linear three dimensional instability mechanism that predicts Reynolds numbers for transition to turbulence in planar shear flows in good agreement with experiment; and (5) a study of the stability of finite amplitude disturbances in axisymmetric pipe flow showing the stability of this flow to all nonlinear axisymmetric disturbances.

  1. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-24

    INSTRUCTOR GUIDES ( #05 DI-058 (Instructor Guides) for Tees White Gill Neil Armstrong Bow Thruster)(R/ASR) 10/0 AGOR27 A059 STD Report - STUDENT...GUIDES ( #09 DI-059 (Student Guide) for Tees White Gill Neil Armstrong Bow Thruster)(R/ASR) 15/0 AGOR27 A063 STD Report - PRODUCTION INFORMATION...on Armstrong . 2 • Sally Ride Dumbwaiter – Delaware Elevator competed installation and performed commissioning tests for the shipyard

  2. AGOR 27/28 Phase II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    on the delivery date for NEIL ARMSTRONG ; PEO Ships rounded this request to three months pushing back delivery to April 2015. While no official...site representatives report zero progress on electrical systems on SALLY RIDE (all efforts being devoted to NEIL ARMSTRONG ). At this point, joiner...Taken as a whole, this certainly implies that the gap between construction completions on the two ships will further increase. As NEIL ARMSTRONG

  3. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-05

    ABS Surveyor’s satisfaction.  Neil Armstrong Callouts: MOD 1: Anchor Chain Locker MOD 9: Breezeway Foc’sle Dk MOD 12: Bulwarks – Foc’sle Deck...Supplemental Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride. 4. Other Work Items:  Prepping for DR12  Neil ... Armstrong Thordon Strut and Stern Tube Bearing – DCI machined and installed the port strut and stern tube Thordon Bearings. The bearings were placed in

  4. tRNAs as Biomarkers and Regulators for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    enzymatic ligation method previously described. The ligation reaction relies on an 8-base pair RNA:DNA hybrid helix contain- ing a Cy3 or Cy5...fluorophore pre-attached to the loop and an overhang complementary to the univer- sally conserved 30CCA nucleotides present in all tRNAs. The ligation reaction was...total RNA. Left: ligation reaction using varying amounts of human total RNA and substrates for tRNAPro(UGG). Right: the percent product from gel analysis

  5. Implementing Filters to Identify and Prioritize Industrial Base Risk: Rules of Thumb to Reduce Cognitive Overload

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    Thumb to Reduce Cognitive Overload Sally Sleeper, ODASD[M&IBP] John F. Starns, Northrop Grumman Published April 30, 2015 Disclaimer: The views...federal government. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to...and completing and reviewing the collection of information . Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of

  6. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    underwater noise They are also listed in the order in which they provide the best level of information. For test (1) the ship being CPP, can be...below the vibration isolators. If these tests result in high vibration or underwater sound, then DCI by direction of NCE can implement noise...horizontal on its erection stand.  Sally Ride Mod 2 – The following spaces were inspected by ABS & USCG for structure and welds .  State

  7. Matter: Modular Adaptive Technology Targeting Efficient Reasoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    be computed in parallel [dD05]. • Sparse Neural -Network Evaluation – This can essentially be the same problem as SMVM above. • Shortest Path – A...Papers Symposium on VLSI Circuits, pages 55–56, 1997. [McK04] Sally A. McKee. Reflections on the memory wall. In Proceedings of Computing Frontiers...DIRECTOR: /s/ JAMES A. COLLINS Deputy Chief, Advanced Computing Division Information Directorate REPORT

  8. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey. Portion of a plan of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey. Portion of a plan of Fort McHenry, by William Tell Poussin, 1819. National Archives, Records of the War Department, Cartographic Section, Record Group 77, drawer 51, sheet 2. Sections through ramparts (top), sally port and ravelin (middle), and postern (bottom). - Fort McHenry National Monument & Historic Shrine, East Fort Avenue at Whetstone Point, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. Improving Childhood Asthma Outcomes in the United States. A Blueprint for Policy Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Investigator Associate Policy Analyst Gary Rachelefsky Marian Branch Co-Principal Investigator Editor Allergy Research Foundation Sally Morton Barbara...articles, b) cockroaches , and c) wet or mold-prone areas--particularly in the child’s bedroom. Arguments in Favor: The home environment can have an...smoking cessation and elimination of mite and cockroach -infested areas. Children who are at risk include those who have a family history of asthma, were

  10. Airfield Passenger Transportation System at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    surface. Environmental Issues that affect the environment have an increased importance at McMurdo owing to Antarctic Treaty provisions. Some factors...is unlimited. Prepared for National Science Foundation ERDC/CRREL TR-12-8 ii Abstract: The United States Antarctic Program’s McMurdo... Antarctic Terminal Operations (ATO): Bill Turnbill, Kris Kornegay, and Pete Cruser. Excellent review comments were provided by Sally A. Shoop, Margaret A

  11. Evaluation of the Army Physical Training and Weight Control Programs. Part 3. The Revised Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    2 295-310. Dishman, R. K., Sallis, J. F., & Orenstein, D. R. (1985). The determinatns of physical activity and exercise . Public Health Reports, 100... physical activity and exercise : a summary. Public Health Reports, 100, 1188-126. 4..’ 7...down according to levels of fitness or ability for physical training activities or exercise ? Always (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Never 10. Mandatory

  12. Smoking, Exercise, and Physical Fitness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-30

    activity , smoking behavior, and physical fitness were examined in 3,045 Navy personnel. Exercise and smoking behaviors were measured using a "life-style... physical endurance-both cardiorespiratory (1.5-mile run) and muscular (sit-ups). After controlling for the effects of exercise activity , smoking was...although smoking has been associated with lower physical activity in supervised exercise programs (Dishman, Sallis, & Orenstein, 1985). There has also

  13. LATIST: A Performance Support Tool for Integrating Technologies into Defense Acquisition University Learning Assets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    TECHNOLOGIES INTO DEFENSE ACqUISITION UNIVERSITY LEARNING ASSETS Nada Dabbagh, Kevin Clark, Susan Dass , Salim Al Waaili, Sally Byrd, Susan...multiple settings. Spe- cifically, the ILDF consists of three phases: • Exploration—Investigating and documenting relevant information related to the...effort, the first phase of the ILDF—Exploration— consisted of conducting a Performance Analysis (PA). Through formal and informal data-gathering

  14. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 18, Number 3, Issue 59, July 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Clark, Susan Dass , Salim Al Waaili, Sally Byrd, Susan Conrad, Ryan Curran, Shantell Hampton, George Koduah, Debra Moore, and Capt James Turner, USMC...Guidance Replacement Program (MM III GRP) 302 Sense and Destroy Armor (SADARM) 735 Small Diameter Bomb (SDB) 354 SFW 275 SSN- 21 Seawolf-class Attack...University http://www.dau.mil 251 quadratic relation to procurement cost growth and find no other polynomial relationship that was consistent with the data

  15. Proceedings, North American Workshop on Modeling the Mechanics of Off-Road Mobility (1st) Held in Vicksburg, Mississippi on May 5-6, 1994

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    Peter K. Haff Distribution/ A Case for Improved Soil Models in Tracked Machine Simulation, Availability Codes F. B. Huck Vail and/orDist Spec ial...Dynamic Soil-Vehicle Interaction, Antoinette Tordesillas Tire-Terrain Modeling for Deformable Terrain, Sally Shoop The Role of High Resolution...Chapter 2. The workshop organizers wish to thank Drs. Peter Haff, Duke University, Shrini Upadhyaya, University of California at Davis, and Paul

  16. Use of Life Cycle Costing in the Development of Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Bringhurst, Mountain Fuel Supply 6. T. Joseph Cardenas, McGraw Hill 7. Sally A. Hooks, EEI 8. Merle F. McBride, Owens - Corning Fiberglas 9. Kenneth D...Stanonik, GAMA 23. Clifford D. Smith, Owens - Corning Fiberglas 24. Chris Thomaidis, Department of Housing & Urban Development 25. Adrian Tuluca, Steven...Professionals, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1981. 8. Stewart, Rodney D., Cost EstimatinQ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1982. 9. Owens Corning , Telephone

  17. Two members of the STS-7 crew go over procedures in operating the RMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Two members of the STS-7 crew go over procedures in operating the remote manipulator system (RMS) in the JSC manipulator development facility (MDF). Dr. Sally K. Ride is one of the flight's mission specialists. Frederick H. Hauck is pilot for the crew. The station pictured is located on the aft flight deck of the actual spacecraft and the windows allow direct view of the long cargo bay. The MDF is locate in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  18. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-23

    start Armstrong 13 Sept 2013 Ride 3 September 2014 No2 Generator 4 Sally Ride 23 October 2014 No2 Generator • HVAC – The...pace is increasing but still far behind schedule. Armstrong Focsle Deck HVAC Room 4 November 2013 Ride Focsle Deck HVAC Room 23 October 2013...5 • Foc’sle Deck – More bodies are installing joiner work, hvac and wiring. Area is still behind when compared to Armstrong

