Sample records for jaakkola timo mkinen

  1. TIMO-2-A cryogenic test bed for the ITER cryosorption pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Horst; Day, Christian; Herzog, Friedhelm


    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) has been carrying out research and development in the field of vacuum cryopumps for nuclear fusion devices over the last decade. Together with the development activities also experience in the operation of the needed cryogenic systems necessary for such type of large scale cryopumps was collected. Due to the specific requirements of a large fusion device, such as ITER, the cryogenic distribution is based on gaseous helium at the needed temperature levels rather than liquid nitrogen or liquid helium. KIT has set up a large scale research facility, called TIMO-2, fully equipped with supercritical helium supply at large flow rates to be able to perform cryogenic tests of components under ITER-relevant conditions. During first test campaigns at TIMO-2 with a large scale model cryopump the ITER cryosorption vacuum pumping concept was successfully validated. After major refurbishments and upgrades, the TIMO-2 facility is now ready for the acceptance tests of the ITER torus cryopump. This paper describes the modified test facility TIMO-2 with particular attention to the available cryogenic supply at different temperature levels. The new 100 K helium supply facility will be described in detail.

  2. Threshold-Based OSIC Detection Algorithm for Per-Antenna-Coded TIMO-OFDM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinzheng; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Pengcheng

    Threshold-based ordered successive interference cancellation (OSIC) detection algorithm is proposed for per-antenna-coded (PAC) two-input multiple-output (TIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Successive interference cancellation (SIC) is performed selectively according to channel conditions. Compared with the conventional OSIC algorithm, the proposed algorithm reduces the complexity significantly with only a slight performance degradation.

  3. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-Mo alloys cold-rolled and heat treated

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yinglong; Luo Dongmei


    In this study, the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-10Mo and Ti-20Mo alloys (mass%) are investigated to assess the potential use in biomedical applications. The microstructures are examined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties are determined from uniaxial tensile tests. The experimental results indicate that the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-Mo alloys are dependent upon the cold rolling, solution heat treatment, and Mo content. The Ti-10Mo alloy exhibits ({alpha}'' + {beta}) and ({beta} + {omega}) phases under the cold rolling (CR) and solution treatment (ST), respectively. By contrast, the Ti-20Mo alloy comprises only {beta} phase under such conditions. The quenched Ti-20Mo alloy has the lowest elastic modulus and CR Ti-20Mo alloy has the highest tensile strength. The quenched Ti-10Mo alloy exhibits the excellent ductility and two-stage yielding from stress-strain curves due to the stress-induced martensite transformation from {beta} to {alpha}'' during tensile deformation. These Ti-Mo alloys exhibit low yield strength and good ductility, and they are more suitable for biomedical applications than the conventional metallic biomaterials from the viewpoint of better mechanical compatibility. The quenched Ti-10Mo alloy has some advantages over the other {beta} binary Ti-Mo alloys for biomedical applications. {beta} type Ti-Mo-Sn alloys are expected to be promising candidates for novel metallic biomaterials. - Highlights: {yields} The microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-Mo alloys are dependent upon the cold rolling, solution heat treatment, and Mo content. {yields} The quenched Ti-10Mo alloy exhibits the excellent ductility and two-stage yielding due to stress-induced martensite transformation from beta to alpha double prime during tensile deformation. {yields} The Ti-Mo alloys are more suitable for biomedical applications than the conventional metallic

  4. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation of 205TI in TIMo 6Se 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, H.; Ohtani, T.; Sano, Y.; Nakamura, Y.


    Temperature dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate of 205TI has been studied in a superconducting Chevrel compound TIMo 6Se 8. The rate follows the Korringa relation in the normal state with (T 1T) -1=3.4×10 2 (sK) -1. It follows a power law with T 1-1=2.64×10 -3T 6.9 in the superconducting state. An enhancement of the relaxation rate just below T c was not observed. These suggest that TIMo 6Se 8 is a new example of gapless superconductors. The relaxation behaviors in this Chevrel compound, which has low T c but has high H C2 is discussed in comparison with those in high-Tc oxides.

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered Ti-Mo alloys for dental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xin; Sun, Bo; Zhao, Teng-fei; Wang, Lu-ning; Liu, Cheng-cheng; Qu, Xuan-hui


    Ti-Mo alloys with various Mo contents from 6wt% to 14wt% were processed by spark plasma sintering based on elemental powders. The influence of sintering temperature and Mo content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the resulting alloys were investigated. For each Mo concentration, the optimum sintering temperature was determined, resulting in a fully dense and uniform microstructure of the alloy. The optimized sintering temperature gradually increases in the range of 1100-1300°C with the increase in Mo content. The microstructure of the Ti-(6-12)Mo alloy consists of acicular α phase surrounded by equiaxed grains of β phase, while the Ti-14Mo alloy only contains single β phase. A small amount of fine α lath precipitated from β phase contributes to the improvement in strength and hardness of the alloys. Under the sintering condition at 1250°C, the Ti-12Mo alloy is found to possess superior mechanical properties with the Vickers hardness of Hv 472, the compressive yield strength of 2182 MPa, the compression rate of 32.7%, and the elastic modulus of 72.1 GPa. These results demonstrate that Ti-Mo alloys fabricated via spark plasma sintering are indeed a perspective candidate alloy for dental applications.

  6. Electrochemical stability and corrosion resistance of Ti-Mo alloys for biomedical applications.


    Oliveira, N T C; Guastaldi, A C


    Electrochemical behavior of pure Ti and Ti-Mo alloys (6-20wt.% Mo) was investigated as a function of immersion time in electrolyte simulating physiological media. Open-circuit potential values indicated that all Ti-Mo alloys studied and pure Ti undergo spontaneous passivation due to spontaneously formed oxide film passivating the metallic surface, in the chloride-containing solution. It also indicated that the addition of Mo to pure Ti up to 15wt.% seems to improve the protection characteristics of its spontaneous oxides. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies showed high impedance values for all samples, increasing with immersion time, indicating an improvement in corrosion resistance of the spontaneous oxide film. The fit obtained suggests a single passive film present on the metals' surface, improving their resistance with immersion time, presenting the highest values to Ti-15Mo alloy. Potentiodynamic polarization showed a typical valve-metal behavior, with anodic formation of barrier-type oxide films, without pitting corrosion, even in chloride-containing solution. In all cases, the passive current values were quite small, and decrease after 360h of immersion. All these electrochemical results suggest that the Ti-15Mo alloy is a promising material for orthopedic devices, since electrochemical stability is directly associated with biocompatibility and is a necessary condition for applying a material as biomaterial.

  7. TIMo IV2P 3O 12: A molybdenophosphate with a tunnel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclaire, A.; Monier, J. C.; Raveau, B.


    A molybdenophosphate, TIMo IV2P 3O 12, with an original tunnel structure, has been isolated. Its structure has been determined by X-ray diffraction on a single crystal. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with a = 8.836(1), b = 9.225(1), c = 12.288(1), Å, possible space groups Pbcm and Pbc2 1 with Z =4. The structure was solved and refined in the centrosymmetric space group Pbcm. The host lattice "Mo 3P 3O 12" is built up from corner-sharing octahedra and tetrahedra and forms tunnels running along the b axis and cages where the Tl + ions are located. The relationships of this framework with that of the phosphate tungsten bronze CsP 8W 8O 40 and that of the hexagonal tungsten bronze are discussed.

  8. MicroTribological Performance of Au-MoS2 and Ti-MoS2 Coatings with Varying Contact Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology


    and processing techniques; metals, alloys, ceramics, polymers , thin films, and composites; development of advanced deposition processes ...AEROSPACE REPORT NO. TR-2010(8550)-7 MicroTribological Performance of Au-MoS2 and Ti-MoS2 Coatings with Varying Contact Pressure February 15.2011...TITLE AND SUBTITLE MicroTribological Performance of Au-MoS, and Ti-MoS2 Coatings with Varying Contact Pressure 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8802-09-C-0001

  9. Crystallographic and magnetic properties of (Nd,Dy) 3Fe 27.5(Ti,Mo) 1.5 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S. B.; Liu, X. F.; Lv, J. Y.; Peng, J.; Hao, Y. M.; Li, X. J.; Chen, D. F.; Xue, Y. J.; Li, J. H.; Hu, Z. B.


    A systematic study of the formation, structure and magnetic properties of (Nd,Dy) 3Fe 27.5(Ti,Mo) 1.5 compounds has been performed. Rietveld analyses of the X-ray patterns of the samples indicate that the concentrations of Ti and Mo affect the formation and structural properties slightly, whereas different rare-earth (Nd and Dy) contents influence them significantly. It is found that high Dy contents make it difficult to form the 3:29-type structures. The Curie temperatures of Nd 2.1Dy 0.9Fe 27.5Ti 1.5-xMo x decrease monotonically as more Ti was replaced by Mo but their saturation magnetizations remain almost unchanged; in contrast, for Nd 3-yDy yFe 27.5TiMo 0.5, their saturation magnetizations decrease monotonically with increasing Dy contents while their Curie temperatures are constant.

  10. Ti-Mo alloys employed as biomaterials: effects of composition and aging heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical behavior.


    Cardoso, Flavia F; Ferrandini, Peterson L; Lopes, Eder S N; Cremasco, Alessandra; Caram, Rubens


    The correlation between the composition, aging heat treatments, microstructural features and mechanical properties of β Ti alloys is of primary significance because it is the foundation for developing and improving new Ti alloys for orthopedic biomaterials. However, in the case of Ti-Mo alloys, this correlation is not fully described in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to experimentally investigate the effect of composition and aging heat treatments on the microstructure, Vickers hardness and elastic modulus of Ti-Mo alloys. These alloys were solution heat-treated and water-quenched, after which their response to aging heat treatments was investigated. Their microstructure, Vickers hardness and elastic modulus were evaluated, and the results allow us to conclude that stabilization of the β phase is achieved with nearly 10% Mo when a very high cooling rate is applied. Young's modulus was found to be more sensitive to phase variations than hardness. In all of the compositions, the highest hardness values were achieved by aging at 723K, which was attributed to the precipitation of α and ω phases. All of the compositions aged at 573K, 623K and 723K showed overaging within 80h.

  11. First-principles study of electronic structures and stability of body-centered cubic Ti-Mo alloys by special quasirandom structures.


    Sahara, Ryoji; Emura, Satoshi; Ii, Seiichiro; Ueda, Shigenori; Tsuchiya, Koichi


    The electronic structures and structural properties of body-centered cubic Ti-Mo alloys were studied by first-principles calculations. The special quasirandom structures (SQS) model was adopted to emulate the solid solution state of the alloys. The valence band electronic structures of Ti-Mo and Ti-Mo-Fe alloys were measured by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The structural parameters and valence band photoelectron spectra were calculated using first-principles calculations. The results obtained with the SQS models showed better agreement with the experimental results than those obtained using the conventional ordered structure models. This indicates that the SQS model is effective for predicting the various properties of solid solution alloys by means of first-principles calculations.

  12. Thermal stability of Ti/Mo and Ti/MoN nanostructures for barrier applications in Cu interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Prodyut; Takoudis, Christos


    This work focuses on the barrier capabilities of sputter deposited Ti/Mo and Ti/MoN nanofilms against diffusion of Cu into Si substrates. The thermal stability of the corresponding bi-layer barrier structures is investigated after annealing Cu/barrier layer/Si samples at different temperatures in N2 for 5 min. The drastic increase in sheet resistance of Cu and the probing of Cu3Si with x-ray diffraction after high temperature annealing indicate the failure of these barrier structures. The formation of Cu3Si at the barrier breakdown temperature is also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Cu diffusion barrier performance analyses show that a Ti(5 nm)/MoN(5 nm) bi-layer nanostructure fails only after annealing at 800 °C on the other hand, a Ti(5 nm)/Mo(5 nm) barrier stack is found to break down at 700 °C.

  13. "Tumor immunology meets oncology" (TIMO) X, May 23-24, 2014, Halle/Saale, Germany.


    Quandt, Dagmar; Seliger, Barbara


    It has become evident that combinatorial treatments with "old fashioned" chemo- and radiotherapy together with DC vaccines, T cell-based approaches therapy by small molecules or novel immunotherapeutic strategies with antibodies are the most promising approaches, but the combinations and sequence of administration has still to be investigated and appear to be tumor specific.

  14. The structural stability and superconductivity of TiMo alloys under pressure. I - Structural stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibovitch, C.; Gartstein, E.; Rabinkin, A. G.


    A study is presented of changes in the crystal structure induced by high-pressure soaking (hps) up to 9.2 GPa in Ti with 3 to 35 at.% Mo alloys which were in the as-quenched metastable state. The retained structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractography and transmission electron microscopy. It is observed that after application of critical pressure, the omega phase increases in all crystal structures that are observed usually in Ti-base alloys and consisting of alpha', alpha' + beta + omega, beta + omega or beta phases. In addition, strong diffuse scattering patterns created by short range order in displacement of atomic rows were observed. Finally, analysis of the relative stability of all different structures with regard to hps was performed using detailed data on Debye temperature, density of electronic states at Fermi level and other parameters.

  15. Beta type Ti-Mo alloys with changeable Young's modulus for spinal fixation applications.


    Zhao, Xingfeng; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Hieda, Junko


    To develop a novel biomedical titanium alloy with a changeable Young's modulus via deformation-induced ω phase transformation for the spinal rods in spinal fixation devices, a series of metastable β type binary Ti-(15-18)Mo alloys were prepared. In this study, the microstructures, Young's moduli and tensile properties of the alloys were systemically examined to investigate the effects of deformation-induced ω phase transformation on their mechanical properties. The springback of the optimal alloy was also examined. Ti-(15-18)Mo alloys subjected to solution treatment comprise a β phase and a small amount of athermal ω phase, and they have low Young's moduli. All the alloys investigated in this study show an increase in the Young's modulus owing to deformation-induced ω phase transformation during cold rolling. The deformation-induced ω phase transformation is accompanied with {332}(β) mechanical twinning. This resulted in the maintenance of acceptable ductility with relatively high strength. Among the examined alloys, the Ti-17Mo alloy shows the lowest Young's modulus and the largest increase in the Young's modulus. This alloy exhibits small springback and could be easily bent to the required shape during operation. Thus, Ti-17Mo alloy is considered to be a potential candidate for the spinal rods in spinal fixation devices.

