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Sample records for ja vimukas sally

  1. Sally Ride Tribute

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-20

    Sen. Barbara Mikulski, D-Md., left, talks with Tam O'Shaughnessy, Sally Ride's life partner and chair, board of directors of Sally Ride Science, prior to the National Tribute to Sally Ride at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Monday, May 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Sally Ride Tribute

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-20

    From left, astronauts Pam Melroy; Kay Hire; Cady Coleman; Kathy Sullivan; Tam O'Shaughnessy, Sally Ride's life partner and chair, board of directors of Sally Ride Science; astronauts Bonnie Dunbar; Sandy Magnus; Julie Payette; and Ellen Ochoa, pose for a photograph before a National Tribute to Sally Ride at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Monday, May 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Sally Ride Tribute

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-20

    U.S. Senator Barbara Mikulski, D-Md., shares how astronaut Sally Ride changed STEM education and policy during the National Tribute to Sally Ride at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Monday, May 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Sally Ride Science Festival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-01

    Exhibits draw crowds of young women attending the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. The event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees. Since it followed the tragic loss of the Columbia astronauts, a large poster was presented which attendees could sign as tribute.

  5. Sally Ride Tribute

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-20

    U.S. Senator Barbara Mikulski, D-Md., left, talks with NASA Johnson Space Center Director and former Astronaut Ellen Ochoa as other astronauts look on prior to the National Tribute to Sally Ride at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Monday, May 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Sally Ride Tribute

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-20

    Tennis legend and champion for change Billie Jean King talks of inspiration role models during the National Tribute to Sally Ride at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Monday, May 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Sally Ride Tribute

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-20

    Student dancers from the North Carolina School of the Arts dance "Jordan" from Sweet Fields, Choreographed by Twayle Tharp, as the Centerville High School Chorus sings during the National Tribute to Sally Ride at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Monday, May 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Sally Ride Tribute

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-20

    Journalist and former First Lady of California Maria Shriver reads the poem "The Summer Day" by Mary Oliver during the National Tribute to Sally Ride at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Monday, May 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Sally Ride Tribute

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-20

    Journalist and former First Lady of California Maria Shriver talks prior to reading the poem "The Summer Day" by Mary Oliver during the National Tribute to Sally Ride at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Monday, May 20, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Simulator - Ride, Sally K.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-05-24

    S83-32568 (23 May 1983) --- Astronaut Sally K. Ride, STS-7 mission specialist, straps herself into a seat in the Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) in Johnson Space Center?s Mission Simulation and Training Facility. Dr. Ride and the other STS-7 crew members continue their simulations in the motion base simulator in preparation for their flight in the space shuttle Challenger. Launch is scheduled for June 18. Troy Stewart, suit technician, assisted Dr. Ride. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Simulator - Ride, Sally K.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-05-24

    S83-32571 (23 May 1983) --- Four-fifths of the STS-7 crew take a break from simulations in the Johnson Space Center?s Mission Simulation and Training Facility and pose for NASA photographer. Standing on the steps leading into the motion-based Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) are (left to right) astronauts Robert L. Crippen, John M. Fabian, Frederick H. Hauck and Sally K. Ride. Crippen is crew commander; Hauck, pilot; and Fabian and Ride are mission specialists, along with Norman E. Thagard (not involved in this phase of training and not pictured). Photo credit: NASA

  12. Sally Ride Women in Science Panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-17

    Sally Ride's life partner, Tam O'Shaughnessy, Chair of the Board of Sally Ride Science, talks during a program titled "Sally Ride: How Her Historic Space Mission Opened Doors for Women in Science" held on Friday, May 17, 2013 at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. The Legend of Sally Hemings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belz, Herman

    2012-01-01

    The part played by Sally Hemings in the life of Thomas Jefferson has been regarded as provocatively dubious since political enemy James Callender claimed in 1802 that Jefferson was the father of several of Hemings's children. Historian Merrill Peterson, observing that paternity is hard to prove, wrote in 1960 that no concrete evidence was ever…

  14. The Legend of Sally Hemings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belz, Herman

    2012-01-01

    The part played by Sally Hemings in the life of Thomas Jefferson has been regarded as provocatively dubious since political enemy James Callender claimed in 1802 that Jefferson was the father of several of Hemings's children. Historian Merrill Peterson, observing that paternity is hard to prove, wrote in 1960 that no concrete evidence was ever…

  15. Captain Sally Tompkins: Angel of the Confederacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggiano, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Provides historical information on the life of Sally Tompkins who received a commission as captain in the Confederate cavalry for her work at the Robertson Hospital (Richmond, Virginia) during the Civil War. Includes learning activities, a copy of her obituary, a photograph of the Sally Tompkins monument, and a photograph analysis worksheet. (CMK)

  16. Sally Ride Posthumously Receives Medal of Freedom

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-20

    Tam O'Shaughnessy, Sally Ride's life partner and chair, board of directors of Sally Ride Science, is seen with President Barack Obama as she prepares to accept the Presidential Medal of Freedom on behalf of Dr. Ride, Wednesday, Nov. 20, 2013 at the White House in Washington. Sally Ride, who was awarded the Medal of Freedom posthumously, was the first American female astronaut to travel to space. As a role model to generations of young women, she advocated passionately for science education, stood up for racial and gender equality in the classroom, and taught students from every background that there are no limits to what they can accomplish. The Medal of Freedom is our Nation’s highest civilian honor, presented to individuals who have made especially meritorious contributions to the security or national interests of the United States, to world peace, or to cultural or other significant public or private endeavors. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Sally Ride Posthumously Receives Medal of Freedom

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-20

    Tam O'Shaughnessy, Sally Ride's life partner and chair, board of directors of Sally Ride Science, is seen with President Barack Obama as she accepts the Presidential Medal of Freedom on behalf of Dr. Ride, Wednesday, Nov. 20, 2013 at the White House in Washington. Sally Ride, who was awarded the Medal of Freedom posthumously, was the first American female astronaut to travel to space. As a role model to generations of young women, she advocated passionately for science education, stood up for racial and gender equality in the classroom, and taught students from every background that there are no limits to what they can accomplish. The Medal of Freedom is our Nation’s highest civilian honor, presented to individuals who have made especially meritorious contributions to the security or national interests of the United States, to world peace, or to cultural or other significant public or private endeavors. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Astronaut Sally Ride on Flight Deck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-06-25

    S83-35783 / STS007-05-029 (18-24 June 1983) --- Astronaut Sally K. Ride, mission specialist, is shown here sitting in the front seat and looking out the windows of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Challenger. Ride and four other crew members are onboard the Challenger.

  19. Bringing Sally Smith's Vision to Manayunk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author narrates her application of what she learned from her internship at Sally Smith's Lab School of Washington to her new school and shares the favorable impact it had brought on her teaching career. The author shares her first exposure to the powerful effects of Smith's "Live It, Learn It" methodology as she…

  20. Sally Ride Women in Science Panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-17

    Director of the NASA Johnson Space Center Ellen Ochoa talks as Tom Costello from NBC News moderates a panel discussion titled "Sally Ride: How Her Historic Space Mission Opened Doors for Women in Science" at the National Air and Space Museum on Friday, May 17, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Sally Ride Women in Science Panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-17

    Director of the NASA Johnson Space Center Ellen Ochoa shares her experiences during a program titled "Sally Ride: How Her Historic Space Mission Opened Doors for Women in Science" held on Friday, May 17, 2013 at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Sally Ride Women in Science Panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-17

    Rene McCormick, director of standards and quality, National Math and Science Initiative, talks during a program titled "Sally Ride: How Her Historic Space Mission Opened Doors for Women in Science" held on Friday, May 17, 2013 at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Sally Ride Women in Science Panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-17

    Dan Vergano, science writer for USA Today talks during a program titled "Sally Ride: How Her Historic Space Mission Opened Doors for Women in Science" held on Friday, May 17, 2013 at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Sally Ride Women in Science Panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-17

    Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum Senior Curator in the Division of Space History Dr. Roger Launious begins a program titled "Sally Ride: How Her Historic Space Mission Opened Doors for Women in Science" held on Friday, May 17, 2013 at the Museum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Sally Ride Women in Science Panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-17

    Tom Costello from NBC News moderates a panel discussion titled "Sally Ride: How Her Historic Space Mission Opened Doors for Women in Science" at the National Air and Space Museum on Friday, May 17, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Sally Ride Women in Science Panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-17

    Tom Costello from NBC News moderates a panel discussion titled "Sally Ride: How Her Historic Space Mission Opened Doors for Women in Science" as Director of the NASA Johnson Space Center Ellen Ochoa looks on at the National Air and Space Museum on Friday, May 17, 2013 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Sally Ride Women in Science Panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-17

    Linda Billings, research professor, Media and Public Affairs, The George Washington University shares her thoughts during a program titled "Sally Ride: How Her Historic Space Mission Opened Doors for Women in Science" held on Friday, May 17, 2013 at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Sally Ride Women in Science Panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-17

    Margaret Weitekamp, space history curator, National Air and Space Museum, talks about the history of women in space during a program titled "Sally Ride: How Her Historic Space Mission Opened Doors for Women in Science" held on Friday, May 17, 2013 at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Bringing Sally Smith's Vision to Manayunk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author narrates her application of what she learned from her internship at Sally Smith's Lab School of Washington to her new school and shares the favorable impact it had brought on her teaching career. The author shares her first exposure to the powerful effects of Smith's "Live It, Learn It" methodology as she…

  10. Children Facing School: Sally Brown and Peppermint Patty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, William

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the comic strip "Peanuts" characters Sally Brown and Peppermint Patty as they illustrate children's difficulties in school and their emotional responses to school. Explores how Sally illustrates the conflict between the creative impulses of childhood with school demands, while Patty illustrates the extent to which many children…

  11. The Advocate: Sally Lancaster--Everett Public Schools, WA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article details the work of Sally Lancaster of Everett Public Schools in Washington. Sally Lancaster may be an educator by training, but she knows the value of libraries. As assistant principal of Alternative Programs for the Everett Public Schools, Lancaster led a statewide battle that not only saved the criteria for school libraries in the…

  12. View of the Sally May Siphon discharge box and transition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the Sally May Siphon discharge box and transition to steel flume on wood trestle. Looking northeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Sally May-Purple Mountain Siphon Discharge, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  13. Children Facing School: Sally Brown and Peppermint Patty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, William

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the comic strip "Peanuts" characters Sally Brown and Peppermint Patty as they illustrate children's difficulties in school and their emotional responses to school. Explores how Sally illustrates the conflict between the creative impulses of childhood with school demands, while Patty illustrates the extent to which many children…

  14. Sally Ride Women in Science Panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-17

    Panel discussion participants, from left, Linda Billings, research professor, Media and Public Affairs, The George Washington University, Ellen Ochoa, director, NASA Johnson Space Center, Tom Costello, NBC News and moderator for the event, Margaret Weitekamp, space history curator, National Air and Space Museum, Dan Vergano, science writer for USA Today, and Rene McCormick, director of standards and quality, National Math and Science Initiative, are seen during a program titled "Sally Ride: How Her Historic Space Mission Opened Doors for Women in Science" held on Friday, May 17, 2013 at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. STS-2 - SIMULATION - RIDE, SALLY, ASTRONAUT - JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-07-09

    S81-33963 (July 1981) --- Mission specialist/astronaut Sally K. Ride and Dale E. Moore of the flight control division?s electrical, mechanical and environmental systems branch take a special interest in a simulations session during which the remote manipulator system (RMS, a mechanized arm) takes a momentary spotlight. They are seated at the CAPCOM or capsule communicator console in the mission operations control room of JSC?s mission control center. Dr. Ride will converse with astronauts Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly during their STS-2 mission in space when the RMS will have its debut in the Columbia?s cargo bay. Astronaut James F. Buchli, serving in a CAPCOM capacity, is partially obscured behind Dr. Ride. Photo credit: NASA

  16. 14. September, 1968 GATE BETWEEN SALLY BEARD GARDNER HOUSE, 18 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. September, 1968 GATE BETWEEN SALLY BEARD GARDNER HOUSE, 18 ORANGE STREET AND LUCINDA MOOERS HOUSE, 20 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  17. Astronaut Sally Ride responds to question from interviewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut Sally K. Ride, mission specialist for STS-7, responds to a question from an interviewer during a taping session for ABC's Night Line. Dr. Ride is in the shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  18. Astronaut Sally Ride responds to question from interviewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut Sally K. Ride, mission specialist for STS-7, responds to a question from an interviewer during a taping session for ABC's Night Line. Dr. Ride is in the shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  19. Birthday Wishes for Suni Williams from Sally Ride's Family

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Sally Ride's family was in Mission Control Center to surprise Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams and wish her a happy birthday. Read more about NASA astronaut Suni Williams... http://go.nasa.gov...

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers May 30, 1967, WEST (FRONT) ELEVATION. - First Universalist Church, South Clinton Avenue & Court Street, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  1. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers May 30, 1967, NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATION FROM NORTHEAST. - First Universalist Church, South Clinton Avenue & Court Street, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  2. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers May 30, 1967, DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION. - First Universalist Church, South Clinton Avenue & Court Street, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers May 30, 1967, EAST (REAR) ELEVATION. - First Universalist Church, South Clinton Avenue & Court Street, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers October 15, 1966, VIEW OF SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION. - Lindley M. Moore House, 22 Lake View Park, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  5. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers October 23, 1966, FIRST FLOOR, AUDITORIUM TOWARD WEST. - First Universalist Church, South Clinton Avenue & Court Street, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  6. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers October 23, 1966, FIRST FLOOR, HALL AND STAIRS INSIDE NORTH ENTRANCE. - First Universalist Church, South Clinton Avenue & Court Street, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  7. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers October 15, 1966, DETAIL OF DOOR, SOUTHWEST PARLOR, FIRST FLOOR. - Lindley M. Moore House, 22 Lake View Park, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  8. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers November 25, 1966, EAST SIDE OF CARRIAGE HOUSE. - George Thompson House, 546 East Avenue, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  9. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Paul L. and Sally L. Gordon, Photographers October 23, 1966, FIRST FLOOR, VIEW OF AUDITORIUM TOWARD ORGAN. - First Universalist Church, South Clinton Avenue & Court Street, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  10. View of Steel Flume Bridge #3 crossing over Sally May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Steel Flume Bridge #3 crossing over Sally May Wash. Looking northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 3, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  11. 76 FR 67555 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SALLY; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SALLY; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice... the vessel SALLY is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Coastwise trade, 6 passengers or less...

  12. View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon Intake. Looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon Intake. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Sally May-Purple Mountain Siphon Intake, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  13. 31 CFR 354.5 - Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.5 Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims. (a) Except in the case of a security interest in favor of the United States or..., Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks shall treat the Participant to whose Securities Account...

  14. 31 CFR 354.5 - Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.5 Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims. (a) Except in the case of a security interest in favor of the United... 354, Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks shall treat the Participant to whose Securities...

  15. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. (a) A Sallie Mae Security may be maintained in the form of a Definitive... Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  16. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. (a) A Sallie Mae Security may be maintained in the form of a Definitive... Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  17. 31 CFR 354.5 - Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.5 Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims. (a) Except in the case of a security interest in favor of the United States or..., Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks shall treat the Participant to whose Securities Account...

  18. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. (a) A Sallie Mae Security may be maintained in the form of a Definitive... Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  19. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. (a) A Sallie Mae Security may be maintained in the form of a Definitive... Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

  20. 31 CFR 354.5 - Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.5 Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims. (a) Except in the case of a security interest in favor of the United States or..., Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks shall treat the Participant to whose Securities Account...

  1. 31 CFR 354.5 - Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.5 Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims. (a) Except in the case of a security interest in favor of the United States or..., Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks shall treat the Participant to whose Securities Account...

  2. 31 CFR 354.9 - Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks. Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the... Federal Reserve Banks shall not be liable for any action taken in accordance with the information set out... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal...

  3. Sally Sits on My Shoulder: A Conversation With Bev Johns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaff, Marilyn; Teagarden, James; Zabel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Beverly (Bev) Holden Johns shares her career as an educator and advocate for children who present challenges in the educational setting. She introduces the reader to "Sally," who illustrates the continual need for advocacy for children. Bev also offers advice for those just entering the field. Her perspective and experiences enrich us…

  4. Rethinking Research in Early Care and Education: Joining Sally's Quest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    The article considers three domains of Sally Lubeck's scholarship as illustrations of her orientation to research on early care and education: her critique of positivism in general and the field of developmental psychology (and the sub-discipline of child development) specifically as the primary source of a "knowledge base" for the field of early…

  5. Astronaut Sally K. Ride outside of shuttle mission simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-05-26

    S83-32890 (23 May 1983) --- Astronaut Sally K. Ride, STS-7 mission specialist, stands near the Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) in Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Mission Simulation and Training Facility with suit specialist Alan M. Rochford after simulation of various phases of the upcoming STS-7 flight. Photo credit: NASA

  6. 13. September, 1968 GATE TO THE GARDEN OF THE SALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. September, 1968 GATE TO THE GARDEN OF THE SALLY BEARD GARDNER HOUSE 18 ORANGE STREET, BETWEEN 16 AND 18 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  7. Sally Sits on My Shoulder: A Conversation With Bev Johns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaff, Marilyn; Teagarden, James; Zabel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Beverly (Bev) Holden Johns shares her career as an educator and advocate for children who present challenges in the educational setting. She introduces the reader to "Sally," who illustrates the continual need for advocacy for children. Bev also offers advice for those just entering the field. Her perspective and experiences enrich us…

  8. View of the Flume above Sally May Siphon ("Steel Flume ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the Flume above Sally May Siphon ("Steel Flume on Trestles" in narrative inventory). At far end is Flume Tunnel No. 3 (AZ-65-T) through Purple Mountain. Looking southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Steel Flume on Trestles, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  9. SUMMER 2003 DOCUMENTATION TEAM FOR THE HOUSE, THE 2003 SALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUMMER 2003 DOCUMENTATION TEAM FOR THE HOUSE, THE 2003 SALLY KRESS TOMPKINS FELLOW, AND HABS STAFF IN FRONT OF THE MAIN ENTRANCE AT THE WOODLANDS DURING THE PROJECT CLOSE-OUT, 14 AUGUST 2003. LEFT TO RIGHT, FRONT ROW: SHALINI MAHAJAN, CATHERINE C. LAVOIE, STEVEN B. UTZ, COURTNEY L. GUNDERSON. BACK ROW: MARGARET TULLOCH, JAMES A. JACOBS, ROBERT R. ARZOLA, MORGAN GICK - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 31 CFR 354.0 - Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; maintenance of Sallie Mae Securities. 354.0 Section 354.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.0 Applicability...

  11. Gender, Work, and Child Care: Crossing Borders in the Life and Work of Sally Lubeck

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Marianne N.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the themes of gender, work, and child care as they have been addressed in much of Sally Lubeck's work, in an attempt to understand her trajectory, and her diverse messages to us. In reading her work for this article, key themes stood out that focus our attention on Sally Lubeck's continuing fight for better public…

  12. Despite a Settlement, Sallie Mae Still Plays Host to College Student-Aid Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    Last April, as part of a $2-million settlement with New York's attorney general, the nation's largest student-loan company, Sallie Mae, agreed to stop providing staff members for colleges' financial-aid offices and call centers at no cost to the institutions. But one year later, Sallie Mae still plays host to the entire online presence for the…

  13. 31 CFR 354.9 - Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Federal Reserve Banks. Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks. 354.9 Section 354.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...

  14. 31 CFR 354.9 - Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Federal Reserve Banks. Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks. 354.9 Section 354.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...

  15. 31 CFR 354.9 - Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Federal Reserve Banks. Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks. 354.9 Section 354.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...

  16. 31 CFR 354.9 - Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Federal Reserve Banks. Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liability of Sallie Mae and Federal Reserve Banks. 354.9 Section 354.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...

  17. View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon. FS road #502 is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon. FS road #502 is in the bottom foreground. Looking west-southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Sally May-Purple Mountain Siphon, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  18. View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon Intake house from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon Intake house from the south showing the flume existing. Looking north - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Sally May-Purple Mountain Siphon Intake, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  19. 31 CFR 354.7 - Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.7 Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form... Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form. 354.7 Section 354.7 Money and Finance:...

  20. 31 CFR 354.7 - Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.7 Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form... Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form. 354.7 Section 354.7 Money and Finance:...

  1. 31 CFR 354.7 - Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.7 Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form... Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form. 354.7 Section 354.7 Money and Finance:...

  2. 31 CFR 354.7 - Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FISCAL SERVICE REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.7 Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive... Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form. 354.7 Section 354.7 Money and Finance:...

  3. Astronaut Sally K. Ride and John Fabian participates in crew mission test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronauts Sally K. Ride and John M. Fabian, two of the three STS-7 mission specialists, participate in a crew mission test in the Kennedy Space Center's vertical processing facility (VPF). They are both wearing clean suits.

  4. Astronaut Sally K. Ride participates in a mission sequence test for STS-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut Sally K. Ride, left, participates in a mission sequence test for STS-7, in the Kennedy Space Center's vertical processing facility (VPF). She is joined by Anna L. Fisher, a physician and astronaut.

  5. Astronauts Sally Ride and James Buchli at the CapCom console

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronauts Sally Ride and James Buchli at the CapCom console during the STS-2 simulation (33962); Dele Moore, remote manipulator system (RMS) specialist, stands beside Ride as they go over procedures (33963).

  6. Astronauts Sally Ride and James Buchli at the CapCom console

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronauts Sally Ride and James Buchli at the CapCom console during the STS-2 simulation (33962); Dele Moore, remote manipulator system (RMS) specialist, stands beside Ride as they go over procedures (33963).

  7. Astronaut Sally K. Ride participates in a mission sequence test for STS-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut Sally K. Ride, left, participates in a mission sequence test for STS-7, in the Kennedy Space Center's vertical processing facility (VPF). She is joined by Anna L. Fisher, a physician and astronaut.

  8. Astronaut Sally K. Ride and John Fabian participates in crew mission test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronauts Sally K. Ride and John M. Fabian, two of the three STS-7 mission specialists, participate in a crew mission test in the Kennedy Space Center's vertical processing facility (VPF). They are both wearing clean suits.

  9. 31 CFR 354.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and... obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and... inconsistent with these regulations) and Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars: (1) The rights and...

  10. 31 CFR 354.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and... obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and... inconsistent with these regulations) and Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars: (1) The rights and...

  11. 31 CFR 354.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and... obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and... inconsistent with these regulations) and Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars: (1) The rights and...

  12. 31 CFR 354.7 - Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.7 Withdrawal of eligible Book-entry Sallie Mae Securities for conversion to definitive form...

  13. Objectivity and Its Discontents: Knowledge Advocacy in the Sally Hemings Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whooley, Owen

    2008-01-01

    The sociology of knowledge, derived from research on the hard sciences, overlooks the potential for outsiders to determine the content of knowledge within professional disciplines. Using the case of the Sally Hemings affair, I introduce the concept of "knowledge advocacy" to analyze how outside groups shape historical knowledge. The Hemings…

  14. Astronaut Sally Ride records some pre-launch activites at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Sally K. Ride, mission specialist for STS-7, records some of the prelaunch activity for STS-6 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Astronaut William B. Lenoir, STS-5 mission specialist, is at left. Others pictured include Richard W. Nygren (center), Chief of the Vehicle Integration Section of the Operations Division at JSC; and Astronaut William F. Fisher, second right.

  15. Astronauts Sally Ride and Terry Hart prepare for RMS training for STS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronauts Sally Ride and Terry Hart prepare for remote manipulator system (RMS) training for STS-2 in bldg 9A. Views include Ride, Hart and Robert R. Kain of the Flight Activites Branch reviewing procedures for RMS training (34262); Ride and Hart stand beside the RMS control center looking down at the payload bay mock-up (34263).

  16. Sally Reis and Joe Renzulli: Models for Education Reform, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The term "talent development" has historically been associated only with gifted education in the K12 education world. But for the past 30 years, husband and wife team Joseph Renzulli and Sally Reis have been steadily increasing the pool of educators trained to apply talent development practices to mainstream instruction through the Renzulli…

  17. Astronauts Sally Ride and Terry Hart prepare for RMS training for STS-2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-07-17

    Astronauts Sally Ride and Terry Hart prepare for remote manipulator system (RMS) training for STS-2 in bldg 9A. Views include Ride, Hart and Robert R. Kain of the Flight Activites Branch reviewing procedures for RMS training (34262); Ride and Hart stand beside the RMS control center looking down at the payload bay mock-up (34263).

  18. How America Saves for College, 2009. Sallie Mae's National Study of College Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    Sallie Mae's study, "How America Saves for College 2009," conducted by Gallup, provides a measure of the commitment parents have to helping their children reach higher education and whether and how they are saving for the investment. Based on a nationally representative survey of parents of children under age 18, the study found that without…

  19. Astronaut Sally K. Ride and John Fabian participates in crew mission test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-05-26

    S83-32823 (26 May 1983) --- Astronauts Sally K. Ride and John M. Fabian, attired in clean suits, participate in a STS-7 crew mission test in the Kennedy Space Center's vertical processing facility (VPF). They are two of three STS-7 mission specialists preparing for the June mission. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Astronaut Sally Ride records some pre-launch activites at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Sally K. Ride, mission specialist for STS-7, records some of the prelaunch activity for STS-6 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Astronaut William B. Lenoir, STS-5 mission specialist, is at left. Others pictured include Richard W. Nygren (center), Chief of the Vehicle Integration Section of the Operations Division at JSC; and Astronaut William F. Fisher, second right.

  1. Sally L. Smith: A Genius at Seeing the Potential in People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Mary Allen

    2010-01-01

    What this author admired most about Sally Smith was the fact that she was a visionary about people and what they could accomplish. She saw more potential in a person--young or old--than anybody or even they themselves, frankly, had ever even considered possible. She was a genius at seeing the potential in people, expecting them to find it in…

  2. Becoming a "History Person" or, If Sally Says It's Possible, It Must Be

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how Sally Smith, founder of The Lab School of Washington, was right about her being a "history person" when she was assigned to teach Democracy at the Lab School. The author was hired to teach Democracy in 1996, after working in the Junior High for a year as an assistant teacher. Smith explained to the author…

  3. How America Pays for College, 2009. Sallie Mae's National Study of College Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    Sallie Mae's study, "How America Pays for College 2009," conducted by Gallup, provides a picture of how families made the investment in higher education last academic year and how they are beginning to meet the challenges of the economic recession. Based on a nationally representative survey of college-going students and parents of undergraduates,…

  4. How America Pays for College, 2010. Sallie Mae's National Study of College Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a quantitative survey research program that Gallup, Inc. conducted on behalf of Sallie Mae. The overall objective of the study was to determine how American families are paying for higher education. The study also measures public attitudes toward college and various topics related to funding college. To achieve…

  5. How America Pays for College, 2011. Sallie Mae's National Study of College Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Sallie Mae's national study, "How America Pays for College," now in its fourth year, shows the resilience of American families' strongly held belief in the value of a college education. Even in the face of rising tuition costs and the worst economic decline in a generation, between academic years 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 Americans paid increasingly…

  6. How America Pays for College, 2012. Sallie Mae's National Study of College Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Sallie Mae has conducted "How America Pays for College" annually since 2008, providing information about the resources American families invest in an undergraduate college education. This study focuses particularly on the planning and payment behaviors in a given academic year. Now in its fifth year, the study allows tracking over time of changes…

  7. Astronauts Sally Ride and Terry Hart prepare for RMS training for STS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronauts Sally Ride and Terry Hart prepare for remote manipulator system (RMS) training for STS-2 in bldg 9A. Views include Ride, Hart and Robert R. Kain of the Flight Activites Branch reviewing procedures for RMS training (34262); Ride and Hart stand beside the RMS control center looking down at the payload bay mock-up (34263).

  8. How America Pays for College, 2014: Sallie Mae's National Study of College Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    Sallie Mae has conducted "How America Pays for College" annually since 2008, providing information about the resources American families invest in an undergraduate college education. This study focuses particularly on the planning and payment behaviors in a given academic year. Now in its seventh year, the study provides a compelling…

  9. Objectivity and Its Discontents: Knowledge Advocacy in the Sally Hemings Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whooley, Owen

    2008-01-01

    The sociology of knowledge, derived from research on the hard sciences, overlooks the potential for outsiders to determine the content of knowledge within professional disciplines. Using the case of the Sally Hemings affair, I introduce the concept of "knowledge advocacy" to analyze how outside groups shape historical knowledge. The Hemings…

  10. Speech/Language Pathologists Reflect on Sally Smith and the Lab School of Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Sally L. Smith had a clear vision of how she thought speech and language services should be integrated into her school, The Lab School of Washington. It was Smith's idea that language therapists should work individually with students to help them make gains in their particular areas of need, as well as to work collaboratively with the teachers,…

  11. Sally Reis and Joe Renzulli: Models for Education Reform, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The term "talent development" has historically been associated only with gifted education in the K12 education world. But for the past 30 years, husband and wife team Joseph Renzulli and Sally Reis have been steadily increasing the pool of educators trained to apply talent development practices to mainstream instruction through the Renzulli…

  12. A Reflective Conversation with Joe Renzulli and Sally Reis: About the Renzulli Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joe; Reis, Sally; Shaughnessy, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Dr. Joe Renzulli and Dr. Sally Reis respond to questions about the newly developed Renzulli Learning System. They discuss the system in light of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) and provide information regarding its use with curriculum compacting and Renzulli's "Three Ring Conceptualization of…

  13. Reconstructung Sally: Narratives and Counternarratives around Work, Education, and Workplace Restructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Lesley

    1999-01-01

    Through analysis of an interview excerpt with Sally, an enterprise-based literacy teacher, this study explores how the changing workplace influences how the teacher conceptualizes her relationships with her action learning team and with the wider workplace context. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on ESL Literacy Education) (Author/VWL)

  14. A Reflective Conversation with Joe Renzulli and Sally Reis: About the Renzulli Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joe; Reis, Sally; Shaughnessy, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Dr. Joe Renzulli and Dr. Sally Reis respond to questions about the newly developed Renzulli Learning System. They discuss the system in light of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) and provide information regarding its use with curriculum compacting and Renzulli's "Three Ring Conceptualization of…

  15. Becoming a "History Person" or, If Sally Says It's Possible, It Must Be

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how Sally Smith, founder of The Lab School of Washington, was right about her being a "history person" when she was assigned to teach Democracy at the Lab School. The author was hired to teach Democracy in 1996, after working in the Junior High for a year as an assistant teacher. Smith explained to the author…

  16. Sally L. Smith: A Genius at Seeing the Potential in People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Mary Allen

    2010-01-01

    What this author admired most about Sally Smith was the fact that she was a visionary about people and what they could accomplish. She saw more potential in a person--young or old--than anybody or even they themselves, frankly, had ever even considered possible. She was a genius at seeing the potential in people, expecting them to find it in…

  17. Prone to pregnancy: Orlando, Virginia Woolf and Sally Potter represent the gestating body.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jane Maree

    2007-03-01

    The visibility of pregnancy in contemporary societies through various forms of medical imaging has often been interpreted by feminist critics as negative for the autonomy and experience of pregnant women. Here, I consider the representation of pregnancy in Virginia Woolf's novel, Orlando, and Sally Potter's film of the same name arguing that, despite limited critical attention to Orlando's pregnancy, these texts offer a productive interpretation of gestation that counters conventionally reductive cultural images of that embodied state. In particular, I argue that Potter's translation of Woolf's novel to the screen gives us a useful model for thinking through the new visibility of pregnancy in contemporary Western culture.

  18. 31 CFR 354.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Security Entitlement that is in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank from a Participant and that is not recorded... recorded on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to § 354.14(c)(1), is governed by the law... of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and...

  19. 31 CFR 354.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a Participant and that is not recorded on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to § 354.4(c... is not a Participant, and that is not recorded on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to... of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any Person against Federal Reserve Banks and...

  20. Revisiting "No Easy Answers": Application of Sally Smith's Methods in the Lab School of Washington High School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The first edition of "No Easy Answers" (Smith, 1995) was published in 1979, thirty years ago. That seminal work is as relevant today as it was when the book first appeared. This article provides a description of how Sally Smith's Academic Club Method is implemented in the High School program of The Lab School of Washington.

  1. How America Saves for College, 2013. Sallie Mae's National Study of Parents with Children under Age 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    Sallie Mae has conducted an ongoing study, "How America Pays for College," annually since 2008. Through that study, the researchers are able to provide a clearer picture of how the typical American undergraduate is paying for college today. This report is the third in the "How America Saves for College" series conducted since 2009. Interviews took…

  2. Revisiting "No Easy Answers": Application of Sally Smith's Methods in the Lab School of Washington High School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The first edition of "No Easy Answers" (Smith, 1995) was published in 1979, thirty years ago. That seminal work is as relevant today as it was when the book first appeared. This article provides a description of how Sally Smith's Academic Club Method is implemented in the High School program of The Lab School of Washington.

  3. How America Saves for College, 2014: Sallie Mae's National Study of Parents with Children under Age 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    This is the fourth report in the Sallie Mae series "How America Saves for College," which launched in 2009. To understand how American families are planning for their children's education, the study captures data on parents' decision-making about savings, the use of savings vehicles, and the amount they save, as well as attitudes toward…

  4. SALLY LEVEL II- COMPUTE AND INTEGRATE DISTURBANCE AMPLIFICATION RATES ON SWEPT AND TAPERED LAMINAR FLOW CONTROL WINGS WITH SUCTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srokowski, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The computer program SALLY was developed to compute the incompressible linear stability characteristics and integrate the amplification rates of boundary layer disturbances on swept and tapered wings. For some wing designs, boundary layer disturbance can significantly alter the wing performance characteristics. This is particularly true for swept and tapered laminar flow control wings which incorporate suction to prevent boundary layer separation. SALLY should prove to be a useful tool in the analysis of these wing performance characteristics. The first step in calculating the disturbance amplification rates is to numerically solve the compressible laminar boundary-layer equation with suction for the swept and tapered wing. A two-point finite-difference method is used to solve the governing continuity, momentum, and energy equations. A similarity transformation is used to remove the wall normal velocity as a boundary condition and place it into the governing equations as a parameter. Thus the awkward nonlinear boundary condition is avoided. The resulting compressible boundary layer data is used by SALLY to compute the incompressible linear stability characteristics. The local disturbance growth is obtained from temporal stability theory and converted into a local growth rate for integration. The direction of the local group velocity is taken as the direction of integration. The amplification rate, or logarithmic disturbance amplitude ratio, is obtained by integration of the local disturbance growth over distance. The amplification rate serves as a measure of the growth of linear disturbances within the boundary layer and can serve as a guide in transition prediction. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and ASSEMBLER for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 70 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 67K (octal) of 60 bit words. SALLY was developed in 1979.