  19. Definition of Alternatives for BW/CW (Biological Warfare and Chemical Warfare) Defense Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    structured differently and each is maintained with a different database management system (DBMS). The facilities evaluated as potential host sites for...facility. The qualifi- cations of the staffs at the potential host facilities for developing and operating databases were also evaluated . The computer...Nardone of the Plastics Technical Evaluation Center located at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, and the assistance of Dr. Sally Webler of the U. S. Army

  20. Evolution of United States Military Landmine Doctrine and Employment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    pits. Blocks of wood with hooked iron rods projecting from them were called goads. Another simple system of sharpened tree branches jammed into the...ground in dense arrays were called boundary posts. Caesar cleverly directed that safe lanes through the obstacles be kept clear to allow him to sally...moisture absorption rate) of the black powder fuses used to initiate the fougasse. Called powder hoses, these often absorbed too much water before the

  1. Inflight views of the crew of STS-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Inflight view of the crew of STS-7. This view is a group portrait of the crew on the flight deck displaying some jelly beans discovered among their food supplies. The label on the candy reads 'Compliments of the White House.' In the rear from left to right are Astronauts Robert L. Crippen, crew commander; Frederick H. Hauck, pilot; and John M. Fabian, mission specialist. In front are Drs. Sally K. Ride and Norman E. Thagard, mission specialists.

  2. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1998-06-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Why Do Alcoholic Beverages Have "Legs"?, by Todd P. Silverstein, p 723. * Audience-Appropriate Analogies: Collision Theory, by Kent W. Piepgrass, p 724. * Using Balls from Different Sports To Model the Variation of Atomic Sizes, by Gabriel Pinto, p 725. * The Convergent Evolution of a Chemistry Project: Using Laboratory Posters as a Platform for Web Page Construction, by Sally Rigeman, p 727. * Process Development in the Teaching Laboratory, by Leonard C. Klein and Susanne M. Dana, p 745.

  3. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-30

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 5. Sally Ride Progress: • Deck Machinery Hydraulic Piping – Flushing and pressure ...35 of 40 pages completed. Waiting for Kongsberg and other vendors to complete the rest. • Potable Water Tanks – Fill lines flushed and witnessed...for cleanliness. Both tanks cleaned and inspected. Some paint issues were noted in both tanks . The starboard tank had an uncoated ferrous pipe

  4. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Sallie Chisholm received the National Medal of Science from U.S. president Barack Obama during a 1 February ceremony at the White House. Chisholm, a biological oceanographer, was cited for her "contributions to the discovery and understanding of the dominant photosynthetic organisms in the ocean, promotion of the field of microbial oceanography and influence on marine policy and management." Chisholm is the Lee and Geraldine Martin Professor of Environmental Studies and a professor of biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  5. Supriya Jindal visits school

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Louisiana First Lady Supriya Jindal (left) speaks to teachers and students at A.P. Tureaud Elementary School in New Orleans during a March 19 visit. At the school, Jindal was joined by retired NASA astronaut Sally Ride, the first American woman in space. Ride was a crew member on space shuttle Challenger during its STS-7 mission in 1983. She also was a crew member of space shuttle discovery on the STS-41 mission in 1984.

  6. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory. Volume 9

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-15

    J.N. Walpole (1982), DTIC AD-A121779 structure Laser Fabrication 5319 Microsecond Carrier Lifetimes B-Y. Tsaur Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 83 in Si Films...57071 Laser Fabrication of Micro- D.J. Ehrlich In Laser Diagnostics and structures: Effect of Geometrical J.Y. Tsao Photochemical Processing Scaling...SCANNING JA-5383 JA-5315 LASER FABRICATION LASER SOURCES MS-57071 JA-5355, JA-5410 LASER IMAGING LASER SPECTROSCOPY JA-5379 JA-5324, MS-5653 92 Subject

  7. OPDA Has Key Role in Regulating Plant Susceptibility to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne hapla in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Cynthia; Leelarasamee, Natthanon; Meldau, Dorothea; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant hormone that plays important roles in regulating plant defenses against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects, but the role of JA in mediating the plant responses to root-knot nematodes has been unclear. Here we show that an application of either methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or the JA-mimic coronatine (COR) on Arabidopsis significantly reduced the number of galls caused by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla. Interestingly, the MeJA-induced resistance was independent of the JA-receptor COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1). The MeJA-treated plants accumulated the JA precursor cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) in addition to JA/JA-Isoleucine, indicating a positive feedback loop in JA biosynthesis. Using mutants in the JA-biosynthetic pathway, we found that plants deficient in the biosynthesis of JA and OPDA were hyper-susceptible to M. hapla. However, the opr3 mutant, which cannot convert OPDA to JA, exhibited wild-type levels of nematode galling. In addition, mutants in the JA-biosynthesis and perception which lie downstream of opr3 also displayed wild-type levels of galling. The data put OPR3 (OPDA reductase 3) as the branch point between hyper-susceptibility and wild-type like levels of disease. Overall, the data suggests that the JA precursor, OPDA, plays a role in regulating plant defense against nematodes. PMID:27822219

  8. 17 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 45 - Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data 1 Appendix 1 to Part 45 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data ER13JA12.003 ER13JA12.004 ER13JA12.005 ER13JA12.006...

  9. 17 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 45 - Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data 1 Appendix 1 to Part 45 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data ER13JA12.003 ER13JA12.004 ER13JA12.005 ER13JA12.006...

  10. Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Tierney, M L; Mullet, J E

    1992-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant lipid derivatives that resemble mammalian eicosanoids in structure and biosynthesis. These compounds are proposed to play a role in plant wound and pathogen responses. Here we report the quantitative determination of JA/MeJA in planta by a procedure based on the use of [13C,2H3]MeJA as an internal standard. Wounded soybean (Glycine max [L] Merr. cv. Williams) stems rapidly accumulated MeJA and JA. Addition of MeJA to soybean suspension cultures also increased mRNA levels for three wound-responsive genes (chalcone synthase, vegetative storage protein, and proline-rich cell wall protein) suggesting a role for MeJA/JA in the mediation of several changes in gene expression associated with the plants' response to wounding.

  11. 42 CFR 488.115 - Care guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Care guidelines. 488.115 Section 488.115 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 488.115 Care guidelines. EC01JA91.110 EC01JA91.111 EC01JA91.112 EC01JA91.113 EC01JA91.114...

  12. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory 1 January - 31 December 1992. Volume 18

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-31

    675 1 METAL CUTTING JA-6716 METHYLAMINE JA-6736 METAL EPITAXIAL SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER (See MESFET) JA-6793...1282 Lasers ADA25 1001 6761 Gain and Noise Figure in Cox, C.H. IlI lEE Proc. J, Analogue Fibre -Optic Links Optoelectron., Vol. 139, No. 4, August 1992...9995 FABRY-PEROT INTERFEROMETER FILTER MATCHING MS-9576 JA-6348, JA-6756 FALSE ALARM REJECTION FILTERED NOISE APPROXIMATIONS MS-9280 MS- 10042 FAR

  13. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory, 1 January - 31 December 1991. Volume 17

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    Superconducting Band Gap in Mankiewich, P.M. Niobium O’Malley, M.L. Bhushan, M. 6679 Atmospheric-Turbulence Humphreys, R.A. Opt. Lett., Vol. 16, No. 18...ANTIFERROMAGNETIC ORDERING JA-6381 MS-8929 ANALOG OPTICAL COMMUNICATION ANTIREFLECTION COATING LINK JA-6627 MS-8925, MS-9353 APPEARANCE MODELS ANALOG...DEVICE PERFORMANCE GEOMAGNETISM JA-6645 MS-8859 GALLIUM ARSENIDE LASERS GERMANIUM SILICIDE JA-6600 JA-6594 GALLIUM ARSENID. MATRIX GERMANIUM SILICIDE

  14. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory. Volume 12

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-31

    of Radiation- Pressure-Induced Fluctua- tions in Interferometric Gravity-Wave Detectors Visible-Laser Photodeposition of Chromium Oxide Films and...CHOLESKY METHODS MS-6946 CHROMIUM OXIDE JA-5829 CIRCUITRY MS-7023 CJFET (SEE COMPLEMENTARY JUNCTION FET) CLUTTER JA-5789 CLUTTER ANALYSIS MS...SATELLITES JA-5705 NEURAL NETWORKS TR-747 48 NEXRAD JA-5843, MS-6962A, MS-7136 NICKEL ZINC FERRITE TR-737, JA-5824 NICKEL ZINC SPINEL FERRITES