  16. Apparent Motion of the Sun, Shadows of Objects and Measurement of Time in the View of Seventh Grade Students of Middle School. (Breton Title: Movimento Aparente do Sol, Sombras dos Objetos e Medição do Tempo na Visão de Alunos do Sétimo Ano do Ensino Fundamental.) Movimiento Aparente del Sol, Sombras de los Objetos y Medición del Tiempo en la Visión de Estudiantes del Séptimo Grado del Ciclo Pirmario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel


    The apparent motion of the Sun on the celestial sphere and the behavior of the shadows of objects over time are observable phenomena in everyday life. However, students often do not have a proper understanding of such occurrences, and can even display misconceptions about them. Therefore, we performed a research in order to know students' notions about these subjects and to evaluate the contribution to their understanding brought about by an activity performed with an interactive sundial in an informal learning environment. We investigated the ideas of 43 students from the seventh grade of middle school by applying a test with open questions before and after an activity with an analemmatic sundial, conducted by a monitor. A significant proportion of students were initially unaware of most of the phenomena treated. The intervention performed helped the students to assimilate new concepts, providing the contact with new phenomena and to a lesser degree, the development of explanations about them, indicating an educational potential of this action. However, the contribution to the understanding of some of the ideas explored was small, pointing to the need to make additional observations, studies and discussions. O movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste e o comportamento das sombras dos objetos com o passar do tempo são fenômenos observáveis no dia a dia. No entanto, muitas vezes os estudantes não possuem uma compreensão adequada de tais ocorrências, podendo inclusive exibir concepções alternativas a seu respeito. Por isso, efetuou-se uma pesquisa com o intuito de conhecer as noções dos alunos sobre esses temas e avaliar a contribuição para seu entendimento propiciada por uma atividade feita com um relógio de Sol interativo, em um ambiente de ensino informal. Foram investigadas as ideias de 43 alunos do sétimo ano do Ensino Fundamental mediante a aplicação de um teste com questões abertas antes e depois de uma atividade com um relógio de Sol

  17. Phonon suppression of the coherence peak in nuclear spin relaxation rate in strong coupling superconductor TIMo 6Se 7.5. Comparison with high- Tc superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshio, Kitaoka; Shigeki, Ohsugi; Kunisuke, Asayama; Tsukio, Ohtani


    The phonon suppression effect on the coherence peak just below Tc in the nuclear spin relaxation rate {1}/{T 1} has been investigated by 205Tl NMR of a Chevrel phase superconductor TlMO 6Se 7.5 with Tc = 12.2 K. The lack of a coherence peak of 205( {1}/{T 1) } is demonstrated in a strong coupling superconductor TlMo 6Se 7.5 while the exponential decrease of {1}/{T 1} is confirmed over four orders of magnitude below 0.8 Tc (10 K) with 2 Δ=4.5 kBTc. As argued by Allen and Rainer, the strong electron-phonon decay channels open to excitation cause the unexpectedly strong damping of the quasi-particles in all dynamical properties, being the origin of the depression of the coherence peak. From a comparison with an s-wave model in which the quasi-particle damping is taken into account, it is reinforced that the unusual relaxation behavior observed in high- Tc cuprates, i.e. a power-lawT-dependence with no coherence peak below Tc cannot be accounted for by the conventional theory of the superconductivity and/or the model based on “s-wave” paring.

  18. Protonolysis of [((i)PrO)TiMo5O18]3-: access to a family of TiMo5 Lindqvist type polyoxometalates.


    Coyle, Laura; Middleton, Paul S; Murphy, Christopher J; Clegg, William; Harrington, Ross W; Errington, R John


    The tetra-n-butylammonium (TBA) salts of [((i)PrO)TiMo(5)O(18)](3-) 1 and [((i)BuO)TiMo(5)O(18)](3-) 2 were prepared by hydrolysis of mixtures of (TBA)(2)[Mo(2)O(7)], (TBA)(4)α-[Mo(8)O(26)] and Ti(OR)(4) (R = (i)Pr or (i)Bu) in acetonitrile. Treatment of (TBA)(3)1 with alcohols ROH afforded primary and tertiary alkoxide derivatives [(RO)TiMo(5)O(18)](3-) (R = Me 3, (t)Bu 4), whilst aryloxides [(ArO)TiMo(5)O(18)](3-) were prepared by reacting 1 with phenols ArOH (Ar = C(6)H(4)Me-4 5, and C(6)H(4)CHO-2 6). Oxo-bridged [(μ-O)(TiMo(5)O(18))(2)](6-)7 rather than the hydroxo derivative [(HO)TiMo(5)O(18)](3-) was obtained upon hydrolysis of 1. X-Ray crystal structures of TBA salts of anions 3-7 show that titanium is six-coordinate in all cases, although titanium sites are disordered over two trans positions in 3. Mo-O bond length alternation is observed in the Mo(4)O(4) planes of 4 and 7 and in one of the two independent anions in the structure of 3. In solution, (17)O NMR spectra are consistent with the higher anionic charge compared to [Mo(6)O(19)](2-) and reveal an order of basicity for the anions [LM'Mo(5)O(18)](3-) associated with the ability of {LM'}(3+) to donate/withdraw electron density from {Mo(5)O(18)}(6-). Protonolysis reactions of 1 and 3 were slower than for tungstate analogues and the possibility of initial protonation at TiOM (M = Mo) rather than TiOR (M = W) in a proton-assisted S(N)1 mechanism for ligand exchange in [(RO)TiM(5)O(18)](3-) is discussed.

  19. Oxygen and Cell Fate Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology


    2001; Jaakkola et al. 2001) and is targeted by the von Hippel-Lindau ( VHL ) protein for ubiquitination and proteosome-mediated degradation (Maxwell...2001. HIFα targeted for VHL -mediated destruction by proline hydroxylation: implications for O2 sensing. Science, 292:464–8. Ivanovic, Z., Bartolozzi...C.W., Maher, E.R. and Ratcliffe, P.J. 1999. The tumour suppressor protein VHL targets hypoxia-inducible factors for oxygen-dependent proteolysis

  20. A Comprehensive Approach to Fusion for Microsensor Networks: Distributed and Hierarchical Inference, Communication, and Adaption

    DTIC Science & Technology


    compression based on the Burrows-Wheeler transform: Analysis and optimality. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 2001. pp. 1461-1472. 82. K...Theory, 2005. 84. M.J. Wainwright, E. P. Simoncelli, A. S. Willsky. Random cascades on wavelet trees and their use in analyzing and modeling natural...images. Applied Computational and Harmonic Analysis (Special issue on wavelet applications), April 2001. 85. M.J. Wainwright, T.S. Jaakkola, A.S

  1. Formation of TiO2 layers on commercially pure Ti and Ti-Mo and Ti-Nb alloys by two-step thermal oxidation and their photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sado, Shota; Ueda, Takatoshi; Ueda, Kyosuke; Narushima, Takayuki


    Anatase-containing TiO2 layers were formed on commercially pure (CP) Ti and Ti-25mass%Mo (Ti-25Mo) and Ti-25mass%Nb (Ti-25Nb) alloys by two-step thermal oxidation. The first-step treatment was conducted in an Ar-1%CO atmosphere at 1073 K for 3.6 ks, and the second-step treatment was conducted in air at 673-1073 K for 10.8 ks. The second-step temperature range for anatase formation was wider in the Ti alloys than in CP Ti. Photo-induced superhydrophilicity under UV irradiation was observed for the TiO2 layers with anatase fractions ≥0.6 on CP Ti and the Ti-25Mo alloy, and with anatase fractions ≥0.18 on the Ti-25Nb alloy. The TiO2 layers on the Ti-25Nb alloy exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity in the low anatase fraction region, which is considered to be caused by the incorporation of 1-3 at% Nb into the TiO2 layers. The rate constant of methylene blue degradation showed maxima at anatase fractions of 0.6-0.9.

  2. Special Operations Forces During the Dhofar Insurgency and in Afghanistan: A Comparative Study for German Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology


    treatment. His accusations included also operators of German SOF, who were operating out of Kandahar at this time in the OEF campaign. Noetzel, Timo ...John. British Counterinsurgency: From Palestine to Northern Ireland. Hampshire (UK), 2002. Noetzel, Timo and Benjamin Schreer. Spezialkrafte der...Bundeswehr. Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik. Berlin (FRG), 2007. Noetzel, Timo and Benjamin Schreer. German Special Operations Forces. Stiftung

  3. A New Therapeutic Strategy for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Activation of AMP Kinase by Metformin. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology


    a tight-fitting Dounce homogenizer, chilled on ice for 10 min, and then rotated for 15 min. Nonidet P - 40 was added to a final concentration of 1...Biol. 2011;7(10):701-11. 40 . Jaakkola P , Mole DR, Tian YM, Wilson MI, Gielbert J, Gaskell SJ, Kriegsheim A, Hebestreit HF, Mukherji M, Schofield CJ, et...counted from each of n=6 mice) in comparison to 10.6±3.6% s.e.m. (450 cells counted from each of n=4 mice) in metformin-treated mice ( p ɘ.0074). To

  4. Reply to "Comment on 'A study on tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte-Carlo optical simulation'".


    Shen, Haiou; Wang, Ge


    We compare the accuracy of TIM-OS and MMCM in response to the recent analysis made by Fang [Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1258 (2011)]. Our results show that the tetrahedron-based energy deposition algorithm used in TIM-OS is more accurate than the node-based energy deposition algorithm used in MMCM.

  5. Using Animated Language Software with Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Rita; Pete, Ann Marie; Popeson, Joanne


    We examined the impact of using an animated software program (Team Up With Timo) on the expressive and receptive language abilities of five children ages 5-9 in a self-contained Learning and Language Disabilities class. We chose to use Team Up With Timo (Animated Speech Corporation) because it allows the teacher to personalize the animation for…

  6. NATO’s Future and Relevance

    DTIC Science & Technology


    security and broader American interests in peace and stability on the continent as well as the rest of the world.11 As Timo Noetzel and Benjamin...unpredictable world. Endnotes 1 Sarwar A. Kashmeri, NATO 2.0: Reboot or Delete? (Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 2011), 1. 22 2 Timo Noetzel and

  7. Impediments to the effectiveness of the United Nations-African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID)

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Security Council Sets Massive New Challenges for UN Peacekeeping,‖ 1-2. 62 Ibid., 1. 63 Ibid., 6. 64 Ibid., 2. 65 Ibid. 66 Timo Pelz and...files/bueros/usa/04976.pdf (accessed May 24, 2010). 67 Timo Pelz and Volker Lehmann, ―The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping (1): Hybrid Missions,‖ 1

  8. Fine-Scale Exposure to Allergenic Pollen in the Urban Environment: Evaluation of Land Use Regression Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hjort, Jan; Hugg, Timo T.; Antikainen, Harri; Rusanen, Jarmo; Sofiev, Mikhail; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Jaakkola, Maritta S.; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.


    Background: Despite the recent developments in physically and chemically based analysis of atmospheric particles, no models exist for resolving the spatial variability of pollen concentration at urban scale. Objectives: We developed a land use regression (LUR) approach for predicting spatial fine-scale allergenic pollen concentrations in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland, and evaluated the performance of the models against available empirical data. Methods: We used grass pollen data monitored at 16 sites in an urban area during the peak pollen season and geospatial environmental data. The main statistical method was generalized linear model (GLM). Results: GLM-based LURs explained 79% of the spatial variation in the grass pollen data based on all samples, and 47% of the variation when samples from two sites with very high concentrations were excluded. In model evaluation, prediction errors ranged from 6% to 26% of the observed range of grass pollen concentrations. Our findings support the use of geospatial data–based statistical models to predict the spatial variation of allergenic grass pollen concentrations at intra-urban scales. A remote sensing–based vegetation index was the strongest predictor of pollen concentrations for exposure assessments at local scales. Conclusions: The LUR approach provides new opportunities to estimate the relations between environmental determinants and allergenic pollen concentration in human-modified environments at fine spatial scales. This approach could potentially be applied to estimate retrospectively pollen concentrations to be used for long-term exposure assessments. Citation: Hjort J, Hugg TT, Antikainen H, Rusanen J, Sofiev M, Kukkonen J, Jaakkola MS, Jaakkola JJ. 2016. Fine-scale exposure to allergenic pollen in the urban environment: evaluation of land use regression approach. Environ Health Perspect 124:619–626; PMID:26452296

  9. A study on tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulation.


    Shen, Haiou; Wang, Ge


    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is widely recognized as a gold standard in biophotonics for its high accuracy. Here we analyze several issues associated with tetrahedron-based optical Monte Carlo simulation in the context of TIM-OS, MMCM, MCML, and CUDAMCML in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Our results show that TIM-OS has significant better performance in the complex geometry cases and has comparable performance with CUDAMCML in the multi-layered tissue model.

  10. A study on tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Haiou; Wang, Ge


    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is widely recognized as a gold standard in biophotonics for its high accuracy. Here we analyze several issues associated with tetrahedron-based optical Monte Carlo simulation in the context of TIM-OS, MMCM, MCML, and CUDAMCML in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Our results show that TIM-OS has significant better performance in the complex geometry cases and has comparable performance with CUDAMCML in the multi-layered tissue model. PMID:21326634

  11. Disruption of a novel regulatory locus results in decreased Bdnf expression, obesity, and type 2 diabetes in mice.


    Sha, Haibo; Xu, Jingyue; Tang, Jing; Ding, Jun; Gong, Jianfeng; Ge, Xiaomei; Kong, Dong; Gao, Xiang


    Mutants of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are associated with obesity. However, the regulatory mechanism of BDNF expression is still unclear. We developed a novel mutant mouse line, transgenic insertional mutants with obesity, named Timo, in which a potential regulatory locus of Bdnf was disrupted by transgene insertion. The insertion site was identified and lies 857 kb upstream of the Bdnf gene. The disrupted genomic locus is conserved across the mouse, rat, dog, and human genome and contains several highly conserved elements that are able to upregulate reporter gene expression in vitro. Along with downregulation of BDNF to approximately 30% of wild-type animals, Timo/Timo mice exhibited increased body weight and fat content with hepatic steatosis and elevated serum levels of leptin, cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol. These mutant mice also showed obesity-independent insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, age-dependent hyperglycemia, and shortened life span. Molecular and phenotype analysis of Timo/Timo mice indicated the existence of a genome locus, lying 857 kb upstream of the Bdnf gene, that regulates BDNF expression, body weight, and glucose homeostasis.

  12. Influence of potential on the electrochemical behaviour of beta titanium alloys in Hank's solution.


    Karthega, M; Raman, V; Rajendran, N


    The electrochemical behaviour of beta titanium alloys, namely Ti-15Mo (TiMo) and Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr (TNTZ), were studied under physiological conditions using open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements. The OCP data for TNTZ alloy indicated a noble behaviour compared to TiMo alloy. The current density value for TNTZ alloy calculated from polarization measurement was found to be comparable to that of TiMo. The EIS technique was applied to study the nature of the passive film formed on binary TiMo alloy at various impressed potentials and the results were compared with that of the quaternary TNTZ alloy. The EIS spectra obtained for TiMo alloy exhibited a single time constant for all potentials, indicating a highly compact passive layer over the surface. The TNTZ alloy, however, exhibited a single time constant at lower potentials and two time constants at higher potentials, indicating a bilayer structure at higher potentials.