  5. SALLY LEVEL II- COMPUTE AND INTEGRATE DISTURBANCE AMPLIFICATION RATES ON SWEPT AND TAPERED LAMINAR FLOW CONTROL WINGS WITH SUCTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srokowski, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The computer program SALLY was developed to compute the incompressible linear stability characteristics and integrate the amplification rates of boundary layer disturbances on swept and tapered wings. For some wing designs, boundary layer disturbance can significantly alter the wing performance characteristics. This is particularly true for swept and tapered laminar flow control wings which incorporate suction to prevent boundary layer separation. SALLY should prove to be a useful tool in the analysis of these wing performance characteristics. The first step in calculating the disturbance amplification rates is to numerically solve the compressible laminar boundary-layer equation with suction for the swept and tapered wing. A two-point finite-difference method is used to solve the governing continuity, momentum, and energy equations. A similarity transformation is used to remove the wall normal velocity as a boundary condition and place it into the governing equations as a parameter. Thus the awkward nonlinear boundary condition is avoided. The resulting compressible boundary layer data is used by SALLY to compute the incompressible linear stability characteristics. The local disturbance growth is obtained from temporal stability theory and converted into a local growth rate for integration. The direction of the local group velocity is taken as the direction of integration. The amplification rate, or logarithmic disturbance amplitude ratio, is obtained by integration of the local disturbance growth over distance. The amplification rate serves as a measure of the growth of linear disturbances within the boundary layer and can serve as a guide in transition prediction. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and ASSEMBLER for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 70 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 67K (octal) of 60 bit words. SALLY was developed in 1979.

  6. Sally Ride and others speak at a women's forum at the Apollo/Saturn V Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former astronaut Sally Ride (left) sits on a panel of women discussing 'Past, Present and Future of Space.' Other participants in the women's forum include Marta Bohn-Meyer (second from left), the first SR-71 female pilot; Kathryn Sullivan, Ph.D., the first American woman to walk in space; Donna Shirley, Ph.D., the first woman leading the Mars Exploration Program; astronaut Yvonne Cagle; Jennifer Harris, flight director, Mars Pathfinder; astronaut Ellen Ochoa, the first Hispanic female in space and member of the President's commission on the Celebration of Women in American History. The panel is being moderated by Lynn Sherr, ABC News correspondent. The forum about women in space included a welcome by Center Director Roy Bridges and remarks by Donna Shalala, secretary of Department of Health and Human Services. The attendees are planning to view the launch of STS-93 at the Banana Creek viewing sight. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. Liftoff is scheduled for July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT.

  7. Sally Ride and others speak at a women's forum at the Apollo/Saturn V Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former astronaut Sally Ride (left) sits on a panel of women discussing 'Past, Present and Future of Space.' Other participants in the women's forum include Marta Bohn-Meyer (second from left), the first SR-71 female pilot; Kathryn Sullivan, Ph.D., the first American woman to walk in space; Donna Shirley, Ph.D., the first woman leading the Mars Exploration Program; astronaut Yvonne Cagle; Jennifer Harris, flight director, Mars Pathfinder; astronaut Ellen Ochoa, the first Hispanic female in space and member of the President's commission on the Celebration of Women in American History. The panel is being moderated by Lynn Sherr, ABC News correspondent. The forum about women in space included a welcome by Center Director Roy Bridges and remarks by Donna Shalala, secretary of Department of Health and Human Services. The attendees are planning to view the launch of STS-93 at the Banana Creek viewing sight. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. Liftoff is scheduled for July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT.

  8. Assessment of cardiac function and myocardial morphology using small animal Look-Locker inversion recovery (SALLI) MRI in rats.

    PubMed

    Jeuthe, Sarah; O H-Ici, Darach; Kemnitz, Ulrich; Dietrich, Thore; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Berger, Felix; Kuehne, Titus; Messroghli, Daniel

    2013-07-19

    Small animal magnetic resonance imaging is an important tool to study cardiac function and changes in myocardial tissue. The high heart rates of small animals (200 to 600 beats/min) have previously limited the role of CMR imaging. Small animal Look-Locker inversion recovery (SALLI) is a T1 mapping sequence for small animals to overcome this problem. T1 maps provide quantitative information about tissue alterations and contrast agent kinetics. It is also possible to detect diffuse myocardial processes such as interstitial fibrosis or edema. Furthermore, from a single set of image data, it is possible to examine heart function and myocardial scarring by generating cine and inversion recovery-prepared late gadolinium enhancement-type MR images. The presented video shows step-by-step the procedures to perform small animal CMR imaging. Here it is presented with a healthy Sprague-Dawley rat, however naturally it can be extended to different cardiac small animal models.

  9. Sally Ride EarthKAM - Automated Image Geo-Referencing Using Google Earth Web Plug-In

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andres, Paul M.; Lazar, Dennis K.; Thames, Robert Q.

    2013-01-01

    Sally Ride EarthKAM is an educational program funded by NASA that aims to provide the public the ability to picture Earth from the perspective of the International Space Station (ISS). A computer-controlled camera is mounted on the ISS in a nadir-pointing window; however, timing limitations in the system cause inaccurate positional metadata. Manually correcting images within an orbit allows the positional metadata to be improved using mathematical regressions. The manual correction process is time-consuming and thus, unfeasible for a large number of images. The standard Google Earth program allows for the importing of KML (keyhole markup language) files that previously were created. These KML file-based overlays could then be manually manipulated as image overlays, saved, and then uploaded to the project server where they are parsed and the metadata in the database is updated. The new interface eliminates the need to save, download, open, re-save, and upload the KML files. Everything is processed on the Web, and all manipulations go directly into the database. Administrators also have the control to discard any single correction that was made and validate a correction. This program streamlines a process that previously required several critical steps and was probably too complex for the average user to complete successfully. The new process is theoretically simple enough for members of the public to make use of and contribute to the success of the Sally Ride EarthKAM project. Using the Google Earth Web plug-in, EarthKAM images, and associated metadata, this software allows users to interactively manipulate an EarthKAM image overlay, and update and improve the associated metadata. The Web interface uses the Google Earth JavaScript API along with PHP-PostgreSQL to present the user the same interface capabilities without leaving the Web. The simpler graphical user interface will allow the public to participate directly and meaningfully with EarthKAM. The use of

  10. Sally Ride EarthKAM: 15 Years of STEM Education and Outreach from Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, T.; Griffin, R.; Klug, T.; Harbour, S.; Au, B.; Graves, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Sally Ride EarthKAM @ Space Camp is a digital camera payload on board the International Space Station (ISS) that allows students from around the globe to request photos of the Earth from space. Since its launch to the ISS in 2001, approximately 110,000 images have been requested by students from over 90 countries. EarthKAM provides the ultimate platform for STEM engagement in both formal and informal educational settings, as it is currently the only earth observation science payload on station completely controlled by students. Images are requested and accessed through a web portal and can be used by educators in a multitude of ways to promote interest in geosciences, math, physics, and numerous other fields. EarthKAM is currently operated out of the US Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama and is incorporated into many Space Camp programs. Space Camp hosts nearly 25,000 students and 500 educators each year, vastly improving EarthKAM exposure. Future concepts currently in development include the ability to collect new data products such as night-time and near-infrared imagery, additional science curricula in the form of focused lesson plans and image applications, and a redesigned graphical user interface for requesting photos. The EarthKAM project, a NASA educational outreach program, is currently managed by the US Space and Rocket Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and Teledyne Brown Engineering, Inc.

  11. Oversight of Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae). Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Hearings concerning the activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) are presented. Attention is focused on a request for an exemption under federal priority for recovering money owed the Association in the event that it files for liquidation or reorganization in the future under the Bankruptcy Act. It is noted that two goals…

  12. Hearing on the Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1965; Sallie Mae--Safety and Soundness. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education.

    As part of a series of hearings on the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1965, testimony was heard on the safety and soundness of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae). Witnesses discussed many issues surrounding financial oversight of federal agencies and financial risk to the taxpayer through the potential failure of…

  13. Operation: Save Aunt Sally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorin, Barbara; Carver, David, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In grade 6, students should be able to "perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order" (p. 44). In grades 7 and 8, the rules of order of operations are used to simplify progressively complicated expressions and in…

  14. Sally and the Universarium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shann, Steve

    2014-01-01

    English teachers encourage the view that the imagination helps us understand, and engage with, the world. However, we don't often write fiction as a means of knowing and a way of telling. This short story emerged out of my experience as an English teacher, trying to make sense of the nature of my subject, and out of my reading of others' attempts…

  15. Operation: Save Aunt Sally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorin, Barbara; Carver, David, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In grade 6, students should be able to "perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order" (p. 44). In grades 7 and 8, the rules of order of operations are used to simplify progressively complicated expressions and in…

  16. Privatization of Sallie Mae and Connie Lee. Hearing on Examining Proposed Legislation To Allow for an Orderly Transition of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) to Private Status...and a Proposal to Privatize the College Construction Loan Insurance Association (Connie Lee) before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The Subcommittee heard testimony from seven witnesses and statements from three senators on whether or not it is in the Federal Government's best interest to divest itself of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae), and the College Construction Loan Insurance Association (Connie Lee). Lawrence A. Hough of the Student Loan Marketing…

  17. Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant Stephen L. Howard Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Wayne A. Churaman Sensors and... Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant by Stephen L. Howard, Wayne A. Churaman, and Luke J. Currano ARL-TR-6950 June 2014...2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant 5a

  18. Innovative Lending from Sallie Mae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arceneaux, William

    1984-01-01

    The growth of the Student Loan Marketing Association has brought with it new financial products and services, including use of secured lines of credit to fund individual institutions' loans to parents, the Parent Loans for Undergraduate Studies, loans to states, and expanded purchase and commitment options. (MSE)

  19. Treatment Plan Adherence for Your Child With JA

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juvenile Arthritis Camps Juvenile Arthritis Conference Resources JA Power Pack Educational Rights Kit JA Transition Toolkit Print ... Drevlow Family: Coping Through Community Tiffany Family Nora Powers: Taking Charge Jodi Van Emmerik: Happy Campers Bridget ...

  20. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA.

  1. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-11-24

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA.

  2. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA. PMID:27883040

  3. JA but not JA-Ile is the cell-nonautonomous signal activating JA mediated systemic defenses to herbivory in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Bozorov, Tohir A; Dinh, Son Truong; Baldwin, Ian T

    2017-08-01

    The whole-plant activation of defense responses to wounding and herbivory requires systemic signaling in which jasmonates (JAs) play a pivotal role. To examine the nature of the slower cell-nonautonomous as compared to the rapid cell-autonomous signal in mediating systemic defenses in Nicotiana attenuata, reciprocal stem grafting-experiments were used with plants silenced for the JA biosynthetic gene ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (irAOC) or plants transformed to create JA sinks by ectopically expressing Arabidopsis JA-O-methyltransferase (ovJMT). JA-impaired irAOC plants were defective in the cell-nonautonomous signaling pathway but not in JA transport. Conversely, ovJMT plants abrogated the production of a graft-transmissible JA signal. Both genotypes displayed unaltered cell-autonomous signaling. Defense responses (17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides, nicotine, and proteinase inhibitors) and metabolite profiles were differently induced in irAOC and ovJMT scions in response to graft-transmissible signals from elicited wild type stocks. The performance of Manduca sexta larvae on the scions of different graft combinations was consistent with the patterns of systemic defense metabolite elicitations. Taken together, we conclude that JA and possibly MeJA, but not JA-Ile, either directly functions as a long-distance transmissible signal or indirectly interacts with long distance signal(s) to activate systemic defense responses. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Endogenous Bioactive Jasmonate Is Composed of a Set of (+)-7-iso-JA-Amino Acid Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jianbin; Li, Suhua; Gu, Min; Yao, Ruifeng; Li, Yuwen; Chen, Juan; Yang, Mai; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Nan, Fajun; Xie, Daoxin

    2016-12-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) regulate a wide range of plant defense and development processes. The bioactive JA is perceived by its receptor COI1 to trigger the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and subsequently derepress the JAZ-repressed transcription factors for activation of expression of JA-responsive genes. So far, (+)-7-iso-JA-l-Ile has been the only identified endogenous bioactive JA molecule. Here, we designed coronafacic acid (CFA) conjugates with all the amino acids (CFA-AA) to mimic the JA amino acid conjugates, and revealed that (+)-7-iso-JA-Leu, (+)-7-iso-JA-Val, (+)-7-iso-JA-Met, and (+)-7-iso-JA-Ala are new endogenous bioactive JA molecules. Furthermore, our studies uncover the general characteristics for all the bioactive JA molecules, and provide a new strategy to synthetically generate novel active JA molecules.

  5. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers.

    PubMed

    Lulai, Edward; Huckle, Linda; Neubauer, Jonathan; Suttle, Jeffrey

    2011-06-15

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its role(s) in tuber wound-healing. In this study, the effects of wounding on JA content, expression of JA biosynthetic genes, and the involvement of JA in the initiation of closing layer formation in potato tubers were determined. In addition, the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in wound-induced JA accumulation was examined. The basal JA content in non-wounded tuber tissues was low (< 3 ng g⁻¹ FW). Two hours after wounding, the JA content increased by > 5-fold, reached a maximum between 4 and 6h after wounding, and declined to near-basal levels thereafter. Tuber age (storage duration) had little effect on the pattern of JA accumulation. The expressions of the JA biosynthetic genes (StAOS2, StAOC, and StOPR3) were greatly increased by wounding reaching a maximum 2-4 h after wounding and declining thereafter. A 1-h aqueous wash of tuber discs immediately after wounding resulted in a 94% inhibition of wound-induced JA accumulation. Neither JA treatment nor inhibition of JA accumulation affected suberin polyphenolic accumulation during closing layer development indicating that JA was not essential for the initiation of primary suberization. ABA treatment did not restore JA accumulation in washed tuber tissues suggesting that leaching of endogenous ABA was either not involved or not solely involved in this loss of JA accumulation by washing. Collectively, these results indicate that JA is not required for the induction of processes essential to the initiation of suberization during closing layer development, but do not exclude the possibility that JA may be involved in other wound related responses. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. RuBPCase activase mediates growth-defense tradeoffs: Silencing RCA redirects JA flux from JA-Ile to MeJA to attenuate induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sirsha; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary RuBPCase activase (RCA), an abundant photosynthetic protein is strongly down-regulated in response to Manduca sexta’s oral secretion (OS) in Nicotiana attenuata. RCA-silenced plants are impaired not only in photosynthetic capacity and growth, but also in jasmonic acid (JA)-isoleucine (Ile) signaling, and herbivore resistance mediated by JA-Ile dependent defense traits. These responses are consistent with a resource-based growth-defense trade-off. Since JA+Ile-supplementation of OS restored WT levels of JA-Ile, defenses and resistance to M. sexta, but OS supplemented individually with JA- or Ile did not, the JA-Ile deficiency of RCA-silenced plants could not be attributed to lower JA or Ile pools or JAR4/6 conjugating activity. Similar levels of JA-Ile derivatives after OS elicitation indicated unaltered JA-Ile turnover and lower levels of other JA-conjugates ruled out competition from other conjugation reactions. RCA-silenced plants accumulated more methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after OS elicitation, which corresponded with increased jasmonate methyltransferase (JMT) activity. RCA-silencing phenocopies JMT over-expression, wherein elevated JMT activity redirects OS-elicited JA flux towards inactive MeJA, creating a JA sink which depletes JA-Ile and its associated defense responses. Hence RCA plays an additional non-photosynthetic role in attenuating JA-mediated defenses and their associated costs potentially allowing plants to anticipate resource-based constraints on growth before they actually occur. PMID:24491116

  7. Sally's Corner: Coping with Unmarried Motherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presser, Harriet B.

    1980-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal survey of first parity, mostly Black mothers in New York City, examines the coping strategies of unmarried mothers. Analyzes the expansion of role responsibilities and support systems utilized and discusses the relationship between support systems and subsequent fertility. Presents three case studies. (Author/GC)

  8. The University of Jaén Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; García-Hernández, María T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a description and instrumental characterization of the photometric equipment of the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Jaén. The observatory hosts a 41 cm automated telescope inside a 4 m dome located at the university main campus, in the outskirts of the city of Jaén (Spain). This facility is used for educational, outreach and occasional scientific research on bright stellar objects. Despite the observatory location in a light polluted urban area, its performance for differential photometry studies has proven to be very acceptable. The discovery of the Be star LS I +5979 as a peculiar eclipsing binary system is so far the most relevant achievement.

  9. Increased SA in NPR1-silenced plants antagonizes JA and JA-dependent direct and indirect defenses in herbivore-attacked Nicotiana attenuata in nature.

    PubMed

    Rayapuram, Cbgowda; Baldwin, Ian T

    2007-11-01

    The phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is known to mediate herbivore resistance, while salicylic acid (SA) and non-expressor of PR-1 (NPR1) mediate pathogen resistance in many plants. Herbivore attack on Nicotiana attenuata elicits increases in JA and JA-mediated defenses, but also increases SA levels and Na-NPR1 transcripts from the plant's single genomic copy. SA treatment of wild-type plants increases Na-NPR1 and Na-PR1 transcripts. Plants silenced in NPR1 accumulation by RNAi (ir-npr1) are highly susceptible to herbivore and pathogen attack when planted in their native habitat in Utah. They are also impaired in their ability to attract Geocorus pallens predators, due to their decreased ability to release cis-alpha-bergamotene, a JA-elicited volatile 'alarm call'. In the glasshouse, Spodoptera exigua larvae grew better on ir-npr1 plants, which had low levels of JA, JA-isoleucine/leucine, lipoxygenase-3 (LOX3) transcripts and JA-elicited direct defense metabolites (nicotine, caffeoyl putrescine and rutin), but high levels of SA and isochorismate synthase (ICS) transcripts, suggesting de novo biosynthesis of SA. A microarray analysis revealed downregulation of many JA-elicited genes and upregulation of SA biosynthetic genes. JA treatment restored nicotine levels and resistance to S. exigua in ir-npr1 plants. We conclude that, during herbivore attack, NPR1 negatively regulates SA production, allowing the unfettered elicitation of JA-mediated defenses; when NPR1 is silenced, the elicited increases in SA production antagonize JA and JA-related defenses, making the plants susceptible to herbivores.

  10. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its ro...

  11. Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-02-15

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 μmol l(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °C for 6 days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Mitochondrial chaperone DnaJA3 induces Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Elwi, Adam N; Lee, Byoungchun; Meijndert, H Christopher; Braun, Janice E A; Kim, Sung-Woo

    2012-08-01

    Mitochondrial morphology is dynamic and controlled by coordinated fusion and fission pathways. The role of mitochondrial chaperones in mitochondrial morphological changes and pathology is currently unclear. Here we report that altered levels of DnaJA3 (Tid1/mtHsp40) a mitochondrial member of the DnaJ protein family, and heat shock protein (Hsp) co-chaperone of matrix 70 kDa Hsp70 (mtHsp70/mortalin/HSPA9), induces mitochondrial fragmentation. Suppression of DnaJA3 induced mitochondrial fragmentation in HeLa cells. Elevated levels of DnaJA3 in normal Hs68 fibroblast cells and HeLa, SKN-SH, U87 and U251 cancer cell lines induces mitochondrial fragmentation. Mitochondrial fragmentation induction was not observed in HeLa cells when other DnaJA family members, or mitochondrial DnaJ protein HSC20, were ectopically expressed, indicating that the effects on mitochondrial morphology were specific to DnaJA3. We show that the DnaJ domain (amino acids 88-168) of DnaJA3 is sufficient for the induction of mitochondrial fragmentation. Furthermore, an H121Q point mutation of the DnaJ domain, which abrogates interaction and activation of mtHsp70 ATPase, eliminates fragmentation induced by DnaJA3. This suggests that DnaJA3 interaction with mtHsp70 may be critical in mitochondrial morphological changes. DnaJA3-induced mitochondrial fragmentation was dependent on fission factor dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Ectopic expression of the mitofusins (Mfn1 and Mfn2), however, does not rescue DnaJA3-induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Lastly, elevated levels of DnaJA3 inducing mitochondrial fragmentation were associated with reduction in cell viability. Taken together, elevated DnaJA3 induces Drp1-depedendent mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased cell viability.

  13. Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity of two diastereomeric JA-Ile macrolactones.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Machado, Ricardo A R; Görls, Helmar; Baldwin, Ian T; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-06-07

    Jasmonates are phytohormones involved in a wide range of plant processes, including growth, development, senescence, and defense. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile, 2), an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA, 1), has been identified as a bioactive endogenous jasmonate. However, JA-Ile (2) analogues trigger different responses in the plant. ω-Hydroxylation of the pentenyl side chain leads to the inactive 12-OH-JA-Ile (3) acting as a “stop” signal. On the other hand, a lactone derivative of 12-OH-JA (5) (jasmine ketolactone, JKL) occurs in nature, although with no known biological function. Inspired by the chemical structure of JKL (6) and in order to further explore the potential biological activities of 12-modified JA-Ile derivatives, we synthesized two macrolactones (JA-Ile-lactones (4a) and (4b)) derived from 12-OH-JA-Ile (3). The biological activity of (4a) and (4b) was tested for their ability to elicit nicotine production, a well-known jasmonate dependent secondary metabolite. Both macrolactones showed strong biological activity, inducing nicotine accumulation to a similar extent as methyl jasmonate does in Nicotiana attenuata leaves. Surprisingly, the highest nicotine contents were found in plants treated with the JA-Ile-lactone (4b), which has (3S,7S) configuration at the cyclopentanone not known from natural jasmonates. Macrolactone (4a) is a valuable standard to explore for its occurrence in nature.

  14. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  15. Novel bioactive oxazolomycin isomers produced by Streptomyces albus JA3453.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, H; Wada, K; Nitoda, T; Kawazu, K

    1998-03-01

    Two novel oxazolomycin isomers, oxazolomycins B (2) and C (3), were isolated from the fermentation broth of an oxazolomycin-producing strain, Streptomyces albus JA3453. Both compounds are geometrical isomers of oxazolomycin (1), the configurations of their triene moieties being (4'E, 6'E, 8'E) (2) and (4'Z, 6'E, 8'E) (3) while that of oxazolomycin (1) is (4'Z, 6'Z, 8'E). Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against crown gall formation with the same MIC (0.8 microgram/disk) as oxazolomycin. Compounds 2 and 3 showed no antibacterial activity against Agrobacterium tumefaciens, in contrast to oxazolomycin which has specific anti-A. tumefaciens activity.

  16. Continuous Dust Formation in SNe 2010jl and 2011ja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafton, Kelsie; Clayton, Geoffrey; Andrews, Jennifer; Barlow, Michael; De Looze, Ilse

    2016-08-01

    Studies in the last 10 years of dust formation in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) have found only small amounts, ~0.001 solar masses. This is far less than the amount needed to account for the large masses of dust seen in some high redshift galaxies. However, the recent discovery of ~1 solar mass of cold dust in the ejecta of SN 1987A has has caused a complete re-evaluation of dust formation in CCSNe. It has been suggested that the CCSNe are continuously forming dust so that by the time they are about 25 years old they will have dust masses similar to SN 1987A. However, there is a wide time gap between the CCSNe that have been studied recently and SN 1987A. We plan to use the sensitivity of Spitzer to detect dust emission from CCSNe 5 or more years after explosion. Radiative transfer models will be used to estimate the dust masses. This proposal is to continue our study of two interesting SNe 2010jl and 2011ja. These observations are part of a long term study requiring multiple epochs of Spitzer observations to look for evidence of continuous dust formation. These observations will help shed light on the mystery of dust in SN 1987A.

  17. THE PROGENITOR OF SN 2011ja: CLUES FROM CIRCUMSTELLAR INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Ray, Alak; Yadav, Naveen; Smith, Randall; Ryder, Stuart; Sutaria, Firoza; Dwarkadas, Vikram V.; Chandra, Poonam; Pooley, David; Roy, Rupak

    2013-09-01

    Massive stars, possibly red supergiants, which retain extended hydrogen envelopes until core collapse, produce Type II plateau (IIP) supernovae. The ejecta from these explosions shocks the circumstellar matter originating from the mass loss of the progenitor during the final phases of its life. This interaction accelerates particles to relativistic energies which then lose energy via synchrotron radiation in the shock-amplified magnetic fields and inverse Compton scattering against optical photons from the supernova. These processes produce different signatures in the radio and X-ray parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Observed together, they allow us to break the degeneracy between shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification. In this work, we use X-rays observations from the Chandra and radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array to study the relative importance of processes which accelerate particles and those which amplify magnetic fields in producing the non-thermal radiation from SN 2011ja. We use radio observations to constrain the explosion date. Multiple Chandra observations allow us to probe the history of variable mass loss from the progenitor. The ejecta expands into a low-density bubble followed by interaction with a higher density wind from a red supergiant consistent with M{sub ZAMS} {approx}> 12 M{sub Sun }. Our results suggest that a fraction of Type IIP supernovae may interact with circumstellar media set up by non-steady winds.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut James Lovell makes the opening remarks at the induction ceremony of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Being inducted are Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut James Lovell makes the opening remarks at the induction ceremony of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Being inducted are Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, past and present recipients of college scholarships awarded by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation stand up to be recognized by the audience. The occasion was the induction ceremony of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame, including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. The Foundation awards 17 scholarships annually, each worth $8,500, to students interested in studying science and engineering. Since 1984, more than $1.7 million in scholarship funds have been awarded.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, past and present recipients of college scholarships awarded by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation stand up to be recognized by the audience. The occasion was the induction ceremony of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame, including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. The Foundation awards 17 scholarships annually, each worth $8,500, to students interested in studying science and engineering. Since 1984, more than $1.7 million in scholarship funds have been awarded.

  20. Mutations in jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine-12-hydroxylases suppress multiple JA-dependent wound responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Arati N; Zhang, Tong; Kwasniewski, Misha; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki; Koo, Abraham J

    2016-09-01

    Plants rapidly perceive tissue damage, such as that inflicted by insects, and activate several key defense responses. The importance of the fatty acid-derived hormone jasmonates (JA) in dictating these wound responses has been recognized for many years. However, important features pertaining to the regulation of the JA pathway are still not well understood. One key unknown is the inactivation mechanism of the JA pathway and its relationship with plant response to wounding. Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 enzymes in the CYP94 clade metabolize jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), a major metabolite of JA responsible for many biological effects attributed to the JA signaling pathway; thus, CYP94s are expected to contribute to the attenuation of JA-Ile-dependent wound responses. To directly test this, we created the double and triple knock-out mutants of three CYP94 genes, CYP94B1, CYP94B3, and CYP94C1. The mutations blocked the oxidation steps and caused JA-Ile to accumulate 3-4-fold the WT levels in the wounded leaves. Surprisingly, over accumulation of JA-Ile did not lead to a stronger wound response. On the contrary, the mutants displayed a series of symptoms reminiscent of JA-Ile deficiency, including resistance to wound-induced growth inhibition, decreased anthocyanin and trichomes, and increased susceptibility to insects. The mutants, however, responded normally to exogenous JA treatments, indicating that JA perception or signaling pathways were intact. Untargeted metabolite analyses revealed >40% reduction in wound-inducible metabolites in the mutants. These observations raise questions about the current JA signaling model and point toward a more complex model perhaps involving JA derivatives and/or feedback mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Update from the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM).

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) was established in 2005 to promote the use of alternatives to animal testing in regulatory studies, thereby replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, according to the Three Rs principles. JaCVAM assesses the utility, limitations and suitability for use in regulatory studies, of test methods needed to determine the safety of chemicals and other materials. JaCVAM also organises and performs validation studies of new test methods, when necessary. In addition, JaCVAM co-operates and collaborates with similar organisations in related fields, both in Japan and internationally, which also enables JaCVAM to provide input during the establishment of guidelines for new alternative experimental methods. These activities help facilitate application and approval processes for the manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, pesticides, and other products, as well as for revisions to standards for cosmetic products. In this manner, JaCVAM plays a leadership role in the introduction of new alternative experimental methods for regulatory acceptance in Japan.

  2. Shared binding sites in Lepidoptera for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins.

    PubMed

    Herrero, S; González-Cabrera, J; Tabashnik, B E; Ferré, J

    2001-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxins act by binding to specific target sites in the insect midgut epithelial membrane. The best-known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is reduced binding to target sites. Because alteration of a binding site shared by several toxins may cause resistance to all of them, knowledge of which toxins share binding sites is useful for predicting cross-resistance. Conversely, cross-resistance among toxins suggests that the toxins share a binding site. At least two strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with resistance to Cry1A toxins and reduced binding of Cry1A toxins have strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ja. Thus, we hypothesized that Cry1Ja shares binding sites with Cry1A toxins. We tested this hypothesis in six moth and butterfly species, each from a different family: Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae), Lobesia botrana (Tortricidae), Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae), P. xylostella (Plutellidae), and Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae). Although the extent of competition varied among species, experiments with biotinylated Cry1Ja and radiolabeled Cry1Ac showed that Cry1Ja and Cry1Ac competed for binding sites in all six species. A recent report also indicates shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins in Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). Thus, shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A occur in all lepidopteran species tested so far.

  3. Expression of a Flax Allene Oxide Synthase cDNA Leads to Increased Endogenous Jasmonic Acid (JA) Levels in Transgenic Potato Plants but Not to a Corresponding Activation of JA-Responding Genes.

    PubMed Central

    Harms, K.; Atzorn, R.; Brash, A.; Kuhn, H.; Wasternack, C.; Willmitzer, L.; Pena-Cortes, H.

    1995-01-01

    Both jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are thought to be significant components of the signaling pathway regulating the expression of plant defense genes in response to various stresses. JA and MeJA are plant lipid derivatives synthesized from [alpha]-linolenic acid by a lipoxygenase-mediated oxygenation leading to 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid, which is subsequently transformed by the action of allene oxide synthase (AOS) and additional modification steps. AOS converts lipoxygenase-derived fatty acid hydroperoxide to allene epoxide, which is the precursor for JA formation. Overexpression of flax AOS cDNA under the regulation of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic potato plants led to an increase in the endogenous level of JA. Transgenic plants had six- to 12-fold higher levels of JA than the nontransformed plants. Increased levels of JA have been observed when potato and tomato plants are mechanically wounded. Under these conditions, the proteinase inhibitor II (pin2) genes are expressed in the leaves. Despite the fact that the transgenic plants had levels of JA similar to those found in nontransgenic wounded plants, pin2 genes were not constitutively expressed in the leaves of these plants. Transgenic plants with increased levels of JA did not show changes in water state or in the expression of water stress-responsive genes. Furthermore, the transgenic plants overexpressing the flax AOS gene, and containing elevated levels of JA, responded to wounding or water stress by a further increase in JA and by activating the expression of either wound- or water stress-inducible genes. Protein gel blot analysis demonstrated that the flax-derived AOS protein accumulated in the chloroplasts of the transgenic plants. PMID:12242357

  4. Optimal functional levels of activation-induced deaminase specifically require the Hsp40 DnaJa1

    PubMed Central

    Orthwein, Alexandre; Zahn, Astrid; Methot, Stephen P; Godin, David; Conticello, Silvestro G; Terada, Kazutoyo; Di Noia, Javier M

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID) deaminates deoxycytidine at the immunoglobulin genes, thereby initiating antibody affinity maturation and isotype class switching during immune responses. In contrast, off-target DNA damage caused by AID is oncogenic. Central to balancing immunity and cancer is AID regulation, including the mechanisms determining AID protein levels. We describe a specific functional interaction between AID and the Hsp40 DnaJa1, which provides insight into the function of both proteins. Although both major cytoplasmic type I Hsp40s, DnaJa1 and DnaJa2, are induced upon B-cell activation and interact with AID in vitro, only DnaJa1 overexpression increases AID levels and biological activity in cell lines. Conversely, DnaJa1, but not DnaJa2, depletion reduces AID levels, stability and isotype switching. In vivo, DnaJa1-deficient mice display compromised response to immunization, AID protein and isotype switching levels being reduced by half. Moreover, DnaJa1 farnesylation is required to maintain, and farnesyltransferase inhibition reduces, AID protein levels in B cells. Thus, DnaJa1 is a limiting factor that plays a non-redundant role in the functional stabilization of AID. PMID:22085931

  5. A balanced JA/ABA status may correlate with adaptation to osmotic stress in Vitis cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed; Seo, Mitsunori; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Water-related stress is considered a major type of plant stress. Osmotic stress, in particular, represents the common part of all water-related stresses. Therefore, plants have evolved different adaptive mechanisms to cope with osmotic-related disturbances. In the current work, two grapevine cell lines that differ in their osmotic adaptability, Vitis rupestris and Vitis riparia, were investigated under mannitol-induced osmotic stress. To dissect signals that lead to adaptability from those related to sensitivity, osmotic-triggered responses with respect to jasmonic acid (JA) and its active form JA-Ile, abscisic acid (ABA), and stilbene compounds, as well as the expression of their related genes were observed. In addition, the transcript levels of the cellular homeostasis gene NHX1 were examined. The data are discussed with a hypothesis suggesting that a balance of JA and ABA status might correlate with cellular responses, either guiding cells to sensitivity or to progress toward adaptation.