  15. The impact of weather on kingbird foraging behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    Foraging data on Eastern Kingbirds (Tyrannus tyrannus) were collected during the early breeding season in eastern Kansas to test the hypothesis that foraging rate and other aspects of foraging behavior vary with weather. Foraging characteristics of five additional kingbird species were also examined to assess Fitzpatrick's 1980 generalization that kingbirds (Tyrannus spp.) are aerial hawking specialists. In Eastern Kingbirds, total foraging rate was independent of air temperature, cloud cover, wind speed, and time of day, but the rate of aerial hawking varied directly with air temperature and inversely with cloud cover (both P < 0.05). Effects of the two variables were additive. The percentage of foraging movements that were aerial hawks also increased with temperature and declined with cloud cover, and hover-gleaning and perch-to-ground sallying were observed mainly during cloudy weather. Sally (i.e., foraging flight) distance correlated directly with perch height and air temperature, and large insects were captured almost exclusively in long upward or horizontal flights. I interpret these data to indicate that foraging behavior and the capture of large, flying insects depends on weather because of how it affects the activity of insect prey. Foraging data on kingbirds support Fitzpatrick's generalization, but the relative use of aerial hawking varies considerably among species. Resident Tropical Kingbirds (T. melancholicus) are the most specialized foragers, whereas the migrant and widely distributed Eastern Kingbird appears to be the most generalized. Certain habitats also appear to favor the use of particular foraging methods (e.g., outward striking in grasslands, and perch-to-ground sallying in drier, open habitats).

  16. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Visual Reconnaissance in I Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-09-30

    Air Force FAC Assets in I Corps 1. Dong Ha (USMC-3700 alum, 0-1/0-2) Special Project THOR: 2 0-2s, 4 FACs (COVEY) 2. Mai Loc (SF-1500 laterite , 0-1...Da Nang 3 11. LZ Sally (USA-1300 laterite , 0-1) 2d Bde/lOlst Abn Div: Bde TACP; 2 0-1s, 3 FACs (BILK) i 12. Hue-Phu Bai (USMC-5600 hard, 0-1/0-2) 1st

  17. Initial Effects of Heavy Vehicle Trafficking on Vegetated Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    ER D C/ CR R EL T R -1 2 -6 Optimal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-training Uses ( OPAL ) Initial Effects of Heavy Vehicle...the outdoor loam test section. Optimal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-training Uses ( OPAL ) ERDC/CRREL TR-12-6 August 2012 Initial...mal Allocation of Land for Training and Non-Training Uses ( OPAL ) Pro- gram. The work was conducted by Nicole Buck and Sally Shoop of the Force

  18. Kawasaki Shock Syndrome in a 12-Year-Old Girl Mimicking Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Suntharesan, Janani; Wijesekara, Dimuthu Saraji

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is diagnosed when fever lasts for more than 5 days with the presence of four out of five of the following clinical features: bilateral conjunctival congestion, changes in the lips and oral cavity, polymorphous exanthem, changes in peripheral extremities, and acute nonpurulent cervical lymphadenopathy (Nakamura et al., 2012). The average age of onset is 2 years and 90% of patients are below 5 years of age. Boys are more affected than girls (Cox and Sallis, 2009). This case report describes an adolescent female who was initially managed as having septic shock and subsequently found to have Kawasaki shock syndrome. PMID:28101385

  19. KSC-03PD-2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, past and present recipients of college scholarships awarded by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation stand up to be recognized by the audience. The occasion was the induction ceremony of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame, including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert 'Hoot' Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. The Foundation awards 17 scholarships annually, each worth $8,500, to students interested in studying science and engineering. Since 1984, more than $1.7 million in scholarship funds have been awarded.

  20. Presidential commission investigating Challenger accident at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Views of the Presidential commission investigating the Challenger accident at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Photos include NASA Astronaut Robert Crippen pointing out Discovery tile work in the Vehicle Assembly Building (28888); KSC Director Richard Smith points out a portion of a solid rocket booster segment to Astronaut Sally Ride and to the chairman of the Presidential Commission, William P. Rogers (28889); Rogers and other members of the Pressidential commission examines the propellent contained in a solid rocket booster segment stored at one of the KSC ordinance facilities (28890).

  1. Europe’s Preferential Trade Agreements: Status, Content, and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-22

    under the GATT. Many more bilateral and regional agreements are being negotiated—an estimated 60 PTAs in Asia alone—in all parts of the world. The...Access to the EU, HNMINT, February 4, 2010. 56 Business Standard, “India, EU to resume FTA talks next week,” January 22, 2010. 57 Factiva, Accord Fintech ...University Press, 2008 101 Razeen Sally, “Looking East, The European Union’s New FTA Negotiations in Asia ,” October 2007, European Centre for

  2. Intelligent Tutoring for Diagnostic Problem Solving in Complex Dynamic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    tre cOllecti0n Of ormtio. n he r n tmt or er e Of this C ,ollectof of inorma o. Icluding suggeiont for reducing tis burden. to Watiington N _dgar i...AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Intelligent Tutoring for Diagnostic Problem Solving in Complex Dynamic Systems C : N00014-87-K-0482 6. AUTHOR(S) PE...Chronister, Sally Cohen, Ed Crowther, Kelly Deyoe, Suzanne Dilley, Brenda Downs, Janet Fath, Dick Henneman , Patty Jones, Merrick Kossack, Steve Krosner

  3. KSC-03PD-2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut James Lovell makes the opening remarks at the induction ceremony of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Being inducted are Daniel Brandenstein, Robert 'Hoot' Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  4. Interior Secretary Highlights Key Trends, Including Climate Change and Fiscal Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-06-01

    Climate change is "the defining issue of our time," Department of the Interior (DOI) Secretary Sally Jewell said during her 18 June keynote addess at the AGU Science Policy Conference in Washington, D. C. The United States has to "lead by example. We can't be the largest economy in the world and the second largest producer of carbon in the world"—after China—"and not take care of our own problems first to demonstrate to the world what needs to be done," she said.

  5. Science Is Key to Decision Making, U.S. Secretary of Interior Tells Eos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-02-01

    As secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior, Sally Jewell oversees a department whose mission involves both the management and conservation of federal lands and natural resources. Jewell's background as a petroleum engineer, banker with a specialty in natural resources, and CEO of Recreational Equipment Inc. (REI) could help her balance various, often competing, interests and manage Interior's nine agencies, including the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement; National Park Service; and the bureaus of Reclamation, Land Management, and Ocean Energy Management.

  6. Groundwater–surface-water exchange and the geologic setting of northern Minnesota's lakes, wetlands, and streams—Modern-day relevance of Tom Winter's legacy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Melchior, Robert C.; Jones, Perry M.; Strietz, Andrew; Barr, Kelton D.; Lee, David R.; Piegat, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Tom Winter spent nearly 50 years conducting research in earth science, and he specialized in the exchange between groundwater and surface water. Tom's highly productive career began in Minnesota. This fi eld trip revisits many of the places where Tom conducted his early research and demonstrates the continuing relevance of that research. Stops and topics include the groundwater infl uence on the record low stage of White Bear Lake, the contribution of groundwater to continually rising water levels in an abandoned open-pit iron mine, hydrogeology of the Shingobee headwaters aquatic ecosystem research site, hydrogeology of Lake Sallie, geology associated with the Pillager water gap, and the hydrogeology of Little Rock Lake.

  7. "A discovery! The Higgs? Why is this important? How it was done"

    ScienceCinema

    Sally Dawson; Howard Gordan

    2016-07-12

    Data collected during 2011 and 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland, the world's highest-energy proton collider, has culminated in the discovery of a new particle that is about 135 times heavier than a proton. But is it really the Higgs particle predicted by the theory that explains the origin of the mass of most elementary particles in the universe? The discovery and its possible identity is discussed by two Brookhaven Lab physicists, Sally Dawson and Howard Gordon, with deep roots in the hunt for the Higgs.