  13. A tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator.


    Shen, H; Wang, G


    Optical imaging has been widely applied in preclinical and clinical applications. Fifteen years ago, an efficient Monte Carlo program 'MCML' was developed for use with multi-layered turbid media and has gained popularity in the field of biophotonics. Currently, there is an increasingly pressing need for simulating tools more powerful than MCML in order to study light propagation phenomena in complex inhomogeneous objects, such as the mouse. Here we report a tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator (TIM-OS) to address this issue. By modeling an object as a tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous finite-element mesh, TIM-OS can determine the photon-triangle interaction recursively and rapidly. In numerical simulation, we have demonstrated the correctness and efficiency of TIM-OS.

  14. Cultural influences on children's understanding of the human body and the concept of life.


    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin


    This study aimed to identify the age by which children begin to demonstrate a biological understanding of the human body and the idea that the purpose of body functioning is to maintain life. The study also explored the influence of education, culturally specific experiences and religion on knowledge acquisition in this domain. Children aged between 4 and 7 years from three different cultural backgrounds (White British, British Muslim, and Pakistani Muslim) were interviewed about the human body and its functioning. At least half of the 4- to 5-year-olds in each cultural group, and almost all 6- to 7-year-olds, referred to the maintenance of life when explaining organs' functions and so were classified as 'life theorizers'. Pakistani Muslim children gave fewer biological responses to questions about organs' functions and the purpose of eating and breathing, but referred to life more than their British counterparts. Irrespective of cultural group, older children understood organ location and function better than younger children. These findings support Jaakkola and Slaughter's (2002, Br. J. Dev. Psychol., 20, 325) view that children's understanding of the body as a 'life machine' emerges around the ages of 4-5 years. They also suggest that, despite many similarities in children's ideas cross-culturally, different educational input and culturally specific experiences influence aspects of their biological understanding.

  15. Discussions on Some Educational Issues. Research Report 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansanen, Pertti, Ed.

    Educational issues in Finland and Sweden are addressed in the following papers: (1) "Teacher Training and the Official Teacher's Role" (Karl-Georg Ahlstrom and Maud Johnsson); (2) "Evaluation of Coercive Elements in Education" (Timo Airaksinen); (3) "Philosophy from the Viewpoint of Education" (Pertti Kansanen); (4)…

  16. What IRT Can and Cannot Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.


    This author states that, while the article by Gunter Maris and Timo Bechger ("On Interpreting the Model Parameters for the Three Parameter Logistic Model," this issue) is highly interesting, the interest is not so much in the practical implications, but rather in the issue of the meaning and role of statistical models in psychometrics and…

  17. Is there a correlation between Japanese L2 learner's perception of English stressed words and acoustic features?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Keiko; Isei-Jakkola, Toshiko


    Is there a correlation between Japanese L2 learner's perception of English stressed words and acoustic features? [Keiko Asano (Yokohama National University, and Toshiko Isei-jaakkola (University of Helsinki)]. It is well known that the Japanese have weakness in listening to unstressed words in English, but there are less data on their perception of stressed words. Thus, the listening tests and the acoustic experiments were conducted in terms of (1) relevancy of difficulites depending on part of speech and their English proficiency, (2) the relationship between pitch and intensity of stressed words, and (3) if there is a correlation between their perception and experimental data. In the listening test, an English prose read by an American male speaker was used. The 150 Japanese L2 learners were assigned to mark the primary stressed words. The statistical results showed that there was a variance depending on part of speech and more markedly the comparative rating scores of correct words were highly correlated to the learner's English proficiency in any part of speech. In the acoustic experiments, pitch and intensity were measured. It was confirmed that (1) both F0 and dB carried the cue to perceive a stressed-word but they were not necessarily correlated, and (2) the relationship between F0 and dB might be compared only by relative movement. By further analyzing these acoustic data, prosodic combination of F0 and dB might be relevant to the correct ratios of part of speech.

  18. Influence of stresses on structure and properties of Ti and Zr- based alloys from first-principles simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barannikova, S. A.; Zharmukhambetova, A. M.; Nikonov, A. Yu; Dmitriev, A. V.; Ponomareva, A. V.; Abrikosov, I. A.


    Computer simulations in the framework of the Density Functional Theory have become an established tool for computer simulations of materials properties. In most cases, however, information is obtained at ambient conditions, preventing design of materials for applications at extreme conditions. In this work we employ ab initio calculations to investigate the influence of stresses on structure and stability of Ti-Mo and Zr-Nb alloys, an important class of construction materials. Calculations reproduce known phase stability trends in these systems, and we resolve the controversy regarding the stability of body-centered cubic solid solution in Mo-rich Ti-Mo alloys against the isostructural decomposition. Calculated results are explained in terms of the electronic structure effects, as well as in terms of physically transparent thermodynamic arguments that relate phase stability to deviations of concentration dependence of atomic volume from the linear behavior.

  19. Western European and NATO Navies, 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology


    calls for a force of 25 frigates, 6 diesel submarines, 15 minehunters, 16 inshore minesweepers, 21 long-range maritime patrol aircraft, and 40 Lynx ...II long-range maritime patrol aircraft (the first of which was delivered in November 1981) and 24 Lynx helicopters (with more to be ordered). These...Olmikes, Bradford and Petersen, Charles C., "Iarltli 421-439 Factors Mfecting Iberian Security,". (Pactores tr~timos Dje *Northwestern University

  20. Precipitation in 18 wt% Ni maraging steel of grade 350

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, R.; Mazumder, S.; Batra, I.S.; Dey, G.K.; Banerjee, S.


    The evolution of precipitates in maraging steel of grade 350 was studied using the complementary techniques of small angle X-ray scattering (SACS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These investigations revealed that ageing the steel at 703 K involved a rhombohedral distortion of the supersaturated b.c.c. martensite accompanied by the appearance of diffuse {omega}-like structures. This was followed by the appearance of well-defined {omega} particles containing chemical order. At the ageing temperature of 783 K, Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) precipitates were the first to appear with a growth exponent of 1/3. The values of the Pored exponent obtained from the SAXS profiles indicated that the {omega} particles, formed below 723 K, had diffuse interfaces up to an ageing time of 48 h. On the other hand, Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) precipitates, formed above 723 K, developed sharp interfaces in just about an hour. Also, the steel exhibited scaling in phase separation both at 703 and 783 K, but only during the early stages. Through this study it was established that at temperatures of ageing less than 723 K, evolution of {omega} particles takes place through the collapse of the unstable b.c.c. lattice and, at temperatures above 723 K, precipitation of A{sub 3}B type of phases through the mechanism of clustering and ordering of atomic species. Sharp interfaces develop rather quickly when the mechanism of precipitation involves development and amplification of a concentration wave along as in the nucleation of Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) at 783 K than when an interplay of both the displacement and concentration waves is required as in the evolution of {omega} at 703 K. These results indicate towards the possibility of existence of two separate time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curves, one for the evolution of {omega}-phase and another for nucleation and growth of Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo).

  1. The RAAF Logistics Study. Volume 4,

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Use of Issue-Based Root Definitions Application of Soft Systems Methodology to 27 Information Systems Analysis Conclusion 30 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 58 k...Management Control Systems’, Journal of Applied Systems Analysis, Volume 6, 1979, pages 51 to 67. 5. The soft systems methodology was developed to tackle...the soft systems methodology has many advantages whi-h recmmenrl it to this type of study area, it does not mcklel the timo ev, lut i, n :-f a system

  2. Stability Operations in East Timor 1999-2000: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Democratic Association (Associação Popular Democrática Timo- rense, APODETI).11 FRETILIN called for immediate independence from Portugal. The UDT...recognized the right of East Timor to self-deter- mination, deplored the Indonesian military interven- tion, and called for the withdrawal of the TNI...come. Suharto’s successor, B. J. Habibie had to contend with a disgruntled Indonesian population, calling for increased democracy and questioning the

  3. Human Factors Evaluation of a Heliborne Electronic Warfare System (AN/ ALQ-151, Quick Fix)

    DTIC Science & Technology


    cloves Glovos Operator off on off on List time (in seconds) I i M 89 92 90 > 127 110 123 137 3 136 141 123 123 i Li 1 H5 135 100 190 P* Numb«! of ’.errors Committ.\\i ^’■t ■I1, M 1 I 3 4 i ■ round Airborne Cloves off CUovo1 on off Message timo (in secon<ir

  4. Evaluation of torque moment in a novel elastic bendable orthodontic wire.


    Kuroda, Shingo; Watanabe, Hiroto; Nakajima, Akira; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Tanaka, Eiji


    The objective of the study was to measure the torque moment delivered by a novel elastic bendable wire, Ti-Nb wire, and to compare it with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) and titanium-molybdenum (Ti-Mo) alloy wires. Two sizes of Ti-Nb, Ni-Ti and Ti-Mo alloy wires and 0.022-inch slot stainless steel brackets were ligated with elastic modules or ligature wires. The torque moment delivered by the various wire-bracket combinations was measured using a torque gauge at the temperature and humidity of 37°C and 50%, respectively. As the degree of applied torque and the inserted wire size increased, the torque moment gradually increased. The torque moment of Ti-Nb wires was smaller than those of Ni-Ti wires and Ti-Mo wires, at more than 20 degrees applied torque. The torque moment with wire ligation was significantly larger than those with elastic ligation.

  5. Gastric Bypass Surgery Reverses Diabetic Phenotypes in Bdnf-Deficient Mice.


    Jiang, Shujun; Wang, Qinghua; Huang, Zan; Song, Anying; Peng, Yu; Hou, Siyuan; Guo, Shiying; Zhu, Weiyun; Yan, Sheng; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang


    Duodenum-jejunum gastric bypass (DJB) has been used to treat morbid diabetic patients. However, neither the suitability among patients nor the mechanisms of this surgical treatment is clear. Previously, we reported a new mouse strain named Timo as type 2 diabetes model caused by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) deficiency. In this study, we found that DJB on Timo mice reversed their metabolic abnormalities without altering the expression of Bdnf. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were improved greatly, along with reduction of fat accumulation in liver and white adipose tissue. The gut flora population was altered by DJB with increased proportion of Firmicutes and decreased Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in the ileum after surgery. Systemic inflammation in Timo mice was greatly suppressed with less macrophage infiltration and lower tumor necrosis factor-α levels in liver and white adipose tissue after surgery. Interestingly, the alteration of gut microflora abundance and improved metabolism preceded the inflammation alleviation after DJB surgery. These results suggested that DJB can reverse Bdnf deficiency-associated metabolic abnormality. In addition, the reduced inflammation may not be the initial cause for the DJB-associated metabolic and microbiota alterations. The increased BDNF protein levels in hypothalamus and hippocampus may result from microbiota change after DJB surgery.

  6. [Effects of antihypertensive therapy with selective and non-selective beta blocking agents on dimensions and function of the left ventricle].


    Seguro, C; Sau, F; Cherchi, A


    The influence of cardioselectivity and/or intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) of betablockers on hemodynamic antihypertensive effect and on left ventricular (LV) dimensions and function was studied by echocardiography in 72 hypertensive patients, mean age 43 years. After 15 days of placebo, active therapy was given for 1 month: acebutolol (ACEB, n: 16, 400-800 mg/day), atenolol (ATEN, n: 16, 50-100 mg/day), pindolol (PIND, n: 13, 15-30 mg/day), timolol (TIMO, n: 15, 10-20 mg/day) and nadolol (NADO, n: 12, 80-160 mg/day). All betablockers showed effective antihypertensive activity. Betablockers without ISA (ATEN, TIMO, NADO) reduced cardiac output (p less than 0.05), those with ISA (ACEB, PIND) decreased total peripheral resistance (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05 respectively). Independently from ISA, cardioselective betablockers (ATEN, ACEB) increased LV end diastolic dimension and stroke volume (p less than 0.05). LV mass was not changed, although interventricular septum thickness decreased after TIMO and NADO (p less than 0.05). LV function, as assessed by fractional shortening, was not impaired by any betablocker.

  7. Global Association of Cold Spells and Adverse Health Effects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ryti, Niilo R.I.; Guo, Yuming; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.


    Background There is substantial evidence that mortality increases in low temperatures. Less is known about the role of prolonged cold periods denoted as cold spells. Objective We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the evidence on the adverse health effects of cold spells in varying climates. Data sources and extraction Four databases (Ovid Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) were searched for all years and languages available. “Cold spell” was defined as an event below a temperature threshold lasting for a minimum duration of 2 days. Of 1,527 identified articles, 26 satisfied our eligibility criteria for the systematic review, and 9 were eligible for meta-analyses. The articles were grouped by the three main study questions into Overall-effect Group, Added-effect Group, and Temperature-change-effect Group. Data synthesis Based on random-effects models in the meta-analyses, cold spells were associated with increased mortality from all or all nonaccidental causes (summary rate ratio = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.17 based on 9 estimates from five studies), cardiovascular diseases (1.11; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.19; 12 estimates from eight studies), and respiratory diseases (1.21; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.51; 8 estimates from four studies). Estimated associations were stronger for people ≥ 65 years of age (1.06; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.12) than for people 0–64 years of age (1.01; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.03). Study-specific effect estimates from a limited number of studies suggested an increased morbidity related to cold spells, but it was not possible to quantitatively summarize the evidence. Conclusions Cold spells are associated with increased mortality rates in populations around the world. The body of evidence suggests that cold spells also have other adverse health effects. There was substantial heterogeneity among the studies, which should be taken into account in the interpretation of the results. Citation Ryti NR, Guo Y, Jaakkola JJ. 2016. Global

  8. Effective Shear Modulus for Flexural and Extensional Waves in an Unloaded Thick Plate.

    DTIC Science & Technology


    various texts (see e.g. Timo- shenko and Goodier [6] ). The relationships between the elements of the stress tensor o and the strain tensor e are given by...Extensional Vibrations of Plates," Trans. ASME, Ser. E, J. Appl. Mech. 23, 277-283 (1956). 6. S.P. Timoshenko and J.N. Goodier , Theory of Elasticity, 3d ed...private communication), David Taylor Naval Shin Research & Development Center, 1980. D2. R. D. Mindlin, "Influence of Rotatory inertia and Shear on

  9. Nucleic acid hybridization-an alternative tool in diagnostic microbiology.


    Pettersson, U; Hyypiä, T


    The use of radioimmunoossays (RIAs) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) has revolutionized diagnostic microbiology. Their high specificity and sensitivity make them versatile, they are simple to carry out either for direct detection of microorganisms in specimens or for serological diagnosis, and they can easily and reliably be standardized. Monoclonal antibodies have further improved these immunoassays. However, the development of simple and highly sensitive detection methods for nucleic acids has nevertheless promoted an interest also in diagnostic methods based on nucleic acid hybridization. Here Ulf Pettersson and Timo Hyypiä discuss methods which are likely to become a useful complement to the immunoassays in the near future.