  6. Dermal sensitization potential of ja-2 solid propellant in guinea pigs. Report for 4 April-9 May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.M.; Brown, L.D.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-11-01

    JA-2 Solid Propellant was evaluated for its potential to produce dermal sensitization in male guinea pigs. The Buehler test, which utilizes repeated closed patch inductions with the test compound, was used for this evaluation. No evidence that JA-2 Solid Propellant induced sensitization was obtained in the study.

  7. Hispanos en la EPA: Sally Gutiérrez

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La diversidad de la fuerza laboral es importante para la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés). Los empleados hispanos de la EPA contribuyen diariamente hacia la protección de la salud y el medio ambiente.

  8. Integrated metabolomic and proteomic analysis reveals systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Prasuna, M Lakshmi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch Venkata

    2015-02-06

    Aromatic amines are widely distributed in the environment and are major environmental pollutants. Although degradation of aromatic amines is well studied in bacteria, physiological adaptations and stress response to these toxic compounds is not yet fully understood. In the present study, systemic responses of Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 to aniline stress were deciphered using metabolite and iTRAQ-labeled protein profiling. Strain JA2 tolerated high concentrations of aniline (30 mM) with trace amounts of aniline being transformed to acetanilide. GC-MS metabolite profiling revealed aniline stress phenotype wherein amino acid, carbohydrate, fatty acid, nitrogen metabolisms, and TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) were modulated. Strain JA2 responded to aniline by remodeling the proteome, and cellular functions, such as signaling, transcription, translation, stress tolerance, transport and carbohydrate metabolism, were highly modulated. Key adaptive responses, such as transcription/translational changes, molecular chaperones to control protein folding, and efflux pumps implicated in solvent extrusion, were induced in response to aniline stress. Proteo-metabolomics indicated extensive rewiring of metabolism to aniline. TCA cycle and amino acid catabolism were down-regulated while gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways were up-regulated, leading to the synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, increased saturated fatty acid ratios in membranes due to aniline stress suggest membrane adaptation. The present study thus indicates that strain JA2 employs multilayered responses: stress response, toxic compound tolerance, energy conservation, and metabolic rearrangements to aniline.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Li, Yan; Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis.

  10. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  11. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  12. Physiological Characteristics and Production of Folic Acid of Lactobacillus plantarum JA71 Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid, one of the B group of vitamins, is an essential substance for maintaining the functions of the nervous system, and is also known to decrease the level of homocysteine in plasma. Homocysteine influences the lowering of the cognitive function in humans, and especially in elderly people. In order to determine the strains with a strong capacity to produce folic acid, 190 bacteria were isolated from various kinds of jeotgal and chungkuk-jang. In our test experiment, JA71 was found to contain 9.03μg/mL of folic acid after 24 h of incubation in an MRS broth. This showed that JA71 has the highest folic acid production ability compared to the other lactic acid bacteria that were isolated. JA71 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by the result of API carbohydrate fermentation pattern and 16s rDNA sequence. JA71 was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of JA71 was 37℃, and the cultures took 12 h to reach pH 4.4. JA71 proved more sensitive to bacitracin when compared with fifteen different antibiotics, and showed most resistance to neomycin and vancomycin. Moreover, it was comparatively tolerant of bile juice and acid, and displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus with restraint rates of 60.4%, 96.7%, and 76.2%, respectively. These results demonstrate that JA71 could be an excellent strain for application to functional products. PMID:26760752

  13. New Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony (JA-ABC5) Algorithm with Application for Reactive Power Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The standard artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm involves exploration and exploitation processes which need to be balanced for enhanced performance. This paper proposes a new modified ABC algorithm named JA-ABC5 to enhance convergence speed and improve the ability to reach the global optimum by balancing exploration and exploitation processes. New stages have been proposed at the earlier stages of the algorithm to increase the exploitation process. Besides that, modified mutation equations have also been introduced in the employed and onlooker-bees phases to balance the two processes. The performance of JA-ABC5 has been analyzed on 27 commonly used benchmark functions and tested to optimize the reactive power optimization problem. The performance results have clearly shown that the newly proposed algorithm has outperformed other compared algorithms in terms of convergence speed and global optimum achievement. PMID:25879054

  14. Aniline is an inducer, and not a precursor, for indole derivatives in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Mohammed; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-01-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 and other anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria produce indole derivatives when exposed to aniline, a xenobiotic compound. Though this phenomenon has been reported previously, the role of aniline in the production of indoles is still a biochemical riddle. The present study aims at understanding the specific role of aniline (as precursor or stimulator) in the production of indoles and elucidating the biochemical pathway of indoles in aniline-exposed cells by using stable isotope approaches. Metabolic profiling revealed tryptophan accumulation only in aniline exposed cells along with indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-aldehyde (IAld), the two major catabolites of tryptophan. Deuterium labelled aniline feeding studies revealed that aniline is not a precursor of indoles in strain JA2. Further, production of indoles only in aniline-exposed cells suggests that aniline is an indoles stimulator. In addition, production of indoles depended on the presence of a carbon source, and production enhanced when carbon sources were added to the culture. Isotope labelled fumarate feeding identified, fumarate as the precursor of indole, indicating de novo synthesis of indoles. Glyphosate (shikimate pathway inhibitor) inhibited the indoles production, accumulation of tryptophan, IAA and IAld indicating that indoles synthesis in strain JA2 occurs via the de novo shikimate pathway. The up-regulation of anthranilate synthase gene and induction of anthranilate synthase activity correlated well with tryptophan production in strain JA2. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activities corroborated well with IAA levels, suggesting that tryptophan catabolism occurs simultaneously in aniline exposed cells. Our study demonstrates that aniline (stress) stimulates tryptophan/indoles synthesis via the shikimate pathway by possibly modulating the metabolic pathway.

  15. Aniline Is an Inducer, and Not a Precursor, for Indole Derivatives in Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mujahid; Ch, Sasikala; Ch, Ramana V.

    2014-01-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 and other anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria produce indole derivatives when exposed to aniline, a xenobiotic compound. Though this phenomenon has been reported previously, the role of aniline in the production of indoles is still a biochemical riddle. The present study aims at understanding the specific role of aniline (as precursor or stimulator) in the production of indoles and elucidating the biochemical pathway of indoles in aniline-exposed cells by using stable isotope approaches. Metabolic profiling revealed tryptophan accumulation only in aniline exposed cells along with indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole 3-aldehyde (IAld), the two major catabolites of tryptophan. Deuterium labelled aniline feeding studies revealed that aniline is not a precursor of indoles in strain JA2. Further, production of indoles only in aniline-exposed cells suggests that aniline is an indoles stimulator. In addition, production of indoles depended on the presence of a carbon source, and production enhanced when carbon sources were added to the culture. Isotope labelled fumarate feeding identified, fumarate as the precursor of indole, indicating de novo synthesis of indoles. Glyphosate (shikimate pathway inhibitor) inhibited the indoles production, accumulation of tryptophan, IAA and IAld indicating that indoles synthesis in strain JA2 occurs via the de novo shikimate pathway. The up-regulation of anthranilate synthase gene and induction of anthranilate synthase activity correlated well with tryptophan production in strain JA2. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase activities corroborated well with IAA levels, suggesting that tryptophan catabolism occurs simultaneously in aniline exposed cells. Our study demonstrates that aniline (stress) stimulates tryptophan/indoles synthesis via the shikimate pathway by possibly modulating the metabolic pathway. PMID:24533057

  16. Resistance of Fusarium poae in Arabidopsis leaves requires mainly functional JA and ET signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Dinolfo, María Inés; Castañares, Eliana; Stenglein, Sebastián A

    2017-10-01

    Fusarium poae has been considered as a minor species among those that cause the FHB disease but in recent years several researchers have documented a high frequency of occurrence in several crops. We evaluated the ability of F. poae to produce symptoms in A. thaliana leaves. Moreover, we analyzed the defense of A. thaliana against F. poae using SA, JA, and ET mutants and we monitored the expression level of genes involved in the main signaling pathways related to plant defense. Symptoms were observed in the inoculated leaves demonstrating the ability of F. poae to infect A. thaliana leaves. Moreover, the npr1-1 mutants presented low symptoms compared to Col-0, etr2-1, and coi1-1 and that the coi1-1 mutant was the most susceptible genotypes followed by etr2-1 genotypes. The RT-PCR revealed that PDF1.2, CHI/PR3, and ERF1, three important JA-ET responsive genes and NPR1 and PR1, which are regulated by SA signaling, were expressed upon F. poae inoculation. Our results suggest that JA and ET could play a key role in Arabidopsis leaves defense against F. poae representing the first evaluation of the response of the main A. thaliana phytohormones involved in plant defense in the presence of F. poae. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  18. High-Rate Mechanical Properties of JA2 Propellant at Temperatures from -50 to 80 deg C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Proving Ground (MD): Army Research Laboratory (US); 2005 Jul. Report No.: ARL-TR-3546. 11. Hoffman HJ. Uniaxial compressive gun propellant test. In: Solid ...ARL-MR-0894 ● JULY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory High-Rate Mechanical Properties of JA2 Propellant at Temperatures from –50...Research Laboratory High-Rate Mechanical Properties of JA2 Propellant at Temperatures from –50 to 80 °C by Stephen L Howard, Michael G Leadore

  19. The crosstalk between Target of Rapamycin (TOR) and Jasmonic Acid (JA) signaling existing in Arabidopsis and cotton

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun; Zhao, Ge; Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Linxuan; Xiong, Fangjie; Zhuo, Fengping; Zhang, Chaojun; Yang, Zuoren; Datla, Raju; Ren, Maozhi; Li, Fuguang

    2017-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) acts as an important regulator of cell growth, development and stress responses in most examined diploid eukaryotes. However, little is known about TOR in tetraploid species such as cotton. Here, we show that TORC1-S6K-RPS6, the major signaling components, are conserved and further expanded in cotton genome. Though the cotton seedlings are insensitive to rapamycin, AZD8055, the second-generation inhibitor of TOR, can significantly suppress the growth in cotton. Global transcriptome analysis revealed that genes associated with jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and transduction were significantly altered in AZD8055 treated cotton seedlings, suggesting the potential crosstalk between TOR and JA signaling. Pharmacological and genetic approaches have been employed to get further insights into the molecular mechanism of the crosstalk between TOR and JA. Combination of AZD8055 with methyl jasmonate can synergistically inhibit cotton growth, and additionally JA levels were significantly increased when cotton seedlings were subjected to AZD8055. JA biosynthetic and signaling mutants including jar1, coi1-2 and myc2-2 displayed TOR inhibitor-resistant phenotypes, whereas COI1 overexpression transgenic lines and jaz10 exhibited sensitivity to AZD8055. Consistently, cotton JAZ can partially rescue TOR-suppressed phenotypes in Arabidopsis. These evidences revealed that the crosstalk between TOR and JA pathway operates in cotton and Arabidopsis. PMID:28374843

  20. The crosstalk between Target of Rapamycin (TOR) and Jasmonic Acid (JA) signaling existing in Arabidopsis and cotton.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun; Zhao, Ge; Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Linxuan; Xiong, Fangjie; Zhuo, Fengping; Zhang, Chaojun; Yang, Zuoren; Datla, Raju; Ren, Maozhi; Li, Fuguang

    2017-04-04

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) acts as an important regulator of cell growth, development and stress responses in most examined diploid eukaryotes. However, little is known about TOR in tetraploid species such as cotton. Here, we show that TORC1-S6K-RPS6, the major signaling components, are conserved and further expanded in cotton genome. Though the cotton seedlings are insensitive to rapamycin, AZD8055, the second-generation inhibitor of TOR, can significantly suppress the growth in cotton. Global transcriptome analysis revealed that genes associated with jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and transduction were significantly altered in AZD8055 treated cotton seedlings, suggesting the potential crosstalk between TOR and JA signaling. Pharmacological and genetic approaches have been employed to get further insights into the molecular mechanism of the crosstalk between TOR and JA. Combination of AZD8055 with methyl jasmonate can synergistically inhibit cotton growth, and additionally JA levels were significantly increased when cotton seedlings were subjected to AZD8055. JA biosynthetic and signaling mutants including jar1, coi1-2 and myc2-2 displayed TOR inhibitor-resistant phenotypes, whereas COI1 overexpression transgenic lines and jaz10 exhibited sensitivity to AZD8055. Consistently, cotton JAZ can partially rescue TOR-suppressed phenotypes in Arabidopsis. These evidences revealed that the crosstalk between TOR and JA pathway operates in cotton and Arabidopsis.

  1. Differential Expression of Carotenogenic Genes, Associated Changes on Astaxanthin Production and Photosynthesis Features Induced by JA in H. pluvialis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Zhao, Yuefeng; Wang, Yitao; Lv, Hongxin; Liming Yang; Chen, Lingling; Ye, Naihao

    2012-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an organism that under certain conditions can produce astaxanthin, an economically important carotenoid. In this study, the transcriptional expression patterns of eight carotenogenic genes of H. pluvialis in response to jasmonic acid (JA) were evaluated using real-time PCR. Astaxanthin accumulation action and photosynthesis flourescence were monitored at the same time. The results showed all eight genes exhibited higher transcriptional expression significantly under JA treatments. JA25 (25 mg/L) induction had greater effect (>10-fold up-regulation) on the transcriptional expression of pds, crtR-B and lyc than on ipi-1, ipi-2, psy, bkt2, and crtO. JA50 (50 mg/L) treatment had greater impact on the transcriptional expression of ipi-1, ipi-2, psy, crtR-B and crtO than on pds, lyc and bkt2. Astaxanthin biosynthesis in the presence of JA appeared to be up-regulated mainly by psy, pds, crtR-B, lyc, bkt2 and crtO at the transcriptional level and ipi-1, ipi-2 at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Under JA induction, the photosynthetic efficiency [Y (II)] and the maximum quantum efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) decreased significantly, but the non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (NPQ) increased drastically with the accumulation of astaxanthin. PMID:22870309

  2. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants via salicylic acid pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Ming; Yue, Meng-Meng; Yang, Dong-Yue; Zhu, Shao-Bo; Ma, Na-Na; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of SA, which resulted in significant physiological and gene expression changes in transgenic tobacco plants, leading to the decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco. NAC family, the largest transcription factors in plants, responses to different environmental stimuli. Here, we isolated a typical NAC transcription factor (SlJA2) from tomato and got transgenic tobacco with SlJA2 over-expression. Expression of SlJA2 was induced by heat stress (42 °C), chilling stress (4 °C), drought stress, osmotic stress, abscisic acid, and salicylic acid. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of salicylic acid by regulating expression of salicylic acid degradation gene under heat stress. Compared to WT plants, stomatal apertures and water loss increased in transgenic plants, and the damage of photosynthetic apparatus and chlorophyll breakdown were more serious in transgenic plants under heat stress. Meanwhile, more H2O2 and O2(·-) were accumulated transgenic plants and proline synthesis was restricted, which resulted in more serious oxidative damage compared to WT. qRT-PCR analysis showed that over-expression of SlJA2 could down-regulate genes involved in reactive oxygen species scavenging, proline biosynthesis, and response to heat stress. All the above results indicated that SlJA2 may be a negative regulator responded to plant's heat tolerance. Thus, this study provides new insight into roles of NAC family member in plant response to abiotic stress.

  3. Priming for JA-dependent defenses using hexanoic acid is an effective mechanism to protect Arabidopsis against B. cinerea.

    PubMed

    Kravchuk, Zhana; Vicedo, Begonya; Flors, Víctor; Camañes, Gemma; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2011-03-01

    Soil drench treatments with hexanoic acid can effectively protect Arabidopsis plants against Botrytis cinerea through a mechanism based on a stronger and faster accumulation of JA-dependent defenses. Plants impaired in ethylene, salicylic acid, abscisic acid or glutathion pathways showed intact protection by hexanoic acid upon B. cinerea infection. Accordingly, no significant changes in the SA marker gene PR-1 in either the SA or ABA hormone balance were observed in the infected and treated plants. In contrast, the JA signaling pathway showed dramatic changes after hexanoic acid treatment, mainly when the pathogen was present. The impaired JA mutants, jin1-2 and jar1, were unable to display hexanoic acid priming against the necrotroph. In addition, hexanoic acid-treated plants infected with B. cinerea showed priming in the expression of the PDF1.2, PR-4 and VSP1 genes implicated in the JA pathways. Moreover, JA and OPDA levels were primed at early stages by hexanoic acid. Treatments also stimulated increased callose accumulation in response to the pathogen. Although callose accumulation has proved an effective IR mechanism against B. cinerea, it is apparently not essential to express hexanoic acid-induced resistance (HxAc-IR) because the mutant pmr4.1 (callose synthesis defective mutant) is protected by treatment. We recently described how hexanoic acid treatments can protect tomato plants against B. cinerea by stimulating ABA-dependent callose deposition and by priming OPDA and JA-Ile production. We clearly demonstrate here that Hx-IR is a dependent plant species, since this acid protects Arabidopsis plants against the same necrotroph by priming JA-dependent defenses without enhancing callose accumulation.

  4. Rice Rab11 is required for JA-mediated defense signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Min Ji; Lee, Yun mi; Son, Young Sim; Im, Chak Han; Yi, Young Byung; Rim, Yeong Gil; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Heo, Jae Bok

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •OsRab11 interacts with OsOPR8. •OsOPR8 is localized in the cytosol and peroxisome. •OsRab11 enhances the NADPH consumption by OsOPR8. •Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing OsRab11 represents a pathogen-resistant phenotype. -- Abstract: Rab proteins play an essential role in regulating vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Previously, we characterized OsRab11, which in concert with OsGAP1 and OsGDI3 regulates vesicular trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane or vacuole. To further elucidate the physiological function of OsRab11 in plants, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using OsRab11 as bait. OsOPR8 was isolated and shown to interact with OsRab11. A co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed this interaction. The green fluorescent protein-OsOPR8 fusion product was targeted to the cytoplasm and peroxisomes of protoplasts from Arabidopsis thaliana. OsOPR8 exhibited NADPH-dependent reduction activity when 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CyHE) and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) were supplied as possible substrates. Interestingly, NADPH oxidation by OsOPR8 was increased when wild-type OsRab11 or the constitutively active form of OsRab11 (Q78L) were included in the reaction mix, but not when the dominant negative form of OsRab11 (S28N) was included. OsRab11 was expressed broadly in plants and both OsRab11 and OsOPR8 were induced by jasmonic acid (JA) and elicitor treatments. Overexpressed OsRab11 transgenic plants showed resistance to pathogens through induced expression of JA-responsive genes. In conclusion, OsRab11 may be required for JA-mediated defense signaling by activating the reducing activity of OsOPR8.

  5. Visualization and Measurement of the Deflagration of Metal-Foil Bounded JA2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    ARL‐TR‐7322 ● JUNE 2015          US Army Research Laboratory      Visualization and  Measurement  of the  Deflagration of Metal‐Foil Bounded...Visualization and  Measurement  of the  Deflagration of Metal‐Foil Bounded JA2    John J Ritter and Anthony Canami  Weapons and Materials Research...

  6. MAPK-dependent JA and SA signalling in Nicotiana attenuata affects plant growth and fitness during competition with conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Meldau, Stefan; Ullman-Zeunert, Lynn; Govind, Geetha; Bartram, Stefan; Baldwin, Ian T

    2012-11-13

    Induced defense responses to herbivores are generally believed to have evolved as cost-saving strategies that defer the fitness costs of defense metabolism until these defenses are needed. The fitness costs of jasmonate (JA)-mediated defenses have been well documented. Those of the early signaling units mediating induced resistance to herbivores have yet to be examined. Early signaling components that mediate herbivore-induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata, have been well characterized and here we examine their growth and fitness costs during competition with conspecifics. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK) are rapidly activated after perception of herbivory and both kinases regulate herbivory-induced JA levels and JA-mediated defense metabolite accumulations. Since JA-induced defenses result in resource-based trade-offs that compromise plant productivity, we evaluated if silencing SIPK (irSIPK) and WIPK (irWIPK) benefits the growth and fitness of plants competiting with wild type (WT) plants, as has been shown for plants silenced in JA-signaling by the reduction of Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3) levels. As expected, irWIPK and LOX3-silenced plants out-performed their competing WT plants. Surprisingly, irSIPK plants, which have the largest reductions in JA signaling, did not. Phytohormone profiling of leaves revealed that irSIPK plants accumulated higher levels of SA compared to WT. To test the hypothesis that these high levels of SA, and their presumed associated fitness costs of pathogen associated defenses in irSIPK plants had nullified the JA-deficiency-mediated growth benefits in these plants, we genetically reduced SA levels in irSIPK plants. Reducing SA levels partially recovered the biomass and fitness deficits of irSIPK plants. We also evaluated whether the increased fitness of plants with reduced SA or JA levels resulted from increased nitrogen or CO

  7. MAPK-dependent JA and SA signalling in Nicotiana attenuata affects plant growth and fitness during competition with conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Induced defense responses to herbivores are generally believed to have evolved as cost-saving strategies that defer the fitness costs of defense metabolism until these defenses are needed. The fitness costs of jasmonate (JA)-mediated defenses have been well documented. Those of the early signaling units mediating induced resistance to herbivores have yet to be examined. Early signaling components that mediate herbivore-induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata, have been well characterized and here we examine their growth and fitness costs during competition with conspecifics. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK) are rapidly activated after perception of herbivory and both kinases regulate herbivory-induced JA levels and JA-mediated defense metabolite accumulations. Since JA-induced defenses result in resource-based trade-offs that compromise plant productivity, we evaluated if silencing SIPK (irSIPK) and WIPK (irWIPK) benefits the growth and fitness of plants competiting with wild type (WT) plants, as has been shown for plants silenced in JA-signaling by the reduction of Lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3) levels. Results As expected, irWIPK and LOX3-silenced plants out-performed their competing WT plants. Surprisingly, irSIPK plants, which have the largest reductions in JA signaling, did not. Phytohormone profiling of leaves revealed that irSIPK plants accumulated higher levels of SA compared to WT. To test the hypothesis that these high levels of SA, and their presumed associated fitness costs of pathogen associated defenses in irSIPK plants had nullified the JA-deficiency-mediated growth benefits in these plants, we genetically reduced SA levels in irSIPK plants. Reducing SA levels partially recovered the biomass and fitness deficits of irSIPK plants. We also evaluated whether the increased fitness of plants with reduced SA or JA levels resulted from

  8. Carbon catabolite repression-independent and pH-dependent production of indoles by Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Md; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2013-10-01

    Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 produces indole derivatives (indoles) from aniline, anthranilate or L-tryptophan. Glucose repressed indole production in R. benzoatilyticus JA2, while malate had no effect. Growth of R. benzoatilyticus JA2 on glucose resulted in decrease in culture pH (6.4) compared with malate (8.4). Growth of R. benzoatilyticus JA2 on sugar carbon sources decreased culture pH (6.4-6.6) and indole production. Further, culture pH of 6.4 repressed the indole production, and pH 8.4 promoted the production irrespective of carbon sources used for growth. Moreover, correlation between indole production and culture pH was observed, where acidic pH inhibited indole production, while alkaline pH promoted the production, suggesting the role of pH in indole production. Tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme activities are significantly high in malate-grown cultures (pH 8.4) compared with that of the glucose (pH 6.4)-grown cultures and corroborated well with indole production, indicating their role in indole production. These results confirm that indole production in R. benzoatilyticus JA2 is pH dependent rather than carbon catabolite repression.

  9. OsJAR1 is required for JA-regulated floret opening and anther dehiscence in rice.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuguo; Chen, Yi; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Mulder, Patrick P J; Heijmans, Jeroen; Hoogenboom, Angela; Agalou, Adamantia; Michel, Corinne; Morel, Jean-Benoit; Dreni, Ludovico; Kater, Martin M; Bouwmeester, Harro; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Zhen; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F

    2014-09-01

    Jasmonates are important phytohormones regulating reproductive development. We used two recessive rice Tos17 alleles of OsJAR1, osjar1-2 and osjar1-3, to study the biological function of jasmonates in rice anthesis. The florets of both osjar1 alleles stayed open during anthesis because the lodicules, which control flower opening in rice, were not withering on time. Furthermore, dehiscence of the anthers filled with viable pollen, was impaired, resulting in lower fertility. In situ hybridization and promoter GUS transgenic analysis confirmed OsJAR1 expression in these floral tissues. Flower opening induced by exogenous applied methyl jasmonate was impaired in osjar1 plants and was restored in a complementation experiment with transgenics expressing a wild type copy of OsJAR1 controlled by a rice actin promoter. Biochemical analysis showed that OsJAR1 encoded an enzyme conjugating jasmonic acid (JA) to at least Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp and Val and both osjar1 alleles had substantial reduction in content of JA-Ile, JA-Leu and JA-Val in florets. We conclude that OsJAR1 is a JA-amino acid synthetase that is required for optimal flower opening and closing and anther dehiscence in rice.

  10. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress.

  11. Draft genome sequence of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643T with special reference to hopanoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tushar, L; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-12-01

    Hopanoids are present in vast amounts as integral components of bacteria and plants with their primary function to strengthen rigidity of the plasma membrane. To establish their roles more precisely, we conducted sequencing of the whole genome of Rhodomicrobium udaipurense JA643(T) isolated from a fresh water stream of Udaipur in Himachal Pradesh, India, by using the Illumina HiSeq pair end chemistry of 2 × 100 bp platform. Determined genome showed a high degree of similarity to the genome of R. vannielii ATCC17100(T) and the 13.7 million reads generated a sequence of 3,649,277 bp possessing 3,611 putative genes. The genomic data were subsequently investigated with respect to genes involved in various features. The machinery required for the degradation of aromatic compounds and resistance to solvents as well as all that required for photosynthesis are present in this organism. Also, through extensive functional annotation, 18 genes involved in the biosynthesis of hopanoids are predicted, namely those responsible for the synthesis of diploptene, diplopterol, adenosylhopane, ribosylhopane, aminobacteriohopanetriol, glycosyl group containing hopanoids and unsaturated hopanoids. The hopanoid biosynthetic pathway was then inferred based on the genes identified and through experimental validation of individual hopanoid molecules. The genome data of R. udaipurense JA643(T) will be useful in understanding the functional features of hopanoids in this bacterium.

  12. Early dust formation and a massive progenitor for SN 2011ja?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. E.; Krafton, Kelsie M.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Montiel, E.; Wesson, R.; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M.; Drass, H.

    2016-04-01

    SN 2011ja was a bright (I = -18.3) Type II supernova occurring in the nearby edge on spiral galaxy NGC 4945. Flat-topped and multipeaked H α and H β spectral emission lines appear between 64 and 84 d post-explosion, indicating interaction with a disc-like circumstellar medium inclined ˜45° from edge-on. After day 84, an increase in the H- and K-band flux along with heavy attenuation of the red wing of the emission lines are strong indications of early dust formation, likely located in the cool dense shell created between the forward shock of the SN ejecta and the reverse shock created as the ejecta plows into the existing circumstellar material. Radiative transfer modelling reveals both ≈1 × 10-5 M⊙ of pre-existing dust located ˜1016.7 cm away and up to ≈6 × 10-4 M⊙ of newly formed dust. Spectral observations after 1.5 yr reveal the possibility that the fading SN is located within a young (3-6 Myr) massive stellar cluster, which when combined with tentative 56Ni mass estimates of 0.2 M⊙ may indicate a massive (≥25 M⊙) progenitor for SN 2011ja.

  13. Kinetics and regulation of lactose transport and metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis JA6.

    PubMed

    Santos, A M; Silveira, W B; Fietto, L G; Brandão, R L; Castro, I M

    2014-07-01

    Kluyveromyces lactis strains are able to assimilate lactose. They have been used industrially to eliminate this sugar from cheese whey and in other industrial products. In this study, we investigated specific features and the kinetic parameters of the lactose transport system in K. lactis JA6. In lactose grown cells, lactose was transported by a system transport with a half-saturation constant (K s) of 1.49 ± 0.38 mM and a maximum velocity (V max) of 0.96 ± 0.12 mmol. (g dry weight)(-1) h(-1) for lactose. The transport system was constitutive and energy-dependent. Results obtained by different approaches showed that the lactose transport system was regulated by glucose at the transcriptional level and by glucose and other sugars at a post-translational level. In K. lactis JA6, galactose metabolization was under glucose control. These findings indicated that the regulation of lactose-galactose regulon in K. lactis was similar to the regulation of galactose regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  14. Acute oral toxicity of JA-2 solid propellant in icr mice. Report for 17 December 1985-17 January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, E.W.; Frost, D.F.; Wheller, C.R.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-12-01

    The acute oral toxicity of JA-2 Solid Propellant was determined in male and female ICR mice by using an oral gavage, split-dose method. The MLD was 3774.6 + or - 150.5 mg/kg for male mice and 3528.8 + or - 133.8 mg/kg for female mice. JA-2 produced component, diethyleneglycol dinitrate and nitroglycerin. These signs included tremors, inactivity, depression of reflexes, loss of equilibrium, opisthotonus, and increased respiratory activity. Other clinical signs observed were associated with the general malaise of the animals following dosing and included perianal staining, hunched posture, squinting, and rough coat. Most animals exhibited signs by 2 hours after dosing and either had died or the signs had cleared within 5 days of dosing. According to the classification scheme of Hodge and Sterner, these results place JA-2 in the slightly toxic class.

  15. Acute oral toxicity of ja-2 solid propellant in sprague-dawley rats. Report for 12 November-19 December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.D.; Justus, J.D.; Wheeler, C.R.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-12-01

    The acute oral toxicity of JA-2 Solid Propellant was determined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats by using an oral gavage split-dose method. The MLD was 3990.6 + or - 349.7 mg/kg for male rats and 2545.9 + or - 421.1 mg/kg for female rats. JA-2 produced clinical signs that were attributed to its nitrate ester components, diethyleneglycol dinitrate and nitroglycerin. These signs included tremors and twitching, cyanosis, and increases in respiratory rate and depth. Other clinical signs observed were associated with the general malaise of the animals following dosing and included hunched posture, rough coat, reddish stains around the eyes and nose, and perianal staining. Most animals exhibited signs by 4 hours after dosing and either had died or the signs had cleared by 96 hours after dosing. According to the classification scheme of Hodge and Sterner, these results place JA-2 in the slightly toxic class.

  16. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility and maintenance in JA-CMS cotton.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Han, Jinfeng; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE) genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS) and microsporocyte stage (MS) (the two most important stages for pollen abortion in JA-CMS) between JA-CMS and its fertile maintainer line JB cotton plants, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 709 (1.8%) DE genes including 293 up-regulated and 416 down-regulated genes were identified in JA-CMS line comparing with its maintainer line at the SS stage, and 644 (1.6%) DE genes with 263 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes were detected at the MS stage. By comparing the two stages in the same material, there were 8 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JA-CMS line and 29 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JB maintainer line at the MS stage. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate 7 randomly selected DE genes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes involved in reduction-oxidation reactions and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism were down-regulated, while genes pertaining to photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated in JA-CMS floral buds compared with their JB counterparts at the SS and/or MS stages. All these four biological processes play important roles in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, which may be an important factor contributing to the sterile trait of JA-CMS. Further experiments are warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms of these genes that lead to CMS.

  17. Banana fruit VQ motif-containing protein5 represses cold-responsive transcription factor MaWRKY26 involved in the regulation of JA biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Han, Yan-Chao; Shan, Wei; Fan, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Qun-Gang; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Most harvested fruits and vegetables are stored at low temperature but many of them are highly sensitive to chilling injury. Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone associated with various stress responses, is known to reduce chilling injury in fruits. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in relation to cold response of fruits. Here, we show the involvement of a Group I WRKY transcription factor (TF) from banana fruit, MaWRKY26, in regulating JA biosynthesis. MaWRKY26 was found to be nuclear-localized with transcriptional activation property. MaWRKY26 was induced by cold stress or by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which enhances cold tolerance in banana fruit. More importantly, MaWRKY26 transactivated JA biosynthetic genes MaLOX2, MaAOS3 and MaOPR3 via binding to their promoters. Further, MaWRKY26 physically interacted with a VQ motif-containing protein MaVQ5, and the interaction attenuated MaWRKY26-induced transactivation of JA biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that MaVQ5 might act as a repressor of MaWRKY26 in activating JA biosynthesis. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in response to cold stress and a better understanding of the molecular aspects of chilling injury in banana fruit. PMID:27004441

  18. HiJaK: the high-resolution J, H and K spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, Philip S.; Hall, Zachary J.; Veyette, Mark J.

    2014-08-01

    We present the science drivers, design requirements and a preliminary design for a high-resolution, broad- bandwidth, slit-fed cross-dispersed near-infrared spectrometer for 5-meter-class telescopes. Our concept, called the High-Resolution J, H and K Spectrometer, or HiJaK, utilizes an R6 echelle in a white-pupil design to achieve high resolution in a compact configuration with a 2048 x 2048 pixel infrared detector. We present a preliminary ray-traced optical design matched to the new 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope in Happy Jack, Arizona. We also discuss mechanical and cryogenic options to house our optical design.