  8. Historical Standing Structure Investigation of the Souris River Basin Project Rural Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-17

    714 iin Quad. Denbigh, N.D 0 1 2 3 4 Se t TrownhipJ155N. Rtane 77W.~ thousand test Counity McHenry 1-24,000 3 Site. Boundary I 3-107 I Corrl F1 1 11...1985). Burpee , L.J. 1927 Journals and Letters of Pierre Gaultier De Verennes De La Verendrye and His Sons. Toronto: The Champlain Society. Chittenden...Paul D. Friedman (with contributions by Sally T. Greiser, Ann M. Johnson, and Danny N. Walker). 1986 Final Report of 1983-1984 Archaeological Testing

  9. National K-12 Educator Conference; "Earth Then, Earth Now: Our Changing Climate" (July 23-24, 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Flammer, Karen; O'Shaughnessy, Tam

    2013-12-11

    With the support of the Department of Energy, the National Science Teachers Association and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Imaginary Lines Inc. (dba Sally Ride Science) delivered a highly successful 2-day conference to 165 K-12 educators on climate change. The event took place on July 23rd and 24th, 2008 at the NOAA facility in Silver Spring, MD. The conference celebrated the 25th anniversary of Dr. Sally Ride’s first flight into space in 1983 and examined how our understanding of Earth has changed in those 25 years. One the first day of the conference, participants heard a keynote talk delivered by Dr. Sally Ride, followed by presentations by well-known climate change scientists: Dr. Richard Somerville, Dr. Inez Fung and Dr. Susan Solomon. These sessions were concurrently webcast and made available to educators who were unable to attend the conference. On the second day of the conference, participants attended breakout sessions where they performed climate change activities (e.g. “Neato Albedo!”, “Greenhouse in a Bottle”, “Shell-Shocked”) that they could take back to their classrooms. Additional break-out sessions on using remote sensing images to illustrate climate change effects on Earth’s surface and how to address the climate change debate, were also offered. During lunch, participants attended an Educator Street Fair and had the opportunity to interact with representatives from NOAA, NASA, the EPA, NEEF and the JASON project. A follow-up evaluation survey was administered to all conference attendees immediately following the conference to evaluate its effectiveness. The results of this survey were overwhelmingly positive. The conference materials: presentation Power Points, workshop handouts and activities were available for teachers to download after the conference from the Sally Ride Science website. In summary, the approximately $55K support for the Department of Energy was used to help plan, deliver and evaluate the

  10. "A discovery! The Higgs? Why is this important? How it was done"

    SciTech Connect

    Sally Dawson; Howard Gordan

    2012-06-26

    Data collected during 2011 and 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland, the world's highest-energy proton collider, has culminated in the discovery of a new particle that is about 135 times heavier than a proton. But is it really the Higgs particle predicted by the theory that explains the origin of the mass of most elementary particles in the universe? The discovery and its possible identity is discussed by two Brookhaven Lab physicists, Sally Dawson and Howard Gordon, with deep roots in the hunt for the Higgs.

  11. Jasmonic acid-isoleucine formation in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by two enzymes with distinct transcription profiles.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; di Rienzo, Valentina; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is essential for stress responses and the formation of reproductive organs, but its role in fruit development and ripening is unclear. Conjugation of JA to isoleucine is a crucial step in the JA signaling pathway since only JA-Ile is recognized by the jasmonate receptor. The conjugation reaction is catalyzed by JA-amido synthetases, belonging to the family of Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) proteins. Here, in vitro studies of two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz) GH3 enzymes, VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9, demonstrated JA-conjugating activities with an overlapping range of amino acid substrates, including isoleucine. Expression studies of the corresponding genes in grape berries combined with JA and JA-Ile measurements suggested a primary role for JA signaling in fruit set and cell division and did not support an involvement of JA in the ripening process. In response to methyl JA (MeJA) treatment, and in wounded and unwounded (distal) leaves, VvGH3-9 transcripts accumulated, indicating a participation in the JA response. In contrast, VvGH3-7 was unresponsive to MeJA and local wounding, demonstrating a differential transcriptional regulation of VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9. The transient induction of VvGH3-7 in unwounded, distal leaves was suggestive of the involvement of an unknown mobile wound signal.

  12. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid activate a common defense system in rice

    PubMed Central

    Tamaoki, Daisuke; Seo, Shigemi; Yamada, Shoko; Kano, Akihito; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Shishido, Hodaka; Miyoshi, Seika; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play important roles in plant defense systems. JA and SA signaling pathways interact antagonistically in dicotyledonous plants, but, the status of crosstalk between JA and SA signaling is unknown in monocots. Our rice microarray analysis showed that more than half of the genes upregulated by the SA analog BTH are also upregulated by JA, suggesting that a major portion of the SA-upregulated genes are regulated by JA-dependent signaling in rice. A common defense system that is activated by both JA and SA is thus proposed which plays an important role in pathogen defense responses in rice. PMID:23518581

  13. Jasmonic Acid and Its Precursor 12-Oxophytodienoic Acid Control Different Aspects of Constitutive and Induced Herbivore Defenses in Tomato1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Marko; Wright, Louwrance P.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Wasternack, Claus; Hause, Bettina; Schaller, Andreas; Stintzi, Annick

    2014-01-01

    The jasmonate family of growth regulators includes the isoleucine (Ile) conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA-Ile) and its biosynthetic precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) as signaling molecules. To assess the relative contribution of JA/JA-Ile and OPDA to insect resistance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we silenced the expression of OPDA reductase3 (OPR3) by RNA interference (RNAi). Consistent with a block in the biosynthetic pathway downstream of OPDA, OPR3-RNAi plants contained wild-type levels of OPDA but failed to accumulate JA or JA-Ile after wounding. JA/JA-Ile deficiency in OPR3-RNAi plants resulted in reduced trichome formation and impaired monoterpene and sesquiterpene production. The loss of these JA/JA-Ile -dependent defense traits rendered them more attractive to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta with respect to feeding and oviposition. Oviposition preference resulted from reduced levels of repellant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Feeding preference, on the other hand, was caused by increased production of cis-3-hexenal acting as a feeding stimulant for M. sexta larvae in OPR3-RNAi plants. Despite impaired constitutive defenses and increased palatability of OPR3-RNAi leaves, larval development was indistinguishable on OPR3-RNAi and wild-type plants, and was much delayed compared with development on the jasmonic acid-insensitive1 (jai1) mutant. Apparently, signaling through JAI1, the tomato ortholog of the ubiquitin ligase CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is required for defense, whereas the conversion of OPDA to JA/JA-Ile is not. Comparing the signaling activities of OPDA and JA/JA-Ile, we found that OPDA can substitute for JA/JA-Ile in the local induction of defense gene expression, but the production of JA/JA-Ile is required for a systemic response. PMID:25073705

  14. Jacaric acid is rapidly metabolized to conjugated linoleic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Kijima, Ryo; Honma, Taro; Ito, Junya; Yamasaki, Masao; Ikezaki, Aya; Motonaga, Chihiro; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We have shown previously that jacaric acid (JA; 8c,10t,12c-18:3), which has a conjugated triene system, has a strong anti-tumor effect. However, the characteristics of absorption and metabolism of JA have yet to be determined in vivo, and the details of absorption and metabolism of JA in the small intestine are particularly unclear. This information is required for effective use of JA in humans. Therefore, in this study we examined absorption and metabolism of JA using cannulation of the thoracic duct in rats. Emulsions of two test oils, jacaranda seed oil and tung oil, which contain JA and α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA; 9c,11t,13t-18:3), respectively, were administered to rats and lymph from the thoracic duct was collected over 24 h. We examined the rate of absorption of JA and possible conversion to a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)containing a conjugated diene system. The positional isomerism of the CLA produced by JA metabolism was determined using gas chromatography-electron impact/mass spectrometry. The rate of absorption and percentage conversion of JA were compared with those of α-ESA. We found that JA is rapidly absorbed and converted to a CLA in rats and that the percentage conversion of JA was lower than that of α-ESA. This is the first report on the absorption and metabolism of JA and this information may be important for application of JA as a functional food.

  15. Mapping methyl jasmonate-mediated transcriptional reprogramming of metabolism and cell cycle progression in cultured Arabidopsis cells

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Laurens; Morreel, Kris; De Witte, Emilie; Lammertyn, Freya; Van Montagu, Marc; Boerjan, Wout; Inzé, Dirk; Goossens, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant-specific signaling molecules that steer a diverse set of physiological and developmental processes. Pathogen attack and wounding inflicted by herbivores induce the biosynthesis of these hormones, triggering defense responses both locally and systemically. We report on alterations in the transcriptome of a fast-dividing cell culture of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana after exogenous application of methyl JA (MeJA). Early MeJA response genes encoded the JA biosynthesis pathway proteins and key regulators of MeJA responses, including most JA ZIM domain proteins and MYC2, together with transcriptional regulators with potential, but yet unknown, functions in MeJA signaling. In a second transcriptional wave, MeJA reprogrammed cellular metabolism and cell cycle progression. Up-regulation of the monolignol biosynthesis gene set resulted in an increased production of monolignols and oligolignols, the building blocks of lignin. Simultaneously, MeJA repressed activation of M-phase genes, arresting the cell cycle in G2. MeJA-responsive transcription factors were screened for their involvement in early signaling events, in particular the regulation of JA biosynthesis. Parallel screens based on yeast one-hybrid and transient transactivation assays identified both positive (MYC2 and the AP2/ERF factor ORA47) and negative (the C2H2 Zn finger proteins STZ/ZAT10 and AZF2) regulators, revealing a complex control of the JA autoregulatory loop and possibly other MeJA-mediated downstream processes. PMID:18216250

  16. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F; Raso, Rossella; Ruta, Liliana; Rossi, Ilaria; Ballarani, Agnese; Fulceri, Francesca; Darini, Alessandra; Maroscia, Emilia; Lattarulo, Caterina; Tortorella, Gaetano; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Comminiello, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action. PMID:27187230

  17. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F

    2016-05-17

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action.