  10. Vesicle membrane fluctuations at nm resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kejia; Bae, Sung Chul; Min, Chang-Ki; Granick, Steve; Granick Group Team


    We measure membrane thermal fluctuations with nanometer spatial resolution and microsecond time resolution, extending a scattering technique used at the Curie Institute to study red blood cell dynamics (Timo Betz et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 15320, 2009). A laser beam is focused at the leading edge of a phospholipid vesicle membrane and the forward scattered light is detected by a quadrant photodiode. The measurements over 4 orders of magnitude of frequency allow quantification of more complete fluctuation spectra than competing methods, and therefore fuller understanding of the vesicle membrane mechanics. As a proof of concept, we quantify how adsorbed nanoparticles stiffen giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs).

  11. Microstructure, mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of stable beta Ti-Mo-Ta sintered alloys.


    Delvat, E; Gordin, D M; Gloriant, T; Duval, J L; Nagel, M D


    We have synthesized titanium-based alloys containing molybdenum and tantalum elements by powder metallurgy. The microstructure, the residual porosity and the mechanical properties of the sintered Ti-Mo and Ti-Ta-Mo alloys were investigated by using optical and electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microhardness and compression tests. The cytocompatibility of the different alloys was evaluated by the assessment of bone cell density, migration and adhesion after 14 days incubation. All the alloys present a high ductility and an excellent cytocompatibility, which make these materials useful for medical implants.

  12. [Choleretic effects of methanol extracts obtained from various Chinese traditional medicine].


    Sasaki, T; Ohta, S; Kamogawa, A; Shinoda, M


    Choleretic effects of 60 kinds of Chinese traditional medicine frequently used in clinical practice were investigated. Consequently, significant effects of choleretics were found in the methanol extracts of Ko-so-san, Intinko-to, Saiko-seikan-to, Hange-koboku-to, Antyu-san, Syo-kankyo-to, Keisi-syakuyaku-timo-to, Senkan-meimoku-to, Bohu-tusyo-san, Juzen-taiho-to, Jumi-haidoku-to Kami-syoyo-san and Hange-syasin-to. Water extracts of these Chinese traditional medicine had no such effect. Alteration of excretion of various biliary components after administration of the methanol extracts with the choleretic effect was examined, and with all medicines, bile acid excretion decreased and sodium and potassium excretions increased. Therefore, a medicine inducing choleresis involves some selective increases in the bile acid-independent fraction of bile flow. And after administration of methanol extracts of Keisi-syakuyaku-timo-to and Bohu-tusyo-san, lithogenic index, an index of saturation level of cholesterol, decreased significantly. Therefore, with these medicines, a dissolving effect on cholesterol gallstone is expected.

  13. Work Function Tuning in Two-Dimensional MoS2 Field-Effect-Transistors with Graphene and Titanium Source-Drain Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Seung Su; Im, Seongil; Choi, Hyoung Joon


    Based on the first principles calculation, we investigate the electronic band structures of graphene-MoS2 and Ti-MoS2 heterojunctions under gate-voltages. By simultaneous control of external electric fields and carrier charging concentrations, we show that the graphene’s Dirac point position inside the MoS2 bandgap is easily modulated with respect to the co-varying Fermi level, while keeping the graphene’s linear band structure around the Dirac point. The easy modulation of graphene bands is not confined to the special cases where the conduction-band-minimum point of MoS2 and the Dirac point of graphene are matched up in reciprocal space, but is generalized to their dislocated cases. This flexibility caused by the strong decoupling between graphene and MoS2 bands enhances the gate-controlled switching performance in MoS2-graphene hybrid stacking-device. PMID:28358116


    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Y.; Gelbstein, Y.; Pinkas, M.; Yeheskel, O.; Landau, A.


    Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements had been proved as an effective method for evaluating the metallurgical state of various alloys. The current work was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of the aging state of Maraging 250 steel on TEP values. Commercial Maraging 250 steel was aged at 500 deg. C for 0.5-6 hours (hrs). TEP, hardness (Rc) and ultrasonic (US) measurements, were preformed on the as received and aged specimens. XRD measurements were used to identify the formation of precipitates (mainly Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo)), reverted austenite and to evaluate changes in the microstrain caused by the precipitation process. A correlation was found between the TEP and the various measurements as a function of the aging time.

  15. Applying Tep Measurements to Assess the Aging Stage of Maraging 250 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snir, Y.; Pinkas, M.; Gelbstein, Y.; Yeheskel, O.; Landau, A.


    Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements had been proved as an effective method for evaluating the metallurgical state of various alloys. The current work was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of the aging state of Maraging 250 steel on TEP values. Commercial Maraging 250 steel was aged at 500 °C for 0.5-6 hours (hrs). TEP, hardness (Rc) and ultrasonic (US) measurements, were preformed on the as received and aged specimens. XRD measurements were used to identify the formation of precipitates (mainly Ni3(Ti,Mo)), reverted austenite and to evaluate changes in the microstrain caused by the precipitation process. A correlation was found between the TEP and the various measurements as a function of the aging time.

  16. Friction coefficients and wear rates of different orthodontic archwires in artificial saliva.


    Alfonso, M V; Espinar, E; Llamas, J M; Rupérez, E; Manero, J M; Barrera, J M; Solano, E; Gil, F J


    The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the nature of the orthodontic archwires on the friction coefficient and wear rate against materials used commonly as brackets (Ti-6Al-4V and 316L Stainless Steel). The materials selected as orthodontic archwires were ASI304 stainless steel, NiTi, Ti, TiMo and NiTiCu. The array archwire's materials selected presented very similar roughness but different hardness. Materials were chosen from lower and higher hardness degrees than that of the brackets. Wear tests were carried out at in artificial saliva at 37 °C. Results show a linear relationship between the hardness of the materials and the friction coefficients. The material that showed lower wear rate was the ASI304 stainless steel. To prevent wear, the wire and the brackets have high hardness values and in the same order of magnitude.

  17. Metal oxide chemistry in solution: the early transition metal polyoxoanions.


    Day, V W; Klemperer, W G


    Many of the early transition elements form large polynuclear metal-oxygen anions containing up to 200 atoms or more. Although these polyoxoanions have been investigated for more than a century, detailed studies of structure and reactivity were not possible until the development of modern x-ray crystallographic and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. Systematic studies of small polyoxoanions in inert, aprotic solvents have clarified many of the principles governing their structure and reactivity, and also have made possible the preparation of entirely new types of covalent derivatives such as CH(2)Mo(4)O(15)H(3-), C(5)H(5)TiMo(5)O(18)(3-), and (OC)(3)Mn(Nb(2)W(4)O(19))(3-). Since most early transition metal polyoxoanions have structures based on close-packed oxygen arrays containing interstitial metal centers, their chemistry offers a rare opportunity to study chemical transformations in detail on well-defined metal oxide surfaces.

  18. Crystallography and density of states calculation of MxMo6Se8 (M=Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, C.; Chevrel, R.; Jenny, A.; Pecheur, P.; Scherrer, H.; Scherrer, S.


    Chevrel phases have an open lattice in which cations can be inserted. These cations are generally located in cavity 1 or 2. We present here the crystallographic structure of selenide compounds in which 3d ions are inserted. These cations have an original position in cavity 2. These phases should have low lattice thermal conductivity and are currently being investigated for thermoelectric application. Good thermoelectric materials are also semiconducting. We present here band-structure calculations on these 3d ion Chevrel phase selenides: TiMo6Se8 is the only one found to be semiconducting. CrMo6Se8, FeMo6Se8, and NiMo6Se8 are metallic and might be magnetic.

  19. Heading in the right direction? An innovative approach toward proper patient head positioning.


    Grush, William H; Steffen, Gary A


    An in-house-manufactured modification of the standard A-F foam rubber head-neck supports (aka. Timo Supports) was designed to eliminate clinical setup problems with head immobilization and instability during treatment, thus providing for a more comfortable head rest for the patient. The custom design of this head holder seeks to eliminate superior-to-inferior shift, and minimize the lateral right-to-left rotational movement of the head when coupled with an AquaPlast casting system. By focusing attention to the seating of the occipital portion of the head and contour of the patient's neck, the aforementioned problems of movement were addressed, while adhering to the interests of patient comfort in this modified head support system.

  20. On the high-pressure phase stability and elastic properties of β-titanium alloys.


    Smith, D; Joris, O P J; Sankaran, A; Weekes, H E; Bull, D J; Prior, T J; Dye, D; Errandonea, D; Proctor, J E


    We have studied the compressibility and stability of different β-titanium alloys at high pressure, including binary Ti-Mo, Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (Ti2448) and Ti-36Nb-2Ta-0.3O (gum metal). We observed stability of the β phase in these alloys to 40 GPa, well into the ω phase region in the P-T diagram of pure titanium. Gum metal was pressurised above 70 GPa and forms a phase with a crystal structure similar to the η phase of pure Ti. The bulk moduli determined for the different alloys range from 97  ±  3 GPa (Ti2448) to 124  ±  6 GPa (Ti-16.8Mo-0.13O).

  1. SDAV Viz July Progress Update: LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, Christopher Meyer


    SDAV Viz July Progress Update: (1) VPIC (Vector Particle in Cell) Kinetic Plasma Simulation Code - (a) Implemented first version of an in-situ adapter based on Paraview CoProcessing Library, (b) Three pipelines: vtkDataSetMapper, vtkContourFilter, vtkPistonContour, (c) Next, resolve issue at boundaries of processor domains; add more advanced viz/analysis pipelines; (2) Halo finding/merger trees - (a) Summer student Wathsala W. from University of Utah is working on data-parallel halo finder algorithm using PISTON, (b) Timo Bremer (LLNL), Valerio Pascucci (Utah), George Zagaris (Kitware), and LANL people are interested in using merger trees for tracking the evolution of halos in cosmo simulations; discussed possible overlap with work by Salman Habib and Katrin Heitmann (Argonne) during their visit to LANL 7/11; (3) PISTON integration in ParaView - Now available from ParaView github.

  2. Teleseismic wave front anomalies at a Continental Rift: no mantle anomaly below the central Upper Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, Stephanie; Ritter, Joachim; Wawerzinek, Britta


    The deep structure of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), a continental rift in SW Germany and E France, is still poorly known. This deficit impedes a full understanding of the geodynamic evolution of this prominent rift. We study the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure using teleseismic waveforms obtained from the passive broad-band TIMO project across the central URG. The recovered, crust-corrected traveltime residuals relative to the iasp91 earth model are tiny (mostly less than 0.2-0.3 s). The average measured slowness (<1 s deg-1) and backazimuth (<5°) deviations are also very small and do not show any systematic wave front anomalies. These observed perturbation values are smaller than expected ones from synthetic 3-D ray tracing modelling with anomalies exceeding 2-3 per cent seismic velocity in the mantle. Thus there is no significant hint for any deep-seated anomaly such as a mantle cushion, etc. This result means that the rifting process did not leave behind a lower lithospheric signature, which could be clearly verified with high-resolution teleseismic experiments. The only significant traveltime perturbation at the central URG is located at its western side in the upper crust around a known geothermal anomaly. The upper crustal seismic anomaly with traveltime delays of 0.2-0.3 s cannot be explained with increased temperature alone. It is possibly related to a zone of highly altered granite. In the west of our network a traveltime anomaly (0.6-0.7 s delay) related with the Eifel plume is confirmed by the TIMO data set.

  3. TEM Analysis of Interfaces in Diffusion-Bonded Silicon Carbide Ceramics Joined Using Metallic Interlayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozaki, T.; Tsuda, H.; Halbig, M. C.; Singh, M.; Hasegawa, Y.; Mori, S.; Asthana R.


    Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a promising material for thermo-structural applications due to its excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, oxidation resistance, and thermal stability. However, joining and integration technologies are indispensable for this material in order to fabricate large size and complex shape components with desired functionalities. Although diffusion bonding techniques using metallic interlayers have been commonly utilized to bond various SiC ceramics, detailed microstructural observation by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) of the bonded area has not been carried out due to difficulty in preparing TEM samples. In this study, we tried to prepare TEM samples from joints of diffusion bonded SiC ceramics by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) system and carefully investigated the interfacial microstructure by TEM analysis. The samples used in this study were SiC fiber bonded ceramics (SA-Tyrannohex: SA-THX) diffusion bonded with metallic interlayers such as Ti, TiMo, and Mo-B. In this presentation, the result of microstructural analysis obtained by TEM observations and the influence of metallic interlayers and fiber orientation of SA-THX on the joint microstructure will be discussed.

  4. Microstructural analysis of laser weld fusion zone in Haynes 282 superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Osoba, L.O.; Ding, R.G.; Ojo, O.A.


    Analytical electron microscopy and spectroscopy analyses of the fusion zone (FZ) microstructure in autogenous laser beam welded Haynes 282 (HY 282) superalloy were performed. The micro-segregation patterns observed in the FZ indicate that Co, Cr and Al exhibited a nearly uniform distribution between the dendrite core and interdendritic regions while Ti and Mo were rejected into the interdendritic liquid during the weld solidification. Transmission electron diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed the second phase particles formed along the FZ interdendritic region to be Ti-Mo rich MC-type carbide particles. Weld FZ solidification cracking, which is sometimes associated with the formation of {gamma}-{gamma}' eutectic in {gamma}' precipitation strengthened nickel-base superalloys, was not observed in the HY 282 superalloy. Modified primary solidification path due to carbon addition in the newly developed superalloy is used to explain preclusion of weld FZ solidification cracking in the material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A newly developed superalloy was welded by CO{sub 2} laser beam joining technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron microscopy characterization of the weld microstructure was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identified interdendritic microconstituents consist of MC-type carbides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modification of primary solidification path is used to explain cracking resistance.

  5. Two new titanium molybdenum arsenides: Ti{sub 2}MoAs{sub 2} and Ti{sub 3}MoAs{sub 3}, ternary substitution variants of V{sub 3}As{sub 2} and {beta}-V{sub 4}As{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Assoud, Abdeljalil; Derakhshan, Shahab; Kleinke, Katja M.; Kleinke, Holger . E-mail:


    The title compounds were prepared by arc-melting pre-annealed mixtures of Ti, Mo, and As. Both Ti{sub 2}MoAs{sub 2} and Ti{sub 3}MoAs{sub 3} adopt structures formed by the corresponding binary vanadium arsenides, V{sub 3}As{sub 2} and {beta}-V{sub 4}As{sub 3}. Ti{sub 2}MoAs{sub 2} crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4/m, with a=9.706(4) A, c=3.451(2) A, V=325.1(3) A{sup 3} (Z=4), and Ti{sub 3}MoAs{sub 3} in the monoclinic space group C2/m, with a=14.107(3) A, b=3.5148(7) A, c=9.522(2) A, {beta}=100.66(3){sup o}, V=464.0(2) A{sup 3} (Z=4). In both cases, the metal atoms form infinite chains of trans edge-condensed octahedra, and the As atoms are located in (capped) trigonal prismatic voids. While most metal atom sites exhibit mixed Ti/Mo occupancies, the Mo atoms prefer the sites with more metal atom and fewer As atom neighbors. Ti{sub 2}MoAs{sub 2} and Ti{sub 3}MoAs{sub 3} are metallic entropy-stabilized materials that decompose upon annealing at intermediate temperatures.