  19. High Temperature Induces Expression of Tobacco Transcription Factor NtMYC2a to Regulate Nicotine and JA Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liming; Li, Junying; Ji, Jianhui; Li, Ping; Yu, Liangliang; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Luo, Yuming; Hu, Liwei; Hu, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stress elevates the level of jasmonic acid (JA) and activates the biosynthesis of nicotine and related pyridine alkaloids in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) by up-regulating the expression of putrescine N-methyltransferase 1 (NtPMT1), which encodes a putrescine N-methyl transferase that catalyzes nicotine formation. The JA signal suppressor JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN 1 (NtJAZ1) and its target protein, NtMYC2a, also regulate nicotine biosynthesis; however, how these proteins interact to regulate abiotic-induced nicotine biosynthesis is poorly understood. In this study, we found that high-temperature (HT) treatment activated transcription of NtMYC2a, which subsequently stimulated the transcription of genes associated with JA biosynthesis, including Lipoxygenase (LOX), Allene oxide synthase (AOS), Allene oxide cyclase (AOC), and 12-oxophytodienodate reductase (OPR). Overexpression of NtMYC2a increased nicotine biosynthesis by enhancing its binding to the promoter of NtPMT1. Overexpression of either NtJAZ1 or proteasome-resistant NtJAZ1ΔC suppressed nicotine production under normal conditions, but overexpression only of the former resulted in low levels of nicotine under HT treatment. These data suggest that HT induces NtMYC2a accumulation through increased transcription to activate nicotine synthesis; meanwhile, HT-induced NtMYC2a can activate JA synthesis to promote additional NtMYC2a activity by degrading NtJAZ1 at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:27833561

  20. Overexpression of OsMYC2 Results in the Up-Regulation of Early JA-Rresponsive Genes and Bacterial Blight Resistance in Rice.

    PubMed

    Uji, Yuya; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Shishido, Hodaka; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins act as transcriptional repressors of jasmonic acid (JA) responses and play a crucial role in the regulation of host immunity in plants. Here, we report that OsMYC2, a JAZ-interacting transcription factor in rice (Oryza sativa L.), plays an important role in the resistance response against rice bacterial blight, which is one of the most serious diseases in rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The results showed that OsMYC2 interacted with some OsJAZ proteins in a JAZ-interacting domain (JID)-dependent manner. The up-regulation of OsMYC2 in response to JA was regulated by OsJAZ8. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsMYC2 exhibited a JA-hypersensitive phenotype and were more resistant to Xoo. A large-scale microarray analysis revealed that OsMYC2 up-regulated OsJAZ10 as well as many other defense-related genes. OsMYC2 selectively bound to the G-box-like motif of the OsJAZ10 promoter in vivo and regulated the expression of early JA-responsive genes, but not of late JA-responsive genes. The nuclear localization of OsMYC2 depended on a nuclear localization signal within JID. Overall, we conclude that OsMYC2 acts as a positive regulator of early JA signals in the JA-induced resistance against Xoo in rice.

  1. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 Are New Targets of JAZ Repressors Negatively Regulating JA Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Sandra; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Fernández, Guillermo M.; Díez-Díaz, Monica; Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; López-Vidriero, Irene; Godoy, Marta; Fernández-Barbero, Gemma; Van Leene, Jelle; De Jaeger, Geert; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Cell reprogramming in response to jasmonates requires a tight control of transcription that is achieved by the activity of JA-related transcription factors (TFs). Among them, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 have been described as activators of JA responses. Here we characterized the function of bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 that conform a phylogenetic clade closely related to MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4. We found that these bHLHs form homo- and heterodimers and also interact with JAZ repressors in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic analysis of JA-regulated processes, including root and rosette growth, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll loss and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae, on mutants and overexpression lines, suggested that these bHLHs are repressors of JA responses. bHLH003, bHLH013 and bHLH017 are mainly nuclear proteins and bind DNA with similar specificity to that of MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4, but lack a conserved activation domain, suggesting that repression is achieved by competition for the same cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, expression of bHLH017 is induced by JA and depends on MYC2, suggesting a negative feed-back regulation of the activity of positive JA-related TFs. Our results suggest that the competition between positive and negative TFs determines the output of JA-dependent transcriptional activation. PMID:24465948

  2. JA, a new type of polyunsaturated fatty acid isolated from Juglans mandshurica Maxim, limits the survival and induces apoptosis of heptocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiu-Li; Lin, Hua; Zhao, Wei; Hou, Ya-Qin; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Zhen-Bo; Sun, Lu-Guo; Tian, Shang-Yi; Liu, Biao; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-03-01

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim (Juglandaceae) is a famous folk medicine for cancer treatment and some natural compounds isolated from it have been studied extensively. Previously we isolated a type of ω-9 polyunsaturated fatty acid (JA) from the bark of J. mandshurica, however little is known about its activity and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we studied anti-tumor activity of JA on several human cancer cell lines. Results showed that JA is cytotoxic to HepG2, MDA-MB-231, SGC-7901, A549 and Huh7 cells at a concentration exerting minimal toxic effects on L02 cells. The selective toxicity of JA was better than other classical anti-cancer drugs. Further investigation indicated that JA could induce cell apoptosis, characterized by chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and activation of the apoptosis-associated proteins such as Caspase-3 and PARP-1. Moreover, we investigated the cellular apoptosis pathway involved in the apoptosis process in HepG2 cells. We found that proteins involved in mitochondrion (cleaved-Caspase-9, Apaf-1, HtrA2/Omi, Bax, and Mitochondrial Bax) and endocytoplasmic reticulum (XBP-1s, GRP78, cleaved-Caspase-7 and cleaved-Caspase-12) apoptotic pathways were up-regulated when cells were treated by JA. In addition, a morphological change in the mitochondrion was detected. Furthermore, we found that JA could inhibit DNA synthesis and induce G2/M cell cycle arrest. The expression of G2-to-M transition related proteins, such as CyclinB1 and phosphorylated-CDK1, were reduced. In contrast, the G2-to-M inhibitor p21 was increased in JA-treated cells. Overall, our results suggest that JA can induce mitochondrion- and endocytoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis, and G2/M phase arrest in HepG2 cells, making it a promising therapeutic agent against hepatoma.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut John H. Glenn (at podium) presents former astronaut Robert "Hoot" Gibson (standing right) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen (left), and former astronauts Sally K. Ride and Daniel Brandenstein (right), both inducted into the Hall of Fame today. Also being inducted is Space Shuttle astronaut Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut John H. Glenn (at podium) presents former astronaut Robert "Hoot" Gibson (standing right) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen (left), and former astronauts Sally K. Ride and Daniel Brandenstein (right), both inducted into the Hall of Fame today. Also being inducted is Space Shuttle astronaut Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut James A. Lovell (standing left) applauds former astronaut Sally K. Ride at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts Gordon Cooper, Scott Carpenter, and Buzz Aldrin, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut James A. Lovell (standing left) applauds former astronaut Sally K. Ride at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts Gordon Cooper, Scott Carpenter, and Buzz Aldrin, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen (at podium) introduces four newly inducted Space Shuttle astronauts to the audience at their induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. From left center, they are Story Musgrave, Sally K. Ride, Daniel Brandenstein, and Robert "Hoot" Gibson. Also standing, left, is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen (at podium) introduces four newly inducted Space Shuttle astronauts to the audience at their induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. From left center, they are Story Musgrave, Sally K. Ride, Daniel Brandenstein, and Robert "Hoot" Gibson. Also standing, left, is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert L. Crippen (right) presents former astronaut Sally K. Ride (standing center) at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais are, from left, former astronauts John H. Glenn, Gordon Cooper, Buzz Aldrin, and Walter Cunningham, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert L. Crippen (right) presents former astronaut Sally K. Ride (standing center) at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais are, from left, former astronauts John H. Glenn, Gordon Cooper, Buzz Aldrin, and Walter Cunningham, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Daniel Brandenstein (standing right) is presented to the audience at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts John H. Glenn and Gordon Cooper, both previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Brandenstein are Space Shuttle astronauts Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Daniel Brandenstein (standing right) is presented to the audience at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts John H. Glenn and Gordon Cooper, both previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Brandenstein are Space Shuttle astronauts Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert "Hoot" Gibson (at podium) addresses the audience at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen and former astronaut John H. Glenn. Also being inducted with Gibson are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert "Hoot" Gibson (at podium) addresses the audience at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are actor and Master of Ceremonies Lance Henriksen and former astronaut John H. Glenn. Also being inducted with Gibson are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck (standing right) congratulates former astronaut Daniel Brandenstein (standing center) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts John H. Glenn and Gordon Cooper, both previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Brandenstein are Space Shuttle astronauts Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck (standing right) congratulates former astronaut Daniel Brandenstein (standing center) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts John H. Glenn and Gordon Cooper, both previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Brandenstein are Space Shuttle astronauts Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally K. Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut James A. Lovell (standing left) greets former astronaut Story Musgrave (standing right) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also seated on the dais are, from left, former astronaut and Senator John H. Glenn, astronaut and Associate Director (Technical) of the Johnson Space Center John W. Young, and former astronaut Buzz Aldrin, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Musgrave are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut James A. Lovell (standing left) greets former astronaut Story Musgrave (standing right) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also seated on the dais are, from left, former astronaut and Senator John H. Glenn, astronaut and Associate Director (Technical) of the Johnson Space Center John W. Young, and former astronaut Buzz Aldrin, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Musgrave are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert L. Crippen (standing right) congratulates former astronaut Sally K. Ride at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts Gordon Cooper, Scott Carpenter, Buzz Aldrin, Walter Cunningham, Edgar B. Mitchell, and Fred W. Haise, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert L. Crippen (standing right) congratulates former astronaut Sally K. Ride at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts Gordon Cooper, Scott Carpenter, Buzz Aldrin, Walter Cunningham, Edgar B. Mitchell, and Fred W. Haise, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Former astronaut James Lovell addresses the audience at a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Former astronaut James Lovell addresses the audience at a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director and former astronaut Roy D. Bridges, Jr., (holding scissors) cuts the ribbon at a ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Invited guests and dignitaries look on, such as former astronauts Edgar D. Mitchell on Bridges' left and James Lovell on his right. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director and former astronaut Roy D. Bridges, Jr., (holding scissors) cuts the ribbon at a ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Invited guests and dignitaries look on, such as former astronauts Edgar D. Mitchell on Bridges' left and James Lovell on his right. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director and former astronaut Roy D. Bridges, Jr., (holding scissors) cuts the ribbon at a ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Invited guests and dignitaries look on, such as former astronauts Edgar D. Mitchell on Bridges' left and James Lovell (hand up) and Buzz Aldrin on his right. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director and former astronaut Roy D. Bridges, Jr., (holding scissors) cuts the ribbon at a ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Invited guests and dignitaries look on, such as former astronauts Edgar D. Mitchell on Bridges' left and James Lovell (hand up) and Buzz Aldrin on his right. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Daniel LeBlanc, chief operating officer of Delaware North Companies Parks and Resorts at KSC, makes the opening remarks to hundreds of guests and media representatives attending a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Daniel LeBlanc, chief operating officer of Delaware North Companies Parks and Resorts at KSC, makes the opening remarks to hundreds of guests and media representatives attending a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Hundreds of guests attend a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Hundreds of guests attend a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  17. Seed germination ecology of feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes].

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha(-1) was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies.

  18. Seed Germination Ecology of Feather Lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Bhagirath S.

    2013-01-01

    Feather lovegrass [Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. Ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes] is a C4 grass weed that has the ability to grow in both lowland and upland conditions. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and screenhouse to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination, emergence, and growth of this weed species. Germination in the light/dark regime was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (98%) than at 35/25 °C (83%) or 25/15 °C (62%). Germination was completely inhibited by darkness. The osmotic potential and sodium chloride concentrations required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were -0.7 MPa and 76 mM, respectively. The highest seedling emergence (69%) was observed from the seeds sown on the soil surface and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried at depths of 0.5 cm or more. The use of residue as mulches significantly reduced the emergence and biomass of feather lovegrass seedlings. A residue amount of 0.5 t ha-1 was needed to suppress 50% of the maximum seedlings. Because germination was strongly stimulated by light and seedling emergence was the highest for the seeds sown on the soil surface, feather lovegrass is likely to become a problematic weed in zero-till systems. The knowledge gained from this study could help in developing effective and sustainable weed management strategies. PMID:24255700

  19. Changes in ABA, IAA and JA levels during calyx, fruit and leaves development in cape gooseberry plants (Physalis peruviana L.).

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Flórez, F; López-Cristoffanini, C; Jáuregui, O; Melgarejo, L M; López-Carbonell, M

    2017-06-01

    Changes in abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) content in developing calyx, fruits and leaves of Physalis peruviana L. plants were analysed. Plant hormones have been widely studied for their roles in the regulation of various aspects related to plant development and, in particular, into their action during development and ripening of fleshly fruits. The obtained evidences suggest that the functions of these hormones are no restricted to a particular development stage, and more than one hormone is involved in controlling various aspects of plant development. Our results will contribute to understand the role of these hormones during growth and development of calyx, fruits and leaves in cape gooseberry plants. This work offers a good, quickly and efficiently protocol to extract and quantify simultaneously ABA, IAA and JA in different tissues of cape gooseberry plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Elevated CO2 Reduces the Resistance and Tolerance of Tomato Plants to Helicoverpa armigera by Suppressing the JA Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Qin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Kang, Le; Wang, Chenzhu; Li, Chuanyou; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Both resistance and tolerance, which are two strategies that plants use to limit biotic stress, are affected by the abiotic environment including atmospheric CO2 levels. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 would reduce resistance (i.e., the ability to prevent damage) but enhance tolerance (i.e., the ability to regrow and compensate for damage after the damage has occurred) of tomato plants to the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The results showed that elevated CO2 reduced resistance by decreasing the jasmonic acid (JA) level and activities of lipoxygenase, proteinase inhibitors, and polyphenol oxidase in wild-type (WT) plants infested with H. armigera. Consequently, the activities of total protease, trypsin-like enzymes, and weak and active alkaline trypsin-like enzymes increased in the midgut of H. armigera when fed on WT plants grown under elevated CO2. Unexpectedly, the tolerance of the WT to H. armigera (in terms of photosynthetic rate, activity of sucrose phosphate synthases, flower number, and plant biomass and height) was also reduced by elevated CO2. Under ambient CO2, the expression of resistance and tolerance to H. armigera was much greater in wild type than in spr2 (a JA-deficient genotype) plants, but elevated CO2 reduced these differences of the resistance and tolerance between WT and spr2 plants. The results suggest that the JA signaling pathway contributes to both plant resistance and tolerance to herbivorous insects and that by suppressing the JA signaling pathway, elevated CO2 will simultaneously reduce the resistance and tolerance of tomato plants. PMID:22829948

  1. SA-inducible Arabidopsis glutaredoxin interacts with TGA factors and suppresses JA-responsive PDF1.2 transcription.

    PubMed

    Ndamukong, Ivan; Abdallat, Ayed Al; Thurow, Corinna; Fode, Benjamin; Zander, Mark; Weigel, Ralf; Gatz, Christiane

    2007-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant signaling molecule that mediates the induction of defense responses upon attack by a variety of pathogens. Moreover, it antagonizes gene induction by the stress signaling molecule jasmonic acid (JA). Several SA-responsive genes are regulated by basic/leucine zipper-type transcription factors of the TGA family. TGA factors interact with NPR1, a central regulator of many SA-induced defense responses including SA/JA antagonism. In order to identify further regulatory proteins of SA-dependent signaling pathways, a yeast protein interaction screen with tobacco TGA2.2 as bait and an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA prey library was performed and led to the identification of a member of the glutaredoxin family (GRX480, encoded by At1g28480). Glutaredoxins are candidates for mediating redox regulation of proteins because of their capacity to catalyze disulfide transitions. This agrees with previous findings that the redox state of both TGA1 and NPR1 changes under inducing conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing GRX480 show near wild-type expression of standard marker genes for SA- and xenobiotic-inducible responses. In contrast, transcription of the JA-dependent defensin gene PDF1.2 was antagonized by transgenic GRX480. This, together with the observation that GRX480 transcription is SA-inducible and requires NPR1, suggests a role of GRX480 in SA/JA cross-talk. Suppression of PDF1.2 by GRX480 depends on the presence of TGA factors, indicating that the GRX480/TGA interaction is effective in planta.

  2. Visualization and Measurement of the Burning Surface of Wire-Embedded Energetic Materials, Part 1: JA2 and Pentolite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    figure 4). The apparatus includes a windowed chamber capable of being pressurized up to 10 MPa. It also includes a ballast tank that adds considerably... pressures were acquired, and they can be employed to validate a state-of-the-art CFD model that ARL is developing to accelerate the development of...rates at pressure near 5.18 MPa. ..............................................................12 Figure 11. JA2 burning rates at 6.90 MPa

  3. Diverting the flux of the JA pathway in Nicotiana attenuata compromises the plant's defense metabolism and fitness in nature and glasshouse.

    PubMed

    Stitz, Michael; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    A plant's inducible defenses against herbivores as well as certain developmental processes are known to be controlled by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. We have previously shown that ectopically expressing Arabidopsis thaliana JA O-methyltransferase in Nicotiana attenuata (35S-jmt) strongly reduces the herbivory-elicited jasmonate bursts by acting as metabolic sink that redirects free JA towards methylation; here we examine the consequences of this metabolic sink on N. attenuata's secondary metabolism and performance in nature. In the glasshouse, 35S-jmt plants produced fewer seed capsules due to shorter floral styles, which could be restored to wild type (WT) levels after hand-pollination, and were more susceptible to Manduca sexta larvae attack. When transplanted into the Great Basin Desert in Utah, 35S-jmt plants grew as well as WT empty vector, but were highly attacked by native herbivores of different feeding guilds: leaf chewers, miners, and single cell feeders. This greater susceptibility was strongly associated with reduced emissions of volatile organic compounds (hexenylesters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and profound alterations in the production of direct defenses (trypsin proteinase inhibitors [TPI], nicotine, diterpene glycosides [DTGs] and phenylpropanoid-polyamine conjugates) as revealed by a combination of targeted and metabolomics analyses of field collected samples. Complementation experiments with JA-Ile, whose formation is outcompeted in 35S-jmt plants by the methylation reaction, restored the local TPI activation to WT levels and partially complemented nicotine and DTG levels in elicited but not systemic leaves. These findings demonstrate that MeJA, the major JA metabolite in 35S-jmt plants, is not an active signal in defense activation and highlights the value of creating JA sinks to disrupt JA signaling, without interrupting the complete octadecanoid pathway, in order to investigate the regulation of plants' defense metabolism in nature.

  4. Diverting the Flux of the JA Pathway in Nicotiana attenuata Compromises the Plant's Defense Metabolism and Fitness in Nature and Glasshouse

    PubMed Central

    Stitz, Michael; Baldwin, Ian T.; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    A plant's inducible defenses against herbivores as well as certain developmental processes are known to be controlled by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. We have previously shown that ectopically expressing Arabidopsis thaliana JA O-methyltransferase in Nicotiana attenuata (35S-jmt) strongly reduces the herbivory-elicited jasmonate bursts by acting as metabolic sink that redirects free JA towards methylation; here we examine the consequences of this metabolic sink on N. attenuata's secondary metabolism and performance in nature. In the glasshouse, 35S-jmt plants produced fewer seed capsules due to shorter floral styles, which could be restored to wild type (WT) levels after hand-pollination, and were more susceptible to Manduca sexta larvae attack. When transplanted into the Great Basin Desert in Utah, 35S-jmt plants grew as well as WT empty vector, but were highly attacked by native herbivores of different feeding guilds: leaf chewers, miners, and single cell feeders. This greater susceptibility was strongly associated with reduced emissions of volatile organic compounds (hexenylesters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and profound alterations in the production of direct defenses (trypsin proteinase inhibitors [TPI], nicotine, diterpene glycosides [DTGs] and phenylpropanoid-polyamine conjugates) as revealed by a combination of targeted and metabolomics analyses of field collected samples. Complementation experiments with JA-Ile, whose formation is outcompeted in 35S-jmt plants by the methylation reaction, restored the local TPI activation to WT levels and partially complemented nicotine and DTG levels in elicited but not systemic leaves. These findings demonstrate that MeJA, the major JA metabolite in 35S-jmt plants, is not an active signal in defense activation and highlights the value of creating JA sinks to disrupt JA signaling, without interrupting the complete octadecanoid pathway, in order to investigate the regulation of plants' defense metabolism in nature

  5. A bHLH-Type Transcription Factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1, Acts as a Repressor to Negatively Regulate Jasmonate Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Herde, Marco; Koo, Abraham J.K.; Moreno, Javier E.; Suzuki, Kaoru; Howe, Gregg A.; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that regulate the balance between plant growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanisms for JA-induced responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms by which plants attenuate the JA-induced responses remain elusive. Here, we report that a basic helix-loop-helix–type transcription factor, ABA-INDUCIBLE BHLH-TYPE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR/JA-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), acts as a transcriptional repressor and negatively regulates JA signaling. Gain-of-function transgenic plants expressing the chimeric repressor for JAM1 exhibited substantial reduction of JA responses, including JA-induced inhibition of root growth, accumulation of anthocyanin, and male fertility. These plants were also compromised in resistance to attack by the insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua. Conversely, jam1 loss-of-function mutants showed enhanced JA responsiveness, including increased resistance to insect attack. JAM1 and MYC2 competitively bind to the target sequence of MYC2, which likely provides the mechanism for negative regulation of JA signaling and suppression of MYC2 functions by JAM1. These results indicate that JAM1 negatively regulates JA signaling, thereby playing a pivotal role in fine-tuning of JA-mediated stress responses and plant growth. PMID:23673982

  6. ABA Is an Essential Signal for Plant Resistance to Pathogens Affecting JA Biosynthesis and the Activation of Defenses in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Adie, Bruce A.T.; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Pérez-Pérez, Manuel M.; Godoy, Marta; Sánchez-Serrano, José-J.; Schmelz, Eric A.; Solano, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana defense response to the damping-off oomycete pathogen Pythium irregulare show that resistance to P. irregulare requires a multicomponent defense strategy. Penetration represents a first layer, as indicated by the susceptibility of pen2 mutants, followed by recognition, likely mediated by ERECTA receptor-like kinases. Subsequent signaling of inducible defenses is predominantly mediated by jasmonic acid (JA), with insensitive coi1 mutants showing extreme susceptibility. In contrast with the generally accepted roles of ethylene and salicylic acid cooperating with or antagonizing, respectively, JA in the activation of defenses against necrotrophs, both are required to prevent disease progression, although much less so than JA. Meta-analysis of transcriptome profiles confirmed the predominant role of JA in activation of P. irregulare–induced defenses and uncovered abscisic acid (ABA) as an important regulator of defense gene expression. Analysis of cis-regulatory sequences also revealed an unexpected overrepresentation of ABA response elements in promoters of P. irregulare–responsive genes. Subsequent infections of ABA-related and callose-deficient mutants confirmed the importance of ABA in defense, acting partly through an undescribed mechanism. The results support a model for ABA affecting JA biosynthesis in the activation of defenses against this oomycete. PMID:17513501

  7. OsMYC2, an essential factor for JA-inductive sakuranetin production in rice, interacts with MYC2-like proteins that enhance its transactivation ability

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Koji; Nemoto, Keiichirou; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki; Okada, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    Biosynthesis of sakuranetin, a flavonoid anti-fungal phytoalexin that occurs in rice, is highly dependent on jasmonic acid (JA) signalling and induced by a variety of environmental stimuli. We previously identified OsNOMT, which encodes naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase (NOMT); NOMT is a key enzyme for sakuranetin production. Although OsNOMT expression is induced by JA treatment, the regulation mechanism that activates the biosynthetic pathway of sakuranetin has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we show that JA-inducible basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional factor OsMYC2 drastically enhances the activity of the OsNOMT promoter and is essential for JA-inducible sakuranetin production. In addition, we identified 2 collaborators of OsMYC2, OsMYC2-like protein 1 and 2 (OsMYL1 and OsMYL2) that further activated the OsNOMT promoter in synergy with OsMYC2. Physical interaction of OsMYC2 with OsMYL1 and OsMYL2 further supported the idea that these interactions lead to the enhancement of the transactivation activity of OsMYC2. Our results indicate that JA signalling via OsMYC2 is reinforced by OsMYL1 and OsMYL2, resulting in the inductive production of sakuranetin during defence responses in rice. PMID:28067270

  8. JaTS: a fully portable seismic tomography software based on Fresnel wavepaths and a probabilistic reconstruction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Sage, Sandrine

    2004-11-01

    JaTS, a Java 2D seismic tomography software, is presented. It implements original algorithms achieving optimal accuracy with reasonable computing costs. A second-order Fast Marching Method (FMM) is used for solving the eikonal equation, therefore enabling a fast and robust computation of seismic traveltimes between sources and receivers. The wavepaths are materialized by Fresnel volumes rather than by conventional rays. This approach accounts for complex velocity models and has the advantage of considering the effects of the wave frequency in the velocity model resolution. The model is computed by a Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT) which has been reformulated to integrate Fresnel wavepaths by using a probabilistic approach. In addition, various utilities are implemented, such as a tapering filter, used to decrease artifact effects occurring in the vicinity of the sources and receivers. The software also offers the possibility of reconstructing the velocity field on a grid larger than the one used for the wave propagation computation. This contributes to stabilize the estimated values. All of the seismic processing tools have been integrated with a user-friendly graphical interface. JaTS represents a tightly integrated tool suite that supports the entire process of importing the SG2 field records, first-break picking, forward modeling and velocity-field computing across multiple platforms.

  9. A Maize Jasmonate Zim-Domain Protein, ZmJAZ14, Associates with the JA, ABA, and GA Signaling Pathways in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suzhen; Li, Jie; Xu, Miaoyun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhao, Qianqian; Li, Ye; Fan, Yunliu; Chen, Rumei; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonate (JA) is an important signaling molecule involved in the regulation of many physiological and stress-related processes in plants. Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins have been implicated in regulating JA signaling pathways and the cross talk between various phytohormones. Maize is not only an important cereal crop, but also a model plant for monocotyledon studies. Although many JAZ proteins have been characterized in Arabidopsis and rice, few reports have examined the function of JAZ proteins in maize. In this report, we examined the phylogenetic relationship and expression pattern of JAZ family genes in maize. In addition, a tassel and endosperm-specific JAZ gene, ZmJAZ14, was identified using microarray data analysis and real-time RT-PCR, and its expression was induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), jasmonate (JA), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellins (GAs). ZmJAZ14 was shown to be localized in the nucleus and possessed no transcriptional activating activity, suggesting that it functions as a transcriptional regulator. We found that overexpression of ZmJAZ14 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to JA and ABA treatment, as well as PEG stress, while it promoted growth under GA stimulus. Moreover, ZmJAZ14 interacted with a subset of transcription factors in Arabidopsis, and the accumulation of several marker genes involved in JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways were altered in the overexpression lines. These results suggest that ZmJAZ14 may serve as a hub for the cross talk among the JA, ABA, and GA signaling pathways. Our results can be used to further characterize the function of JAZ family proteins in maize, and the gene cloned in this study may serve as a candidate for drought tolerance and growth promotion regulation in maize. PMID:25807368

  10. The MeJA-inducible copper amine oxidase AtAO1 is expressed in xylem tissue and guard cells.

    PubMed

    Ghuge, Sandip A; Carucci, Andrea; Rodrigues-Pousada, Renato A; Tisi, Alessandra; Franchi, Stefano; Tavladoraki, Paraskevi; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases oxidize the polyamine putrescine to 4-aminobutanal with the production of the plant signal molecule hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ammonia. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene At4g14940 (AtAO1, previously referred to as ATAO1) encodes an apoplastic copper amine oxidase expressed in lateral root cap cells and developing xylem, especially in root protoxylem and metaxylem precursors. In our recent study, we demonstrated that AtAO1 expression is strongly induced in the root vascular tissues by the wound-signal hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Furthermore, we also demonstrated that the H2O2 derived by the AtAO1-driven oxidation of putrescine, mediates the MeJA-induced early protoxylem differentiation in Arabidopsis roots. H2O2 may contribute to protoxylem differentiation by signaling developmental cell death and by acting as co-substrate in peroxidase-mediated cell wall stiffening and lignin polymerization. Here, by the means of AtAO1 promoter::green fluorescent protein-β-glucuronidase (AtAO1::GFP-GUS) fusion analysis, we show that a strong AtAO1 gene expression occurs also in guard cells of leaves and flowers. The high expression levels of AtAO1 in tissues or cell types regulating water supply and water loss may suggest a role of the encoded protein in water balance homeostasis, by modulating coordinated adjustments in anatomical and functional features of xylem tissue and guard cells during acclimation to adverse environmental conditions.

  11. Integrated Performance of Next Generation High Data Rate Receiver and AR4JA LDPC Codec for Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Lyubarev, Mark; Nakashima, Michael A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Lee, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are the state-of-the-art in forward error correction (FEC) technology that exhibits capacity approaching performance. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has designed a family of LDPC codes that are similar in structure and therefore, leads to a single decoder implementation. The Accumulate-Repeat-by-4-Jagged- Accumulate (AR4JA) code design offers a family of codes with rates 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 and lengths 1024, 4096, 16384 information bits. Performance is less than one dB from capacity for all combinations.Integrating a stand-alone LDPC decoder with a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) receiver faces additional challenges than building a single receiver-decoder unit from scratch. In this work, we outline the issues and show that these additional challenges can be over-come by simple solutions. To demonstrate that an LDPC decoder can be made to work seamlessly with a COTS receiver, we interface an AR4JA LDPC decoder developed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with a modern high data rate receiver and mea- sure the combined receiver-decoder performance. Through optimizations that include an improved frame synchronizer and different soft-symbol scaling algorithms, we show that a combined implementation loss of less than one dB is possible and therefore, most of the coding gain evidence in theory can also be obtained in practice. Our techniques can benefit any modem that utilizes an advanced FEC code.

  12. Integrated Performance of Next Generation High Data Rate Receiver and AR4JA LDPC Codec for Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Lyubarev, Mark; Nakashima, Michael A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Lee, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are the state-of-the-art in forward error correction (FEC) technology that exhibits capacity approaching performance. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has designed a family of LDPC codes that are similar in structure and therefore, leads to a single decoder implementation. The Accumulate-Repeat-by-4-Jagged- Accumulate (AR4JA) code design offers a family of codes with rates 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 and lengths 1024, 4096, 16384 information bits. Performance is less than one dB from capacity for all combinations.Integrating a stand-alone LDPC decoder with a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) receiver faces additional challenges than building a single receiver-decoder unit from scratch. In this work, we outline the issues and show that these additional challenges can be over-come by simple solutions. To demonstrate that an LDPC decoder can be made to work seamlessly with a COTS receiver, we interface an AR4JA LDPC decoder developed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with a modern high data rate receiver and mea- sure the combined receiver-decoder performance. Through optimizations that include an improved frame synchronizer and different soft-symbol scaling algorithms, we show that a combined implementation loss of less than one dB is possible and therefore, most of the coding gain evidence in theory can also be obtained in practice. Our techniques can benefit any modem that utilizes an advanced FEC code.

  13. Assessment of iodine nutritional status in the general population in the province of Jaén.

    PubMed

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Serrano Quero, Manuel; Moreno Martínez, Macarena; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Santiago Fernández, Piedad

    2015-10-01

    Iodine deficiency affecting both pregnant women and schoolchildren has been reported in Jaén. Iodine deficiency is one of the leading causes of thyroid dysfunction and goiter, and adequate iodine prophylaxis with iodized salt, milk, and dairy products, or iodine supplementation have been shown to significantly improve iodine status in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to assess iodine nutritional status in the general population of a iodine-deficient area with no previous institutional campaigns of iodine prophylaxis. A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Urinary iodine levels were measured in subjects from the Jaén healthcare district. The data were stratified by sex and age groups, and a survey was conducted on iodized salt consumption. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59 mcg/L and 130.11 mcg/L respectively. Urinary iodine levels were significantly higher in schoolchildren as compared to other age groups (161.52μg/L vs 109.33μg/L in subjects older than 65 years). Forty-three percent of the population had urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L, and 68% of women of childbearing age had levels less than 150μg/L. Iodine nutritional status appears to be adequate, but the proportion of the population with urinary iodine levels less than 100μg/L is still very high, and iodized salt consumption is much less common than recommended by the WHO. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural basis of jasmonate-amido synthetase FIN219 in complex with glutathione S-transferase FIP1 during the JA signal regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Ho, Sih-Syun; Kuo, Tzu-Yen; Cheng, Yi-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Far-red (FR) light-coupled jasmonate (JA) signaling is necessary for plant defense and development. FR insensitive 219 (FIN219) is a member of the Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) family of proteins in Arabidopsis and belongs to the adenylate-forming family of enzymes. It directly controls biosynthesis of jasmonoyl-isoleucine in JA-mediated defense responses and interacts with FIN219-interacting protein 1 (FIP1) under FR light conditions. FIN219 and FIP1 are involved in FR light signaling and are regulators of the interplay between light and JA signaling. However, how their interactions affect plant physiological functions remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the crystal structures of FIN219–FIP1 while binding with substrates at atomic resolution. Our results show an unexpected FIN219 conformation and demonstrate various differences between this protein and other members of the GH3 family. We show that the rotated C-terminal domain of FIN219 alters ATP binding and the core structure of the active site. We further demonstrate that this unique FIN219–FIP1 structure is crucial for increasing FIN219 activity and determines the priority of substrate binding. We suggest that the increased FIN219 activity resulting from the complex form, a conformation for domain switching, allows FIN219 to switch to its high-affinity mode and thereby enhances JA signaling under continuous FR light conditions. PMID:28223489

  15. MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 are involved in the regulation of the JA-induced biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in apples.

    PubMed

    An, Xiu-Hong; Tian, Yi; Chen, Ke-Qin; Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Dan-Dan; Xie, Xing-Bin; Cheng, Cun-Gang; Cong, Pei-Hua; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) are important secondary metabolites and beneficial to human health. Their biosynthesis is induced by jasmonate (JA) treatment and regulated by MYB transcription factors (TFs). However, which and how MYB TFs regulate this process is largely unknown in apple. In this study, MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 which were induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were functionally characterized. Overexpression of MdMYB9 or MdMYB11 promoted not only anthocyanin but also PA accumulation in apple calluses, and the accumulation was further enhanced by MeJA. Subsequently, yeast two-hybrid, pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that both MYB proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Moreover, Jasmonate ZIM-domain (MdJAZ) proteins interact with MdbHLH3. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrated that both MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 bind to the promoters of ANS, ANR and LAR, whereas MdbHLH3 is recruited to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11 and regulates their transcription. In addition, transient expression assays indicated that overexpression of MdJAZ2 inhibits the recruitment of MdbHLH3 to the promoters of MdMYB9 and MdMYB11. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of how MeJA regulates anthocyanin and PA accumulation in apple.

