Lee, Lung-Sheng; Chen, Ya-Yan
In Taiwan, human resource development (HRD) is defined as the systematic education, training, and development employers provide for their employees as well as organizational development for corporations. A history of HRD development indicates that in the 1960s, the government began to implement planning measures for HRD in business and industry;…
According to Jaan Valsiner, development takes place within culturally structured environments jointly organized by the activities of children and the people around them. When overlap between promoted activity and the child's zone of proximal development exists, the structure of action that results from the interplay of the two is internalized by…
Electroacupuncture (EA) and manual acupuncture (MA) have therapeutic effects on muscle fatigue in muscle disease. The deficiencies of carnitine and glutathione induce muscle fatigue. This report investigated the effects of EA and MA on carnitine and glutathione in muscle. After the mice of EA group were fixed in the animal cage, right Zusanli (ST36) and Jiexi (ST41) were acupunctured and stimulated with uniform reinforcing and reducing method by twirling the acupuncture needle for 15 min. And then, the needle handles were connected to an electric stimulator for stimulating the acupoint with dense-sparse waves. After the mice of MA group were fixed in an animal cage, right ST36 and ST41 were acupunctured and allowed for 15 min. The mice of normal control group were not acupunctured and stimulated for 15 min. The mice of all groups were killed for collecting muscle tissue 1 h after the final treatment. Carnitine and glutathione in homogenate of muscle tissue were determined with carnitine (Kainos Laboratories Co., Tokyo, Japan) and glutathione assay kit (Dojin Chemicals Co., Kumamoto, Japan). Carnitine level in muscle tissue of MA group was significantly higher than those of EA group and normal control group. Carnitine level in muscle tissue of EA group was not significantly different from that of normal control group. Glutathione levels in muscle tissue of EA group and MA group were significantly higher than that of normal control group. This report presented that carnitine in muscle is increased by MA, and not increased by EA, and that glutathione in muscle is increased by EA and MA.
Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.
,25- dihydroxyvitamin D be necessary to reduce intestinal phosphorus absorption, calcium absorption will also proportionally be reduced, potentially leading to skeletal demineralization. Demineralization of bone can increase kidney stone risk, a medical issue that could prove detrimental to mission success. Given the interrelationships described above, we sought to determine circulating FGF23 concentrations in spaceflight and ground analog studies to better understand the potential effects of dietary phosphorus on bone and calcium metabolism. We analyzed serum from ISS astronauts participating in studies of bone biochemistry, including the Nutrition SMO and Pro K experiments, and we also evaluated FGF23 during extended-duration bed rest. Serum intact FGF23 levels were determined using an ELISA kit from Kainos laboratories in Japan. While initial evaluation of the data showed no changes over time during flight or bed rest, evaluation continues of FGF23 data in light of dietary factors, PTH, vitamin D status, and other biochemical and endocrine factors.
Kuusk, P.; Muursepp, P. V.; Piir, Ivar
The first popular lecture on the Einstein theory of relativity was given in Estonia already in 1914 by Jaan Sarv (1877-1954),afterwards a professor of mathematics at the Tartu University. The first student courses on special relativity were delivered by Professor of Mathematics Juri Nuut (1892-1952): non-Euclidean geometry (1930), the mathematical theory of relativity (1932/1933),the Lorenz transformations (1937). His own research work concerned the Lobachevsky geometry  and its application to cosmology . Harald Keres qraguated from the Tartu University in 1936. He gave the first student course on general relativity (based on books [11-14]in 1940.In 1942,he got the dr.phil.nat degree form the Tartu University for his theses "Raum und Zeit in der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie". The degree of the doctor of mathematical and physical sciences was confirmed by VAK (the All-Union Higher Attestation Commission) in 1949.In this period, he got aquainted with the leading Soviet scientists working on General Relativity, prof.V.A.Fock,Prof.D.D.Ivanenko,Prof.A.Z.Petrov,and Prof.M.F.Shirokov. After World War two all-union university courses were introduced in Tartu State University. According to the curriculum of the course the special theory of relativity is a part of electrodynamics obligatory for all students of the department of Physics. From 1947 till 1985 this course was delivered by Prof.PaulKard(1914-1985).He also published a number of text-books on the subject [15-19]. The general theory of relativity was read by Prof.H.Keres in 1951-1960 and later by his pupils R.Lias and A.Koppel [20-23] as a special course for students specializing in theoretical Physics. The first PHD-s in general relativity were made by R.Lias (1954) and I.Piir  (1955). In 1961, Prof.H.Keres was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian S.S.R. He left the TArtu State University and began to work in the Institute of Physics as the head of the Department of