  6. Quantification of genetic relationships among A genomes of wheats.


    Brandolini, A; Vaccino, P; Boggini, G; Ozkan, H; Kilian, B; Salamini, F


    The genetic relationships of A genomes of Triticum urartu (Au) and Triticum monococcum (Am) in polyploid wheats are explored and quantified by AFLP fingerprinting. Forty-one accessions of A-genome diploid wheats, 3 of AG-genome wheats, 19 of AB-genome wheats, 15 of ABD-genome wheats, and 1 of the D-genome donor Ae. tauschii have been analysed. Based on 7 AFLP primer combinations, 423 bands were identified as potentially A genome specific. The bands were reduced to 239 by eliminating those present in autoradiograms of Ae. tauschii, bands interpreted as common to all wheat genomes. Neighbour-joining analysis separates T. urartu from T. monococcum. Triticum urartu has the closest relationship to polyploid wheats. Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum and T. turgidum subsp. durum lines are included in tightly linked clusters. The hexaploid spelts occupy positions in the phylogenetic tree intermediate between bread wheats and T. turgidum. The AG-genome accessions cluster in a position quite distant from both diploid and other polyploid wheats. The estimates of similarity between A genomes of diploid and polyploid wheats indicate that, compared with Am, Au has around 20% higher similarity to the genomes of polyploid wheats. Triticum timo pheevii AG genome is molecularly equidistant from those of Au and Am wheats.

  7. [Changes in the biological and immunologic parameters in the oral cavity of the aged. Review].


    Bonaccorso, A; Tripi, T R


    Senescence is the effect of the immune system incapacity to see "self" and "non-self"; timo-involution induced down-regulation of immunoregulatory -T and B-lymphocytes. Immunosenescence mutations in oral cavity are examined. Even the oral ecosystem presents disorders in quality and quantity of the bacterial plaque and a different immune response. Age senescence is particularly evident in the masticatory apparatus, in fact the dental tissues have remarkable morpho-structural physiological changes; the epithelial, connective and osseous tissues of the periodontium have structural age changes related to the collagen synthesis and physical properties, with an increase of the stroma and a decrease of cell population. The osseous tissue presents cellular atrophy, sclerosis, osteoporosis and is undergoing a continuous structural remodelling; the oral mucous membranes show a thinning of epithelium and an increase of the stroma related to the parenchyma. Specific individual changes could be appraised in the involution of stomatognathic apparatus, more than an indefinite reduction of the performances.

  8. [Benzalkonium chloride daily dose--an important criterion in glaucoma treatment].


    Výborný, P; Sicáková, S


    Preservatives in eye drops, especially benzalkonium chloride (BAC), may act as cytotoxic; furthermore, it may cause the instability of the tear film, conjunctivitis, subconjunctival fibrosis, epithelium apoptosis and worsening the prognosis of possible surgical treatment. The patient's subjective symptoms may decrease his compliance. For better orientation in this issue, the authors calculated the daily BAC doses in eye drops used in the glaucoma treatment. Significant differences are caused by different size of the drop in specific medicament, different BAC concentrations in the volume unit of the package, and frequency of application. The daily BAC doses are in micrograms as follows: Beta-blockers: Timo-COMOD 0.0, Arutimol 2.6, Vistagan 2.8, Timolol POS 3.0, Arteoptic 3.7, Carteol 4.0, Betoptic S 4.8, Timoptol MSD 6.3, Betoptic 10.0. Alpha-mimetics: Alphagan and Luxfen 3.5, Aruclonine 7.1. Prostaglandin derivates, prostamides and docosanoides: Taflotan 0.0, Lumigan 1.4, Unilat 3.0, Travatan 3.9, Rescula 5.8, Xalatan 6.0, Latanoprost-ratiopharm, Xaloptic, Latanoprost Actavis, Latanoprost Arrow, Solusan, Glaucotens 6.0. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Azopt 4.8, Trusopt 5.4. Fixed combinations: Ganfort 1.4, Combigan 3.2, Duotrav 4.3, Cosopt 5.6, Xalacom 6.0.

  9. Preliminary Analysis of Double Shell Tomography Data

    SciTech Connect

    Pascucci, V


    In this project we have collaborated with LLNL scientists Dr. Peer-Timo Bremer while performing our research work on algorithmic solutions for geometric processing, image segmentation and data streaming. The main deliverable has been a 3D viewer for high-resolution imaging data with particular focus on the presentation of orthogonal slices of the double shell tomography dataset. Basic probing capabilities allow querying single voxels in the data to study in detail the information presented to the user and compensate for the intrinsic filtering and imprecision due to visualization based on colormaps. On the algorithmic front we have studied the possibility of using of non-local means filtering algorithm to achieve noise removal from tomography data. In particular we have developed a prototype that implements an accelerated version of the algorithm that may be able to take advantage of the multi-resolution sub-sampling of the ViSUS format. We have achieved promising results. Future plans include the full integration of the non-local means algorithm in the ViSUS frameworks and testing if the accelerated method will scale properly from 2D images to 3D tomography data.

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast Ti-Mo-xCr alloy for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senopati, Galih; Sutowo, Cahya; P. A., I. Nyoman Gede; Utomo, Edy Priyanto; Amal, M. Ikhlasul


    Beta Ti alloys is one of the most attractive biomaterials due to their better corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, greater specific strength and lower elastic modulus than stainless steels and Co-Cr based alloys. Cr is the strong beta Ti stabilizer and has lower density than Nb, Sn and Ta. In this study As cast Ti-12Mo and Ti-12-xCr with Cr content range 1, 3, 5, and 10 wt.% prepared by using arc melting vacuum-pressure casting were investigated. The as cast Ti-Mo and Ti-Mo-xCr examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope (OM) and Vickers hardness tester. Experimental result indicate Ti-12Mo-xNb match for β phase peaks but TiO2 phase occurred in all alloys. The vickers hardness values of all the Ti-12Mo-xCr alloys are higher than HV 1000. The optical microscope investigation indicate Cr content influence Ti-Mo-xCr microstructure.

  11. Structural Stabilities of β-Ti Alloys Studied Using a New Mo Equivalent Derived from [ β/( α + β)] Phase-Boundary Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Dong, Chuang; Liaw, Peter K.


    Structural stabilities of β-Ti alloys are generally investigated by an empirical Mo equivalent, which quantifies the stability contribution of each alloying element, M, in comparison to that of the major β-Ti stabilizer, Mo. In the present work, a new Mo equivalent (Moeq)Q is proposed, which uses the slopes of the boundary lines between the β and ( α + β) phase zones in binary Ti-M phase diagrams. This (Moeq)Q reflects a simple fact that the β-Ti stability is enhanced, when the β phase zone is enlarged by a β-Ti stabilizer. It is expressed as (Moeq)Q = 1.0 Mo + 0.74 V + 1.01 W + 0.23 Nb + 0.30 Ta + 1.23 Fe + 1.10 Cr + 1.09 Cu + 1.67 Ni + 1.81 Co + 1.42 Mn + 0.38 Sn + 0.34 Zr + 0.99 Si - 0.57 Al (at. pct), where the equivalent coefficient of each element is the slope ratio of the [ β/( α + β)] boundary line of the binary Ti-M phase diagram to that of the Ti-Mo. This (Moeq)Q is shown to reliably characterize the critical stability limit of multi-component β-Ti alloys with low Young's moduli, where the critical lower limit for β stabilization is (Moeq)Q = 6.25 at. pct or 11.8 wt pct Mo.

  12. When Did the Swahili Become Maritime?

    PubMed Central

    Fleisher, Jeffrey; Lane, Paul; LaViolette, Adria; Horton, Mark; Pollard, Edward; Quintana Morales, Eréndira; Vernet, Thomas; Christie, Annalisa; Wynne-Jones, Stephanie


    esta sociedad costera entre el primer y segundo milenio. Éstas son la variabilidad y discontinuidad en la localización y permanencia de los asentamientos; evidencia de una conexión mayor con el mar a través de la tecnología de pesca y navegación; y desarrollos arquitectónicos especializados que incluyen instalaciones portuarias, mezquitas, y casas. Las implicaciones de este estudio indican que debemos considerar otros aspectos de una sociedad aparte de su localización costera para determinar su maritimidad. Hay que considerar cómo el mar y sus productos son parte de la vida social y evaluar si existe una influencia recíproca entre el ambiente marítimo y los patrones de organización sociocultural, las prácticas, y las creencias de los Swahili y otras sociedades. [marítimo, pesca y navegación, comercio a larga distancia, Swahili, África Oriental] PMID:25821235

  13. Effect of β-stabilizer elements on stacking faults energies and ductility of α-titanium using first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salloom, R.; Banerjee, R.; Srinivasan, S. G.


    The effect of W, Mo, V, Ta, and Nb, five common β-stabilizing substitutional elements, on α-Ti stacking fault energy has been studied using first principle calculations. The generalized stacking fault energy (GSFE) curves have been determined for different concentrations of β-stabilizers at the fault plane using supercells with up to 360 atoms. Both basal and prismatic slip systems with the stable (γSF) and unstable (γUSF) stacking faults and twinning fault energies were determined. All the alloying elements reduce the stacking fault energy for Ti for both basal and prismatic slip. At higher concentration of 25 at. % of V, Ta, and Nb at the slip plane, the basal slip becomes more favorable than the prismatic slip in Ti. Ti-Mo and Ti-W systems also show a significant shift in the GSFE curve towards a higher shear deformation strain along < 01 1 ¯ 0 > due to the change in bond character between Ti and those two elements. Using Rice criterion, which employs γS/γUSF ratio to estimate ductility, we show that all the alloying elements likely improve the ductility of α-Ti with Ti-25 at. % Nb exhibiting the most ductile behavior. However, according to the Tadmor and Bernstein model, all the alloying elements considered here do not improve the partial dislocation emission or the twinning propensity in spite of decreasing the stacking fault energies for α-Ti and. Hence, a better empirical model that incorporates changes in the character of directional bonding upon alloying is needed to estimate how alloying influences ductility in hcp metals.

  14. Functional regulation of Pb-Ti/MoS2 composite coatings for environmentally adaptive solid lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Siming; Li, Hao; Cui, Mingjun; Wang, Liping; Pu, Jibin


    The lubrication of molybdenum disulfide coatings has commonly been limited by the application environments, for instance, the crystal MoS2 are easily affected by water to form MoO3 that causes a higher friction coefficient and short lifetime. Therefore, to improve the tribolgical performance of MoS2 in high humidity condition, the co-doped Pb-Ti/MoS2 composite coatings are deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. The design of the co-doping elements in MoS2-based coatings can not only maintain the characteristic of low humidity-sensitivity as the Ti/MoS2 coating but also improve the mechanical properties and tribological performance of coatings as a comparison with single-doped ones. Moreover, the ultra-low friction coefficient with a minimum value of 0.006 under the vacuum condition is achieved for Pb-Ti/MoS2 composite coating containing about 4.6 at.% Pb, depending on the densification structure of coating. Intriguingly, the wear behaviours of Pb-Ti/MoS2 composite coatings are in accordance with the variation in H/E (hardness to the elastic modulus) ratio that the coating with higher H/E exhibits lower wear rate. These results demonstrate that the lubricating properties of MoS2 coatings in both humid environment and vacuum condition can be achieved through the Pb and Ti co-doped, which is of great significant for developing MoS2 coatings as the environmentally adaptive lubricants.

  15. Genotypic variation in tetraploid wheat affecting homoeologous pairing in hybrids with Aegilops peregrina.


    Ozkan, H; Feldman, M


    The Ph1 gene has long been considered the main factor responsible for the diploid-like meiotic behavior of polyploid wheat. This dominant gene, located on the long arm of chromosome 5B (5BL), suppresses pairing of homoeologous chromosomes in polyploid wheat and in their hybrids with related species. Here we report on the discovery of genotypic variation among tetraploid wheats in the control of homoeologous pairing. Compared with the level of homoeologous pairing in hybrids between Aegilops peregrina and the bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), significantly higher levels of homoeologous pairing were obtained in hybrids between Ae. peregrina and CS substitution lines in which chromosome 5B of CS was replaced by either 5B of Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides line 09 (TTD09) or 5G of Triticum timopheevii ssp. timopheevii line 01 (TIMO1). Similarly, a higher level of homoeologous pairing was found in the hybrid between Ae. peregrina and a substitution line of CS in which chromosome arm 5BL of line TTD140 substituted for 5BL of CS. It appears that the observed effect on the level of pairing is exerted by chromosome arm 5BL of T turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, most probably by an allele of Ph1. Searching for variation in the control of homoeologous pairing among lines of wild tetraploid wheat, either T turgidum ssp. dicoccoides or T timopheevii ssp. armeniacum, showed that hybrids between Ae. peregrina and lines of these two wild wheats exhibited three different levels of homoeologous pairing: low, low intermediate, and high intermediate. The low-intermediate and high-intermediate genotypes may possess weak alleles of Ph1. The three different T turgidum ssp. dicoccoides pairing genotypes were collected from different geographical regions in Israel, indicating that this trait may have an adaptive value. The availability of allelic variation at the Ph1 locus may facilitate the mapping, tagging, and eventually the isolation of this important gene.

  16. The lithosphere-asthenosphere and crust-mantle boundaries in the region of the Upper Rhine Graben as seen by S-wave receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, J. R. R.; Seiberlich, C.; Wawerzinek, B.


    The Upper Rhine Graben is a branch of the European Cenozoic Rift System and is characterised by a clear rift structure which stretches more than 300 km from Basel to Frankfurt. Since 2004 we study the deep structure of the Upper Rhine Graben within the TIMO project, using the mobile seismic broadband stations of the KArlsruhe BroadBand Array (KABBA). The data are complemented with recordings from permanent stations (BFO, ECH, STU, TNS and WLF). Here we present the results from shear wave receiver function (S-RF) modelling. S-RF are waveforms which should contain only S-to-P converted phases which were generated at seismic discontinuities inside the Earth. The stacked S-RF contain clear signals from the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) under the study region. After a depth migration the Moho topography varies between 25 km and 28 km underneath the Upper Rhine Graben region; within the error limits of 5 km there is no difference between the graben itself and its shoulders. In the southern part of the graben there is an indication for a thinning of the crust to about 23 km. After the Moho signals there is a second phase with opposite polarity in the S-RF. We interpret this signal as conversion from the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). A depth migration results in LAB depths of 70-80 km under the Upper Rhine Graben; the graben itself does not show a specific anomaly. The most shallow LAB depths are found in the region of the Eifel (about 60 km), where a small mantle plume is active.