  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Inactivation of the Hormone Jasmonoyl-l-Isoleucine by Multiple Members of the Cytochrome P450 94 Family in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J.; Thireault, Caitlin; Zemelis, Starla; Poudel, Arati N.; Zhang, Tong; Kitaoka, Naoki; Brandizzi, Federica; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) controls diverse aspects of plant immunity, growth, and development. The amplitude and duration of JA responses are controlled in large part by the intracellular level of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile). In contrast to detailed knowledge of the JA-Ile biosynthetic pathway, little is known about enzymes involved in JA-Ile metabolism and turnover. Cytochromes P450 (CYP) 94B3 and 94C1 were recently shown to sequentially oxidize JA-Ile to hydroxy (12OH-JA-Ile) and dicarboxy (12COOH-JA-Ile) derivatives. Here, we report that a third member (CYP94B1) of the CYP94 family also participates in oxidative turnover of JA-Ile in Arabidopsis. In vitro studies showed that recombinant CYP94B1 converts JA-Ile to 12OH-JA-Ile and lesser amounts of 12COOH-JA-Ile. Consistent with this finding, metabolic and physiological characterization of CYP94B1 loss-of-function and overexpressing plants demonstrated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 coordinately govern the majority (>95%) of 12-hydroxylation of JA-Ile in wounded leaves. Analysis of CYP94-promoter-GUS reporter lines indicated that CYP94B1 and CYP94B3 serve unique and overlapping spatio-temporal roles in JA-Ile homeostasis. Subcellular localization studies showed that CYP94s involved in conversion of JA-Ile to 12COOH-JA-Ile reside on endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In vitro studies further showed that 12COOH-JA-Ile, unlike JA-Ile, fails to promote assembly of COI1-JAZ co-receptor complexes. The double loss-of-function mutant of CYP94B3 and ILL6, a JA-Ile amidohydrolase, displayed a JA profile consistent with the collaborative action of the oxidative and the hydrolytic pathways in JA-Ile turnover. Collectively, our results provide an integrated view of how multiple ER-localized CYP94 and JA amidohydrolase enzymes attenuate JA signaling during stress responses. PMID:25210037

  19. Foveal and extra-foveal orientation discrimination.

    PubMed

    Sally, Sharon L; Gurnsey, Rick

    2007-11-01

    Performance can often be made equal across the visual field by scaling peripherally presented stimuli according to F = 1 + E/E (2) where E (2) is the eccentricity at which stimulus size must double to maintain foveal performance levels. Sally and Gurnsey (Vision Res 43:1375-1385, 2003 and Vision Res 44:2719-2727, 2004) have previously shown that estimates of E (2) for orientation discrimination are significantly larger (i.e., less spatial scaling is required) at stimulus contrasts near detection threshold than at contrasts well above detection threshold. To examine the nature of this effect parametrically we measured orientation discrimination thresholds at 0 degrees and 10 degrees eccentricity for three levels of Michelson contrast (3, 12 and 48%) and three stimulus length-to-width aspect ratios (36.4, 9.1 and 2.3) for a range of line sizes (0.19 degrees -36 degrees visual angle). On average, E (2) values decreased as stimulus contrast decreased, consistent with the previous results of Sally and Gurnsey (Vision Res 43:1375-1385, 2003 and Vision Res 44:2719-2727, 2004). It is proposed that contrast reductions have a proportionally larger effect on small orientation-selective units than large ones and thus produce a greater rightward shift of acuity functions (orientation threshold vs. size) at the fovea than in the periphery. This explains why less spatial scaling is required to equate foveal and peripheral acuity functions at low contrasts than at high contrasts.

  20. The Role of Sedges in Methane Production and Emission From a Temperate Fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyce, G. L.; Szarkowski, E. R.; Bubier, J. L.; Varner, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    Northern peatlands are the largest single natural source of atmospheric methane (CH4) and thus any changes in these fluxes could have global consequences. Positive correlations have been observed between sedge biomass and high CH4 emissions from peatlands. We examined the effect that Carex rostrata has on methane production and transport in Sallie's Fen, Barrington, NH. During the summer of 2008, CH4 fluxes, pore-water CH4 concentrations, and C. rostrata biomass, along with temperature, net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), and water table depth, were measured from both clipped and unclipped plots. In clipped plots, all C. rostrata were clipped below the peat surface and then sealed with petroleum jelly and plastic bags. Unclipped plots were left undisturbed. We observed a strong positive correlation between C. rostrata biomass and CH4 fluxes. Initial findings suggest that sedges have a strong effect on gas transport. The average 18 cm (C. rostrata rooting depth) pore water CH4 concentrations in the clipped plots (6141 ppm CH4) were significantly higher (p<0.001) than in the unclipped plots (3912 ppm CH4). The past 20 years of data at Sallie's Fen also show that plots with more C. rostrata have higher mid-season CH4 fluxes, on average, than shrub-dominated plots. Depth to water table, however, may be a stronger control on CH4 fluxes than vegetation.

  1. Eucalyptus oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... JT, Duvivier EH, Pollack CV. Seizure disorders. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... Shih RD. Plants, mushrooms, and herbal medications. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  2. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency ... 147. Pfennig CL, Slovis CM. Electrolyte disorders. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency ...

  3. Contac overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur. References Hendrickson RG, McKeown NJ. Acetaminophen. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... chap 8. Velez LI, Feng S-Y. Anticholinergics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  4. Pine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  5. Foreign body in the nose

    MedlinePlus

    Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... 168. Thomas SH, Goodloe JM. Foreign bodies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. ...

  6. Heimlich maneuver on self

    MedlinePlus

    ... oneself References Braithwaite SA, Perina D. Dyspnea. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... respiratory emergencies: upper airway obstruction and infections. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  7. Phenothiazine overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 290. Velez LI, Feng S-Y. Anticholinergics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency ... chap 150. Wittler MA, Lavonas EJ. Antipsychotics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency ...

  8. Identification of jasmonic acid and its methyl ester as gum-inducing factors in tulips.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Edyta; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify endogenous factors that induce gummosis and to show their role in gummosis in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) stems. Using procedures to detect endogenous factors that induce gum in the stem of tulips, jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) were successfully identified using gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total amounts of JA and JA-Me designated as jasmonates in tulip stems were also estimated at about 70-80 ng/g fresh weight, using deuterium-labeled jasmonates as internal standards. The application of JA and JA-Me as lanolin pastes substantially induced gums in tulip stems with ethylene production. The application of ethephon, an ethylene-generating compound, however, induced no gummosis although it slightly affected jasmonate content in tulip stems. These results strongly suggest that JA and JA-Me are endogenous factors that induce gummosis in tulip stems.

  9. Prolactinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... 25732643 . Wong A, Eloy JA, Couldwell WT, Liu JK. Update on prolactinomas. Part 1: Clinical manifestations and ... 26256063 . Wong A, Eloy JA, Couldwell WT, Liu JK. Update on prolactinomas. Part 2: Treatment and management ...

  10. Lymph system

    MedlinePlus

    Lymphatic system ... Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Lymphatic system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon ... 2015:chap 9. Hall JE. The microcirculation and lymphatic system: capillary fluid exchange, interstitial fluid, and lymph flow. ...

  11. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ... JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  12. Calcium carbonate overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Slovis CM. Electrolyte disorders. In: Marks, JA. ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ... 155. Shoenberger,JM. Constipation. In: Marks, JA. ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  13. Lomotil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ... JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  14. Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ... In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  15. Aftershave poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ... JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  16. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory, 1 January - 31 December 1996, Volume 22.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-31

    the Lanthanide Manganites and Its Relation to High-Tc Superconductivity An All-Neighbor Classification Rule Based on Correlated Distance...Charge Transfer in Mixed-Valence Manganites and Cuprates 7282 Optically Pumped GaN/Al01Ga09N Double-Heterostructure Ultraviolet Laser...LAD AR JA-7253 LANGUAGE IDENTIFICATION JA-7289 42 Subject Index LANTHANIDE MANGANITE TR-1029 LOW-TEMPERATURE-GROWN JA-7138 LAPPING JA-7251

  17. Jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase regulates development and herbivory-induced defense response in rice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jinfeng; Li, Jiancai; Han, Xiu; Li, Ran; Wu, Jianqiang; Yu, Haixin; Hu, Lingfei; Xiao, Yutao; Lu, Jing; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites play a key role in plant defense and growth. JA carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) may be involved in plant defense and development by methylating JA to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and thus influencing the concentrations of JA and related metabolites. However, no JMT gene has been well characterized in monocotyledon defense and development at the molecular level. After we cloned a rice JMT gene, OsJMT1, whose encoding protein was localized in the cytosol, we found that the recombinant OsJMT1 protein catalyzed JA to MeJA. OsJMT1 is up-regulated in response to infestation with the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Plants in which OsJMT1 had been overexpressed (oe-JMT plants) showed reduced height and yield. These oe-JMT plants also exhibited increased MeJA levels but reduced levels of herbivore-induced JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). The oe-JMT plants were more attractive to BPH female adults but showed increased resistance to BPH nymphs, probably owing to the different responses of BPH female adults and nymphs to the changes in levels of H2 O2 and MeJA in oe-JMT plants. These results indicate that OsJMT1, by altering levels of JA and related metabolites, plays a role in regulating plant development and herbivore-induced defense responses in rice.