  16. An ABA-increased interaction of the PYL6 ABA receptor with MYC2 Transcription Factor: A putative link of ABA and JA signaling.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Fernando; Yazaki, Junshi; Lee, Melissa; Takahashi, Yohei; Kim, Alice Y; Li, Zixing; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ecker, Joseph R; Schroeder, Julian I

    2016-06-30

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that mediates abiotic stress tolerance and regulates growth and development. ABA binds to members of the PYL/RCAR ABA receptor family that initiate signal transduction inhibiting type 2C protein phosphatases. Although crosstalk between ABA and the hormone Jasmonic Acid (JA) has been shown, the molecular entities that mediate this interaction have yet to be fully elucidated. We report a link between ABA and JA signaling through a direct interaction of the ABA receptor PYL6 (RCAR9) with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in yeast two hybrid assays and the interaction is enhanced in the presence of ABA. PYL6 and MYC2 interact in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation of the proteins. Furthermore, PYL6 was able to modify transcription driven by MYC2 using JAZ6 and JAZ8 DNA promoter elements in yeast one hybrid assays. Finally, pyl6 T-DNA mutant plants show an increased sensitivity to the addition of JA along with ABA in cotyledon expansion experiments. Overall, the present study identifies a direct mechanism for transcriptional modulation mediated by an ABA receptor different from the core ABA signaling pathway, and a putative mechanistic link connecting ABA and JA signaling pathways.

  17. Genome Analysis of the Biotechnologically Relevant Acidophilic Iron Oxidising Strain JA12 Indicates Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity within the Novel Genus “Ferrovum”

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Sophie R.; Poehlein, Anja; Tischler, Judith S.; González, Carolina; Ossandon, Francisco J.; Daniel, Rolf; Holmes, David S.; Schlömann, Michael; Mühling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Members of the genus “Ferrovum” are ubiquitously distributed in acid mine drainage (AMD) waters which are characterised by their high metal and sulfate loads. So far isolation and microbiological characterisation have only been successful for the designated type strain “Ferrovum myxofaciens” P3G. Thus, knowledge about physiological characteristics and the phylogeny of the genus “Ferrovum” is extremely scarce. Objective In order to access the wider genetic pool of the genus “Ferrovum” we sequenced the genome of a “Ferrovum”-containing mixed culture and successfully assembled the almost complete genome sequence of the novel “Ferrovum” strain JA12. Phylogeny and Lifestyle The genome-based phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain JA12 and the type strain represent two distinct “Ferrovum” species. “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is characterised by an unusually small genome in comparison to the type strain and other iron oxidising bacteria. The prediction of nutrient assimilation pathways suggests that “Ferrovum” strain JA12 maintains a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle utilising carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, ammonium and urea, sulfate, phosphate and ferrous iron as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and energy sources, respectively. Unique Metabolic Features The potential utilisation of urea by “Ferrovum” strain JA12 is moreover remarkable since it may furthermore represent a strategy among extreme acidophiles to cope with the acidic environment. Unlike other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs “Ferrovum” strain JA12 exhibits a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, a metabolic feature shared with the closer related neutrophilic iron oxidisers among the Betaproteobacteria including Sideroxydans lithotrophicus and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Furthermore, the absence of characteristic redox proteins involved in iron oxidation in the well-studied acidophiles Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (rusticyanin) and Acidithiobacillus

  18. Distinct post-transcriptional modifications result into seven alternative transcripts of the CC-NBS-LRR gene JA1tr of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ferrier-Cana, Elodie; Macadré, Catherine; Sévignac, Mireille; David, Perrine; Langin, Thierry; Geffroy, Valérie

    2005-03-01

    The generation of splice variants has been reported for various plant resistance (R) genes, suggesting that these variants play an important role in disease resistance. Most of the time these R genes belong to the Toll and mammalian IL-1 receptor-nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NBS-LRR) class of R genes. In Phaseolus vulgaris, a resistance gene cluster (referred to as the B4 R-gene cluster) has been identified at the end of linkage group B4. At this complex resistance cluster, three R specificities (Co-9, Co-y and Co-z) and two R QTLs effective against the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose, have been identified. At the molecular level, four resistance gene candidates encoding putative full-length, coiled-coil (CC)-NBS-LRR R-like proteins, with LRR numbers ranging from 18 to 20, have been previously characterized. In the present study, seven cDNA corresponding to truncated R-like transcripts, belonging to the CC-NBS-LRR class of plant disease R genes, have been identified. These seven transcripts correspond to a single gene named JA1tr, which encodes, at most, only five LRRs. The seven JA1tr transcript variants result from distinct post-transcriptional modifications of JA1tr, corresponding to alternative splicing events of two introns, exon skipping and multiple 'aberrant splicing' events in the open reading frame (ORF). JA1tr was mapped at the B4 R-gene cluster identified in common bean. These post-transcriptional modifications of the single gene JA1tr could constitute an efficient source of diversity. The present results provide one of the few reports of transcript variants with truncated ORFs resulting from a CC-NBS-LRR gene.

  19. Sally Smith's Art Methods Applied: Music Education for Adolescents with Learning Disabilities & ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozsics, M. Sean

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Arts Education in America's secondary schools has been underfunded, undervalued, and underdeveloped. Music, in particular, has been under siege in the "No Child Left Behind" era as teachers increasingly teach students to pass specific written tests, and administrators focus on improving these test scores and struggle with related…

  20. Discourse Roles, Gender and Language Textbook Dialogues: Who Learns What from John and Sally?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martha A.; Kitetu, Catherine; Sunderland, Jane

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes discourse roles and gender fairness in dialogs within three recent textbooks for the teaching of English as a foreign language. Results show fairness was achieved through gender balance in social and occupational roles. Negative implications of gender-imbalanced dialogs for female students plus language practice opportunities are…

  1. Issues of Power, Masculinity, and Gender Justice: Sally's Story of Teaching Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Despite calls for a more nuanced approach to issues of gender and equity that recognizes how broader relations of gender and power continue to produce injustices for many females, essentialized accounts expressing concern about boys' poor educational performance remain the most common refrain in dominant equity discourses across Western contexts.…

  2. Supporting the Historically Black College & University Mission: The Sallie Mae HBCU Default Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Reston, VA.

    This study examined the characteristics of students attending historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), focusing on 14 HBCUs with student loan default rates of 25 percent or more over the last 3 years, which are high enough to jeopardize their continued participation in federal financial aid programs. It was found that, in general,…

  3. Issues of Power, Masculinity, and Gender Justice: Sally's Story of Teaching Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Despite calls for a more nuanced approach to issues of gender and equity that recognizes how broader relations of gender and power continue to produce injustices for many females, essentialized accounts expressing concern about boys' poor educational performance remain the most common refrain in dominant equity discourses across Western contexts.…

  4. The Saga of Sally, Sammy and the Red Pen: Facilitating Children's Social Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinwiddie, Sue A.

    1994-01-01

    Notes innovation and creativity as an alternative to violent response to anger or frustration. Discusses prerequisites for success of social problem approach to conflict resolution and presents six specific steps to this approach and its benefits for both teacher and children. (HTH)

  5. Sally Smith's Art Methods Applied: Music Education for Adolescents with Learning Disabilities & ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozsics, M. Sean

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Arts Education in America's secondary schools has been underfunded, undervalued, and underdeveloped. Music, in particular, has been under siege in the "No Child Left Behind" era as teachers increasingly teach students to pass specific written tests, and administrators focus on improving these test scores and struggle with related…

  6. On the Mind of a Child: A Conversation with Sally Shaywitz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Arcangelo, Marcia

    2003-01-01

    An interview with Dr. Shaywitz , pediatrician, neuroscientist, and member of the National Reading Panel, focuses on the ways the brains of young children develop and what can be done to prevent early learning difficulties. (MLF)

  7. Beyond Sally's missing marble: further development in children's understanding of mind and emotion in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Kramer, Hannah J; Kennedy, Katie; Hjortsvang, Karen; Goldfarb, Deborah; Tashjian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Research on the development of theory of mind (ToM), the understanding of people in relation to mental states and emotions, has been a vibrant area of cognitive development research. Because the dominant focus has been addressing when children acquire a ToM, researchers have concentrated their efforts on studying the emergence of psychological understanding during infancy and early childhood. Here, the benchmark test has been the false-belief task, the awareness that the mind can misrepresent reality. While understanding false belief is a critical milestone achieved by the age of 4 or 5, children make further advances in their knowledge about mental states and emotions during middle childhood and beyond. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of children's sociocognitive abilities in older age groups is necessary to understand more fully the course of ToM development. The aim of this review is to outline continued development in ToM during middle childhood. In particular, we focus on children's understanding of interpretation-that different minds can construct different interpretations of the same reality. Additionally, we consider children's growing understanding of how mental states (thoughts, emotions, decisions) derive from personal experiences, cohere across time, and interconnect (e.g., thoughts shape emotions). We close with a discussion of the surprising paucity of studies investigating individual differences in ToM beyond age 6. Our hope is that this chapter will invigorate empirical interest in moving the pendulum toward the opposite research direction-toward exploring strengths, limitations, variability, and persistent errors in developing theories of mind across the life span. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. How America Saves for College, 2010. Sallie Mae's National Study of Parents with Children under 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallie Mae, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    American families have felt first-hand the significant impact of the economic crisis. The job market continues to show weakness, homes have lost value, and families are concerned about their economic future. Many studies have found that families are making tough choices in limiting their discretionary spending. It is in the context of this crisis…

  9. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system. PMID:26926691

  10. The JaCVAM international validation study on the in vivo comet assay: Selection of test chemicals.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takeshi; Uno, Yoshifumi; Honma, Masamitsu; Kojima, Hajime; Hayashi, Makoto; Tice, Raymond R; Corvi, Raffaella; Schechtman, Leonard

    2015-07-01

    The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) sponsored an international prevalidation and validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline pH comet assay. The main objective of the study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for correctly identifying genotoxic carcinogens, as compared with the traditional rat liver unscheduled DNA synthesis assay. Based on existing carcinogenicity and genotoxicity data and chemical class information, 90 chemicals were identified as primary candidates for use in the validation study. From these 90 chemicals, 46 secondary candidates and then 40 final chemicals were selected based on a sufficiency of carcinogenic and genotoxic data, differences in chemical class or genotoxic or carcinogenic mode of action (MOA), availability, price, and ease of handling. These 40 chemicals included 19 genotoxic carcinogens, 6 genotoxic non-carcinogens, 7 non-genotoxic carcinogens and 8 non-genotoxic non-carcinogens. "Genotoxicity" was defined as positive in the Ames mutagenicity test or in one of the standard in vivo genotoxicity tests (primarily the erythrocyte micronucleus assay). These chemicals covered various chemicals classes, MOAs, and genotoxicity profiles and were considered to be suitable for the purpose of the validation study. General principles of chemical selection for validation studies are discussed.

  11. Gene-to-metabolite network for biosynthesis of lignans in MeJA-elicited Isatis indigotica hairy root cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruibing; Li, Qing; Tan, Hexin; Chen, Junfeng; Xiao, Ying; Ma, Ruifang; Gao, Shouhong; Zerbe, Philipp; Chen, Wansheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Root and leaf tissue of Isatis indigotica shows notable anti-viral efficacy, and are widely used as “Banlangen” and “Daqingye” in traditional Chinese medicine. The plants' pharmacological activity is attributed to phenylpropanoids, especially a group of lignan metabolites. However, the biosynthesis of lignans in I. indigotica remains opaque. This study describes the discovery and analysis of biosynthetic genes and AP2/ERF-type transcription factors involved in lignan biosynthesis in I. indigotica. MeJA treatment revealed differential expression of three genes involved in phenylpropanoid backbone biosynthesis (IiPAL, IiC4H, Ii4CL), five genes involved in lignan biosynthesis (IiCAD, IiC3H, IiCCR, IiDIR, and IiPLR), and 112 putative AP2/ERF transcription factors. In addition, four intermediates of lariciresinol biosynthesis were found to be induced. Based on these results, a canonical correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient was performed to construct gene-to-metabolite networks and identify putative key genes and rate-limiting reactions in lignan biosynthesis. Over-expression of IiC3H, identified as a key pathway gene, was used for metabolic engineering of I. indigotica hairy roots, and resulted in an increase in lariciresinol production. These findings illustrate the utility of canonical correlation analysis for the discovery and metabolic engineering of key metabolic genes in plants. PMID:26579184

  12. Extending MAM5 Meta-Model and JaCalIV E Framework to Integrate Smart Devices from Real Environments.

    PubMed

    Rincon, J A; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Julian, V; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Carrascosa, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the extension of a meta-model (MAM5) and a framework based on the model (JaCalIVE) for developing intelligent virtual environments. The goal of this extension is to develop augmented mirror worlds that represent a real and virtual world coupled, so that the virtual world not only reflects the real one, but also complements it. A new component called a smart resource artifact, that enables modelling and developing devices to access the real physical world, and a human in the loop agent to place a human in the system have been included in the meta-model and framework. The proposed extension of MAM5 has been tested by simulating a light control system where agents can access both virtual and real sensor/actuators through the smart resources developed. The results show that the use of real environment interactive elements (smart resource artifacts) in agent-based simulations allows to minimize the error between simulated and real system.

  13. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves. PMID:27375495

  14. OsNPR1 negatively regulates herbivore-induced JA and ethylene signaling and plant resistance to a chewing herbivore in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Afsheen, Sumera; Xin, Zhaojun; Han, Xiu; Lou, Yonggen

    2013-03-01

    NPR1 (a non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes1) has been reported to play an important role in plant defense by regulating signaling pathways. However, little to nothing is known about its function in herbivore-induced defense in monocot plants. Here, using suppressive substrate hybridization, we identified a NPR1 gene from rice, OsNPR1, and found that its expression levels were upregulated in response to infestation by the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis and rice leaf folder (LF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, and to mechanical wounding and treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). Moreover, mechanical wounding induced the expression of OsNPR1 quickly, whereas herbivore infestation induced the gene more slowly. The antisense expression of OsNPR1 (as-npr1), which reduced the expression of the gene by 50%, increased elicited levels of JA and ethylene (ET) as well as of expression of a lipoxygenase gene OsHI-LOX and an ACC synthase gene OsACS2. The enhanced JA and ET signaling in as-npr1 plants increased the levels of herbivore-induced trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TrypPIs) and volatiles, and reduced the performance of SSB. Our results suggest that OsNPR1 is an early responding gene in herbivore-induced defense and that plants can use it to activate a specific and appropriate defense response against invaders by modulating signaling pathways.

  15. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves.

  16. Combination comet/micronucleus assay validation performed by BioReliance under the JaCVAM initiative.

    PubMed

    Pant, Kamala; Krsmanovic, Ljubica; Bruce, Shannon Wilson; Kelley, Tawney; Arevalo, Mirna; Atta-Safoh, Samuel; Debelie, Fekadu; La Force, Michelle L Klug; Springer, Sandra; Sly, Jamie; Paranjpe, Madhav; Lawlor, Timothy; Aardema, Marilyn

    2015-07-01

    In the international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) provided three coded chemicals to BioReliance, 1,3-dichloropropene, ethionamide and busulfan, to be tested in a combined in vivo comet/micronucleus assay. Induction of DNA damage (comet) in liver, stomach and jejunum (1,3-dichloropropene only) cells, and induction of MNPCEs in bone marrow, were examined in male Sprague-Dawley (Hsd:SD) rats following oral administration of the test chemical for three consecutive days. A dose range finding (DRF) test was performed with each chemical to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Based on the results of the DRF test; 1,3-dichloropropene was tested at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day; ethionamide was tested at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day, and busulfan was tested at 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day. The results indicated that 1,3-dichloropropene induced DNA damage only in liver cells at all three test article doses, while no effects were observed in the stomach and jejunum cells. Additionally, it did not increase MNPCEs in the bone marrow. 1,3-Dichloropropene was concluded to be negative in the MN assay but positive in the comet assay. Ethionamide did not induce DNA damage in liver. However, in stomach, statistically significant decreases (although still within historical range) in % tail DNA at all test article doses compared to the vehicle control were observed. There was no increase in MNPCEs in the bone marrow. Thus, ethionamide was concluded to be negative in the comet/MN combined assay. Busulfan did not induce DNA damage in any of the organs tested (liver and stomach) but it did induce a significant increase in MNPCEs in the bone marrow. Busulfan was concluded to be negative in the comet assay but positive in the MN assay.

  17. Mineralogical characterization of tailing dams: incidence of abandoned mining works on soil pollution (Linares, Jaén)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, M. J.; Hidalgo, C.; Rey, J.; Martínez, J.

    2012-04-01

    The metallogenic district of Linares-La Carolina (Jaén, Spain) consists of dyke mineralizations mainly of galena, accompanied by blende, chalcopyrite and barite. Associated to these abandoned mines, relatively extensive areas occupied by spoil heaps and tailing impoundments exist and constitute potential sources of soil pollution by metals and semimetals. In order to analyze the pollution potential of these mining wastes, we have carried out a mineralogical and geochemical study of seven tailing dams and surrounding soils in the area. The mineralogy of the samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the total metal content of samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Samples were taken from the first 30 cm of the waste piles and soil deposits and white efflorescences were also obtained from the surface of the tailings. In all analyzed heaps, high to very high total contents in Pb (1220-22890 mg/kg), Zn (150-51280 mg/kg), Mn (2658-4160 mg/kg), Ba (1026-19610 mg/kg) and Fe (19400-138000 mg/kg) were observed. The concentrations for these same elements in the studied soils range from 527-9900 mg/kg for Pb, 27-1700 mg/kg for Zn, 506-2464 mg/kg for Mn, 2832-4306 for Ba and 8642-29753 mg/kg for Fe, and these figures indicate a contamination of the soils, according to the guidelines established by the Spanish law. The XRD and SEM results indicate that the tailings are primarily constituted by gangue of the exploited mineralization: quartz, calcite, ankerite, feldspars and phyllosilicates. They are inherited, primary mineral phases. Galena, also primary, appears in low proportion, as well as lepidocrocite, melanterite and cerussite, being these three last secondary minerals and indicating a certain remobilization of metal cations, especially lead and iron. On the other hand, quartz and phyllosilicates predominate in the soils, in which, in addition, is identified a

  18. Lotus japonicus nodulation is photomorphogenetically controlled by sensing the red/far red (R/FR) ratio through jasmonic acid (JA) signaling

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Suriyagoda, Lalith; Shigeyama, Tamaki; Tominaga, Akiyoshi; Sasaki, Masayo; Hiratsuka, Yoshimi; Yoshinaga, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Agarie, Sakae; Sakai, Tatsuya; Inada, Sayaka; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Abe, Mikiko; Hashiguchi, Masatsugu; Akashi, Ryo; Sato, Shusei; Kaneko, Takakazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirsch, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    Light is critical for supplying carbon to the energetically expensive, nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia. Here, we show that phytochrome B (phyB) is part of the monitoring system to detect suboptimal light conditions, which normally suppress Lotus japonicus nodule development after Mesorhizobium loti inoculation. We found that the number of nodules produced by L. japonicus phyB mutants is significantly reduced compared with the number produced of WT Miyakojima MG20. To explore causes other than photoassimilate production, the possibility that local control by the root genotype occurred was investigated by grafting experiments. The results showed that the shoot and not the root genotype is responsible for root nodule formation. To explore systemic control mechanisms exclusive of photoassimilation, we moved WT MG20 plants from white light to conditions that differed in their ratios of low or high red/far red (R/FR) light. In low R/FR light, the number of MG20 root nodules dramatically decreased compared with plants grown in high R/FR, although photoassimilate content was higher for plants grown under low R/FR. Also, the expression of jasmonic acid (JA) -responsive genes decreased in both low R/FR light-grown WT and white light-grown phyB mutant plants, and it correlated with decreased jasmonoyl-isoleucine content in the phyB mutant. Moreover, both infection thread formation and root nodule formation were positively influenced by JA treatment of WT plants grown in low R/FR light and white light-grown phyB mutants. Together, these results indicate that root nodule formation is photomorphogenetically controlled by sensing the R/FR ratio through JA signaling. PMID:21930895

  19. Incidence and Predictors of Biological Antirheumatic Drug Discontinuation Attempts among Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Remission: A CORRONA and NinJa Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazuki; Radner, Helga; Mjaavatten, Maria D; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Kishimoto, Mitsumasa; Matsui, Kazuo; Okada, Masato; Reed, George; Saeki, Yukihiko; Tohma, Shigeto; Kremer, Joel; Solomon, Daniel H

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a longitudinal observational study of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARD) to describe the proportions of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in remission who discontinued these agents, and to assess the potential predictors of the decision to discontinue. We used data from the US COnsortium of Rheumatology Researchers Of North America (CORRONA) and the Japanese National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa) registries, and ran parallel analyses. Patients treated with bDMARD who experienced remission (defined by the Clinical Disease Activity Index ≤ 2.8) were included. The outcome of interest was the occurrence of bDMARD discontinuation while in remission. The predictors of discontinuation were assessed in the Cox regression models. Frailty models were also used to examine the effects of individual physicians in the discontinuation decision. The numbers of eligible patients who were initially in remission were 6263 in the CORRONA and 744 in the NinJa. Among these patients, 10.0% of patients in CORRONA and 11.8% of patients in NinJa discontinued bDMARD while in remission over 5 years, whereas many of the remaining patients lost remission before discontinuing bDMARD. Shorter disease duration was associated with higher rates of discontinuation in both cohorts. In CORRONA, methotrexate use and lower disease activity were also associated with discontinuation. In frailty models, physician random effects were significant in both cohorts. Among patients who initially experienced remission while receiving bDMARD, around 10% remained in remission and then discontinued bDMARD in both registries. Several factors were associated with more frequent discontinuation while in remission. Physician preference likely is also an important correlate of bDMARD discontinuation, indicating the need for standardization of practice.

  20. Meat quality and the histological structure of breast and leg muscles in Ayam Cemani chickens, Ayam Cemani × Sussex hybrids and slow-growing Hubbard JA 957 chickens.

    PubMed

    Łukasiewicz, Monika; Niemiec, Jan; Wnuk, Agnieszka; Mroczek-Sosnowska, Natalia

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of meat and the histological structure of muscles of Ayam Cemani chickens, Ayam Cemani × Sussex hybrids and slow-growing Hubbard JA 957 chickens and to examine whether crossing generally available Sussex chickens with little available Ayam Cemani gives a good quality product of interest to the poultry industry and in food technology. The size of breast and leg muscle fibers varied among genotypes. The breast and leg muscles of slow-growing Hubbard JA 957 chickens had the largest fiber diameter. The histological and biochemical properties of muscles, including the type, number, proportions, diameter and metabolic profile of fibers, had a significant effect on the pH and water-binding capacity of meat, thus affecting its quality. The muscle fibers of Ayam Cemani chickens were approximately half the size of the muscle fibers of Hubbard JA 957 chickens. Ayam Cemani and Ayam Cemani × Sussex gave a product of as good quality as Hubbard JA 957 chickens. Meat from Ayam Cemani chickens is a rich source of protein and could be highly valued by gourmet consumers, connoisseurs and dieticians for its rarity and originality. The results of this study show that genotype (Ayam Cemani, Ayam Cemani × Sussex, Hubbard JA 957) affected the quality and color of meat and the histological profile of chicken breast and leg muscles. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Pro Memoria. Professor Bolesław Jałowy (1906-1943): Mortui viventes obligant - the livings are obligated to the dead.

    PubMed

    Wincewicz, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Professor Bolesław Jałowy (1906-1943) was a chairman of Department of Histology and Embryology at Faculty of Medicine of King John Casimir University (Polish: Universytet Jana Kazimierza: UJK) in Lvov. He succeeded Professor Władysław Szymonowicz (1869-1939) who held this position for decades. As the most skillful followers of his tutor, Bolesław Jałowy was a great investigator of physiology of human tissue, embryogenesis, histological consequences of female sex hormones on blood clotting action as well as regeneration of nerves in addition to description of silver staining technique for reticulin fibers of skin. He was a hard working person with gentle attitude to such a subtle matter as microscopic structure of human body. However, he happened to live in brutal conditions of nationalistic struggles. His example shows how much a dedicated scientist could do in a very short time as his life was tragically ended with murdering him during World War Two. His story is a great lesson for generations of academic workers how to meet high moral standards with efficient and creative scientific work in evil and destructive, nationalistic climate that occurs usually in wartime.

  2. Investigation of sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine in the alkaline comet assay: Part of the JaCVAM comet validation exercise.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Carol; Henderson, Debbie; Lillford, Lucinda

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine. Using the JaCVAM approved study protocol version 14.2, each chemical was tested in male rats up to maximum tolerated dose levels and DNA damage in the liver and stomach was assessed approximately 3h after the final administration by gavage. Histopathology assessments of liver and stomach sections from the same animals were also examined for evidence of cytotoxicity or necrosis. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach of animals treated with sodium arsenite at 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day. However, equivocal findings were found in the liver, where increases in DNA migration were observed in two independent experiments, but not in all treated animals and not at the same dose levels. Thioacetamide caused an increase in DNA migration in the stomach of rats treated at 19, 38, and 75 mg/kg/day, but not in the liver, despite evidence of marked hepatotoxicity following histopathology assessments. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach or liver of animals treated with diethanolamine at 175, 350, or 700 mg/kg/day.

  3. PP2C-like Promoter and Its Deletion Variants Are Induced by ABA but Not by MeJA and SA in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bhalothia, Purva; Sangwan, Chetna; Alok, Anshu; Mehrotra, Sandhya; Mehrotra, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is mediated through interaction between cis regulatory elements and its cognate transcription factors. Cis regulatory elements are defined as non-coding DNA sequences that provide the binding sites for transcription factors and are clustered in the upstream region of genes. ACGT cis regulatory element is one of the important cis regulatory elements found to be involved in diverse biological processes like auxin response, salicylic acid (SA) response, UV light response, ABA response and jasmonic acid (JA) response. We identified through in silico analysis that the upstream region of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) gene has a distinct genetic architecture of ACGT elements. In the present study, the activation of the full length promoter and its deletion constructs like 900 base pair, 500 base pair, 400 base pair and NRM (Nathji Rajesh Mehrotra) were examined by stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana using β-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Evaluation of deletion constructs of PP2C-like promoter was carried out in the presence of phytohormones like abscisic acid (ABA), SA and JA. Our result indicated that the full length and 900 base pair promoter-reporter constructs of PP2C-like promoter was induced in response to ABA but not to methyl jasmonate and SA.

  4. GA3 and other signal regulators (MeJA and IAA) improve xanthumin biosynthesis in different manners in Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Li, Changfu; Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-08-25

    Xanthanolides from Xanthium strumarium L. exhibit various pharmacological activities and these compounds are mainly produced in the glandular trichomes of aerial plant parts. The regulation of xanthanolide biosynthesis has never been reported in the literature. In this study, the effects of phytohormonal stimulation on xanthumin (a xanthanolide compound) biosynthesis, glandular trichomes and germacrene A synthase (GAS) gene expression in X. strumarium L. young leaves were investigated. The exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberrellin A3 (GA3) at appropriate concentrations were all found to improve xanthumin biosynthesis, but in different ways. It was suggested that a higher gland density stimulated by MeJA (400 µM) or IAA (200 µM) treatment caused at least in part an improvement in xanthumin production, whereas GA3 (10 µM) led to an improvement by up-regulating xanthumin biosynthetic genes within gland cells, not by forming more glandular trichomes. Compared to the plants before the flowering stage, plants that had initiated flowering showed enhanced xanthumin biosynthesis, but no higher gland density, an effect was similar to that caused by exogenous GA3 treatment.

  5. European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA): a process evaluation performed by questionnaires and documentary analysis.

    PubMed

    Woodford Guegan, Eleanor; Cook, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA) project's overarching objective was to 'establish an effective and sustainable HTA [Health technology assessment] collaboration in Europe that brings added value at the regional, national and European level'. Specific objectives were to develop a strategy and business model for sustainable European collaboration on HTA, develop HTA tools and methods and promote good practice in HTA methods and processes. We describe activities performed on behalf of the National Institute for Health Research HTA programme; evaluating the project processes and developing a data set for a registry of planned clinical studies of relevance to public funders. Annual self-completion online questionnaires were sent to project participants and external stakeholders to identify their views about the project processes. Documentary review was undertaken at the project end on the final technical reports from the work packages to examine whether or not their deliverables had been achieved. The project's impact was assessed by whether or not the deliverables were produced, the objectives met and additional 'added value' generated. The project's effectiveness was evaluated by its processes, communication, administration, workings of individual work packages and involvement of external stakeholders. A two-stage Delphi exercise was undertaken to identify the data elements that should be included in a registry of planned clinical studies of relevance to public funders. The data set was validated by an efficacy testing exercise. High response rates were achieved for the questionnaires sent to project participants and this was attributed to the evidence-based strategy implemented. Response rates to questionnaires sent to external stakeholders were disappointingly lower. Most of the high-level objectives were achieved, although applying the developed tools in practice will be implemented in the European network for Health

  6. Factors influencing the structure and spatial distribution of fishes in the headwater streams of the Jaú River in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Kemenes, A; Forsberg, B R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of spatial variation in river channels and habitats on the distribution of fish communities in the headwater streams of the Jaú River System, a blackwater tributary of the Negro River. Collections and measurements were made in 34 headwater streams during the period of November- December, 1998. Fish were captured with fish traps and hand nets along standard reaches of two meanders. Data on benthic habitat structure, stream depth and width were collected along lateral transects in each sample reach. A total of 66 fish species from 24 families were collected and classified into seven trophic guilds: allocthonous insectivore, autochthonous insectivore, general insectivore, piscivore, detritivorous planktivore, detritivorous insectivore and insectivorous piscivore. Variations in the distribution and diversity of bottom substrates were important factors influencing fish community structures in these systems. Also, variation in stream size explained the observed variability in fish communities.

  7. An enoate reductase Achr-OYE4 from Achromobacter sp. JA81: characterization and application in asymmetric bioreduction of C=C bonds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Bo; Pei, Xiao-Qiong; Wu, Zhong-Liu

    2014-01-01

    A putative enoate reductase, Achr-OYE4, was mined from the genome of Achromobacter sp. JA81, expressed in Escherichia coli, and was characterized. Sequence analysis and spectral properties indicated that Achr-OYE4 is a typical flavin mononucleotide-dependent protein; it preferred NADH over NADPH as a cofactor. The heterologously expressed protein displayed good activity and excellent stereoselectivity toward some activated alkenes in the presence of NADH, NADPH, or their recycling systems. The glucose dehydrogenase-based recycling system yielded the best results in most cases, with a product yield of up to 99 % and enantiopurity of >99 % ee. Achr-OYE4 is an important addition to the asymmetric reduction reservoir as an "old yellow enzyme" from Achromobacter.

  8. Hypogean pseudoscorpions (Arachnida) from Jaén province (Andalusia, Spain), with descriptions of four new species and a new synonymy.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Juan A; Pérez, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Four new hypogean species are described from the Jaén province (southern Spain): Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) espa- nyoli sp. nov., C. (E.) giennensis sp. nov., C. (E.) villacarrillo sp. nov. and Neobisium (Ommatoblothrus) perezruizi sp. nov. New records are given for the species Chthonius (E.) cazorlensis, C. (E.) perezi, C. (E.) tetrachelatus, Neobisium (O.) perezi, Microcreagrella caeca caeca and Allochernes masi. Chthonius (E.) verai and C. (E.) minutus are removed from the list of the Andalusian fauna. A new synonymy is proposed: Neobisium (O.) gev Carabajal Márquez, García Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernández, 2011, is a junior subjective synonym of N. (O.) perezi Carabajal Márquez, García Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernández, 2011.

  9. Time to face the challenge of multimorbidity. A European perspective from the joint action on chronic diseases and promoting healthy ageing across the life cycle (JA-CHRODIS).