  17. New seismological constraints on rifting of the Upper Rhine Graben, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawerzinek, B.; Kirschner, S.; Ritter, J.


    The lower lithospheric and asthenospheric structure of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), which is part of the European Cenozoic Rift System, is poorly known. To improve the knowledge on the subcrustal structure of the URG the TIMO project (TIefenstruktur des Mittleren Oberrheingrabens) is conducted. 32 mobile seismic broadband stations of the KArlsruhe BroadBand Array recorded continuously from December 2004 until May 2006. To expand the dataset recordings of 4 permanent broadband stations and 4 permanent short period stations are added. The heterogeneous structure of the URG deforms the teleseismic wavefront what leads to measurable perturbations in travel time, backazimuth and slowness. Since we are interested in the deep, subcrustal structure of the URG, we eliminate travel time effects due to the known crustal structure by using 1D crustal velocity models for each station. These crustal velocity models are determined by collecting all available geophysical and geological information of the study area. The network is divided into three subarrays to measure the backazimuth and slowness with array techniques. In the measured dataset we find no significant seismic P-wave velocity anomaly related to the upper mantle underneath the URG. These results are compared to expected values of slowness, backazimuth and travel time perturbation due to a synthetic seismic velocity reduction underneath the URG. The effect of the synthetic velocity reduction (-3% to -5%) is clearly visible in contrast to the measured data. Thus the travel time and array analyses indicate that there is no seismic anomaly in the subcrustal lithosphere that is related to the URG. This is consistent with previous SKS-splitting results. As consequence we assume that the rifting processes and rupturing of the lithosphere did not alter the deep lithospheric structure and did possibly not even lead to lithospheric thinning in the region.

  18. A General Method for Constructing Two-Dimensional Layered Mesoporous Mono- and Binary-Transition-Metal Nitride/Graphene as an Ultra-Efficient Support to Enhance Its Catalytic Activity and Durability for Electrocatalytic Application.


    Liu, Baocang; Huo, Lili; Si, Rui; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jun


    We constructed a series of two-dimensional (2D) layered mesoporous mono- and binary-transition-metal nitride/graphene nanocomposites (TMN/G, TM = Ti, Cr, W, Mo, TiCr, TiW, and TiMo) via an efficient and versatile nanocasting strategy for the first time. The 2D layered mesoporous TMN/G is constituted of small TMN nanoparticles composited with graphene nanosheets and has a large surface area with high porosity. Through decoration with well-dispersed Pt nanoparticles, 2D layered mesoporous Pt/TMN/G catalysts can be obtained that display excellent catalytic activity and stability for methanol electro-oxidation reactions (MOR) and oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) in both acidic and alkaline media. The 2D layered mesoporous binary-Pt/TMN/G catalysts possess catalytic activity superior to that of mono-Pt/TMN/G, graphene free Pt/TMN, Pt/G, and Pt/C catalysts. Encouragingly, the 2D layered mesoporous Pt/Ti0.5Cr0.5N/G catalyst exhibits the best electrocatalytic performance for both MOR and ORR. The outstanding electrocatalytic performance of the Pt/Ti0.5Cr0.5N/G catalyst is rooted in its large surface area, high porosity, strong interaction among Pt, Ti0.5Cr0.5N, and graphene, an excellent electron transfer property facilitated by N-doped graphene, and the small size of Pt and Ti0.5Cr0.5N nanocrystals. The outstanding catalytic performance provides the 2D layered mesoporous Pt/Ti0.5Cr0.5N/G catalyst with a wide range of application prospects in direct methanol fuel cells in both acidic and alkaline media. The synthetic method may be available for constructing other 2D layered mesoporous metal nitrides, carbides, and phosphides.

  19. [Preservative substances - the daily dose of benzalkonium chloride in glaucoma treatment from the patients point of view].


    Výborný, P; Sičáková, S; Veselá Flórová, Z


    The author calculated the daily dose of Benzalkonium Chloride (BAC) in eye drops used in glaucoma treatment from the patients point of view, which means the real amount of BAC applied in the conjunctival sac. The information about BAC concentration in 1 milliliter (mL) do not offer sufficient picture about real circumstances, because the size of the drop, especially after the introducing of the use of generic products in clinical practice in specific anti-glaucomatic drugs, differs significantly. The daily dose of BAC may have substantial significance in the patients treatment tolerance. The overview of BAC daily dose in single therapeutic groups and drugs follows: betablockers: Timo-COMOD 0, Arutimol 2.6, Vistagan 2.8, Timolol-POS 3.0, Arteoptic 3.7, Betoptic S 4.8, Timoptol MSD 6.3, Betoptic 10.0; alpha-mimetics: Alphagan 3.5, Luxfen 3.5, Aruclonin 7.1; derivates of prostaglandine, prostamides: Taflotan 0, Monopost 0, Lumigan 1.4, Unilat 3.1, Travatan 3.9, Latanoprost Apotex 4.3, Rescula 5.8, Latanoprost POS 5.9, Xalatan 6.0, Latanoprost Ratiopharm 6.0, Latanoprost Actavis 6.0, Latanoprost Arrow 6.0, Arulatan 5.4, Latalux 6.0, Glaucotens 6.0, Xaloptic 6.0, Solusin 6.1; carboanhydrase inhibitors: Batidor 3.8, Azopt 4.8, Trusopt 5.4, Oftidor 8.1; fixed combinations: Ganfort 1.4, Dorzolamid/timolol TEVA 2.8, Combigan 3.2, Duotrav 4.3, Cosopt 5.6, Xalacom 6.0, Glaucotima 6.0, Latanoprost/timolol Apotex 6.3, Azarga 6.4, Dorzogen Combi 6.5, and Dozotima 8.8 µl.

  20. Laser beam welding of Waspaloy: Characterization and corrosion behavior evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoja Razavi, Reza


    In this work, a study on Nd:YAG laser welding of Waspaloy sheets has been made. Microstructures, phase changes and hardness of the laser joint were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and vickers microhardness (HV0.3). Corrosion behavior of the weldment at low temperature in 3.5%wt NaCl solution at room temperature was also investigated using open circuit potential and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests. Hot corrosion studies were conducted on samples in the molten salt environment (Na2SO4-60%V2O5) at 900 °C for 50 h. Results indicated that the microstructure of weld zone was mainly dendritic grown epitaxially in the direction perpendicular to the weld boundary and heat transfer. Moreover, the Ti-Mo carbide particles were observed in the structure of the weld zone and base metal. The average size of carbides formed in the base metal (2.97±0.5 μm) was larger than that of the weld zone (0.95±0.2 μm). XRD patterns of the weld zone and base metal showed that the laser welding did not alter the phase structure of the weld zone, being in γ-Ni(Cr) single phase. Microhardness profile showed that the hardness values of the weld zone (210-261 HV) were lower than that of the base metal (323-330 HV). Electrochemical and hot corrosion tests indicated that the corrosion resistance of the weld metal was greater than the base metal in both room and high temperatures.

  1. SU-C-19A-06: A Robust and Affordable Table Indexing Approach for Total Lymphoid Irradiation Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S; Fahimian, B; Kenyon, M; Hsu, A


    Purpose: Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is conventionally delivered through the dosimetric matching of mantle, spleen, and pelvis fields, necessitating multiple isocenters delivered through a combination of couch shifts and sliding of patients relative to the couch rendering the technique susceptible to shifting errors. To address this challenge, a novel technique for the couch indexing of TLI treatments is developed and evaluated through a multi-patient pilot trial. Methods: An immobilization device was designed consisting of a movable indexed slide board with an Exact Lok-Bar drilled into it. A Timo headrests were used fixate the head of the patient relative to the slide board. For the Varian Exact Couch™, the immobilization board was connected to the H3 notch to avoid the metal infrastructure of the couch for the delivery of the mantle and spleen fields. For tall patients the required shift for the pelvis isocenter reaches the shifting limit and the board was slid from H3 to H4 (a fixed distance of 14 cm). A total 22 patients were stratified in two groups of 11, one consisting of the conventional setup, and one group with the proposed immobilization technique. Results: The standard deviations (SD) of the couch positions in lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions for 10 fractions for each patient in both groups were calculated. In the non-indexed group, the positioning SD ranged from 0.9 to 4.7 cm. Using our device, the positioning SD was reduced to a range of 0.2 to 0.9 cm, with the longitudinal direction showing the largest improvement. Conclusion: Matched field TLI remains error prone to geometrical misses. The feasibility of full indexing TLI treatments was validated and shown to result in a significant reduction of positioning errors.

  2. phase transformations in Titanium-Molybdenum-Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckels, Herbert

    The present dissertation has investigated the effect of oxygen on the ω and α phase stability in metastable Ti-Mo β titanium alloys using thermal analysis, hardness measurements, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Single crystal x-ray diffraction has shown that oxygen atoms are located in the tetrahedral interstitial lattice sites in the rapidly cooled bcc Ti crystal structure, interfering directly with the reversible displacive formation of ω, with this transformation involving collapse of the bcc lattice along β. Subsequent thermal exposure of reversible ω, as occurring during slower cooling, heating, and aging, prompts short range diffusion and the formation of chemical altered irreversible ω. X-ray diffraction particle size analysis based on the Warren-Averbach approach has shown that the continued irreversible ω phase evolves in four stages during isothermal aging, initial growth followed by size stabilization, coarsening, and dissolution. The latter stages of ω evolution are controlled by elastic residual stresses surrounding these particles. Ultimate stress relaxation is based on secondary formation and growth, promoting coarsening and dissolution of ω. All of the aforementioned stages can be accelerated by increasing both the oxygen content and isothermal aging temperature. The hardness response parallels this evolution and is dependent upon the ω and α phase evolution. The initial hardness increase is due to the growth of ω. The hardness plateau is based on stabilized ω size and fine α precipitation. The overaging hardness response is due to continuous secondary α formation and growth combined with ω coarsening and dissolution. Hardness increases with increasing interstitial content as a result of solid solution strengthening and α particle refinement. Isochronal and isothermal thermal analysis has shown that increasing oxygen content promotes the α phase formation thereby increasing the ω instability. Grain boundary and



    Coughlin, Michael J; Nery, Caio; Baumfeld, Daniel; Jastifer, James


    Objetivos: A artrodese tibiotársica (TT) continua sendo uma importante opção no tratamento da artrose primária ou pós-traumática do tornozelo mas persiste ainda a controvérsia sobre o melhor método de fixação do foco de artrodese. Independentemente do tipo de material utilizado, o objetivo maior é a obtenção da fusão articular sólida, saudável e indolor. O propósito do presente estudo é apresentar os resultados preliminares de um novo sistema de placa bloqueada lateral compressiva para a artrodese do tornozelo. Método: Treze pacientes consecutivos portadores de artrose tibiotársica foram submetidos à artrodese do tornozelo nove pacientes eram homens e quatro mulheres. Com o auxílio de um guia, as superfícies articulares do talo e da tíbia foram decorticadas. Um sistema de compressão foi aplicado para evitar o alinhamento indesejável dos segmentos e uma placa bloqueada pré-moldada lateral foi utilizada para obter a fusão articular. Resultados: Tanto o escore AOFAS quanto o VAS melhoraram com a cirurgia. Todos os tornozelos operados consolidaram dentro do prazo de seis meses. Em todos os pacientes, foi obtido um ótimo alinhamento nos planos sagital, coronal e transverso. Conclusão: Acreditamos que a combinação de compressão bilateral, cortes ósseos com contornos pré-demarcados e placa lateral bloqueada, constitui uma técnica moderna, segura e útil para a artrodese do tornozelo.

  4. Laser-assisted development of titanium alloys: the search for new biomedical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Amelia; Gupta, Dheeraj; Vilar, Rui


    Ti-alloys used in prosthetic applications are mostly alloys initially developed for aeronautical applications, so their behavior was not optimized for medical use. A need remains to design new alloys for biomedical applications, where requirements such as biocompatibility, in-body durability, specific manufacturing ability, and cost effectiveness are considered. Materials for this application must present excellent biocompatibility, ductility, toughness and wear and corrosion resistance, a large laser processing window and low sensitivity to changes in the processing parameters. Laser deposition has been investigated in order to access its applicability to laser based manufactured implants. In this study, variable powder feed rate laser cladding has been used as a method for the combinatorial investigation of new alloy systems that offers a unique possibility for the rapid and exhaustive preparation of a whole range of alloys with compositions variable along a single clad track. This method was used as to produce composition gradient Ti-Mo alloys. Mo has been used since it is among the few elements biocompatible, non-toxic β-Ti phase stabilizers. Alloy tracks with compositions in the range 0-19 wt.%Mo were produced and characterized in detail as a function of composition using microscale testing procedures for screening of compositions with promising properties. Microstructural analysis showed that alloys with Mo content above 8% are fully formed of β phase grains. However, these β grains present a cellular substructure that is associated to a Ti and Mo segregation pattern that occurs during solidification. Ultramicroindentation tests carried out to evaluate the alloys' hardness and Young's modulus showed that Ti-13%Mo alloys presented the lowest hardness and Young's modulus (70 GPa) closer to that of bone than common Ti alloys, thus showing great potential for implant applications.

  5. Laser-assisted development of titanium alloys: the search for new biomedical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Amelia; Gupta, Dheeraj; Vilar, Rui


    Ti-alloys used in prosthetic applications are mostly alloys initially developed for aeronautical applications, so their behavior was not optimized for medical use. A need remains to design new alloys for biomedical applications, where requirements such as biocompatibility, in-body durability, specific manufacturing ability, and cost effectiveness are considered. Materials for this application must present excellent biocompatibility, ductility, toughness and wear and corrosion resistance, a large laser processing window and low sensitivity to changes in the processing parameters. Laser deposition has been investigated in order to access its applicability to laser based manufactured implants. In this study, variable powder feed rate laser cladding has been used as a method for the combinatorial investigation of new alloy systems that offers a unique possibility for the rapid and exhaustive preparation of a whole range of alloys with compositions variable along a single clad track. This method was used as to produce composition gradient Ti-Mo alloys. Mo has been used since it is among the few elements biocompatible, non-toxic β-Ti phase stabilizers. Alloy tracks with compositions in the range 0-19 wt.%Mo were produced and characterized in detail as a function of composition using microscale testing procedures for screening of compositions with promising properties. Microstructural analysis showed that alloys with Mo content above 8% are fully formed of β phase grains. However, these β grains present a cellular substructure that is associated to a Ti and Mo segregation pattern that occurs during solidification. Ultramicroindentation tests carried out to evaluate the alloys' hardness and Young's modulus showed that Ti-13%Mo alloys presented the lowest hardness and Young's modulus (70 GPa) closer to that of bone than common Ti alloys, thus showing great potential for implant applications.