  18. Induced plant-defenses suppress herbivore reproduction but also constrain predation of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Ataide, Livia M S; Pappas, Maria L; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Lopez-Orenes, Antonio; Alba, Juan M; Duarte, Marcus V A; Pallini, Angelo; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2016-11-01

    Inducible anti-herbivore defenses in plants are predominantly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA). On tomato plants, most genotypes of the herbivorous generalist spider mite Tetranychus urticae induce JA defenses and perform poorly on it, whereas the Solanaceae specialist Tetranychus evansi, who suppresses JA defenses, performs well on it. We asked to which extent these spider mites and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes preying on these spider mites eggs are affected by induced JA-defenses. By artificially inducing the JA-response of the tomato JA-biosynthesis mutant def-1 using exogenous JA and isoleucine (Ile), we first established the relationship between endogenous JA-Ile-levels and the reproductive performance of spider mites. For both mite species we observed that they produced more eggs when levels of JA-Ile were low. Subsequently, we allowed predatory mites to prey on spider mite-eggs derived from wild-type tomato plants, def-1 and JA-Ile-treated def-1 and observed that they preferred, and consumed more, eggs produced on tomato plants with weak JA defenses. However, predatory mite oviposition was similar across treatments. Our results show that induced JA-responses negatively affect spider mite performance, but positively affect the survival of their offspring by constraining egg-predation.

  19. New Techniques for Absolute Gravity Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-07

    Hammond, J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J. A., and Iliff, R. L. (1979) The AFGL absolute gravity system...International Gravimetric Bureau, No. L:I-43. 7. Hammond. J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J.A., and

  20. 17 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 45 - Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data 1 Appendix 1 to Part 45 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... 45—Tables of Minimum Primary Economic Terms Data ER13JA12.003 ER13JA12.004 ER13JA12.005...

  1. Hormone crosstalk in wound stress response: wound-inducible amidohydrolases can simultaneously regulate jasmonate and auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Poudel, Arati N.; Jewell, Jeremy B.; Kitaoka, Naoki; Staswick, Paul; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Koo, Abraham J.

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) and auxin are essential hormones in plant development and stress responses. While the two govern distinct physiological processes, their signaling pathways interact at various levels. Recently, members of the Arabidopsis indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) amidohydrolase (IAH) family were reported to metabolize jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), a bioactive form of JA. Here, we characterized three IAH members, ILR1, ILL6, and IAR3, for their function in JA and IAA metabolism and signaling. Expression of all three genes in leaves was up-regulated by wounding or JA, but not by IAA. Purified recombinant proteins showed overlapping but distinct substrate specificities for diverse amino acid conjugates of JA and IAA. Perturbed patterns of the endogenous JA profile in plants overexpressing or knocked-out for the three genes were consistent with ILL6 and IAR3, but not ILR1, being the JA amidohydrolases. Increased turnover of JA-Ile in the ILL6- and IAR3-overexpressing plants created symptoms of JA deficiency whereas increased free IAA by overexpression of ILR1 and IAR3 made plants hypersensitive to exogenous IAA conjugates. Surprisingly, ILL6 overexpression rendered plants highly resistant to exogenous IAA conjugates, indicating its interference with IAA conjugate hydrolysis. Fluorescent protein-tagged IAR3 and ILL6 co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum-localized JA-Ile 12-hydroxylase, CYP94B3. Together, these results demonstrate that in wounded leaves JA-inducible amidohydrolases contribute to regulate active IAA and JA-Ile levels, promoting auxin signaling while attenuating JA signaling. This mechanism represents an example of a metabolic-level crosstalk between the auxin and JA signaling pathways. PMID:26672615

  2. Identification of Jasmonic Acid and Jasmonoyl-Isoleucine, and Characterization of AOS, AOC, OPR and JAR1 in the Model Lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii.

    PubMed

    Pratiwi, Putri; Tanaka, Genta; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Xie, Xiaonan; Yoneyama, Koichi; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku

    2017-03-13

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in a variety of physiological responses in seed plants. However, the detection and role of JA in lycophytes, a group of seedless vascular plants, have remained elusive until recently. This study provides the first evidence of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) in the model lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. Mechanical wounding stimulated the accumulation of OPDA, JA and JA-Ile. These data were corroborated by the detection of enzymatically active allene oxide synthase (AOS), allene oxide cyclase (AOC), 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) and JA-Ile synthase (JAR1) in S. moellendorffii. SmAOS2 is involved in the first committed step of JA biosynthesis. SmAOC1 is a crucial enzyme for generating the basic structure of jasmonates and is actively involved in the formation of OPDA. SmOPR5, a functionally active OPR3-like enzyme, is also vital for the reduction of (+)-cis-OPDA, the only isomer of the JA precursor. The conjugation of JA to Ile by SmJAR1 demonstrates that S. moellendorffii produces JA-Ile. Thus, the four active enzymes have characteristics similar to those in seed plants. Wounding and JA treatment induced the expression of SmAOC1 and SmOPR5. Furthermore, JA inhibited the growth of shoots in S. moellendorffii, which suggests that JA functions as a signaling molecule in S. moellendorffii. This study proposes that JA evolved as a plant hormone for stress adaptation, beginning with the emergence of vascular plants.

  3. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory, 1 January - 31 December 1995; Volume 21.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    Mines and Minelike Targets, 17-21 April 1995, pp. 54-69 11043 Ultra-Wideband SAR Signature Investigations Based on Electromagnetic Models...11152 Betts, G.E., JA-7104, MS-11277 Billingsley, J.B., TR-1019 Binder, B.T., MS- 11043 Blejer, D.J., MS-11042 Boisvert, R.E., JA-7112, MS-11228...7188, MS-10927, MS-10988 MS-10510, MS-11020 Lee, C.F., MS- 11043 Jenkins, G.E., JA-7118, MS-11237 LePage, S.M., JA-7211 Jensen, K.F., JA-7222 Liau, Z-L

  4. Cytochromes P450 CYP94C1 and CYP94B3 Catalyze Two Successive Oxidation Steps of Plant Hormone Jasmonoyl-isoleucine for Catabolic Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Heitz, Thierry; Widemann, Emilie; Lugan, Raphaël; Miesch, Laurence; Ullmann, Pascaline; Désaubry, Laurent; Holder, Emilie; Grausem, Bernard; Kandel, Sylvie; Miesch, Michel; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Pinot, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The jasmonate hormonal pathway regulates important defensive and developmental processes in plants. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) has been identified as a specific ligand binding the COI1-JAZ co-receptor to relieve repression of jasmonate responses. Two JA-Ile derivatives, 12OH-JA-Ile and 12COOH-JA-Ile, accumulate in wounded Arabidopsis leaves in a COI1- and JAR1-dependent manner and reflect catabolic turnover of the hormone. Here we report the biochemical and genetic characterization of two wound-inducible cytochromes P450, CYP94C1 and CYP94B3, that are involved in JA-Ile oxidation. Both enzymes expressed in yeast catalyze two successive oxidation steps of JA-Ile with distinct characteristics. CYP94B3 performed efficiently the initial hydroxylation of JA-Ile to 12OH-JA-Ile, with little conversion to 12COOH-JA-Ile, whereas CYP94C1 catalyzed preferentially carboxy-derivative formation. Metabolic analysis of loss- and gain-of-function plant lines were consistent with in vitro enzymatic properties. cyp94b3 mutants were largely impaired in 12OH-JA-Ile levels upon wounding and to a lesser extent in 12COOH-JA-Ile levels. In contrast, cyp94c1 plants showed wild-type 12OH-JA-Ile accumulation but lost about 60% 12COOH-JA-Ile. cyp94b3cyp94c1 double mutants hyperaccumulated JA-Ile with near abolition of 12COOH-JA-Ile. Distinct JA-Ile oxidation patterns in different plant genotypes were correlated with specific JA-responsive transcript profiles, indicating that JA-Ile oxidation status affects signaling. Interestingly, exaggerated JA-Ile levels were associated with JAZ repressor hyperinduction but did not enhance durably defense gene induction, revealing a novel negative feedback signaling loop. Finally, interfering with CYP94 gene expression affected root growth sensitivity to exogenous jasmonic acid. These results identify CYP94B3/C1-mediated oxidation as a major catabolic route for turning over the JA-Ile hormone. PMID:22215670