    PubMed

    Onder, Graziano; Palmer, Katie; Navickas, Rokas; Jurevičienė, Elena; Mammarella, Federica; Strandzheva, Mirela; Mannucci, Piermannuccio; Pecorelli, Sergio; Marengoni, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    Research on multimorbidity has rapidly increased in the last decade, but evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to improve outcomes in patients with multimorbidity is limited. The European Commission is co-funding a large collaborative project named Joint Action on Chronic Diseases and Promoting Healthy Ageing across the Life Cycle (JA-CHRODIS) in the context of the 2nd EU Health Programme 2008-2013. The present manuscript summarizes first results of the JA-CHRODIS, focuses on the identification of a population with multimorbidity who has a high or very high care demand. Identification of characteristics of multimorbid patients associated with a high rate of resource consumption and negative health outcomes is necessary to define a target population who can benefit from interventions. Indeed, multimorbidity alone cannot explain the complexity of care needs and further, stratification of the general population based on care needs is necessary for allocating resources and developing personalized, cost-efficient, and patient-centered care plans. Based on analyses of large databases from European countries a profile of the most care-demanding patients with multimorbidity is defined. Several factors associated with adverse health outcomes and resource consumption among patients with multimorbidity were identified in these analyses, including disease patterns, physical function, mental health, and socioeconomic status. These results underline that a global assessment is needed to identify patients with multimorbidity who are at risk of negative health outcomes and that a comprehensive approach, targeting not only diseases, but also social, cognitive, and functional problems should be adopted for these patients. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular characterisation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and plasmid AmpC-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers in Béjaïa, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belmahdi, Mohamed; Bakour, Sofiane; Al Bayssari, Charbel; Touati, Abdelaziz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the molecular support of antibiotic resistance in expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy broilers in Béjaïa, northeast Algeria. A total of 61 intestinal swabs from slaughtered broilers from four regions in Béjaïa locality, Algeria, were collected between February and April 2014, from which 20 ESC-resistant E. coli strains were isolated. Escherichia coli isolates were identified by classical biochemical and MALDI-TOF methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Screening for β-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME)-encoding genes and qnr determinants was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was determined using molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that the isolates showed high rates of resistance (>90%) to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime, streptomycin, tobramycin, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Low rates of resistance were observed for kanamycin (35%), amikacin (30%), cefoxitin (20%) and cefotaxime (15%). Molecular characterisation revealed that all of the isolates expressed the blaTEM-1 gene. Fourteen of them harboured the blaSHV-12 gene, two harboured the blaCTX-M-1 gene and four isolates harboured blaCMY-2. Screening for AME-encoding genes demonstrated that all isolates contained the aadA gene. In addition, qnrA was detected as the quinolone resistance determinant in 13 isolates. MLST revealed four known sequence types (STs), including ST744, ST38, ST1011 and ST2179, as well as one new sequence type (ST5086). Here we report the first study describing the clonal diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid AmpC-producing E. coli isolated from healthy broilers in Algeria. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer

  11. Re-analysis results using medians of the data from the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Omori, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    The data from the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay were reported and analyzed statistically using the simple means of % tail DNA. However, OECD test guideline TG 489 recommends use of the median for data analysis due to the hierarchical nature of the data. Comparison between the simple mean approach and the median based approach for positive/negative/equivocal chemical calls was conducted using the % tail DNA data for the 40 chemicals tested in the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, using liver and stomach as target organs. In the liver, two genotoxic chemicals, o-anisidine and 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate, were positive using the median based approach but negative using the simple mean approach, and two genotoxic chemicals, 2-acetylaminofluorene and busulfan were equivocal using the median based approach but negative using the simple mean approach. In contrast, cadmium chloride (genotoxic carcinogen) was equivocal in both organs using the median based approach, while positive and equivocal in liver and stomach, respectively, using the simple mean approach. Two data sets of sodium arsenite showed equivocal and negative results for liver using the median based approach, although both data sets were equivocal using the simple mean approach. Overall, there are no large differences in terms of the genotoxic call between both approaches. However, the median based approach recommended in OECD TG 489 has an advantage toward higher precision within the groups treated with a test chemical, whereas the approach might show the lower values for the effect.

  12. OsTGAP1 is responsible for JA-inducible diterpenoid phytoalexin biosynthesis in rice roots with biological impacts on allelopathic interaction.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuri; Miyamoto, Koji; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nishizawa, Yoko; Minami, Eiichi; Nojiri, Hideaki; Okada, Kazunori

    2017-08-30

    Phytocassanes and momilactones are known as major diterpenoid phytoalexins (DPs), characterized by abundant production and antimicrobial activity and their biosynthetic genes are clustered in rice genomes. The basic leucine zipper transcription factor OsTGAP1 is known to act as a regulator of the coordinated production of DPs in cultured rice cells, but the in planta functions of OsTGAP1 remain largely unknown. Here, we present evidence on the biological function of OsTGAP1 in planta. In wild-type plants, OsTGAP1 is abundantly expressed in roots compared to that in shoots. Moreover, the inductive expression of OsTGAP1 under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment was only observed in a root-specific manner consistent with the JA-inductive expressions of DP biosynthetic genes in roots. In reverse genetic approaches on OsTGAP1 overexpressing and ostgap1 knockdown plants, expressions of the biosynthetic genes relevant for DP accumulation were found to be remarkably increased and decreased, respectively. Reporter analysis in planta revealed that OsTGAP1 activated the promoters of OsDXS3 and momilactone biosynthetic gene OsKSL4, presumably through binding to the TGACGT motif. Furthermore, co-cultivation experiments with barnyardgrass suggested that the allelopathic effect of knockdown and overexpression of OsTGAP1 was significantly changed compared to the controls. These results demonstrate that OsTGAP1 positively regulates DP accumulation via transcriptional regulation of DP biosynthetic genes in rice roots, and this is indispensable for maintaining of allelopathic interactions with paddy weeds by regulating the production of specialized metabolites like momilactones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director and former astronaut Roy D. Bridges, Jr., (left) shakes hands with former astronaut James Lovell following a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Invited guests and dignitaries look on, such as, from left, former astronauts Edward G. Gibson, Edgar D. Mitchell, Jack R. Lousma, Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck, and Buzz Aldrin (far right). The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director and former astronaut Roy D. Bridges, Jr., (left) shakes hands with former astronaut James Lovell following a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Invited guests and dignitaries look on, such as, from left, former astronauts Edward G. Gibson, Edgar D. Mitchell, Jack R. Lousma, Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck, and Buzz Aldrin (far right). The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A group of current and former U.S. astronauts are introduced to the audience at a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. In the front row, from left, are Owen K. Garriott, Walter Cunningham, Jack R. Lousma, Alfred M. Worden, and Buzz Aldrin. In the back row, from left, are Edgar D. Mitchell, Edward G. Gibson, Fred W. Haise, Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck, and John W. Young. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-06-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A group of current and former U.S. astronauts are introduced to the audience at a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. In the front row, from left, are Owen K. Garriott, Walter Cunningham, Jack R. Lousma, Alfred M. Worden, and Buzz Aldrin. In the back row, from left, are Edgar D. Mitchell, Edward G. Gibson, Fred W. Haise, Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck, and John W. Young. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert "Hoot" Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  16. A molecular method for the detection of sally lightfoot crab larvae (Grapsus grapsus, Brachyura, Grapsidae) in plankton samples

    PubMed Central

    Ströher, Patrícia R.; Firkowski, Carina R.; Freire, Andrea S.; Pie, Marcio R.

    2011-01-01

    The decapod Grapsus grapsus is commonly found on oceanic islands of the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the Americas. In this study, a simple, quick and reliable method for detecting its larvae in plankton samples is described, which makes it ideal for large-scale studies of larval dispersal patterns in the species. PMID:21931530

  17. A molecular method for the detection of sally lightfoot crab larvae (Grapsus grapsus, Brachyura, Grapsidae) in plankton samples.

    PubMed

    Ströher, Patrícia R; Firkowski, Carina R; Freire, Andrea S; Pie, Marcio R

    2011-07-01

    The decapod Grapsus grapsus is commonly found on oceanic islands of the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the Americas. In this study, a simple, quick and reliable method for detecting its larvae in plankton samples is described, which makes it ideal for large-scale studies of larval dispersal patterns in the species.

  18. Hydrogeological research on intensively exploited deep aquifers in the `Loma de Úbeda' area (Jaén, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Ramón, Antonio; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Javier; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Gollonet, Javier

    2013-06-01

    The intensive use of groundwater for irrigation in the area of Úbeda (`Loma de Úbeda', Jaén, southern Spain) has transformed an area of traditionally rain-fed dry farmland into fields with some of the highest olive oil productivity in the world. Early hydrogeological research studies, initiated just after the beginning of the groundwater exploitation, revealed that the water was collected from three different overlapping aquifers occupying an area of over 1,100 km2, with the lower aquifers located at depths from 300 to over 700 m in an area of 440 km2. Multidisciplinary research, based on geological characterization, and piezometric, hydrochemical and isotopic data, has led to a conceptual model of functioning in this complex hydrogeological system. The proposed model allows for the identification of the recharge areas, and the discharge, which is at present mainly associated with the groundwater pumping. Areas of mixing of waters from the different aquifers and the main hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater quality are described.

  19. p-Chloroaniline, t-butylhydroquinone, and methyl carbamate: Rat in vivo comet test, JaCVAM trial phase 4.2.

    PubMed

    Barfield, William; Burlinson, Brian

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined p-Chloroaniline, t-butylhydroquinone, and methyl carbamate. All test materials and controls were dosed orally by gavage. p-Chloroaniline produced a statistically significant increase in the mean and median % tail intensity which was also outside of the historical control range in the liver and stomach of Sprague-Dawley rats. t-Butylhydroquinone caused a statistically significant increase in the mean % tail intensity in the liver and stomach and a statistically significant increase in the median % tail intensity in the liver; however, these results are not considered to be biologically significant as all values obtained fell within the current vehicle historical control range and within the negative control range for mean % tail intensity set by the Validation Management Team (VMT) as a requirement for an acceptable assay. Methyl carbamate did not induce a statistically significant change in the mean or median % tail intensity in either liver or stomach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Java Tomography System (JaTS), a Seismic Tomography Software Using Fresnel Volumes, a Fast Marching Eikonal Solver and a Probabilistic Reconstruction Method: Conclusive Synthetic Test Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Sandrine; Grandjean, Gilles; Verly, Jacques

    Problems related to landscape management, natural hazards and civil engineering involve subsurface structures that can be delineated by geophysical imaging. Seismic tomography can accurately characterize a medium according to its velocity variations. Traditional seismic travel time tomography based on ray-tracing methods assumes that the waves frequency is infinite. Therefore, only the medium located along the ray path has an impact on the wave propagation. In subsurface tomography, the infinite frequency assumption does not hold, as targets have about the same size as the wavelength. The seismic waves propagation is affected not only by the medium along the shortest travel time path but also by the medium located in its vicinity. In this study, Fresnel volumes are used to determine the medium affecting the wave propagation given the seismic waves frequency. The choice of the travel time computation and reconstruction methods determines the overall efficiency and soundness of the tomography process. In this research, a second order Fast Marching eikonal solver is used for computing travel times. The Fast Marching Method is an original approach that propagates a monotonously expanding wave front in a medium. It is fast, reliable and easy to implement in both 2D and 3D. An innovative probabilistic approach enables the iterative reconstruction process based upon Fresnel volumes. This study compares the performances of JaTS, our java Fresnel volume tomography software to those of Sardine, a ray-tracing tomography software, over an unfavourable synthetic case.

  1. Simulated herbivory in chickpea causes rapid changes in defense pathways and hormonal transcription networks of JA/ethylene/GA/auxin within minutes of wounding

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Saurabh Prakash; Srivastava, Shruti; Goel, Ridhi; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Priya; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P.

    2017-01-01

    Chickpea (C. arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop in Asian and African countries that suffers significant yield losses due to attacks by insects like H. armigera. To obtain insights into early responses of chickpea to insect attack, a transcriptomic analysis of chickpea leaves just 20 minutes after simulated herbivory was performed, using oral secretions of H. armigera coupled with mechanical wounding. Expression profiles revealed differential regulation of 8.4% of the total leaf transcriptome with 1334 genes up-regulated and 501 down-regulated upon wounding at log2-fold change (|FC| ≤ −1 and ≥1) and FDR value ≤ 0.05. In silico analysis showed the activation of defenses through up-regulation of genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, pathogenesis, oxidases and CYTP450 besides differential regulation of kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors of the WRKY, MYB, ERFs, bZIP families. A substantial change in the regulation of hormonal networks was observed with up-regulation of JA and ethylene pathways and suppression of growth associated hormone pathways like GA and auxin within 20 minutes of wounding. Secondary qPCR comparison of selected genes showed that oral secretions often increased differential expression relative to mechanical damage alone. The studies provide new insights into early wound responses in chickpea. PMID:28300183

  2. LOW-TEMPERATURE ION TRAP STUDIES OF N{sup +}({sup 3} P{sub ja} ) + H{sub 2}(j) {yields} NH{sup +} + H

    SciTech Connect

    Zymak, I.; Hejduk, M.; Mulin, D.; Plasil, R.; Glosik, J.; Gerlich, D.

    2013-05-01

    Using a low-temperature 22-pole ion trap apparatus, detailed measurements for the title reaction have been performed between 10 K and 100 K in order to get some state specific information about this fundamental hydrogen abstraction process. The relative population of the two lowest H{sub 2} rotational states, j = 0 and 1, has been varied systematically. NH{sup +} formation is nearly thermo-neutral; however, to date, the energetics are not known with the accuracy required for low-temperature astrochemistry. Additional complications arise from the fact that, so far, there is no reliable theoretical or experimental information on how the reactivity of the N{sup +} ion depends on its fine-structure (FS) state {sup 3} P{sub ja} . Since in the present trapping experiment, thermalization of the initially hot FS population competes with hydrogen abstraction, the evaluation of the decay of N{sup +} ions over long storage times and at various He and H{sub 2} gas densities provides information on these processes. First assuming strict adiabatic behavior, a set of state specific rate coefficients is derived from the measured thermal rate coefficients. In addition, by recording the disappearance of the N{sup +} ions over several orders of magnitude, information on nonadiabatic transitions is extracted including FS-changing collisions.

  3. Simulated herbivory in chickpea causes rapid changes in defense pathways and hormonal transcription networks of JA/ethylene/GA/auxin within minutes of wounding.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saurabh Prakash; Srivastava, Shruti; Goel, Ridhi; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Priya; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P

    2017-03-16

    Chickpea (C. arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop in Asian and African countries that suffers significant yield losses due to attacks by insects like H. armigera. To obtain insights into early responses of chickpea to insect attack, a transcriptomic analysis of chickpea leaves just 20 minutes after simulated herbivory was performed, using oral secretions of H. armigera coupled with mechanical wounding. Expression profiles revealed differential regulation of 8.4% of the total leaf transcriptome with 1334 genes up-regulated and 501 down-regulated upon wounding at log2-fold change (|FC| ≤ -1 and ≥1) and FDR value ≤ 0.05. In silico analysis showed the activation of defenses through up-regulation of genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, pathogenesis, oxidases and CYTP450 besides differential regulation of kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors of the WRKY, MYB, ERFs, bZIP families. A substantial change in the regulation of hormonal networks was observed with up-regulation of JA and ethylene pathways and suppression of growth associated hormone pathways like GA and auxin within 20 minutes of wounding. Secondary qPCR comparison of selected genes showed that oral secretions often increased differential expression relative to mechanical damage alone. The studies provide new insights into early wound responses in chickpea.

  4. Prevalence of total knee arthroplasty and its predictive factors in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Analysis using the NinJa cohort.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Tetsuro; Nishino, Jinju; Shoda, Naoko; Koizumi, Yasuhiko; Ohashi, Satoru; Kadono, Yuho; Tanaka, Sakae; Tohma, Shigeto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence and the predictive factors for undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The data of 1,134 patients with RA who were enrolled in the Japanese nationwide cohort database NinJa in 2003 and consecutively followed up until 2009 were analyzed. Seventy-six patients underwent TKA during the observation period. The yearly progression of the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire or mHAQ score from 2003 to 2004, but not the yearly progression of the Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints or DAS28 or patient visual analog scale (VAS) score, was significantly higher in the patients who underwent TKA than those who did not. Multivariate analysis showed that knee involvement in the disease, high Steinbrocker stage (III or IV), and high patient VAS score at the time of enrollment were powerful predictive factors, with hazard ratios of 4.01, 3.71, and 1.20, respectively. According to survival analysis with TKA as an endpoint, patients with knee involvement in the disease at the time of enrollment had a significantly worse 5-year survival rate than did those without knee involvement (83.5% vs. 97.0%, respectively). Several factors were elucidated as predictive factors for undergoing TKA among patients with RA.

  5. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and administration of RA-related drugs in patients with RA: The NinJa 2012 study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saisho, Koichiro; Yoshikawa, Norie; Sugata, Ko; Hamada, Hiroaki; Tohma, Shigeto

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the administration of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic-drugs (DMARDs), using data from the National Database of Rheumatic Disease by iR-net in Japan (NinJa) 2012 study. From a total of 11,940 RA patients, 7135 who underwent an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) test were studied. Renal dysfunction staging was assessed using Japanese eGFR equations and classified according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes 2012 clinical practice guideline. The prevalence of GFR stages was as follows: stage G1, 25.4%; stage G2, 55.9%; stage G3, 17.5%; stage G4, 0.8%; and stage G5, 0.2%. Overall, 92.7% of patients received at least one DMARD. Sulfasalazine, tacrolimus, and biologics (except inflixmab) were administered in all GFR stages. Methotrexate was not prescribed in patients with stage G5, but methotrexate 3.5 mg/week (mean) was prescribed in four patients (6.8%) with stage G4. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoids were prescribed in 40.5% and 43.7% of patients, respectively. The prevalence of kidney disease in this large sample of RA patients was higher than that in the general population, and the results suggest that RA patients with renal dysfunction require careful drug selection.

  6. Physical and metabolic interactions of Pseudomonas sp. strain JA5-B45 and Rhodococcus sp. strain F9-D79 during growth on crude oil and effect of a chemical surfactant on them.

    PubMed

    Van Hamme, J D; Ward, O P

    2001-10-01

    Methods to enhance crude oil biodegradation by mixed bacterial cultures, for example, (bio)surfactant addition, are complicated by the diversity of microbial populations within a given culture. The physical and metabolic interactions between Rhodococcus sp. strain F9-D79 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JA5-B45 were examined during growth on Bow River crude oil. The effects of a nonionic chemical surfactant, Igepal CO-630 (nonylphenol ethoxylate), also were evaluated. Strain F9-D79 grew attached to the oil-water interface and produced a mycolic acid-containing capsule. Crude oil emulsification and surface activity were associated with the cellular fraction. Strain JA5-B45 grew in the aqueous phase and was unable to emulsify oil, but cell-free supernatants mediated kerosene-water emulsion formation. In coculture, stable emulsions were formed and strain JA5-B45 had an affinity for the capsule produced by strain F9-D79. Igepal CO-630 inhibited F9-D79 cells from adhering to the interface, and cells grew dispersed in the aqueous phase as 0.5-microm cocci rather than 2.5-microm rods. The surfactant increased total petroleum hydrocarbon removal by strain JA5-B45 from 4 to 22% and included both saturated compounds and aromatics. In coculture, TPH removal increased from 13 to 40% following surfactant addition. The culture pH normally increased from 7.0 to between 7.5 and 8.5, although addition of Igepal CO-630 to F9-D79 cultures resulted in a drop to pH 5.5. We suggest a dual role for the nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in the coculture: (i) to improve hydrocarbon uptake by strain JA5-B45 through emulsification and (ii) to prevent strain F9-D79 from adhering to the oil-water interface, indirectly increasing hydrocarbon availability. These varied effects on hydrocarbon biodegradation could explain some of the known diversity of surfactant effects.

  7. Physical and Metabolic Interactions of Pseudomonas sp. Strain JA5-B45 and Rhodococcus sp. Strain F9-D79 during Growth on Crude Oil and Effect of a Chemical Surfactant on Them

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Ward, Owen P.

    2001-01-01

    Methods to enhance crude oil biodegradation by mixed bacterial cultures, for example, (bio)surfactant addition, are complicated by the diversity of microbial populations within a given culture. The physical and metabolic interactions between Rhodococcus sp. strain F9-D79 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JA5-B45 were examined during growth on Bow River crude oil. The effects of a nonionic chemical surfactant, Igepal CO-630 (nonylphenol ethoxylate), also were evaluated. Strain F9-D79 grew attached to the oil-water interface and produced a mycolic acid-containing capsule. Crude oil emulsification and surface activity were associated with the cellular fraction. Strain JA5-B45 grew in the aqueous phase and was unable to emulsify oil, but cell-free supernatants mediated kerosene-water emulsion formation. In coculture, stable emulsions were formed and strain JA5-B45 had an affinity for the capsule produced by strain F9-D79. Igepal CO-630 inhibited F9-D79 cells from adhering to the interface, and cells grew dispersed in the aqueous phase as 0.5-μm cocci rather than 2.5-μm rods. The surfactant increased total petroleum hydrocarbon removal by strain JA5-B45 from 4 to 22% and included both saturated compounds and aromatics. In coculture, TPH removal increased from 13 to 40% following surfactant addition. The culture pH normally increased from 7.0 to between 7.5 and 8.5, although addition of Igepal CO-630 to F9-D79 cultures resulted in a drop to pH 5.5. We suggest a dual role for the nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in the coculture: (i) to improve hydrocarbon uptake by strain JA5-B45 through emulsification and (ii) to prevent strain F9-D79 from adhering to the oil-water interface, indirectly increasing hydrocarbon availability. These varied effects on hydrocarbon biodegradation could explain some of the known diversity of surfactant effects. PMID:11571196

  8. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for detection of genotoxic carcinogens: II. Summary of definitive validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Beevers, Carol; De Boeck, Marlies; Burlinson, Brian; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Kitamoto, Sachiko; Kraynak, Andrew R; McNamee, James; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Pant, Kamala; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Priestley, Catherine; Takasawa, Hironao; Wada, Kunio; Wirnitzer, Uta; Asano, Norihide; Escobar, Patricia A; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Nakajima, Madoka; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this exercise was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The study protocol was optimized in the pre-validation studies, and then the definitive (4th phase) validation study was conducted in two steps. In the 1st step, assay reproducibility was confirmed among laboratories using four coded reference chemicals and the positive control ethyl methanesulfonate. In the 2nd step, the predictive capability was investigated using 40 coded chemicals with known genotoxic and carcinogenic activity (i.e., genotoxic carcinogens, genotoxic non-carcinogens, non-genotoxic carcinogens, and non-genotoxic non-carcinogens). Based on the results obtained, the in vivo comet assay is concluded to be highly capable of identifying genotoxic chemicals and therefore can serve as a reliable predictor of rodent carcinogenicity.

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of single-molecule sequencing and hybrid approaches for finishing the Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1 strain DSM 10061 genome

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Nagaraju, Shilpa; Utturkar, Sagar M; De Tissera, Sashini; Segovia, Simón; Mitchell, Wayne; Land, Miriam L; Dassanayake, Asela; Köpke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium autoethanogenum strain JA1-1 (DSM 10061) is an acetogen capable of fermenting CO, CO2 and H2 (e.g. from syngas or waste gases) into biofuel ethanol and commodity chemicals such as 2,3-butanediol. A draft genome sequence consisting of 100 contigs has been published. Results A closed, high-quality genome sequence for C. autoethanogenum DSM10061 was generated using only the latest single-molecule DNA sequencing technology and without the need for manual finishing. It is assigned to the most complex genome classification based upon genome features such as repeats, prophage, nine copies of the rRNA gene operons. It has a low G + C content of 31.1%. Illumina, 454, Illumina/454 hybrid assemblies were generated and then compared to the draft and PacBio assemblies using summary statistics, CGAL, QUAST and REAPR bioinformatics tools and comparative genomic approaches. Assemblies based upon shorter read DNA technologies were confounded by the large number repeats and their size, which in the case of the rRNA gene operons were ~5 kb. CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Paloindromic Repeats) systems among biotechnologically relevant Clostridia were classified and related to plasmid content and prophages. Potential associations between plasmid content and CRISPR systems may have implications for historical industrial scale Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation failures and future large scale bacterial fermentations. While C. autoethanogenum contains an active CRISPR system, no such system is present in the closely related Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528. A common prophage inserted into the Arg-tRNA shared between the strains suggests a common ancestor. However, C. ljungdahlii contains several additional putative prophages and it has more than double the amount of prophage DNA compared to C. autoethanogenum. Other differences include important metabolic genes for central metabolism (as an additional hydrogenase and the absence of a

  10. Citrus leprosis virus C Infection Results in Hypersensitive-Like Response, Suppression of the JA/ET Plant Defense Pathway and Promotion of the Colonization of Its Mite Vector

    PubMed Central

    Arena, Gabriella D.; Ramos-González, Pedro L.; Nunes, Maria A.; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Camargo, Luis E. A.; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Machado, Marcos A.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Leprosis is a serious disease of citrus caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C, genus Cilevirus) whose transmission is mediated by false spider mites of the genus Brevipalpus. CiLV-C infection does not systemically spread in any of its known host plants, thus remaining restricted to local lesions around the feeding sites of viruliferous mites. To get insight into this unusual pathosystem, we evaluated the expression profiles of genes involved in defense mechanisms of Arabidopsis thaliana and Citrus sinensis upon infestation with non-viruliferous and viruliferous mites by using reverse-transcription qPCR. These results were analyzed together with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the appearance of dead cells as assessed by histochemical assays. After interaction with non-viruliferous mites, plants locally accumulated ROS and triggered the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate/ethylene (JA/ET) pathways. ERF branch of the JA/ET pathways was highly activated. In contrast, JA pathway genes were markedly suppressed upon the CiLV-C infection mediated by viruliferous mites. Viral infection also intensified the ROS burst and cell death, and enhanced the expression of genes involved in the RNA silencing mechanism and SA pathway. After 13 days of infestation of two sets of Arabidopsis plants with non-viruliferous and viruliferous mites, the number of mites in the CiLV-C infected Arabidopsis plants was significantly higher than in those infested with the non-viruliferous ones. Oviposition of the viruliferous mites occurred preferentially in the CiLV-C infected leaves. Based on these results, we postulated the first model of plant/Brevipalpus mite/cilevirus interaction in which cells surrounding the feeding sites of viruliferous mites typify the outcome of a hypersensitive-like response, whereas viral infection induces changes in the behavior of its vector. PMID:27933078

  11. Induced Systemic Resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Bacillus cereus AR156 through a JA/ET- and NPR1-Dependent Signaling Pathway and Activates PAMP-Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nie, Pingping; Li, Xia; Wang, Shune; Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Hongwei; Niu, Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    Induced resistance response is a potent and cost effective plant defense against pathogen attack. The effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of the suppressive ability by Bacillus cereus AR156 to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis has been investigated previously; however, the strength of induced systemic resistance (ISR) activity against Botrytis cinerea remains unknown. Here, we show that root-drench application of AR156 significantly reduces disease incidence through activation of ISR. This protection is accompanied with multilayered ISR defense response activated via enhanced accumulation of PR1 protein expression in a timely manner, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and callose deposition, which is significantly more intense in plants with both AR156 pretreatment and B. cinerea inoculation than that in plants with pathogen inoculation only. Moreover, AR156 can trigger ISR in sid2-2 and NahG mutants, but not in jar1, ein2 and npr1 mutant plants. Our results indicate that AR156-induced ISR depends on JA/ET-signaling pathway and NPR1, but not SA. Also, AR156-treated plants are able to rapidly activate MAPK signaling and FRK1/WRKY53 gene expression, both of which are involved in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The results indicate that AR156 can induce ISR by the JA/ET-signaling pathways in an NPR1-dependent manner and involves multiple PTI components.

  12. Nicotiana attenuata MPK4 suppresses a novel jasmonic acid (JA) signaling-independent defense pathway against the specialist insect Manduca sexta, but is not required for the resistance to the generalist Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2013-08-01

    How plants tailor their defense responses to attack from different insects remains largely unknown. Here, we studied the role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), MPK4, in the resistance of a wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata to two herbivores, the specialist Manduca sexta and the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Stably transformed N. attenuata plants silenced in MPK4 (irMPK4) were generated and characterized for traits important for defense against herbivores. Only the oral secretions (OS) from M. sexta, but not the OS from S. littoralis or mechanical wounding, induced elevated levels of jasmonic acid (JA) in irMPK4 plants relative to the wild-type plants. Moreover, silencing of MPK4 strongly increased the resistance of N. attenuata to M. sexta in a fashion that was independent of COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1)-mediated JA signaling. Untargeted metabolomic screening identified several new MPK4-dependent putative defensive compounds against M. sexta. By contrast, silencing of MPK4 did not affect the growth of the generalist insect S. littoralis, and we propose that this was because of the very low levels of fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in S. littoralis OS. Thus, MPK4 is likely to be a key signaling element that enables plants to tailor defense responses to different attackers. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) improved anti-adipogenic activity associated with the oxidative stress system in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Yoon, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-11

    Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties.

  14. Induced Systemic Resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Bacillus cereus AR156 through a JA/ET- and NPR1-Dependent Signaling Pathway and Activates PAMP-Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Pingping; Li, Xia; Wang, Shune; Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Hongwei; Niu, Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    Induced resistance response is a potent and cost effective plant defense against pathogen attack. The effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of the suppressive ability by Bacillus cereus AR156 to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis has been investigated previously; however, the strength of induced systemic resistance (ISR) activity against Botrytis cinerea remains unknown. Here, we show that root-drench application of AR156 significantly reduces disease incidence through activation of ISR. This protection is accompanied with multilayered ISR defense response activated via enhanced accumulation of PR1 protein expression in a timely manner, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and callose deposition, which is significantly more intense in plants with both AR156 pretreatment and B. cinerea inoculation than that in plants with pathogen inoculation only. Moreover, AR156 can trigger ISR in sid2-2 and NahG mutants, but not in jar1, ein2 and npr1 mutant plants. Our results indicate that AR156-induced ISR depends on JA/ET-signaling pathway and NPR1, but not SA. Also, AR156-treated plants are able to rapidly activate MAPK signaling and FRK1/WRKY53 gene expression, both of which are involved in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The results indicate that AR156 can induce ISR by the JA/ET-signaling pathways in an NPR1-dependent manner and involves multiple PTI components. PMID:28293243

  15. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) Sprout Treated with Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) Improved Anti-Adipogenic Activity Associated with the Oxidative Stress System in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Yoon, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties. PMID:23344050

  16. Evaluation of methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene and 5-fluorouracil: Part of the Japanese center for the validation of alternative methods (JaCVAM) international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Junker-Walker, Ursula; Martus, Hans-Joerg

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene, and 5-fluorouracil under coded test conditions. Rats were treated orally with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and two additional descending doses of the respective compounds. In the MMS treated groups liver and stomach showed significantly elevated DNA damage at each dose level and a significant dose-response relationship. 2,6-diaminotoluene induced significantly elevated DNA damage in the liver at each dose and a statistically significant dose-response relationship whereas no DNA damage was obtained in the stomach. 5-fluorouracil did not induce DNA damage in either liver or stomach.

  17. Four new species of Pomphopsilla Jałoszyński and a new record of Cephennodes glabella Castellini in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2016-04-07

    Four new species of the genus Pomphopsilla Jałoszyński are described, all based on specimens collected in the north-eastern part of DR Congo: P. pygmaea sp. n., P. pseudosoror sp. n., P. similis sp. n., and P. gumovskyi sp. n. Previously Pomphopsilla, represented by two species, was known to occur in Kenya; the only genera of Cephenniini recorded from DR Congo were Cephennodes Reitter and Cephennomicrus Reitter. Cephennodes (s. str.) glabella Castellini, so far known only from the type series, is recorded from the same region of Congo, based on numerous specimens collected by yellow pan traps. Because figures in the original description of this species were relatively schematic, the aedeagus and modifications of the head in the male are illustrated.

  18. Use of a standardized JaCVAM in vivo rat comet assay protocol to assess the genotoxicity of three coded test compounds; ampicillin trihydrate, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), our laboratory examined ampicillin trihydrate (AMP), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDA) using a standard comet assay validation protocol (v14.2) developed by the JaCVAM validation management team (VMT). Coded samples were received by our laboratory along with basic MSDS information. Solubility analysis and range-finding experiments of the coded test compounds were conducted for dose selection. Animal dosing schedules, the comet assay processing and analysis, and statistical analysis were conducted in accordance with the standard protocol. Based upon our blinded evaluation, AMP was not found to exhibit evidence of genotoxicity in either the rat liver or stomach. However, both NDA and DMH were observed to cause a significant increase in % tail DNA in the rat liver at all dose levels tested. While acute hepatoxicity was observed for these compounds in the high dose group, in the investigators opinion there were a sufficient number of consistently damaged/measurable cells at the medium and low dose groups to judge these compounds as genotoxic. There was no evidence of genotoxicity from either NDA or DMH in the rat stomach. In conclusion, our laboratory observed increased DNA damage from two blinded test compounds in rat liver (later identified as genotoxic carcinogens), while no evidence of genotoxicity was observed for the third blinded test compound (later identified as a non-genotoxic, non-carcinogen). This data supports the use of a standardized protocol of the in vivo comet assay as a cost-effective alternative genotoxicity assay for regulatory testing purposes.

  19. A resolution honoring the life of pioneering astronaut Dr. Sally Ride and expressing the condolences of the Senate on her death.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Boxer, Barbara [D-CA

    2012-08-02

    08/02/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Harry and Sally Revisited: The Influence of Spirituality and Education on Sexual Tension in Cross-Sex Friendships in Secular and Christian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Darren; Adalikwu-Obisike, Justina; Boyko, Jesse; Johnson, Jay; Boscanin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    A sample of 406 subjects completed a questionnaire testing the influence of personal spirituality, education and several other factors on sexual tension in cross-sex friendships (CSF Tension). The subjects included 143 students from a Christian university (CU), 137 from a secular junior college (JC), and 127 non-students (NS). The primary…

  1. Happy to see me, aren't you, Sally? Signal detection analysis of emotion detection in briefly presented male and female faces.