  6. An investigation of material properties and tribological performance of magnetron sputtered thin film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harpal

    This dissertation is divided into two categories based upon lubrication functionality and its application. The categories are: Dry film lubrication and Fluid film lubrication with thin film coatings. Thin film coatings examined in this work were deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering and RF-DC coupled magnetron sputtering systems. In Dry/Solid film lubrication, the mechanical, structural and tribological properties of two Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) based coatings are examined and evaluated. Among the two coatings, one coating is doped with Ti (Ti-MoS2) and the other is a combination of metal, lubricant and oxide (Sb2O3/Au - MoS2). These coatings are known to provide low friction in vacuum environments. The goal of this work was to evaluate friction and wear performance of MoS2 doped coatings in unidirectional and reciprocating sliding contact under different environmental conditions. Sliding contact results showed friction and wear dependence on temperature and humidity. The formation and removal of transfer films and the recrystallization and reorientation of basal layers on the steel counterface was observed as the mechanism for low friction. Structural analysis revealed a relationship between the microstructural properties and tribological performance. It was also observed that the addition of dopants (Ti, Au, Sb 2O3) improved the mechanical properties as compared to pure MoS2 coatings. Further, the rolling contact performance of the coatings was measured on a five ball on rod tribometer and a Thrust bearing tribometer under vacuum and air environments. The rolling contact experiments indicated that life of the rolling components depend on the amount of material present between the contacts. Fluid film lubrication with thin film coatings investigates the possibilities to improve the performance and durability of tribological components when oils and thin films are synergistically coupled. In this work, the ability of a Diamond Like Carbon

  7. Effect of molybdenum addition to ZA22 grain refined by titanium in the cast and after pressing by ECAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Adnan I. O.; Al-Hunetti, N. S.; Eyal-Awwad, K. Y. S.


    Zinc aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in manufacturing many industrial and engineering parts due to their attractive properties. The ZA22 has the extra advantage of possessing super plastic behavior within the temperature range from 350 to 375°C. The equal channel angular pressing, ECAP is a relatively recent manufacturing process by which heavy plastic deformation can be produced in materials resulting in grain refinement of its microstructure. It is, therefore, anticipated that if the ECAP process is applied to the ZA22 alloy after being grain refined by certain grain refiners may produce super plastic behavior in this alloy at room temperature, by this eliminating the heating process and its costs, hence widening its applications rendering it to be cost effective. In this paper, the effect of molybdenum addition at a rate of 0.1 % wt. to ZA22 grain refined by Ti on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics in the cast condition and after applying the ECAP process is investigated. It was found that addition of Mo to ZA22 either in the nonrefined or the refined by Ti resulted in refining its structure being more refined in the latter. The ECAP process resulted in further refinement of its structure of the ZA22-Ti, ZA22-Mo and the ZA22-Ti-Mo alloys. Regarding the mechanical behavior, it was found that addition of Mo to ZA22 resulted in pronounced reduction of its mechanical strength presented by the following values of the flow stress at 20% strain: from 451 MPa to 346 MPa, whereas pronounced increase in case of Ti addition i.e. by 22.22% and only increase of 1.1% when Mo is added in the presence of Ti. However the Vickers hardness HV was increased by 5% in case of Ti addition and 2.5% increase in case of Mo addition. Finally it was concluded that super plastic behavior was obtained at room temperature by the addition of Mo and the ECAP process.

  8. ESPAS: the European e-science platform to access near-Earth space data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belehaki, A.; Hapgood, M. A.; Ritschel, B.; Manola, N.


    Lebesis, Bruno Zolesi, Tatjana Gerzen, Ingemar Häggström, Anna Charisi, Ivan Galkin, Jurgen Watermann, Matthew Angling, Timo Asikainen, Alan Aylward, Henrike Barkmann, Peter Bergqvist, Andrew Bushell, Fabien Darrouzet, Dimitris Dialetis, Carl-Fredrik Enell, Daniel Heynderickx, Norbert Jakowski, Magnar Johnsen, Jean Lilensten, Ian McCrea, Kalevi Mursula, Bogdan Nicula, Michael Pezzopane, Viviane Pierrard, Bodo Reinisch, Bernd Ritschel, Luca Spogli, Iwona Stanislawska, Claudia Stolle, Eija Tanskanen, Ioanna Tsagouri, Esa Turunen, Thomas Ulich, Matthew Wild, Tim Yeoman

  9. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, W. J.


    Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI,, which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (, which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses

  10. Sunspots and the Newcomb-Benford Law. (Spanish Title: Manchas Solares y la Ley de Newcomb-Benford.) Manchas Solares e a Lei de Newcomb-Benford

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Mauro A.; Lyra, Cássia S.


    The Newcomb-Benford's Law (LNB) of first digits is introduced to high school students in an extracurricular activity through the study of sunspots. The LNB establishes that the first digits of various sets of data describing natural occurrences are not distributed uniformly, but according to a logarithmic distribution of probability. The LNB is counter-intuitive and is a good example of how mathematics applied to the study of natural phenomena can provide surprising and unexpected results serving also as a motivating agent in the study of physical sciences. En este trabajo se describe una actividad extracurricular donde se presenta a los estudiantes la ley de los primeros dígitos de Newcomb-Benford (LNB) con el estudio de manchas solares. La LNB establece que los primeros dígitos de algunos tipos de dados de ocurrencia natural no están distribuidos en manera uniforme, pero sí de acuerdo con una distribución logarítmica de probabilidad. La LNB es contra-intuitiva y es un excelente ejemplo de como las matemáticas aplicadas al estudio de fenómenos naturales pueden sorprender al estudiante, sirviendo también como elemento motivador en la educación de ciencias y de matemáticas. Este trabalho descreve uma atividade extracurricular na qual a lei dos primeiros dígitos de Newcomb-Benford (LNB) é introduzida a estudantes através do estudo de manchas solares. A LNB estabelece que os primeiros dígitos de vários tipos de conjunto de dados de ocorrência natural não são distribuídos de maneira uniforme, mas sim de acordo com uma distribuição logarítmica de probabilidade. A LNB é contra-intuitiva e é um ótimo exemplo de como a matemática aplicada ao estudo de fenômenos naturais pode fornecer resultados surpreendentes e inesperados, servindo também como um agente motivador no ensino de ciências e matemática.

  11. Fotometria superficial BVRI de 18 galáxias fracas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, M. F. O.; Silva, P. R.


    Conhecer as propriedades de galáxias a diferentes redshifts é uma questão fundamental para entender o problema da formação e evolução das galáxias, e desde a década passada tem se intensificado fortemente o estudo de galáxias muito distantes. No entanto parece haver um interesse menor em galáxias a distâncias intermediárias, que aparecem como objetos de fundo em imagens de objetos próximos, e que são igualmente importantes. Examinando imagens BVRI de longa exposição, ótimo sinal/ruído, grande campo (46'x46'), das vizinhanças de NGC 7479, detectamos 18 galáxias fracas (18 < B < 21) nessas imagens. Neste trabalho, apresentamos a fotometria superficial desses objetos. Determinamos coordenadas equatoriais, magnitudes e cores integradas, perfis de brilho e de cor, e parâmetros isofotais calculados por ajuste de ellipses, dentro do limite permitido pela baixa resolução espacial dos dados (1,35 segarc/pixel). Nosso objetivo é procurar correlações entre as propriedades das galáxias e, tentativamente, comparar esses dados com aqueles de galáxias de redshift conhecido, disponíveis na literatura, para estimar suas distâncias (a partir da relação cor x redshift) e suas morfologias. Uma análise preliminar nesse sentido mostrou que as cores aparentes B-V, V-R e V-I dos objetos da nossa amostra, a menos de duas exceções, ocupam regiões bem definidas nos diagramas cor-cor, e não apresentam diferenças notáveis em relação às cores típicas de galáxias próximas.

  12. Computational Intelligence and Game Design for Effective At-Home Stroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Pirovano, Michele; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Wüest, Seline; de Bruin, Eling D.


    Abstract Objective The aim of this article is to describe a game engine that has all the characteristics needed to support rehabilitation at home. The low-cost tracking devices recently introduced in the entertainment market allow measuring reliably at home, in real time, players' motion with a hands-free approach. Such systems have also become a source of inspiration for researchers working in rehabilitation. Computer games appear suited to guide rehabilitation because of their ability to engage the users. However, commercial videogames and game engines lack the peculiar functionalities required in rehabilitation: Games should be adapted to each patient's functional status, and monitoring the patient's motion is mandatory to avoid maladaptation. Feedback on performance and progression of the exercises should be provided. Lastly, several tracking devices should be considered, according to the patient's pathology and rehabilitation aims. Subjects and Methods We have analyzed the needs of the clinicians and of the patients associated in performing rehabilitation at home, identifying the characteristics that the game engine should have. Results The result of this analysis has led us to develop the Intelligent Game Engine for Rehabilitation (IGER) system, which combines the principles upon which commercial games are designed with the needs of rehabilitation. IGER is heavily based on computational intelligence: Adaptation of the difficulty level of the exercise is carried out through a Bayesian framework from the observation of the patient's success rate. Monitoring is implemented in fuzzy systems and based on rules defined for the exercises by clinicians. Several devices can be attached to IGER through an input abstraction layer, like the Nintendo® (Kyoto, Japan) Wii™ Balance Board™, the Microsoft® (Redmond, WA) Kinect, the Falcon from Novint Technologies (Albuquerque, NM), or the Tyromotion (Graz, Austria) Timo® plate balance board. IGER is complemented with

  13. Does canopy mean N concentration explain differences in light use efficiency in 14 eddy-covariance sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Pulkkinen, Minna; Kolari, Pasi; Mäkelä, Annikki


    . Mean growing season VPD was the only climatic variable which correlated significantly with the largest actual LUE; none of them correlated with potential LUE. Inclusion of nitrogen in the Prelued-model structure did not improve the goodness of fit of the model. According to our results LUE correlates with mean canopy N concentration. The correlation of mean VPD with the largest actual LUE can also be explained with the model accounting for daily variation in climate, as was made with Prelued-model for the potential LUE. Further studies utilising seasonal values of canopy N are called upon. *Acknowledgements: Eero Nikinmaa, Pertti Hari, Timo Vesala, Tuomas Laurila, Fredrik Lagergren, Meelis Mölder, Anders Lindroth, Thomas Grünwald, Christian Bernhofer, Denis Loustau, Paul Berbigier, Beverly Law, Alison Dunn, Steve Wofsy, Torbjörn Johansson, Torben Christensen, Terry Callaghan, Hans Verbeeck, Remko Duursma, Leonardo Montagnani, Dario Papale, Andreas Ibrom, Ebba Dellwik, Kim Pilegaard, Kentaro Takagi, Eva van Gorsel, Heather Keith, Sonia Wharton, Matthias Falk, Kya Tha Paw U, Matt Schroeder, Jon Lloyd

  14. Receiver Function Analysis of Crustal and Upper Mantle Layering Across the Western Superior Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaleye, Morounkeji


    The Superior Province is the Earth's largest Archean craton. Its western portion in Canada represents the nucleus of the North American continent, and has a lineated structure with well-preserved supracrustal rock sequences, mineral resources, and greenstone-granite terranes. Its strong east-west tectonic fabric is most commonly attributed to the formation and widespread accretion of island arcs and accretionary prisms ˜ 2.6 Ga ago (Lucas et al., 1998). The Superior Province is underlain by lithospheric mantle that exhibits strong regional variations in anisotropy and velocity structure (Darbyshire et al., 2007). The stratigraphy, velocity structure and thickness of the crust and upper-mantle beneath the western Superior Province, were examined through the analysis of seismic discontinuities on the radial and transverse components of P-wave receiver functions. Global earthquakes that occurred between 2003 and 2008 and recorded by 13 broadly spaced FedNor/POLARIS and CNSN three-component broadband seismic stations across western Ontario were used to create receiver functions. Receiver functions were calculated using a panel deconvolution approach (using inter-trace regularization constraints) to improve signal-to-noise ratio. Inversion for lithospheric parameters was carried out through a directed Monte-Carlo search method that uses the neighbourhood algorithm of Sambridge (1999). The receiver function data show indications of crustal and mantle layering. Generally, it was observed that in the western Superior Province, seismic stations in the southern portion of the study area (south of ˜ 51° N): LDIO, EPLO, PNPO, TIMO and NANO reveal a uniform crust, but a complicated and layered mantle; whereas stations in the northern portion of the study area (north of ˜ 51° N): KASO, RLKO, SILO, VIMO and PKLO reveal a more uniform mantle layer, but a stratified crust. The only exception is ATKO, which displays dominant crustal layering, but is located south of ˜ 51° N

  15. Theoretical Study of the Noble Metals on Semiconductor Surfaces and Titanium-Base Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yungui

    The electronic and structural properties of the (sqrt3 x sqrt3) R30^circ Ag/Si(111) and ( sqrt3 x sqrt3) R30^ circ Au/Si(111) surfaces are investigated using first principles total energy calculations. We have tested almost all experimentally proposed structural models for both surfaces and found the energetically most favorable model for each of them. The lowest energy model structure of the (sqrt3 x sqrt3) R30^circ Ag/Si(111) surface consists of a top layer of Ag atoms arranged as "honeycomb -chained-trimers" lying above a distorted "missing top layer" Si(111) substrate. The coverage of Ag is 1 monolayer (ML). We find that the honeycomb structure observed in STM images arise from the electronic charge densities of an empty surface band near the Fermi level. The electronic density of states of this model gives a "pseudo-gap" around the Fermi level, which is consistent with experimental results. The lowest energy model for the (sqrt3 x sqrt3) R30^circ Au/Si(111) surface is a conjugate honeycomb-chained-trimer (CHCT-1) configuration which consists of a top layer of trimers formed by 1 ML Au atoms lying above a "missing top layer" Si(111) substrate with a honeycomb-chained-trimer structure for its first layer. The structures of Au and Ag are in fact quite similar and belong to the same class of structural models. However, small variation in the structural details gives rise to quite different observed STM images, as revealed in the theoretical calculations. The electronic charge density from bands around the Fermi level for the (sqrt3 x sqrt3) R30^circ Au/Si(111) surface also gives a good description of the images observed in STM experiments. First principles calculations are performed to study the electronic and structural properties of a series of Ti-base binary alloys TiFe, TiNi, TiPd, TiMo, and TiAu in the B2 structure. Calculations are also done for Ti in bcc structure and hypothetical B2-structured TiAl, TiAg, and TiCu. Our results show correlation between the