  5. Analysis of Ultraviolet and Visible Laser Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Schriempf, J.T., Cronburg, T.L., Eninger , J.E., and Woodroffe, J.A., "Pulsed CO 2 Laser Interaction with a Metal Surface at Oblique Incidence," Appl...REFERENCES 1. McKay, J.A., Schriempf, J.T., Cronburg, T.L., Eninger , J.E., and Woodroffe, J.A., "Pulsed CO2 Laser Interaction with a Metal Surface at...McKay, J.A., Schriempf, J.T., Cronburg, T.L., Eninger , J.E., and Woodroffe, J.A., Appi. Phys. Lett. 36, 125 (1980). 2. Jacob, J.H., Hsia, J.C., Mangano

  6. Triacontanol negatively modulates the jasmonic acid-stimulated proteinase inhibitors in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Ramanarayan, Krishnamurthy; Swamy, Gangadharamurthy Sivakumar

    2004-04-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA), a long chain aliphatic alcohol (C30H61OH) reverses the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) in inducing proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in tomato leaves. Porcine pancreas trypsin and Spodoptera litura gut proteinases were inhibited in the presence of leaf proteins treated with JA, and TRIA partially reverses this effect. Spodoptera litura larvae fed with tomato leaves treated with JA were reduced in body weight and TRIA is able to partially reverse this JA-induced effect. These results reflect the partial reversal effect of TRIA in down regulating the JA-induced production of proteinase inhibitors.

  7. Root jasmonic acid synthesis and perception regulate folivore-induced shoot metabolites and increase Nicotiana attenuata resistance.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Variluska; Rothe, Eva; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2014-06-01

    While jasmonic acid (JA) signaling is widely accepted as mediating plant resistance to herbivores, and the importance of the roots in plant defenses is recently being recognized, the role of root JA in the defense of above-ground parts remains unstudied. To restrict JA impairment to the roots, we micrografted wildtype Nicotiana attenuata shoots to the roots of transgenic plants impaired in JA signaling and evaluated ecologically relevant traits in the glasshouse and in nature. Root JA synthesis and perception are involved in regulating nicotine production in roots. Strikingly, systemic root JA regulated local leaf JA and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations, which were associated with differences in nicotine transport from roots to leaves via the transpiration stream. Root JA signaling also regulated the accumulation of other shoot metabolites; together these account for differences in resistance against a generalist, Spodoptera littoralis, and a specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta. In N. attenuata's native habitat, silencing root JA synthesis increased the shoot damage inflicted by Empoasca leafhoppers, which are able to select natural jasmonate mutants. Silencing JA perception in roots also increased damage by Tupiocoris notatus. We conclude that attack from above-ground herbivores recruits root JA signaling to launch the full complement of plant defense responses.

  8. Effects of jasmonic acid signalling on the wheat microbiome differ between body sites

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongwei; Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Schenk, Peer M.; Dennis, Paul G.

    2017-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling helps plants to defend themselves against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects and has been shown to influence the root microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we determined whether JA signalling influences the diversity and functioning of the wheat (Triticum aestivum) microbiome and whether these effects are specific to particular parts of the plant. Activation of the JA pathway was achieved via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate and was confirmed by significant increases in the abundance of 10 JA-signalling-related gene transcripts. Phylogenetic marker gene sequencing revealed that JA signalling reduced the diversity and changed the composition of root endophytic but not shoot endophytic or rhizosphere bacterial communities. The total enzymatic activity and substrate utilisation profiles of rhizosphere bacterial communities were not affected by JA signalling. Our findings indicate that the effects of JA signalling on the wheat microbiome are specific to individual plant compartments. PMID:28134326

  9. A fluorescent hormone biosensor reveals the dynamics of jasmonate signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Antoine; Champion, Antony; Legrand, Jonathan; Lavenus, Julien; Mast, David; Brunoud, Géraldine; Oh, Jaesung; Guyomarc'h, Soazig; Pizot, Maxime; Farmer, Edward E; Turnbull, Colin; Vernoux, Teva; Bennett, Malcolm J; Laplaze, Laurent

    2015-01-16

    Activated forms of jasmonic acid (JA) are central signals coordinating plant responses to stresses, yet tools to analyse their spatial and temporal distribution are lacking. Here we describe a JA perception biosensor termed Jas9-VENUS that allows the quantification of dynamic changes in JA distribution in response to stress with high spatiotemporal sensitivity. We show that Jas9-VENUS abundance is dependent on bioactive JA isoforms, the COI1 co-receptor, a functional Jas motif and proteasome activity. We demonstrate the utility of Jas9-VENUS to analyse responses to JA in planta at a cellular scale, both quantitatively and dynamically. This included using Jas9-VENUS to determine the cotyledon-to-root JA signal velocities on wounding, revealing two distinct phases of JA activity in the root. Our results demonstrate the value of developing quantitative sensors such as Jas9-VENUS to provide high-resolution spatiotemporal data about hormone distribution in response to plant abiotic and biotic stresses.

  10. Jasmonate induction of the monoterpene linalool confers resistance to rice bacterial blight and its biosynthesis is regulated by JAZ protein in rice.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Shiduku; Hosokawa-Shinonaga, Yumi; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Yamada, Shoko; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in the regulation of host immunity in plants. Recently, we demonstrated that JA signalling has an important role in resistance to rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in rice. Here, we report that many volatile compounds accumulate in response to exogenous application of JA, including the monoterpene linalool. Expression of linalool synthase was up-regulated by JA. Vapour treatment with linalool induced resistance to Xoo, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing linalool synthase were more resistance to Xoo, presumably due to the up-regulation of defence-related genes in the absence of any treatment. JA-induced accumulation of linalool was regulated by OsJAZ8, a rice jasmonate ZIM-domain protein involving the JA signalling pathway at the transcriptional level, suggesting that linalool plays an important role in JA-induced resistance to Xoo in rice.

  11. OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 are jasmonyl-L-isoleucine synthases involved in wound- and pathogen-induced jasmonic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Wakuta, Shinji; Suzuki, Erika; Saburi, Wataru; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Imai, Ryozo; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2011-06-17

    The synthesis of JA-Ile was catalysed by JA-Ile synthase, which is a member of the group I GH3 family of proteins. Here, we showed evidence that OsGH3.5 (OsJAR1) and OsGH3.3 (OsJAR2) are the functional JA-Ile synthases in rice, using recombinant proteins. The expression levels of OsJAR1 and OsJAR2 were induced in response to wounding with the concomitant accumulation of JA-Ile. In contrast, only the expression of OsJAR1 was associated with the accumulation of JA-Ile after blast infection. Our data suggest that these two JA-Ile synthases are differentially involved in the activation of JA signalling in response to wounding and pathogen challenge in rice.

  12. Situational and psychosocial factors mediating coordinated joint attention with augmentative and alternative communication systems with beginning communicators without disabilities.

    PubMed

    Benigno, Joann P; Bennett, Jamie L; McCarthy, John W; Smith, Julia L

    2011-06-01

    This study examined how infants' age, joint attention (JA) skills, caregiver ratings of language and temperament, and caregiver JA style related to JA in a structured literacy task with an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) system. Sixteen infants (mean = 10.6 months) without disabilities participated in two storybook reading interactions with an experimenter in two conditions where the AAC system was either aligned or divided from the experimenter's eye gaze. Individual differences in JA skills, caregiver JA style, and temperament were associated with coordinated JA across both conditions. The findings suggest it is important to examine both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which may not only reduce attention demands but also mediate the success of JA interactions with AAC systems.

  13. Complete genome analysis of jasmine virus T from Jasminum sambac in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yajun; Gao, Fangluan; Yang, Zhen; Wu, Zujian; Yang, Liang

    2016-07-01

    The genome of a potyvirus (isolate JaVT_FZ) recovered from jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) showing yellow ringspot symptoms in Fuzhou, China, was sequenced. JaVT_FZ is closely related to seven other potyviruses with completely sequenced genomes, with which it shares 66-70 % nucleotide and 52-56 % amino acid sequence identity. However, the coat protein (CP) gene shares 82-92 % nucleotide and 90-97 % amino acid sequence identity with those of two partially sequenced potyviruses, named jasmine potyvirus T (JaVT-jasmine) and jasmine yellow mosaic potyvirus (JaYMV-India), respectively. This suggests that JaVT_FZ, JaVT-jasmine and JaYMV-India should be regarded as members of a single potyvirus species, for which the name "Jasmine virus T" has priority.