    PubMed

    Pixton, Tonya S

    2011-08-01

    Using signal detection methods, possible effects of emotion type (happy, angry), gender of the stimulus face, and gender of the participant on the detection and response bias of emotion in briefly presented faces were investigated. Fifty-seven participants (28 men, 29 women) viewed 90 briefly presented faces (30 happy, 30 angry, and 30 neutral, each with 15 male and 15 female faces) answering yes if the face was perceived as emotional and no if it was not perceived as emotional. Sensitivity [d', z(hit rate) minus z(false alarm rate)] and response bias (β, likelihood ratio of "signal plus noise" vs. "noise") were measured for each face combination for each presentation time (6.25, 12.50, 18.75, 25.00, 31.25 ms). The d' values were higher for happy than for angry faces and higher for angry-male than for angry-female faces, and there were no effects of gender-of-participant. Results also suggest a greater tendency for participants to judge happy-female faces as emotional, as shown by lower β values for these faces as compared to the other emotion-gender combinations. This happy-female response bias suggests, at least, a partial explanation to happy-superiority effects in studies where performance is only measured as percent correct responses, and, in general, that women are expected to be happy. © 2011 The Author. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  2. A resolution honoring the life of pioneering astronaut Dr. Sally Ride and expressing the condolences of the Senate on her death.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Boxer, Barbara [D-CA

    2012-08-02

    Senate - 08/02/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Harry and Sally Revisited: The Influence of Spirituality and Education on Sexual Tension in Cross-Sex Friendships in Secular and Christian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Darren; Adalikwu-Obisike, Justina; Boyko, Jesse; Johnson, Jay; Boscanin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    A sample of 406 subjects completed a questionnaire testing the influence of personal spirituality, education and several other factors on sexual tension in cross-sex friendships (CSF Tension). The subjects included 143 students from a Christian university (CU), 137 from a secular junior college (JC), and 127 non-students (NS). The primary…

  4. A resolution honoring the life of pioneering astronaut Dr. Sally Ride and expressing the condolences of the Senate on her death.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Boxer, Barbara [D-CA

    2012-08-02

    08/02/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S6012-6013; text as passed Senate: CR S6013; text of measure as introduced: CR S5993) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy of the Ediacaran Jaíba Formation, Upper Bambuí Group, Brazil: Insights into Paleogeography and Sedimentary Environments after a Neoproterozoic Glaciation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caxito, F.; Uhlein, G. J.; Sial, A. N.; Uhlein, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic Era was a time of extreme climatic variation as recorded in sedimentary rocks of this age across the globe, leading to a number of controversial hypotheses (e.g. the Snowball Earth glaciations). In eastern Brazil, the Bambuí Gr. is a thick carbonatic-siliciclastic unit that covers the São Francisco Craton and preserves remnants of a Neoproterozoic glaciation and their respective cap carbonate (1). Recent findings of Cloudina in the Januária region (2) suggest that at least part of the sequence might be upper Ediacaran or even Cambrian. Here we present the first carbon-oxygen isotope data for the Jaíba Fm., a ca. 50 m thick carbonate unit that occurs in the topmost portion of the Bambuí Gr. in this same region. The Jaíba Fm. post-dates the cap carbonate sequence and the fossil-bearing layers, and thus was probably deposited in the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. Three stratigraphic columns were analyzed, and yielded similar ratios. Values of δ13CVPDB are between 0.8 and 3.4 ‰, while δ18OVPDB values are mostly around -8 ‰. These values contrasts with the negative δ13C values found for the base of the Bambuí Gr., followed by highly positive δ13C (up to +14‰) on its middle portion. The unusually high δ13C values are commonly interpreted as evidence for deposition on a restricted basin, such as in a foreland setting. The return to values which are close to the PDB standard in the uppermost Bambuí Gr. might thus indicate a change in the paleogeography and tectonic environment of the basin, suggesting an open, ventilated environment along with a recovery of the biological and hydrological cycle after a Late Neoproterozoic glaciation. Ongoing detailed sedimentological, geochemical and isotopic work might help to further clarify these issues and to provide new clues for unraveling Late Neoproterozoic paleoclimate, paleogeography and ocean chemistry. We thank FAPEMIG (Brazil) for finnacial support through grants n. APQ-00914-14 and PPM

  6. Evaluation of 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether in the rat comet assay: Part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Priestley, Catherine C; Walker, Joanne S; O'Donovan, Michael R; Doherty, Ann T

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (DPE), a known rodent genotoxic carcinogen, was tested in this laboratory. Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of DPE, 24 and 21 h apart and liver or stomach sampled 3h after the final dose. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage in liver and stomach were observed with DPE (up to 200 mg/kg/day). A dose-dependent decrease in DNA migration, compared to vehicle controls, was noted for DPE in rat stomach. Further analysis is required to elucidate fully whether this decrease is a consequence of the mode of action or due to the toxicity of DPE. What is perhaps surprising is the inability of the comet assay to detect a known rat genotoxic carcinogen in liver. Further investigation is needed to clarify whether this apparent lack of response results from limited tissue exposure or metabolic differences between species. This finding highlights a need for careful consideration of study design when evaluating assay performance as a measure of in vivo genotoxicity.

  7. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study.

  8. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-24

    Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4. Other Work Items: • Sally Ride Progress – There continues to be no notable...meet SOLAS fire boundary requirements. • Sally Ride MCS FAT – A factory acceptance test will be held for Sally Ride’s Machinery Control System on 4...judgment until the actual design can be reviewed. • Sally Ride Master’s Stateroom – The structural stanchion blocking access to the Master’s head and

  9. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-09

    Sally Ride . 4. Other Work Items: • Sally Ride Progress - There continues to be no notable progress in the pipe...directed to develop a plan to meet USCG/ABS requirements without resorting to gratings. • Sally Ride MCS FAT - Traveled to Alpharetta, GA for the MCS...recorded. Will continue to monitor the situation. 3 • Sally Ride Mast Painting – • Sally Ride Stack – Internals painted.

  10. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along su...

  11. Personnel Management: A J/A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Recently, personnel executives and their staffs are being asked to help management solve an increasing number of human resource and business problems. Personnel management must undergo some changes if it is to achieve its full potential. (Author/AJ)

  12. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along su...

  13. Personnel Management: A J/A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Recently, personnel executives and their staffs are being asked to help management solve an increasing number of human resource and business problems. Personnel management must undergo some changes if it is to achieve its full potential. (Author/AJ)

  14. 77 FR 45589 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review and Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... contact A-357-818....... 731-TA-1105 Argentina...... Lemon Juice (1st Sally Gannon, (202) 482-0162 Review). A-201-835....... 731-TA-1106 Mexico......... Lemon Juice (1st Sally Gannon, (202) 482-0162 Review...

  15. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-12

    for Sally Ride . iv. Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator Concerns: • Tuff-Mass MLV and Acoustic Tiles – This week we were notified that the...USCG has approved Pyrotek’s Quadzero Nonlite foil faced MLV for use. The yard has ordered the material and will begin installing it on Sally Ride ...fwd winch wire can be reeved to the SSHD as required. 5. Sally Ride Progress: • Sally Ride Electrical – Resistance reading taken on

  16. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-13

    and Supplemental Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . iv. Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator...continue to monitor. At this time, HiFog piping and nozzles have not be installed in this space. 5. Sally Ride Progress: • Sally Ride ...has been landed. Work continues on the foc’sle and 01 deck staterooms & P-ways. Sally Ride Galley 3 • Piping Systems – DCI

  17. AGOR 27/28 Phase II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    III discussions 6 August and OCEAN AGOR design review 19-20 August, as well as SALLY RIDE christening 9 August. 5. SALLY RIDE remains behind on...site representatives report zero progress on electrical systems on SALLY RIDE (all efforts being devoted to NEIL ARMSTRONG). At this point, joiner...substantial correction to the delays on SALLY RIDE and she may be delivered even later than September 2015 (April 2015 plus six months). As MELVILLE

  18. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-24

    Supplemental Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4. Other Work Items:  Delta DB and Acoustic Tiles...by ANSI Std Z39-18 2  Sally Ride Mod 6 Stern – The stern section was lifted, flipped and positioned behind Mod 4...3  Sally Ride Mod 1 BT Sub-assembly – Side shell fitted.  Sally Ride Pilot House - Inspected pilot house and pilot house void

  19. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-23

    Sally Ride . iv. Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator Concerns: • Dodge Shaft Bearings – For the Starboard shaft, the temperature on the...as there is no space for permanently installed hinged covers. Port Side Louvers – Sally Ride Starboard Side Louvers - Armstrong Scott... Sally Ride indicates that the yard has stopped insulation work in areas where this product is/was to be used. Sally Ride Aux Machinery Overhead

  20. AGOR 27/28 Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    SALLY RIDE remains behind on construction. While production activity has picked up on SALLY RIDE , believe...the delta between NEIL ARMSTRONG and SALLY RIDE delivery will remain at six months. 6. SIO is examining post-delivery modification of the A-frame for...environmentally acceptable lubricants (EALs) which could be used on SALLY RIDE . 8. Next design review is January 2015. 9. Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.

  1. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-23

    review Technical Manuals and Supplemental Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4. Other Work Items...issues were noted. 3  Sally Ride Shell Plate – The penultimate piece of hull plating in the process of fitting... Sally Ride 02 Deck – The final, aft section of the 02 deck has been landed onto the 01 Deck House. 4  Sally Ride Rudder

  2. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    iii. Buy-list In Review iv. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 3 4. Other Work Items:  VRS...provided for this reporting period.  Sally Ride Mod 1 Stem – Fabrication of the forward bow sub-assemble continues with anchor pocket...fabrication. 4  Sally Ride Mod 5 – Aft Science and Engine Room Stores bulkheads landed. Sally Ride Mod 5 1 st Platform Deck

  3. Comment on “Comparison of the composition of the Tempel 1 ejecta to the dust in Comet C/Hale Bopp 1995 O1 and YSO HD 100546” by C.M. Lisse, K.E. Kraemer, J.A. Nuth III, A. Li, D. Joswiak [2007. Icarus 187, 69 86

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovisier, Jacques; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique

    2008-06-01

    Lisse et al. [Lisse, C.M., Kraemer, K.E., Nuth III, J.A., Li, A., Joswiak, D., 2007. Icarus 187, 69-86] recently presented a new analysis of an ISO spectrum of Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), from which they claimed the identification of many new dust species. Among them are PAHs, which were not found in our first analysis of the ISO spectra. We present here a re-examination of the ISO observations of Comet Hale-Bopp. From the absence of PAHs features in the 5.25-8.5 μm region, we infer that PAHs are at least twice less abundant than derived by Lisse et al. The carbonate feature at 7.00 μm is marginally present, but lower by a factor 2 to 3 than predicted by the model of Lisse et al.

  4. Rebuttal to “Comment on the paper “Comparison of the composition of the Tempel 1 ejecta to the dust in Comet C/Hale Bopp 1995 O1 and YSO HD 100546” by C.M. Lisse, K.E. Kraemer, J.A. Nuth III, A. Li, and D. Joswiak"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, C. M.

    2008-06-01

    This response is to address the comments made by Drs. J. Crovisier and D. Bockelee-Morvan concerning the spectral analysis of Lisse et al. [Lisse, C.M., Kraemer, K.E., Nuth, J.A., Li, A., Joswiak, D., 2007. Icarus 187, 69-86] of the mid-IR ISO SWS spectrum of Comet Hale-Bopp 1995 O1 taken on October 6, 1996, and to support the conclusions made in Lisse et al. concerning the positive detection of PAHs in this comet. We also present some additional information determined from the Deep Impact and STARDUST missions, demonstrating the presence of PAHs in other comets, to support the plausibility of the Hale-Bopp PAH detection.

  5. Evaluation of p-phenylenediamine, o-phenylphenol sodium salt, and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the rat comet assay as part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Marlies; van der Leede, Bas-jan; De Vlieger, Kathleen; Geys, Helena; Vynckier, An; Van Gompel, Jacky

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiated international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (PPD), o-phenylphenol sodium salt (OPP), and 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), were analyzed in this laboratory as coded test chemicals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of the test compounds, 24 and 21 h apart and liver and stomach were sampled 3h after the final dose administration. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage were observed in liver and stomach with PPD and OPP up to 100 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively. 2,4-DAT, a known genotoxic carcinogen, induced a weak but reproducible, dose-related and statistically significant increase in DNA damage in liver cells while no increases were observed in stomach cells.

  6. Oversight Hearing on Student Loan Marketing Associations. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Oversight hearings on the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) are presented. Sallie Mae was established by the Education Amendments of 1972 to provide liquidity for Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) lenders by purchasing GSL portfolios from lenders or making loans on GSL loans held by lenders. In 1982, Sallie Mae had total cumulative…

  7. Results of the International Validation of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: Individual data for 1,2-dibromoethane, p-anisidine, and o-anthranilic acid in the 2nd step of the 4th phase Validation Study under the JaCVAM initiative.

    PubMed

    Takasawa, Hironao; Takashima, Rie; Narumi, Kazunori; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hattori, Akiko; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Hamada, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative International Validation Study of an in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), p-anisidine (ASD), and o-anthranilic acid (ANT) to investigate the effectiveness of the comet assay in detecting genotoxic carcinogens. Each of the three test chemicals was administered to 5 male Sprague-Dawley rats per group by oral gavage at 48, 24, and 3h before specimen preparation. Single cells were collected from the liver and glandular stomach at 3h after the final dosing, and the specimens prepared from these two organs were subjected to electrophoresis under alkaline conditions (pH>13). The percentage of DNA intensity in the comet tail was then assessed using an image analysis system. A micronucleus (MN) assay was also conducted using these three test chemicals with the bone marrow (BM) cells collected from the same animals simultaneously used in the comet assay, i.e., combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay. A genotoxic (Ames positive) rodent carcinogen, DBE gave a positive result in the comet assay in the present study, while a genotoxic (Ames positive) non-carcinogen, ASD and a non-genotoxic (Ames negative) non-carcinogen, ANT showed negative results in the comet assay. All three chemicals produced negative results in the BM MN assay. While the comet assay findings in the present study were consistent with those obtained from the rodent carcinogenicity studies for the three test chemicals, we consider the positive result in the comet assay for DBE to be particularly meaningful, given that this chemical produced a negative result in the BM MN assay. Therefore, the combination study of the comet assay and BM MN assay is a useful method to detect genotoxic carcinogens that are undetectable with the BM MN assay alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecology for the shrinking city (JA) | Science Inventory | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This article brings together the concepts of shrinking cities—the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss—and ecology for the city. Ecology for the city is the application of a social–ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along sustainable trajectories. Ecology for the shrinking city therefore acknowledges that urban transformations to sustainable trajectories may be quite different in shrinking cities as compared with growing cities. Shrinking cities are well poised for transformations, because shrinking is perceived as a crisis and can mobilize the social capacity to change. Ecology is particularly well suited to contribute solutions because of the extent of vacant land in shrinking cities that can be leveraged for ecosystem-services provisioning. A crucial role of an ecology for the shrinking city is identifying innovative pathways that create locally desired amenities that provide ecosystem services and contribute to urban sustainability at multiple scales. This paper brings together the concepts of ecology for the city and shrinking cities – the hundreds of cities worldwide experiencing long-term population loss. Ecology for the city is the application of social-ecological understanding to shaping urban form and function along sustainable trajectories. Ecology for the shrinking city acknowledges that urban transformations to sustainable trajectories may be quite different in shrinking cities as compa

  9. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a) | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex internal feedbacks, and non-linearity that often interferes with desired management outcomes, and insufficient understanding of nature and people. Adaptive management was developed to reduce such uncertainty. We present a framework for the application of adaptive management for ecosystem services that explicitly accounts for cross-scale tradeoffs in the production of ecosystem services. Our framework focuses on identifying key spatiotemporal scales (plot, patch, ecosystem, landscape, and region) that encompass dominant structures and processes in the system, and includes within- and cross-scale dynamics, ecosystem service tradeoffs, and management controllability within and across scales. Resilience theory recognizes that a limited set of ecological processes in a given system regulate ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes is poorly understood. If management actions erode or remove these processes, the system may shift into an alternative state unlikely to support the production of desired services. Adaptive management provides a process to assess the underlying within and cross-scale tradeoffs associated with production of ecosystem services while proceeding with manage

  10. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex intern...

  11. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex intern...

  12. AGOR 27/28 Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    review 15 & 16 April. 5. DCI has stated (finally) that SALLY RIDE is behind on construction and will fall further behind as production resources are...diverted to NEIL ARMSTRONG. The shipyard will be hard pressed to present a complementary level of completion for SALLY RIDE at the 9 August 2014...christening that NEIL ARMSTRONG demonstrated at her christening. DCI has little specifics for getting SALLY RIDE back on track other than granting

  13. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-22

    Supplemental Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4. Other Work Items:  Shore Power Receptacle – DCI...being mounted on the side of Armstrong’s Staging Bay.  Sally Ride Port Rudder – Inspected welds and pressure tested with ABS in attendance. No...along with the upper masts sections.  Sally Ride Bow – The foc’s’le deck was landed on the bow. 5  Neil Armstrong Callouts

  14. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-16

    Supplemental Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . iv. Informed that AGOR is fully funded for ILS and IOL for...Pump Sea Chest Starboard Side Machine Shop – Sally Ride  Flag Block Conduit Deck Penetration – Confirmed that the pipe will be 5-inch schedule 160...impression is that the changes are more than adequate. 3  Sally Ride Pilot House – Scheduled to be moved and lifted into place on 24 January

  15. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-09

    Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . ii. Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator Concerns: • Tuff-Mass MLV and Acoustic Tiles...throughout Sally Ride . DCI is holding off on installing any new insulation in the machinery spaces where dampening tiles are still exposed. • Ship...Starboard Working Deck 2 5. Sally Ride Progress: • Load Bank Testing - DCI is working towards the week of May 18 to begin load bank

  16. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4. Operator Concerns: • Starboard Drive Failure – The drive has been fully tested under full load...the pump shaft. Will continue to monitor. 5. Sally Ride Progress: • Starboard Blue Drive – Repairs and testing completed. • Crew Fam – On...bridge with this physically smaller fixture. Starbound launched over the weekend and scheduled to depart Dakota Creek Monday. Sally Ride looks a bit

  17. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-18

    Manuals and Supplemental Information. iii. Reviewing Completed Buy List. iv. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4...Ship Stores Refrigeration – Operators are waiting for revised diagrams and calculations from DCI and the vendor. 3  Sally Ride ...Mod 1 Stem – Fabrication of the forward bow sub-assemble continues - July 1 July 17 4  Sally Ride Mod 5 – Both wing tanks and

  18. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-27

    for Sally Ride . • Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator Concerns: • Acoustic Tiles & MLV - No movement on what noise treatments are to be...out, laminate, and install in proper locations on the ship • Sally Ride Quad-Zero MLV - No change since last report. • Main Deck Noise Levels...seen, the two epoxy base coats appear to be intact. 5. Sally Ride Progress: • Siemens AIS400 IO Testing - 35 of 40 pages completed. No

  19. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-30

    fixes seem reasonable, but the operators would like to see something from Flume showing that they concur.  Sally Ride Stack Markings – SIO has...provided DCI with our stack marking design. This included colors, dimensional drawings and a full sized template of the SIO Trident.  Sally Ride Mod 1...prior to attaching the stem section to the Mod 1 Bow Thruster sub-assembly.  Sally Ride Mod 1 Bow Thruster sub-assembly – The water side intake

  20. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-18

    lists for Sally Ride . • Working on NS5 Hierarchy • Additional firefighting gear schedule for delivery Anacortes before the Christmas holiday.. Local...put into the system and passed on to Armstrong where it has also become a GDR. 5. Sally Ride Progress: • Sally Ride Call Sign WSAF • Exterior... Ride Anti-Fouling Paint – The anti-fouling paint has failed due to an application error. The yard will correct this issue during a planned

  1. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-14

    outfitting lists for Sally Ride . iv. Set up spread sheets for imports to NS5 Enterprise Maintenance and Purchase software. 4. Other Work Items... Sally Ride Launch  Prior to launch, several inspections were made to insure that Ride was ready to launch. During the inspections several small...piping integrity. No reportable discrepancies were noted.  On the morning of August 4th, Sally Ride was moved to the synchrolift and launched. The

  2. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-05

    Supplemental Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4. Other Work Items:  Prepping for DR12  Neil...Std Z39-18 2  Sally Ride Main and Foc’sle Deck House with Staging Bay – 3  Main Masts – Erection of Armstrong’s...mast continues with the landing of the second platform. A majority of the parts for Ride’s mast are completed. 4  Sally Ride Bow

  3. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-02

    for Sally Ride . ii. Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator Concerns: • Acoustic Tiles – No additional tiles have been removed this reporting...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 • Sally Ride Quad-Zero MLV – Installation of Quad-zero continues with only the port & starboard lower level of Main...Machinery space left to be completed. • Main Deck Noise Levels, Sally Ride – During load bank testing of the Generator Sets, the noise profile on

  4. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-27

    work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4. Other Work Items:  HMR 20, Second Galley Oven – DCI informs that the oven will fit with...Control vendors that may be more suited to meeting the specifications.  Sally Ride Potable Water Tanks – Sandblasting is ongoing they should be ready...for paint next week.  Sally Ride – There is quite a bit of welding and fitting ongoing. Some pipe fitting, but very little HVAC or electrical

  5. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    ii. Continuing to review Technical Manuals and Supplemental Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4...Transducer Vents and Fills – SIO submitted preliminary sketch of proposed vent and fill lines to various transducers.  Sally Ride Propeller...RAM/NUC Nav Light Mast). Video submitted showing the effect of a light winds on the mast. DCI has since welded a cross piece on Sally Ride’s mast

  6. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-17

    Supplemental Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . iv. Set up spread sheets for imports to NS5 Enterprise...Maintenance and Purchase software. 4. Other Work Items: • Sally Ride Progress –  Main focus continues to be on seawater piping...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 • Sally Ride Anchor Windlass and Chain – Anchor windlass was tested per procedure. Port and

  7. AGOR 28 SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-06

    distribution unlimited. Report No. A002.033 1. Meetings: i. Participated in weekly conference call. ii. Participated in Sally Ride Noise...the operators be able to control the pitch and rpm independently using the “combinator” propeller controls.  Sally Ride Genset Noise FAT’s...Attended 3 of the 4 scheduled Generator Noise/Vibration FAT’s at B&G Machine in Seattle.  For Sally Ride , NCE went with a 24-channel set up and was

  8. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-14

    initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4. Other Work Items:  HMR 20, Second Galley Oven – DCI presented two options for the operators...does not meet the specifications found in J1. More clarification from the vendor is forthcoming.  Sally Ride – DCI is moving some of the large...delivery. At the very least SIO would like the holes drilled for rails. If the EM710 can be done prior to delivery, all the better.  Sally Ride Move

  9. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-08

    ii. Continuing to review Technical Manuals and Supplemental Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2  Sally Ride Starboard Rudder – Inspected welds and pressure tested with ABS in...Welds Fairing - 3  Sally Ride Pilot House – Welds leak tested by ABS. No leaks noted. Yard indicated that all welds tested

  10. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-11

    Manuals and Supplemental Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4. Other Work Items:  Ship Stores...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2  Sally Ride Equipment Deliveries – The following major equipment was delivered to DCI...Genset Switchboards, Emergency Switchboard, 480v Switchboard, 1500-kva xformer switchboard and the Port and Starboard Blue Drives.  Sally Ride

  11. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-16

    and Supplemental Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . iv. Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator...testing and commissioning of this equipment on Armstrong to verify. • Sally Ride Portable Crane FAT Delay – The FAT for this crane has been put on...January 9th. The delay was reportedly for the trouble shooting and repair of a noisy hydraulic cylinder. • Sally Ride Pilot House & MCS Consoles

  12. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-31

    Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4. Other Work Items:  Markey Technical Manual – Received...icing for the emergency fire pump suction, which will provide an extra level of protection when working in ice prone conditions.  Sally Ride Pilot...with the lifting appliances. 3  Sally Ride Struts – Fabrication of the propeller shaft struts underway. 4

  13. AGOR 28 SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-20

    Sally Ride . iv. Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator Concerns: • Main Deck Vent Closures – Waiting to see how this is resolved by DCI & GPA...Will continue to monitor. • Tuff-Mass MLV and Acoustic Tiles - Awaiting resolution of smoke and flammability issues. • Sally Ride Pilot House...Bearings – The roller bearings have been delivered and are being installed on Armstrong. Sally Ride foundations are complete and ready for paint

  14. KSC-03PD-0461

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., young women gather to sign a large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion the day before. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  15. KSC-03PD-0463

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., young women gather to sign a large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion the day before. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  16. KSC-03PD-0462

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., young women gather to sign a large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion the day before. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  17. KSC-03pd0461

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., young women gather to sign a large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion the day before. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  18. KSC-03pd0462

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., young women gather to sign a large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion the day before. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  19. KSC-03pd0463

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., young women gather to sign a large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion the day before. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  20. KSC-03PD-0461

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., young women gather to sign a large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion the day before. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  1. KSC-03PD-0463

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., young women gather to sign a large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion the day before. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  2. KSC-03PD-0462

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., young women gather to sign a large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion the day before. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  3. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-19

    to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . iv. Started work on ABS Nautical Systems (NS5) maintenance data base for Sally Ride . v. Operators...working with Marine Outfitting and DCI on plan to store bulk VRS items. 4. Other Work Items: • Sally Ride Progress –  Main focus continues...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 • Sally Ride Stern Frame – Deck sockets are fitted and being welded in

  4. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-09

    initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4. Other Work Items: • Sally Ride Progress – There continues to be no notable progress in the pipe, hvac or...VRS Funding – Funding for Buy List 5 has been increased by $200,000. Thank you, Larry! • Sally Ride Motor Mounts – the port and starboard...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 • Sally Ride Machinery – all of the large

  5. An Actor's Role-Reading Approach to Reading Fluency with Junior High Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide teachers, tutors and parents with an effective and enjoyable approach to practicing reading fluency, increasing comprehension and encouraging the joy of reading, based on the theories and methods of Sally L. Smith. This method can be applied and adapted to individual student's needs. Sally Smith, the…

  6. 31 CFR 354.1 - Definitions of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., representative, and any other similar organization, but does not mean or include the United States, Sallie Mae... National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State laws and approved by the American Bar Association on... Holder with respect to a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security. (t) State means any state of the United...

  7. 31 CFR 354.1 - Definitions of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., representative, and any other similar organization, but does not mean or include the United States, Sallie Mae... National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State laws and approved by the American Bar Association on... Holder with respect to a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security. (t) State means any state of the United...

  8. 31 CFR 354.1 - Definitions of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., representative, and any other similar organization, but does not mean or include the United States, Sallie Mae... National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State laws and approved by the American Bar Association on... Holder with respect to a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security. (t) State means any state of the United...

  9. 31 CFR 354.1 - Definitions of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., representative, and any other similar organization, but does not mean or include the United States, Sallie Mae... National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State laws and approved by the American Bar Association on... Holder with respect to a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security. (t) State means any state of the United...

  10. 31 CFR 354.1 - Definitions of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., representative, and any other similar organization, but does not mean or include the United States, Sallie Mae... National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State laws and approved by the American Bar Association on... Holder with respect to a Book-entry Sallie Mae Security. (t) State means any state of the United...

  11. Metabolic Regulation of Caspase 2 in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Kurokawa, Yongjun Wang, Seth S. Margolis, Rafael A. Fissore, and Sally Kornbluth Scheduled for publication in Developmental Cell in June, 2009...Manabu Kurokawa1, Yongjun Wang4, Seth S. Margolis1, Rafael A. Fissore3, and Sally Kornbluth1 1Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke

  12. Questioning the Order of Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupree, Kami M.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, students have been encouraged to use "Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally" as a means of learning the order of operations. Teachers unfamiliar with the Aunt Sally mnemonic are perhaps more familiar with a mnemonic such as PEMDAS. Each mnemonic is intended to convey "parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division,…

  13. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-28

    outfitting lists for Sally Ride . iv. Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Sally Ride Progress: • HVAC – Ducting installation is moving forward with...During today’s walk through, no electricians were seen on board Ride . • Transceiver Room – EK80 cable tray installed in way of fuel tank

  14. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-18

    Sally Ride . • Two full 20-foot IOL shipping containers scheduled for delivery DCI on Monday. • Spares Load out scheduled for next week. 4. Operator...ahead of the water maker suction. 5. Sally Ride Progress: • Sonar Self-Noise Sea Trial Completed • Fire Main Sea Chest Vent – DCI relocate

  15. The Second Annual Report of the Student Loan Marketing Association to the Congress of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Student Loan Marketing Association, Washington, DC.

    The Student Loan Marketing Association ("Sallie Mae") is a government sponsored, private, for profit corporation, created in June 23, 1972, by the enactment of Section 439 of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended. Sallie Mae provides liquidity to commercial banks, savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, credit unions,…

  16. 31 CFR 354.6 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks... SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.6 Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of Sallie Mae to perform...

  17. 31 CFR 354.10 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.10 Additional provisions. (a... attachment for Sallie Mae Securities in Book-entry System. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by a creditor only by legal process upon the Securities Intermediary with whom...

  18. A Critical Reflection on My Learning and Its Integration into My Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This paper, "A critical reflection on my learning and its integration into my professional practice," was successfully submitted for a Master's programme at the University of Bath (UK) in 2010, whilst Sally was working full-time as a teacher in a large secondary school in an English town 10 miles from the city of Bath. Sally died of a…

  19. Cost-Free Financial Aid Focuses Kids on College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Tony P.; Martinez, Alison P.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses college student financial aid. The core business of SLM Corporation, better known as Sallie Mae, is college loans. Its charitable affiliate, the Sallie Mae Fund, offers scholarships like the "First in My Family" grant, targeting first-generation Hispanic college students. Latino college students average less financial aid…

  20. An Actor's Role-Reading Approach to Reading Fluency with Junior High Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide teachers, tutors and parents with an effective and enjoyable approach to practicing reading fluency, increasing comprehension and encouraging the joy of reading, based on the theories and methods of Sally L. Smith. This method can be applied and adapted to individual student's needs. Sally Smith, the…

  1. 31 CFR 354.6 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks... SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.6 Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of Sallie Mae to perform functions...

  2. 31 CFR 354.6 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks... SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.6 Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of Sallie Mae to perform functions...

  3. 31 CFR 354.6 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks... SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.6 Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of Sallie Mae to perform functions...

  4. 31 CFR 354.6 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks... SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.6 Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of Sallie Mae to perform functions...

  5. Behind Each Outstanding Teacher: An Analysis of the Teacher Tribute Award Nominations for the Student Loan Marketing Association, 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Richard W.

    Research assesses the attitudinal factors that characterize outstanding first-year elementary and secondary school teachers as nominated by their superintendents and judged for the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) by a panel of experts selected by the American Association of School Administrators. Sallie Mae nomination forms…

  6. Why Students Can Still Get Loans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Skee

    1978-01-01

    The Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) is a private profit-making corporation chartered by Congress in 1972 to create a secondary market for Guaranteed Student Loans (a program established by Title IV-B of the 1965 Higher Education Act). Sallie Mae's job is to help lending institutions thaw frozen cash and make more loans. (BM)

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 ELEVATION OF CHAPEL AND SALLY PORT TOWARDS THE COURTYARD PLAZA DE ARMAS, SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  8. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 GUNDECK ABOVE CHAPEL AND SALLY PORT, SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 SALLY PORT OF SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO SEEN FROM BRIDGE ACROSS DRY MOAT. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  10. Cost-Free Financial Aid Focuses Kids on College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Tony P.; Martinez, Alison P.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses college student financial aid. The core business of SLM Corporation, better known as Sallie Mae, is college loans. Its charitable affiliate, the Sallie Mae Fund, offers scholarships like the "First in My Family" grant, targeting first-generation Hispanic college students. Latino college students average less financial aid…

  11. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-23

    to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . ii. Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator Concerns: • Tuff-Mass MLV and Acoustic Tiles...The yard is continuing to install the Quad-zero MLV in various locations throughout Sally Ride . DCI is holding off on installing any new insulation...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 • Sally Ride Quad-Zero MLV – The yard continues to install the Quad-Zero

  12. AGOR 28, SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    Sally Ride . iv. Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator Concerns: • Main Deck Vent Closures – Waiting to see how this is resolved by DCI & GPA...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 • Sally Ride Pilot House & MCS Consoles – These are still in Mackay’s hands with no delivery date set. Delivery later...Armstrongs ET Shop and the yard is prepping the Dexotex for tile in the Computer Lab. The look and fit appears to be excellent. • Sally Ride

  13. Vehicle Impact Testing of Snow Roads at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    McMurdo Station, Antarctica Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry Sally A. Shoop, Margaret A. Knuth, Wendy L...Vehicle Impact Testing of Snow Roads at McMurdo Station, Antarctica Sally A. Shoop, Margaret A. Knuth, and Monica Preston Cold Regions Research and...Logistics). This report was prepared by Dr. Sally A. Shoop, Margaret A. Knuth, and Monica Preston (Force Projection and Sustainment Branch, Dr. Edel

  14. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-25

    outfitting lists for Sally Ride . • Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator Concerns: • Test & Trials – DCI has provided an updated schedule to...Room or MMR bilge tops. • Fire Plan – Plan reviewed and accepted by local MSO. • Sally Ride Quad-Zero MLV - No change since last report. Yard...coats appear to be intact. 5. Sally Ride Progress: • Hi-PAP – Government working on HMR to allow for installation of the HiPap prior to Phase

  15. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-18

    and Supplemental Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . iv. Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator...time so that one can be set up while the other is deployed. • Sally Ride Portable Crane FAT Delay – The FAT for this crane has been put on hold. No...specific reason was given for delay. DCI has asked Allied for an update on when the FAT will occur. • Sally Ride Pilot House & MCS Consoles – I asked

  16. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-26

    for Sally Ride . ii. Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator Concerns: • Tuff-Mass MLV and Acoustic Tiles – The application of Delta-db in the BT...PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 • Sally Ride Quad-Zero MLV – The yard continues to install the...Deck Noise Levels, Sally Ride – During load bank testing of the Generator Sets, the noise profile on Ride’s back deck was very similar to that found

  17. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-05

    Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . iv. $150K dollars added to the final VRS funding. Funding for Buy...List 5 is now $579k. 4. Other Work Items: • Sally Ride Progress –  DCI is putting Ride’s workers on 6-10’s in preparation for the launch and...foundation soon  Painters prepping topside for white paint this weekend. • Sally Ride Stern Frame – both legs were placed on their foundations to mark

  18. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-13

    Information. iii. Continuing to work on initial outfitting lists for Sally Ride . 4. Other Work Items:  HMR 20, Second Galley Oven – Waiting on final...specifications.  Sally Ride Anti-Roll Tank – The tank has been fitted and fully welded to the house. Blasting and painting to be done soon. Welders and...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2  Sally Ride Stern Thruster – The motor has been place on its foundation. The cooling fan assembly is ready

  19. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-26

    lists for Sally Ride . iv. Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator Concerns: • Tuff-Mass MLV and Acoustic Tiles – Issue(s) remains open. Nothing new...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 5. Sally Ride Progress: • Sally Ride Electrical – Cable is being feed to several...drilling the foundations. 3 6. Call-outs: No call-outs for Ride this reporting period. 7. The following DRL’s were reviewed

  20. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-10

    for Sally Ride . • Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator Concerns: • Test & Trials – The yard is working towards providing an up dated test...to DCI. DCI will present the plan to the local MSO for approval. • Sally Ride Quad-Zero MLV - No change since last report. Yard has yet to begin...planned docking prior to Builder’s Trials. From what can be seen, the two epoxy base coats appear to be intact. 5. Sally Ride Progress

  1. KSC-03PD-0464

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion Feb. 1, is on display in the NASA News Center at KSC. The poster was signed by young women attending the Sally Ride Science Festival at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls at the festival, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  2. KSC-03pd0464

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion Feb. 1, is on display in the NASA News Center at KSC. The poster was signed by young women attending the Sally Ride Science Festival at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls at the festival, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  3. KSC-03PD-0464

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A large poster in tribute to the Columbia astronauts who were lost in the Shuttle's explosion Feb. 1, is on display in the NASA News Center at KSC. The poster was signed by young women attending the Sally Ride Science Festival at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. The Sally Ride event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls at the festival, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees.