  16. Sphagnum mosses as methane traps in two northern mires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmola, Tuula; Koponen, Hannu; Riutta, Terhi; Fritze, Hannu; Goodrich, Jordan; Varner, Ruth; Bubier, Jill; Juutinen, Sari; Rinne, Janne; Vesala, Timo; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina


    to the atmosphere from the same sites. Moss removal could increase the actual net flux of CH4 by up to 50%. Our results suggest that CH4 oxidation in the Sphagnum layer is potentially an important control for CH4 release from a mire ecosystem. Reference. Raghoebarsing, A.A., A.J.P. Smolders, M.C. Schmid, I.C. Rijpstra, M. Wolters-Arts, J. Derksen, M.S.M. Jetten, S. Schouten, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, L.P.M. Lamers, J.G.M. Roelofs, H.J.M. Opden Camp and M. Strous 2005. Methanotrophic symbionts provide carbon for photosynthesis in peat bogs. Nature 436: 1153-1156. Sphagnum team. Hannu Koponen (2), Terhi Riutta (3), Hannu Fritze (4), Jordan Goodrich (5), Ruth Varner(5), Jill Bubier (6), Sari Juutinen (6), Janne Rinne (7), Timo Vesala (7), Pertti J. Martikainen (2) and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila (1)

  17. Nucleation mechanisms of refined alpha microstructure in beta titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Due to a great combination of physical and mechanical properties, beta titanium alloys have become promising candidates in the field of chemical industry, aerospace and biomedical materials. The microstructure of beta titanium alloys is the governing factor that determines their properties and performances, especially the size scale, distribution and volume fraction of precipitate phase in parent phase matrix. Therefore in order to enhance the performance of beta titanium alloys, it is critical to obtain a thorough understanding of microstructural evolution in beta titanium alloys upon various thermal and/or mechanical processes. The present work is focusing on the study of nucleation mechanisms of refined alpha microstructure and super-refined alpha microstructure in beta titanium alloys in order to study the influence of instabilities within parent phase matrix on precipitates nucleation, including compositional instabilities and/or structural instabilities. The current study is primarily conducted in Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (wt%, Ti-5553), a commercial material for aerospace application. Refined and super-refined precipitates microstructure in Ti-5553 are obtained under specific accurate temperature controlled heat treatments. The characteristics of either microstructure are investigated in details using various characterization techniques, such as SEM, TEM, STEM, HRSTEM and 3D atom probe to describe the features of microstructure in the aspect of morphology, distribution, structure and composition. Nucleation mechanisms of refined and super-refined precipitates are proposed in order to fully explain the features of different precipitates microstructure in Ti-5553. The necessary thermodynamic conditions and detailed process of phase transformations are introduced. In order to verify the reliability of proposed nucleation mechanisms, thermodynamic calculation and phase field modeling simulation are accomplished using the database of simple binary Ti-Mo system

  18. Microtribological Performance of Metal-doped Molybdenum Disulfide Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanov, Pantcho


    The mechanical and tribological properties of pure MoS2, pure Au, Au-MoS2 and Ti-MoS2 coatings were evaluated and examined at a microscopic scale. The metal doped MoS2 coatings had varying metal content, 5-10at% for Ti and 10-90% for Au. Reciprocating sliding wear tests were performed with a range of initial Hertzian contact pressures from 0.41 to 3.5 GPa and in air at two humidity levels (i.e. "low" being 3-5%RH and "high" being 30-40%RH). Titanium and gold were chosen for this study as metal additives due to their positive influence on the mechanical properties of the coating. The friction and wear behavior at the micro-scale were directly compared to tribological properties at the macro-scale, which were performed using an in situ tribometer. Reciprocating micro- and macro- wear tests were performed with spherical diamond tip (with 10 and 50 mum radii) and a sapphire tip (with a radius of 3.175 mm), respectively. The range of initial Hertzian contact pressures for macro-scale (i.e. between 0.41GPa and 1.2GPa) overlapped with that for micro-scale. However, the initial Hertzian contact diameters (2*a) were very different (i.e. 0.8-2.3 mum for micro-scale and 60-180 mum for macro-scale). It was observed that the small addition of Ti or Au to MoS2 improved the microtribological properties (i.e. lower friction and less wear) compared to pure MoS2 coatings. The improved microtribological properties with metal additions were attributed to an increase in the mechanical properties, decrease in adhesion, and a decrease in the interfacial shear strength. In terms of the different length scales, lower steady state friction was observed for macrotribology compared to microtribology. The higher friction at the micro- scale was explained by the greater adhesion effects and additional velocity accommodation modes (e.g. microplowing or plowing). The microplowing or plowing at the microscopic scale was attributed to the tip roughness and the inability to sustain a stable

  19. A proposed contents astronomy for basic education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.


    A Astronomia é um tema que sempre exerceu fascínio sobre as pessoas de um modo geral. Conhecer e estudar o que há nos “céus”, além de nossos olhos, continua sendo instigador e de grande interesse. Baseado nestas justificativas desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa de Doutorado, na qual, o objetivo principal foi investigar sobre a presença dos conteúdos de Astronomia nas Propostas Curriculares da região Sul do Brasil, a saber, os estados de Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina e, posterior comparação com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN) que trazem propostas de conteúdos para toda a Educação Básica brasileira. Tal investigação pautou-se na abordagem de caráter qualitativo e utilizouse para tal da Análise de Conteúdos (Bardin, 2011), que possibilitou a construção de quatro categorias, nas quais os conteúdos astronômicos foram agrupados: Terra, Sistema Solar, Via Láctea e Universo. Após a leitura, coleta de dados, construção de categorias, observou-se a dicotomia na apresentação destes conteúdos. As propostas curriculares analisadas foram as de Geografia, Ciências e Física dos estados do Paraná (2008), Rio Grande do Sul (2009) e de Santa Catarina (1998), responsáveis pelo trabalho com Astronomia nestes estados. No Ensino Fundamental, a proposta curricular do estado do Paraná apresenta conteúdos ligados à Astronomia desde o sexto ano até o nono ano, como conteúdo do primeiro bimestre, o que também é apresentado na proposta curricular do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, porém, este, não divide os conteúdos por bimestre e nem por ano, mas por ciclos, sexto e sétimo anos como primeiro ciclo e oitavo e nono anos como segundo ciclo, deixando livre para o professor estruturar sua sequência de conteúdos. A proposta curricular de Santa Catarina não apresenta estes conteúdos de maneira explícita, não divide dos conteúdos nem por ano, nem por série, traz uma sequência de conteúdos para serem trabalhados ao longo dos

  20. EDITORIAL: The 29th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases The 29th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Urquijo, J.


    coefficients, and their applications. The second workshop was dedicated to the recent research and future challenges on non-thermal plasmas relevant to fusion, reviewing the vital role played by the physics of the edge plasma in fusion devices, bridging hot-fusion core and wall materials, which is crucial for plasma confinement and the lifetime of the first wall. The ICPIG participants contributed with 219 papers, covering all ICPIG's topics, of which microplasmas, plasma diagnostics and plasma processes were the most abundant. These papers can be accessed freely at the website The Von Engel Prize, sponsored by the Hans von Engel and Gordon Francis Fund, was awarded to Professor Lev D Tsendin for his outstanding contribution to the understanding of the physical kinetics of low-pressure gas discharges, by introducing a non-local treatment. The 2009 IUPAP Young Scientist Medal and Prize in Plasma Physics was awarded to Dr Timo Gans, in recognition of his outstanding contribution, at an early stage of his career, in developing very imaginative and highly sophisticated optical diagnostics that allowed a deep understanding of the dynamics of low-temperature plasmas, widely used in microelectronics, photonics and many other emerging applications. On behalf of the Local Organising Committee (LOC) and the International Scientific Committee (ISC) of ICPIG 2009, the guest editor wishes to thank all authors for their efforts in contributing to this special issue. Thanks are due to all members of the LOC and ISC 29th ICPIG, chaired by Professor Jean-Paul Booth, for their contribution to the success of this conference, and to the Editorial Board of Plasma Sources Science and Technology for the opportunity to publish most of the lectures of the 29th ICPIG. We hope that this special issue will be a useful source of information for all those scientists and engineers working in this growing and fascinating field of basic and applied science, and will remind the

  1. PREFACE: ARENA 2006—Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino detection Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Lee


    , StanfordF. Halzen, Madison J. Learned, HawaiiR. Nahnhauer, Zeuthen A. Rostovtzev, MoscowD. Saltzberg, Los Angeles L. Thompson, SheffieldF. Vannucci, Paris

    Local Organizing Committee

    S. Danaher, NorthumbriaC. Rhodes, Imperial College London
    J. Perkin, SheffieldT. Sloan, Lancaster
    L. Thompson, SheffieldD. Waters, University College London


    Joseph Allen, Northumbria University, UK Miguel Ardid, Univ. Polit. de Valencia, Spain
    Thomas Asch, IPE, FZKa, Germany Karl-Heinz Becker, BU Wuppertal, Germany
    Dave Besson, U. of Kansas, USA Simon Bevan, University College London, UK
    Manuel Bou Cabo, Politecnic University Valencia, Spain Sebastian Böser, DESY Zeuthen, Germany
    Antonio Capone, University La Sapienza and INFN, Italy Paula Chadwick, University of Durham, UK
    Masami Chiba, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan Amy Connolly, UCLA, USA
    Sean Danaher, Northumbria University, UK Giulia De Bonis, Univ. Rome `La Sapienza', Italy
    Freija Descamps, University of Gent, BelgiumKay Graf, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Andreas Haungs, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany Kara Hoffman, University of Maryland, USA
    Stephen Hoover, UCLA, USA Tim Huege, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany
    Paula Gina Isar, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany Timo Karg, BU Wuppertal, Germany
    Johannes Knapp, University of Leeds, UK Robert Lahmann, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Mark Lancaster

  2. INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana


    lead to new fundamental understanding is illustrated well in the paper by Uwe Czarnetzki which describes a new method for separate control of flux and energy of ions reaching the surface of electrodes. Deborah O'Connell from Belfast has shown space and phase resolved mode transitions in rf inductively coupled plasmas obtained by optical emission measurements. At the same time an application of a similar rf discharge for the treatment of paper was presented by Irina Filatova from Belarus. Many applications of non-equilibrium plasmas depend on the development of plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure and one such source that promises to be prominent in medicine is described by Timo Gans. In a similar way, practical considerations require studies of the injection of liquids into plasmas and progress on the development of one such source is described by Mathew Goeckner and his colleagues from Dallas. From the Institute Jožef Štefan in Slovenia and the group of Miran Mozetič we have a detailed review of their work on functionalization of organic materials by oxygen plasmas. Even higher density plasmas, where the collective phenomena dominate, show different degrees of non-equilibrium and one example presented here by Zoltan Donko deals with two dimensional plasma dust crystals and liquids, while the lecture by Jovo Vranješ from Belgium deals with the treatment of collisions in multicomponent plasmas. Finally we have papers on the transport of pollutants. The association of the two fields started initially through joint interest in some of the methods for removal of NOx and SOx, from electrostatic precipitation of industrial dust to dielectric barrier discharges. The joint work continued on the application of flowing afterglow plasma combined with a hollow cathode discharge in order to achieve a proton transfer mass analysis of organic volatile compounds and also on the possibilities of applying similar methods for solving transport equations. In this volume we

  3. EDITORIAL: Van der Waals interactions in advanced materials, in memory of David C Langreth Van der Waals interactions in advanced materials, in memory of David C Langreth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyldgaard, Per; Rahman, Talat S.


    Rahman Frictional temperature rise in a sliding physisorbed monolayer of Kr/grapheneM Walker, C Jaye, J Krim and Milton W Cole How to modify the van der Waals and Casimir forces without change of the dielectric permittivityG L Klimchitskaya, U Mohideen and V M Mostepanenko Spectroscopic characterization of van der Waals interactions in a metal organic framework with unsaturated metal centers: MOF-74-MgNour Nijem, Pieremanuele Canepa, Lingzhu Kong, Haohan Wu, Jing Li, Timo Thonhauser and Yves J Chabal A theoretical study of the hydrogen-storage potential of (H2)4CH4 in metal organic framework materials and carbon nanotubesQ Li and T Thonhauser The influence of dispersion interactions on the hydrogen adsorption properties of expanded graphiteYungok Ihm, Valentino R Cooper, Lujian Peng and James R Morris A DFT-D study of structural and energetic properties of TiO2 modificationsJonas Moellmann, Stephan Ehrlich, Ralf Tonner and Stefan Grimme Spherical-shell model for the van der Waals coefficients between fullerenes and/or nearly spherical nanoclustersJohn P Perdew, Jianmin Tao, Pan Hao, Adrienn Ruzsinszky, Gábor I Csonka and J M Pitarke Dynamical screening of the van der Waals interaction between graphene layersY J Dappe, P G Bolcatto, J Ortega and F Flores Structural evolution of amino acid crystals under stress from a non-empirical density functionalRiccardo Sabatini, Emine Küçükbenli, Brian Kolb, T Thonhauser and Stefano de Gironcoli Physisorption of nucleobases on graphene: a comparative van der Waals studyDuy Le, Abdelkader Kara, Elsebeth Schröder, Per Hyldgaard and Talat S Rahman The role of van der Waals interactions in the adsorption of noble gases on metal surfacesDe-Li Chen, W A Al-Saidi and J Karl Johnson Desorption of n-alkanes from graphene: a van der Waals density functional studyElisa Londero, Emma K Karlson, Marcus Landahl, Dimitri Ostrovskii, Jonatan D Rydberg and Elsebeth Schröder Benchmarking van der Waals density functionals with experimental data

  4. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.


    ções mal executadas principalmente em solos mais arenosos onde poderá ocorrer a lixiviacão dos mesmos (Márton 2001a., 2001b.). O parcelamento poderá também ser benéfico quando elevados níveis de fertilizantes porém recomendandos e a aplicação por feita nos sulcos de plantio, pois evitar-se ia assim, elevada concentração salina em torno dos tubérculos plantados, embora a aplicação á lanco, em toda área, possa ser opção vantajosa. Quantidades corretas de fertilizantes, posição ideal e época certa de aplicação, combinadas adequadamente, definem o programa de adubação da batata. Esse programa é variável de acordo com o solo, a batata e condisões ambientais (Márton 2001a.). A dose de um elemento a ser aplicada em batata, é função da quantidade desse elemento suprida pelo solo e da percentagem de recuperação do elemento adicionado ao solo como fertilizante. Resultados experimentais comparando a aplicação de fertilizante á lanco ou localizado mostram respostas variadas sobre a produção. E possivel encontrar resultados iguais em ambos os métodos, de supremacia da aplicação á lanco ou da aplicação localizada (Kurnik et all. 2001.). Parece que baixas quantidades de fertilizantes são mais eficiemente utilizadas quando aplicação nos sulcos de plantios. Entretanto o potancial de produção pode ser aumentando com alta ou mesmo moderada quantidade de fertilizantes aplicados á lanço. A recomendação geral de colocar o adubo no sulco de plantio da batata merece ser questionada. É uma recomendação válida ao entender- se que a batata responde bastante á aplicação de fósforo, que os solos brasileiros tem alta capacidade de absorção de fósforo e que haverá maior proliferação de raízes na área fertilizada. Uma indagação aparece: um solo com baxa disponibilidade de fósforo fora da zona fertilizada permitiria o desenvolvimento ótimo da planta. Algumas evidéncias mostram, para outras espécies, que grande parte do sistema