  14. Lipid production from Jerusalem artichoke by Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Wu, Siguo; Hu, Cuimin; Wang, Qian; Hua, Yanyan; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2010-06-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is a perennial herbaceous plant widely available as non-grain raw material. Microbial lipid has been suggested as a potential feedstock for large scale biodiesel production. This paper describes lipid production using JA tuber processed by oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4. Batch and fed-batch modes were tested with feeding of concentrated JA extracts or JA hydrolysates. Cultivation of R. toruloides Y4 with JA extracts gave a moderate cellular lipid content of 40% (w/w), whereas lipid titer and cellular lipid content reached 39.6 g l(-1) and 56.5% (w/w), respectively, when JA hydrolysates were fed. Our results suggested that JA tubers may be further explored as raw material for large scale microbial lipid production.

  15. Factors controlling fluxes of volatile sulfur compounds in Sphagnum peatlands. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demello, William Zamboni

    1992-01-01

    Exchange of DMS and OCS between the surface of Sphagnum peatlands and the atmosphere were measured with dynamic (S-free sweep air) and static enclosures. DMS emission rates determined by both methods were comparable. The dynamic method provided positive OCS flux rates (emission) for measurements performed at sites containing Sphagnum. Conversely, data from the static method indicated that OCS was consumed from the atmosphere. Short and long-term impacts of increased S deposition on fluxes of volatile S compounds (VSC's) from Sphagnum peatlands were investigated in a poor fen (Mire 239) at the Experimental Lakes Area, Ontario, Canada. Additional experiments were conducted in a poor fen (Sallie's Fen in Barrington, NH, USA). At Mire 239, emissions of VSC's were monitored, before and after acidification, at control and experimental sections within two major physiographic areas of the mire (oligotrophic and minerotrophic). DMS was the predominant VSC released from Mire 239 and varied largely with time and space. Sulfur addition did not affect DMS emissions in a period of hours to a few days. DMS emissions in the experimental oligotrophic area of the mire was approximately 3-fold greater than in the control oligotrophic area, and approximately 10-fold greater than in the minerotrophic zones. These differences could be due to a combination of differences in types of vegetation, nutritional status, and S input. At Sallie's Fen, DMS fluxes were not significantly affected by sulfate amendments, while DMS and MSH concentrations increased greatly with time in the top 10 cm of the peat column. The major environmental factors controlling fluxes of DMS in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland were investigated in Sallie's Fen, NH. DMS emissions from the surface of the peatland varied greatly over 24 hours and seasonally. Temperature seemed to be the major environmental factor controlling these variabilities. Concentrations of dissolved VSC's varied with time and space throughout the fen

  16. Using an Acoustic System to Estimate the Timing and Magnitude of Ebullition Release from Wetland Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, R. K.; Palace, M. W.; Lennartz, J. M.; Crill, P. M.; Wik, M.; Amante, J.; Dorich, C.; Harden, J. W.; Ewing, S. A.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of the magnitude and frequency of methane release through ebullition (bubbling) in water saturated ecosystems such as bogs, fens and lakes is important to both the atmospheric and ecosystems science community. The controls on episodic bubble releases must be identified in order to understand the response of these ecosystems to future climate forcing. We have developed and field tested an inexpensive array of sampling/monitoring instruments to identify the frequency and magnitude of bubbling events which allows us to correlate bubble data with potential drivers such as changes in hydrostatic pressure, wind and temperature. A prototype ebullition sensor has been developed and field tested at Sallie's Fen in New Hampshire, USA. The instrument consists of a nested, inverted funnel design with a hydrophone for detecting bubbles rising through the peat, that hit the microphone. The design also offers a way to sample the gases collected from the funnels to determine the concentration of CH4. Laboratory calibration of the instrument resulted in an equation that relates frequency of bubbles hitting the microphone with bubble volume. After calibration in the laboratory, the prototype was deployed in Sallie's Fen in late August 2010. An additional four instruments were deployed the following month. Audio data was recorded continuously using a digital audio recorder attached to two ebullition sensors. Audio was recorded as an mp3 compressed audio file at a sample rate of 160 kbits/sec. Using this format and stereo input, allowing for two sensors to be recorded with each device, we were able to record continuously for 20 days. Audio was converted to uncompressed audio files for speed in computation. Audio data was processed using MATLAB, searching in 0.5 second incremental sections for specific fundamental frequencies that are related to our calibrated audio events. Time, fundamental frequency, and estimated bubble size were output to a text file for analysis in

  17. Assessing the Role of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR Transcriptional Repressors in Salicylic Acid-Mediated Suppression of Jasmonic Acid-Responsive Genes.

    PubMed

    Caarls, Lotte; Van der Does, Dieuwertje; Hickman, Richard; Jansen, Wouter; Verk, Marcel C Van; Proietti, Silvia; Lorenzo, Oscar; Solano, Roberto; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2016-11-10

    Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) cross-communicate in the plant immune signaling network to finely regulate induced defenses. In Arabidopsis, SA antagonizes many JA-responsive genes, partly by targeting the ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)-type transcriptional activator ORA59. Members of the ERF transcription factor family typically bind to GCC-box motifs in the promoters of JA- and ethylene-responsive genes, thereby positively or negatively regulating their expression. The GCC-box motif is sufficient for SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Here, we investigated whether SA-induced ERF-type transcriptional repressors, which may compete with JA-induced ERF-type activators for binding at the GCC-box, play a role in SA/JA antagonism. We selected ERFs that are transcriptionally induced by SA and/or possess an EAR transcriptional repressor motif. Several of the 16 ERFs tested suppressed JA-dependent gene expression, as revealed by enhanced JA-induced PDF1.2 or VSP2 expression levels in the corresponding erf mutants, while others were involved in activation of these genes. However, SA could antagonize JA-induced PDF1.2 or VSP2 in all erf mutants, suggesting that the tested ERF transcriptional repressors are not required for SA/JA cross-talk. Moreover, a mutant in the co-repressor TOPLESS, that showed reduction in repression of JA signaling, still displayed SA-mediated antagonism of PDF1.2 and VSP2. Collectively, these results suggest that SA-regulated ERF transcriptional repressors are not essential for antagonism of JA-responsive gene expression by SA. We further show that de novo SA-induced protein synthesis is required for suppression of JA-induced PDF1.2, pointing to SA-stimulated production of an as yet unknown protein that suppresses JA-induced transcription.

  18. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment.

  19. Plant-plant signaling: application of trans- or cis-methyl jasmonate equivalent to sagebrush releases does not elicit direct defenses in native tobacco.

    PubMed

    Preston, Catherine A; Laue, Grit; Baldwin, Ian T

    2004-11-01

    Nicotiana attenuata plants growing in close proximity to damaged sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata) suffer less herbivory than plants near undamaged sagebrush. Sagebrush constitutively releases methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a compound that when applied directly to N. attenuata, elicits herbivore resistance and the direct defense traits [protease inhibitors (PIs), nicotine]. Damage increases the release of volatile MeJA, primarily in the cis epimer, suggesting that cis-MeJA may mediate this apparent interplant signaling. We characterized sagebrush's MeJA plume before and after damage in nature and in the laboratory, and compared the activity of trans- and cis-MeJA in inducing PIs, nicotine, and Manduca sexta resistance in N. attenuata. We used both lanolin applications and aqueous sprays that mimic natural exposures, and we determined the amount of volatilized MeJA required to elicit a nicotine response in open-grown plants. Wounding rapidly and transiently increased cis-MeJA emissions from damaged parts (but not systemically), and the released plume did not rapidly dissipate in nature. cis-MeJA was not consistently more active than trans-MeJA, and the order of exposure (trans- then cis-) did not influence activity. We conclude that volatile MeJA, either trans- or cis-, when applied at levels consistent with those released by sagebrush does not elicit direct defenses in N. attenuata.

  20. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine coordinates metabolic networks required for anthesis and floral attractant emission in wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata).

    PubMed

    Stitz, Michael; Hartl, Markus; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates [JAs]) play central roles in floral development and maturation. The binding of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the F-box of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is required for many JA-dependent physiological responses, but its role in anthesis and pollinator attraction traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, which develops sympetalous flowers with complex pollination biology, to examine the coordinating function of JA homeostasis in the distinct metabolic processes that underlie flower maturation, opening, and advertisement to pollinators. From combined transcriptomic, targeted metabolic, and allometric analyses of transgenic N. attenuata plants for which signaling deficiencies were complemented with methyl jasmonate, JA-Ile, and its functional homolog, coronatine (COR), we demonstrate that (1) JA-Ile/COR-based signaling regulates corolla limb opening and a JA-negative feedback loop; (2) production of floral volatiles (night emissions of benzylacetone) and nectar requires JA-Ile/COR perception through COI1; and (3) limb expansion involves JA-Ile-induced changes in limb fresh mass and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate a master regulatory function of the JA-Ile/COI1 duet for the main function of a sympetalous corolla, that of advertising for and rewarding pollinator services. Flower opening, by contrast, requires JA-Ile signaling-dependent changes in primary metabolism, which are not compromised in the COI1-silenced RNA interference line used in this study.