  4. Avoiding potential pitfalls in mergers and acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Glanstein, J; Sallis, M

    1992-01-01

    The single most important factor in determining the success of mergers and acquisitions, write Joy Glanstein, Ph.D., and Mary Sallis, is the human equation and in particular benefit plans--the focus of this article.

  5. 76 FR 11500 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ..., Building 4401, East Campus, 79 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (Virtual Meeting..., Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (Virtual Meeting) Contact Person: Sally Eckert-Tilotta, PhD,...

  6. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE AND RAT OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse and Rat Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research ...

  7. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

  8. NASA Administrator Welcomes Secretary of the Interior

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-15

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, welcomes Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell to NASA Headquarters to discuss continued partnerships between NASA and the Department of the Interior, Wednesday, Jan. 15, 2014 in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Roll Damping Characterisation Program: User Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    sallying test. The Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) have developed a software-based tool called the Roll Damping Characterisation...Murray Riding Maritime Division Murray obtained a Bachelor of Science (Honours) Degree from the

  10. Astronauts Sullivan and Ride synchronize their watches before liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts Kathryn Sullivan and Sally Ride synchronize their watches in the white room on the orbiter access arm before insertion into the orbiter crew compartment. This photo was done before liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger.

  11. Human Space Flight Plans Committee

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-07

    Former astronaut Dr. Sally Ride, left, confers with Norman Augustine, chair, prior to the start of the final meeting of the Human Space Flight Review Committee, Wednesday, Aug. 12, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  12. Human Space Flight Plans Committee

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-12

    Former astronaut Dr. Sally Ride, left, confers with Norman Augustine, chair, prior to the start of the final meeting of the Human Space Flight Review Committee, Wednesday, Aug. 12, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  13. 32 CFR 286.33 - Reports control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... close. It may be submitted electronically and via hard copy accompanied by a computer diskette. In turn... processing before becoming full time FOIA processor in previous example. WHITE, Sally 400 .2 Processed FOIA's...

  14. 78 FR 51734 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ....C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meeting. The meeting will be closed to the public...: Sally Eckert-Tilotta, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health...

  15. Report Analysis: Public and Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Marya R.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo, Eds.

    1981-01-01

    This colloquium presents seven analyses by social scientists of the controversial report, "Public and Private Schools," together with a response by the report's authors, James Coleman, Thomas Hoffer, and Sally Kilgore. (SK)

  16. 77 FR 5261 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ....C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meeting. The meeting will be closed to the public... (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Sally Eckert-Tilotta, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator...

  17. 76 FR 11202 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Nitrate (2nd Review) Sally Gannon (202) 482-0162. Filing Information As a courtesy, we are making... current service lists, available to the public on the Department's Internet Web site at the following...

  18. 78 FR 67375 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... hereby given of the following meetings. The meetings will be closed to the public in accordance with the..., (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Sally A Mulhern, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for...

  19. 76 FR 63311 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... the following meetings. The meetings will be closed to the public in accordance with the provisions... Park, NC 27709, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Sally Eckert-Tilotta, PhD, Scientific...

  20. 78 FR 56902 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ....C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meeting. The meeting will be closed to the public..., 530 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Sally...

  1. 75 FR 52357 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... closed to the public in accordance with the provisions set forth in sections 552b(c)(4) and 552b(c)(6..., Bethesda, MD 20892 (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Sally A. Mulhern, PhD, Scientific Review...

  2. 78 FR 27410 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ....C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meeting. The meeting will be closed to the public...: Sally Eckert-Tilotta, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health...

  3. 77 FR 33472 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ....C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meeting. The meeting will be closed to the public... Emperor Boulevard, Durham, NC 27703. Contact Person: Sally Eckert-Tilotta, Ph.D., Scientific Review...

  4. 78 FR 14562 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ....C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meeting. The meeting will be closed to the public...). Contact Person: Sally Eckert-Tilotta, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institute of...

  5. 77 FR 59938 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... hereby given of the following meeting. The meeting will be closed to the public in accordance with the.... Contact Person: Sally A. Mulhern, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National...

  6. GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    Sally D. Perreault, U. S. Environmental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

  7. Astronauts Sullivan and Ride synchronize their watches before liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts Kathryn Sullivan and Sally Ride synchronize their watches in the white room on the orbiter access arm before insertion into the orbiter crew compartment. This photo was done before liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger.

  8. High School Teachers Win ACS Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Editorial Staff, Jce

    2009-07-01

    William E. Snyder is the 2009 winner of the ACS Division of Chemical Education Central Region Award for Excellence in High School Teaching; Sally Mitchell is the winner of the 2009 James Bryant Conant Award in High School Chemistry Teaching.

  9. JSC2001E21576

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-16

    JSC2001-E-21576 (16 July 2001) --- ISS Orbit 1 flight director Sally Davis discusses STS-104 matters with other mission support staff at her console in the ISS flight control room (BFCR) in Houston's Mission Control Center (MCC).

  10. 31 CFR 354.8 - Waiver of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.8 Waiver of regulations. The Secretary reserves...

  11. 31 CFR 354.8 - Waiver of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.8 Waiver of regulations. The Secretary reserves...

  12. 31 CFR 354.8 - Waiver of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.8 Waiver of regulations. The Secretary reserves...

  13. 31 CFR 354.8 - Waiver of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.8 Waiver of regulations. The Secretary reserves...

  14. 31 CFR 354.8 - Waiver of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.8 Waiver of regulations. The Secretary reserves...

  15. 77 FR 39215 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... the Act would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping or a countervailable subsidy... Mexico (A-201-835) (1st Sally Gannon Review). (202) 482-0162 The Department's procedures for the conduct...

  16. 77 FR 66437 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping or a countervailable subsidy (as the case... from Mexico (A-201-820) (3rd Review)... Sally Gannon (202) 482-0162. The Department's procedures for...

  17. GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    Sally D. Perreault, U. S. Environmental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

  18. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM BALCONY OF BUILDING 64 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM BALCONY OF BUILDING 64 SHOWING SALLY PORT AND MILITARY CHAPEL - Alcatraz, Military Chapel, Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. PEDESTRIAN UNDERPASS AT CRESCENT ROAD AND ROOSEVELT CENTER FROM NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PEDESTRIAN UNDERPASS AT CRESCENT ROAD AND ROOSEVELT CENTER FROM NORTH. NOTE DALE WINLING, 2005 SALLY KRESS TOMPKINS FELLOW, WALKING THROUGH UNDERPASS. - Old Greenbelt, Crescent Road and Southway, Greenbelt, Prince George's County, MD

  20. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE AND RAT OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse and Rat Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research ...

  1. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

  2. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 DETAIL, CHAPEL ELEVATION, SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  3. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 ALTAR, CHAPEL SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  4. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederik C. Gjessing, Photographer January, 1956 ELEVATION OF CHAPEL, SAN FELIPE DEL MORRO. - Castillo de San Felipe del Morro Sally Port & Chapel, Northwest end of San Juan Island, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  5. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a well-established inducer of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a frequently medically intractable... epilepsy syndrome. The controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of posttraumatic epilepsy in mice is a well established animal model of TBI that results...reduce development of post-traumatic epilepsy , and did not significantly improve memory function, but did enhance the motor recovery. These findings

  6. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a well-established inducer of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE...a frequently medically intractable and permanent epilepsy syndrome. Unlike many TLE models, which cause global brain injury that do not replicate...the human condition, or other TBI models, which do not induce TLE reliably, the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of posttraumatic epilepsy in

  7. Human Skeletal Material from 23JA277 Blue Springs Lake Project, Jackson County, Missouri

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Todd 1920; McKern and Stewart 1957) in that the surface of the entire demi-face is flat and granulated in appearance, the ventral rampart is complete...carbonized organic matter, some of which retain a wood-like structure. Dark mottles and the stain coating the bones effervesces with a three percent hydrogen

  8. Greener routes to organics and nanomaterials: Sustainable applications of nano-catalysts (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic activity involving alternate energy input and greener reaction medium in aqueous or under solvent-free conditions is summarized. This includes the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a variety of reactions catalyzed by basic water o...

  9. Acute Oral Toxicity of JA-2 Solid Propellant in ICR Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    and nitroglycerin. These signs tremors, inactivity, depression of reflexes, loss of equilibrium, opisthotonus , and increased respiratory activity... opisthotonus , and increased respiratory activity. Other clinical signs observed were associated with the general malaise of the animals following...of 86), miscellaneous signs (29 of 88), changes in reflex activity (28 of 88), rough coat (20 of 86), opisthotonus (14 of 86), and respiratory

  10. Visualization and Measurement of the Deflagration of JA2 Bonded to Various Metal Foils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    on one side with an aluminum or copper foil, and their deflagration was videographically recorded. Foil thicknesses ranged from 1 to 3 mil. The data...Approach 2 2.1 Test-Article Fabrication 2 2.2 Measurement Techniques 3 3. Results 4 3.1 Aluminum Foils 4 3.2 Copper Foils 6 4. Conclusions 9 5...configured with a 1-mil-thick aluminum (Al) foil bounding one side.7 Giving a preliminary indication that the validity of the CFD Approved for

  11. Japan Link Center (JaLC): link management and DOI assignment for Japanese electronic scholarly contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takafumi; Tsuchiya, Eri; Kubota, Soichi; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    JST, cooperated with several national institutes, is currently developing “Japan Link Center”, which manages Japanese electronic scholarly contents (journal articles, books, dissertations etc.) in an integrated fashion using Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Japan Link Center will manage metadata and whereabouts information of the contents in the digital environment and provide domestic and international linking information, cite/cited information to activate dissemination of S&T information, furthermore, to strengthen transmission of S&T information from Japan. Japan Link Center is expected to be appointed as the 9th DOI registration agency (RA) in the world by the International DOI Foundation (IDF) this spring.

  12. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-31

    contribute to epileptogenesis. Task 1: Determine whether benzodiazepine modulation of IPSCs in dentate granule cells (DGCs) is altered after CCI and...were measured. Analysis is preliminary and ongoing. 2. Applied α1-subunit selective benzodiazepine agonist and measured IPSC frequency, amplitude...preliminary: benzodiazepine agonist tended to increase time constant; replicates are currently too low to be quantitative. Supporting Data

  13. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Task 1: Determine whether benzodiazepine modulation of IPSCs in dentate granule cells (DGCs) is altered after CCI and whether this alteration is...selective benzodiazepine agonist and measured IPSC frequency, amplitude and decay time constant in neurons from control (n=2) and CCI-treated (n=3...mice. Analysis is preliminary: benzodiazepine agonist tended to increase time constant; replicates are currently too low to be quantitative

  14. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona sequentially induces JA and SA defence pathways in tomato

    Treesearch

    Justin B. Runyon; Mark C. Mescher; Gary W. Felton; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2010-01-01

    While plant responses to herbivores and pathogens are well characterized, responses to attack by other plants remain largely unexplored. We measured phytohormones and C18 fatty acids in tomato attacked by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona, and used transgenic and mutant plants to explore the roles of the defence-related phytohormones salicylic...

  15. JaMBES: A "New" Way of Calculating Plate Tectonic Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambord, A. I.; Smith, E. G. C.; Sutherland, R.

    2014-12-01

    Calculating the paleoposition of tectonic plates using marine geophysical data has been usually done by using the Hellinger criterion [Hellinger, 1981]. However, for the Hellinger software [Kirkwood et al., 1999] to produce stable results, we find that the input data must be abundant and spatially well distributed. Although magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data have been increasingly abundant since the 1960s, some parts of the globe remain too sparsely explored to provide enough data for the Hellinger code to provide satisfactory rotations. In this poster, we present new software to calculate the paleopositions of tectonic plates using magnetic anomalies and fracture zone data. Our method is based on the theory of plate tectonics as introduced by [Bullard et al., 1965] and [Morgan, 1968], which states that ridge segments (ie. magnetic lineations) and fracture zones are at right angles to each other. In order to test our software, we apply it to a region of the world where climatic conditions hinder the acquisition of magnetic data: the Southwest Pacific, between New Zealand and Antarctica from breakup time to chron 20 (c43Ma). Bullard, E., J. E. Everett, and A. G. Smith (1965), The fit of continents around the atlantic, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 258(1088), 41-51. Hellinger, S. J. (1981), The uncertainties of finite rotations in plate tectonics, Journal of Geophysical Research, 86(B10), 9312-9318. Kirkwood, B. H., J. Y. Royer, T. C. Chang, and R. G. Gordon (1999), Statistical tools for estimating and combining finite rotations and their uncertainties, Geophysical Journal International, 137(2), 408-428. Morgan, W. J. (1968), Rises, trenches, great faults, and crustal blocks, Journal of Geophysical Research, 73(6), 1959-1982.

  16. "City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Company": The Decision and Some of Its Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, A. Fleming, II

    1989-01-01

    The Supreme Court's "Croson" decision has major implications for local government and school administrative units that wish to encourage the use of minority contractors. Discusses the decision and some of the effects that the rules announced in the case may have on North Carolina's local governments and schools. (MLF)

  17. Greener routes to organics and nanomaterials: Sustainable applications of nano-catalysts (JA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic activity involving alternate energy input and greener reaction medium in aqueous or under solvent-free conditions is summarized. This includes the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a variety of reactions catalyzed by basic water o...

  18. JaK/STAT Inhibition to Prevent Post-Traumatic Epileptogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    have the promise of leading to new therapies for the prevention or treatment of post-traumatic epilepsy. BODY: Aim 2: Performed in laboratory of... electroconvulsive shock-induced seizures. J. Neurotrauma 27 (7), 1283—1295. anell, A., Clausen, F., Biork, M., Jansson, K., Phillipson, O., Nils- son

  19. Current treatments of rheumatoid arthritis: from the 'NinJa' registry.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Yukihiko; Matsui, Toshihiro; Saisho, Koichiro; Tohma, Shigeto

    2012-07-01

    In this review, recent changes in both treatments and outcomes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan were analyzed by viewing the National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net, one of the largest clinical databases for RA patients in Japan. Regarding drug therapy, the use of methotrexate has been continuously increasing and has established a place as an anchor drug in the treatment of RA among other nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; however, the dosage used is still significantly less compared with that of western countries. In addition to methotrexate, the use of tacrolimus has increased gradually. The most prominent observed change is a rapid increase in the use of biologics, which rose to stardom in the treatment of RA in Japan and western countries. These changes in drug therapy could allow us to control RA disease activity more tightly. In line with this, the outcomes of patients with RA in Japan have been improving continuously, both clinically and functionally. Subsequently, the use of both NSAIDs and corticosteroids has decreased. In addition, overall rates of joint operations related to RA have also decreased; in particular, a significant decrease was noticed in the incidence of joint replacement and synovectomy. Overall, the trends in treatments and subsequent outcomes for RA in Japan have exactly followed those seen in western countries.

  20. The Flintlock Site (8JA1763): An Unusual Underwater Deposit in the Apalachicola River, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrell, Christopher E.; Scott-Ireton, Della A.; Smith, Roger C.; Levy, James; Knetsch, Joe

    2009-06-01

    In the fall of 2001, staff of the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research were led by river divers to an underwater site in the Apalachicola River containing a large concentration of prehistoric and historic artifacts lying on the riverbed. Subsequent inspection of the submerged river bank and scoured limestone river channel revealed a myriad of objects, which included iron fasteners, metal tools and implements, broken glass bottles, stone projectile points, scattered bricks and stone blocks, and other materials. Discovery of two large fragments of a wooden watercraft, a bayonet, a copper arrowhead, and flintlock gun barrels initially prompted researchers to hypothesize that the site might represent the remains of a U.S. Army boat that was attacked in 1817 by Seminole Indians while en route upriver. The episode, which caused the deaths of more than 30 soldiers and several women who were aboard the boat, led to the First Seminole War and the U.S. Army invasion of Florida. To investigate this hypothesis, a systematic survey of the riverbed was undertaken in the spring of 2002 to record underwater features and recover additional diagnostic artifacts. These activities employed side-scan sonar as well as diver visual investigations. This paper presents a case study of the value and broader significance of aggregate data where interpretation was underpinned by artefactual, historical and environmental analysis.

  1. The United States Air Force Academy: A Bibliography, 2006-2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    34USAFA‟s First Year Experience (FYE) Course: A Foundation for Excellence." USAFA Educator 18.3 (Winter 2010): 11. 3 22. Barron , Sally... Michelle A. and Gary Packard, Jr. "Implementing APA‟s Undergraduate Psychology Curriculum Guidelines in DFBL" USAFA Educator 18.1 (Summer 2009): 18...Evaluation via Integer Programming." Military Operations Research 12.1 (2007): 5-17. 752. Barron , Sally. "Step Aside--the Future Looks Good

  2. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    lists for Sally Ride . • Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator Concerns: • Main Deck Noise Levels – This week NCE was on site testing the noise... Sally Ride Progress: • Accommodation Spaces – DCI continues with the cleaning and prepping of staterooms for close- outs. The floors are complete in...fix. Since Ride will not be docked over the Christmas Holiday, it is not yet known if the chain will be measured prior to builder’s trials. • Crew

  3. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-04

    for Sally Ride . • Working on NS5 Hierarchy • SCBA’s and Cylinders received. Cylinders to be filled next week. 4. Operator Concerns: • Main...This deficiency has been put into the system and passed on to Armstrong where it has also become a GDR. 5. Sally Ride Progress: • Divers...of the water maker suction. • Ride Anti-Fouling Paint – The anti-fouling paint has failed due to an application error. The yard will correct

  4. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-06

    Sally Ride . iv. Working on NS5 Hierarchy 4. Operator Concerns: • Scheduling & Contract Issues – ? • Dodge Shaft Bearings – These bearings are...5. Sally Ride Progress: • The Yard has increased man power and the scope of work on Ride while at the same time reducing overtime and work on...Presentation & Agenda)(R/ASR - Corresp: 1) 103/0 Ride Armstrong Port Steering Gear 5 6

  5. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-15

    for Sally Ride . • Initial Galley outfitting approved to order • SCBA mounting boxes in transit and scheduled for delivery Anacortes. 4. Operator...if it is occurs at DCI. 5. Sally Ride Progress: • Crew Fam has begun with 18 SIO participants. • Mock INSURV – The dockside portion...Armstrong. WTA for pre delivery ballast tank inspection on Ride is in the works. • Anchor Windlass – Port and Starboard Anchor Windlasses were tested

  6. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-12

    lists for Sally Ride . • Working on NS5 Hierarchy • Additional firefighting gear schedule for delivery Anacortes before the Christmas holiday.. Local... Sally Ride Progress: • Accommodation Spaces – DCI continues with the cleaning and prepping of staterooms for close- outs. • Galley & Mess – The... Ride Anti-Fouling Paint – The anti-fouling paint has failed due to an application error. The yard will correct this issue during a planned docking

  7. AGOR 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-30

    Sally Ride . • Linens, Blankets, SCBA Storage & PPE’s ordered. • Galley Order in progress 4. Operator Concerns: • Starboard Drive Failure...has corrected the issue. Both the Bow and Tunnel Thrusters have working display icons on the Conning Station Display. 5. Sally Ride Progress...for pre delivery ballast tank inspection on Ride is in the works. • Anchor Windlass – Port and Starboard Anchor Windlasses were tested during sea

  8. KSC-03PD-0458

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Former astronaut Sally Ride talks to young women at the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. The event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees. Since it followed the tragic loss of the Columbia astronauts, a large poster was presented which attendees could sign as tribute..

  9. KSC-03PD-0460

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Exhibits draw crowds of young women attending the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. The event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees. Since it followed the tragic loss of the Columbia astronauts, a large poster was presented which attendees could sign as tribute.

  10. KSC-03PD-0459

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., former astronaut Sally Ride talks to young women about their future. The event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees. Since it followed the tragic loss of the Columbia astronauts, a large poster was presented which attendees could sign as tribute.

  11. Regulation and Action of SKP2 in Cell and Tumor Models: Mechanisms Underlying Aggressive Growth in Basal-Like Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Christopher M. Otis, Sharon A. Marconi , Brian T Pentecost, Douglas L. Anderton, Sallie Smith-Schneider, Kathleen F. Arcaro. Regulation and action of Skp2 in...Solis, Joseph Gozgit, Brian Pentecost, Christopher Otis, Sharon Marconi , Sallie Smith-Schneider, Kathleen Arcaro. S-phase kinase-associated protein...October 26- October 29, 2006. Tampa, FL Paczkowski KE, Turk CM, Gozgit JM, Smith-Schneider SW, Marconi SA, Otis CN, Crisi GM, Anderton DL, Killiman

  12. KSC-03pd0458

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Former astronaut Sally Ride talks to young women at the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. The event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees. Since it followed the tragic loss of the Columbia astronauts, a large poster was presented which attendees could sign as tribute..

  13. KSC-03pd0459

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-02

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., former astronaut Sally Ride talks to young women about their future. The event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees. Since it followed the tragic loss of the Columbia astronauts, a large poster was presented which attendees could sign as tribute.

  14. KSC-03PD-0458

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Former astronaut Sally Ride talks to young women at the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. The event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees. Since it followed the tragic loss of the Columbia astronauts, a large poster was presented which attendees could sign as tribute..

  15. KSC-03PD-0459

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., former astronaut Sally Ride talks to young women about their future. The event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees. Since it followed the tragic loss of the Columbia astronauts, a large poster was presented which attendees could sign as tribute.

  16. KSC-03PD-0460

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Exhibits draw crowds of young women attending the Sally Ride Science Festival, held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. The event promotes science, math and technology as future career paths for girls. Former astronaut Sally Ride addressed the girls, while breakout sessions afforded closer interaction between Ride and festival attendees. Since it followed the tragic loss of the Columbia astronauts, a large poster was presented which attendees could sign as tribute.

  17. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress ReportSIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-06

    arrangement had a significant change from how Neil Armstrong Genset’s forward mounts were attached to the test bed from those of Sally Ride. For Neil ...for either vessel. Neil Armstrong Forward Mounts: Sally Ride Forward Mounts: 3  At this time it is not known what affect this...will have on the noise and vibration readings. There were some anomalies on the sole set of readings taken for Neil Armstrong , so differences are

  18. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  19. J.A. Schumpeter and T.B. Veblen on economic evolution: the dichotomy between statics and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Marlies; Rainer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract At present, the discussion on the dichotomy between statics and dynamics is resolved by concentrating on its mathematical meaning. Yet, a simple formalisation masks the underlying methodological discussion. Overcoming this limitation, the paper discusses Schumpeter's and Veblen's viewpoint on dynamic economic systems as systems generating change from within. It contributes to an understanding on their ideas of how economics could become an evolutionary science and on their contributions to elaborate an evolutionary economics. It confronts Schumpeter's with Veblen's perspective on evolutionary economics and provides insight into their evolutionary economic theorising by discussing their ideas on the evolution of capitalism. PMID:28057981

  20. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  1. Position Data Analysis Job Aid (PDAT-JA) Prototype Software (Version 2. 0), User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    obtained from the Defense Technical Information Center, Cameron Station , Alexandria, Virginia 22304-6145. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES...Unrestricted Editing, Edit Line ........................ 44 23. UIC Balance Status Window ....................................... 45 24. Initial PMAD Editing...Screen ..................................... 46 25. Initial Activated PMAD Worksheet, Hot-Key Commands .............. 48 26. PMAD Worksheet, Edit Line

  2. J.A. Schumpeter and T.B. Veblen on economic evolution: the dichotomy between statics and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Marlies; Rainer, Andreas

    2016-09-02

    At present, the discussion on the dichotomy between statics and dynamics is resolved by concentrating on its mathematical meaning. Yet, a simple formalisation masks the underlying methodological discussion. Overcoming this limitation, the paper discusses Schumpeter's and Veblen's viewpoint on dynamic economic systems as systems generating change from within. It contributes to an understanding on their ideas of how economics could become an evolutionary science and on their contributions to elaborate an evolutionary economics. It confronts Schumpeter's with Veblen's perspective on evolutionary economics and provides insight into their evolutionary economic theorising by discussing their ideas on the evolution of capitalism.

  3. The Mechanical Response of M30, JA2 and XM39 Gun Propellants to High-Rate Deformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    8217. - -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. Mouu vs Teprtr c.2’Iodl sTeprtr I KILr I ’I ’KnclRsos tX19I-guc1.N~i oaih ftcN3 ’IS ’L Funcion o Tc nperat ire V...Propellant Test," Tentative Standard for CPIA Publication 21 Solid Propellant Mechanical Properties Manual . 1988 6. R. J. Lieb, D. Devynck, and J. J

  4. Kone Ja Keele Uurimine Ning Emakeele Didaktika (Relevance of Linguistic and Psycholinguistic Studies to Mother Tongue Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlep, Karl

    This article looks at the relevance of linguistic and psycholinguistic studies to mother tongue instruction. Particularly, the semantically-oriented research of higher level units of language and speech, is considered. As some Estonian studies imply, there are indications that the application of psycholinguistic research in teaching practices…

  5. Verification of Use of IBHVG In Screening of High-Metal Loading Igniter Materials for Optimum Ignition of JA2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    2  Figure 2. Photograph of igniter mixture candidate 12 as both powder and pellet ...reference was made relative to the LW30 standard igniter material—the IB52 pellet (11). The IB52 pellet is composed of BKNO3 with a gas-generating...component. It was sized to fit into the flash tube used in this study. Typical LW30 usage is three pellets . For this study, only one pellet was

  6. Aidinkieli Suomen Kielen Ja Vieraiden Kielten Opiskelijoiden Mielissa (Native Language Influence on the Teaching and Learning of Estonian and Finnish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muikku-Werner, Pirkko

    In recent years, language awareness has been a popular topic of lively discussion. Both linguists and language teachers have shown interest in consciousness raising that has been considered a means of establishing motivated and effective language learning. Most studies have approached the subject from the viewpoint of foreign languages, and less…

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... standard conditions of 68 °F and 1 atmosphere. b MHC = molar heat content (higher heating value basis), Btu...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ja of... - Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Molar Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat... Exhaust Volumes and Molar Heat Content of Fuel Gas Constituents Constituent MEVa dscf/mol MHCb Btu/mol... standard conditions of 68 °F and 1 atmosphere. b MHC = molar heat content (higher heating value basis), Btu...

  9. The Neural Computation of Scalar Implicature

    PubMed Central

    Hartshorne, Joshua K.; Snedeker, Jesse; Azar, Stephanie Yen-Mun Liem; Kim, Albert E.

    2014-01-01

    Language comprehension involves not only constructing the literal meaning of a sentence but also going beyond the literal meaning to infer what was meant but not said. One widely-studied test case is scalar implicature: The inference that, e.g., Sally ate some of the cookies implies she did not eat all of them. Research is mixed on whether this is due to a rote, grammaticalized procedure or instead a complex, contextualized inference. We find that in sentences like If Sally ate some of the cookies, then the rest are on the counter, that the rest triggers a late, sustained positivity relative to Sally ate some of the cookies, and the rest are on the counter. This is consistent with behavioral results and linguistic theory suggesting that the former sentence does not trigger a scalar implicature. This motivates a view on which scalar implicature is contextualized but dependent on grammatical structure. PMID:25914890

  10. The Neural Computation of Scalar Implicature.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Joshua K; Snedeker, Jesse; Azar, Stephanie Yen-Mun Liem; Kim, Albert E

    2015-06-01

    Language comprehension involves not only constructing the literal meaning of a sentence but also going beyond the literal meaning to infer what was meant but not said. One widely-studied test case is scalar implicature: The inference that, e.g., Sally ate some of the cookies implies she did not eat all of them. Research is mixed on whether this is due to a rote, grammaticalized procedure or instead a complex, contextualized inference. We find that in sentences like If Sally ate some of the cookies, then the rest are on the counter, that the rest triggers a late, sustained positivity relative to Sally ate some of the cookies, and the rest are on the counter. This is consistent with behavioral results and linguistic theory suggesting that the former sentence does not trigger a scalar implicature. This motivates a view on which scalar implicature is contextualized but dependent on grammatical structure.

  11. AGOR 28 SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-06

    for Sally Ride . • Working on NS5 Hierarchy • Issued PO’s for SCBA’s and additional Fireman’s Outfits 4. Operator Concerns: • Main Deck...PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 5. Sally Ride Progress: • Accommodation Spaces...Noise Levels – NCE will be performing noise testing on Ride in the near term. My understanding of the plan is as follows: Baseline testing will be done

  12. [STS-7 Launch and Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The prelaunch, launch, and landing activities of the STS-7 Space Shuttle mission are highlighted in this video, with brief footage of the deployment of the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS). The flight crew consisted of: Cmdr. Bob Crippen, Pilot Rich Hauck, and Mission Specialists John Fabian, Dr. Sally Ride, and Norm Thaggart. With this mission, Cmdr. Crippen became the first astronaut to fly twice in a Space Shuttle Mission and Dr. Sally Ride was the first American woman to fly in space. There is a large amount of footage of the Space Shuttle by the aircraft that accompanies the Shuttle launchings and landings.

  13. Perceived Neighborhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking and Cycling for Transport among Adult Residents of 17 Cities in 12 Countries: The IPEN Study

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Emond, Jennifer A.; Badland, Hannah; Reis, Rodrigo; Sarmiento, Olga; Carlson, Jordan; Sallis, James F.; Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli; Conway, Terry; Schofield, Grant; Macfarlane, Duncan J.; Christiansen, Lars B.; Van Dyck, Delfien; Davey, Rachel; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Salvo, Deborah; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville; Mitáš, Josef; Natarajan, Loki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevalence of walking and cycling for transport is low and varies greatly across countries. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions related to walking and cycling for transport in different countries. Therefore, it is challenging to prioritize appropriate built-environment interventions. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the strength and shape of the relationship between adults’ neighborhood perceptions and walking and cycling for transport across diverse environments. Methods As part of the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult project, self-reported data were taken from 13,745 adults (18–65 years) living in physically and socially diverse neighborhoods in 17 cities across 12 countries. Neighborhood perceptions were measured using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, and walking and cycling for transport were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Long Form. Generalized additive mixed models were used to model walking or cycling for transport during the last seven days with neighborhood perceptions. Interactions by city were explored. Results Walking-for-transport outcomes were significantly associated with perceived residential density, land use mix–access, street connectivity, aesthetics, and safety. Any cycling for transport was significantly related to perceived land use mix–access, street connectivity, infrastructure, aesthetics, safety, and perceived distance to destinations. Between-city differences existed for some attributes in relation to walking or cycling for transport. Conclusions Many perceived environmental attributes supported both cycling and walking; however, highly walkable environments may not support cycling for transport. People appear to walk for transport despite safety concerns. These findings can guide the implementation of global health strategies. Citation Kerr J, Emond JA, Badland H, Reis R, Sarmiento O, Carlson J, Sallis

  14. The Jones Family's Culture of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Amy Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the uses of literacy within the Jones family (all names are pseudonyms), an African American family who lives in the rural South of the United States. Drawing on life history data with three women in the Jones family--Harriet Jones (grandmother), Sally Harris (mother), and Lola Harris (granddaughter)--the author traces how…

  15. 75 FR 38097 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Chicago (Colette A. Fried, Assistant Vice President) 230 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois 60690-1414: 1. John V. Tippmann, Sr., as an individual; John V. Tippmann, Sr.; John and Helen McCarthy; Richard and Sally Ley; John Tippmann, Jr.; Patrick Tippmann; and Brian and Jennifer Backstrom, all of Fort...

  16. 77 FR 20820 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Bank of Chicago (Colette A. Fried, Assistant Vice President) 230 South LaSalle Street, Chicago... Duncan and Sally Foley Duncan, as Trustee of the John K. Foley Revocable Living Trust and as beneficiary of the Hardware State Bank 401K Plan, the John K. Foley Revocable Living Trust, and Gloria Foley, all...

  17. 75 FR 32778 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Chicago (Colette A. Fried, Assistant Vice President) 230 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois 60690-1414: 1. John V. Tippmann, Sr., as an individual, and John V. Tippman, Sr.; John and Helen McCarthy; Richard and Sally Ley; John Tippman, Jr.; Patrick Tippman, and Brian and Jennifer Backstrom; all of Fort...

  18. APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries
    Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711.

  19. The Best of the Literacy Beat 1988-1989. The Best of the Literacy Beat 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Writers Association, Washington, DC.

    This document is a set of two volumes that contain prize-winning newspaper articles and summaries of radio and television shows selected as part of the Media Resource Project on Literacy. Items in the 1988-89 book include the following: "Why Daddy Can't Read" (Sally L. Gilman); "The Triumph of Jimmy Sanchez" (Sandra Macias); "Illiteracy:…

  20. Methods and Strategies: Gather 'Round

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Sally

    2014-01-01

    How do teachers ignite a fire that kindles a love for books and produces a sense of wonder in the science classroom? What do teachers know and do that lights that spark in their students (Cummins 2012)? In this article, science and mathematics professor Sally Mayberry highlights a number of trade books that have made a fantastic difference in the…